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Sample records for haul air passenger

  1. Short haul air passenger data sources in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Kazily, J.; Gosling, G.; Horonjeff, R.

    1977-01-01

    The sources and characteristics of existing data on short haul air passenger traffic in the United States domestic air market are described along with data availability, processing, and costs. Reference is made to data derived from aircraft operations since these data can be used to insure that no short haul operators are omitted during the process of assembling passenger data.

  2. An analysis of short haul air passenger demand, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumer, T. P.; Swan, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    Several demand models for short haul air travel are proposed and calibrated on pooled data. The models are designed to predict demand and analyze some of the motivating phenomena behind demand generation. In particular, an attempt is made to include the effects of competing modes and of alternate destinations. The results support three conclusions: (1) the auto mode is the air mode's major competitor; (2) trip time is an overriding factor in intermodal competition, with air fare at its present level appearing unimportant to the typical short haul air traveler; and (3) distance appears to underly several demand generating phenomena, and therefore, must be considered very carefully to any intercity demand model. It may be the cause of the wide range of fare elasticities reported by researchers over the past 15 years. A behavioral demand model is proposed and calibrated. It combines the travel generating effects of income and population, the effects of modal split, the sensitivity of travel to price and time, and the effect of alternative destinations satisfying the trip purpose.

  3. An analysis of long and medium-haul air passenger demand, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    A basic model was developed which is a two equation pair econometric system in which air passenger demand and airline level-of-service are the endogenous variables. The model aims to identify the relationship between each of these two variables and its determining factors, and to identify the interaction of demand and level-of-service with each other. The selected variable for the measure of air passenger traffic activity in a given pair market is defined as the number of passengers in a given time that originate in one region and fly to the other region for purposes other than to make a connection to a third region. For medium and long haul markets, the model seems to perform better for larger markets. This is due to a specification problem regarding the route structure variable. In larger markets, a greater percentage of nonlocal passengers are accounted for by this variable. Comparing the estimated fare elasticities of long and medium haul markets, it appears that air transportation demand is more price elastic in longer haul markets. Long haul markets demand will saturate with a fewer number of departures than will demand in medium haul markets.

  4. Cost characteristics of tilt-rotor, conventional air and high speed rail short-haul intercity passenger service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoendorfer, David L.; Morlok, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    The cost analysis done to support an assessment of the potential for a small tilt-rotor aircraft to operate in short-haul intercity passenger service is described in detail. Anticipated costs of tilt-rotor air service were compared to the costs of two alternatives: conventional air and high speed rail (HSR). Costs were developed for corridor service, varying key market characteristics including distance, passenger volumes, and minimum frequency standards. The resulting cost vs output information can then be used to compare modal costs for essentially identical service quality and passenger volume or for different service levels and volumes for each mode, as appropriate. Extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. The cost-output features of these technologies are compared. Tilt-rotor is very attractive compared to HSR in terms of costs over the entire range of volume. It also has costs not dramatically different from conventional air, but tilt-rotor costs are generally higher. Thus some of its other advantages, such as the VTOL capability, must offset the cost disadvantage for it to be a preferred or competitive mode in any given market. These issues are addressed in the companion report which considers strategies for tilt-rotor development in commercial air service.

  5. The development of a model for predicting passenger acceptance of short-haul air transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    Meaningful criteria and methodology for assessing, particularly in the area of ride quality, the potential acceptability to the traveling public of present and future transportation systems were investigated. Ride quality was found to be one of the important variables affecting the decision of users of air transportation, and to be influenced by several environmental factors, especially motion, noise, pressure, temperature, and seating. Models were developed to quantify the relationship of subjective comfort to all of these parameters and then were exercised for a variety of situations. Passenger satisfaction was found to be strongly related to ride quality and was so modeled. A computer program was developed to assess the comfort and satisfaction levels of passengers on aircraft subjected to arbitrary flight profiles over arbitrary terrain. A model was deduced of the manner in which passengers integrate isolated segments of a flight to obtain an overall trip comfort rating. A method was established for assessing the influence of other links (e.g., access, terminal conditions) in the overall passenger trip.

  6. Studies in the demand for short haul air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Gosling, G.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    Demand is analyzed in a short haul air transportation corridor. Emphasis is placed on traveler selection from available routes. Model formulations, estimation techniques, and traffic data handling are included.

  7. [Long-haul intensive care transports by air].

    PubMed

    Graf, Jürgen; Seiler, Olivier; Pump, Stefan; Günther, Marion; Albrecht, Roland

    2013-03-01

    The need for inter-hospital transports over long distances aboard air ambulances or airlines has increased in recent years, both in the civil as well as the military sector. More often severely ill intensive care patients with multiple organ failure and appropriate supportive care (e.g. mechanical ventilation, catecholamines, dialysis, cardiac assist devices) are transported by air. Despite the fact that long-haul intensive care transports by air ambulance and airlines via Patient Transport Compartment (PTC) are considered established modes of transport they always provide a number of challenges. Both modes of transport have distinct logistical and medical advantages and disadvantages. These-as well as the principal risks of an air-bound long-haul intensive care transport -have to be included in the risk assessment and selection of means of transport. Very often long-haul intensive care transports are a combination of air ambulance and scheduled airlines utilizing the PTC.

  8. Factors associated with food intake in passengers on long-haul flights.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Jim; Kao, Shaoyuan; Edwards, Benjamin; Atkinson, Greg; Reilly, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    To understand better how disruption to daily routines and circadian factors affect food intake, some aspects of 361 passengers' eating habits during long-haul flights across eight time zones were investigated. Two meals were provided during each flight. Passengers stated whether or not they had eaten part or all of each meal and the reasons for this decision. They were also asked to give their responses to it (appetite beforehand, enjoyment during the meal, and satiety afterwards), and the type of meal they would prefer to have eaten, given an unrestricted choice. There were few occasions (<6%) when a meal was refused altogether, and no single reason was dominant. Subjective responses to food intake were more positive when larger meals were eaten and "appetite" rather than "no choice" was given as the reason for eating. Subjective responses were also more positive in those who thought the size of the meal offered was neither too small nor too large. When the two meals were considered separately, the first meal was well received by the passengers, and their enjoyment of it was not significantly different from "normal." The second meal (offered soon before landing in the new time zone) was less well received, and many passengers would have preferred a smaller meal. The findings contribute to an understanding of the factors determining the decision to eat a meal and the subjective responses to the food that is eaten. They also have implications for airlines wishing to provide food that is acceptable to passengers and for those providing meals for night workers.

  9. Modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel and the consequent energy impacts. [Intercity travel under 500 miles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the impacts of strategies to effect modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel (defined herein as intercity travel under 500 miles) from energy-intensive modes to those modes that are less energy-intensive. A series of individual strategies, ranging from incentives to the less energy-intensive modes (bus, rail) to penalties to the more energy-intensive modes (auto, air) was examined to determine energy saved and policy implications relative to strategy implementation. The most effective of the individual strategies were then combined in all permutations, and the analysis was repeated. As part of the analytical process, effects of factors other than energy (user cost and time, emissions, government subsidy, and travel fatailities) were examined in a benefit/cost analysis. Finally, energy savings, benefit/cost impacts, implementation considerations, and policy implications were evaluated to arrive at conclusions as to the effectiveness of the more-influential strategies and to the overall effectiveness of induced modal shifts. The principal conclusion of the study is that the maximum 1980 energy saving that might be realized by modal shifts, discounting the concurrent effects of demand suppression and improvement of mode efficiency, is approximately 83 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (46,500 bbl gasoline per day), 3.8% of the total projected 1980 energy consumption in the short-haul transportation sector and 0.23% of the total US petroleum use. It was also concluded that strategies to achieve these small savings by modal shifts would result in significant economic, social, and business disruptions.

  10. Techniques for Forecasting Air Passenger Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneja, N.

    1972-01-01

    The basic techniques of forecasting the air passenger traffic are outlined. These techniques can be broadly classified into four categories: judgmental, time-series analysis, market analysis and analytical. The differences between these methods exist, in part, due to the degree of formalization of the forecasting procedure. Emphasis is placed on describing the analytical method.

  11. An investigation of short haul air transportation in the southeastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Yuan, H. S.

    1977-01-01

    The specific objectives of this stage of the study are numerous. First, an attempt is made to characterize the travel patterns in the study region, both in terms of origin destination patterns, and connecting and through trip patterns. Second, the structure of the air service in the region is characterized in an attempt to develop an understanding of the evolution of the short haul air transportation network. Finally, a look is taken at the socioeconomic environment of Atlanta and the region in order to seek an explanation for the historic evolution of short haul air travel activities and the rather high growth rates experienced in recent years.

  12. Passenger aircraft cabin air quality: trends, effects, societal costs, proposals.

    PubMed

    Hocking, M B

    2000-08-01

    As aircraft operators have sought to substantially reduce propulsion fuel cost by flying at higher altitudes, the energy cost of providing adequate outside air for ventilation has increased. This has lead to a significant decrease in the amount of outside air provided to the passenger cabin, partly compensated for by recirculation of filtered cabin air. The purpose of this review paper is to assemble the available measured air quality data and some calculated estimates of the air quality for aircraft passenger cabins to highlight the trend of the last 25 years. The influence of filter efficiencies on air quality, and a few medically documented and anecdotal cases of illness transmission aboard aircraft are discussed. Cost information has been collected from the perspective of both the airlines and passengers. Suggestions for air quality improvement are given which should help to result in a net, multistakeholder savings and improved passenger comfort.

  13. Application of Advanced Technologies to Small, Short-haul Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, C.; Coverston, C.; Knapton, B.

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted of the application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft. A three abreast, 30 passenger design for flights of approximately 100 nautical miles was evaluated. Higher wing loading, active flight control, and a gust alleviation system results in improved ride quality. Substantial savings in fuel and direct operating cost are forecast. An aircraft of this configuration also has significant benefits in forms of reliability and operability which should enable it to sell a total of 450 units through 1990, of which 80% are for airline use.

  14. Trends in cabin air quality of commercial aircraft: industry and passenger perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Martin B

    2002-01-01

    The small air space available per person in a fully occupied aircraft passenger cabin accentuates the human bioeffluent factor in the maintenance of air quality. The accumulation of carbon dioxide and other contributions to poor air quality that can occur with inadequate ventilation, even under normal circumstances, is related to the volume of available air space per person and various ventilation rates. This information is compared with established air quality guidelines to make specific recommendations with reference to aircraft passenger cabins under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. The effects of respiration on the air quality of any enclosed space from the respiration of a resting adult are estimated using standard equations. Results are given for different volumes of space per person, for zero air exchange, and for various air change rates. The required ventilation rates estimated in this way compared closely with results calculated using a standard empirical formula. The results confirm that the outside air ventilation required to achieve a target carbon dioxide concentration in the air of an occupied enclosed space remains the same regardless of the volume of that space. The outside air ventilation capability of older and more recent aircraft is then reviewed and compared with the actual measurements of cabin air quality for these periods. The correlation between calculated and measured aircraft cabin carbon dioxide concentrations from other studies was very good. Respiratory benefits and costs of returning to the 30% higher outside air ventilation rates and 8% higher cabin pressures of the 1960s and 1970s are outlined. Consideration is given to the occasional occurrence of certain types of aircraft malfunction that can introduce more serious contaminants to the aircraft cabin. Recommendations and suggestions for aircraft builders and operators are made that will help improve aircraft cabin air quality and the partial pressure of oxygen that

  15. Indoor air quality: recommendations relevant to aircraft passenger cabins.

    PubMed

    Hocking, M B

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the human component of aircraft cabin air quality the effects of respiration of a resting adult on air quality in an enclosed space are estimated using standard equations. Results are illustrated for different air volumes per person, with zero air exchange, and with various air change rates. Calculated ventilation rates required to achieve a specified air quality for a wide range of conditions based on theory agree to within 2% of the requirements determined using a standard empirical formula. These calculations quantitatively confirm that the air changes per hour per person necessary for ventilation of an enclosed space vary inversely with the volume of the enclosed space. However, they also establish that the ventilation required to achieve a target carbon dioxide concentration in the air of an enclosed space with a resting adult remains the same regardless of the volume of the enclosed space. Concentration equilibria resulting from the interaction of the respiration of a resting adult with various ventilation conditions are compared with the rated air exchange rates of samples of current passenger aircraft, both with and without air recirculation capability. Aircraft cabin carbon dioxide concentrations calculated from the published ventilation ratings are found to be intermediate to these sets of results obtained by actual measurement. These findings are used to arrive at recommendations for aircraft builders and operators to help improve aircraft cabin air quality at minimum cost. Passenger responses are suggested to help improve their comfort and decrease their exposure to disease transmission, particularly on long flights.

  16. Advanced short haul aircraft for high density markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    The short haul (less than 500 miles) passenger enplanements represent about 50% of the total domestic enplanements. These can be distinguished by the annual passenger flow for a given city pair and classified into low, medium and high densiy markets. NASA studies have investigated various advanced short haul aircraft concepts that have potential application in these three market areas. Although advanced operational techniques impact all market densities, advanced vehicle design concepts such as RTOL, STOL and VTOL have the largest impact in the high density markets. This paper summarizes the results of NASA sponsored high density short haul air transportation systems studies and briefly reviews NASA sponsored advanced VTOL conceptual aircraft design studies. Trends in vehicle characteristics and operational requirements will be indicated in addition to economic suitability and impact on the community.

  17. Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter from passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, D

    1989-01-01

    Using our measurement results on particulate emissions from passenger cars we have calculated ambient air concentrations for various US and European scenarios. This was carried out with the help of mathematical dispersion models for different traffic situations including street canyons and motorways. We have been very conservative in our choice of the scenarios, i.e. we have always used situations in which there are very high stress levels (e.g. constantly high traffic flow instead of average traffic flow). Finally, the thus determined air concentrations are compared with the corresponding air quality standard available from the literature.

  18. Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter from passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, D

    1989-01-01

    Using our measurement results on particulate emissions from passenger cars we have calculated ambient air concentrations for various US and European scenarios. This was carried out with the help of mathematical dispersion models for different traffic situations including street canyons and motorways. We have been very conservative in our choice of the scenarios, i.e. we have always used situations in which there are very high stress levels (e.g. constantly high traffic flow instead of average traffic flow). Finally, the thus determined air concentrations are compared with the corresponding air quality standard available from the literature. PMID:2484034

  19. Studies in short haul air transportation in the California corridor: Effects of design runway length; community acceptance; impact of return on investment and fuel cost increases, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevell, R. S.; Jones, D. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of design runway length on the economics and traffic demand of a 1985 short haul air transportation system in the California Corridor was investigated. The community acceptance of new commercial airports for short haul service was studied. The following subjects were analyzed: (1) travel demand, (2) vehicle technology, (3) infrastructure, (4) systems analysis, and (5) effects on the community. The operation of the short haul system is compared with conventional airline operations.

  20. 49 CFR 175.25 - Notification at air passenger facilities of hazardous materials restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification at air passenger facilities of... MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY AIRCRAFT General Information and Regulations § 175.25 Notification at air... engages in for-hire air transportation of passengers must display notices of the requirements...

  1. 49 CFR 175.25 - Notification at air passenger facilities of hazardous materials restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification at air passenger facilities of... MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY AIRCRAFT General Information and Regulations § 175.25 Notification at air passenger facilities of hazardous materials restrictions. (a) Each person who engages in for-hire...

  2. 49 CFR 175.25 - Notification at air passenger facilities of hazardous materials restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification at air passenger facilities of... MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY AIRCRAFT General Information and Regulations § 175.25 Notification at air passenger facilities of hazardous materials restrictions. (a) Each person who engages in for-hire...

  3. Numerical analysis of air-flow and temperature field in a passenger car compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamar, Haslinda Mohamed; Kamsah, Nazri; Mohammad Nor, Ahmad Miski

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical study on the temperature field inside a passenger's compartment of a Proton Wira saloon car using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The main goal is to investigate the effects of different glazing types applied onto the front and rear windscreens of the car on the distribution of air-temperature inside the passenger compartment in the steady-state conditions. The air-flow condition in the passenger's compartment is also investigated. Fluent CFD software was used to develop a three-dimensional symmetrical model of the passenger's compartment. Simplified representations of the driver and one rear passenger were incorporated into the CFD model of the passenger's compartment. Two types of glazing were considered namely clear insulated laminated tint (CIL) with a shading coefficient of 0.78 and green insulated laminate tint (GIL) with a shading coefficient of 0.5. Results of the CFD analysis were compared with those obtained when the windscreens are made up of clear glass having a shading coefficient of 0.86. Results of the CFD analysis show that for a given glazing material, the temperature of the air around the driver is slightly lower than the air around the rear passenger. Also, the use of GIL glazing material on both the front and rear windscreens significantly reduces the air temperature inside the passenger's compartment of the car. This contributes to a better thermal comfort condition to the occupants. Swirling air flow condition occurs in the passenger compartment. The air-flow intensity and velocity are higher along the side wall of the passenger's compartment compared to that along the middle section of the compartment. It was also found that the use of glazing materials on both the front and rear windscreen has no significant effects on the air-flow condition inside the passenger's compartment of the car.

  4. [Air transport biomechanical risk: reduced mobility passengers' handling].

    PubMed

    Draicchio, F; Campoli, G; Silvetti, A; Badellino, E; Forzano, F; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S; Campagna, G; Raffaele, G; Gismondi, M

    2012-01-01

    As the airport traffic increases there is a continuous increase of passengers with different motor disabilities. Disabled passenger's assistance causes a biomechanical overload in airport workers. Some disabled passengers are classified by IATA as WCHC (wheel chair in cabin or Charlie). Our study, was performed in one of the most important Italian airport on Charlie passengers (about 10% of all assistances). We identified four critical points: 1) wheelchair and baggage moving (unstable load), 2) inclined ramps with worker's backwards steps and braked wheelchair to prevent passenger tipping or falling, 3) transfer from standard wheelchair to bicycle wheelchair, specifically designed for the aisle; 4.) transfer from bicycle wheelchair to aircraft seat. The last two points required sometimes to lift passengers over the armrest and positioning them on a window side seat, causing a serious increase of biomechanical load. For each critical point we have proposed technical and organizational measures to reduce airport worker's biomechanical risk.

  5. [Air transport biomechanical risk: reduced mobility passengers' handling].

    PubMed

    Draicchio, F; Campoli, G; Silvetti, A; Badellino, E; Forzano, F; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S; Campagna, G; Raffaele, G; Gismondi, M

    2012-01-01

    As the airport traffic increases there is a continuous increase of passengers with different motor disabilities. Disabled passenger's assistance causes a biomechanical overload in airport workers. Some disabled passengers are classified by IATA as WCHC (wheel chair in cabin or Charlie). Our study, was performed in one of the most important Italian airport on Charlie passengers (about 10% of all assistances). We identified four critical points: 1) wheelchair and baggage moving (unstable load), 2) inclined ramps with worker's backwards steps and braked wheelchair to prevent passenger tipping or falling, 3) transfer from standard wheelchair to bicycle wheelchair, specifically designed for the aisle; 4.) transfer from bicycle wheelchair to aircraft seat. The last two points required sometimes to lift passengers over the armrest and positioning them on a window side seat, causing a serious increase of biomechanical load. For each critical point we have proposed technical and organizational measures to reduce airport worker's biomechanical risk. PMID:23405594

  6. 75 FR 18255 - Passenger Facility Charge Database System for Air Carrier Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Passenger Facility Charge Database System for Air Carrier Reporting AGENCY... interested parties of the availability of the Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) database system to report PFC... public agency. The FAA has developed a national PFC database system in order to more easily track the...

  7. Requirements for regional short-haul air service and the definition of a flight program to determine neighborhood reactions to small transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feher, K.; Bollinger, L.; Bowles, J. V.; Waters, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the current status and future requirements of an intraregional short haul air service is given. A brief definition of the different types of short haul air service is given. This is followed by a historical review of previous attempts to develop short haul air service in high density urban areas and an assessment of the current status. The requirements for intraregional air service, the need for economic and environmental viability and the need for a flight research program are defined. A detailed outline of a research program that would determine urban community reaction to frequent operations of small transport aircraft is also given. Both the operation of such an experiment in a specific region (San Francisco Bay area) and the necessary design modifications of an existing fixed wing aircraft which could be used in the experiment are established. An estimate is made of overall program costs.

  8. Crew factors in flight operations 2: Psychophysiological responses to short-haul air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Foushee, H. Clayton; Lauber, John K.; Connell, Linda J.

    1994-01-01

    Seventy-four pilots were monitored before, during, and after 3- or 4-day commercial short-haul trip patterns. The trips studied averaged 10.6 hr of duty per day with 4.5 hr of flight time and 5.5 flight segments. The mean rest period lasted 12.5 hr and occurred progressively earlier across successive days. On trip nights, subjects took longer to fall asleep, slept less, woke earlier, and reported lighter, poorer sleep with more awakenings than on pretrip nights. During layovers, subjective fatigue and negative affect were higher, and positive affect and activation lower, than during pretrip, in-flight, or posttrip. Pilots consumed more caffeine, alcohol, and snacks on trip days than either pretrip or posttrip. Increases in heart rate over mid-cruise were observed during descent and landing, and were greater for the pilot flying. Heart-rate increases were greater during takeoff and descent under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) than under visual meteorological conditions (VMC). The following would be expected to reduce fatigue in short-haul operations: regulating duty hours, as well as flight hours; scheduling rest periods to begin at the same time of day, or progressively later, across the days of a trip; and educating pilots about alternatives to alcohol as a means of relaxing before sleep.

  9. Flight crew fatigue II: short-haul fixed-wing air transport operations.

    PubMed

    Gander, P H; Gregory, K B; Graeber, R C; Connell, L J; Miller, D L; Rosekind, M R

    1998-09-01

    We monitored 74 crewmembers before, during, and after 3-4-d commercial short-haul trips crossing no more than one time zone per 24 h. The average duty day lasted 10.6 duty hours, with 4.5 flight hours and 5.5 flights. On trips, crewmembers slept less, woke earlier, and reported having more difficulty falling asleep, with lighter, less restful sleep than pretrip. The consumption of caffeine, alcohol, and snacks increased on trip days, as did reports of headaches, congested nose, and back pain. The study suggests the following ways of reducing fatigue during these operations: base the duration of rest periods on duty hours as well as flight hours; avoid scheduling rest periods progressively earlier across a trip; minimize early duty report times; and inform crewmembers about strategic use of caffeine and alternatives to alcohol for relaxing before sleep.

  10. An open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for the global air network in 2010.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhuojie; Wu, Xiao; Garcia, Andres J; Fik, Timothy J; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The expanding global air network provides rapid and wide-reaching connections accelerating both domestic and international travel. To understand human movement patterns on the network and their socioeconomic, environmental and epidemiological implications, information on passenger flow is required. However, comprehensive data on global passenger flow remain difficult and expensive to obtain, prompting researchers to rely on scheduled flight seat capacity data or simple models of flow. This study describes the construction of an open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for all airports with a host city-population of more than 100,000 and within two transfers of air travel from various publicly available air travel datasets. Data on network characteristics, city population, and local area GDP amongst others are utilized as covariates in a spatial interaction framework to predict the air transportation flows between airports. Training datasets based on information from various transportation organizations in the United States, Canada and the European Union were assembled. A log-linear model controlling the random effects on origin, destination and the airport hierarchy was then built to predict passenger flows on the network, and compared to the results produced using previously published models. Validation analyses showed that the model presented here produced improved predictive power and accuracy compared to previously published models, yielding the highest successful prediction rate at the global scale. Based on this model, passenger flows between 1,491 airports on 644,406 unique routes were estimated in the prediction dataset. The airport node characteristics and estimated passenger flows are freely available as part of the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) project at: www.vbd-air.com/data.

  11. An analysis of short haul airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    The demand and supply characteristics of short haul air transportation systems are investigated in terms of airline operating costs. Direct, indirect, and ground handling costs are included. Supply models of short haul air transportation systems are constructed.

  12. Two lighter than air systems in opposing flight regimes: An unmanned short haul, heavy load transport balloon and a manned, light payload airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohl, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Lighter Than Air vehicles are generally defined or categorized by the shape of the balloon, payload capacity and operational flight regime. Two balloon systems that are classed as being in opposite categories are described. One is a cable guided, helium filled, short haul, heavy load transport Lighter Than Air system with a natural shaped envelope. The other is a manned, aerodynamic shaped airship which utilizes hot air as the buoyancy medium and is in the light payload class. While the airship is in the design/fabrication phase with flight tests scheduled for the latter part of 1974, the transport balloon system has been operational for some eight years.

  13. Heterogeneity of passenger exposure to air pollutants in public transport microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fenhuan; Kaul, Daya; Wong, Ka Chun; Westerdahl, Dane; Sun, Li; Ho, Kin-fai; Tian, Linwei; Brimblecombe, Peter; Ning, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked human exposure to pollutants with adverse health effects. Passenger exposure in public transport systems contributes an important fraction of daily burden of air pollutants. While there is extensive literature reporting the concentrations of pollutants in public transport systems in different cities, there are few studies systematically addressing the heterogeneity of passenger exposure in different transit microenvironments, in cabins of different transit vehicles and in areas with different characteristics. The present study investigated PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm), black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP) and carbon monoxide (CO) pollutant concentrations in various public road transport systems in highly urbanized city of Hong Kong. Using a trolley case housing numerous portable air monitors, we conducted a total of 119 trips during the campaign. Transit microenvironments, classified as 1). busy and secondary roadside bus stops; 2). open and enclosed termini; 3). above- and under-ground Motor Rail Transport (MTR) platforms, were investigated and compared to identify the factors that may affect passenger exposures. The pollutants inside bus and MTR cabins were also investigated together with a comparison of time integrated exposure between the transit modes. Busy roadside and enclosed termini demonstrated the highest average particle concentrations while the lowest was found on the MTR platforms. Traffic-related pollutants BC, UFP and CO showed larger variations than PM2.5 across different microenvironments and areas confirming their heterogeneity in urban environments. In-cabin pollutant concentrations showed distinct patterns with BC and UFP high in diesel bus cabins and CO high in LPG bus cabins, suggesting possible self-pollution issues and/or penetration of on-road pollutants inside cabins during bus transit. The total passenger exposure along selected routes, showed bus

  14. Mortality reduction with air bag and seat belt use in head-on passenger car collisions.

    PubMed

    Crandall, C S; Olson, L M; Sklar, D P

    2001-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of occupant protection systems, the authors measured the mortality reduction associated with air bag deployment and seat belt use for drivers involved in head-on passenger car collisions in the United States. They used a matched case-control design of all head-on collisions involving two passenger cars reported to the Fatality Analysis Reporting System in 1992-1997, and driver mortality differences between the paired crash vehicles for air bag deployment and seat belt use were measured with matched-pair odds ratios. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple effects. There were 9,859 head-on collisions involving 19,718 passenger cars and drivers. Air bag deployment reduced mortality 63% (crude odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32, 0.42), while lap-shoulder belt use reduced mortality 72% (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.31). In a conditional logistic model that adjusted for vehicle (rollover, weight, age) and driver (age, sex) factors, air bags (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.87) and any combination of seat belts (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.29) were both associated with reduced mortality. Combined air bag and seat belt use reduced mortality by more than 80% (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.25). Thus, this study confirms the independent effect of air bags and seat belts in reducing mortality.

  15. Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, J. D.; Behrin, E.; Kong, M. K.; Whisler, D. J.

    1980-02-01

    Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The engine and fuel systems of a representative five passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in range and acceleration performance. The vehicle masses and aluminum consumption rates were then calculated for the electric vehicles and these data were used as figures of merit. The Al-air vehicles analyzed were (1) an Al-air battery only electric vehicle; (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel zinc secondary battery for power leveling and regenerative braking; and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel for power leveling and regenerative braking. All three electric systems compared favorably with the ICE vehicle.

  16. Analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, J.D.; Behrin, E.

    1980-05-01

    The performance characteristics of three electric-propulsion systems based on the Al-air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE). Battery characteristics projected from late 1979 and early 1980 experimental results were used in the analysis. In this comparison, the engine and fuel systems of a current five-passenger vehicle were conceptually replaced by three Al-air systems: (1) an Al-air battery-only system; (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel-zinc secondary battery for power leveling; and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel power leveler. The resultant vehicles were constrained to have range and acceleration performance equivalent to the ICE-powered vehicle. Performance characteristics such as the average consumption rate of Al metal for the selected drive cycle, vehicle mass, and power system mass were determined for each Al-air propulsion system. Estimates of initial-vehicle and life-cycle costs of Al-air battery-only vehicles indicate that all three systems can achieve performance and operation costs comparable to an ICE vehicle, and that the initial cost of Al-air battery-only vehicles can approach the cost of ICE vehicles but at reduced power levels.

  17. Indoor to outdoor air quality associations with self-pollution implications inside passenger car cabins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abi-Esber, L.; El-Fadel, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, in-vehicle and out-vehicle concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) are measured to assess commuter's exposure in a commercial residential area and on a highway, under three popular ventilation modes namely, one window half opened, air conditioning on fresh air intake, and air conditioning on recirculation and examine its relationship to scarcely studied parameters including self pollution, out-vehicle sample intake location and meteorological gradients. Self pollution is the intrusion of a vehicle's own engine fumes into the passenger's compartment. For this purpose, six car makes with different ages were instrumented to concomitantly monitor in- and out-vehicle PM2.5 and CO concentrations as well as meteorological parameters. Air pollution levels were unexpectedly higher in new cars compared to old cars, with in-cabin air quality most correlated to that of out-vehicle air near the front windshield. Self-pollution was observed at variable rates in three of the six tested cars. Significant correlations were identified between indoor to outdoor pressure difference and PM2.5 and CO In/Out (IO) ratios under air recirculation and window half opened ventilation modes whereas temperature and humidity difference affected CO IO ratios only under the air recirculation ventilation mode.

  18. Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, J.D.; Behrin, E.; Kong, M.K.; Whisler, D.J.

    1980-02-29

    Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum-air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal-combustion-engine (ICE) vehicle. The analysis used projected battery characteristics extrapolated from laboratory measurements which were obtained in late 1979 and early 1980. In the analysis, the engine and fuel systems of a representative five-passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in range and acceleration performance. The vehicle masses and aluminum consumption rates were then calculated for the electric vehicles and these data were used as figures of merit. The Al-air vehicles analyzed were: (1) an Al-air battery-only electric vehicle, (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel-zinc secondary battery for power leveling and regenerative braking, and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel for power leveling and regenerative braking. Projected Al-air battery power density, energy density, mass, and volume characteristics were based on recent experimental results of the Al-air battery development program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. All three electric systems compared favorably with the ICE vehicle.

  19. Studies in short haul air transportation in the California corridor: Effects of design runway length; community acceptance; impact of return on investment and fuel cost increases. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevell, R. S.; Jones, D. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a forecast model for short haul air transportation systems in the California Corridor is discussed. The factors which determine the level of air traffic demand are identified. A forecast equation for use in airport utilization analysis is developed. A mathematical model is submitted to show the relationship between population, employment, and income for indicating future air transportation utilization. Diagrams and tables of data are included to support the conclusions reached regarding air transportation economic factors.

  20. Health effects associated with passenger vehicles: monetary values of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Mohamed; Madany, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is regarded as one of the highest priorities in environmental protection in both developed and developing countries. High levels of air pollution have adverse effects on human health that might cause premature death. This study presents the monetary value estimates for the adverse human health effects resulted from ambient air pollution. It aids decision makers to set priorities in the public health relevance of pollution abatement. The main driver of policymaker is the need to reduce the avoidable cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality from pollutant exposures. The monetary valuation involves 2 steps: (i) relate levels of pollutants to mortality and morbidity (concentration-response relationships) and (ii) apply unit economic values. Cost of air pollution associated with passenger vehicles running over a major traffic bridge (6th of October Elevated Highway) is presented as a case study to demonstrate the use of monetary value of air pollution. The study proves that the cost of air pollution is extremely high and should not be overlooked.

  1. Speed-dependent emission of air pollutants from gasoline-powered passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungwoon; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Jongchoon; Lyu, Youngsook; Park, Junhong

    2011-01-01

    In Korea emissions from motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities, and in Seoul a large proportion of the vehicle fleet is made up of gasoline-powered passenger cars. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) contained in the exhaust emissions from 76 gasoline-powered passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts has been assessed by vehicle speed, vehicle mileage and model year. The results show that CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions remained almost unchanged at higher speeds but decreased rapidly at lower speeds. While a reduction in CO, HC and NOx emissions was noticeable in vehicles of recent manufacture and lower mileage, CO2 emissions were found to be insensitive to vehicle mileage, but strongly dependent on gross vehicle weight. Lower emissions from more recent gasoline-powered vehicles arose mainly from improvements in three-way catalytic converter technology following strengthened emission regulations. The correlation between CO2 emission and fuel consumption has been investigated with a view to establishing national CO2 emission standards for Korea.

  2. Speed-dependent emission of air pollutants from gasoline-powered passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungwoon; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Jongchoon; Lyu, Youngsook; Park, Junhong

    2011-01-01

    In Korea emissions from motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities, and in Seoul a large proportion of the vehicle fleet is made up of gasoline-powered passenger cars. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) contained in the exhaust emissions from 76 gasoline-powered passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts has been assessed by vehicle speed, vehicle mileage and model year. The results show that CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions remained almost unchanged at higher speeds but decreased rapidly at lower speeds. While a reduction in CO, HC and NOx emissions was noticeable in vehicles of recent manufacture and lower mileage, CO2 emissions were found to be insensitive to vehicle mileage, but strongly dependent on gross vehicle weight. Lower emissions from more recent gasoline-powered vehicles arose mainly from improvements in three-way catalytic converter technology following strengthened emission regulations. The correlation between CO2 emission and fuel consumption has been investigated with a view to establishing national CO2 emission standards for Korea. PMID:21970159

  3. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, T. P.; Stout, E. G.; Sweet, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    A study of quiet turbofan short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation was conducted. The objectives of the study were to: (1) define representative aircraft configurations, characteristics, and costs associated with their development, (2) identify critical technology and technology related problems to be resolved in successful introduction of representative short haul aircraft, (3) determine relationships between quiet short takeoff aircraft and the economic and social viability of short haul, and (4) identify high payoff technology areas.

  4. Multistep-Ahead Air Passengers Traffic Prediction with Hybrid ARIMA-SVMs Models

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Wei; Xiong, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid ARIMA-SVMs prediction models have been established recently, which take advantage of the unique strength of ARIMA and SVMs models in linear and nonlinear modeling, respectively. Built upon this hybrid ARIMA-SVMs models alike, this study goes further to extend them into the case of multistep-ahead prediction for air passengers traffic with the two most commonly used multistep-ahead prediction strategies, that is, iterated strategy and direct strategy. Additionally, the effectiveness of data preprocessing approaches, such as deseasonalization and detrending, is investigated and proofed along with the two strategies. Real data sets including four selected airlines' monthly series were collected to justify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Empirical results demonstrate that the direct strategy performs better than iterative one in long term prediction case while iterative one performs better in the case of short term prediction. Furthermore, both deseasonalization and detrending can significantly improve the prediction accuracy for both strategies, indicating the necessity of data preprocessing. As such, this study contributes as a full reference to the planners from air transportation industries on how to tackle multistep-ahead prediction tasks in the implementation of either prediction strategy. PMID:24723814

  5. 49 CFR 175.25 - Notification at air passenger facilities of hazardous materials restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... For further information contact your airline representative. (b) Ticket purchase. An aircraft operator... airline representative), passenger notification of permitted and forbidden hazardous materials may...

  6. New-generation short-haul airliner uses advanced technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sanator, R.J.; Honczarenko, G.

    1982-06-01

    The Saab-Fairchild 340 is a twin-engined, low-wing, 34-passenger pressurized turboprop airplane. It incorporates a modern fuel efficient propulsion system and a new advanced technology wing, resulting in a new-generation airliner for the short-haul market.

  7. 49 CFR 232.213 - Extended haul trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must designate the train in writing to FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety. This designation must..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Inspection and Testing Requirements § 232.213 Extended haul trains. (a)...

  8. Crew factors in flight operations. Part 3: The operational significance of exposure to short-haul air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. C.; Lauber, J. K.; Baetge, M. M.; Acomb, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Excessive flightcrew fatigue has potentially serious safety consequences. Laboratory studies have implicated fatigue as a causal factor associated with varying levels of performance deterioration depending on the amount of fatigue and the type of measure utilized in assessing performance. These studies have been of limited utility because of the difficulty of relating laboratory task performance to the demands associated with the operation of a complex aircraft. The performance of 20 volunteer twin-jet transport crews is examined in a full-mission simulator scenario that included most aspects of an actual line operation. The scenario included both routine flight operations and an unexpected mechanical abnormality which resulted in a high level of crew workload. Half of the crews flew the simulation within two to three hours after completing a three-day, high-density, short-haul duty cycle (Post-Duty condition). The other half flew the scenario after a minimum of three days off duty (Pre-Duty) condition). The results revealed that, not surprisingly, Post-Duty crews were significantly more fatigued than Pre-Duty crews. However, a somewhat counter-intuitive pattern of results emerged on the crew performancemeasures. In general, the performance of Post-Duty crews was significantly better than that of Pre-Duty crews, as rated by an expert observer on a number of dimensions relevant to flight safety. Analyses of the flightcrew communication patterns revealed that Post-Duty crews communicated significantly more overall, suggesting, as has previous research, that communication is a good predictor of overall crew performance.

  9. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study.

  10. Microbiological detection of bacteria in animal products seized in baggage of international air passengers to Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; de Sá, Marcos Eielson Pinheiro; Sabino, Valéria Mourão; de Fatima Boechat-Fernandes, Maria; Santiago, Marco Túlio; Schwingel, Fábio Fraga; Freitas, Cleverson; Magioli, Carlos Alberto; Cabral-Pinto, Sergio; McManus, Concepta; Seixas, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Airline travel favours the transmission of diseases, given the short time it takes to travel long distances. In this study, animal products without health certificates seized in international air passengers' baggage at Guarulhos (GRU) and Galeão (GIG) airports in Brazil underwent a microbiological evaluation. Analyses (1610) were carried out on 322 seizures to test for the presence of total and thermotolerant coliforms, as well as Staphylococcus aureus counts and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella. Most seizures analysed showed coliform contamination and coliforms were present above acceptable limits in 83.4% (40/48) of the products that had some type of contamination. The second most prevalent microorganism found was L. monocytogenes in 22.9% (11/48) and S. aureus was cultivated in 14.58% (7/48) of seizures. Among the items seized in the present work, Salmonella was found in one seizure of pig sausage. Contamination of animal products with microbiological pathogens of importance to public health and indicators of the bad quality of the food were shown in the present study. PMID:25466683

  11. The quiet short-haul research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochrane, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design concepts, performance capabilities, and projected applications of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) are discussed. The propulsive lift system of the QSRA provides the lift required for short field operations at low community noise levels. This system consists of four high bipass ratio, geared turbofan engines mounted so that the engine exhaust flows across the upper surface of the wing (upper surface blowing). Large specially shaped flaps behind each engine control the direction of the flow for each phase of flight. A 95 passenger short haul transport based on this technology could operate out of a 2500 foot runway with a combined takeoff and landing 90 EPNdB footprint area of 2.7 sq mi.

  12. Application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft (STAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, E. F.; Mall, O. D.; Awker, R. W.; Scholl, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of selected advanced technologies for 19 and 30 passenger, short-haul aircraft were identified. Advanced technologies were investigated in four areas: aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and ride quality. Configuration sensitivity studies were conducted to show design tradeoffs associated with passenger capacity, cabin comfort level, and design field length.

  13. Effects of northbound long-haul international air travel on sleep quantity and subjective jet lag and wellness in professional Australian soccer players.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Peter; Duffield, Rob; Howle, Kieran; Waterson, Adam; Vaile, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of 10-h northbound air travel across 1 time zone on sleep quantity, together with subjective jet lag and wellness ratings, in 16 male professional Australian football (soccer) players. Player wellness was measured throughout the week before (home training week) and the week of (away travel week) travel from Australia to Japan for a preseason tour. Sleep quantity and subjective jet lag were measured 2 d before (Pre 1 and 2), the day of, and for 5 d after travel (Post 1-5). Sleep duration was significantly reduced during the night before travel (Pre 1; 4.9 [4.2-5.6] h) and night of competition (Post 2; 4.2 [3.7-4.7] h) compared with every other night (P<.01, d>0.90). Moreover, compared with the day before travel, subjective jet lag was significantly greater for the 5 d after travel (P<.05, d>0.90), and player wellness was significantly lower 1 d post-match (Post 3) than at all other time points (P<.05, d>0.90). Results from the current study suggest that sleep disruption, as a result of an early travel departure time (8 PM) and evening match (7:30 PM), and fatigue induced by competition had a greater effect on wellness ratings than long-haul air travel with a minimal time-zone change. Furthermore, subjective jet lag may have been misinterpreted as fatigue from sleep disruption and competition, especially by the less experienced players. Therefore, northbound air travel across 1 time zone from Australia to Asia appears to have negligible effects on player preparedness for subsequent training and competition.

  14. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  15. Monitoring of Air Quality in Passenger Cabins of the Athens Metro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsairidi, Evangelia; Assimakopoulos, Vasiliki D.; Assimakopoulos, Margarita-Niki; Barbaresos, Nicolaos; Karagiannis, Athanassios

    2013-04-01

    The air pollution induced by various transportation means combines the emission of pollutants with the simultaneous presence of people. In this respect, the scientific community has focused its efforts in studying both the air quality within busy streets and inside cars, buses and the underground railway network in order to identify the pollutants' sources and levels as well as the human exposure. The impact of the air pollution on commuters of the underground may be more severe because it is a confined space, extended mostly under heavily trafficked urban streets, relies on mechanical ventilation for air renewal and gathers big numbers of passengers. The purpose of the present work is to monitor the air quality of the city of Athens Metro Network cabins and platforms during the unusually hot summer of 2012. For that cause particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1), carbon dioxide (CO2), the number of commuters along with temperature (T) and humidity (RH) were recorded inside the Athens Metro Blue Line trains (covering a route from the centre of Athens (Aigaleo) to the Athens International Airport) and on the platforms of a central (Syntagma) and a suburban-traffic (Doukissis Plakentias) station between June and August. The data collection included six different experiments that took place for 2 consecutive working days each, for a time period of 6 weeks from 6:30 am too 7:00 pm in order to account for different outdoor climatic conditions and for morning and evening rush hours respectively. Measurements were taken in the middle car of the moving trains and the platform end of the selected stations. The results show PM concentrations to be higher (approximately 2 to 5 times) inside the cabins and o the platforms of the underground network as compared to the outdoor levels monitored routinely by the Ministry of Environment. Moreover, PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 average concentrations recorded at the Syntagma Station Platform were almost constantly higher reaching 11 μg m-3 47

  16. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  17. Haul truck selection

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D.

    1993-10-01

    Haul truck selection involves the consideration of a vast amount of information before the final decision is made. This judgment should not be made simply on the choice of power train, because to go for mechanical or electric drive has always been a case of horses for courses. Some sites are just better suited to electric drive. It could, for instance, be argued that coming out of deep mines with long haul roads is an ideal application for electric drive, but negotiating steep down gradients fully laden would favor mechanical drive. Engine selection on the other hand is easier to define but normally is the direct responsibility of the customer, with the truck manufacturer acting as impartial adviser. Understandably each will offer engines it believes to be well matched to the truck and to the site application requirements. Long term mine planning with careful attention to future equipment requirements is the key to all equipment purchases. This paper discusses the various considerations.

  18. Haul road dust control

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W.R.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    A field study was conducted to measure dust from haul trucks at a limestone quarry and a coal preparation plant waste hauling operation. The study found that primarily wind, distance and road treatment conditions notably affected the dust concentrations at locations next to, 50 ft from, and 100 ft away from the unpaved haulage road. Airborne dust measured along the unpaved haul road showed that high concentrations of fugitive dust can be generated with these concentrations rapidly decreasing to nearly background levels within 100 ft of the road. Instantaneous respirable dust measurements illustrated that the trucks generate a real-time dust cloud that has a peak concentration with a time-related decay rate as the dust moves past the sampling locations. The respirable dust concentrations and peak levels were notably diminished as the dust cloud was transported, diluted, and diffused by the wind over the 100 ft distance from the road. Individual truck concentrations and peak levels measured next to the dry road surface test section were quite variable and dependent on wind conditions, particularly wind direction, with respect to reaching the sampling location. The vast majority of the fugitive airborne dust generated from unpaved and untreated haulage roads was non-respirable. 6 figs.

  19. An exploratory study to determine the integrated technological air transportation system ground requirements of liquid-hydrogen-fueled subsonic, long-haul civil air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A baseline air terminal concept was developed which permitted airlines and the airport to operate JP- or LH2-fueled aircraft at common terminal gates. The concept included installation of a hydrogen liquefaction and storage facility on airport property, as well as the fuel distribution system. The capital investment and hydrogen-related operating costs to the airlines were estimated.

  20. A perspective on short-haul STOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malthan, L. V.

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of the basic incentives motivating the development of the short-haul STOL air transportation system. The technological impact on the aircraft and its related economics required to achieve short field performance is generally detrimental. Considerations such as wing and empennage sizing, engine thrust sizing and cycle selection, thrust reverser requirements, cruise Mach number effects, noise, and fuel usage impacts are discussed. The direct operating economics are adversely affected, although it is thought that the indirect costs can be correspondingly reduced. A study of the total operating costs of the short-haul system and its related fare structure indicates that a definite potential exists for the evolution of an economically viable system yielding positive returns on investment to the operators. It is concluded that this potential is sufficient to warrant more detailed studies of these economics and the alternative implementation schemes.

  1. Equivalent Air Spring Suspension Model for Quarter-Passive Model of Passenger Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Haider J.; Chen, Jie; Nassar, Ameen A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the GENSIS air spring suspension system equivalence to a passive suspension system. The SIMULINK simulation together with the OptiY optimization is used to obtain the air spring suspension model equivalent to passive suspension system, where the car body response difference from both systems with the same road profile inputs is used as the objective function for optimization (OptiY program). The parameters of air spring system such as initial pressure, volume of bag, length of surge pipe, diameter of surge pipe, and volume of reservoir are obtained from optimization. The simulation results show that the air spring suspension equivalent system can produce responses very close to the passive suspension system. PMID:27351020

  2. Equivalent Air Spring Suspension Model for Quarter-Passive Model of Passenger Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Abid, Haider J; Chen, Jie; Nassar, Ameen A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the GENSIS air spring suspension system equivalence to a passive suspension system. The SIMULINK simulation together with the OptiY optimization is used to obtain the air spring suspension model equivalent to passive suspension system, where the car body response difference from both systems with the same road profile inputs is used as the objective function for optimization (OptiY program). The parameters of air spring system such as initial pressure, volume of bag, length of surge pipe, diameter of surge pipe, and volume of reservoir are obtained from optimization. The simulation results show that the air spring suspension equivalent system can produce responses very close to the passive suspension system.

  3. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Over The Wing (OTW) design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two experimental high bypass geared turbofan engines and propulsion systems for short haul passenger aircraft are described. The propulsion technology required for future externally blown flap aircraft with engines located both under the wing and over the wing is demonstrated. Composite structures and digital engine controls are among the topics included.

  4. Evaluation of passenger health risk assessment of sustainable indoor air quality monitoring in metro systems based on a non-Gaussian dynamic sensor validation method.

    PubMed

    Kim, MinJeong; Liu, Hongbin; Kim, Jeong Tai; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2014-08-15

    Sensor faults in metro systems provide incorrect information to indoor air quality (IAQ) ventilation systems, resulting in the miss-operation of ventilation systems and adverse effects on passenger health. In this study, a new sensor validation method is proposed to (1) detect, identify and repair sensor faults and (2) evaluate the influence of sensor reliability on passenger health risk. To address the dynamic non-Gaussianity problem of IAQ data, dynamic independent component analysis (DICA) is used. To detect and identify sensor faults, the DICA-based squared prediction error and sensor validity index are used, respectively. To restore the faults to normal measurements, a DICA-based iterative reconstruction algorithm is proposed. The comprehensive indoor air-quality index (CIAI) that evaluates the influence of the current IAQ on passenger health is then compared using the faulty and reconstructed IAQ data sets. Experimental results from a metro station showed that the DICA-based method can produce an improved IAQ level in the metro station and reduce passenger health risk since it more accurately validates sensor faults than do conventional methods.

  5. Prevalence of major foodborne pathogens in food confiscated from air passenger luggage.

    PubMed

    Schoder, Dagmar; Strauß, Anja; Szakmary-Brändle, Kati; Stessl, Beatrix; Schlager, Sabine; Wagner, Martin

    2015-09-16

    The EU has issued several directives and regulations pertaining to the importation of animals and products of animal origin (POAO) and veterinary controls on importation. Unfortunately, little information is available concerning associated risks and no attempts have been made to collect baseline data on the actual prevalence of zoonotic agents in POAO carried by travellers. To meet these challenges the EU recently introduced and financed a research project "PROMISE". Its main objectives were to assess the risks involved when foodborne pathogens are introduced to the EU via uncontrolled imports. With special permission of the Austrian health authorities, spot-checks were made of the luggage of 61,355 passengers from 240 flights from non-EU countries arriving at the Vienna International Airport (VIE airport). Over a period of eight months (August 2012 through March 2013) 1473 POAO items were confiscated. A total of 600 samples were suitable for Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., verotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes prevalence analysis. Foodborne pathogens could be detected in 5% (30/600) of all samples. The highest prevalence was attributed to L. monocytogenes, at 2.5%, followed by VTEC and Salmonella spp. at 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively. Campylobacter spp. was not present in any of the 600 samples. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of L. monocytogenes revealed that current sequence types (ST) corresponded to the worldwide most present clonal complexes 1, 2, 3, 5, 9, and 121. Generally, L. monocytogenes ST9 was the predominant allelic profile, which was mainly isolated from Turkish meat products.

  6. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension. Volume 1: Background and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    The framework for a model of travel demand which will be useful in predicting the total market for air travel between two cities is discussed. Variables to be used in determining the need for air transportation where none currently exists and the effect of changes in system characteristics on attracting latent demand are identified. Existing models are examined in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. Much of the existing behavioral research in travel demand is incorporated to allow the inclusion of non-economic factors, such as convenience. The model developed is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed.

  7. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  8. Air quality impacts of climate mitigation: UK policy and passenger vehicle choice.

    PubMed

    Mazzi, Eric A; Dowlatabadi, Hadi

    2007-01-15

    In 2001-2002 the UK began taxing vehicles according to CO2 emission rates. Since then, there has been a significant increase in consumer choice of small cars and diesel engines. We estimate CO2 reductions and air quality impacts resulting from UK consumers switching from petrol to diesel cars from 2001 to 2020. Annual reductions of 0.4 megatons (Mt) of CO2 and 1 million barrels of oil are estimated from switching to diesels. However, diesels emit higher levels of particulate matter estimated to result in 90 deaths annually (range 20-300). We estimate 570, 460, and 0 additional deaths per Mt of CO2 abated, for Euro III, Euro IV, and post-Euro IV emission class vehicles, respectively. CO2 policies are suspected to have contributed substantially to diesel growth, but the magnitude of impact has yet to be quantified rigorously. To the extent that CO2 policies contribute to diesel growth, coordinating CO2 controls with tightening of emission standards would save lives. This research shows that climate policy, while reducing fuel use and CO2, does not always ensure ancillary health benefits. Lessons from the UK can help inform policies designed elsewhere which strive to balance near-term ambient air quality and health with long-term climate mitigation.

  9. Demand modelling of passenger air travel: An analysis and extension, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    Previous intercity travel demand models in terms of their ability to predict air travel in a useful way and the need for disaggregation in the approach to demand modelling are evaluated. The viability of incorporating non-conventional factors (i.e. non-econometric, such as time and cost) in travel demand forecasting models are determined. The investigation of existing models is carried out in order to provide insight into their strong points and shortcomings. The model is characterized as a market segmentation model. This is a consequence of the strengths of disaggregation and its natural evolution to a usable aggregate formulation. The need for this approach both pedagogically and mathematically is discussed. In addition this volume contains two appendices which should prove useful to the non-specialist in the area.

  10. Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2014-02-18

    Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ∼ 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (∼ 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode. PMID:24471775

  11. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A short-haul air transportation operating cost model is developed. The effect is identified of such factors as level of service provided, traffic density of the market, stage length, number of flight cycles, level of automation, as well as aircraft type and other operational factors on direct and indirect operating costs.

  12. The application of QCSEE technology to V/STOL. [Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, W. S.; Genever-Watling, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    While at this point in time no particular propulsion system configuration has been chosen for the V/STOL Type A, many combinations of number of fans, gas generators, and methods of power interconnection have been investigated. Low pressure systems under consideration include variable pitch and variable inlet guide vanes for thrust modulation, geared and direct turbine drive, and shaft and gas power transfer systems. Several of these features are being studied in the Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul, Experimental Engine (QCSEE) program, which is developing the technology needed for future short-haul passenger aircraft. Test status and key characteristics of QCSEE engines and their components are discussed in detail.

  13. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Under-The-Wing (UTW) engine boilerplate nacelle test report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design and testing of high bypass geared turbofan engines with nacelles forming the propulsion systems for short haul passenger aircraft are considered. The test results demonstrate the technology required for externally blown flap aircraft for introduction into passenger service in the 1980's. The equipment tested is described along with the test facility and instrumentation. A chronological history of the test and a summary of results are given.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of animal-product violations incurred by air passengers at an international airport in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tai-Hwa; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Morley, Randall S

    2005-05-10

    Our aim was to evaluate the inspection of arriving passengers for the illegal transport of animal products through the international airport into Taiwan. Passenger-violation data were retrieved from the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine (BAPHIQ) in Taiwan. Monte Carlo simulations with 5000 iterations were applied to estimate the predicted violation numbers considering factors such as passenger's nationality/ethnicity, sex, and monthly statistics of violations. The results showed that Chinese-related passengers and passengers from South East Asian countries have a relatively higher potential risk for incurring violations during the period from Christmas to Chinese Lunar New Year. Most monthly estimated violation risks are significantly higher than observed violation risks in 2001 and 2002, except April, July, and August. Due to the low sensitivity of the current detection system (reflected by the higher estimated violation risks and a two-fold detection increase after the implementation of an inspection service using detector dogs), we recommend additional preventive measures be taken.

  15. Study of the impact of cruise and passenger ships on a Mediterranean port city air quality - Study of future emission mitigation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Kontos, Serafim; Giannaros, Christos; Melas, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    An increase of the passenger ships traffic is expected in the Mediterranean Sea as targeted by the EU Blue Growth initiative. This increase is expected to impact the Mediterranean port-cities air quality considering not only the conventional atmospheric pollutants but also the toxic ones that are emitted by the ships (e.g. Nickel). The aim of this study is the estimation of the present and future time pollutant emissions from cruise and passenger maritime transport in the port area of Thessaloniki (Greece) as well as the impact of those emissions on the city air quality. Cruise and passenger ship emissions have been estimated for the year 2013 over a 100m spatial resolution grid which covers the greater port area of Thessaloniki. Emissions have been estimated for the following macro-pollutants; NOx, SO2, NMVOC, CO, CO2 and particulate matter (PM). In addition, the most important micro-pollutants studied in this work are As, Cd, Pb, Ni and Benzo(a)pyrene for which air quality limits have been set by the EU. Emissions have been estimated for three operation modes; cruising, maneuvering and hotelling. For the calculation of the present time maritime emissions, the activity data used were provided by the Thessaloniki Port Authority S.A. Moreover, future pollutant emissions are estimated using the future activity data provided by the Port Authority and the IMO legislation for shipping in the future. In addition, two mitigation emission scenarios are examined; the use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a fuel used by ships and the implementation of cold ironing which is the electrification of ships during hotelling mode leading to the elimination of the corresponding emissions. The impact of the present and future passenger ship emissions on the air quality of Thessaloniki is examined with the use of the model CALPUFF applied over the 100m spatial resolution grid using the meteorology of WRF. Simulations of the modeling system are performed for four different emission

  16. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given.

  17. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 2: Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study of the quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation was conducted. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) to determine the relationships between STOL characteristics and economic and social viability of short haul air transportation, (2) to identify critical technology problems involving introduction of STOL short haul systems, (3) to define representative aircraft configurations, characteristics, and costs, and (4) to identify high payoff technology areas to improve STOL systems. The analyses of the aircraft designs which were generated to fulfill the objectives are summarized. The baseline aircraft characteristics are documented and significant trade studies are presented.

  18. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) UTW fan preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    High bypass geared turbofan engines and propulsion systems designed for short-haul passenger aircraft are described. The propulsion technology required for future externally blown flap aircraft with engines located both under the wing and over the wing is emphasized. The aerodynamic and mechanical preliminary design of the QCSEE under the wing 1.34 pressure ratio fan with variable blade pitch is presented. Design information is given for two pitch change actuation systems which will provide reverse thrust.

  19. Application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coussens, T. G.; Tullis, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and economic benefits available by incorporation of advanced technologies into the small, short haul air transport were assessed. Low cost structure and advanced composite material, advanced turboprop engines and new propellers, advanced high lift systems and active controls; and alternate aircraft configurations with aft mounted engines were investigated. Improvements in fuel consumed and aircraft economics (acquisition cost and direct operating cost) are available by incorporating selected advanced technologies into the small, short haul aircraft.

  20. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 4: Markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A marketing study to determine the acceptance and utilization of a STOL aircraft short-haul air transportation system was conducted. The relationship between STOL characteristics and the economic and social viability of STOL as a short-haul reliever system was examined. A study flow chart was prepared to show the city pair and traffic split analysis. The national demand for STOL aircraft, as well as the foreign and military markets, were analyzed.

  1. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered.

  2. 19 CFR 122.156 - Release of passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Flights to and From Cuba § 122.156 Release of passengers. No passengers arriving from Cuba by aircraft will be released by Customs, nor will the aircraft be cleared or...

  3. Contingency Power Study for Short Haul Civil Tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D. (Technical Monitor); Wait, John

    2003-01-01

    AlliedSignal Engines (AE) defined a number of concepts that significantly increased the horsepower of a turboshaft engine to accommodate the loss of an engine and enable the safe landing of a twin-engined, 40-passenger, short haul civil tiltrotor. From these concepts, "Water/Methanol Injection," a "Better Power Turbine Than Required," and a "Secondary Combustor For Interturbine Reheat" were chosen, based on system safety and economics, for more detailed examination. Engine performance, mission, and cost analysis of these systems indicated contingency power levels of 26 to 70 percent greater than normal rated takeoff could be attained for short durations, thus enabling direct operating cost savings between 2 and 6 percent.

  4. Summary of the recent short-haul systems studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savin, R. C.; Galloway, T. L.; Wilcox, D. E.; Kenyon, G. C.; Ardema, M. D.; Waters, M. H.

    1975-01-01

    The results of several NASA sponsored high density short haul air transportation systems studies are reported as well as analyzed. Included are the total STOL systems analysis approach, a companion STOL composites study conducted in conjunction with STOL systems studies, a STOL economic assessment study, an evaluation of STOL aircraft with and without externally blown flaps, an alternative STOL systems for the San Francisco Bay Area, and the quiet, clean experimental engine studies. Assumptions and results of these studies are summarized, their differences, analyzed, and the results compared with those in-house analyses performed by the Systems Studies Division of the NASA-Ames Research Center. Pertinent conclusions are developed and the more significant technology needs for the evaluation of a viable short haul transportation system are identified.

  5. Profile of international air passengers intercepted with illegal animal products in baggage at Guarulhos and Galeão airports in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Pinheiro de Sá, Marcos Eielson; Alves, Flaviane Faria; McManus, Concepta; Aragão, Lucas Fernandes; Belo, Bruno Benin; Campani, Paulo Ricardo; da Matta Ribeiro, Antonio Cavalcanti; Seabra, Christina Isoldi; Seixas, Luiza

    2014-01-01

    Protection against biological material entering a country or region through airports is important because, through them, infectious agents can quickly reach exotic destinations and be disseminated. Illegal products of animal origin may contain hazardous infectious agents that can compromise animal and public health. The aim of this study was to identify associations between possession of illegal animal products in baggage and demographic characteristics of the passengers, as well as characteristics of their travel plans in the two main Brazilian international airports. A total of 457 passengers were divided into two groups: passengers identified as carrying illegal animal products and control. Passengers identified as carrying illegal animal products not stated on the accompanied baggage declaration completed a questionnaire, to aid in profiling. Nationality, origin, age and residency of passengers were analyzed using chi square, logistic regression and odds ratios. Passengers from Eastern Europe were the most likely to enter with animal products as were those aged between 35 and 55 years. When evaluating the departure point, the highest frequency was seen in those coming from Portugal. Passenger group, reasons for travel, amount and type of baggage were available only for passengers identified as carrying illegal animal products, noting that they prefer traveling alone, for leisure, bringing few bags. Such information can contribute to the early identification of passengers that have illegal animal products in baggage at Brazilian airports.

  6. The world's air transportation services : data as to passengers, mail, and goods carried by American and European transportation services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    This report presents detailed descriptions, statistics, and graphs on European and American air transport. The European countries listed are Belgium, Czecho-Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, and Italy.

  7. Operational factors of air service to small communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of using 30-passenger jet aircraft to service low density, short haul markets was analyzed. Aircraft characteristics, market potential, and economic factors were among the areas evaluated.

  8. Haul-Out Behaviour of the World's Northernmost Population of Harbour Seals (Phoca vitulina) throughout the Year

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Charmain D.; Lydersen, Christian; Ims, Rolf A.; Kovacs, Kit M.

    2014-01-01

    The harbour seal population in Svalbard occurs at the northernmost limit of the species' range. It experiences environmental extremes far beyond the norm for this species, including an extended period of polar night and extensive sea ice cover. In 2009 and 2010, 60 harbour seals (30 pups + 30 immature/mature seals) from this population were equipped with Satellite-Relay Data Loggers (SRDLs) to study their haul-out behaviour, with a special focus on the winter period. Using a combination of Generalized Additive Mixed Models and Cox Proportional Hazard models, the influences of sex, maturity, temporal, spatial and environmental factors on haul-out behaviour were explored. All of the seals continued to haul out even through the coldest periods during the polar night, though clear seasonality in the time spent hauled out daily was displayed by both immature and mature seals. Time spent hauled out daily decreased from ∼5.2 hrs in September to ∼1.2 hrs in February in these age groups, while pups displayed less seasonality (∼2.4 hrs/day throughout most of the year). The average at-sea period also exhibited seasonality, increasing to a maximum of ∼1.6 days in February (monthly maxima for individual animals ranged from 7 to 19 days). The seals showed a strong preference to haul out at low tide when hauling out on land but not when using sea ice as a haul-out platform. A diel rhythm in haul-out behaviour was present during the months with day–night cycling and midnight sun but not during the polar night. Haul-out behaviour was impacted to a greater extent by air pressure, through its effect on wind speed, than by absolute temperature values. The extreme environment in Svalbard likely causes some physiological challenges that might impact survival rates negatively, particularly among pups. Climate warming is likely to have positive effects on Svalbard's harbour seal population. PMID:24465867

  9. Haul-out behaviour of the world's northernmost population of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) throughout the year.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Charmain D; Lydersen, Christian; Ims, Rolf A; Kovacs, Kit M

    2014-01-01

    The harbour seal population in Svalbard occurs at the northernmost limit of the species' range. It experiences environmental extremes far beyond the norm for this species, including an extended period of polar night and extensive sea ice cover. In 2009 and 2010, 60 harbour seals (30 pups + 30 immature/mature seals) from this population were equipped with Satellite-Relay Data Loggers (SRDLs) to study their haul-out behaviour, with a special focus on the winter period. Using a combination of Generalized Additive Mixed Models and Cox Proportional Hazard models, the influences of sex, maturity, temporal, spatial and environmental factors on haul-out behaviour were explored. All of the seals continued to haul out even through the coldest periods during the polar night, though clear seasonality in the time spent hauled out daily was displayed by both immature and mature seals. Time spent hauled out daily decreased from ∼5.2 hrs in September to ∼1.2 hrs in February in these age groups, while pups displayed less seasonality (∼2.4 hrs/day throughout most of the year). The average at-sea period also exhibited seasonality, increasing to a maximum of ∼1.6 days in February (monthly maxima for individual animals ranged from 7 to 19 days). The seals showed a strong preference to haul out at low tide when hauling out on land but not when using sea ice as a haul-out platform. A diel rhythm in haul-out behaviour was present during the months with day-night cycling and midnight sun but not during the polar night. Haul-out behaviour was impacted to a greater extent by air pressure, through its effect on wind speed, than by absolute temperature values. The extreme environment in Svalbard likely causes some physiological challenges that might impact survival rates negatively, particularly among pups. Climate warming is likely to have positive effects on Svalbard's harbour seal population.

  10. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) preliminary under the wing flight propulsion system analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary design and installation of high bypass, geared turbofan engine with a composite nacelle forming the propulsion system for a short haul passenger aircraft are described. The technology required for externally blown flap aircraft with under the wing (UTW) propulsion system installations for introduction into passenger service in the mid 1980's is included. The design, fabrication, and testing of this UTW experimental engine containing the required technology items for low noise, fuel economy, with composite structure for reduced weight and digital engine control are provided.

  11. Weasel works SA-150: Design study of a 100 to 150 passenger transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkema, Kevin; Comeaux, Michael; Gilbert, Timothy; Para, Victor; Toepfer, George

    1993-01-01

    As the year 2000 rapidly approaches, the airlines are faced with an extremely competitive and environmentally restrictive marketplace. In order to survive, commercial air carriers will need to find new ways to lower their direct operating costs, increase load factors and comply with tightening federal and international constraints. The SA-150 has been designed to meet these demands by focusing on the areas of aerodynamic efficiency, an improved level of passenger comfort, and a limited application of advanced technology. The SA-150 has been optimized for a 500 nmi. mission to help the airlines meet the challenges of the short haul, quick turnaround flight. With a maximum capacity of 124 passengers, and full baggage, the SA-150 is also capable of covering a range of 1500 nmi. This additional range capability will provide the airlines with flexibility when scheduling their routes. The aircraft features a 'V' tail, fly-by-wire system and is powered by two turbofans mounted under a twelve aspect ratio wing. The SA-150 will have an initial production run of 800 units and have a purchase price of $37.7 million in 1993 dollars.

  12. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, T. P.; Stout, E. G.; Sweet, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    Conceptual designs of Quiet Turbofan STOL Short-Haul Transport Aircraft for the mid-1980 time period are developed and analyzed to determine their technical, operational, and economic feasibility. A matrix of aircraft using various high-lift systems and design parameters are considered. Variations in aircraft characteristics, airport geometry and location, and operational techniques are analyzed systematically to determine their effects on the market, operating economics, and community acceptance. In these studies, the total systems approach is considered to be critically important in analyzing the potential of STOL aircraft to reduce noise pollution and alleviate the increasing air corridor and airport congestion.

  13. Evaluation of advanced lift concepts and potential fuel conservation for short-haul aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, H. S.; Renshaw, J. H.; Bowden, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of different field lengths, cruise requirements, noise level, and engine cycle characteristics on minimizing fuel consumption and minimizing operating cost at high fuel prices were evaluated for some advanced short-haul aircraft. The conceptual aircraft were designed for 148 passengers using the upper surface-internally blown jet flap, the augmentor wing, and the mechanical flap lift systems. Advanced conceptual STOL engines were evaluated as well as a near-term turbofan and turboprop engine. Emphasis was given to designs meeting noise levels equivalent to 95-100 EPNdB at 152 m (500 ft) sideline.

  14. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Composite fan frame subsystem test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stotler, C. L., Jr.; Bowden, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The element and subcomponent testing conducted to verify the composite fan frame design of two experimental high bypass geared turbofan engines and propulsion systems for short haul passenger aircraft is described. Emphasis is placed on the propulsion technology required for future externally blown flap aircraft with engines located both under the wing and over the wing, including technology in composite structures and digital engine controls. The element tests confirmed that the processes used in the frame design would produce the predicted mechanical properties. The subcomponent tests verified that the detail structural components of the frame had adequate structural integrity.

  15. Water quality ramifications of manure storage and daily haul during winter and early spring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure storage is supported by the United States Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as a nutrient management strategy for controlling air and water quality. Daily haul is still a popular practice on the small farms in northeastern USA but receives criticism over the impact of spreading du...

  16. 19 CFR 122.49d - Passenger Name Record (PNR) information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Obtain data for all passengers listed for a specific flight; and (iii) Provide technical assistance to...) General requirement. Each air carrier, foreign and domestic, operating a passenger flight in foreign air transportation to or from the United States, including flights to the United States where the passengers...

  17. 19 CFR 122.49d - Passenger Name Record (PNR) information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Obtain data for all passengers listed for a specific flight; and (iii) Provide technical assistance to...) General requirement. Each air carrier, foreign and domestic, operating a passenger flight in foreign air transportation to or from the United States, including flights to the United States where the passengers...

  18. 19 CFR 122.49d - Passenger Name Record (PNR) information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Obtain data for all passengers listed for a specific flight; and (iii) Provide technical assistance to...) General requirement. Each air carrier, foreign and domestic, operating a passenger flight in foreign air transportation to or from the United States, including flights to the United States where the passengers...

  19. 30 CFR 57.9202 - Loading and hauling large rocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loading and hauling large rocks. 57.9202..., Hauling, and Dumping Transportation of Persons and Materials § 57.9202 Loading and hauling large rocks. Large rocks shall be broken before loading if they could endanger persons or affect the stability...

  20. 30 CFR 56.9202 - Loading and hauling large rocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loading and hauling large rocks. 56.9202..., Hauling, and Dumping Transportation of Persons and Materials § 56.9202 Loading and hauling large rocks. Large rocks shall be broken before loading if they could endanger persons or affect the stability...

  1. 30 CFR 56.9202 - Loading and hauling large rocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loading and hauling large rocks. 56.9202..., Hauling, and Dumping Transportation of Persons and Materials § 56.9202 Loading and hauling large rocks. Large rocks shall be broken before loading if they could endanger persons or affect the stability...

  2. 30 CFR 56.9202 - Loading and hauling large rocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loading and hauling large rocks. 56.9202..., Hauling, and Dumping Transportation of Persons and Materials § 56.9202 Loading and hauling large rocks. Large rocks shall be broken before loading if they could endanger persons or affect the stability...

  3. 30 CFR 57.9202 - Loading and hauling large rocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loading and hauling large rocks. 57.9202..., Hauling, and Dumping Transportation of Persons and Materials § 57.9202 Loading and hauling large rocks. Large rocks shall be broken before loading if they could endanger persons or affect the stability...

  4. 30 CFR 57.9202 - Loading and hauling large rocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loading and hauling large rocks. 57.9202..., Hauling, and Dumping Transportation of Persons and Materials § 57.9202 Loading and hauling large rocks. Large rocks shall be broken before loading if they could endanger persons or affect the stability...

  5. 30 CFR 56.9202 - Loading and hauling large rocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading and hauling large rocks. 56.9202..., Hauling, and Dumping Transportation of Persons and Materials § 56.9202 Loading and hauling large rocks. Large rocks shall be broken before loading if they could endanger persons or affect the stability...

  6. 30 CFR 57.9202 - Loading and hauling large rocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading and hauling large rocks. 57.9202..., Hauling, and Dumping Transportation of Persons and Materials § 57.9202 Loading and hauling large rocks. Large rocks shall be broken before loading if they could endanger persons or affect the stability...

  7. 30 CFR 57.9202 - Loading and hauling large rocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loading and hauling large rocks. 57.9202..., Hauling, and Dumping Transportation of Persons and Materials § 57.9202 Loading and hauling large rocks. Large rocks shall be broken before loading if they could endanger persons or affect the stability...

  8. 30 CFR 56.9202 - Loading and hauling large rocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loading and hauling large rocks. 56.9202..., Hauling, and Dumping Transportation of Persons and Materials § 56.9202 Loading and hauling large rocks. Large rocks shall be broken before loading if they could endanger persons or affect the stability...

  9. Application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, D. G.; Brubaker, P. W.; Bryant, S. L.; Clay, C. W.; Giridharadas, B.; Hamamoto, M.; Kelly, T. J.; Proctor, D. K.; Myron, C. E.; Sullivan, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a preliminary design study which investigates the use of selected advanced technologies to achieve low cost design for small (50-passenger), short haul (50 to 1000 mile) transports are reported. The largest single item in the cost of manufacturing an airplane of this type is labor. A careful examination of advanced technology to airframe structure was performed since one of the most labor-intensive parts of the airplane is structures. Also, preliminary investigation of advanced aerodynamics flight controls, ride control and gust load alleviation systems, aircraft systems and turbo-prop propulsion systems was performed. The most beneficial advanced technology examined was bonded aluminum primary structure. The use of this structure in large wing panels and body sections resulted in a greatly reduced number of parts and fasteners and therefore, labor hours. The resultant cost of assembled airplane structure was reduced by 40% and the total airplane manufacturing cost by 16% - a major cost reduction. With further development, test verification and optimization appreciable weight saving is also achievable. Other advanced technology items which showed significant gains are as follows: (1) advanced turboprop-reduced block fuel by 15.30% depending on range; (2) configuration revisions (vee-tail)-empennage cost reduction of 25%; (3) leading-edge flap addition-weight reduction of 2500 pounds.

  10. Duncan Sketches out "Long Haul" Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan, who says he plans to serve in the Obama Cabinet for the "long haul," has begun sketching out his priorities for the next four years. They include using competitive levers to improve teacher and principal quality and holding the line on initiatives he started during the president's first term. The secretary…

  11. Passenger safety, health, and comfort: a review.

    PubMed

    Rayman, R B

    1997-05-01

    Since the birth of aviation medicine approximately 80 yrs ago, practitioners and scientists have given their attention primarily to flight deck crew, cabin crew, and ground support personnel. However, in more recent years we have broadened our horizons to include the safety, health, and comfort of passengers flying commercial aircraft. This will be even more compelling as more passengers take to the air in larger aircraft and flying longer hours to more distant destinations. Further, we can expect to see more older passengers because people in many countries are living longer, healthier lives. The author first discusses the stresses imposed by ordinary commercial flight upon travelers such as airport tumult, barometric pressure changes, immobility, jet lag, noise/ vibration, and radiation. Medical considerations are next addressed describing inflight illness and medical care capability aboard U.S. air carriers. Passenger safety, cabin air quality, and the preventive medicine aspects of air travel are next reviewed in the context of passenger safety, health, and comfort. Recommendations are addressed to regulator agencies, airlines aircraft manufacturers, and the aerospace medicine community.

  12. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): The aerodynamic and mechanical design of the QCSEE under-the-wing fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two experimental high bypass geared turbofan engines and propulsion systems for short haul passenger aircraft are described. The aerodynamic and mechanical design of a variable pitch 1.34 pressure ratio fan for the under the wing (UTW) engine are included. The UTW fan was designed to permit rotation of the 18 composite fan blades into the reverse thrust mode of operation through both flat pitch and stall pitch directions.

  13. [Air transport, aeronautic medicine, health].

    PubMed

    Cupa, Michel

    2009-10-01

    There were 3.2 billion airline passengers in 2006, compared to only 30 million in 1950. Intercontinental health disparities create a risk of pandemics such as SARS and so-called bird flu. Precautions are now being implemented both in airports and in aircraft, in addition to measures intended to prevent the spread of malaria and arboviral diseases, such as vector eradication, elimination of stagnant water, malaria prophylaxis, vaccination, and use of repellents. These measures are dealt with in international health regulations, which have existed since 1851 and were last updated on 15 June 2007. Flying on an airliner also carries a risk of hypobaria (cabin pressure at 2000 m), which can aggravate respiratory problems. Other problems include relative hypoxia, gas expansion, air dryness, ozone, cosmic rays, airsickness, jet lag, the effects of alcohol and tobacco, and, more recently, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), collectively known as "coach class syndrome". A new type of medicine has appeared, in the form of on-board medical assistance. The European Civil Aviation Committee has recommended first-aid training for cabin crews and onboard medical equipment such as first-aid kits and defibrillators. Airline statistics show that one in-flight medical incident occurs per 20 000 passengers, as well as one death per 5 million passengers and one medical reroute per 20 000 flights (40% of reroutes turn out to be unjustified). More than 80% of long-haul flights have a physician travelling on board. However, depending on his or her specialty, problems of competence and legal responsibility may arise. Ground-based medical centers can provide help via satellite telephone, but this implies the need for airline staff training. International cooperation is the only way to minimize the health risks associated with the growth in global air travel.

  14. [Air transport, aeronautic medicine, health].

    PubMed

    Cupa, Michel

    2009-10-01

    There were 3.2 billion airline passengers in 2006, compared to only 30 million in 1950. Intercontinental health disparities create a risk of pandemics such as SARS and so-called bird flu. Precautions are now being implemented both in airports and in aircraft, in addition to measures intended to prevent the spread of malaria and arboviral diseases, such as vector eradication, elimination of stagnant water, malaria prophylaxis, vaccination, and use of repellents. These measures are dealt with in international health regulations, which have existed since 1851 and were last updated on 15 June 2007. Flying on an airliner also carries a risk of hypobaria (cabin pressure at 2000 m), which can aggravate respiratory problems. Other problems include relative hypoxia, gas expansion, air dryness, ozone, cosmic rays, airsickness, jet lag, the effects of alcohol and tobacco, and, more recently, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), collectively known as "coach class syndrome". A new type of medicine has appeared, in the form of on-board medical assistance. The European Civil Aviation Committee has recommended first-aid training for cabin crews and onboard medical equipment such as first-aid kits and defibrillators. Airline statistics show that one in-flight medical incident occurs per 20 000 passengers, as well as one death per 5 million passengers and one medical reroute per 20 000 flights (40% of reroutes turn out to be unjustified). More than 80% of long-haul flights have a physician travelling on board. However, depending on his or her specialty, problems of competence and legal responsibility may arise. Ground-based medical centers can provide help via satellite telephone, but this implies the need for airline staff training. International cooperation is the only way to minimize the health risks associated with the growth in global air travel. PMID:20669640

  15. 14 CFR Sec. 19-7 - Passenger origin-destination survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIR CARRIERS Operating Statistics Classifications Sec. 19-7 Passenger origin-destination survey. (a... Collecting and Reporting Passenger Origin-Destination Survey Statistics (Appendix A to this section), and in Passenger Origin-Destination Directives issued by the Department's Bureau of Transportation Statistics...

  16. A method for the determination of potentially profitable service patterns for commuter air carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, R. K.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Deptula, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology for estimating market conception was developed as a part of the short-haul air transportation program. It is based upon an analysis of actual documents which provide a record of known travel history. Applying this methodology a forecast was made of the demand for an air feeder service between Charlottesville, Virginia and Dulles International Airport. Local business travel vouchers and local travel agent records were selected to provide the documentation. The market was determined to be profitable for an 8-passenger Cessna 402B aircraft flying a 2-hour daily service pattern designed to mesh to the best extent possible with the connecting schedules at Dulles. The Charlottesville - Dulles air feeder service market conception forecast and its methodology are documented.

  17. Impact of Paint Color on Rest Period Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lustbader, J.; Kreutzer, C.; Jeffers, M.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Brontz, P.; Olson, K.; Ohlinger, J.

    2014-02-01

    Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation. Initial screening simulations using CoolCalc, NREL's rapid HVAC load estimation tool, showed promising air-conditioning load reductions due to paint color selection. Tests conducted at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility using long-haul truck cab sections, 'test bucks,' showed a 31.1% of maximum possible reduction in rise over ambient temperature and a 20.8% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use by switching from black to white paint. Additionally, changing from blue to an advanced color-matched solar reflective blue paint resulted in a 7.3% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use for weather conditions tested in Colorado. National-level modeling results using weather data from major U.S. cities indicated that the increase in heating loads due to lighter paint colors is much smaller than the reduction in cooling loads.

  18. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 5: Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The economic aspects of the STOL aircraft for short-haul air transportation are discussed. The study emphasized the potential market, the preferred operational concepts, the design characteristics, and the economic viability. Three central issues governing economic viability are as follows: (1) operator economics given the market, (2) the required transportation facilities, and (3) the external economic effects of a set of regional STOL transportation systems.

  19. Cabin air quality: an overview.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Russell B

    2002-03-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing complaints from cockpit crew, cabin crew, and passengers that the cabin air quality of commercial aircraft is deficient. A myriad of complaints including headache, fatigue, fever, and respiratory difficulties among many others have been registered, particularly by flight attendants on long-haul routes. There is also much concern today regarding the transmission of contagious disease inflight, particularly tuberculosis. The unanswered question is whether these complaints are really due to poor cabin air quality or to other factors inherent intlight such as lowered barometric pressure, hypoxia, low humidity, circadian dysynchrony, work/rest cycles, vibration, etc. This paper will review some aspects relevant to cabin air quality such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), particulates, and microorganisms, as well as the cabin ventilation system, to discern possible causes and effects of illness contracted inflight. The paper will conclude with recommendations on how the issue of cabin air quality may be resolved.

  20. 14 CFR 136.7 - Passenger briefings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger briefings. 136.7 Section 136.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... must also include: (1) Procedures for water ditching; (2) Use of required life preservers; and...

  1. Mitigating Seabird Bycatch during Hauling by Pelagic Longline Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Eric; Chaloupka, Milani; Wiedoff, Brett; Willson, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Bycatch in longline fisheries threatens the viability of some seabird populations. The Hawaii longline swordfish fishery reduced seabird captures by an order of magnitude primarily through mitigating bycatch during setting. Now, 75% of captures occur during hauling. We fit observer data to a generalized additive regression model with mixed effects to determine the significance of the effect of various factors on the standardized seabird haul catch rate. Density of albatrosses attending vessels during hauling, leader length and year had largest model effects. The standardized haul catch rate significantly increased with increased albatross density during hauling. The standardized catch rate was significantly higher the longer the leader: shorter leaders place weighted swivels closer to hooks, reducing the likelihood of baited hooks becoming available to surface-scavenging albatrosses. There was a significant linear increasing temporal trend in the standardized catch rate, possibly partly due to an observed increasing temporal trend in the local abundance of albatrosses attending vessels during hauling. Swivel weight, Beaufort scale and season were also significant but smaller model effects. Most (81%) haul captures were on branchlines actively being retrieved. Future haul mitigation research should therefore focus on reducing bird access to hooks as crew coil branchlines, including methods identified here of shorter leaders and heavier swivels, and other potentially effective methods, including faster branchline coiling and shielding the area where hooks becomes accessible. The proportion of Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) captures that occurred during hauling was significantly, 1.6 times, higher than for black-footed albatrosses (P. nigripes), perhaps due to differences in the time of day of foraging and in daytime scavenging competitiveness; mitigating haul bycatch would therefore be a larger benefit to Laysans. Locally, findings identify opportunities

  2. Passenger well-being in airplanes.

    PubMed

    Hinninghofen, H; Enck, P

    2006-10-30

    Passenger well-being is influenced by cabin environmental conditions which interact with individual passenger characteristics like age and health conditions. Cabin environment is composed of different aspects, some of which have a direct influence on gastrointestinal functions and may directly generate nausea, such as cabin pressure, oxygen saturation, and motion or vibration. For example, it has been shown that available cabin pressure during normal flight altitude can significantly inhibit gastric emptying and induce dyspepsia-like symptoms when associated with a fibre-rich meal. Other aspects of the cabin environment such as space and variability of seating, air quality, and noise, also have been shown to modulate (reduce or increase) discomfort and nausea during flights. Individual passenger characteristics and health status also have been demonstrated to increase vulnerability to adverse health outcomes and discomfort.

  3. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    SciTech Connect

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  4. The Effect of Corporate Influence in the Short Haul Business Travel Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of corporate involvement in the decision making process for business related air travel is being increasingly recognized in the literature. Business travellers consume air services (i.e. they take airline flights), however; they may not be the principal decision-maker in the purchase, Also it is the organization that employs the traveller that incurs the cost for air travel, Consequently this research addresses the relationship between the traveller and the employing organization in the purchase of air travel. In this paper traveller opinions on their corporate travel policy are evaluated using a Likert summated rating scale. The benefits sought, by the traveller, from the air service are also investigated and these benefits are used to segment the short haul business air travel market in the EU. Changes in the market for short haul business travel since the full liberalisation of the aviation market in the EU are evaluated by comparing the data to an earlier study of similar travellers in 1992.

  5. The Effect of Corporate Influence in the Short Haul Business Travel Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of corporate involvement in the decision making process for business related air travel is being increasingly recognised in the literature. Business travellers consume air services (i.e. they take airline flights), however; they may not be the principal decision-maker in the purchase. Also it is the organization that employs the traveller that incurs die cost for air travel. Consequently this research addresses the relationship between the traveller and the employing organisation in the purchase of air travel. In this paper traveller opinions on their corporate travel policy are evaluated using a Likert summated rating scale. The benefits sought, by the traveller, from the air service are also investigated and these benefits are used to segment the short haul business air travel market in the EU. Changes in the market for short haul business travel since the full liberalisation of the aviation market in-the EU are evaluated by comparing the data to an earlier study of similar travellers in 1992.

  6. A correlation linking the predicted mean vote and the mean thermal vote based on an investigation on the human thermal comfort in short-haul domestic flights.

    PubMed

    Giaconia, Carlo; Orioli, Aldo; Di Gangi, Alessandra

    2015-05-01

    The results of an experimental investigation on the human thermal comfort inside the cabin of some Airbus A319 aircrafts during 14 short-haul domestic flights, linking various Italian cities, are presented and used to define a correlation among the predicted mean vote (PMV), a procedure which is commonly used to assess the thermal comfort in inhabited environments, and the equivalent temperature and mean thermal vote (MTV), which are the parameters suggested by the European Standard EN ISO 14505-2 for the evaluation of the thermal environment in vehicles. The measurements of the radiant temperature, air temperature and relative humidity during flights were performed. The air temperature varied between 22.2 °C and 26.0 °C; the relative humidity ranged from 8.7% to 59.2%. The calculated values of the PMV varied from -0.16 to 0.90 and were confirmed by the answers of the passengers. The equivalent temperature was evaluated using the equations of Fanger or on the basis of the values of the skin temperature measured on some volunteers. The correlation linking the thermal sensation scales and zones used by the PMV and the MTV resulted quite accurate because the minimum value of the absolute difference between such environmental indexes equalled 0.0073 and the maximum difference did not exceed the value of 0.0589. Even though the equivalent temperature and the MTV were specifically proposed to evaluate the thermal sensation in vehicles, their use may be effectively extended to the assessment of the thermal comfort in airplanes or other occupied places. PMID:25683547

  7. CoolCalc: A Long-Haul Truck Thermal Load Estimation Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lustbader, J. A.; Rugh, J. P.; Rister, B. R.; Venson, T. S.

    2011-05-01

    In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs annually for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel per year. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling is primarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches. It is intended for rapid trade-off studies, technology impact estimation, and preliminary HVAC sizing design and to complement more detailed and expensive CAE tools by exploring and identifying regions of interest in the design space. This paper describes the CoolCalc tool, provides outdoor long-haul truck thermal testing results, shows validation using these test results, and discusses future applications of the tool.

  8. CoolCalc: A Long-Haul Truck Thermal Load Estimation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Lustbader, J. A.; Rugh, J. P.; Rister, B. R.; Venson, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs annually for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel per year. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling isprimarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, hasflexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches. It is intended for rapid trade-off studies, technology impact estimation, and preliminary HVAC sizing design and to complement more detailed and expensive CAE tools by exploring and identifying regions of interest in the design space. This paper describesthe CoolCalc tool, provides outdoor long-haul truck thermal testing results, shows validation using these test results, and discusses future applications of the tool.

  9. Slow speed object detection for haul trucks

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Caterpillar integrates radar technology with its current camera based system. Caterpillar has developed the Integrated Object Detection System, a slow speed object detection system for mining haul trucks. Object detection is a system that aids the truck operator's awareness of their surroundings. The system consists of a color touch screen display along with medium- and short-range radar as well as cameras, harnesses and mounting hardware. It is integrated into the truck's Work Area Vision System (WAVS). After field testing in 2007, system commercialization began in 2008. Prototype systems are in operation in Australia, Utah and Arizona and the Integrated Object Detection System will be available in the fourth quarter of 2009 and on production trucks 785C, 789C, 793D and 797B. The article is adapted from a presentation by Mark Richards of Caterpillar to the Haulage & Loading 2009 conference, May, held in Phoenix, AZ. 1 fig., 5 photos.

  10. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk. PMID:12077617

  11. Design objectives - Air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The mainline of air transportation is expected to continue to be based on the medium to long haul turbine powered subsonic aircraft. With greater emphasis on energy conservation, there will be considerable interest in making additional progress in propulsion system efficiency. Continued improvement in turbofan engines is expected to occur, but there may be a less conventional approach in the background. Opportunities for expanding short haul air services will certainly materialize. The outlook for supersonic air transport is less clear because of complex political and economic factors.

  12. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of Quiet Turbofan STOL Short-Haul Transport Aircraft for the mid-1980 time period are developed and analyzed to determine their technical, operational, and economic feasibility. A matrix of aircraft using various high-lift systems and design parameters are considered. Variations in aircraft characteristics, airport geometry and location, and operational techniques are analyzed systematically to determine their effects on the market, operating economics, and community acceptance. The total systems approach is considered to be critically important in analyzing the potential of STOL aircraft to reduce noise pollution and alleviate the increasing air corridor and airport congestion.

  13. Short Haul Civil Tiltrotor Study in MIDAS: Auto versus Manual Nacelle Procedures for Commanded Go-Around

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, Adolph, Jr.; Banda, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    Tiltrotor aircraft combine the speed and range of a turboprop performance with the ability to take off and land in a vertical mode like a helicopter. These aircraft will transport passengers from city center to city center and from satellite airports to major hub airports to make connections to long range travel. The Short Haul Civil Tiltrotor (SH(CT)) being studied by NASA is a concept 40 passenger civil tiltrotor (CTR) transport. The Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) was used to evaluate human performance in terms of crew procedures and pilot workload for a simulated 40 passenger Civil Tiltrotor Transport on a steep approach to a vertiport. The scenario for the simulation was a normal approach to the vertiport that is interrupted by a commanded go-around at the landing decision point. The simulation contrasted an automated discrete nacelle mode control with a fully manual nacelle control mode for the go-around. The MIDAS simulation showed that the pilot task loading during approach and for the commanded go-around is high and that pilot workload is near capacity throughout. The go-around in manual nacelle mode was most demanding, resulting in additional time requirements to complete necessary tasks.

  14. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Under-The-Wing (UTW) composite Nacelle test report. Volume 2: Acoustic performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    High bypass geared turbofan engines with nacelles forming the propulsion system for short-haul passenger aircraft were tested for use in externally blown flap-type aircraft. System noise levels for a four-engine, UTW-powered aircraft operating in the powered lift mode were calculated to be 97.2 and 95.7 EPNdB at takeoff and approach, respectively, on a 152.4 m (500 ft) sideline compared to a goal of 95.0 EPNdB.

  15. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1980-01-01

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use comprised of a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship is described. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules: body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  16. Energy efficient passenger vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Dessert, R.

    1983-02-22

    An energy efficient passenger carrying vehicle for road use. The vehicle basically comprises a long, narrow body carrying two passengers in a back-to-back relationship. The vehicle is basically a battery powered electric vehicle that can be charged by all free energy sources; namely, the sun, the wind, human muscles and momentum. The vehicle comprises four modules, namely body, solar, and two power modules. An electric power module is located within each end of the body module. This module includes electric motors driving the vehicle supporting wheels and rechargeable batteries to power the motors. Pedals, similar to those on a bicycle, located at each power module, drive generators to help recharge the batteries during operation of the vehicle, or directly help drive the vehicle wheels. A solar module comprising a large electricity generating solar cell panel covers most of the vehicle roof to aid in charging the batteries. Means are provided to tilt the solar cell panel toward the sun about a longitudinal axis. A unique flexible duct below the solar panel serves to cool the cells and, if desired, heat the passenger compartment. Further energy savings are obtained by canting the rear wheels while steering with the front wheels, so that the vehicle moves down the road at a crab angle which provides a sail effect when wind is from the vehicle beam or aft of the beam. Regenerative braking means can be used when slowing down, on a long down grade, when sailing speed is greater than required, or any other time when vehicle momentum is greater than necessary for vehicle operation, to use the excess forward momentum to drive generators to charge the batteries. Thus, a single battery charge will be conserved and vehicle operation will be assisted in a manner giving maximum vehicle range and speed.

  17. Fitness to fly post craniotomy--a survey of medical advice from long-haul airline carriers.

    PubMed

    Seth, R; Mir, S; Dhir, J S; Cheeseman, C; Singh, J

    2009-04-01

    Commercial airline passengers are subject to numerous medical risks while in transit. Seventeen long-haul airline companies were questioned concerning fitness to travel and the case of a patient wishing to travel post craniotomy. Three airline companies gave satisfactory medical information, while the remaining airlines felt it was the decision of the operating surgeon rather than the airline company. A literature review shows that post operative pneumocephalus and the risk of tension pneumocephalus is the major medical concern when transporting patients post craniotomy. Evidence is contradictory with respect to the importance of this potentially life threatening problem. Postoperative 100% oxygen may improve the rate of pneumocephalus absorption. Airline companies have an unstandardised approach to unique medical problems, resulting in increased responsibility for the attending surgeon who may be ill equipped to deal with poorly researched aviation medicine. PMID:19306175

  18. Fitness to fly post craniotomy--a survey of medical advice from long-haul airline carriers.

    PubMed

    Seth, R; Mir, S; Dhir, J S; Cheeseman, C; Singh, J

    2009-04-01

    Commercial airline passengers are subject to numerous medical risks while in transit. Seventeen long-haul airline companies were questioned concerning fitness to travel and the case of a patient wishing to travel post craniotomy. Three airline companies gave satisfactory medical information, while the remaining airlines felt it was the decision of the operating surgeon rather than the airline company. A literature review shows that post operative pneumocephalus and the risk of tension pneumocephalus is the major medical concern when transporting patients post craniotomy. Evidence is contradictory with respect to the importance of this potentially life threatening problem. Postoperative 100% oxygen may improve the rate of pneumocephalus absorption. Airline companies have an unstandardised approach to unique medical problems, resulting in increased responsibility for the attending surgeon who may be ill equipped to deal with poorly researched aviation medicine.

  19. Analysis of passenger acceptance of commercial flights having characteristics similar to STOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work in the development of quantitative models for the prediction of passenger reaction to motion and vehicle environment parameters in flight was extended to include a class of aircraft appropriate for low-density, short-haul service. The results indicate that it is possible to obtain quantitative response inputs from an usually small special test-subject group which will be representative of the general traveling public. Additional data which indicate the importance of comfort as a factor in evaluating ride quality was obtained, and identification of the factors which contribute to judgments regarding comfort level was improved. Seat comfort and seat spacing is very vital in the smaller aircraft. Mathematical modeling applied in conjuction with passenger reaction data was shown to be very useful for establishing ride-quality design criteria.

  20. 20 CFR 653.105 - Job applications at day-haul facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Job applications at day-haul facilities. 653.105 Section 653.105 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Job applications at day-haul facilities. If the State agency is operating a day-haul facility...

  1. 20 CFR 653.105 - Job applications at day-haul facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Job applications at day-haul facilities. 653.105 Section 653.105 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Job applications at day-haul facilities. If the State agency is operating a day-haul facility...

  2. 20 CFR 653.105 - Job applications at day-haul facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Job applications at day-haul facilities. 653.105 Section 653.105 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Job applications at day-haul facilities. If the State agency is operating a day-haul facility...

  3. 20 CFR 653.105 - Job applications at day-haul facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Job applications at day-haul facilities. 653.105 Section 653.105 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Job applications at day-haul facilities. If the State agency is operating a day-haul facility...

  4. 20 CFR 653.105 - Job applications at day-haul facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Job applications at day-haul facilities. 653.105 Section 653.105 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Job applications at day-haul facilities. If the State agency is operating a day-haul facility...

  5. Advanced Vehicle system concepts. [nonpetroleum passenger transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K. S.; Langendoen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Various nonpetroleum vehicle system concepts for passenger vehicles in the 1990's are being considered as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The vehicle system and subsystem performance requirements, the projected characteristics of mature subsystem candidates, and promising systems are presented. The system candidates include electric and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity with or without a nonpetroleum power source. The subsystem candidates include batteries (aqueous-mobile, flow, high-temperature, and metal-air), fuel cells (phosphoric acid, advanced acids, and solid polymer electrolyte), nonpetroleum heat engines, advanced dc and ac propulsion components, power-peaking devices, and transmissions.

  6. Design and Performance of Lift-Offset Rotorcraft for Short-Haul Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Moodie, Alex M.; Yeo, Hyeonsoo

    2012-01-01

    The design and performance of compound helicopters utilizing lift-offset rotors are examined, in the context of short-haul, medium-size civil and military missions. The analysis tools used are the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II and the sizing code NDARC. Following correlation of the comprehensive analysis with existing lift-offset aircraft flight test data, the rotor performance model for the sizing code was developed, and an initial estimate was made of the rotor size and key hover and cruise flight conditions. The rotor planform and twist were optimized for those conditions, and the sizing code rotor performance model updated. Two models for estimating the blade and hub weight of lift-offset rotors are discussed. The civil and military missions are described, along with the aircraft design assumptions. The aircraft are sized for 30 passengers or 6600 lb payload, with a range of 300 nm. Civil and military aircraft designs are described for each of the rotor weight models. Disk loading and blade loading were varied to optimize the designs, based on gross weight and fuel burn. The influence of technology is shown, in terms of rotor hub drag and rotor weight.

  7. Powertrain Controls Optimization for HD Hybrid Line Haul Trucks - FY2014 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, David E.

    2014-12-01

    This is a vehicle system level project, encompassing analytical modeling and supervisory controls development as well as experimental verification/validation testing at the component, powertrain, and full vehicle system level. This project supports the goal of petroleum consumption reduction for medium and heavy trucks through the development of advanced hybrid technologies and control systems. VSST has invested previously in R&D to support hybrid energy storage systems (Li-ion plus ultra-caps) for light duty, passenger car applications. This research will be extended to the MD and HD sector where current battery technology is not mature enough to handle the substantial regenerative braking power levels these trucks are capable of producing. With this hybrid energy storage system, substantial gains in overall vehicle efficiency are possible. In addition, advanced combustion technologies, such as RCCI, will be implemented into an advanced hybrid powertrain for a Class 8 line haul application. This powertrain, leveraged from other VSST work (Meritor, a current ORNL/VSST partner), is ideal for taking advantage of the benefits of RCCI operation due to its series hybrid mode of operation. Emissions control is also a focus of this project, especially due to the fact that RCCI creates a low temperature exhaust stream that must addressed.

  8. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  9. 14 CFR 135.117 - Briefing of passengers before flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Briefing of passengers before flight. 135.117 Section 135.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON...

  10. 14 CFR 125.327 - Briefing of passengers before flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Briefing of passengers before flight. 125.327 Section 125.327 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING...

  11. 10. Interior, Building 24, view of hauling equipment, showing electric ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior, Building 24, view of hauling equipment, showing electric motor and drive wheels connecting to wooden railway structure (exterior, left). - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building 24, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yark. BOSTS 13439, #551-15 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-7 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. 20 CFR 653.106 - JS day-haul responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false JS day-haul responsibilities. 653.106 Section 653.106 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SERVICES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Services for Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers (MSFWs) § 653.106 JS...

  15. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information. 91.517 Section 91... Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information. (a) Except as... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger...

  16. Parametric studies of North East Corridor rail passenger service between New York City and Washington, D. C.. [propulsive efficiency studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallkamp, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Speed profiles of rail passenger service between New York City and Washington, D.C. were developed and showed progressively fewer speed restrictions and increasing maximum speeds. The significant equipment characteristics include the portion of the total weight on driven axles, i.e., multiple unit (MU) cars versus locomotive hauled trains, and the short term tractive effort rating of the motors. The ratio of acceleration plus braking time to total time is provided for validation of the use of the short term propulsion equipment ratings. Absolute trip times are shown to be determined primarily by the allowed speed profile. Locomotive hauled train weights and lengths and the locomotive capabilities and characteristics that are required to make the performance of this type of train comparable to that of MU trains are given.

  17. Modeling haul-out behavior of walruses in Bering Sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, M.S.; Jay, C.V.; Fischbach, A.S.; Garlich-Miller, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding haul-out behavior of ice-associated pinnipeds is essential for designing and interpreting popula-tion surveys and for assessing effects of potential changes in their ice environments. We used satellite-linked transmitters to obtain sequential information about location and haul-out state for Pacific walruses, Odobenus rosmarus divergens (Il-liger, 1815), in the Bering Sea during April of 2004, 2005, and 2006. We used these data in a generalized mixed model of haul-out bout durations and a hierarchical Bayesian model of haul-out probabilities to assess factors related to walrus haul-out behavior, and provide the first predictive model of walrus haul-out behavior in sea ice habitat. Average haul-out bout duration was 9 h, but durations of haul-out bouts tended to increase with durations of preceding in-water bouts. On aver-age, tagged walruses spent only about 17% of their time hauled out on sea ice. Probability of being hauled out decreased with wind speed, increased with temperature, and followed a diurnal cycle with the highest values in the evening. Our haul-out probability model can be used to estimate the proportion of the population that is unavailable for detection in spring surveys of Pacific walruses on sea ice.

  18. Some highlights of aircraft passenger behavior research.

    PubMed

    Altman, H B

    1975-01-01

    A brief review is offered of the field of aircraft passenger safety research. Probelms associated with passenger behavior, e.g. panic, and passenger safety education studies and requirements are discussed. In addition, a comparison is drawn between commerical and corporate aircraft passenger safty requirements and current research and development programs. It is concluded there is a need for increased funding and more emphasis to be placed on education in the areas of aircraft passenger safty research.

  19. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

  20. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. PMID:26070017

  1. Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

    2003-01-01

    The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

  2. The Economics of Air Cargo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The economic factors involved in air cargo operations and air cargo marketing development are discussed. Specific steps which are followed by various airports to reduce operating costs are described. The economics of cargo handling within an airline are analyzed with respect to: (1) paperwork costs, (2) terminal costs, (3) line haul costs, and (4) claims costs.

  3. Effect of fare and travel time on the demand for domestic air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, S. E.; Liu, E. W.

    1979-01-01

    An econometric travel demand model was presented. The model was used for analyzing long haul domestic passenger markets in the United States. The results showed the sensitivities of demand to changes in fares and speed reflecting technology through more efficient aircraft designs.

  4. Modeling the Effect of Enlarging Seating Room on Passengers' Preference of Taiwan's Domestic Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Jin-Long; Tsai, Li-Non

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses the need for measuring the effect of enlarging seating room in airplane on passengers' preferences of airline in Taiwan. The results can assist Taiwan's domestic air carriers in better understanding their customers' expectations. Stated choice experiment is used to incorporate passengers' trade-offs in the preferred measurement, and three major attributes are taken into account in the stated choice experiment: (1) type of seat (enlarged or not), (2) price, and (3) brand names of airlines. Furthermore, a binary logit model is used to model the choice behavior of air passengers. The findings show that the type of seat is a major significant variable; price and airline's brand are also significant as well. It concludes that air carriers should put more emphasis on the issue of improving the quality of seat comfort. Keywords: Passengers' preference, Enlarged seating room, Stated choice experiment, Binary logit model.

  5. Energy conservation and air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Air transportation demand and passenger energy demand are discussed, in relation to energy conservation. Alternatives to air travel are reviewed, along with airline advertising and ticket pricing. Cargo energy demand and airline systems efficiency are also examined, as well as fuel conservation techniques. Maximum efficiency of passenger aircraft, from B-747 to V/STOL to British Concorde, is compared.

  6. Physiological effects of handling and hauling stress on smallmouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmichael, G.J.; Wedemeyer, G.A.; McCraren, J.P.; Millard, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Basic physiological information on the stress caused by current hatchery practices is helpful in developing new and improved techniques to increase survival. In view of the present fishery management requirements for stocking smallmouth bas (Micropterus dolomieu), baseline information on the physiological effects of handling and hauling hatchery-reared fish is needed to serve as the foundation for improving transport methods. Shell (1959) summarized several physiological characteristics of smallmouth bass, but little information on their physiological tolerance to stress exists. The present study was designed to determine the physiological effects of handling and short-term hauling in small mouth bass. Plasma chloride, sodium, potassium, and glucose dynamics were monitored in indicate the severity of the resulting stress and the recovery time needed.

  7. Numerical aerodynamic simulation program long haul communications prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cmaylo, Bohden K.; Foo, Lee

    1987-01-01

    This document is a report of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Long Haul Communications Prototype (LHCP). It describes the accomplishments of the LHCP group, presents the results from all LHCP experiments and testing activities, makes recommendations for present and future LHCP activities, and evaluates the remote workstation accesses from Langley Research Center, Lewis Research Center, and Colorado State University to Ames Research Center. The report is the final effort of the Long Haul (Wideband) Communications Prototype Plan (PT-1133-02-N00), 3 October 1985, which defined the requirements for the development, test, and operation of the LHCP network and was the plan used to evaluate the remote user bandwidth requirements for the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Processing System Network.

  8. How well do pilots sleep during long-haul flights?

    PubMed

    Roach, Gregory D; Darwent, David; Dawson, Drew

    2010-09-01

    It is imperative that shiftworkers in safety-critical workplaces obtain sufficient sleep to operate effectively. This presents a challenge to long-haul airline pilots who are required to supplement normal bed sleep with sleep on-board an aircraft during flight. In the current study, the sleep/wake behaviour of 301 airline pilots operating long-haul flight patterns was monitored for at least 2 weeks using self-report sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors. The data indicate that sleep opportunities in on-board rest facilities during long-haul flights result in a similar amount of sleep, but only 70% as much recovery, as duration-matched bed sleeps. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study indicates that in-flight sleep provides airline pilots with 70% as much restoration as duration-matched bed sleep. To increase the restoration provided by in-flight sleep, airlines could take measures to improve the quality, or increase the amount, of sleep obtained by pilots during flights. PMID:20737332

  9. Wind tunnel and analytical investigation of over-the-wing propulsion/air frame interferences for a short-haul aircraft at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.78. [conducted in the Lewis 8 by 6 foot tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, O. D.; Lopez, M. L.; Welge, H. R.; Henne, P. A.; Sewell, A. E.

    1977-01-01

    Results of analytical calculations and wind tunnel tests at cruise speeds of a representative four engine short haul aircraft employing upper surface blowing (USB) with a supercritical wing are discussed. Wind tunnel tests covered a range of Mach number M from 0.6 to 0.78. Tests explored the use of three USB nozzle configurations. Results are shown for the isolated wing body and for each of the three nozzle types installed. Experimental results indicate that a low angle nacelle and streamline contoured nacelle yielded the same interference drag at the design Mach number. A high angle powered lift nacelle had higher interference drag primarily because of nacelle boattail low pressures and flow separation. Results of varying the spacing between the nacelles and the use of trailing edge flap deflections, wing upper surface contouring, and a convergent-divergent nozzle to reduce potential adverse jet effects were also discussed. Analytical comparisons with experimental data, made for selected cases, indicate favorable agreement.

  10. 78 FR 39649 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels Accessibility... Tuesday, June 25, 2013, make the following correction: PART 1196--PASSENGER VESSELS...

  11. 19 CFR 4.50 - Passenger lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (see § 4.6 of this part) and required to make entry, except a vessel arriving from Canada, otherwise... passengers required by Customs and Immigration Form I-418 shall be included therein. (b) A passenger...

  12. 19 CFR 4.50 - Passenger lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (see § 4.6 of this part) and required to make entry, except a vessel arriving from Canada, otherwise... passengers required by Customs and Immigration Form I-418 shall be included therein. (b) A passenger...

  13. 46 CFR 90.10-29 - Passenger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-29 Passenger. (a) The term passenger means— (1) On an... under 1 year of age. (2) On other than an international voyage, an individual carried on the...

  14. Flight Crew Sleep in Long-Haul Aircraft Bunk Facilities: Survey Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Miller, Donna L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Dinges, David F.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Modem long-haul aircraft can fly up to 16 continuous hours and provide a 24-hour, global capability. Extra (augmented) flight crew are available on long flights to allow planned rest periods, on a rotating basis, away from the flight deck in onboard crew rest facilities (2 bunks). A NASA/FAA study is under-way to examine the quantity and quality of sleep obtained in long-haul aircraft bunks and the factors that promote or interfere with that sleep. The first phase of the study involved a retrospective survey, followed by a second phase field study to collect standard polysomnographic data during inflight bunk sleep periods. A summary of the Phase I survey results are reported here. A multi-part 54-question retrospective survey was completed by 1,404 flight crew (37% return rate) at three different major US air carriers flying B747-100, 200, 400, and MD- 11 long-haul aircraft. The questions examined demographics, quantity and quality of sleep at home and in onboard bunks, factors that promote or interfere with sleep, and effects on subsequent performance and alertness. Flight crew reported a mean bunk sleep latency of 39.4 mins (SD=28.3 mins) (n=1,276) and a mean total sleep time of 2.2 hrs (SD=1.3 hrs) (n=603). (Different flight lengths could affect overall time available for sleep.) Crew rated 25 factors for their interference or promotion of bunk sleep. Figure I portrays the average ratings for each factor across all three carriers. A principal components analysis of the 25 factors revealed three areas that promoted bunk sleep: physiological (e.g., readiness for sleep), physical environment (e.g., bunk size, privacy), and personal comfort (e.g., blankets, pillows). Five areas were identified that interfered with sleep: environmental disturbance (e.g., background noise, turbulence), luminosity (e.g., lighting), personal disturbances (e.g., bathroom trips, random thoughts), environmental discomfort (e.g., low humidity, cold), and interpersonal disturbances (e

  15. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to...

  16. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to...

  17. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to...

  18. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to...

  19. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... briefed on— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking... Regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit smoking in lavatories, and require compliance with crewmember instructions with regard to...

  20. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so constructed that the... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “no smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in...

  1. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so constructed that the... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “no smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in...

  2. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... orally briefed on— (1) Smoking: Each passenger must be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking is prohibited. This briefing must include a statement, as appropriate, that the regulations require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards,...

  3. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so constructed that the... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “no smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in...

  4. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... smoking is prohibited and when safety belts must be fastened. The signs must be so constructed that the... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger or crewmember may smoke while any “no smoking” sign is lighted nor may any passenger or crewmember smoke in...

  5. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  6. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  7. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  8. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  9. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... rule on passenger train emergency preparedness that was codified at 49 CFR part 239. See 63 FR 24629... evacuate passengers. See 73 FR 6369 (February 1, 2008). While this final rule did not make any changes to... existing requirements as well as create new requirements for passenger train emergency systems. See 77...

  10. 19 CFR 4.50 - Passenger lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Passenger lists. 4.50 Section 4.50 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Passengers on Vessels § 4.50 Passenger lists. (a) The master...

  11. Proceedings and findings of the 1976 Workshop on Ride Quality. [passenger acceptance of transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthau, A. R. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    The workshop was organized around the study of the three basic transfer functions required to evaluate and/or predict passenger acceptance of transportation systems: These are the vehicle, passenger, and value transfer functions. For the purpose of establishing working groups corresponding to the basic transfer functions, it was decided to split the vehicle transfer function into two distinct groups studying surface vehicles and air/marine vehicles, respectively.

  12. Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Danyi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as

  13. Energy efficiency in passenger transportation: What the future may hold

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation very briefly projects future impacts of energy efficiency in passenger transportation. Continuing expansion of the U.S. transportation sector, with a corresponding increased dependency on imported oil, is noted. Freight trucks and air fleets are targeted as having the greatest potential for increased energy efficiency. The light duty vehicle is identified as the only technology option for major efficiency increases. 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Emission Projections for Long-Haul Freight Trucks and Rail in the United States through 2050.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Hwang, Taesung; Lee, Sungwon; Ouyang, Yanfeng; Lee, Bumsoo; Smith, Steven J; Yan, Fang; Daenzer, Kathryn; Bond, Tami C

    2015-10-01

    This work develops an integrated model approach for estimating emissions from long-haul freight truck and rail transport in the United States between 2010 and 2050. We connect models of macroeconomic activity, freight demand by commodity, transportation networks, and emission technology to represent different pathways of future freight emissions. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) decrease by 60%-70% from 2010 to 2030, as older vehicles built to less-stringent emission standards retire. Climate policy, in the form of carbon tax that increases apparent fuel prices, causes a shift from truck to rail, resulting in a 30% reduction in fuel consumption and a 10%-28% reduction in pollutant emissions by 2050, if rail capacity is sufficient. Eliminating high-emitting conditions in the truck fleet affects air pollutants by 20% to 65%; although these estimates are highly uncertain, they indicate the importance of durability in vehicle engines and emission control systems. Future infrastructure investment will be required both to meet transport demand and to enable actions that reduce emissions of air and climate pollutants. By driving the integrated model framework with two macroeconomic scenarios, we show that the effect of carbon tax on air pollution is robust regardless of growth levels. PMID:26368392

  15. Emission Projections for Long-Haul Freight Trucks and Rail in the United States through 2050.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Hwang, Taesung; Lee, Sungwon; Ouyang, Yanfeng; Lee, Bumsoo; Smith, Steven J; Yan, Fang; Daenzer, Kathryn; Bond, Tami C

    2015-10-01

    This work develops an integrated model approach for estimating emissions from long-haul freight truck and rail transport in the United States between 2010 and 2050. We connect models of macroeconomic activity, freight demand by commodity, transportation networks, and emission technology to represent different pathways of future freight emissions. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) decrease by 60%-70% from 2010 to 2030, as older vehicles built to less-stringent emission standards retire. Climate policy, in the form of carbon tax that increases apparent fuel prices, causes a shift from truck to rail, resulting in a 30% reduction in fuel consumption and a 10%-28% reduction in pollutant emissions by 2050, if rail capacity is sufficient. Eliminating high-emitting conditions in the truck fleet affects air pollutants by 20% to 65%; although these estimates are highly uncertain, they indicate the importance of durability in vehicle engines and emission control systems. Future infrastructure investment will be required both to meet transport demand and to enable actions that reduce emissions of air and climate pollutants. By driving the integrated model framework with two macroeconomic scenarios, we show that the effect of carbon tax on air pollution is robust regardless of growth levels.

  16. Long-Haul Truck Idling Burns Up Profits

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-12

    Long-haul truck drivers perform a vitally important service. In the course of their work, they must take rest periods as required by federal law. Most drivers remain in their trucks, which they keep running to provide power for heating, cooling, and other necessities. Such idling, however, comes at a cost; it is an expensive and polluting way to keep drivers safe and comfortable. Increasingly affordable alternatives to idling not only save money and reduce pollution, but also help drivers get a better night's rest.

  17. Current Status And Trends In Long Haul Fiber Optics Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyykkonen, Martin

    1986-01-01

    There have been many similar opinions expressed in recent months about there being an imminent bandwidth glut in the nation's long haul fiber optics network. These feelings are based largely on the vast magnitude of construction projects which are either in progress or completed by the major carriers, i.e., AT&T-Communications, MCI, NTN and US Sprint. Coupled with this advanced stage of construction and subsequent network operation, is the slowly developing demand for those applications which consume large amounts of bandwidth, namely those which are video-based.

  18. 76 FR 20807 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Long-Haul Trucking Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... of a United States-Mexico cross-border long-haul trucking pilot program to test and demonstrate the... Management System published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http...-border long-haul operations, DOT must first test granting such authority through a pilot program...

  19. CoolCab: Reducing Thermal Loads in Long-Haul Trucks (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-02-01

    This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project tested and modeled the effects of several thermal-load reduction strategies applied to long-haul truck cabs. NREL partnered with two major truck manufacturers to evaluate three long-haul trucks at NREL's outdoor test facility in Golden, Colorado.

  20. 49 CFR 1039.12 - Long and short haul transportation exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long and short haul transportation exemption. 1039... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.12 Long and short haul transportation exemption. (a) All rates and charges for rail transportation are exempt...

  1. 49 CFR 1039.12 - Long and short haul transportation exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Long and short haul transportation exemption. 1039... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.12 Long and short haul transportation exemption. (a) All rates and charges for rail transportation are exempt...

  2. Coupler rotation behaviour and its effect on heavy haul trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z. Q.; Ma, W. H.; Wu, Q.; Luo, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    When a locomotive coupler rotates at an angle, the lateral component of the coupler force has an adverse effect on the locomotive's safety, particularly in heavy haul trains. In this paper, a model of a head-mid configuration, a 20,000-t heavy haul train is developed to analyse the rotation behaviour of the locomotive's coupler system and its effect on the dynamic behaviour of such a train's middle locomotive when operating on tangent and curved tracks. The train model includes detailed coupler and draft gear with which to consider the hysteretic characteristics of the rubber draft gear model, the friction characteristics of the coupler knuckles, and the alignment-control characteristics of the coupler shoulder. The results indicate that the coupler's rotation behaviour differs between the tangent and curved tracks, significantly affecting the locomotive's running performance under the braking condition. A larger coupler rotation angle generates a larger lateral component, which increases the wheelset's lateral force and the derailment coefficient. Decreasing the maximum coupler free angle can improve the locomotive's operational performance and safety. Based on these results, the recommended maximum coupler free angle is 4°.

  3. Design of short haul aircraft for fuel conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, M. K.; Sweet, H. S.; Waters, M. H.

    1975-01-01

    Current jet fuel prices of twice the 1972 level have significantly changed the characteristics of airplane design for best economy. The results of a contract with the NASA Ames Advanced Concepts and Missions Division confirmed the economic desirability of lower design cruise speeds and higher aspect-ratio wings compared to designs developed in the by-gone era of low fuel price. Evaluation of potential fuel conservation for short-haul aircraft showed that an interaction of airfoil technology and desirable engine characteristics is important: the supercritical airfoil permits higher aspect ratio wings with lower sweep; these, in turn, lower the cruise thrust requirements so that engines with higher bypass ratios are better matched in terms of lapse rate; lower cruise speeds (which are also better for fuel and operating cost economy) push the desired bypass ratio up further. Thus, if fuel prices remain high, or rise further, striking reductions in community noise level can be achieved as a fallout in development of a 1980s airplane and engine. Analyses are presented of developmental trends in the design of short-haul aircraft with lower cruise speeds and higher aspect-ratio wings, and the effects on fuel consumption of design field length, powered lift concepts, and turboprop as well as turbofan propulsion are discussed.

  4. Model of aircraft passenger acceptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1978-01-01

    A technique developed to evaluate the passenger response to a transportation system environment is described. Reactions to motion, noise, temperature, seating, ventilation, sudden jolts and descents are modeled. Statistics are presented for the age, sex, occupation, and income distributions of the candidates analyzed. Values are noted for the relative importance of system variables such as time savings, on-time arrival, convenience, comfort, safety, the ability to read and write, and onboard services.

  5. Comfort studies of rail passengers

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, J. F.; Doré, C.; Weiner, J. S.; Lee, D. E.; Prestidge, S. P.; Andrews, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    Nicol, J. F., Doré, C., Weiner, J. S., Lee, D. E., Prestidge, S. P., and Andrews, M. J. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 325-334. Comfort studies of rail passengers. A short series of trials is described in which a specimen car of the new High Density Rolling Stock was laden with passengers at different densities and under different environmental constraints, designed to simulate `shut-down' conditions. The results suggest that the limit for comfort, 21·8°C corrected effective temperature (CET), proposed by Bell and Watts (1971) is reasonable but that temperatures some 3 or 4°C higher can be tolerated without undue discomfort. The physiological limit for safety recommended by Bell and Watts is a CET of 30·6°C. This will be reached in less than 20 minutes if there is a power failure in warm conditions in crowded trains. An undesirable, possibly dangerous, level of discomfort will be experienced by passengers in ventilated but crowded trains after 30 minutes. In any case it is recommended that the globe temperature in a carriage should not exceed 30°C. Images PMID:4753715

  6. Health, sleep, and mood perceptions reported by airline crews flying short and long hauls.

    PubMed

    Haugli, L; Skogstad, A; Hellesøy, O H

    1994-01-01

    The present study is part of a major questionnaire survey of work environment and health of air crew in the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) Norway in 1989. The 1240 respondents (response rate 83%) answered 250 questions about health, job-strain, well-being, sleep problems, organization, and communication. The study charts self-reported incidences of health problems focusing on differences between cockpit and cabin crews. The study also evaluates possible effects of transmeridian and short distance flying on health, taking into account gender, job demands, working conditions of the respondents, and aircraft design. Common problems, reported by more than 30%, are dry skin, lower back pain, colds, fatigue, and sleep disturbances. Pilots report least, while female cabin attendants register most problems. Crews flying long distance transmeridian routes report more health problems than short distance personnel. Among pilots, irritability, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and low back pain are the most frequently reported problems. Cabin attendants more often complain of skin and eye disorders, digestive disturbances, and musculoskeletal pains. The study supports earlier findings that transmeridian air travel causes digestive disturbances, fatigue, and sleep disturbances in both cockpit and cabin crews of both genders. Among female cabin attendants, there is a nonsignificant tendency of more menstrual disorders among those flying long hauls.

  7. Specific climate impact of passenger and freight transport.

    PubMed

    Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Berntsen, Terje; Fuglestvedt, Jan

    2010-08-01

    Emissions of short-lived species contribute significantly to the climate impact of transportation. The magnitude of the effects varies over time for each transport mode. This paper compares first the absolute climate impacts of current passenger and freight transportation. Second, the impacts are normalized with the transport work performed and modes are compared. Calculations are performed for the integrated radiative forcing and mean temperature change, for different time horizons and various measures of transport work. An unambiguous ranking of the specific climate impact can be established for freight transportation, with shipping and rail having lowest and light trucks and air transport having highest specific impact for all cases calculated. Passenger travel with rail, coach or two- and three-wheelers has on average the lowest specific climate impact also on short time horizons. Air travel has the highest specific impact on short-term warming, while on long-term warming car travel has an equal or higher impact per passenger-kilometer.

  8. A statistical mechanics model for free-for-all airplane passenger boarding

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    I discuss a model for free-for-all passenger boarding which is employed by some discount air carriers. The model is based on the principles of statistical mechanics where each seat in the aircraft has an associated energy which reflects the preferences of travelers. As each passenger enters the airplane they select their seats using Boltzmann statistics, proceed to that location, load their luggage, sit down, and the partition function seen by remaining passengers is modified to reflect this fact. I discuss the various model parameters and make qualitative comparisons of this passenger boarding model with those that involve assigned seats. The model can be used to predict the probability that certain seats will be occupied at different times during the boarding process. These results might provide a useful description of this boarding method. The model is a relatively unusual application of undergraduate level physics and describes a situation familiar to many students and faculty.

  9. Aircraft motion and passenger comfort response data from TIFS ride-quality flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonover, W. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The aircraft motion data and passenger comfort response data obtained during ride-quality flight experiments using the USAD Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) are given. During each of 40 test flights, 10 passenger subjects individually assessed the ride comfort of various types of aircraft motions. The 115 individuals who served as passenger subjects were selected to be representative of air travelers in general. Aircraft motions tested consisted of both random and sinusoidal oscillations in various combinations of five degrees of freedom (transverse, normal, roll, pitch, and yaw), as well as of terminal-area flight maneuvers. The data are sufficiently detailed to allow analysis of passenger reactions to flight environments, evaluation of the use of a portable environment measuring/recording system and comparison of the in-flight simulator responses with input commands.

  10. An Airline-Based Multilevel Analysis of Airfare Elasticity for Passenger Demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Lorenzo; Ukovich, Walter; Pesenti, Raffaele

    2003-01-01

    Price elasticity of passenger demand for a specific airline is estimated. The main drivers affecting passenger demand for air transportation are identified. First, an Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis is performed. Then, a multilevel analysis-based methodology to investigate the pattern of variation of price elasticity of demand among the various routes of the airline under study is proposed. The experienced daily passenger demands on each fare-class are grouped for each considered route. 9 routes were studied for the months of February and May in years from 1999 to 2002, and two fare-classes were defined (business and economy). The analysis has revealed that the airfare elasticity of passenger demand significantly varies among the different routes of the airline.

  11. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  12. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  13. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  14. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  15. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping... Emergencies § 122.515 Passenger safety bill. (a) A passenger safety bill must be posted by the master in each... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list:...

  16. 46 CFR 72.25-10 - Location of passenger quarters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of passenger quarters. 72.25-10 Section 72.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 72.25-10 Location of passenger quarters. (a) The deck forming the deckhead of passenger quarters...

  17. 46 CFR 72.25-10 - Location of passenger quarters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of passenger quarters. 72.25-10 Section 72.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 72.25-10 Location of passenger quarters. (a) The deck forming the deckhead of passenger quarters...

  18. International foodborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection in airline passengers.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, K; Park, S Y; Kanenaka, R; Colindres, R; Mintz, E; Ram, P K; Kitsutani, P; Nakata, M; Wedel, S; Boxrud, D; Jennings, D; Yoshida, H; Tosaka, N; He, H; Ching-Lee, M; Effler, P V

    2009-03-01

    During 22-24 August 2004, an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection affected air travellers who departed from Hawaii. Forty-seven passengers with culture-confirmed shigellosis and 116 probable cases who travelled on 12 flights dispersed to Japan, Australia, 22 US states, and American Samoa. All flights were served by one caterer. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of all 29 S. sonnei isolates yielded patterns that matched within one band. Food histories and menu reviews identified raw carrot served onboard as the likely vehicle of infection. Attack rates for diarrhoea on three surveyed flights with confirmed cases were 54% (110/204), 32% (20/63), and 12% (8/67). A total of 2700 meals were served on flights with confirmed cases; using attack rates observed on surveyed flights, we estimated that 300-1500 passengers were infected. This outbreak illustrates the risk of rapid, global spread of illness from a point-source at a major airline hub.

  19. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  20. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  1. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  2. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  3. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  4. 46 CFR 72.25-15 - Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. 72.25-15 Section 72.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... accommodations for excursion boats, ferryboats, and passenger barges. (a) Except as specifically excluded by...

  5. Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program : Annual Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    1993-11-01

    Threemile Falls Dam is the major counting and collection point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from October 23, 1992 to July 14, 1993. A total of 1,913 summer steelhead; 239 adult and 64 jack fall chinook; 355 adult and 174 jack coho; and 1,205 adult and 16 jack spring chinook were collected. Fish collected were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam using either a 370 or 3,000 gallon liberation unit. The Westland Canal facility, the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts was in operation from February 15 to July 29, 1993. During that period, fish were trapped 46 days. An estimated 3,228 pounds of fish were transported from the Westland Canal trap to the Umatilla River boat ramp at rivermile 0.5.

  6. Fault-tolerant control of heavy-haul trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuan, Xiangtao; Xia, Xiaohua

    2010-06-01

    The fault-tolerant control (FTC) of heavy-haul trains is discussed on the basis of the speed regulation proposed in previous works. The fault modes of trains are assumed and the corresponding fault detection and isolation (FDI) are studied. The FDI of sensor faults is based on a geometric approach for residual generators. The FDI of a braking system is based on the observation of the steady-state speed. From the difference of the steady-state speeds between the fault system and the faultless system, one can get fault information. Simulation tests were conducted on the suitability of the FDIs and the redesigned speed regulators. It is shown that the proposed FTC does not explicitly worsen the performance of the speed regulator in the case of a faultless system, while it obviously improves the performance of the speed regulator in the case of a faulty system.

  7. Quiet short-haul research aircraft familiarization document, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppel, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The design features and general characteristics of the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft are described. Aerodynamic characteristics and performance are discussed based on predictions and early flight test data. Principle airplane systems, including the airborne data acquisition system, are also described. The aircraft was designed and built to fulfill the need for a national research facility to explore the use of upper surface blowing, propulsive lift technology in providing short takeoff and landing capability, and perform advanced experiments in various technical disciplines such as aerodynamics, propulsion, stability and control, handling qualities, avionics and flight control systems, trailing vortex phenomena, acoustics, structure and loads, operating systems, human factors, and airworthiness/certification criteria. An unusually austere approach using experimental shop practices resulted in a low cost and high research capability.

  8. The impact of changing technology on the demand for air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1978-01-01

    Demand models for air transportation that are sensitive to the impact of changing technology were developed. The models are responsive to potential changes in technology, and to changing economic, social, and political factors as well. In addition to anticipating the wide differences in the factors influencing the demand for long haul and short haul air travel, the models were designed to clearly distinguish among the unique features of these markets.

  9. Bimodal Winter Haul-Out Patterns of Adult Weddell Seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in the Southern Weddell Sea.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Lars; Baker, Amy; Fedak, Mike; Årthun, Marius; Nicholls, Keith; Robinson, Patrick; Costa, Dan; Biuw, Martin; Photopoulou, Theoni

    2016-01-01

    Hauling out is an essential component of pinniped life-history. Haul-out behaviour may be affected by biological (e.g. sex, age and condition) and physical factors (e.g. food availability and environmental conditions), and identifying these factors may help explain the spatio-temporal distribution and habitat use of pinnipeds. The aim of this study is to describe observed winter haul-out patterns of adult Weddell seals in the Weddell Sea and investigate the role of potential predictors to gain insight into the way these animals interact with the physical environment in this region. We examined the haul-out behaviour in relation to available biological (i.e., diving effort, sex) and physical information (i.e., sun angle). Thirty-three satellite telemetry tags were deployed on adult Weddell seals in the southern Weddell Sea during February 2007, 2009 and 2011, following their annual moult recording information on the behavioural mode of the animal: at surface, hauled out or diving. At the end of the austral summer Weddell seals spent, on average, more than 40% of their time hauled out on the ice. Under constant light conditions, it appears that physiological factors drive sex differences in the timing and duration of haul-out behaviour, with females spending on average more time hauled out than males during daylight hours. This time spent hauled-out declined to around 15% in both sexes by the beginning of autumn and remained at this level with a clear nocturnal haul-out pattern during the winter. The time spent diving increased during this period, indicating an increase in foraging effort during the winter months, and led to a common haul-out pattern in both sexes over winter. We found a positive relationship between haul-out duration and the percentage of time spent diving prior to a haul-out in both sexes, with the exception of female daytime haul-outs early in the year. PMID:27196097

  10. Bimodal Winter Haul-Out Patterns of Adult Weddell Seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in the Southern Weddell Sea

    PubMed Central

    Fedak, Mike; Årthun, Marius; Nicholls, Keith; Robinson, Patrick; Costa, Dan; Biuw, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hauling out is an essential component of pinniped life-history. Haul-out behaviour may be affected by biological (e.g. sex, age and condition) and physical factors (e.g. food availability and environmental conditions), and identifying these factors may help explain the spatio-temporal distribution and habitat use of pinnipeds. The aim of this study is to describe observed winter haul-out patterns of adult Weddell seals in the Weddell Sea and investigate the role of potential predictors to gain insight into the way these animals interact with the physical environment in this region. We examined the haul-out behaviour in relation to available biological (i.e., diving effort, sex) and physical information (i.e., sun angle). Thirty-three satellite telemetry tags were deployed on adult Weddell seals in the southern Weddell Sea during February 2007, 2009 and 2011, following their annual moult recording information on the behavioural mode of the animal: at surface, hauled out or diving. At the end of the austral summer Weddell seals spent, on average, more than 40% of their time hauled out on the ice. Under constant light conditions, it appears that physiological factors drive sex differences in the timing and duration of haul-out behaviour, with females spending on average more time hauled out than males during daylight hours. This time spent hauled-out declined to around 15% in both sexes by the beginning of autumn and remained at this level with a clear nocturnal haul-out pattern during the winter. The time spent diving increased during this period, indicating an increase in foraging effort during the winter months, and led to a common haul-out pattern in both sexes over winter. We found a positive relationship between haul-out duration and the percentage of time spent diving prior to a haul-out in both sexes, with the exception of female daytime haul-outs early in the year. PMID:27196097

  11. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  12. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  13. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  14. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  15. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  16. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.

  17. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... passengers permitted on any vessel may be the greatest number permitted by the length of rail criterion, deck area criterion, or fixed seating criterion described in this paragraph or a combination of these criteria as allowed by paragraph (c) of this section. (1) Length of rail criterion. One passenger may...

  18. 46 CFR 115.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... millimeters (30 inches) of rail space available to the passengers at the periphery of each deck. The following... normally be used by passengers; (vi) Interior passageways less than 840 millimeters (34 inches) wide and passageways on open deck, less than 710 millimeters (28 inches) wide; (vii) Bow pulpits, swimming...

  19. 46 CFR 115.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section. (1) Length of rail criterion. One passenger may be permitted for each 760 millimeters (30 inches... passengers; (vi) Interior passageways less than 840 millimeters (34 inches) wide and passageways on open deck, less than 710 millimeters (28 inches) wide; (vii) Bow pulpits, swimming platforms and areas that do...

  20. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... may be permitted for each 760 millimeters (30 inches) of rail space available to the passengers at the... would not normally be used by passengers; (vi) Interior passageways less than 840 millimeters (34 inches) wide and passageways on open deck, less than 710 millimeters (28 inches) wide; (vii) Bow...

  1. 46 CFR 176.113 - Passengers permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... may be permitted for each 760 millimeters (30 inches) of rail space available to the passengers at the... would not normally be used by passengers; (vi) Interior passageways less than 840 millimeters (34 inches) wide and passageways on open deck, less than 710 millimeters (28 inches) wide; (vii) Bow...

  2. 78 FR 49248 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... additional time to submit comments. DATES: For the proposed rule published June 25, 2013 (78 FR 38102... passengers with disabilities. See 78 FR 38102, June 25, 2013. In that notice, the Access Board requested... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels...

  3. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A...

  4. Passenger and Naturalization Lists: The New Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filby, P. William

    1983-01-01

    Reviews information sources designed to assist the genealogical researcher with the arrival of his/her ancestors: "A Bibliography of Ship Passenger Lists 1538-1825"; "Passenger and Immigration Lists Index"; "Philadelphia Naturalization Records." Examples provided include name entry, source citation, annotation, and subject entries. Nineteen…

  5. Climate change and the long-term viability of the World's busiest heavy haul ice road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullan, Donal; Swindles, Graeme; Patterson, Tim; Galloway, Jennifer; Macumber, Andrew; Falck, Hendrik; Crossley, Laura; Chen, Jie; Pisaric, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Climate models project that the northern high latitudes will warm at a rate in excess of the global mean. This will pose severe problems for Arctic and sub-Arctic infrastructure dependent on maintaining low temperatures for structural integrity. This is the case for the economically important Tibbitt to Contwoyto Winter Road (TCWR)—the world's busiest heavy haul ice road, spanning 400 km across mostly frozen lakes within the Northwest Territories of Canada. In this study, future climate scenarios are developed for the region using statistical downscaling methods. In addition, changes in lake ice thickness are projected based on historical relationships between measured ice thickness and air temperatures. These projections are used to infer the theoretical operational dates of the TCWR based on weight limits for trucks on the ice. Results across three climate models driven by four RCPs reveal a considerable warming trend over the coming decades. Projected changes in ice thickness reveal a trend towards thinner lake ice and a reduced time window when lake ice is at sufficient thickness to support trucks on the ice road, driven by increasing future temperatures. Given the uncertainties inherent in climate modelling and the resultant projections, caution should be exercised in interpreting the magnitude of these scenarios. More certain is the direction of change, with a clear trend towards winter warming that will reduce the operation time window of the TCWR. This illustrates the need for planners and policymakers to consider future changes in climate when planning annual haulage along the TCWR.

  6. Intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst and cerebral gas embolism in an aircraft flight passenger.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Francisco Aécio; Desouza, Bryan X; Meyer, Thomas; Gregory, Susan; Greenspon, Lee

    2006-08-01

    Although it is estimated that > 1 billion passengers travel by air worldwide each year, the incidence of in-flight emergencies is low. However, due to nonstandardized reporting requirements for in-flight medical emergencies, the true incidence of pulmonary barotrauma in airplane passengers is unknown. We describe the case of a passenger with an asymptomatic intrapulmonary cyst in whom a severe case of cerebral gas embolism developed during an aircraft flight. The decrease in ambient pressure during the aircraft climb resulted in expansion of the cyst volume based on Boyle's law (pressure x volume = constant). Due to the cyst expansion, we believe tears in the wall led to the leakage of air into the surrounding vessels followed by brain gas emboli. Adult patients with intrapulmonary cysts should be strongly considered for cyst resection or should at least be advised to abstain from activities leading to considerable changes in ambient pressure. PMID:16899861

  7. Effectiveness evaluation of STOL transport operations (phase 2). [computer simulation program of commercial short haul aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welp, D. W.; Brown, R. A.; Ullman, D. G.; Kuhner, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    A computer simulation program which models a commercial short-haul aircraft operating in the civil air system was developed. The purpose of the program is to evaluate the effect of a given aircraft avionics capability on the ability of the aircraft to perform on-time carrier operations. The program outputs consist primarily of those quantities which can be used to determine direct operating costs. These include: (1) schedule reliability or delays, (2) repairs/replacements, (3) fuel consumption, and (4) cancellations. More comprehensive models of the terminal area environment were added and a simulation of an existing airline operation was conducted to obtain a form of model verification. The capability of the program to provide comparative results (sensitivity analysis) was then demonstrated by modifying the aircraft avionics capability for additional computer simulations.

  8. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  9. Vibration in operating heavy haul trucks in overburden mining.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shrawan

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the vibration in sagittal (x), coronal (y) and vertical (z) axes of the seat pan of the heavy haul trucks used in overburden mining, and the vibration experienced by the drivers at the third lumbar and seventh cervical vertebral levels in operating these trucks exceeded the ISO standards, thereby posing threat to safety. A new and an old truck of two different makes and different carrying capacities (200 and 300 series) were instrumented with a triaxial accelerometer on the seat pan. Fourteen drivers (8 male and 6 female) were instrumented with a triaxial accelerometer at C7 and L3 spinous processes. The vibration at the seat pan, C7, and L3 levels were recorded using an onboard computer with PCMCIA card and, compared against the ISO standards. The vertical vibration of the seat pan in the entire sample ranged from a low of .37 m/s2 to a high of 11.73 m/s2. The vibration at the lumbar level in the sample ranged between .34 and 2.72 m/s2. The values for cervical level vertical vibration in the sample ranged between .2 and 2.22 m/s2. The gender of the driver, truck make, and it's carrying capacity did not have a significant effect on the vibration. However, the body weight of the driver, the segment of the truck and the site of measurement revealed significant differences in vibration (p < 0.001). Out of a total 36 combinations (4 trucks x 9 recording locations) the seat pan vertical vibration exceeded the ISO standards 8 times for males and 9 times for females. The lumbar vertebral vertical vibration in males exceeded ISO standards 12 times and in females 11 times. The cervical vertebral vertical vibration exceeded ISO standards once in females only. However, in sagittal and coronal planes the whole body vibration exceeded the ISO standards many times. Heavy haul trucks (240 and 320 ton capacity) frequently generated vibrations in excess of ISO standards in overburden mining operation representing a health hazard.

  10. Low speed vehicle passenger ejection restraint effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Seluga, Kristopher J; Ojalvo, Irving U; Obert, Richard M

    2005-07-01

    Current golf carts and LSV's (Low Speed Vehicles) produce a significant number of passenger ejections during sharp turns. These LSV's do not typically possess seatbelts, but do provide outboard bench seat hip restraints that also serve as handholds. However, many current restraint designs appear incapable of preventing passenger ejections due to their low height and inefficient handhold position. Alternative handhold and hip restraint designs may improve passenger safety. Accordingly, this paper examines minimum size requirements for hip restraints to prevent passenger ejection during sharp turns and evaluates the effectiveness of a handhold mounted at the center of the bench seat. In this study, a simulation of a turning cart supplies the dynamic input to a biomechanical model of an adult male seated in a golf cart. Various restraint combinations are considered, both with and without the central handhold, to determine the likelihood of passenger ejection. It is shown that only the largest restraint geometries prevent passenger ejection. Adequate hip restraints should be much larger than current designs and a central handhold should be provided. In this way, golf cart and LSV manufacturers could reduce passenger ejections and improve fleet safety by incorporating recommendations provided herein. PMID:15893288

  11. 14 CFR 250.5 - Amount of denied boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the planned arrival time of the passenger's original flight. (c) Carriers may offer free or reduced... charges applicable for using the free or reduced rate air transportation, is equal to or greater than the... blackout dates applicable to the offer, on the use of such free or reduced rate transportation before...

  12. 14 CFR 250.5 - Amount of denied boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the planned arrival time of the passenger's original flight. (c) Carriers may offer free or reduced... charges applicable for using the free or reduced rate air transportation, is equal to or greater than the... blackout dates applicable to the offer, on the use of such free or reduced rate transportation before...

  13. 14 CFR 250.5 - Amount of denied boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the planned arrival time of the passenger's original flight. (c) Carriers may offer free or reduced... charges applicable for using the free or reduced rate air transportation, is equal to or greater than the... blackout dates applicable to the offer, on the use of such free or reduced rate transportation before...

  14. 14 CFR 382.93 - Must carriers offer preboarding to passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Must carriers offer preboarding to passengers with a disability? 382.93 Section 382.93 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.93 Must carriers...

  15. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability? 382.87 Section 382.87 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  16. 78 FR 27472 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals...: $4.50. Total PFC Revenue Approved In This Decision: $3,285,054. Earliest Charge Effective Date: January 1, 2013. Estimated Charge Expiration Date: July 1, 2016. Class Of Air Carriers Not Required...

  17. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability? 382.87 Section 382.87 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  18. 14 CFR 382.93 - Must carriers offer preboarding to passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Must carriers offer preboarding to passengers with a disability? 382.93 Section 382.93 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.93 Must carriers...

  19. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability? 382.87 Section 382.87 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  20. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability? 382.87 Section 382.87 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  1. 14 CFR 382.93 - Must carriers offer preboarding to passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Must carriers offer preboarding to passengers with a disability? 382.93 Section 382.93 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.93 Must carriers...

  2. 14 CFR 382.93 - Must carriers offer preboarding to passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Must carriers offer preboarding to passengers with a disability? 382.93 Section 382.93 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.93 Must carriers...

  3. 14 CFR 382.93 - Must carriers offer preboarding to passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Must carriers offer preboarding to passengers with a disability? 382.93 Section 382.93 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.93 Must carriers...

  4. 14 CFR 382.87 - What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What other requirements pertain to seating for passengers with a disability? 382.87 Section 382.87 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Seating Accommodations § 382.87 What other requirements pertain to seating...

  5. 14 CFR 91.607 - Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Emergency exits for airplanes carrying... Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no person may operate a large airplane (type certificated under the Civil Air...

  6. 14 CFR 91.607 - Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Emergency exits for airplanes carrying... Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no person may operate a large airplane (type certificated under the Civil Air...

  7. 14 CFR 91.607 - Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Emergency exits for airplanes carrying... Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no person may operate a large airplane (type certificated under the Civil Air...

  8. 78 FR 57211 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... in Washington, DC, on September 4, 2013. Joe Hebert, Manager, Financial Analysis and Passenger...: $4.50. Total PFC Revenue Approved in This Decision: $2,250,000. Earliest Charge Effective Date: December 1, 2016. Estimated Charge Expiration Date: April 1, 2017. Class of Air Carriers Not Required...

  9. Occupant safety in modern passenger cars.

    PubMed

    Fildes, B N; Vulcan, A P; Lenard, J

    1992-06-01

    A study was undertaken recently for the Federal Office of Road Safety in Australia of 150 modern vehicle crashes where at least one of the vehicle occupants was admitted to hospital. The types of injuries sustained by occupants of modern Australian passenger cars involved in road crashes (including points of contact within the vehicle) were assessed to provide direction for future improvements in occupant protection. Seat belt performance in all seating positions was of particular interest. While the limited number of cases did not permit a full and detailed statistical analysis of these data, the findings nevertheless show there is scope for improving occupant protection for drivers and passengers of modern passenger cars.

  10. The shape of the future long-haul transport airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clay, C. W.; Sigalla, A.

    1975-01-01

    Long-haul transport plane configurations are discussed that are considered technically feasible within a practical level of near-term technology. Supersonic and transonic aircraft are considered, as well as different types of subsonic transports. It is indicated that superior second-generation supersonic transports are quite feasible technically; in particular, it is shown that problems of fuel consumption, efficient overland flight, and questions on noise and nitric oxides have straightforward engineering solutions. Transonic aircraft are practical but would have to have a different geometry than subsonic aircraft to provide the versatility necessary to compete at one end of their capability with supersonic transports and at the other end, for shorter ranges, with subsonic transports. The shape of subsonic transports is not expected to change noticeably, although recent advances of airfoil technology imply that new subsonic transports would have wings with higher aspect ratios and somewhat less sweep. But large specialized freighter aircraft and very long range laminar flow control or nuclear-powered aircraft with radically new shapes are possible.

  11. The diseconomics of long-haul LNG trading

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    Long-haul liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports yield little or no economic rent. Trades, such as Borneo to Japan, are economical, but government takes otherwise are minimal. Today, the price of LNG is capped by the technical option of modifying gas turbines to bum liquid fuels. The maximum premium for LNG is less than 50 cents per thousand cubic feet (/Mcf), and buyers are resisting any price above oil parity. Costs of LNG are high and increase with distance. The netback value is zero or even negative for the longer-distance trades. The value of extracted co-products (natural gas liquids) is 50 cents to $1/Mcf. These credits are the principal source of profit, especially for foreign partners because natural gas liquids are taxed at low {open_quotes}industrial{close_quotes} rates. Returns are even less when the gas supply is nonassociated so that the project must {open_quotes}pay{close_quotes} the production costs as well. Some exporting countries profit; but the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries as a whole looses because low-revenue LNG energy displaces at the margin fully taxed oil.

  12. 46 CFR 46.05-25 - New passenger vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New passenger vessel. 46.05-25 Section 46.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-25 New passenger vessel. A new passenger vessel is a...

  13. 46 CFR 46.05-25 - New passenger vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false New passenger vessel. 46.05-25 Section 46.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES SUBDIVISION LOAD LINES FOR PASSENGER VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-25 New passenger vessel. A new passenger vessel is a...

  14. 46 CFR 122.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 122.502 Section 122.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS...

  15. 46 CFR 122.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 122.502 Section 122.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS...

  16. 46 CFR 122.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 122.502 Section 122.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS...

  17. 46 CFR 122.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 122.502 Section 122.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS...

  18. 46 CFR 122.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 122.502 Section 122.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS...

  19. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  20. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  1. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  2. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  3. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  4. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  5. 19 CFR 122.88 - Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers... Passengers § 122.88 Aircraft carrying domestic (stopover) passengers. Airlines that commingle domestic... continuing on another aircraft to a second U.S. destination) with international passengers who are...

  6. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  7. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  8. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  9. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  10. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176..., as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety...

  11. Haul-Out Behavior of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) in Hood Canal, Washington

    PubMed Central

    London, Josh M.; Ver Hoef, Jay M.; Jeffries, Steven J.; Lance, Monique M.; Boveng, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to model haul-out behavior of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Hood Canal region of Washington State with respect to changes in physiological, environmental, and temporal covariates. Previous research has provided a solid understanding of seal haul-out behavior. Here, we expand on that work using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with temporal autocorrelation and a large dataset. Our dataset included behavioral haul-out records from archival and VHF radio tag deployments on 25 individual seals representing 61,430 seal hours. A novel application for increased computational efficiency allowed us to examine this large dataset with a GLMM that appropriately accounts for temporal autocorellation. We found significant relationships with the covariates hour of day, day of year, minutes from high tide and year. Additionally, there was a significant effect of the interaction term hour of day : day of year. This interaction term demonstrated that seals are more likely to haul out during nighttime hours in August and September, but then switch to predominantly daylight haul-out patterns in October and November. We attribute this change in behavior to an effect of human disturbance levels. This study also examined a unique ecological event to determine the role of increased killer whale (Orcinus orca) predation on haul-out behavior. In 2003 and 2005 these harbor seals were exposed to unprecedented levels of killer whale predation and results show an overall increase in haul-out probability after exposure to killer whales. The outcome of this study will be integral to understanding any changes in population abundance as a result of increased killer whale predation. PMID:22723851

  12. 49 CFR 39.85 - What services must PVOs provide to passengers with a disability on board a passenger vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a disability on board a passenger vessel? 39.85 Section 39.85 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER VESSELS Assistance and Services to Passengers With Disabilities § 39.85 What services must PVOs provide to passengers with...

  13. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  14. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  15. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  16. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  17. 49 CFR 238.307 - Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars... Passenger Equipment § 238.307 Periodic mechanical inspection of passenger cars and unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains. (a) General. (1) Railroads shall conduct periodic mechanical inspections of...

  18. Average Passenger Occupancy (APO) in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenstrup, Al

    1995-01-01

    Provides details of an activity in which students in grades 4-10 determine the Average Passenger Occupancy (APO) in their community and develop, administer, and analyze a survey to determine attitudes toward carpooling. (DDR)

  19. Optimal boarding method for airline passengers

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01

    Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization algorithm and a computer simulation, I find the passenger ordering which minimizes the time required to board the passengers onto an airplane. The model that I employ assumes that the time that a passenger requires to load his or her luggage is the dominant contribution to the time needed to completely fill the aircraft. The optimal boarding strategy may reduce the time required to board and airplane by over a factor of four and possibly more depending upon the dimensions of the aircraft. I explore some features of the optimal boarding method and discuss practical modifications to the optimal. Finally, I mention some of the benefits that could come from implementing an improved passenger boarding scheme.

  20. Costs of mitigating CO2 emissions from passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Andreas W.; Evans, Antony D.; Reynolds, Tom G.; Dray, Lynnette

    2016-04-01

    In response to strong growth in air transportation CO2 emissions, governments and industry began to explore and implement mitigation measures and targets in the early 2000s. However, in the absence of rigorous analyses assessing the costs for mitigating CO2 emissions, these policies could be economically wasteful. Here we identify the cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reductions from narrow-body aircraft, the workhorse of passenger air transportation. We find that in the US, a combination of fuel burn reduction strategies could reduce the 2012 level of life cycle CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre by around 2% per year to mid-century. These intensity reductions would occur at zero marginal costs for oil prices between US$50-100 per barrel. Even larger reductions are possible, but could impose extra costs and require the adoption of biomass-based synthetic fuels. The extent to which these intensity reductions will translate into absolute emissions reductions will depend on fleet growth.

  1. Deleterious Passengers in Adapting Populations

    PubMed Central

    Good, Benjamin H.; Desai, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Most new mutations are deleterious and are eventually eliminated by natural selection. But in an adapting population, the rapid amplification of beneficial mutations can hinder the removal of deleterious variants in nearby regions of the genome, altering the patterns of sequence evolution. Here, we analyze the interactions between beneficial “driver” mutations and linked deleterious “passengers” during the course of adaptation. We derive analytical expressions for the substitution rate of a deleterious mutation as a function of its fitness cost, as well as the reduction in the beneficial substitution rate due to the genetic load of the passengers. We find that the fate of each deleterious mutation varies dramatically with the rate and spectrum of beneficial mutations and the deleterious substitution rate depends nonmonotonically on the population size and the rate of adaptation. By quantifying this dependence, our results allow us to estimate which deleterious mutations will be likely to fix and how many of these mutations must arise before the progress of adaptation is significantly reduced. PMID:25194161

  2. Seat Capacity Selection for an Advanced Short-Haul Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marien, Ty V.

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the target seat capacity for a proposed advanced short-haul aircraft concept projected to enter the fleet by 2030. This analysis projected the potential demand in the U.S. for a short-haul aircraft using a transportation theory approach, rather than selecting a target seat capacity based on recent industry trends or current market demand. A transportation systems model was used to create a point-to-point network of short-haul trips and then predict the number of annual origin-destination trips on this network. Aircraft of varying seat capacities were used to meet the demand on this network, assuming a single aircraft type for the entire short-haul fleet. For each aircraft size, the ticket revenue and operational costs were used to calculate a total market profitability metric for all feasible flights. The different aircraft sizes were compared, based on this market profitability metric and also the total number of annual round trips and markets served. Sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the effect of changing the aircraft cruise speed and maximum trip length. Using this analysis, the advanced short-haul aircraft design team was able to select a target seat capacity for their design.

  3. Safety Versus Passenger Service: The Flight Attendants' Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Damos, Diane L; Boyett, Kimberly S; Gibbs, Patt

    2013-04-01

    After 9/11, new security duties were instituted at many U.S. air carriers and existing safety and security duties received increased emphasis. Concurrently, in-flight services were changed and in many cases, cabin crews were reduced. This article examines the post-9/11 conflict between passenger service and the timely performance of safety and security duties at 1 major U.S. air carrier. In-flight data were obtained on both international and domestic flights. The data suggest that the prompt performance of the safety and security duties is adversely affected by the number of service duties occurring in the later part of both international and domestic flights. PMID:23667300

  4. Vertical and oblique ionospheric soundings over the long haul HF link between Antarctica and Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ads, A. G.; Bergadà, P.; Regué, J. R.; Alsina-Pagès, R. M.; Pijoan, J. L.; Altadill, D.; Badia, D.; Graells, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a comparative study between the oblique sounding results, the International Telecommunication Union Rec533 HF prediction model, and the vertical sounding results of a transequatorial long haul link. The long haul link is a 12,760 km link between the Spanish Antarctic Station, SAS, located in the Livingston Island and the Ebro Observatory (OE) in Spain. The data were collected during three consecutive surveys (2009/2010, 2010/2011, and 2011/2012). The ionospheric channel from the SAS to the OE is studied in terms of frequency availability as function of time using the measurements of an oblique incidence sounder (OIS) and measurements of several vertical incidence sounding stations (VIS) placed near the estimated radiopropagation path. The results obtained show promising correlations between VIS and OIS measurements and led us to think that the frequency of largest availability for this particular long haul radio link can be estimated from the VIS sounding measurements.

  5. Performance of a model cascade thrust reverser for short-haul applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. A.; Gutierrez, O. A.

    1974-01-01

    Aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics are presented for a cowlmounted, model cascade thrust reverser suitable for short-haul aircraft. Thrust reverser efficiency and the influence on fan performance were determined from isolated fan-driven models under static and forward velocity conditions. Cascade reverser noise characteristics were determined statically in an isolated pipe-flow test, while aerodynamic installation effects were determined with a wind-tunnel, fan-powered airplane model. Application of test results to short-haul aircraft calculations demonstrated that such a cascade thrust reverser may be able to meet both the performance and noise requirements for short-haul aircraft operation. However, aircraft installation effects can be quite significant.

  6. Dynamic performances of an innovative coupler used in heavy haul trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Hongjun

    2014-10-01

    An innovative structure for a heavy haul coupler with an arc surface contact and restoring bumpstop is proposed. This coupler has a small lateral force at a small yaw angle and a limitable yaw angle to ensure an allowable coupler lateral force under intense compressive force. The main structural characteristic of the combined contact coupler is a lateral movable follower with an appropriate friction coefficient of 0.06-0.08 and a slide block with a single freedom of longitudinal movement. In order to verify and simulate the performances, a multi-body dynamics model with four heavy haul locomotives and three detailed couplers was established to simulate the process of emergency braking. In addition, the coupler yaw instability and wheel set lateral forces were tested in order to investigate the effect of relevant parameters on the coupler performances. The combined contact coupler is suitable for heavy haul train for a good dynamic performance.

  7. 19 CFR 122.73 - General declaration and air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  8. Medical guidelines for space passengers--II.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Russell B; Antuñano, Melchor J; Garber, Mitchell A; Hastings, John D; Illig, Petra A; Jordan, Jon L; Landry, Roger F; McMeekin, Robert R; Northrup, Susan E; Ruehle, Charles; Saenger, Arleen; Schneider, Victor S

    2002-11-01

    It now appears likely that commercial entities will carry paying passengers on suborbital spaceflights in this decade. The stresses of spaceflight, the effects of microgravity, and the limited capability for medical care onboard make it advisable to develop a system of medical clearance for such space tourists. The Aerospace Medical Association, therefore, organized a Space Passenger Task Force whose first report on medical guidelines was published in 2001. That report consisted of a list of conditions that would disqualify potential passengers for relatively long orbital flights. The Task Force reconvened in 2002 to focus on less stringent medical screening appropriate for short duration suborbital flights. It was assumed that such commercial flights would involve: 1) small spacecraft carrying 4-6 passengers; 2) a cabin maintained at sea-level "shirt-sleeve" condition; 3) maximum accelerations of 2.0-4.5 G; 4) about 30 min in microgravity. The Task Force addressed specific medical problems, including space motion sickness, pregnancy, and medical conditions involving the risk of sudden incapacitation. The Task Force concluded that a medical history should be taken from potential passengers with individualized follow-up that focuses on areas of concern.

  9. Impact of cabin ozone concentrations on passenger reported symptoms in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G; Weschler, Charles J; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D

    2015-01-01

    Due to elevated ozone concentrations at high altitudes, the adverse effect of ozone on air quality, human perception and health may be more pronounced in aircraft cabins. The association between ozone and passenger-reported symptoms has not been investigated under real conditions since smoking was banned on aircraft and ozone converters became more common. Indoor environmental parameters were measured at cruising altitude on 83 US domestic and international flights. Passengers completed a questionnaire about symptoms and satisfaction with the indoor air quality. Average ozone concentrations were relatively low (median: 9.5 ppb). On thirteen flights (16%) ozone levels exceeded 60 ppb, while the highest peak level reached 256 ppb for a single flight. The most commonly reported symptoms were dry mouth or lips (26%), dry eyes (22.1%) and nasal stuffiness (18.9%). 46% of passengers reported at least one symptom related to the eyes or mouth. A third of the passengers reported at least one upper respiratory symptom. Using multivariate logistic (individual symptoms) and linear (aggregated continuous symptom variables) regression, ozone was consistently associated with symptoms related to the eyes and certain upper respiratory endpoints. A concentration-response relationship was observed for nasal stuffiness and eye and upper respiratory symptom indicators. Average ozone levels, as opposed to peak concentrations, exhibited slightly weaker associations. Medium and long duration flights were significantly associated with more symptoms compared to short flights. The relationship between ultrafine particles and ozone on flights without meal service was indicative of ozone-initiated chemistry.

  10. Impact of cabin ozone concentrations on passenger reported symptoms in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G; Weschler, Charles J; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D

    2015-01-01

    Due to elevated ozone concentrations at high altitudes, the adverse effect of ozone on air quality, human perception and health may be more pronounced in aircraft cabins. The association between ozone and passenger-reported symptoms has not been investigated under real conditions since smoking was banned on aircraft and ozone converters became more common. Indoor environmental parameters were measured at cruising altitude on 83 US domestic and international flights. Passengers completed a questionnaire about symptoms and satisfaction with the indoor air quality. Average ozone concentrations were relatively low (median: 9.5 ppb). On thirteen flights (16%) ozone levels exceeded 60 ppb, while the highest peak level reached 256 ppb for a single flight. The most commonly reported symptoms were dry mouth or lips (26%), dry eyes (22.1%) and nasal stuffiness (18.9%). 46% of passengers reported at least one symptom related to the eyes or mouth. A third of the passengers reported at least one upper respiratory symptom. Using multivariate logistic (individual symptoms) and linear (aggregated continuous symptom variables) regression, ozone was consistently associated with symptoms related to the eyes and certain upper respiratory endpoints. A concentration-response relationship was observed for nasal stuffiness and eye and upper respiratory symptom indicators. Average ozone levels, as opposed to peak concentrations, exhibited slightly weaker associations. Medium and long duration flights were significantly associated with more symptoms compared to short flights. The relationship between ultrafine particles and ozone on flights without meal service was indicative of ozone-initiated chemistry. PMID:26011001

  11. Impact of Cabin Ozone Concentrations on Passenger Reported Symptoms in Commercial Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Bekö, Gabriel; Allen, Joseph G.; Weschler, Charles J.; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Due to elevated ozone concentrations at high altitudes, the adverse effect of ozone on air quality, human perception and health may be more pronounced in aircraft cabins. The association between ozone and passenger-reported symptoms has not been investigated under real conditions since smoking was banned on aircraft and ozone converters became more common. Indoor environmental parameters were measured at cruising altitude on 83 US domestic and international flights. Passengers completed a questionnaire about symptoms and satisfaction with the indoor air quality. Average ozone concentrations were relatively low (median: 9.5 ppb). On thirteen flights (16%) ozone levels exceeded 60 ppb, while the highest peak level reached 256 ppb for a single flight. The most commonly reported symptoms were dry mouth or lips (26%), dry eyes (22.1%) and nasal stuffiness (18.9%). 46% of passengers reported at least one symptom related to the eyes or mouth. A third of the passengers reported at least one upper respiratory symptom. Using multivariate logistic (individual symptoms) and linear (aggregated continuous symptom variables) regression, ozone was consistently associated with symptoms related to the eyes and certain upper respiratory endpoints. A concentration-response relationship was observed for nasal stuffiness and eye and upper respiratory symptom indicators. Average ozone levels, as opposed to peak concentrations, exhibited slightly weaker associations. Medium and long duration flights were significantly associated with more symptoms compared to short flights. The relationship between ultrafine particles and ozone on flights without meal service was indicative of ozone-initiated chemistry. PMID:26011001

  12. Transportation in commerical aircraft of passengers having contagious diseases.

    PubMed

    Perin, M

    1976-10-01

    Most airlines refuse to board passengers known or believed to have contagious diseases. Such rigor can scarcely be justified by reference to either laws or regulations. It introduces the risk of arbitrary, mistaken, or prejudiced conduct in areas in which international organizations recommend the greatest liberalization, and it can cause serious harm to certain patients. Finally, it does not seem logical, for airlines learn about only a small fraction of the contagious persons who travel, and public health is much more greatly endangered by unknown contagious persons. Normal hygienic conditions aboard planes suppress the risks of contagion concerning most diseases transmitted by insects or through contact with the skin, with mucuous membranes, with the faeces, or with urine. Airlines should continue to refuse to transport only those passengers having diseases which are characterized by vomiting or serious diarrhoea or which are transmitted through the air if it is impossible by simple means to avoid the risk of contaminating other travellers and any members of the flight crew who might be receptive.

  13. Passenger ride quality in transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Kuhlthau, A. R.; Richards, L. G.; Conner, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative relationships are presented which can be used to account for passenger ride quality in transport aircraft. These relations can be used to predict passenger comfort and satisfaction under a variety of flight conditions. Several applications are detailed, including evaluation of use of spoilers to attenuate trailing vortices, identifying key elements in a complex maneuver which leads to discomfort, determining noise/motion tradeoffs, evaluating changes in wing loading, and others. Variables included in the models presented are motion, noise, temperature, pressure, and seating.

  14. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF CUPOLA AND SECOND FLOOR OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN FOREGROUND - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  16. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  17. 5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. RAILROAD TRRACKS LEADING TO PAINT & REPAIR SHOP; PASSENGER CAR SHOP TO THE LEFT - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. Self-Management to Increase Safe Driving Among Short-Haul Truck Drivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Jeffrey S.; Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    The relative impact of a self-management for safety (SMS) process was evaluated at two short-haul trucking terminals. Participants in the Pre-Behavior group (n = 21) recorded their intentions to engage in specific safe versus at-risk driving behaviors before leaving the terminal (i.e., before making any of their deliveries for the day), whereas…

  19. Study of short haul high-density V/STOL transportation systems. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Essential supporting data to the short haul transportation study are presented. The specific appendices are arena characteristics, aerospace transportation analysis computer program, economics, model calibration, STOLport siting and services path selection, STOL schedule definition, tabulated California corridor results, and tabulated Midwest arena results.

  20. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QSCEE). Preliminary analyses and design report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The experimental propulsion systems to be built and tested in the 'quiet, clean, short-haul experimental engine' program are presented. The flight propulsion systems are also presented. The following areas are discussed: acoustic design; emissions control; engine cycle and performance; fan aerodynamic design; variable-pitch actuation systems; fan rotor mechanical design; fan frame mechanical design; and reduction gear design.

  1. Alertness management in two-person long-haul flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, M. R.; Gander, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    Long-haul flight operations involve cumulative sleep loss, circadian disruption, and extended and irregular duty schedules. These factors reduce pilot alertness and performance on the flightdeck. Conceptually and operationally, alertness management in flight operations can be divided into preventive strategies and operational countermeasures. Preventive strategies are utilized prior to a duty period to mitigate or reduce the effects of sleep loss, circadian disruption and fatigue during subsequent flight operations. Operational countermeasures are used during operations as acute techniques for maintaining performance and alertness. Results from previous NASA Ames field studies document the sleep loss and circadian disruption in three-person long-haul flying and illustrate the application of preventive strategies and operational countermeasures. One strategy that can be used in both a preventive and operational manner is strategic napping. The application and effectiveness of strategic napping in long-haul operations will be discussed. Finally, long-haul flying in two-person highly automated aircraft capable of extended range operations will create new challenges to maintaining pilot alertness and performance. Alertness management issues in this flight environment will be explored.

  2. The Atlantic Richfield Company Black Thunder mine haul road dust study. [Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.R.; Hormel, T.R.; Ives, J.A.

    1982-06-01

    An examination of the effectiveness of various haul road dust control measures was performed at ARCO's Black Thunder Mine near Wright, Wyoming by evaluating both visible observations and quantitative measurements of particle concentrations. In order to evaluate dust control effectiveness both a 300 foot (91.5 meter) and 175 foot (53.4 meter) section of the main coal haul road was selected for testing. The test sections were separated by a 200 foot (61 meter) buffer zone. Each test section was relatively straight and away from interferences from other mine sources. The five haul road treatment test sequences evaluated for control measure effectiveness were: an untreated road segment; water treatment two times per hour; water treatment four times per hour; previously chemically treated segment of haul road (ARCO 2400 dust suppressant); and testing after application of Coherex (10% dilution). By comparing uncontrolled situations with various controlled situations, an estimate of the control efficiency of the dust control measures was determined. Based upon the results of the study a fugitive dust control scheme was selected considering control effectiveness, economics and operational efficiency.

  3. Snaptran2 experiment mounted on dolly being hauled by shielded locomotive ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Snaptran-2 experiment mounted on dolly being hauled by shielded locomotive from IET towards A&M turntable. Note leads from experiment gathered at coupling bar in lower right of view. Another dolly in view at left. Camera facing southeast. Photographer: Page Comiskey. Date: August 25, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-4503 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Evaluation of active control technology for short haul aircraft. [cost effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshaw, J. H.; Bennett, J. A.; Harris, O. C.; Honrath, J. F.; Patterson, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation of the economics of short-haul aircraft designed with active controls technology and low wing-loading to achieve short field performance with good ride quality is presented. Results indicate that for such a system incorporating gust load alleviation and augmented stability the direct operating cost is better than for aircraft without active controls.

  5. 77 FR 45921 - Alaskan Fuel Hauling as a Restricted Category Special Purpose Flight Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... the Federal Register (74 FR 39242) in which the FAA proposed to specify Alaskan fuel hauling as a... Purpose Flight Operation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), (DOT). ACTION: Notice of policy... submitted was, ``The transport of the fuel could be made safer by limiting the payload on each flight to...

  6. [Index assessment of airborne VOCs pollution in automobile for transporting passengers].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Cheng, He-Ming; Luo, Hui-Long

    2013-12-01

    Car for transporting passenger is the most common means of transport and in-car airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause harm to health. In order to analyze the pollution levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene and TVOC, index evaluation method was used according to the domestic and international standards of indoor and in-car air quality (IAQ). For Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 IAQ Standard, GB/T 17729-2009 Hygienic Standard for the Air Quality inside Long Distance Coach, GB/T 27630-2011 Guideline for Air Quality Assessment of Passenger Car, IAQ standard of South Korea, Norway, Japan and Germany, the heaviest pollution of VOCs in passenger car was TVOC, TVOC, benzene, benzene, TVOC, toluene and TVOC, respectively, the average pollution grade of automotive IAQ was median pollution, median pollution, clean, light pollution, median pollution, clean and heavy pollution, respectively. Index evaluation can effectively analyze vehicular interior air quality, and the result has a significant difference with different standards; German standard is the most stringent, while Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 standard is the relatively stringent and GB/T 27630-2011 is the most relaxed.

  7. 46 CFR 122.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 122.506 Section 122.506... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.506 Passenger safety orientation. (a) Except as allowed by paragraphs (b... safety information. (e) On a vessel on a voyage of more than 24 hours duration, passengers shall...

  8. 46 CFR 185.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 185.506 Section 185.506 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS... safety orientation. If only a small number of passengers embark at a port after the original muster...

  9. 46 CFR 122.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 122.506 Section 122.506 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE.... If only a small number of passengers embark at a port after the original muster has been held,...

  10. 46 CFR 185.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 185.502 Section 185.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The...

  11. 46 CFR 122.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 122.506 Section 122.506 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE.... If only a small number of passengers embark at a port after the original muster has been held,...

  12. 46 CFR 122.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 122.506 Section 122.506 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE.... If only a small number of passengers embark at a port after the original muster has been held,...

  13. 46 CFR 185.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 185.506 Section 185.506 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS... safety orientation. If only a small number of passengers embark at a port after the original muster...

  14. 46 CFR 185.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 185.502 Section 185.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The...

  15. 46 CFR 185.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 185.502 Section 185.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The...

  16. 46 CFR 185.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 185.506 Section 185.506 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS... safety orientation. If only a small number of passengers embark at a port after the original muster...

  17. 46 CFR 185.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 185.502 Section 185.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The...

  18. 46 CFR 185.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 185.502 Section 185.502 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The...

  19. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat,...

  20. 14 CFR 29.807 - Passenger emergency exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a crash landing must be extremely remote. (d) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If... rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of nine seats or less, one... exit. (2) For rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of...

  1. 14 CFR 29.807 - Passenger emergency exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a crash landing must be extremely remote. (d) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If... rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of nine seats or less, one... exit. (2) For rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of...

  2. 14 CFR 29.807 - Passenger emergency exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a crash landing must be extremely remote. (d) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If... rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of nine seats or less, one... exit. (2) For rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of...

  3. 14 CFR 29.807 - Passenger emergency exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a crash landing must be extremely remote. (d) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If... rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of nine seats or less, one... exit. (2) For rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of...

  4. 14 CFR 29.807 - Passenger emergency exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a crash landing must be extremely remote. (d) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If... rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of nine seats or less, one... exit. (2) For rotorcraft that have a passenger seating configuration, excluding pilots seats, of...

  5. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat,...

  6. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  7. 14 CFR 23.791 - Passenger information signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Passenger information signs. 23.791 Section... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.791 Passenger information signs. For those airplanes in which the... separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either...

  8. 14 CFR 23.791 - Passenger information signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Passenger information signs. 23.791 Section... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.791 Passenger information signs. For those airplanes in which the... separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either...

  9. 14 CFR 23.791 - Passenger information signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Passenger information signs. 23.791 Section... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.791 Passenger information signs. For those airplanes in which the... separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either...

  10. 14 CFR 23.791 - Passenger information signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Passenger information signs. 23.791 Section... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.791 Passenger information signs. For those airplanes in which the... separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either...

  11. 14 CFR 23.791 - Passenger information signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information signs. 23.791 Section... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.791 Passenger information signs. For those airplanes in which the... separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one illuminated sign (using either...

  12. 49 CFR 239.103 - Passenger train emergency simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger train emergency simulations. 239.103....103 Passenger train emergency simulations. (a) General. Each railroad operating passenger train service shall conduct full-scale emergency simulations, in order to determine its capability to...

  13. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  14. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  15. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  16. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  17. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  18. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on or certificated for an international voyage are required to have a “ SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet...

  19. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  20. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a “Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.” (b) All such vessels shall meet the requirements of this chapter...

  1. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant issues the original...

  2. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel that carries more than 12 passengers on an international voyage must have a valid SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. The Commandant authorizes the...

  3. Medical oxygen and air travel.

    PubMed

    Lyznicki, J M; Williams, M A; Deitchman, S D; Howe, J P

    2000-08-01

    This report responds to a resolution that asked the American Medical Association (AMA) to take action to improve airport and airline accommodations for passengers requiring medical oxygen. Information for the report was derived from a search of the MEDLINE database and references listed in pertinent articles, as well as through communications with experts in aerospace and emergency medicine. Based on this information, the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs determined that commercial air travel exposes passengers to altitude-related hypoxia and gas expansion, which may cause some passengers to experience significant symptoms and medical complications during flight. Medical guidelines are available to help physicians evaluate and counsel potential passengers who are at increased risk of inflight hypoxemia. Supplemental oxygen may be needed for some passengers to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation and prevent hypoxemic complications. For safety and security reasons, federal regulations prohibit travelers from using their own portable oxygen system onboard commercial aircraft. Many U.S. airlines supply medical oxygen for use during flight but policies and procedures vary. Oxygen-dependent passengers must make additional arrangements for the use of supplemental oxygen in airports. Uniform standards are needed to specify procedures and equipment for the use of medical oxygen in airports and aboard commercial aircraft. Revision of federal regulations should be considered to accommodate oxygen-dependent passengers and permit them to have an uninterrupted source of oxygen from departure to destination.

  4. Short communication: Microbial quality of raw milk following commercial long-distance hauling.

    PubMed

    Darchuk, Emily M; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy

    2015-12-01

    Hauling is a critical part of the commercial milk supply chain, yet very few studies have aimed to understand its effect on raw milk quality. This study focused on the effect of extended-duration tanker use during hauling on raw milk quality at a commercial facility. Standard tanker use [cleaned-in-place (CIP) once per 24h] served as a control and an incremental between-load water rinse with sanitizer treatment (RS) was evaluated to mitigate any effect from extended duration hauling. During this study, 1 commercial truck with 2 trailers was monitored for 10d. The truck collected milk at a large dairy farm, transported the milk to a manufacturing facility, and then returned to the same farm for a second load. Each round-trip journey took between 10 and 12h, allowing for 2 loads per 24-h use period. Following the second delivery, the truck was cleaned by CIP treatment starting a new treatment day. Producer samples were collected from the raw milk bulk tank on the farm before loading milk into the tanker. The same milk was sampled directly out of the tanker truck before unloading at the manufacturer. Effect on individual bacteria count, thermophilic spore count, and preliminary incubation count was quantified through common industry tests. Surface sponge swabs were also used to monitor tanker sanitation and the efficacy of cleaning treatments. Results did not identify a negative effect on raw milk quality due to extended duration hauling. Whereas the addition of RS did not provide any measurable quality benefits for the microbial milk quality, swab results demonstrated that the RS treatment was able to reduce surface bacteria in the tanker, although not to the same level as the full CIP treatment. Based on this study, current CIP practices for long distance milk hauling appear to be effective in mitigating any measurable effect on raw milk quality. PMID:26506549

  5. Using Cooperatives to Transport Rural Passengers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stommes, Eileen S.; Byrne, Robert J.

    A study of two rural New York counties--Cortland and Otsego--was undertaken to identify innovative ways to provide public passenger transportation services in rural areas by using transportation cooperatives. Information about current transportation services was obtained from staff members of the human service agencies and county government…

  6. 75 FR 32318 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket... airline passenger protections. See 73 FR 74586 (December 8, 2008). After reviewing and considering the... deceptive'' practice. That rule took effect on April 29, 2010. See 74 FR 68983 (December 30, 2009). In...

  7. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: For access to the... Airline Passenger Protections (75 FR 32318), which, among other things, solicits comment, without... the current practice of not prescribing carrier practices concerning the serving of peanuts. (75...

  8. Opportunities and challenges for novel heat engines in passenger automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozurkewich, George

    2005-09-01

    Modern automobiles provide several opportunities for potential application of novel heat engines, including air conditioning, waste-heat recovery, auxiliary power units, and motive power. The driving force behind these potential applications is the prospect of reducing the vehicle's environmental impact by increasing its overall thermal efficiency, decreasing its emissions of greenhouse gases, or both. However, because the automotive sector is mature and highly competitive, any attempt to displace existing technology faces daunting hurdles. Weight and packaging impose tight constraints. Compatibility with existing systems is essential. Reliability must be ensured, often for 150000 miles. Last but not least, cost is paramount in an industry where pennies matter. Some implications of these factors for implementation of thermoacoustic heat engines on passenger vehicles will be surveyed.

  9. 49 CFR 39.85 - What services must PVOs provide to passengers with a disability on board a passenger vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... physical barriers rendering an area not readily accessible and usable to the passenger. (b) If food is provided to passengers on the vessel, assistance in preparation for eating, such as opening packages and identifying food; (c) Effective communication with passengers who have vision impairments or who are deaf...

  10. Thermal Analysis and Test Program to Evaluate Passenger Compartment Thermal Load Reduction and Improve: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-07-00231

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J.

    2011-05-01

    This activity supported a GM and NREL collaborative exploration of strategies to minimize and alleviate the temperature rise in the passenger compartment of an automobile during prolonged exposure to solar radiation in hot climates. It developed and exercised math-based models to simulate the air flow and thermal environment in the passenger compartment in order to compare the effectiveness of the strategies. This activity also assessed the strategies using vehicle tests.

  11. Data on the acoustic comfort of passengers in railroad cars and soundproofing recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomescu, C.; Vrasti, R.

    1974-01-01

    Acoustic passenger comfort in railroad cars is represented by the following values: Total noise level in db, octave sound spectrum in db, and indices of intelligibility. The noise level perceived inside the car results from two components: one due to the penetration of air noise, and another due to the transmission of vibrations through solids. Measurement results show the necessity of improving bogie and bogie-body connections, intensification of soundproofing of the floor, adaption of windows with double panes, etc.

  12. The technology assessment of LTA aircraft systems. [hybrid airships for passenger and cargo transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The advantages of conventional small and large airships over heavier than air aircraft are reviewed and the need for developing hybrid aircraft for passenger and heavy charge transport is assessed. Performance requirements and estimated operating costs are discussed for rota-ships to be used for short distance transportation near large cities as well as for airlifting civil engineering machinery and supplies for the construction of power stations, dams, tunnels, and roads in remote areas or on isolated islands.

  13. 14 CFR 382.35 - May carriers require passengers with a disability to sign waivers or releases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May carriers require passengers with a disability to sign waivers or releases? 382.35 Section 382.35 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.35 May...

  14. 14 CFR 382.29 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant? 382.29 Section 382.29 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.29...

  15. 14 CFR 382.23 - May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate? 382.23 Section 382.23 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.23...

  16. 14 CFR 382.17 - May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight? 382.17 Section 382.17 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.17 May carriers...

  17. 14 CFR 382.91 - What assistance must carriers provide to passengers with a disability in moving within the terminal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What assistance must carriers provide to passengers with a disability in moving within the terminal? 382.91 Section 382.91 Aeronautics and Space... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance §...

  18. 14 CFR 382.35 - May carriers require passengers with a disability to sign waivers or releases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for the loss of, death of, or injury to service animals. Carriers may note pre-existing damage to an... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.35 May carriers... to receive services or accommodations for a disability. (b) You must not require passengers with...

  19. 14 CFR 382.35 - May carriers require passengers with a disability to sign waivers or releases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for the loss of, death of, or injury to service animals. Carriers may note pre-existing damage to an... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.35 May carriers... to receive services or accommodations for a disability. (b) You must not require passengers with...

  20. 14 CFR 382.35 - May carriers require passengers with a disability to sign waivers or releases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for the loss of, death of, or injury to service animals. Carriers may note pre-existing damage to an... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.35 May carriers... to receive services or accommodations for a disability. (b) You must not require passengers with...

  1. 14 CFR 382.35 - May carriers require passengers with a disability to sign waivers or releases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for the loss of, death of, or injury to service animals. Carriers may note pre-existing damage to an... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.35 May carriers... to receive services or accommodations for a disability. (b) You must not require passengers with...

  2. 14 CFR 382.91 - What assistance must carriers provide to passengers with a disability in moving within the terminal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What assistance must carriers provide to passengers with a disability in moving within the terminal? 382.91 Section 382.91 Aeronautics and Space... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance §...

  3. 14 CFR 382.91 - What assistance must carriers provide to passengers with a disability in moving within the terminal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What assistance must carriers provide to passengers with a disability in moving within the terminal? 382.91 Section 382.91 Aeronautics and Space... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance §...

  4. 14 CFR 382.67 - What is the requirement for priority space in the cabin to store passengers' wheelchairs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is the requirement for priority space in the cabin to store passengers' wheelchairs? 382.67 Section 382.67 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Accessibility of Aircraft § 382.67 What is...

  5. 14 CFR 382.17 - May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight? 382.17 Section 382.17 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.17 May carriers...

  6. 14 CFR 382.23 - May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate? 382.23 Section 382.23 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.23...

  7. 14 CFR 382.23 - May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate? 382.23 Section 382.23 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.23...

  8. 14 CFR 382.17 - May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight? 382.17 Section 382.17 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.17 May carriers...

  9. 14 CFR 382.29 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant? 382.29 Section 382.29 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.29...

  10. 14 CFR 382.67 - What is the requirement for priority space in the cabin to store passengers' wheelchairs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is the requirement for priority space in the cabin to store passengers' wheelchairs? 382.67 Section 382.67 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Accessibility of Aircraft § 382.67 What is...

  11. 14 CFR 382.103 - May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device? 382.103 Section 382.103 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.103 May a...

  12. 14 CFR 382.23 - May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate? 382.23 Section 382.23 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.23...

  13. 14 CFR 382.29 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant? 382.29 Section 382.29 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.29...

  14. 14 CFR 382.29 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant? 382.29 Section 382.29 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.29...

  15. 14 CFR 382.17 - May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight? 382.17 Section 382.17 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.17 May carriers...

  16. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  17. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  18. 14 CFR 382.103 - May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device? 382.103 Section 382.103 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.103 May a...

  19. 14 CFR 382.91 - What assistance must carriers provide to passengers with a disability in moving within the terminal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What assistance must carriers provide to passengers with a disability in moving within the terminal? 382.91 Section 382.91 Aeronautics and Space... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance §...

  20. 14 CFR 382.23 - May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May carriers require a passenger with a disability to provide a medical certificate? 382.23 Section 382.23 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.23...

  1. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft? 382.111 Section 382.111 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Services on Aircraft § 382.111 What services...

  2. 14 CFR 382.91 - What assistance must carriers provide to passengers with a disability in moving within the terminal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What assistance must carriers provide to passengers with a disability in moving within the terminal? 382.91 Section 382.91 Aeronautics and Space... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance §...

  3. 14 CFR 382.67 - What is the requirement for priority space in the cabin to store passengers' wheelchairs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is the requirement for priority space in the cabin to store passengers' wheelchairs? 382.67 Section 382.67 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Accessibility of Aircraft § 382.67 What is...

  4. 14 CFR 382.103 - May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device? 382.103 Section 382.103 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.103 May a...

  5. 14 CFR 382.17 - May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May carriers limit the number of passengers with a disability on a flight? 382.17 Section 382.17 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.17 May carriers...

  6. 14 CFR 382.29 - May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May a carrier require a passenger with a disability to travel with a safety assistant? 382.29 Section 382.29 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Nondiscrimination and Access to Services and Information § 382.29...

  7. 14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 91.535 Section 91.535 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES...

  8. A Fast Estimation Method of Railway Passengers' Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasaki, Yusaku; Asuka, Masashi; Komaya, Kiyotoshi

    To evaluate a train schedule from the viewpoint of passengers' convenience, it is important to know each passenger's choice of trains and transfer stations to arrive at his/her destination. Because of difficulties of measuring such passengers' behavior, estimation methods of railway passengers' flow are proposed to execute such an evaluation. However, a train schedule planning system equipped with those methods is not practical due to necessity of much time to complete the estimation. In this article, the authors propose a fast passengers' flow estimation method that employs features of passengers' flow graph using preparative search based on each train's arrival time at each station. And the authors show the results of passengers' flow estimation applied on a railway in an urban area.

  9. Episodic hypoxemia in an airline passenger with chronic respiratory failure on supplemental oxygen.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Paul T; Hlavac, Michael; Beckert, Lutz E

    2007-07-01

    Assessing the requirements for in-flight oxygen in passengers with pulmonary limitations can be a challenging task for clinicians. Aeromedical guidelines are available to help identify passengers that may require oxygen in flight. However, little is known about the actual in-flight response to passengers on oxygen. We measured the oxygen response (pulse oximetry) of a 67-yr-old female patient with chronic respiratory failure during a trans-Tasman flight (duration 170 min). This patient was assessed at the respiratory clinic before her journey and resting PaO2 (57 mmHg) indicated the requirement for in-flight oxygen. Bottled oxygen delivered at 2 L x min(-1) via nasal cannula was prescribed for her journey. Preflight SpO2 without supplemental oxygen was 92%. Mean in-flight SpO2 was well maintained at 93% while on oxygen at rest. There were four significant hypoxic events, which included light physical activity while on oxygen (three events; SpO2 to 84%) and a visit to the lavatory (off oxygen; SpO2 to 70%). Dyspnea and dizziness were reported during the lavatory visit. This case illustrates the importance of a preflight medical screening for passengers considered at risk during air travel and provides insight into the response of oxygen supplementation during flight.

  10. Overpressure and noise due to multiple airbag systems in a passenger car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickling, Robert; Henning, Peter J.; Newton, Gary, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    Multiple airbag systems in passenger cars can generate overpressure and noise that may be hazardous to human hearing. Overpressure is compression of the air inside a closed compartment caused by deployment of the bags. Noise results from the action of the gas inflating the bags. SAE J247 provides a standard for measuring the combination of overpressure and noise in a passenger compartment. A special microphone has recently been developed that meets this standard, which operates down to a fraction of a hertz. Details of the microphone are given. Little appears to have been published on the overpressure and noise of modern multiple airbag systems, but early results [R. Hickling, ''The noise of the automotive safety air cushion,'' Noise Control Eng., May-June, 110-121 (1976)] provide a basic understanding of the phenomenon. Spectral data shows that peak overpressure occurs at about 2 to 3 Hz. A significant reduction in overpressure and noise can be achieved with an aspirating airbag, originally developed at General Motors, whose outer structure is inflated with gas from the inflator, and whose inner structure draws in air from the passenger compartment through one-way cloth valves. Tests have shown that such bags function well when impacted.

  11. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James S.; Jones, Byron W.; Hosni, Mohammad H.; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L.; Dietrich, Watts L.

    2015-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins. PMID:26526769

  12. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James S; Jones, Byron W; Hosni, Mohammad H; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L; Dietrich, Watts L

    2013-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins. PMID:26526769

  13. Monitoring microbial populations on wide-body commercial passenger aircraft.

    PubMed

    McKernan, Lauralynn Taylor; Wallingford, Kenneth M; Hein, Misty J; Burge, Harriet; Rogers, Christine A; Herrick, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Although exposure to bacteria has been assessed in cabin air previously, minimal numbers of samples have been collected in-flight. The purpose of this research was to comprehensively characterize bacterial concentrations in the aircraft cabin. Twelve randomly selected flights were sampled on Boeing-767 aircraft, each with a flight duration between 4.5 and 6.5 h. N-6 impactors were used to collect sequential, triplicate air samples in the front and rear of coach class during six sampling intervals throughout each flight: boarding, mid-climb, early cruise, mid-cruise, late cruise and deplaning. Comparison air samples were also collected inside and outside the airport terminals at the origin and destination cities. The MIXED procedure in SAS was used to model the mean and the covariance matrix of the natural log-transformed bacterial concentrations. A total of 513 airborne culturable bacterial samples were collected. During flight (mid-climb and cruise intervals), a model-adjusted geometric mean (GM) of 136 total colony-forming units per cubic meter of air sampled (CFU x m(-3)) and geometric standard deviation of 2.1 were observed. Bacterial concentrations were highest during the boarding (GM 290 CFU x m(-3)) and deplaning (GM 549 CFU x m(-3)) processes. Total bacterial concentrations observed during flight were significantly lower than GMs for boarding and deplaning (P values <0.0001-0.021) in the modeled results. Our findings highlight the fact that aerobiological concentrations can be dynamic and underscore the importance of appropriate sample size and design. The genera analysis indicates that passenger activity and high occupant density contribute to airborne bacterial generation. Overall, our research demonstrates that the bacteria recovered on observed flights were either common skin-surface organisms (primarily gram-positive cocci) or organisms common in dust and outdoor air.

  14. Passenger comfort technology for system decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Decisions requiring passenger comfort technology were shown to depend on: the relationship between comfort and other factors (e.g., cost, urgency, alternate modes) in traveler acceptance of the systems, serving a selected market require technology to quantify effects of comfort versus offsetting factors in system acceptance. Public predict the maximum percentage of travelers who willingly accept the overall comfort of any trip ride. One or the other of these technology requirements apply to decisions on system design, operation and maintenance.

  15. Projection-Based linear constrained estimation and fusion over long-haul links

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nageswara S

    2016-01-01

    We study estimation and fusion with linear dynamics in long-haul sensor networks, wherein a number of sensors are remotely deployed over a large geographical area for performing tasks such as target tracking, and a remote fusion center serves to combine the information provided by these sensors in order to improve the overall tracking accuracy. In reality, the motion of a dynamic target might be subject to certain constraints, for instance, those defined by a road network. We explore the accuracy performance of projection-based constrained estimation and fusion methods that is affected by information loss over the long-haul links. We use an example to compare the tracking errors under various implementations of centralized and distributed projection-based estimation and fusion methods and demonstrate the effectiveness of using projection-based methods in these settings.

  16. Projection-Based Linear Constrained Estimation and Fusion over Long-Haul Links

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nageswara S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study estimation and fusion with linear dynamics in long-haul sensor networks, wherein a number of sensors are remotely deployed over a large geographical area for performing tasks such as target tracking, and a remote fusion center serves to combine the information provided by these sensors in order to improve the overall tracking accuracy. In reality, the motion of a dynamic target might be subject to certain constraints, for instance, those defined by a road network. We explore the accuracy performance of projection-based constrained estimation and fusion methods that is affected by information loss over the long-haul links. We use a tracking example to compare the tracking errors under various implementations of centralized and distributed projection-based estimation and fusion methods.

  17. Application of advanced high speed turboprop technology to future civil short-haul transport aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlon, J. A.; Bowles, J. V.

    1978-01-01

    With an overall goal of defining the needs and requirements for short-haul transport aircraft research and development, the objective of this paper is to determine the performance and noise impact of short-haul transport aircraft designed with an advanced turboprop propulsion system. This propulsion system features high-speed propellers that have more blades and reduced diameters. Aircraft are designed for short and medium field lengths; mission block fuel and direct operating costs (DOC) are used as performance measures. The propeller diameter was optimized to minimize DOC. Two methods are employed to estimate the weight of the acoustic treatment needed to reduce interior noise to an acceptable level. Results show decreasing gross weight, block fuel, DOC, engine size, and optimum propfan diameter with increasing field length. The choice of acoustic treatment method has a significant effect on the aircraft design.

  18. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year`s survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered.

  19. Requirements for the Crash Protection of Older Vehicle Passengers

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Andrew; Welsh, Ruth; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2003-01-01

    This study compares injury outcomes in vehicle crashes involving different age groups of belted passengers. Two datasets were considered. Firstly, UK national data revealed that younger passengers are much more likely to be involved in crashes per million miles travelled compared to older passengers although older passengers are much more likely to be killed or seriously injured compared to younger passengers. Secondly, in-depth vehicle crash injury data were examined to determine some of the underlying reasons for the enhanced injury risk amongst older passengers. In crashes of approximately equal severity, the older passenger group were significantly more likely to be fatally injured in frontal crashes (p<0.001). However young passengers were as equally likely to be killed in struck-side crashes compared to the older group. The results also showed that older passengers sustained more serious injuries to the chest region in frontal crashes compared with the younger aged group (p<0.0001) and it is this body region that is particularly problematic. When the data were analysed further, it was found that a large proportion of passengers were female and that in the majority of cases, the seat belt was responsible for injury. Since by the year 2030, 1 in 4 persons will be aged over 65 in most OECD countries, the results suggest a need for intervention through vehicle design including in-vehicle crashworthiness systems that take into account reduced tolerance to impact with ageing. PMID:12941224

  20. Hard Braking Events Among Novice Teenage Drivers By Passenger Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Wang, Jing; Klauer, Sheila G.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In a naturalistic study of teenage drivers (N = 42) hard braking events of ≤−0.45 g were assessed over the first 6 months of licensure. A total of 1,721 hard braking events were recorded. The video footage of a sample (816) of these events was examined to evaluate validity and reasons for hard braking. Of these, 788 (96.6%) were estimated valid, of which 79.1% were due to driver misjudgment, 10.8% to risky driving behavior, 5.3% to legitimate evasive maneuvers, and 4.8% to distraction. Hard braking events per 10 trips and per 100 miles were compared across passenger characteristics. Hard braking rates per 10 trips among newly licensed teenagers during the first 6 months of licensure were significantly higher when driving with teen passengers and lower with adult passengers than driving alone; rates per 100 miles were lower with adult passengers than with no passengers. Further examination of the results indicates that rates of hard braking with teenage passengers were significantly higher compared with no passengers: 1) for male drivers; 2) during the first month of licensure. The data suggest that that novice teenage driving performance may not be as good or safe when driving alone or with teenage passengers than with adult passengers and provide support for the hypothesis that teenage passengers increase driving risks, particularly during the first month of licensure. PMID:21243109

  1. Conceptual design of a V/STOL lift fan commercial short haul transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Conceptual designs of V/STOL lift-fan commercial short-haul transport aircraft for the 1980-85 time period were studied to determine their technical and economic feasibility. Engine concepts studied included both integral remote fans. The scope of the study included definition of the hover control concept for each propulsion system, aircraft design, aircraft mass properties, cruise performance noise, and ride qualities evaluation. Economic evaluation was also studied on a basis of direct operating cost and route structure.

  2. Seabird bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries is grossly underestimated when using only haul data.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Nigel; Duckworth, Alan R; Safina, Carl; Gilman, Eric L

    2010-08-31

    Hundreds of thousands of seabirds are killed each year as bycatch in longline fisheries. Seabirds are predominantly caught during line setting but bycatch is generally recorded during line hauling, many hours after birds are caught. Bird loss during this interval may lead to inaccurate bycatch information. In this 15 year study, seabird bycatch was recorded during both line setting and line hauling from four fishing regions: Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, Coral Sea and central Pacific Ocean. Over 43,000 albatrosses, petrels and skuas representing over 25 species were counted during line setting of which almost 6,000 seabirds attempted to take the bait. Bait-taking interactions were placed into one of four categories. (i) The majority (57%) of bait-taking attempts were "unsuccessful" involving seabirds that did not take the bait nor get caught or hooked. (ii) One-third of attempts were "successful" with seabirds removing the bait while not getting caught. (iii) One-hundred and seventy-six seabirds (3% of attempts) were observed being "caught" during line setting, with three albatross species - Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis), black-footed (P. nigripes) and black-browed (Thalassarche melanophrys)- dominating this category. However, of these, only 85 (48%) seabird carcasses were retrieved during line hauling. Most caught seabirds were hooked through the bill. (iv) The remainder of seabird-bait interactions (7%) was not clearly observed, but likely involved more "caught" seabirds. Bait taking attempts and percentage outcome (e.g. successful, caught) varied between seabird species and was not always related to species abundance around fishing vessels. Using only haul data to calculate seabird bycatch grossly underestimates actual bycatch levels, with the level of seabird bycatch from pelagic longline fishing possibly double what was previously thought.

  3. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) clean combustor test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A component pressure test was conducted on a F101 PFRT combustor to evaluate the emissions levels of this combustor design at selected under the wing and over the wing operating conditions for the quiet clean short haul experimental engine (QCSEE). Emissions reduction techniques were evaluated which included compressor discharge bleed and sector burning in the combustor. The results of this test were utilized to compare the expected QCSEE emissions levels with the emission goals of the QCSEE engine program.

  4. Conceptual design study of a V/STOL lift fan commercial short haul transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, R. G.; Powell, W. V., Jr.; Prizlow, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Conceptual designs of V/STOL lift fan commercial short haul transport aircraft for the 1980-85 time period were studied to determine their technical and economic feasibility. The engine concepts included both integral and remote fans. The scope of the study included definition of the hover control concept for each propulsion system, aircraft design, mass properties, cruise performance, noise and ride qualities evaluation. Economic evaluation was also studied on the basis of direct-operating costs and route structure.

  5. Performance comparison of MSK and QPSK optical long haul DWDM transmission with coherent detection.

    PubMed

    Hachmeister, A; Nölle, M; Molle, L; Freund, R; Rohde, M

    2012-02-13

    We performed long-haul WDM transmission experiments to compare 10 Gbit/s MSK and QPSK modulation with a channel grid of 12.5 GHz. A standard link setup with inline dispersion compensation was applied in combination with coherent detection and following offline signal processing. Both modulation formats showed nearly equal performance bridging about 4000 km at a BER of 10(-3).

  6. Health risk equations and risk assessment of airborne benzene homologues exposure to drivers and passengers in taxi cabins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaokai; Feng, Lili; Luo, Huilong; Cheng, Heming

    2016-03-01

    Interior air environment and health problems of vehicles have attracted increasing attention, and benzene homologues (BHs) including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and styrene are primary hazardous gases in vehicular cabins. The BHs impact on the health of passengers and drivers in 38 taxis is assessed, and health risk equations of in-car BHs to different drivers and passengers are induced. The health risk of in-car BHs for male drivers is the highest among all different receptors and is 1.04, 6.67, and 6.94 times more than ones for female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, respectively. In-car BHs could not lead to the non-cancer health risk to all passengers and drivers as for the maximal value of non-cancer indices is 0.41 and is less than the unacceptable value (1.00) of non-cancer health risk from USEPA. However, in-car BHs lead to cancer health risk to drivers as for the average value of cancer indices is 1.21E-04 which is 1.21 times more than the unacceptable value (1.00E-04) of cancer health risk from USEPA. Finally, for in-car airborne benzene concentration (X, μg/m(3)) to male drivers, female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, the cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.48E-06X, Y = 1.42E-06X, Y = 2.22E-07X, and Y = 2.13E-07X, respectively, and the non-cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.70E-03X, Y = 1.63E-03X, Y = 2.55E-04X, and Y = 2.45E-04X, respectively.

  7. The Problem of Multiple Criteria Selection of the Surface Mining Haul Trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodziony, Przemysław; Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew; Sawicki, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Vehicle transport is a dominant type of technological processes in rock mines, and its profit ability is strictly dependent on overall cost of its exploitation, especially on diesel oil consumption. Thus, a rational design of transportation system based on haul trucks should result from thorough analysis of technical and economic issues, including both cost of purchase and its further exploitation, having a crucial impact on the cost of minerals extraction. Moreover, off-highway trucks should be selected with respect to all specific exploitation conditions and even the user's preferences and experience. In this paper a development of universal family of evaluation criteria as well as application of evaluation method for haul truck selection process for a specific exploitation conditions in surface mining have been carried out. The methodology presented in the paper is based on the principles of multiple criteria decision aiding (MCDA) using one of the ranking method, i.e. ELECTRE III. The applied methodology has been allowed for ranking of alternative solution (variants), on the considered set of haul trucks. The result of the research is a universal methodology, and it consequently may be applied in other surface mines with similar exploitation parametres.

  8. Exploring Fuel-Saving Potential of Long-Haul Truck Hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J.; Smith, David E.; Daw, C. Stuart

    2015-10-01

    We report our comparisons on the simulated fuel economy for parallel, series, and dual-mode hybrid electric long-haul trucks, in addition to a conventional powertrain configuration, powered by a commercial 2010-compliant 15-L diesel engine over a freeway-dominated heavy-duty truck driving cycle. The driving cycle was obtained by measurement during normal driving conditions. The results indicated that both parallel and dual-mode hybrid powertrains were capable of improving fuel economy by 7% to 8%. But there was no significant fuel economy benefit for the series hybrid truck because of internal inefficiencies in energy exchange. When reduced aerodynamic drag and tire rolling resistance were combined with hybridization, there was a synergistic fuel economy benefit for appropriate hybrids that increased the fuel economy benefit to more than 15%. Long-haul hybrid trucks with reduced aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance offered lower peak engine loads, better kinetic energy recovery, and reduced average engine power demand. Therefore, it is expected that hybridization with load reduction technologies offers important potential fuel energy savings for future long-haul trucks.

  9. Exploring Fuel-Saving Potential of Long-Haul Truck Hybridization

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J.; Smith, David E.; Daw, C. Stuart

    2015-10-01

    We report our comparisons on the simulated fuel economy for parallel, series, and dual-mode hybrid electric long-haul trucks, in addition to a conventional powertrain configuration, powered by a commercial 2010-compliant 15-L diesel engine over a freeway-dominated heavy-duty truck driving cycle. The driving cycle was obtained by measurement during normal driving conditions. The results indicated that both parallel and dual-mode hybrid powertrains were capable of improving fuel economy by 7% to 8%. But there was no significant fuel economy benefit for the series hybrid truck because of internal inefficiencies in energy exchange. When reduced aerodynamic drag and tire rolling resistance weremore » combined with hybridization, there was a synergistic fuel economy benefit for appropriate hybrids that increased the fuel economy benefit to more than 15%. Long-haul hybrid trucks with reduced aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance offered lower peak engine loads, better kinetic energy recovery, and reduced average engine power demand. Therefore, it is expected that hybridization with load reduction technologies offers important potential fuel energy savings for future long-haul trucks.« less

  10. Exploratory study of fatigue in light and short haul transport drivers in NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Friswell, Rena; Williamson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to identify relationships between work characteristics and fatigue experiences among light and short haul road transport drivers. Surveys were distributed to drivers of light goods vehicles (< or =12 t gross vehicle mass) undertaking short haul work (within a 100 km radius of base) in seven geographical regions of NSW, Australia. The participating drivers (n=321) reported a range of freight tasks. They typically worked a 50-h, 5-day week primarily as day shifts, and spent just over half of their work time driving. Despite the predominance of regular, day work, 38% of participants experienced fatigue at least once a week while driving for work and 45% had nodded off while driving during the preceding 12 months. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that longer daily work hours, higher subjective work demands, as measured by the NASA TLX workload scale, and the percentage of freight movements undertaken from customers to depots each explained unique variance in the frequency of fatigue experiences. The results of the study suggest that fatigue is an issue for some light and short haul road transport drivers and identifies work characteristics that should be investigated further. PMID:18215576

  11. World Air Travel Demand, 1950-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarames, G. N.

    1972-01-01

    Total world scheduled air passenger traffic carried by the airlines of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), excluding the U.S.S.R., increased from 17.4 billion passenger miles in 1950 to 237.4 billion in 1970. This represents an average annual growth rate of 14% during the past two decades. The U.S.S.R. became a member of ICAO in 1970, and Aeroflot - the only Russian airline - reported 49 billion passenger miles for 1970. This traffic, which encompasses both domestic and international travel as well as some nonscheduled flights, is not included in the ICAO world totals shown in this report.

  12. 76 FR 68257 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Applications, or Motion to Modify Scope: September 30, 2011. Description: Application of Sun Air Express, LLC d/b/a Sun Air International requesting authority to operate scheduled passenger service as a...

  13. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  14. Health issues of air travel.

    PubMed

    DeHart, Roy L

    2003-01-01

    Every day in the United States the airline industry boards over 1.7 million passengers for a total of 600 million passengers per year. As these passengers enter the cabin of their aircraft few are aware of the artificial environment that will protect them from the hazards of flight. Passengers are exposed to reduced atmospheric pressure, reduced available oxygen, noise, vibration, and are subject to below zero temperatures that are only a quarter inch away-the thickness of the aircraft's skin. Over the past decade there have been both technical and lay articles written on the perception of poor cabin air quality. Studies have, in part, supported some of those concerns, but, in general, the air quality exceeds that found in most enclosed spaces on terra firma. Since the events of September 11th, passengers have not only been exposed to the physical stress of flight, but also to social and emotional stress preceding departure. There has been a significant increase in air rage on board aircraft, which poses a threat to flight safety and a fear of harm to passengers and crew. The phrase "economy class syndrome" has received popular press attention and refers to the possibility of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the tight confines of an aircraft cabin. Studies have been conducted that demonstrate DVT can occur in flight just as it occurs in other modes of transportation or with prolonged sitting. In part, because of the stress related to commercial flight it is not a mode of transportation for everyone. Certain cardiovascular, pulmonary, and neuropsychiatric conditions are best left on the ground. Although medical problems and death are rare in flight, they do occur, and one major airline reported 1.52 medical diversions per billion revenue passenger miles flown. To provide medical support at 36,000 ft (11,000 m) most airlines now carry on-board medical kits as well as automatic external defibrillators. A recent survey conducted by a major airline revealed that there was

  15. Study of LH2 fueled subsonic passenger transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in subsonic transport aircraft was investigated to explore an expanded matrix of passenger aircraft sizes. Aircraft capable of carrying 130 passengers 2,780 km (1500 n.mi.); 200 passengers 5,560 km (3000 n.mi.); and 400 passengers on a 9,265 km (5000 n.mi.) radius mission, were designed parametrically. Both liquid hydrogen and conventionally fueled versions were generated for each payload/range in order that comparisons could be made. Aircraft in each mission category were compared on the basis of weight, size, cost, energy utilization, and noise.

  16. 76 FR 28998 - Implementation of Revised Passenger Weight Standards for Existing Passenger Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... carried based on an Assumed Average Weight per Person (AAWPP). The Coast Guard published a Final Rule (75 FR 78064, December 14, 2010), which updated the AAWPP for new and existing inspected passenger... Coast Guard will amend Certificates of Inspection prior to a change in the assumed average weight...

  17. Decision-Aiding and Optimization for Vertical Navigation of Long-Haul Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, Nicholas J. M.; Sheridan, Thomas B.

    1996-01-01

    Most decisions made in the cockpit are related to safety, and have therefore been proceduralized in order to reduce risk. There are very few which are made on the basis of a value metric such as economic cost. One which can be shown to be value based, however, is the selection of a flight profile. Fuel consumption and flight time both have a substantial effect on aircraft operating cost, but they cannot be minimized simultaneously. In addition, winds, turbulence, and performance x,ary widely with altitude and time. These factors make it important and difficult for pilots to (a) evaluate the outcomes associated with a particular trajectory before it is flown and (b) decide among possible trajectories. The two elements of this problem considered here are (1) determining, what constitutes optimality, and (2) finding optimal trajectories. Pilots and dispatchers from major U.S. airlines were surveyed to determine which attributes of the outcome of a flight they considered the most important. Avoiding turbulence-for passenger comfort topped the list of items which were not safety related. Pilots' decision making about the selection of flight profile on the basis of flight time, fuel burn, and exposure to turbulence was then observed. Of the several behavioral and prescriptive decision models invoked to explain the pilots' choices, utility maximization is shown to best reproduce the pilots' decisions. After considering more traditional methods for optimizing trajectories, a novel method is developed using a genetic algorithm (GA) operating on a discrete representation of the trajectory search space. The representation is a sequence of command altitudes, and was chosen to be compatible with the constraints imposed by Air Traffic Control, and with the training given to pilots. Since trajectory evaluation for the GA is performed holistically, a wide class of objective functions can be optimized easily. Also, using the GA it is possible to compare the costs associated with

  18. Decision-Aiding and Optimization for Vertical Navigation of Long-Haul Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, Nicholas J. M.; Sheridan, Thomas B.

    1996-01-01

    Most decisions made in the cockpit are related to safety, and have therefore been proceduralized in order to reduce risk. There are very few which are made on the basis of a value metric such as economic cost. One which can be shown to be value based, however, is the selection of a flight profile. Fuel consumption and flight time both have a substantial effect on aircraft operating cost, but they cannot be minimized simultaneously. In addition, winds, turbulence, and performance vary widely with altitude and time. These factors make it important and difficult for pilots to (a) evaluate the outcomes associated with a particular trajectory before it is flown and (b) decide among possible trajectories. The two elements of this problem considered here are: (1) determining what constitutes optimality, and (2) finding optimal trajectories. Pilots and dispatchers from major u.s. airlines were surveyed to determine which attributes of the outcome of a flight they considered the most important. Avoiding turbulence-for passenger comfort-topped the list of items which were not safety related. Pilots' decision making about the selection of flight profile on the basis of flight time, fuel burn, and exposure to turbulence was then observed. Of the several behavioral and prescriptive decision models invoked to explain the pilots' choices, utility maximization is shown to best reproduce the pilots' decisions. After considering more traditional methods for optimizing trajectories, a novel method is developed using a genetic algorithm (GA) operating on a discrete representation of the trajectory search space. The representation is a sequence of command altitudes, and was chosen to be compatible with the constraints imposed by Air Traffic Control, and with the training given to pilots. Since trajectory evaluation for the GA is performed holistically, a wide class of objective functions can be optimized easily. Also, using the GA it is possible to compare the costs associated with

  19. Factors Affecting Haul-Out Behavior of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) in Tidewater Glacier Inlets in Alaska: Can Tourism Vessels and Seals Coexist?

    PubMed

    Blundell, Gail M; Pendleton, Grey W

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use habitat in tidewater glaciers in Alaska for pupping, breeding, and molting. Glacial fjords are also popular tourist destinations; however, visitation by numerous vessels can result in disturbance of seals during critical life-history phases. We explored factors affecting haul-out behavior of harbor seals at a glacial site frequented by tourism vessels. In 2008-10, we deployed VHF transmitters on 107 seals in Endicott Arm, Alaska. We remotely monitored presence and haul-out behavior of tagged seals and documented vessel presence with time-lapse cameras. We evaluated the influence of environmental and physical factors on the probability of being hauled out, duration of haul-out bouts, and as factors associated with the start and end of a haulout. Location, season, hour, and interactions of location by year, season, hour, and sex significantly influenced haul-out probability, as did ice, weather, and vessels. Seals were more likely to be hauled out with greater ice availability during the middle of the day, and less likely to be hauled out if vessels were present. Cruise ships had the strongest negative effect; however, most vessel types negatively affected haul-out probability. Haul-out duration was longest in association with starting on incoming tides, clear skies, no precipitation, occurring in the middle of the day, and ending in the late afternoon or evening. End of haulouts was associated with increasing cloud cover, low ice availability, and vessel presence; large-sized tourism vessels or all-vessel-types combined were significant predictors of ending a haul-out bout. Probability of being hauled out was highest in June, during pupping season. Potential disturbances of harbor seals could be reduced, enabling longer resting times for seals and fewer interruptions for nursing pups, if vessels focused the majority of visits to glacial habitat to before or after the hours of 08:00-17:00 or, less optimally, 09:00-16:00.

  20. Should states require child passenger protection?

    PubMed

    1981-06-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death and injury in children over one year of age in the United States. In response to this problem, bills have been introduced in the legislatures of more than twenty states that would require children to be restrained when riding in motor vehicles. Details such as age limits and types of allowable restraint devices have varied with the individual proposals. Laws have been passed in Tennessee and Rhode Island requiring child passengers to be restrained under certain circumstances. In both these states, as well as in many other states where similar laws have been proposed, objections have been raised on the basis of individual and family rights. A state legislative commission has drafted a Proposed Model Law: Every driver transporting a child under the age of five years in a motor vehicle registered in this state and operated on the roadways, streets, or highways of this state shall provide for the protection of the child by properly using a child passenger restraint system meeting applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. Is such a law a necessary protection, or does it violate due process, privacy, and the right of parents to raise children as they see fit? Does it also discriminate economically? PMID:7239892

  1. Video surveillance of passengers with mug shots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ming Kai; Lee, Ting N.; Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    The authority officer relies on facial mug-shots to spot suspects among crowds. Passing through a check point, the facial displays and printouts operate in low resolution fixed poses. Thus, a databases-cuing video is recommended for real-time surveillance with Aided-Target Recognition (AiTR) prompting the inspector taking a closer second look at a specific passenger. Taking advantage of commercial available Face Detection System on Chips (SOC) at 0.04sec, we develop a fast and smart algorithm to sort facial poses among passengers. We can increase the overlapping POFs (pixels on faces) in matching mug shots at arbitrary poses with sorted facial poses. Lemma: We define the long exposure as time average of facial poses and the short exposure as single facial pose in a frame of video in 30 Hz. The fiduciary triangle is defined among two eyes and nose-top. Theorem Self-Reference Matched Filtering (Szu et al. Opt Comm. 1980; JOSA, 1982) to Facial-Pose: If we replace the desirable output of Weiner filter as the long exposure, then the filter can select a short exposure as the normal view. Corollary: Given a short exposure as normal view, the fiduciary triangle can decide all poses from left-to-right and top-to-down.

  2. 14 CFR 121.573 - Briefing passengers: Extended overwater operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Briefing passengers: Extended overwater operations. 121.573 Section 121.573 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... passengers are orally briefed by the appropriate crewmember on the location and operation of life...

  3. 46 CFR 185.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 185.506 Section 185.506... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.506 Passenger safety orientation. (a) Except as... informed of the required safety information. (e) On a vessel on a voyage of more than 24 hours...

  4. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except small-arms ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions...

  5. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except small-arms ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions...

  6. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except small-arms ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions...

  7. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except small-arms ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions...

  8. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Regulations Applying to Hazardous Material on Motor Vehicles Carrying Passengers for Hire... hazardous materials on passenger-carrying vehicles, exceptions. No hazardous materials except small-arms ammunition, emergency shipments of drugs, chemicals and hospital supplies, and the accompanying munitions...

  9. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  10. 49 CFR 383.117 - Requirements for passenger endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for passenger endorsement. 383.117 Section 383.117 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR.../unloading passengers; (2) Proper use of emergency exits, including push-out windows; (3) Proper responses...

  11. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... cars built or rebuilt prior to July 1, 1980, shall be equipped with certified glazing in all windows and a minimum of four emergency windows after June 30, 1984. (d) Each passenger car subject to...

  12. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... cars built or rebuilt prior to July 1, 1980, shall be equipped with certified glazing in all windows and a minimum of four emergency windows after June 30, 1984. (d) Each passenger car subject to...

  13. 49 CFR 383.117 - Requirements for passenger endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for passenger endorsement. 383.117 Section 383.117 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR.../unloading passengers; (2) Proper use of emergency exits, including push-out windows; (3) Proper responses...

  14. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... confidential treatment pursuant to 49 CFR part 512, the manufacturer must also submit a complete copy of the... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  15. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... regulations of the Office of the Secretary of Transportation, 49 CFR 1.49(m)) ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND...

  16. 19 CFR 4.80a - Coastwise transportation of passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... request shall be filed in accordance with the provisions of part 177, CBP Regulations (19 CFR part 177). ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coastwise transportation of passengers. 4.80a... transportation of passengers. (a) For the purposes of this section, the following terms will have the meaning...

  17. 19 CFR 4.80a - Coastwise transportation of passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... request shall be filed in accordance with the provisions of part 177, CBP Regulations (19 CFR part 177). ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coastwise transportation of passengers. 4.80a... transportation of passengers. (a) For the purposes of this section, the following terms will have the meaning...

  18. 19 CFR 4.80a - Coastwise transportation of passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... request shall be filed in accordance with the provisions of part 177, CBP Regulations (19 CFR part 177). ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coastwise transportation of passengers. 4.80a... transportation of passengers. (a) For the purposes of this section, the following terms will have the meaning...

  19. 19 CFR 4.80a - Coastwise transportation of passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... request shall be filed in accordance with the provisions of part 177, CBP Regulations (19 CFR part 177). ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coastwise transportation of passengers. 4.80a... transportation of passengers. (a) For the purposes of this section, the following terms will have the meaning...

  20. 19 CFR 4.80a - Coastwise transportation of passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... request shall be filed in accordance with the provisions of part 177, CBP Regulations (19 CFR part 177). ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coastwise transportation of passengers. 4.80a... transportation of passengers. (a) For the purposes of this section, the following terms will have the meaning...

  1. 14 CFR 25.791 - Passenger information signs and placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Cargo Accommodations § 25.791 Passenger information signs and placards. (a) If smoking is to be.... If smoking is to be allowed, and if the crew compartment is separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one sign notifying when smoking is prohibited. Signs which notify when smoking...

  2. 14 CFR 25.791 - Passenger information signs and placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Cargo Accommodations § 25.791 Passenger information signs and placards. (a) If smoking is to be.... If smoking is to be allowed, and if the crew compartment is separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one sign notifying when smoking is prohibited. Signs which notify when smoking...

  3. 14 CFR 135.117 - Briefing of passengers before flight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...— (1) Smoking. Each passenger shall be briefed on when, where, and under what conditions smoking is... designated for safety purposes as no smoking areas, and crewmember instructions with regard to these items... lavatory; smoking in lavatories; and, when applicable, smoking in passenger compartments. (2) The use...

  4. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... passengers: (a) The materials must be at least flame-resistant; (b) (c) If smoking is to be prohibited, there must be a placard so stating, and if smoking is to be allowed— (1) There must be an adequate number of... passengers when smoking is prohibited. Signs which notify when smoking is prohibited must— (i)...

  5. 14 CFR 25.791 - Passenger information signs and placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Cargo Accommodations § 25.791 Passenger information signs and placards. (a) If smoking is to be.... If smoking is to be allowed, and if the crew compartment is separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one sign notifying when smoking is prohibited. Signs which notify when smoking...

  6. 14 CFR 25.791 - Passenger information signs and placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Cargo Accommodations § 25.791 Passenger information signs and placards. (a) If smoking is to be.... If smoking is to be allowed, and if the crew compartment is separated from the passenger compartment, there must be at least one sign notifying when smoking is prohibited. Signs which notify when smoking...

  7. 33 CFR 104.106 - Passenger access area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 104.106 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.106 Passenger access area. (a) A ferry, passenger vessel... access area is a defined space, within the area over which the owner or operator has implemented...

  8. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations of the Office of the Secretary of Transportation, 49 CFR 1.49(m)) ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND...

  9. 46 CFR 15.905 - Uninspected passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uninspected passenger vessels. 15.905 Section 15.905 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MANNING... 46 CFR 15.805(a)(6), of an uninspected passenger vessel of at least 100 gross tons within...

  10. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A...

  11. 78 FR 71785 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... FRA's January 3, 2012, proposed rule on passenger train emergency systems, see 77 FR 153, FRA issues... the Act, FRA published the Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness (PTEP) final rule. See 63 FR 24629...) final rule. See 64 FR 25540. The rule established comprehensive safety standards for railroad...

  12. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... wheelchairs and scooters used by passengers with disabilities. See 76 FR 41726. You may review comments to... mishandled wheelchairs and scooters used by passengers with disabilities. During the public meeting, DOT... processing and accounting for baggage and wheelchairs. This information is critical to determining the...

  13. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulations of the Office of the Secretary of Transportation, 49 CFR 1.49(m)) ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND...

  14. 46 CFR 15.530 - Large passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....S. flag large passenger vessel must ensure that any non-resident alien holding a Coast Guard-issued...) Convention of 1976. (b) On U.S. flag large passenger vessels, non-resident aliens holding a Coast Guard... subchapter; (ii) The non-resident alien has completed familiarization and basic safety training, as...

  15. 46 CFR 15.530 - Large passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....S. flag large passenger vessel must ensure that any non-resident alien holding a Coast Guard-issued...) Convention of 1976. (b) On U.S. flag large passenger vessels, non-resident aliens holding a Coast Guard... subchapter; (ii) The non-resident alien has completed familiarization and basic safety training, as...

  16. 46 CFR 15.530 - Large passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....S. flag large passenger vessel must ensure that any non-resident alien holding a Coast Guard-issued...) Convention of 1976. (b) On U.S. flag large passenger vessels, non-resident aliens holding a Coast Guard... subchapter; (ii) The non-resident alien has completed familiarization and basic safety training, as...

  17. 46 CFR 15.530 - Large passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....S. flag large passenger vessel must ensure that any non-resident alien holding a Coast Guard-issued.... (b) On U.S. flag large passenger vessels, non-resident aliens holding a Coast Guard-issued MMC... of this subchapter; (ii) The non-resident alien has completed familiarization and basic training,...

  18. 46 CFR 15.530 - Large passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....S. flag large passenger vessel must ensure that any non-resident alien holding a Coast Guard-issued...) Convention of 1976. (b) On U.S. flag large passenger vessels, non-resident aliens holding a Coast Guard... subchapter; (ii) The non-resident alien has completed familiarization and basic safety training, as...

  19. Shuttle passenger couch. [design and performance of engineering model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Stephenson, M. L.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual design and fabrication of a full scale shuttle passenger couch engineering model are reported. The model was utilized to verify anthropometric dimensions, reach dimensions, ingress/egress, couch operation, storage space, restraint locations, and crew acceptability. These data were then incorported in the design of the passenger couch verification model that underwent performance tests.

  20. 27 CFR 31.91 - Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Passenger trains, aircraft... Sales in Multiple Locations § 31.91 Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels. Persons who carry on the business of a retail dealer in liquors or of a retail dealer in beer on trains, aircraft, boats, or...

  1. 27 CFR 31.91 - Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Passenger trains, aircraft... Sales in Multiple Locations § 31.91 Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels. Persons who carry on the business of a retail dealer in liquors or of a retail dealer in beer on trains, aircraft, boats, or...

  2. Stabilizing mechanism and running behavior of couplers on heavy haul trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ziqiang; Wu, Qing; Luo, Shihui; Ma, Weihua; Dong, Xiaoqing

    2014-11-01

    Published studies in regard to coupler systems have been mainly focused on the manufacturing process or coupler strength issues. With the ever increasing of tonnage and length of heavy haul trains, lateral in-train forces generated by longitudinal in-train forces and coupler rotations have become a more and more significant safety issue for heavy haul train operations. Derailments caused by excessive lateral in-train forces are frequently reported. This article studies two typical coupler systems used on heavy haul locomotives. Their structures and stabilizing mechanism are analyzed before the corresponding models are developed. Coupler systems models are featured by two distinct stabilizing mechanism models and draft gear models with hysteresis considered. A model set which consists of four locomotives and three coupler systems is developed to study the rotational behavior of different coupler systems and their implications for locomotive dynamics. Simulated results indicate that when the locomotives are equipped with the type B coupler system, locomotives can meet the dynamics standard on tangent tracks; while the dynamics performance on curved tracks is very poor. The maximum longitudinal in-train force for locomotives equipped with the type B coupler system is 2000 kN. Simulations revealed a distinct trend for the type A coupler system. Locomotive dynamics are poorer for the type A case when locomotives are running on tangent tracks, while the dynamics are better for the type A case when locomotives are running on curved tracks. Theoretical studies and simulations carried out in this article suggest that a combination of the two types of stabilizing mechanism can result in a good design which can significantly decrease the relevant derailments.

  3. Conceptual modeling to optimize the haul and transfer of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Komilis, D P

    2008-11-01

    Two conceptual mixed integer linear optimization models were developed to optimize the haul and transfer of municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to landfilling. One model is based on minimizing time (h/d), whilst the second model is based on minimizing total cost (euro/d). Both models aim to calculate the optimum pathway to haul MSW from source nodes (waste production nodes, such as urban centers or municipalities) to sink nodes (landfills) via intermediate nodes (waste transfer stations). The models are applicable provided that the locations of the source, intermediate and sink nodes are fixed. The basic input data are distances among nodes, average vehicle speeds, haul cost coefficients (in euro/ton km), equipment and facilities' operating and investment cost, labor cost and tipping fees. The time based optimization model is easier to develop, since it is based on readily available data (distances among nodes). It can be used in cases in which no transfer stations are included in the system. The cost optimization model is more reliable compared to the time model provided that accurate cost data are available. The cost optimization model can be a useful tool to optimally allocate waste transfer stations in a region and can aid a community to investigate the threshold distance to a landfill above which the construction of a transfer station becomes financially beneficial. A sensitivity analysis reveals that queue times at the landfill or at the waste transfer station are key input variables. In addition, the waste transfer station ownership and the initial cost data affect the optimum path. A case study at the Municipality of Athens is used to illustrate the presented models.

  4. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    PubMed

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  5. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Double-annular clean combustor technology development report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, D. W.; Burrus, D. L.; Sabla, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    A sector combustor technology development program was conducted to define an advanced double annular dome combustor sized for use in the quiet clean short haul experimental engine (QCSEE). A design which meets the emission goals, and combustor performance goals of the QCSEE engine program was developed. Key design features were identified which resulted in substantial reduction in carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emission levels at ground idle operating conditions, in addition to very low nitric oxide emission levels at high power operating conditions. Their significant results are reported.

  6. Benchmarking study of industry practices during commercial long haul transport of cattle in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to document current commercial practices during long haul transport (≥400 km) of cattle in Alberta through surveys delivered to truck drivers (6,152 journeys that transported 290,362 animals). The live beef export industry to the United States (89% of all journeys) had a large influence on long haul transport. This was particularly true for fat cattle going to slaughter (82%) and backgrounded feeders going to feed yards (15%). Most drivers had either limited (31% with < 2 yr) or extensive (35% > 10 yr) experience hauling cattle. The type of tractors and trailers used most frequently were those with more number of axles (quad-axle trailers pulled with push tractors) because they can accommodate extra weight. Mean (± SD) distance travelled was 1,081 ± 343 km (maximum of 2,560 km) whereas time animals spent on truck averaged 15.9 ± 6.3 h with a maximum of 45 h. However, only 5% of all journeys were greater than 30 h. The most frequent cause of delay was at the Canada-United States border crossing due to paperwork and veterinary inspections. Border delays occurred on 77% of all journeys which had a mean of 1.3 ± 1.9 h and up to 15-h long. Driver rest stops and waiting to unload cattle at destination were the second most frequent and longest cause of delay. Ambient temperature across all journeys ranged from -42 to 45°C with a mean value of 18 ± 11.8°C while temperature variation within a journey was from 0 to 46°C with mean value of 15 ± 6.6°C. The proportion of dead, non-ambulatory, and lame cattle for all journeys was 0.011, 0.022, and 0.011%, respectively. The cattle transport industry showed compliance with federal regulations and to a lesser extent with recommendations. Findings showed extreme values and very large variability in transport conditions however further research is needed to assess their impact on animal welfare outcomes. Delays within the journey as a result of border crossing, weather conditions

  7. Operational requirements for flight control and navigation systems for short haul transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Operational procedures for use in an assumed short haul transport route were evaluated. The curved path approaches in airline use by large jet airplanes were studied. The characteristics of these approaches were included in development of operational procedures for transitions and approaches by a jet STOL transport. These procedures were used in a simulation experiment and were satisfactory for autoflight operation. A minimum turn radius of 3,000 ft. for a 180 final turn was determined for the wind conditions tested. The accuracy of the approaches was very good.

  8. Operational requirements for flight control and navigation systems for short haul transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    To provide a background for evaluating advanced STOL systems concepts, a number of short haul and STOL airline operations in the United States and one operation in Canada were studied. A study of flight director operational procedures for an advanced STOL research airplane, the Augmented Wing Jet STOL Research Airplane, was conducted using the STOLAND simulation facility located at the Ames Changes to the advanced digital flight control system (STOLAND) installed in the Augmentor Wing Airplane are proposed to improve the mode sequencing to simplify pilot procedures and reduce pilot workload.

  9. Advanced subsonic long-haul transport terminal area compatibility study. Volume 1: Compatibility assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was made to identify airplane research and technology necessary to ensure advanced transport aircraft the capability of accommodating forecast traffic without adverse impact on airport communities. Projections were made of the delay, noise, and emissions impact of future aircraft fleets on typical large urban airport. Design requirements, based on these projections, were developed for an advanced technology, long-haul, subsonic transport. A baseline aircraft was modified to fulfill the design requirements for terminal area compatibility. Technical and economic comparisons were made between these and other aircraft configured to support the study.

  10. Evaluation of advanced lift concepts and fuel conservative short-haul aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshaw, J. H.; Bowden, M. K.; Narucki, C. W.; Bennett, J. A.; Smith, P. R.; Ferrill, R. S.; Randall, C. C.; Tibbetts, J. G.; Patterson, R. W.; Meyer, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    The performance and economics of a twin-engine augmentor wing airplane were evaluated in two phases. Design aspects of the over-the-wing/internally blown flap hybrid, augmentor wing, and mechanical flap aircraft were investigated for 910 m. field length with parametric extension to other field lengths. Fuel savings achievable by application of advanced lift concepts to short-haul aircraft were evaluated and the effect of different field lengths, cruise requirements, and noise levels on fuel consumption and airplane economics at higher fuel prices were determined. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  11. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): Acoustic treatment development and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, A.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic treatment designs for the quiet clean short-haul experimental engines are defined. The procedures used in the development of each noise-source suppressor device are presented and discussed in detail. A complete description of all treatment concepts considered and the test facilities utilized in obtaining background data used in treatment development are also described. Additional supporting investigations that are complementary to the treatment development work are presented. The expected suppression results for each treatment configuration are given in terms of delta SPL versus frequency and in terms of delta PNdB.

  12. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 6: Systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A systems analysis of the quiet turbofan aircraft for short-haul transportation was conducted. The purpose of the study was to integrate the representative data generated by aircraft, market, and economic analyses. Activities of the study were to develop the approach and to refine the methodologies for analytic tradeoff, and sensitivity studies of propulsive lift conceptual aircraft and their performance in simulated regional airlines. The operations of appropriate airlines in each of six geographic regions of the United States were simulated. The offshore domestic regions were evaluated to provide a complete domestic evaluation of the STOL concept applicability.

  13. Effect of commercial hauling practices and tanker cleaning treatments on raw milk microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Darchuk, Emily M; Waite-Cusic, Joy; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2015-10-01

    Consolidation of the US milk industry has led to use of tankers for up to 24 h in between thorough cleanings. As the heavy use of tankers has not been previously studied, the effect of this form of hauling on raw milk quality is unknown. This study focused on the effect of frequent tanker use during hauling on raw milk quality at a commercial facility. Standard tanker use (cleaned-in-place once per 24 h) served as our control and incremental cleaning treatments (water rinse after each load, water rinse after each load with a sanitizer treatment after 12 h, and 12 h of sanitizer treatment) were added to the study to understand if any effect could be mitigated by more frequent cleaning. Producer samples were collected from the farm before loading milk into the tanker as well as sampling the same milk directly out of the tanker truck before unloading at the manufacturer. The study was repeated at 2 different dairy manufacturing facilities, once during the summer and once during the winter. Milk quality was quantified through industry-relevant microbiological tests: individual bacteria count, thermophilic spore count, and preliminary incubation count. Within the study we defined a negative effect on milk quality as a statistically significant difference between the tanker and producer samples in any of the 3 microbial tests conducted between treatments. Results from the study showed no clear effect due to hauling in individual bacteria count, thermophilic spore count, or preliminary incubation counts. There was also no difference in milk quality between the 2 plants, suggesting that neither season nor location affected our results in the standard use variable. As we did not see a negative effect on milk quality in the standard use variable, the addition of cleaning treatments did not appear to provide any clear benefit. Tanker surface swabs and ATP swabs were also used to monitor tanker sanitation and the efficacy of cleaning treatments. Both surface and ATP swabs

  14. An overview of the quiet short-haul research aircraft program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shovlin, M. D.; Cochrane, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) Program is presented, with special emphasis on its propulsion and acoustic aspects. A description of the NASA technical participation in the program including wind tunnel testing, engine ground tests, and advanced aircraft simulation is given. The aircraft and its systems are described and, measured performance, where available, is compared to program goals. Preliminary data indicate that additional research and development are needed in some areas of which acoustics is an example. Some of these additional research areas and potential experiments using the QSRA to develop the technology are discussed. The concept of the QSRA as a national flight research facility is explained.

  15. Cost and schedule management on the quiet short-haul research aircraft project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. E.; Patterakis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) Project, one of the largest aeronautical programs undertaken by NASA to date, achieved a significant cost underrun. This is attributed to numerous factors, not the least of which were the contractual arrangement and the system of cost and schedule management employed by the contractor. This paper summarizes that system and the methods used for cost/performance measurement by the contractor and by the NASA project management. Recommendations are made for the use of some of these concepts in particular for future programs of a similar nature.

  16. Cooling performance and evaluation of automotive refrigeration system for a passenger car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajitno, Deendarlianto, Majid, Akmal Irfan; Mardani, Mahardeka Dhias; Wicaksono, Wendi; Kamal, Samsul; Purwanto, Teguh Pudji; Fauzun

    2016-06-01

    A new design of automotive refrigeration system for a passenger car was proposed. To ensure less energy consumption and optimal thermal comfort, the performance of the system were evaluated. This current research was aimed to evaluate the refrigeration characteristics of the system for several types of cooling load. In this present study, a four-passenger wagon car with 1500 cc gasoline engine that equipped by a belt driven compressor (BDC) was used as the tested vehicle. To represent the tropical condition, a set of lamps and wind sources are installed around the vehicle. The blower capacity inside a car is varied from 0.015 m/s to 0.027 m/s and the compressor speed is varied at variable 820, 1400, and 2100 rpm at a set temperature of 22°C. A set of thermocouples that combined by data logger were used to measure the temperature distribution. The system uses R-134a as the refrigerant. In order to determine the cooling capacity of the vehicle, two conditions were presented: without passengers and full load conditions. As the results, cooling capacity from any possible heating sources and transient characteristics of temperature in both systems for the cabin, engine, compressor, and condenser are presented in this work. As the load increases, the outlet temperature of evaporator also increases due to the increase of condensed air. This phenomenon also causes the increase of compressor work and compression ratio which associated to the addition of specific volume in compressor inlet.

  17. 49 CFR 39.29 - May PVOs limit the number of passengers with a disability on a passenger vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mobility disability on your vessel. However, if in the Captain's judgment, weight or stability issues are presented by the presence of mobility devices and would conflict with legitimate safety requirements pertaining to the vessel and its passengers, then the number of passengers with mobility aids may be...

  18. Economic and environmental aspects of STOL transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    A system study to analyze the question of the impact of advanced STOL aircraft in meeting the needs of short-haul air transportation systems is discussed. The study is concerned with the following aspects: (1) service to the passenger, (2) economic viability, and (3) economic criteria to include community noise, ground and air decongestion, and air pollution. The STOL aircraft parameters are defined. Preliminary conclusions concerning the feasibility of short-haul air transportation are presented.

  19. Source identification of PM10 pollution in subway passenger cabins using positive matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Duckshin; Oh, Miseok; Yoon, Younghun; Park, Eunyoung; Lee, Kiyoung

    2012-03-01

    Monitoring the air quality in subway passenger cabins is important because of the large number of passengers and potentially high levels of air pollution. This report characterized PM10 levels in subway cabins in Seoul, Korea, and identified PM10 sources using elemental analysis and receptor modeling. PM10 levels in subway cabins were continuously measured using a light scattering monitor during rush and non-rush hours. A total of 41 measurements were taken during rush and non-rush hours, and the measurements were repeated in all four seasons. Filter samples were also collected for elemental composition analysis. Major PM10 sources were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF). The in-cabin PM10 concentrations were the highest in the winter at 152.8 μg m-3 during rush hours and 90.2 μg m-3 during non-rush hours. While PM10 levels were higher during rush hours than during non-rush hours in three seasons (excluding summer), these levels were not associated with number of passenger. Elemental analysis showed that the PM10 was composed of 52.5% inorganic elements, 10.2% anions, and 37.3% other. Fe was the most abundant element and significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with Mn (r = 0.97), Ti (r = 0.91), Cr (r = 0.88), Ni (r = 0.89), and Cu (r = 0.88). Fe, Mn, Cr, and Cu are indicators of railroad-related PM10 sources. The PM10 sources characterized by PMF were soil and road dust sources (27.2%), railroad-related sources (47.6%), secondary nitrate sources (16.2%), and a chlorine factor mixed with a secondary sulfate source (9.1%). Overall, railroad-related sources contributed the most PM10 to subway cabin air.

  20. Certification and safety aspects relating to the transport of passengers on high altitude balloons in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenmaker, Annelie

    2014-07-01

    High-altitude balloons typically fly between 25 and 50 km in altitude, which, while below the Karman line of 100 km, is yet far above the altitudes typically flown by aircraft. For example, the highest-flying commercial aircraft - the Concorde - had a maximum cruising altitude of only 18 km. zero2infinity, a Spanish company, is currently developing a pressurized pod named “bloon” which will be capable of lifting six people, including two pilot crew members and four paying passengers, to an altitude of 36 km through the use of high-altitude balloons. The boundary between Airspace and Outer Space has never been legally defined, mostly because of the lack of activities taking place between the altitude where airplanes fly and the lowest orbiting spacecraft. High-altitude balloons do fly at these in-between altitudes and the prospect of commercializing access to these parts of the stratosphere poses some questions in a new light. Given the relatively low altitude at which they fly, it may well be that these types of balloons would be considered to operate exclusively within air space. However, given the technology involved in crewed high altitude balloon flights, which is more similar to spacecraft engineering than to traditional hot-air or gas ballooning, it is necessary to evaluate the various legal regimes, codes, and regulations that would apply to such flights, especially regarding licenses and liabilities. For high altitude balloon flights commencing in Europe, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) would very likely be the competent certification or licensing agency for these flights, although there would likely be input from various national aviation authorities as well. However, because the European Commission (EC) has not yet issued regulations regarding commercial spaceflight, particularly the use of high altitude balloons, new rules and regulations governing such flights may still need to be drafted and promulgated. With the development of