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Sample records for hawaii volcanoes national

  1. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  2. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park....

  3. Volcano related atmospheric toxicants in Hilo and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Jon-Pierre; Krupitsky, Dmitry; Grove, John S; Anderson, Bruce S

    2005-08-01

    Volcanic fog (vog) from Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawaii includes a variety of chemical species including sulfur compounds and traces of metals such as mercury. The metal species seen tended to be in the nanograms per cubic meter range, whereas oxides of sulfur: SO2 and SO3 and sulfate aerosols, were in the range of micrograms per cubic meter and rarely even as high as a few milligrams per cubic meter of air (nominally ppb to ppm). These sulfur species are being investigated for associations with both acute and chronic changes in human health status. The sulfate aerosols tend to be less than 1 microm in diameter and tend to dominate the mass of this submicron size mode. The sulfur chemistry is dynamic, changing composition from predominantly sulfur dioxide and trioxide gasses near the volcano, to predominantly sulfate aerosols on the west side of the island. Time, concentration and composition characteristics of submicron aerosols and sulfur dioxide are described with respect to the related on-going health studies and public health management concerns. Exposures to sulfur dioxide and particulate matter equal to or less than 1 microm in size were almost always below the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). These standards do not however consider the acidic nature and submicron size of the aerosol, nor the possibility of the aerosol and the sulfur dioxide interacting in their toxicity. Time series plots, histograms and descriptive statistics of hourly averages give the reader a sense of some of the exposures observed.

  4. Volcano related atmospheric toxicants in Hilo and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Jon-Pierre; Krupitsky, Dmitry; Grove, John S; Anderson, Bruce S

    2005-08-01

    Volcanic fog (vog) from Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawaii includes a variety of chemical species including sulfur compounds and traces of metals such as mercury. The metal species seen tended to be in the nanograms per cubic meter range, whereas oxides of sulfur: SO2 and SO3 and sulfate aerosols, were in the range of micrograms per cubic meter and rarely even as high as a few milligrams per cubic meter of air (nominally ppb to ppm). These sulfur species are being investigated for associations with both acute and chronic changes in human health status. The sulfate aerosols tend to be less than 1 microm in diameter and tend to dominate the mass of this submicron size mode. The sulfur chemistry is dynamic, changing composition from predominantly sulfur dioxide and trioxide gasses near the volcano, to predominantly sulfate aerosols on the west side of the island. Time, concentration and composition characteristics of submicron aerosols and sulfur dioxide are described with respect to the related on-going health studies and public health management concerns. Exposures to sulfur dioxide and particulate matter equal to or less than 1 microm in size were almost always below the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). These standards do not however consider the acidic nature and submicron size of the aerosol, nor the possibility of the aerosol and the sulfur dioxide interacting in their toxicity. Time series plots, histograms and descriptive statistics of hourly averages give the reader a sense of some of the exposures observed. PMID:16112321

  5. Health-hazard Evaluation Report Heta 90-179-2172, National Park Service, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hilo, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, G.A.; Stephenson, R.L.; Kawamoto, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In response to a request from the National Park Service, an evaluation was undertaken of possible hazardous exposures to volcanic emissions, both gases and particulates, at the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (SIC-7999) on the island of Hawaii in the State of Hawaii. Concerns included exposures to sulfur-dioxide (7446095) (SO2), asphalt decomposition products from burning pavement, acid mists when lava enters the ocean, volcanic caused smog, and Pele's hair (a fibrous glass like material). Two other related requests for study were also received in regard to civil defense workers in these areas. No detectable levels of SO2 were found during long term colorimetric detector tube sampling used to characterize park workers' personal full shift exposures. Short term detector tube samples collected near a naturally occurring sulfur vent showed SO2 levels of 1.2 parts per million (ppm). Work related symptoms reported by more than 50% of the respondents included headache, eye irritation, throat irritation, cough, and phlegm. Chest tightness or wheezing and shortness of breath were also frequently reported. Samples collected for hydrochloric-acid (7647010) and hydrofluoric-acid (7664393) recorded concentrations of up to 15ppm for the former and 1.0ppm for the latter acid. Airborne particulates in the laze plume were comprised largely of chloride salts. Airborne fibers were detected at a concentration of 0.16 fibers per cubic centimeter. The authors conclude that excessive exposure to SO2 can occur at some locations within the park. The authors recommend that workers and visitors to the park be informed of the potential for exposures.

  6. Diet of feral cats in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, S.C.; Hansen, H.; Nelson, D.; Swift, R.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    We documented the diet of feral cats by analysing the contents of 42 digestive tracts from Kilauea and Mauna Loa in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Small mammals, invertebrates, and birds were the most common prey types consumed by feral cats. Birds occurred in 27.8-29.2% of digestive tracts. The total number of bird, small mammal, and invertebrate prey differed between Kilauea and Mauna Loa. On Mauna Loa, significantly more (89%) feral cats consumed small mammals, primarily rodents, than on Kilauea Volcano (50%). Mice (Mus musculus) were the major component of the feral cat diet on Mauna Loa, whereas Orthoptera were the major component of the diet on Kilauea. We recovered a mandible set, feathers, and bones of an endangered Hawaiian Petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) from a digestive tract from Mauna Loa. This specimen represents the first well-documented endangered seabird to be recovered from the digestive tract of a feral cat in Hawai'i and suggests that feral cats prey on this species.

  7. Egg parasitoids of Sophonia rufofascia (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.T.; Yang, P.; Huber, J.T.; Jones, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitism of the leafhopper Sophonia rufofascia (Kuoh and Kuoh), a recent immigrant that has become a widespread pest in Hawaii, was examined in a 1-year survey in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Samples of young leaves of four plant species infested with eggs of S. rufofascia were collected at five sites ranging from 880 to 1190 m in elevation. Leafhopper eggs were parasitized principally by three species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera): Polynema sp., Schizophragma sp. probably bicolor (Dozier), and Chaetomymar sp. Although parasitism by each species fluctuated at levels usually below 10%, all three were detected consistently across most host plants, sites, and sample periods. Total parasitism differed at a marginally significant level among host plants and sites, but not among sample periods. Total parasitism averaged 14.3% (maximum: 26.3%) on Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin, 10.6% (maximum: 17.5%) on Myrica faya Aiton, 8.7% (maximum: 29.5%) on Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich-Beaupre, and 1.6% (maximum: 4.3%) on Vaccinium reticulatum Smith. Parasitism was generally higher at sites lower in elevation. Further monitoring is recommended to determine whether parasitism will increase to levels that can effectively suppress S. rufofascia populations. The efficacy of natural enemies already present in Hawaii is important because concern over nontarget impacts on endemic leafhoppers makes introduction of new biological control agents difficult. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Efficacy of fipronil for control of yellowjacket wasps in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, David; Hanna, Cause; King, Cynthia; Spurr, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The western yellowjacket wasp (Vespula pensylvanica) invaded Hawai`i’s national parks and refuges following its spread throughout the islands in the late 1970s. The endemic arthropod fauna of Hawai`i is thought to be especially vulnerable to these predacious social Hymenoptera, and methods of wasp control have been a priority for conservation biology in Hawai`i. The efficacy of the insecticide fipronil mixed with minced canned chicken meat for suppression of yellowjacket populations was evaluated in five experimental field trials in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park between 1999 and 2005. Populations of Vespula were monitored in replicate twoto four- hectare study areas in mesic montane and seasonal submontane forests, before and after application of chicken bait, with and without 0.1% fipronil, and in treatment and nontreatment areas. The bait was applied in hanging bait stations for two to three days. The response of yellowjacket wasp populations was measured using at least three different metrics of abundance including instantaneous counts of wasps at bait stations, wasp traffic rates at Vespula nests, as well as heptyl butyrate trap and/or malaise trap catches in the study areas. All indices of wasp abundance exhibited significant reductions in sites treated with fipronil compared with non-treatment sites with the exception of malaise trapping, where only a limited number of traps were available to be deployed. Wasp traffic ceased at all Vespula nests in sites treated with fipronil within a month after baiting in four of the five trials. The only trial where fipronil failed to terminate yellowjacket nest activity occurred late in the fall when wasps switch from feeding on protein to carbohydrate foods. Based on these data, 0.1% fipronil in chicken bait appears to be an effective tool for suppressing local Vespula yellowjacket populations in the park and other natural areas during the period of peak wasp activity in the summer and early fall months.

  9. Hyperspectral and LiDAR remote sensing of fire fuels in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    PubMed

    Varga, Timothy A; Asner, Gregory P

    2008-04-01

    Alien invasive grasses threaten to transform Hawaiian ecosystems through the alteration of ecosystem dynamics, especially the creation or intensification of a fire cycle. Across sub-montane ecosystems of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on Hawaii Island, we quantified fine fuels and fire spread potential of invasive grasses using a combination of airborne hyperspectral and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) measurements. Across a gradient from forest to savanna to shrubland, automated mixture analysis of hyperspectral data provided spatially explicit fractional cover estimates of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and bare substrate and shade. Small-footprint LiDAR provided measurements of vegetation height along this gradient of ecosystems. Through the fusion of hyperspectral and LiDAR data, a new fire fuel index (FFI) was developed to model the three-dimensional volume of grass fuels. Regionally, savanna ecosystems had the highest volumes of fire fuels, averaging 20% across the ecosystem and frequently filling all of the three-dimensional space represented by each image pixel. The forest and shrubland ecosystems had lower FFI values, averaging 4.4% and 8.4%, respectively. The results indicate that the fusion of hyperspectral and LiDAR remote sensing can provide unique information on the three-dimensional properties of ecosystems, their flammability, and the potential for fire spread.

  10. Hyperspectral and LiDAR remote sensing of fire fuels in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    PubMed

    Varga, Timothy A; Asner, Gregory P

    2008-04-01

    Alien invasive grasses threaten to transform Hawaiian ecosystems through the alteration of ecosystem dynamics, especially the creation or intensification of a fire cycle. Across sub-montane ecosystems of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on Hawaii Island, we quantified fine fuels and fire spread potential of invasive grasses using a combination of airborne hyperspectral and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) measurements. Across a gradient from forest to savanna to shrubland, automated mixture analysis of hyperspectral data provided spatially explicit fractional cover estimates of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and bare substrate and shade. Small-footprint LiDAR provided measurements of vegetation height along this gradient of ecosystems. Through the fusion of hyperspectral and LiDAR data, a new fire fuel index (FFI) was developed to model the three-dimensional volume of grass fuels. Regionally, savanna ecosystems had the highest volumes of fire fuels, averaging 20% across the ecosystem and frequently filling all of the three-dimensional space represented by each image pixel. The forest and shrubland ecosystems had lower FFI values, averaging 4.4% and 8.4%, respectively. The results indicate that the fusion of hyperspectral and LiDAR remote sensing can provide unique information on the three-dimensional properties of ecosystems, their flammability, and the potential for fire spread. PMID:18488621

  11. Birds in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park: summary of the 2010 inventory and monitoring program survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Judge, Seth W.; Hart, Patrick J.; Kudray, Greg; Gaudioso, Jacqueline M.; Hsu, Bobby H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) created the Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program in 1998 to establish baseline information and assess long-term trends in "vital signs" or key abiotic and biotic elements of National Parks (Fancy et al. 2009). The Pacific Island Network of the I&M Program developed a Landbirds Monitoring Protocol (LMP; Camp et al. 2011) to estimate species-specific status and monitor longterm trends in landbird distribution and abundance. Parks included in the LMP that harbor habitat critically important to native forest birds are Haleakala National Park (Maui Island), Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO; Hawai'i Island), and the National Park of American Samoa (American Samoa). In 2010, the LMP was implemented in HAVO to survey landbird density and abundance. This implementation was the first anywhere in the Pacific Islands by the I&M Program, and continued monitoring is planned every five years in all three parks.

  12. A preliminary assessment of mouflon abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Kawakami, Ben; Okita, David; Medeiros, Keola

    2006-01-01

    Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) recently acquired the 115,653 acre Kahuku Ranch unit adjacent to the existing Mauna Loa section of HAVO. Kahuku contains numerous exceptional natural resources including many federally listed threatened and endangered species. An apparently large and growing population of alien mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon), however, threatens sensitive native plants and forest bird habitats. Population composition and abundance estimates were urgently needed to determine the magnitude of resources required to manage this species and justify costs. We surveyed 32,433 acres from helicopter over 2 days in November 2004 during breeding to determine the abundance and population structure. We estimated that there were more than 2,586 ? 705 (90% CI) mouflon at Kahuku. Overall, group sizes averaged 7.8 and the sex ratio was 1:2.4 rams:ewes, but approximately 44% of the population was concentrated in forested areas near ranching operations where group sizes averaged >15 and the sex ratio was 1:3.9 rams:ewes. The remaining 56% of the population occurred widely dispersed in subalpine shrubland and barren lava flows. Abundance estimates are likely to be conservative because they were not adjusted for detection probability. Ground-based surveys of lambs suggest upper biological limit to annual population increase of 33.1% under existing environmental conditions. Historical information used to calculate population trends indicated the apparent rate of population increase to be 21.1%. In the absence of removals, the population increment for 2004-2005, would be more than 546-856, and the population doubling time with these growth rates is 3-4 years.

  13. Hawaii's volcanoes revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Smith, John R.; Takahashi, Eiichi; Clague, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes typically evolve in four stages as volcanism waxes and wanes: (1) early alkalic, when volcanism originates on the deep sea floor; (2) shield, when roughly 95 percent of a volcano's volume is emplaced; (3) post-shield alkalic, when small-volume eruptions build scattered cones that thinly cap the shield-stage lavas; and (4) rejuvenated, when lavas of distinct chemistry erupt following a lengthy period of erosion and volcanic quiescence. During the early alkalic and shield stages, two or more elongate rift zones may develop as flanks of the volcano separate. Mantle-derived magma rises through a vertical conduit and is temporarily stored in a shallow summit reservoir from which magma may erupt within the summit region or be injected laterally into the rift zones. The ongoing activity at Kilauea's Pu?u ?O?o cone that began in January 1983 is one such rift-zone eruption. The rift zones commonly extend deep underwater, producing submarine eruptions of bulbous pillow lava. Once a volcano has grown above sea level, subaerial eruptions produce lava flows of jagged, clinkery ?a?a or smooth, ropy pahoehoe. If the flows reach the ocean they are rapidly quenched by seawater and shatter, producing a steep blanket of unstable volcanic sediment that mantles the upper submarine slopes. Above sea level then, the volcanoes develop the classic shield profile of gentle lava-flow slopes, whereas below sea level slopes are substantially steeper. While the volcanoes grow rapidly during the shield stage, they may also collapse catastrophically, generating giant landslides and tsunami, or fail more gradually, forming slumps. Deformation and seismicity along Kilauea's south flank indicate that slumping is occurring there today. Loading of the underlying Pacific Plate by the growing volcanic edifices causes subsidence, forming deep basins at the base of the volcanoes. Once volcanism wanes and lava flows no longer reach the ocean, the volcano continues to submerge, while

  14. Distribution of invasive ants and methods for their control in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, Robert W.; Banko, Paul C.; Snook, Kirsten; Euaparadorn, Melody

    2013-01-01

    The first invasive ants were detected in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) more than 80 years ago. Ecological impacts of these ants are largely unknown, but studies in Hawai`i and elsewhere increasingly show that invasive ants can reduce abundance and diversity of native arthropod communities as well as disrupt pollination and food webs. Prior to the present study, knowledge of ant distributions in HAVO has primarily been restricted to road- and trail-side surveys of the Kīlauea and Mauna Loa Strip sections of the park. Due to the risks that ants pose to HAVO resources, understanding their distributions and identifying tools to eradicate or control populations of the most aggressive species is an important objective of park managers. We mapped ant distributions in two of the most intensively managed sections of the park, Mauna Loa Strip and Kahuku. We also tested the efficacy of baits to control the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) and the big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala), two of the most aggressive and ecologically destructive species in Hawai`i. Efficacy testing of formicidal bait was designed to provide park managers with options for eradicating small populations or controlling populations that occur at levels beyond which they can be eradicated. Within the Mauna Loa Strip and Kahuku sections of HAVO we conducted systematic surveys of ant distributions at 1625 stations covering nearly 200 km of roads, fences, and transects between August 2008 and April 2010. Overall, 15 ant species were collected in the two areas, with 12 being found on Mauna Loa Strip and 11 at Kahuku. Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi was most widespread at both sites, ranging in elevation from 920 to 2014 m, and was the only species found above 1530 m. Argentine ants and big-headed ants were also found in both areas, but their distributions did not overlap. Surveys of Argentine ants identified areas of infestation covering 560 ha at Mauna Loa Strip and 585 ha at Kahuku. At both sites

  15. Distribution of invasive ants and methods for their control in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, Robert W.; Banko, Paul C.; Snook, Kirsten; Euaparadorn, Melody

    2013-01-01

    The first invasive ants were detected in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) more than 80 years ago. Ecological impacts of these ants are largely unknown, but studies in Hawai`i and elsewhere increasingly show that invasive ants can reduce abundance and diversity of native arthropod communities as well as disrupt pollination and food webs. Prior to the present study, knowledge of ant distributions in HAVO has primarily been restricted to road- and trail-side surveys of the Kīlauea and Mauna Loa Strip sections of the park. Due to the risks that ants pose to HAVO resources, understanding their distributions and identifying tools to eradicate or control populations of the most aggressive species is an important objective of park managers. We mapped ant distributions in two of the most intensively managed sections of the park, Mauna Loa Strip and Kahuku. We also tested the efficacy of baits to control the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) and the big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala), two of the most aggressive and ecologically destructive species in Hawai`i. Efficacy testing of formicidal bait was designed to provide park managers with options for eradicating small populations or controlling populations that occur at levels beyond which they can be eradicated. Within the Mauna Loa Strip and Kahuku sections of HAVO we conducted systematic surveys of ant distributions at 1625 stations covering nearly 200 km of roads, fences, and transects between August 2008 and April 2010. Overall, 15 ant species were collected in the two areas, with 12 being found on Mauna Loa Strip and 11 at Kahuku. Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi was most widespread at both sites, ranging in elevation from 920 to 2014 m, and was the only species found above 1530 m. Argentine ants and big-headed ants were also found in both areas, but their distributions did not overlap. Surveys of Argentine ants identified areas of infestation covering 560 ha at Mauna Loa Strip and 585 ha at Kahuku. At both sites

  16. Rare and endangered species of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park; endangered, threatened, and rare animal, plant, and community handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Linda W.; Pratt, Thane K.; Foote, David; Marcos Gorresen, mgorresen@usgs.gov

    2011-01-01

    In some cases, HAVO offers the best opportunity to save these species and communities from extinction. Increasingly, the park has attempted to restore rare populations by conducting surveys to locate them, controlling threats such as feral livestock, and bolstering existing populations or creating new ones by planting nursery stock. To aid such efforts, our original intent was to publish an identification guide for researchers and field management personnel. Particularly, we wanted to familiarize the reader with the many rare plant species which otherwise are known mainly from the technical literature. Because we soon came to realize that this handbook would be useful to a much larger, general readership, our aim is to make this information available to anyone interested in endangered animals and plants at Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.

  17. Reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2005-08-01

    Objectives. To examine fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Methods. Official press releases from the public relations office at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park were examined for reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists. Results. Between 1992 and 2002 there were 65 press releases reporting 40 fatalities, 45 serious injuries, 53 minor injuries, and 25 no injury events. Severity information was unavailable for four additional tourists. Aircraft and backcountry incidents each accounted for 30% of all incidents followed by road incidents (22%) and frontcountry incidents (17%). Aircraft incidents reported 17 fatalities, backcountry incidents accounted for 10 fatalities, frontcountry incidents reported seven fatalities, and road incidents totaled six fatalities. One fatality was classified as a suicide. Backcountry (23) and road (10) incidents had the highest number of serious incidents. Male tourists (62) were more frequently involved in incidents than female tourists (41) and tourists aged 20-29 years and 40-49 years accounted for the highest number of fatalities and total incidents. Conclusions. Helicopter tours, hiking in areas with active lava flows, falls into steam vents and earthcracks, and driving unfamiliar rental cars in unfamiliar locations are the major activities resulting in death and serious injury. Additional factors such as tourists ignoring warning signs, wandering off-trail or hiking at night, tourists misinformed by guidebooks and other tourists, and tourists with pre-existing heart and asthma conditions are contributing causes in many incidents. The findings of this study provide information that allows prospective tourists, tourism managers, and travel health providers make informed decisions that promote safe tourism and can aid future efforts in developing preventative strategies at tourist destinations with similar environments and activities. However, in order for preventative

  18. Reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2005-08-01

    Objectives. To examine fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Methods. Official press releases from the public relations office at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park were examined for reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists. Results. Between 1992 and 2002 there were 65 press releases reporting 40 fatalities, 45 serious injuries, 53 minor injuries, and 25 no injury events. Severity information was unavailable for four additional tourists. Aircraft and backcountry incidents each accounted for 30% of all incidents followed by road incidents (22%) and frontcountry incidents (17%). Aircraft incidents reported 17 fatalities, backcountry incidents accounted for 10 fatalities, frontcountry incidents reported seven fatalities, and road incidents totaled six fatalities. One fatality was classified as a suicide. Backcountry (23) and road (10) incidents had the highest number of serious incidents. Male tourists (62) were more frequently involved in incidents than female tourists (41) and tourists aged 20-29 years and 40-49 years accounted for the highest number of fatalities and total incidents. Conclusions. Helicopter tours, hiking in areas with active lava flows, falls into steam vents and earthcracks, and driving unfamiliar rental cars in unfamiliar locations are the major activities resulting in death and serious injury. Additional factors such as tourists ignoring warning signs, wandering off-trail or hiking at night, tourists misinformed by guidebooks and other tourists, and tourists with pre-existing heart and asthma conditions are contributing causes in many incidents. The findings of this study provide information that allows prospective tourists, tourism managers, and travel health providers make informed decisions that promote safe tourism and can aid future efforts in developing preventative strategies at tourist destinations with similar environments and activities. However, in order for preventative

  19. Population dynamics of introduced rodents in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 1986-1990.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheffler, Pamela Y.; Foote, D.; Forbes-Perry, Charlotte; Schlappa, K.; Stone, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    We determined seasonal and geographical distribution patterns for four species of introduced rodents in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park from 1986-1990. We surveyed black rats (Rattus rattus), Polynesian rats (R. exulans), Norway rats (R. norvegicus) and house mice (Mus musculus) along an elevation gradient ranging from 90–1,820 m above sea level in five different sites using baited snap traps. Rodent community structure differed by elevation: there were more mice at montane sites and more Polynesian rats in the lowlands. We found that breeding occurred throughout the year for all species at all sites but that seasonal peaks in reproductive activity were common. Reproduction tended to be more common in the summer months at higher elevation sites and in the winter months at lower elevations. Rodents of all species were more abundant in our study in the winter than in the summer, but the differences were not significant. The overall sex ratio did not vary from a 1:1 ratio, but seasonally there were differences in sex ratio which varied with species and site. We calculated the minimum distance traveled from an assessment line and found that larger-bodied species traveled longer average distances. Pelage color in black rats was darkest in wet forest which may have adaptive value. Black and Polynesian rats were widespread in almost all habitat types, whereas mice were limited to dry and mesic sites; Norway rats were the rarest component of our sampling and found only in wet montane forest (‘Ōla‘a Forest).

  20. Survey of roadside alien plants in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and adjacent residential areas 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bio, Keali'i F.; Pratt, Linda W.; Jacobi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    The sides of all paved roads of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) were surveyed on foot in 2001 to 2005, and the roadside presence of 240 target invasive and potentially invasive alien plant species was recorded in mile-long increments. Buffer zones 5–10 miles (8–16 km) long along Highway 11 on either side of the Kīlauea and Kahuku Units of the park, as well as Wright Road that passed by the disjunct `Ōla`a Tract Unit, were included in the survey. Highway 11 is the primary road through the park and a major island thoroughfare. Three residential subdivisions adjacent to the park were similarly surveyed in 0.5–1 mile (0.8–1.6 km) intervals in 2003, and data were analyzed separately. Two roads to the east and northeast were also surveyed, but data from these disjunct areas were analyzed separately from park roads. In total, 174 of the target alien species were observed along HAVO roads and buffers, exclusive of residential areas, and the mean number of target aliens per mile surveyed was 20.6. Highway 11 and its buffer zones had the highest mean number of target alien plants per mile (26.7) of all park roads, and the Mauna Loa Strip Road had the lowest mean (11.7). Segments of Highway 11 adjacent to HAVO and Wright Road next to `Ōla`a Tract had mean numbers of target alien per mile (24–47) higher than those of any internal road. Alien plant frequencies were summarized for each road in HAVO. Fifteen new records of vascular plants for HAVO were observed and collected along park roads. An additional 28 alien plant species not known from HAVO were observed along the buffer segments of Highway 11 adjacent to the park. Within the adjacent residential subdivisions, 65 target alien plant species were sighted along roadsides. At least 15 potentially invasive species not currently found within HAVO were observed along residential roads, and several other species found there have been previously eliminated from the park or controlled to remnant populations

  1. Glaciation of Haleakala volcano, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.G.; Mark, R. ); Porter, S.C. . Quaternary Research Center)

    1993-04-01

    Early debates regarding the large (5 [times] 10 km) summit crater'' of Haleakala volcano (3,055 m altitude) on the island of Maui attributed its origin to renting, rifting, caldera collapse, or erosion. It now is commonly assumed to have resulted from headward expansion of giant canyons by stream erosion (Stearns, 1942). Slope maps and shaded relief images based on new USGS digital elevation data point to the apparent overfit of the canyons that drain the summit depression. Studies of drowned coral reefs and terraces on the offshore east rift of Haleakala indicate that this part of the volcano has undergone submergence of about 2 km, as well as tilting, since 850 ka ago. Such subsidence indicates that the summit altitude at the end of the shield-building phase reached ca. 5,000 m, well above both the present and full-glacial snowlines. A comparison with the radiometrically dated glacial record of Mauna Kea and its reconstructed snowline history suggests that Haleakala experienced 10 or more glaciations, the most extensive during marine isotope stages 20, 18, and 16. By isotope stage 10, the summit had subsided below the full-glacial snowline. Diamictons on the south slope of the volcano, previously described as mudflows, contain lava clasts with superchilled margins, identical to margins of subglacially erupted lavas on Mauna Kea. Glacier ice that mantled the upper slopes of the volcano continuously for several hundred thousand years and intermittently thereafter, is inferred to have carved Haleakala crater and the upper reaches of large canyons radiating from it.

  2. Geology and petrology of Mahukona Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Moore, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The submarine Mahukona Volcano, west of the island of Hawaii, is located on the Loa loci line between Kahoolawe and Hualalai Volcanoes. The west rift zone ridge of the volcano extends across a drowned coral reef at about-1150 m and a major slope break at about-1340 m, both of which represent former shoreines. The summit of the volcano apparently reached to about 250 m above sea level (now at-1100 m depth) did was surmounted by a roughly circular caldera. A econd rift zone probably extended toward the east or sutheast, but is completely covered by younger lavas from the adjacent subaerial volcanoes. Samples were vecovered from nine dredges and four submersible lives. Using subsidence rates and the compositions of flows which drape the dated shoreline terraces, we infer that the voluminous phase of tholeiitic shield growth ended about 470 ka, but tholeiitic eruptions continued until at least 435 ka. Basalt, transitional between tholeiitic and alkalic basalt, erupted at the end of tholeiitic volcanism, but no postshield-alkalic stage volcanism occurred. The summit of the volcano apparently subcided below sea level between 435 and 365 ka. The tholeiitic lavas recovered are compositionally diverse. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  3. 76 FR 75557 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for General Management Plan/Wilderness Study, Hawaii...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ..., Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent... is being prepared for updating the General Management Plan (GMP) for Hawaii Volcanoes National Park... effects associated with possible designation of additional wilderness within Hawaii Volcanoes...

  4. Status and limiting factors of three rare plant species in the coastal lowlands and mid-elevation woodlands of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Linda W.; VanDeMark, Joshua R.; Euaparadorn, Melody

    2011-01-01

    Two endangered plant species (Portulaca sclerocarpa, `ihi mākole, and Sesbania tomentosa, `ōhai) and a species of concern (Bobea timonioides, `ahakea) native to the coastal lowlands and dry mid-elevation woodlands of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park were studied for more than two years to determine their stand structure, short-term mortality rates, patterns of reproductive phenology, success of fruit production, seed germination rates in the greenhouse, presence of soil seed bank, and survival of both natural and planted seedlings. The role of rodents as fruit and seed predators was evaluated using exclosures and seed offerings in open and closed stations or cages. Rodents were excluded from randomly selected plants of P. sclerocarpa and from branches of S. tomentosa, and flower and fruit production were compared to that of adjacent unprotected plants. Tagged S. tomentosa fruit were also monitored monthly to detect rodent predation.

  5. Living on Active Volcanoes - The Island of Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heliker, Christina; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1997-01-01

    People on the Island of Hawai'i face many hazards that come with living on or near active volcanoes. These include lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and tsunamis (giant seawaves). As the population of the island grows, the task of reducing the risk from volcano hazards becomes increasingly difficult. To help protect lives and property, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory closely monitor and study Hawai'i's volcanoes and issue timely warnings of hazardous activity.

  6. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric radar data -- that is data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle which are then overlayed to obtain elevation information -- acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 80 kilometers (25 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the image. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in the direction that the radar instrument was pointed (toward the right of the image) in the six months between images. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrains on Earth. Several regions show motions over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the image. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's 'plumbing' system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of imaging radar technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and future imaging

  7. Deep magma transport at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, T.L.; Klein, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    The shallow part of Kilauea's magma system is conceptually well-understood. Long-period and short-period (brittle-failure) earthquake swarms outline a near-vertical magma transport path beneath Kilauea's summit to 20 km depth. A gravity high centered above the magma transport path demonstrates that Kilauea's shallow magma system, established early in the volcano's history, has remained fixed in place. Low seismicity at 4-7 km outlines a storage region from which magma is supplied for eruptions and intrusions. Brittle-failure earthquake swarms shallower than 5 km beneath the rift zones accompany dike emplacement. Sparse earthquakes extend to a decollement at 10-12 km along which the south flank of Kilauea is sliding seaward. This zone below 5 km can sustain aseismic magma transport, consistent with recent tomographic studies. Long-period earthquake clusters deeper than 40 km occur parallel to and offshore of Kilauea's south coast, defining the deepest seismic response to magma transport from the Hawaiian hot spot. A path connecting the shallow and deep long-period earthquakes is defined by mainshock-aftershock locations of brittle-failure earthquakes unique to Kilauea whose hypocenters are deeper than 25 km with magnitudes from 4.4 to 5.2. Separation of deep and shallow long-period clusters occurs as the shallow plumbing moves with the volcanic edifice, while the deep plumbing is centered over the hotspot. Recent GPS data agrees with the volcano-propagation vector from Kauai to Maui, suggesting that Pacific plate motion, azimuth 293.5?? and rate of 7.4 cm/yr, has been constant over Kilauea's lifetime. However, volcano propagation on the island of Hawaii, azimuth 325??, rate 13 cm/yr, requires southwesterly migration of the locus of melting within the broad hotspot. Deep, long-period earthquakes lie west of the extrapolated position of Kilauea backward in time along a plate-motion vector, requiring southwesterly migration of Kilauea's magma source. Assumed ages of 0

  8. Seismic Hazards at Kilauea and Mauna LOA Volcanoes, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Fred W.

    1994-04-22

    A significant seismic hazard exists in south Hawaii from large tectonic earthquakes that can reach magnitude 8 and intensity XII. This paper quantifies the hazard by estimating the horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) in south Hawaii which occurs with a 90% probability of not being exceeded during exposure times from 10 to 250 years. The largest earthquakes occur beneath active, unbuttressed and mobile flanks of volcanoes in their shield building stage.

  9. Complete data listings for CSEM soundings on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Kauahikaua, J.; Jackson, D.B.; Zablocki, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    This document contains complete data from a controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) sounding/mapping project at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. The data were obtained at 46 locations about a fixed-location, horizontal, polygonal loop source in the summit area of the volcano. The data consist of magnetic field amplitudes and phases at excitation frequencies between 0.04 and 8 Hz. The vector components were measured in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the loop source. 5 references.

  10. Influence of fortnightly earth tides at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzurisin, D.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of 52 historic eruptions confirms the premise that fortnightly earth tides play a significant role in triggering activity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Since January 1832, nearly twice as many eruptions have occurred nearer fortnightly tidal maximum than tidal minimum (34 vs. 18). A straightforward significance test indicates that the likelihood of a fortnightly tidal influence on Kilauea eruptions is roughly 90%. This is not the case for Mauna Loa Volcano, where 37 historic eruptions have been distributed randomly with respect to the fortnightly tide. At Kilauea, stresses induced by fortnightly earth tides presumably act in concert with volcanic and tectonic stresses to trigger shallow magma movements along preexisting zones of weakness. Differences in structure or internal plumbing may limit the effectiveness of this mechanism at Mauna Loa. Tidal effects seem to be less marked at shields than at some island-arc volcanoes, possibly because higher average volcanic stress rates in Hawaii more often override the effects of tidal stresses.-Author

  11. Mantle fault zone beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Cecily J; Okubo, Paul G; Shearer, Peter M

    2003-04-18

    Relocations and focal mechanism analyses of deep earthquakes (>/=13 kilometers) at Kilauea volcano demonstrate that seismicity is focused on an active fault zone at 30-kilometer depth, with seaward slip on a low-angle plane, and other smaller, distinct fault zones. The earthquakes we have analyzed predominantly reflect tectonic faulting in the brittle lithosphere rather than magma movement associated with volcanic activity. The tectonic earthquakes may be induced on preexisting faults by stresses of magmatic origin, although background stresses from volcano loading and lithospheric flexure may also contribute.

  12. Mantle fault zone beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, C.J.; Okubo, P.G.; Shearer, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Relocations and focal mechanism analyses of deep earthquakes (???13 kilometers) at Kilauea volcano demonstrate that seismicity is focused on an active fault zone at 30-kilometer depth, with seaward slip on a low-angle plane, and other smaller, distinct fault zones. The earthquakes we have analyzed predominantly reflect tectonic faulting in the brittle lithosphere rather than magma movement associated with volcanic activity. The tectonic earthquakes may be induced on preexisting faults by stresses of magmatic origin, although background stresses from volcano loading and lithospheric flexure may also contribute.

  13. Inventory of Anchialine Pools in Hawaii's National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, David

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anchialine (?near the sea?) pools are rare and localized brackish waters along coastal lava flows that exhibit tidal fluctuations without a surface connection with the ocean (Fig. 1). In Hawai`i, these pools were frequently excavated or otherwise modified by Hawaiians to serve as sources of drinking water, baths and fish ponds. National Parks in Hawai`i possess the full spectrum of pool types, from walled fish ponds to undisturbed pools in collapsed lava tubes, cracks and caves. Pools contain relatively rare and unique fauna threatened primarily by invasive species and habitat loss. In collaboration with the National Park Service?s Inventory and Monitoring Program, the U.S. Geological Survey?s Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center undertook inventories of these unique ecosystems in two National Parks on the island of Hawai`i: Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park.

  14. Bathymetry of southern Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, William W.; Moore, James G.; Garcia, Michael O.; Fox, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Manua Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, lies largely beneath the sea, and until recently only generalized bathymetry of this giant volcano was available. However, within the last two decades, the development of multibeam sonar and the improvement of satellite systems (Global Positioning System) have increased the availability of precise bathymetric mapping. This map combines topography of the subaerial southern part of the volcano with modern multibeam bathymetric data from the south submarine flank. The map includes the summit caldera of Mauna Loa Volcano and the entire length of the 100-km-long southwest rift zone that is marked by a much more pronounced ridge below sea level than above. The 60-km-long segment of the rift zone abruptly changes trend from southwest to south 30 km from the summit. It extends from this bend out to sea at the south cape of the island (Kalae) to 4 to 4.5 km depth where it impinges on the elongate west ridge of Apuupuu Seamount. The west submarine flank of the rift-zone ridge connects with the Kahuku fault on land and both are part of the ampitheater head of a major submarine landslide (Lipman and others, 1990; Moore and Clague, 1992). Two pre-Hawaiian volcanic seamounts in the map area, Apuupuu and Dana Seamounts, are apparently Cretaceous in age and are somewhat younger than the Cretaceous oceanic crust on which they are built.

  15. Geologic Map of the Summit Region of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; Lockwood, John P.

    2003-01-01

    This report consists of a large map sheet and a pamphlet. The map shows the geology, some photographs, description of map units, and correlation of map units. The pamphlet gives the full text about the geologic map. The area covered by this map includes parts of four U.S. Geological Survey 7.5' topographic quadrangles (Kilauea Crater, Volcano, Ka`u Desert, and Makaopuhi). It encompasses the summit, upper rift zones, and Koa`e Fault System of Kilauea Volcano and a part of the adjacent, southeast flank of Mauna Loa Volcano. The map is dominated by products of eruptions from Kilauea Volcano, the southernmost of the five volcanoes on the Island of Hawai`i and one of the world's most active volcanoes. At its summit (1,243 m) is Kilauea Crater, a 3 km-by-5 km collapse caldera that formed, possibly over several centuries, between about 200 and 500 years ago. Radiating away from the summit caldera are two linear zones of intrusion and eruption, the east and the southwest rift zones. Repeated subaerial eruptions from the summit and rift zones have built a gently sloping, elongate shield volcano covering approximately 1,500 km2. Much of the volcano lies under water; the east rift zone extends 110 km from the summit to a depth of more than 5,000 m below sea level; whereas the southwest rift zone has a more limited submarine continuation. South of the summit caldera, mostly north-facing normal faults and open fractures of the Koa`e Fault System extend between the two rift zones. The Koa`e Fault System is interpreted as a tear-away structure that accommodates southward movement of Kilauea's flank in response to distension of the volcano perpendicular to the rift zones.

  16. Volcano growth and evolution of the island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.G.; Clague, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The seven volcanoes comprising the island of Hawaii and its submarine base are, in order of growth, Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea, and Loihi. The first four have completed their shield-building stage, and the timing of this event can be determined from the depth of the slope break associated with the end of shield building, calibrated using the ages and depths of a series of dated submerged coral reefs off northwest Hawaii. On each volcano, the transition from eruption of tholeiitic to alkalic lava occurs near the end of shield building. The rate of southeastern progression of the end of shield building in the interval from Haleakala to Hualalai is about 13 cm/yr. Based on this rate and an average spacing of volcanoes on each loci line of 40-60km, the volcanoes required about 600 thousand years to grow from the ocean floor to the time of the end of shield building. They arrive at the ocean surface about midway through this period. -from Authors

  17. Buried caldera of mauna kea volcano, hawaii.

    PubMed

    Porter, S C

    1972-03-31

    An elliptical caldera (2.1 by 2.8 kilometers) at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano is inferred to lie buried beneath hawaiite lava flows and pyroclastic cones at an altitude of approximately 3850 meters. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that hawaiite eruptions began before a pre-Wisconsin period of ice-cap glaciation and that the crest of the mountain attained its present altitude and gross form during a glaciation of probable Early Wisconsin age.

  18. Buried caldera of mauna kea volcano, hawaii.

    PubMed

    Porter, S C

    1972-03-31

    An elliptical caldera (2.1 by 2.8 kilometers) at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano is inferred to lie buried beneath hawaiite lava flows and pyroclastic cones at an altitude of approximately 3850 meters. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that hawaiite eruptions began before a pre-Wisconsin period of ice-cap glaciation and that the crest of the mountain attained its present altitude and gross form during a glaciation of probable Early Wisconsin age. PMID:17842285

  19. Postshield stage transitional volcanism on Mahukona Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Calvert, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    Age spectra from 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating experiments yield ages of 298??25 ka and 310??31 ka for transitional composition lavas from two cones on submarine Mahukona Volcano, Hawaii. These ages are younger than the inferred end of the tholeiitic shield stage and indicate that the volcano had entered the postshield alkalic stage before going extinct. Previously reported elevated helium isotopic ratios of lavas from one of these cones were incorrectly interpreted to indicate eruption during a preshield alkalic stage. Consequently, high helium isotopic ratios are a poor indicator of eruptive stage, as they occur in preshield, shield, and postshield stage lavas. Loihi Seamount and Kilauea are the only known Hawaiian volcanoes where the volume of preshield alkalic stage lavas can be estimated. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  20. Deformation measurements on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Decker, R.W.; Hill, D.P.; Wright, T.L.

    1966-01-01

    Repeated electronic distance measurements across Kilauea Caldera with Tellurometers and Geodimeter show definite horizontal expansion related to the vertical uplift and outward tilting of the summit prior to an eruption, and contraction during and after a flank eruption. Measurements started in October 1964, along a 3098 meter line between Uwekahuna and Keanakakoi, indicate a relatively uniform lengthening of 12 centimeters during the interval October 22, 1964 to March 1, 1965. Rapid shortening of the line by 28 centimeters was measured 4 days after the beginning of a flank eruption which involved emission of approximately 29 million cubic meters of lava during the period March 5 to March 15, 1965. During the expansion, the standard deviation of 10 Tellurometer measurements from a least-squares srtaight line solution is ?? 2.0 centimeters (6.5 ppm) whereas 9 Geodimeter measurements have a standard deviation of ?? 1.1 (3.6 ppm) centimeters. Absolute distance readings between the two instruments differ by 4 centimeters (13 ppm), but relative changes in distance were the same on both instruments. Changes in distance across Kilauea Caldera can, therefore, be easily measured to accuracies of 4 to 7 parts per million with standard electronic distance measuring systems. On active volcanoes where ground surface deformation exceeds 10-100 parts per million with changes in subsurface magma pressure or volume, repeated horizontal distance measurements can be a most useful technique. ?? 1966 Stabilimento Tipografico Francesco Giannini & Figli.

  1. Dynamics of degassing at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Vergniolle, S.; Jaupart, C. )

    1990-03-10

    In the volcano chamber, gas bubbles rise through magma and accumulate at the roof in a foam layer. The foam flows toward the conduit, and its shape is determined by a dynamic balance between the input of bubbles from below and the output into the conduit. The bubbles in the foam deform under the action of buoyancy. If the critical thickness is reached, the foam collapses into a large gas pocket which erupts into the conduit. Foam accumulation then resumes, and a new cycle begins. The attainment of the foam collapse threshold requires a gas flux in excess of a critical value which depends on viscosity, suface tension, and bubble size. Hence two different eruption regimes are predicted: (1) alternating regimes of foam buildup and collapse leading to the periodic eruption of large gas volumes and (2) steady foam flow at the roof leading to continuous bubbly flow in the conduit. Data on eruption rates and repose times between fountaining phases from the 1969 Mauna Ulu and the 1983-1986 Pu'u O'o eruptions yield constraints on three key variables. The area of the chamber roof must be a few tens of square kilometers, with a minimum value of about 8 km{sup 2}. Magma reservoirs of similar dimensions are imaged by seismic attenuation tomography below the east rift zone. Close to the roof, the gas volume fraction is a few percent, and the gas bubbles have diameters lying between 0.1 and 0.6 mm. These estimates are close to the predictions of models for bubble nucleation and growth in basaltic melts, as well as to the observations on deep submarine basalts. The transition between cyclic and continuous activity occurs when the mass flux of gas becomes lower than a critical value of the order of 10{sup 3} kg/s. In this model, changes of eruptive regime reflect changes in the amount and size of bubbles which reach the chamber roof.

  2. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Orr, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    Lava from Kilauea volcano flowing through a forest in the Royal Gardens subdivision, Hawai'i, in February 2008. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitors the volcanoes of Hawai'i and is located within Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park. HVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Kilauea and HVO at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov.

  3. Observing and Predicting Vog Dispersion from Hawai'i's K¯i lauea Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Businger, Steven; Pattantyus, Andre; Horton, Keith; Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff

    2014-05-01

    In 2014, the Kīlauea volcano on the Island of Hawai'i enters its 32st year of nearly continuous eruption. Since 1983, east rift SO2 emissions have ranged from <50 tonnes, during the periods of eruptive pause, to over 30,000 tonnes per day, during periods of enhanced activity. Emissions from Kīlauea volcano pose significant environmental and health risks to the Hawai'i community. The Vog Measurement and Prediction (VMAP) project was conceived to help mitigate the negative impacts of Kīlauea's emissions. To date, VMAP has achieved the following milestones: (i) created a custom application of the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HY-SPLIT) model (Vog Model, hereafter) to produce real-time statewide forecasts of the concentration and dispersion of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfate aerosol from Kīlauea volcano; (ii) developed an ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer array to provide near real-time volcanic gas emission rate measurements for use as input to the dispersion model; (iii) developed and deployed a stationary array of ambient SO2 and meteorological sensors to record the spatial characteristics of Kīlauea's gas plume in high temporal and spatial resolution for model verification; and (iv) developed web-based dissemination of observations and forecasts that provide guidance for safety officials to protect the public and raise public awareness of the potential hazards of volcanic emissions to respiratory health, agriculture, and general aviation (http://weather.hawaii.edu/vmap/). Wind fields and thermodynamic data from the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model provide input to the vog model, with a statewide resolution of 3 km and a resolution of 1 km covering Hawai'i Island. Validation of the vog model predictions is accomplished with reference to data from Hawai'i State Department of Health ground-based Air Quality monitors. VMAP results show that this approach can provide useful guidance for the people of Hawai'i. An

  4. Monitoring very-long-period seismicity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Benítez, M. C.; Chouet, Bernard A.; Wilson, David; Okubo, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    On 19 March, 2008 eruptive activity returned to the summit of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii with the formation of a new vent within the Halemaumau pit crater. The new vent has been gradually increasing in size, and exhibiting sustained degassing and the episodic bursting of gas slugs at the surface of a lava pond ∼200 m below the floor of Halemaumau. The spectral characteristics, source location obtained by radial semblance, and Hidden Markov Model pattern recognition of the degassing burst signals are consistent with an increase in gas content in the magma transport system beginning in October, 2007. This increase plateaus between March – September 2008, and exhibits a fluctuating pattern until 31 January, 2010, suggesting that the release of gas is slowly diminishing over time.

  5. Monitoring very-long-period seismicity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Benítez, M. C.; Chouet, Bernard A.; Wilson, David; Okubo, Paul G.

    2010-09-01

    On 19 March, 2008 eruptive activity returned to the summit of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii with the formation of a new vent within the Halemaumau pit crater. The new vent has been gradually increasing in size, and exhibiting sustained degassing and the episodic bursting of gas slugs at the surface of a lava pond ˜200 m below the floor of Halemaumau. The spectral characteristics, source location obtained by radial semblance, and Hidden Markov Model pattern recognition of the degassing burst signals are consistent with an increase in gas content in the magma transport system beginning in October, 2007. This increase plateaus between March - September 2008, and exhibits a fluctuating pattern until 31 January, 2010, suggesting that the release of gas is slowly diminishing over time.

  6. Infrasonic tremor observed at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garces, M.; Harris, A.; Hetzer, C.; Johnson, J.; Rowland, S.; Marchetti, E.; Okubo, P.

    2003-01-01

    Infrasonic array data collected at Ki??lauea Volcano, Hawai'i, during November 12-21, 2002 indicate that the active vents and lava tube system near the P'u 'O??'o?? vent complex emit almost continuous infrasound in the 0.310 Hz frequency band. The spectral content of these infrasonic signals matches well that of synchronous seismic tremor. In sites protected from wind noise, significant signal to noise ratios were recorded as far as ???13 km from the crater of Pu'u 'O??'o??. The infrasonic recordings suggest that one or more tremor sources may be close to the surface. In addition, these results demonstrate that adequate site and instrument selections for infrasonic arrays are essential in order to obtain consistent and reliable infrasonic detections. ?? 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Petrology of Hualalai volcano, Hawaii: Implication for mantle composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Jackson, E.D.; Wright, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    Hualalai is one of five volcanoes whose eruptions built the island of Hawaii. The historic 1800-1801 flows and the analyzed prehistoric flows exposed at the surface are alkalic basalts except for a trachyte cone and flow at Puu Waawaa and a trachyte maar deposit near Waha Pele. The 1800-1801 eruption produced two flows: the upper Kaupulehu flow and the lower Huehue flow. The analyzed lavas of the two 1800-1801 flows are geochemically identical with the exception of a few samples from the toe of the Huehue flow that appear to be derived from a separate magmatic batch. The analyzed prehistoric basalts are nearly identical to the 1800-1801 flows but include some lavas that have undergone considerable shallow crystal fractionation. The least fractionated alkalic basalts from Hualalai are in equilibrium with mantle olivine (Fo87) indicating that the Hawaiian mantle source region is not unusually iron-rich. The 1800-1801 and analyzed prehistoric basalts can be generated by about 5-10% partial fusion of a garnet-bearing source relatively enriched in the light-rare-earths. The mantle underlying the Hawaiian Islands is chemically and mineralogically heterogeneous before and after extraction of the magmas that make up the volcanoes. ?? 1980 Intern. Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior.

  8. Using multiplets to track volcanic processes at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    earthquakes occurring during summit pressurization were part of a multiplet. Percentages were particularly high immediately prior to the March 5 Kamoamoa eruption. Interestingly, many multiplets that were present prior to the Kamoamoa eruption were reactivated during summit pressurization occurring in late July 2011. At a correlation coefficient of 0.7, 90% of the multiplets during the study period had populations of 10 or fewer earthquakes. Between periods of summit pressurization, earthquakes that belong to multiplets rarely occur, even though magma is flowing through the Upper East Rift Zone. Battaglia, J., Got, J. L. and Okubo, P., 2003. Location of long-period events below Kilauea Volcano using seismic amplitudes and accurate relative relocation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, v.108 (B12) 2553. Got, J. L., P. Okubo, R. Machenbaum, and W. Tanigawa (2002), A real-time procedure for progressive multiplet relative relocation at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 92(5), 2019. Rubin, A. M., D. Gillard, and J. L. Got (1998), A reinterpretation of seismicity associated with the January 1983 dike intrusion at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 103(B5), 10003.

  9. Slow slip and tremor search at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Thurber, C. H.; Wolfe, C. J.; Okubo, P.

    2013-02-01

    AbstractKilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, has hosted a long series of slow slip events observed since the installation of the continuous GPS network in 1996. Kilauea's slow slip events are inferred to occur on the decollement fault at 8 km depth beneath its south flank, with a location updip of the epicenters of large, regular earthquakes. Fault slip typically lasts about two days, and the events have magnitudes equivalent to Mw 5.3-6.0. While slow slip events in subduction zones are commonly accompanied by tectonic tremor (also called nonvolcanic tremor), no tremor has yet been reported in association with Kilauea's slow slip events. Instead, there are swarms of small triggered earthquakes, which is a characteristic only seen at select subduction zones (e.g., Boso and Hikurangi). A temporary array of seismometers was installed at Kilauea in 2007 in anticipation of a slow slip event. Here we use several established methods to perform a systematic search for tectonic tremor during geodetically defined slow slip events, as well as searching for tremor triggered by teleseismic surface waves. We do not detect tectonic tremor using any of these methods, although we are able to detect episodes of previously identified deep offshore volcanic tremor at 15-20 km depth and volcanic tremor from Kilauea. Although Kilauea's seismic network may not be adequate to observe tectonic tremor because <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> is seismically noisy and its crust is highly attenuating, it is also possible that the specific fault conditions on Kilauea's decollement are not conducive to such tremor generation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1995/4213/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1995/4213/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">An isotope hydrology study of the Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> area, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Scholl, M.A.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Janik, C.J.; Kauahikaua, J.P.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Isotope tracer methods were used to determine flow paths, recharge areas, and relative age for ground water in the Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> area on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Stable isotopes in rainfall show three distinct isotopic gradients with elevation, which are correlated with trade-wind, rain shadow, and high-elevation climatological patterns. Temporal variations in isotopic composition of precipitation are controlled more by the frequency of large storms than b.y seasonal temperature fluctuations. Consistency in results between two separate areas with rainfall caused by tradewinds and thermally-driven upslope airflow suggests that isotopic gradients with elevation may be similar on other islands in the tradewind belt, especially the other Hawaiian Islands, which have similar climatology and temperature lapse rates. Areal contrasts in ground-water stable isotopes and tritium indicate that the volcanic ri~ zones compartmentalize the regional ground-water system. Tritium levels in ground water within and downgradient of Kilauea's ri~ zones indicate relatively long residence times. Part of Kilauea's Southwest Ri~ Zone appears to act as a conduit for water from higher elevation, but there is no evidence for extensive down-ri~ flow in the lower East Ri~ Zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016981','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016981"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of explosive eruptions of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dvorak, J.J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A small explosive eruption of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, occurred in May 1924. The eruption was preceded by rapid draining of a lava lake and transfer of a large volume of magma from the summit reservoir to the east rift zone. This lowered the magma column, which reduced hydrostatic pressure beneath Halemaumau and allowed groundwater to flow rapidly into areas of hot rock, producing a phreatic eruption. A comparison with other events at Kilauea shows that the transfer of a large volume of magma out of the summit reservoir is not sufficient to produce a phreatic eruption. For example, the volume transferred at the beginning of explosive activity in May 1924 was less than the volumes transferred in March 1955 and January-February 1960, when no explosive activity occurred. Likewise, draining of a lava lake and deepening of the floor of Halemaumau, which occurred in May 1922 and August 1923, were not sufficient to produce explosive activity. A phreatic eruption of Kilauea requires both the transfer of a large volume of magma from the summit reservoir and the rapid removal of magma from near the surface, where the surrounding rocks have been heated to a sufficient temperature to produce steam explosions when suddenly contacted by groundwater. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70160746','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70160746"><span id="translatedtitle">Avian disease and mosquito vectors in the Kahuku unit of <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park and Ka`u Forest Reserve</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gaudioso, Jacqueline; Lapointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T.; Egan, Ariel N.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>While avian disease has been well-studied in windward forests of Hawai‘i Island, there have been few studies in leeward Ka‘u. We surveyed four altitudinal sites ranging from 1,200 to 2,200 m asl in the Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park (Kahuku) and three altitudinal sites ranging from 1,200 to 1,500 m asl in the Ka‘u Forest Reserve (Ka‘u) for the prevalence of avian disease and presence of mosquitoes. We collected blood samples from native and non-native forest birds and screened for avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) using PCR diagnostics. We examined birds for signs of avian pox (Avipoxvirus sp.), knemidokoptic mange (Knemidokoptes jamaicensis) and feather ectoparasites. We also trapped adult mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes japonicus japonicus) and surveyed for available larval habitat. Between September, 2012 and October, 2014, we completed 3,219 hours of mist-netting in Kahuku capturing 515 forest birds and 3,103 hours of mist-netting in Ka‘u capturing 270 forest birds. We screened 750 blood samples for avian malaria. Prevalence of avian malaria in all species was higher in Ka‘u than Kahuku when all sites were combined for each tract. Prevalence of avian malaria in resident Hawai‘i ‘amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) was greatest at the lowest elevation sites in Kahuku (26%; 1,201 m asl) and Ka‘u (42%; 1,178 m asl) and in general, prevalence decreased with increasing elevation and geographically from east to west. Significantly higher prevalence was seen in Ka‘u at comparable low and mid elevation sites but not at comparable high elevation sites. The overall presumptive pox prevalence was 1.7% (13/785) for both tracts, and it was higher in native birds than non-native birds, but it was not significant. Presumptive knemidokoptic mange was detected at two sites in lower elevation Kahuku, with prevalence ranging from 2‒4%. The overall prevalence of ectoparasites (Analges and Proctophyllodes spp.) was 6.7% (53</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060037473&hterms=pahoehoe&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahoehoe','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060037473&hterms=pahoehoe&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahoehoe"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Active Lava Flows on Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, Using SIR-C Radar Correlation Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zebker, H. A.; Rosen, P.; Hensley, S.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Precise eruption rates of active pahoehoe lava flows on Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, have been determined using spaceborne radar data acquired by the Space Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C). Measurement of the rate of lava flow advance, and the determination of the volume of new material erupted in a given period of time, are among the most important observations that can be made when studying a <span class="hlt">volcano</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70118578','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70118578"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">volcano</span> growth on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>: deep-water perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lipman, Peter W.; Calvert, Andrew T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Recent ocean-bottom geophysical surveys, dredging, and dives, which complement surface data and scientific drilling at the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, document that evolutionary stages during <span class="hlt">volcano</span> growth are more diverse than previously described. Based on combining available composition, isotopic age, and geologically constrained volume data for each of the component <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, this overview provides the first integrated models for overall growth of any Hawaiian island. In contrast to prior morphologic models for <span class="hlt">volcano</span> evolution (preshield, shield, postshield), growth increasingly can be tracked by age and volume (magma supply), defining waxing alkalic, sustained tholeiitic, and waning alkalic stages. Data and estimates for individual <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are used to model changing magma supply during successive compositional stages, to place limits on <span class="hlt">volcano</span> life spans, and to interpret composite assembly of the island. <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> volumes vary by an order of magnitude; peak magma supply also varies sizably among edifices but is challenging to quantify because of uncertainty about <span class="hlt">volcano</span> life spans. Three alternative models are compared: (1) near-constant <span class="hlt">volcano</span> propagation, (2) near-equal <span class="hlt">volcano</span> durations, (3) high peak-tholeiite magma supply. These models define inconsistencies with prior geodynamic models, indicate that composite growth at <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> peaked ca. 800–400 ka, and demonstrate a lower current rate. Recent age determinations for Kilauea and Kohala define a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> propagation rate of 8.6 cm/yr that yields plausible inception ages for other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of the Kea trend. In contrast, a similar propagation rate for the less-constrained Loa trend would require inception of Loihi Seamount in the future and ages that become implausibly large for the older <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. An alternative rate of 10.6 cm/yr for Loa-trend <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> is reasonably consistent with ages and <span class="hlt">volcano</span> spacing, but younger Loa <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are offset from the Kea trend in age-distance plots. Variable magma flux</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1557/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1557/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The geology and petrology of Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>; a study of postshield volcanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wolfe, Edward W.; Wise, William S.; Dalrymple, G. Brent</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, is capped by lavas of alkalic and transitional basalt (Hamakua Volcanics) erupted between approximately 250-200 and 70-65 ka and hawaiite, mugearite, and benmoreite (Laupahoehoe Volcanics) erupted between approximately 65 and 4 ka. These lavas, which form the entire subaerial surface of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, issued from numerous scattered vents and are intercalated on the upper slopes with glacial deposits. The lavas record diminishing magma-supply rate and degree of partial melting from the shield stage through the postshield stage. Much of the compositional variation apparently reflects fractionation of basaltic magma in reservoirs within and beneath the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010109','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010109"><span id="translatedtitle">Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>: A search for the volcanomagnetic effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Davis, P.M.; Jackson, D.B.; Field, J.; Stacey, F.D.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Brief excursions of magnetic field differences between a base station and two satellite station magnetometers show only slight correlation with ground tilt at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. This result suggests that only transient, localized stresses occur during prolonged periods of deformation and that the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> can support no large-scale pattern of shear stresses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5233140','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5233140"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural map of the summit area of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The map shows the faults, sets of fissures, eruptive vent lines and collapse features in the summit area of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. It covers most of the USGS Kilauea Crater 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, together with parts of <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Makaopuhi Crater, and Kau Desert 7-1/2 minute quadrangles. (ACR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V21C0523E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V21C0523E"><span id="translatedtitle">Two Decades of Degassing at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>: Perspectives on Island Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elias, T.; Sutton, A. J.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The ongoing eruption of Kilauea provides an opportunity to examine how volcanic emissions impact the natural and human environment of the island of <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>. Kilauea has released ˜ 13 megatons of SO2 gas into the troposphere since the current eruption began in 1983, more than any single anthropogenic source in the U.S. During prevailing trade wind conditions, measurements of SO2 gas, aerosol mass, and aerosol acidity downwind of Kilauea document the conversion of SO2 to acid aerosol as the plume propagates to the leeward side of the island. Lidar measurements suggest a gas-to-particle conversion rate (t1/2) of 6 hours. When trade winds are disrupted, ambient SO2 and particle measurements in <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park have shown episodes of particle concentrations of ˜ 100 μ g/m3 and SO2 concentrations in excess of 4000 ppb. Federal health standards and WHO guidelines for SO2 have been exceeded repeatedly at this near-source location. Documented effects from volcanic emissions on the island of <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> include the rapid corrosion of metal objects, degradation of domestic water quality, agricultural crop damage, and adverse impacts on human respiratory and pulmonary function. Other impacts may include decreases in local rainfall and increased mortality of asthmatics. For the period 1986 to 1993, after the eruption became continuous, deaths from asthma on the island of <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> increased by a factor of ten. Three current health studies seek to investigate the relationship between exposure to volcanic pollution and health effects. In addition to measuring gas and particle exposures, these studies examine lung development in children around the island, disease prevalence in adults residing in communities downwind of volcanic degassing sources, and acute effects in asthmatic children and healthy children and adults. In the absence of conclusive evidence linking exposure and health effects, the USGS, in collaboration with the <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service, has developed a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70038650','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70038650"><span id="translatedtitle">One hundred years of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kauahikaua, Jim; Poland, Mike</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In 2012 the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO), the oldest of five <span class="hlt">volcano</span> observatories in the United States, is commemorating the 100th anniversary of its founding. HVO's location, on the rim of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (Figure 1)—one of the most active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Earth—has provided an unprecedented opportunity over the past century to study processes associated with active volcanism and develop methods for hazards assessment and mitigation. The scientifically and societally important results that have come from 100 years of HVO's existence are the realization of one man's vision of the best way to protect humanity from natural disasters. That vision was a response to an unusually destructive decade that began the twentieth century, a decade that saw almost 200,000 people killed by the effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032222','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032222"><span id="translatedtitle">One hundred years of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kauahikaua, J.; Poland, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In 2012 the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO), the oldest of five <span class="hlt">volcano</span> observatories in the United States, is commemorating the 100th anniversary of its founding. HVO's location, on the rim of Klauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (Figure 1)one of the most active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Earthhas provided an unprecedented opportunity over the past century to study processes associated with active volcanism and develop methods for hazards assessment and mitigation. The scientifically and societally important results that have come from 100 years of HVO's existence are the realization of one man's vision of the best way to protect humanity from natural disasters. That vision was a response to an unusually destructive decade that began the twentieth century, a decade that saw almost 200,000 people killed by the effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17510364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17510364"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress control of deep rift intrusion at Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amelung, Falk; Yun, Sang-Ho; Walter, Thomas R; Segall, Paul; Kim, Sang-Wan</p> <p>2007-05-18</p> <p>Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, deforms by a combination of shallow dike intrusions in the rift zones and earthquakes along the base of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, but it is not known how the spreading is accommodated in the lower part of the volcanic edifice. We present evidence from interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for secular inflation of a dike-like magma body at intermediate depth in the southwest rift zone during 2002 to 2005. Magma accumulation occurred in a section of the rift zone that was unclamped by previous dikes and earthquakes, suggesting that stress transfer plays an important role in controlling subsurface magma accumulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019414','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019414"><span id="translatedtitle">Chronology of the episode 54 eruption at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, from GOES-9 satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Harris, A.J.L.; Keszthelyi, L.; Flynn, L.P.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Thornber, C.; Kauahikaua, J.; Sherrod, D.; Trusdell, F.; Sawyer, M.W.; Flament, P.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The free availability of GOES satellite data every 15 minutes makes these data an attractive tool for studying short-term changes on cloud-free <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the Pacific basin. We use cloud-free GOES-9 data to investigate the chronology of the January 1997, episode 54 eruption of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Seventy-six images for this effusive eruption were collected over a 60-hour period and show the opening and shutdown of active fissures, the draining and refilling of the Pu'u 'O'o lava lake, and the cessation of activity at the ocean entry. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/59121','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/59121"><span id="translatedtitle">Bathymetry of the southwest flank of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Chadwick, William W.; Moore, James G.; Fox, Christopher G.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Much of the seafloor topography in the map area is on the southwest submarine flank of the currently active Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. The benches and blocky hills shown on the map were shaped by giant landslides that resulted from instability of the rapidly growing <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. These landslides were imagined during a 1986 to 1991 swath sonar program of the United States Hawaiian Exclusive Economic Zone, a cooperative venture by the U.S. Geological Survey and the British Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (Lipman and others, 1988; Moore and others, 1989). Dana Seamount (and probably also the neighboring Day Seamount) are apparently Cretaceous in age, based on paleomagnetic studies, and predate the growth of the Hawaiian Ridge <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> (Sager and Pringle, 1990).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_82895.htm','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_82895.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Database for the Geologic Map of the Summit Region of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dutton, Dillon R.; Ramsey, David W.; Bruggman, Peggy E.; Felger, Tracey J.; Lougee, Ellen; Margriter, Sandy; Showalter, Patrick; Neal, Christina A.; Lockwood, John P.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION The area covered by this map includes parts of four U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5' topographic quadrangles (Kilauea Crater, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Ka`u Desert, and Makaopuhi). It encompasses the summit, upper rift zones, and Koa`e Fault System of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> and a part of the adjacent, southeast flank of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. The map is dominated by products of eruptions from Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, the southernmost of the five <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> and one of the world's most active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. At its summit (1,243 m) is Kilauea Crater, a 3 km-by-5 km collapse caldera that formed, possibly over several centuries, between about 200 and 500 years ago. Radiating away from the summit caldera are two linear zones of intrusion and eruption, the east and the southwest rift zones. Repeated subaerial eruptions from the summit and rift zones have built a gently sloping, elongate shield <span class="hlt">volcano</span> covering approximately 1,500 km2. Much of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> lies under water: the east rift zone extends 110 km from the summit to a depth of more than 5,000 m below sea level; whereas, the southwest rift zone has a more limited submarine continuation. South of the summit caldera, mostly north-facing normal faults and open fractures of the Koa`e Fault System extend between the two rift zones. The Koa`e Fault System is interpreted as a tear-away structure that accommodates southward movement of Kilauea's flank in response to distension of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> perpendicular to the rift zones. This digital release contains all the information used to produce the geologic map published as USGS Geologic Investigations Series I-2759 (Neal and Lockwood, 2003). The main component of this digital release is a geologic map database prepared using ArcInfo GIS. This release also contains printable files for the geologic map and accompanying descriptive pamphlet from I-2759.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.V12B0981T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.V12B0981T"><span id="translatedtitle">A Newly Recognized Shield <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Southwest of Oahu Island, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takahashi, E.; Moore, J. G.; Yokose, H.; Clague, D. A.; Nakagawa, M.; Kani, T.; Coombs, M.; Moore, G.; Harada, Y.; Kunikiyo, T.; Robinson, J.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>During the 2001 Hawaiian cruise of the JAMSTEC research ship Kairei (with ROV-Kaiko; P.I.: E. Takahashi, Co P.I.: T. Kanamatsu), Seabeam mapping revealed a previously unidentified volcanic edifice (submarine shield) located about 100 km southwest of Oahu. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (centered at 21\\deg35'N, 158\\deg45'W) is approximately 100 km in diameter and 0.5 km high with its summit at 4200 m depth. Near the top of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, a lava flow field with high reflectivity in the GLORIA image has been previously reported (Moore et al., 1989) but the presence of the shield <span class="hlt">volcano</span> was not known. The low submarine shield is studded with numerous flat top cones typically less than 100m in height and several km across (similar to those described by Clague et al, 2000). In addition, more than 30 steep cones (circular to irregular in shape; typically 300 to 500 m in height) are distributed over the submarine shield <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Much of the east side of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is mantled by thick sediment probably due to landsliding of Waianae <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The maximum thickness of such material is more than a few hundred meters. Accordingly, the flat top cones are not visible (if present) and only some steep cones are exposed on the east side. ROV dive K203 (20\\deg40.0'N, 158\\deg51.5'W) collected samples from the high-reflectivity lava flow shown on the GLORIA image as well as from one of the steep cones. Judging from the thin sediment and the thickness of the Mn-coating (1-2 mm), the high-reflectivity lava flow may be similar in age to the North Arch alkalic lavas (0.5 to 1.5 Ma, Clague et al., 1990). The steep cone consists of vesiculated pillow lava and hyaloclastite and is apparently older than the flow judging from the thick sediment cover and the Mn-coating (up to 6 mm) similar to that on the north slope of the ca. 3 Ma old Koolau <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (Shinozaki et al., 2001). The high vesicularity of some of the lavas (collected at depths of 4000 m) indicates a high volatile content and almost certainly an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016871','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016871"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep magma body beneath the summit and rift zones of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Delaney, P.T.; Fiske, R.S.; Miklius, Asta; Okamura, A.T.; Sako, M.K.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A magnitude 7.2 earthquake in 1975 caused the south flank of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, to move seaward in response to slippage along a deep fault. Since then, a large part of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s edifice has been adjusting to this perturbation. The summit of Kilauea extended at a rate of 0.26 meter per year until 1983, the south flank uplifted more than 0.5 meter, and the axes of both the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s rift zones extended and subsided; the summit continues to subside. These ground-surface motions have been remarkably steady and much more widespread than those caused by either recurrent inflation and deflation of the summit magma chamber or the episodic propagation of dikes into the rift zones. Kilauea's magmatic system is, therefore, probably deeper and more extensive than previously thought; the summit and both rift zones may be underlain by a thick, near vertical dike-like magma system at a depth of 3 to 9 kilometers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS059%28S%29074&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Ds','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS059%28S%29074&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Ds"><span id="translatedtitle">Color composite C-band and L-band image of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcanoe</span> on <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This color composite C-band and L-band image of the Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on the Big Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> was acuired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperature Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The city of Hilo can be seen at the top. The image shows the different types of lava flows around the crater Pu'u O'o. Ash deposits which erupted in 1790 from the summit of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> show up as dark in this image, and fine details associated with lava flows which erupted in 1919 and 1974 can be seen to the south of the summit in an area called the Ka'u Desert. Other historic lava flows can also be seen. Highway 11 is the linear feature running from Hilo to the Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43918.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2006/3014/2006-3014.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2006/3014/2006-3014.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards - A <span class="hlt">National</span> Threat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>When the violent energy of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is unleashed, the results are often catastrophic. The risks to life, property, and infrastructure from <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are escalating as more and more people live, work, play, and travel in volcanic regions. Since 1980, 45 eruptions and 15 cases of notable volcanic unrest have occurred at 33 U.S. <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Lava flows, debris avalanches, and explosive blasts have invaded communities, swept people to their deaths, choked major riverways, destroyed bridges, and devastated huge tracts of forest. Noxious volcanic gas emissions have caused widespread lung problems. Airborne ash clouds have disrupted the health, lives, and businesses of hundreds of thousands of people; caused millions of dollars of aircraft damage; and nearly brought down passenger flights.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6507514','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6507514"><span id="translatedtitle">The Puu Oo eruption of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wolfe, E.W. )</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The Puu Oo eruption is the most voluminous and longest-lived historical flank eruption of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. A pattern of episodic lava discharge developed in which relatively brief periods of vigorous fountaining and high-volume flow production alternated with longer repose periods. The activity was intensely monitored, and results of the first 11/2 yrs of observation and measurement are reported, including geologic observations, lava sampling, temperature measurements, compositional analyses, petrologic study, studies of gas composition and the role of gases in the eruptive process, geodetic measurements during emplacement of the feeder dike, and seismic and electrical studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.6461F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.6461F"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiative temperature measurements at Kupaianaha lava lake, Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flynn, Luke P.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Gradie, Jonathan C.; Lucey, Paul G.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>The radiative temperature of the surface of Kupaianaha lava lake is computed using field spectroradiometer data. Observations were made during periods of active overturning. The lake surface exhibits three stages of activity. Magma fountaining and overturning events characterize stage 1, which exhibits the hottest crustal temperatures and the largest fractional hot areas. Rifting events between plates of crust mark stage 2; crustal temperatures in this stage are between 100 C and 340 C, and fractional hot areas are at least an order of magnitude smaller than those in stage 1. Stage 3 is characterized by quiescent periods when the lake is covered by a thick crust. This stage dominates the activity of the lake more than 90 percent of the time. The results of this study are relevant for satellite and airborne measurement of the thermal characteristics of active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and indicate that the thermal output of a lava lake varies on a time scale of seconds to minutes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18755967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18755967"><span id="translatedtitle">Magmatically triggered slow slip at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brooks, Benjamin A; Foster, James; Sandwell, David; Wolfe, Cecily J; Okubo, Paul; Poland, Michael; Myer, David</p> <p>2008-08-29</p> <p>We demonstrate that a recent dike intrusion probably triggered a slow fault-slip event (SSE) on Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s mobile south flank. Our analysis combined models of Advanced Land Observing Satellite interferometric dike-intrusion displacement maps with continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) displacement vectors to show that deformation nearly identical to four previous SSEs at Kilauea occurred at far-field sites shortly after the intrusion. We model stress changes because of both secular deformation and the intrusion and find that both would increase the Coulomb failure stress on possible SSE slip surfaces by roughly the same amount. These results, in concert with the observation that none of the previous SSEs at Kilauea was directly preceded by intrusions but rather occurred during times of normal background deformation, suggest that both extrinsic (intrusion-triggering) and intrinsic (secular fault creep) fault processes can lead to SSEs. PMID:18755967</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015872','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015872"><span id="translatedtitle">Singularity spectrum of intermittent seismic tremor at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Shaw, H.R.; Chouet, B.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Fractal singularity analysis (FSA) is used to study a 22-yr record of deep seismic tremor (30-60 km depth) for regions below Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> on the assumption that magma transport and fracture can be treated as a system of coupled nonlinear oscillators. Tremor episodes range from 1 to 100 min (cumulative duration = 1.60 ?? 104 min; yearly average - 727 min yr-1; mean gradient = 24.2 min yr-1km-1). Partitioning of probabilities, Pi, in the phase space of normalized durations, xi, are expressed in terms of a function f(??), where ?? is a variable exponent of a length scale, l. Plots of f(??) vs. ?? are called multifractal singularity spectra. The spectrum for deep tremor durations is bounded by ?? values of about 0.4 and 1.9 at f = O; fmax ???1.0 for ?? ??? 1. Results for tremor are similar to those found for systems transitional between complete mode locking and chaos. -Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176784','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176784"><span id="translatedtitle">Submarine radial vents on Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wanless, V. Dorsey; Garcia, M.O.; Trusdell, F.A.; Rhodes, J.M.; Norman, M.D.; Weis, Dominique; Fornari, D.J.; Kurz, M.D.; Guillou, Herve</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A 2002 multibeam sonar survey of Mauna Loa's western flank revealed ten submarine radial vents and three submarine lava flows. Only one submarine radial vent was known previously. The ages of these vents are constrained by eyewitness accounts, geologic relationships, Mn-Fe coatings, and geochemical stratigraphy; they range from 128 years B.P. to possibly 47 ka. Eight of the radial vents produced degassed lavas despite eruption in water depths sufficient to inhibit sulfur degassing. These vents formed truncated cones and short lava flows. Two vents produced undegassed lavas that created “irregular” cones and longer lava flows. Compositionally and isotopically, the submarine radial vent lavas are typical of Mauna Loa lavas, except two cones that erupted alkalic lavas. He-Sr isotopes for the radial vent lavas follow Mauna Loa's evolutionary trend. The compositional and isotopic heterogeneity of these lavas indicates most had distinct parental magmas. Bathymetry and acoustic backscatter results, along with photography and sampling during four JASON2 dives, are used to produce a detailed geologic map to evaluate Mauna Loa's submarine geologic history. The new map shows that the 1877 submarine eruption was much larger than previously thought, resulting in a 10% increase for recent volcanism. Furthermore, although alkalic lavas were found at two radial vents, there is no systematic increase in alkalinity among these or other Mauna Loa lavas as expected for a dying <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. These results refute an interpretation that Mauna Loa's volcanism is waning. The submarine radial vents and flows cover 29 km2 of seafloor and comprise a total volume of ∼2×109 m3 of lava, reinforcing the idea that submarine lava eruptions are important in the growth of oceanic island <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> even after they emerged above sea level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001483','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001483"><span id="translatedtitle">The complex filling of alae crater, Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Swanson, D.A.; Duffield, W.A.; Jackson, D.B.; Peterson, D.W.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Since February 1969 Alae Crater, a 165-m-deep pit crater on the east rift of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, has been completely filled with about 18 million m3 of lava. The filling was episodic and complex. It involved 13 major periods of addition of lava to the crater, including spectacular lava falls as high as 100 m, and three major periods of draining of lava from the crater. Alae was nearly filled by August 3, 1969, largely drained during a violent ground-cracking event on August 4, 1969, and then filled to the low point on its rim on October 10, 1969. From August 1970 to May 1971, the crater acted as a reservoir for lava that entered through subsurface tubes leading from the vent fissure 150 m away. Another tube system drained the crater and carried lava as far as the sea, 11 km to the south. Much of the lava entered Alae by invading the lava lake beneath its crust and buoying the crust upward. This process, together with the overall complexity of the filling, results in a highly complicated lava lake that would doubtless be misinterpreted if found in the fossil record. ?? 1972 Stabilimento Tipografico Francesco Giannini & Figli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017438','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017438"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of the 1990 Kalapana Flow Field, Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mattox, T.N.; Heliker, C.; Kauahikaua, J.; Hon, K.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The 1990 Kalapana flow field is a complex patchwork of tube-fed pahoehoe flows erupted from the Kupaianaha vent at a low effusion rate (approximately 3.5 m3/s). These flows accumulated over an 11-month period on the coastal plain of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, where the pre-eruption slope angle was less than 2??. the composite field thickened by the addition of new flows to its surface, as well as by inflation of these flows and flows emplaced earlier. Two major flow types were identified during the development of the flow field: large primary flows and smaller breakouts that extruded from inflated primary flows. Primary flows advanced more quickly and covered new land at a much higher rate than breakouts. The cumulative area covered by breakouts exceeded that of primary flows, although breakouts frequently covered areas already buried by recent flows. Lava tubes established within primary flows were longer-lived than those formed within breakouts and were often reoccupied by lava after a brief hiatus in supply; tubes within breakouts were never reoccupied once the supply was interrupted. During intervals of steady supply from the vent, the daily areal coverage by lava in Kalapana was constant, whereas the forward advance of the flows was sporadic. This implies that planimetric area, rather than flow length, provides the best indicator of effusion rate for pahoehoe flow fields that form on lowangle slopes. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70170604','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70170604"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic evidence for a crustal magma reservoir beneath the upper east rift zoneof Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lin, Guoqing; Amelung, Falk; Lavallee, Yan; Okubo, Paul G.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>An anomalous body with low Vp (compressional wave velocity), low Vs (shear wave velocity), and high Vp/Vs anomalies is observed at 8–11 km depth beneath the upper east rift zone of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> by simultaneous inversion of seismic velocity structure and earthquake locations. We interpret this body to be a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcanic pile, similar to those widely recognized beneath mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Combined seismic velocity and petrophysical models suggest the presence of 10% melt in a cumulate magma mush. This reservoir could have supplied the magma that intruded into the deep section of the east rift zone and caused its rapid expansion following the 1975 M7.2 Kalapana earthquake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034143','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034143"><span id="translatedtitle">SBAS-InSAR analysis of surface deformation at Mauna Loa and Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Casu, F.; Lanari, Riccardo; Sansosti, E.; Solaro, G.; Tizzani, Pietro; Poland, M.; Miklius, Asta</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the deformation of Mauna Loa and K??lauea <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, by exploiting the advanced differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) technique referred to as the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm. In particular, we present time series of line-of-sight (LOS) displacements derived from SAR data acquired by the ASAR instrument, on board the ENVISAT satellite, from the ascending (track 93) and descending (track 429) orbits between 2003 and 2008. For each coherent pixel of the radar images we compute time-dependent surface displacements as well as the average LOS deformation rate. Our results quantify, in space and time, the complex deformation of Mauna Loa and K??lauea <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. The derived InSAR measurements are compared to continuous GPS data to asses the quality of the SBAS-InSAR products. ??2009 IEEE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5569857','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5569857"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical characteristics of the hydrothermal systems of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kauahikaua, J. )</p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>Clues to the structure of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> can be obtained from spatial studies of gravity, magnetic, and seismic velocity variations. The rift zones and summit are underlain by dense, magnetic, and seismic velocity variations. The rift zones and summit are underlain by dense, magnetic, high P-wave-velocity rocks at depths of about 2 km less. The gravity and seismic velocity studies indicate that the rift structures are broad, extending farther to the north than to the south of the surface features. The magnetic data allow separation into a narrow, highly-magnetized, shallow zone and broad, flanking, magnetic lows. The patterns of gravity, magnetic variations, and seismicity document the southward migration of the upper east rift zone. Regional, hydrologic features of Kilauea can be determined from resistivity and self-potential studies. High-level groundwater exists beneath Kilauea summit to elevations of +800 m within a triangular area bounded by the west edge of the upper southwest rift zone, the east edge of the upper east rift zone, and the Koa'e fault system. High-level groundwater is present within the east rift zone beyond the triangular summit area. Self-potential mapping shows that areas of local heat produce local fluid circulation in the unconfined aquifer (water table). Shallow seismicity and surface deformation indicate that magma is intruding and that fractures are forming beneath the rift zones and summit area. Heat flows of 370--820 mW/m[sup 2] are calculated from deep wells within the lower east rift zone. The estimated heat input rate for Kilauea of 9 gigawatts (GW) is at least 25 times higher than the conductive heat loss as estimated from the heat flow in wells extrapolated over the area of the summit caldera and rift zones. 115 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815028L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815028L"><span id="translatedtitle">Fissure distribution at Mauna Loa (<span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>) as an example to understand shallow magma transfer at <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>La Marra, Daniele; Acocella, Valerio; Trusdell, Frank</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Mauna Loa (<span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>) is the largest active shield <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, covering more than half of it and rising to 4,169 meters above sea level. The <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hosts the Moku'aweoweo summit caldera, from which two elongated rift zones depart: the Northeast Rift Zone (NERZ) and the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ). Most of Mauna Loa's eruptions begin with lava fountains from a series of fissure vents in the summit region and then often migrate to vents down either rift zone. Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span> shows a distinctive feature, being characterized by minor radial eruptive fissures (not related to the two main rifts) on the NW flank only. This study tries to explain such a selective distribution of vents, and thus of shallow magma transfer. To this aim, we run numerical models with different amount of opening of the two rift zones of Mauna Loa, as well as different amount of slip on its SE flank. Our results suggest that the selective occurrence of the radial fissures may be explained by the competition between two processes: a) rift intrusion (especially along the NERZ), promoting the development of radial dikes along the NW flank; b) flank slip, inhibiting the development of the radial dikes on the SE flank. The opening of the two non-parallel main rift zones of Mauna Loa promotes the local extension necessary to develop the radial dikes on the NW flank. A general model for the development of a third branch of radial rift, which may be also applied to Mt. Etna and some <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the Canary Islands, is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V52B..08S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V52B..08S"><span id="translatedtitle">CO2 Emissions Measurements at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The importance of volcanic CO2 release in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> has been recognized for at least 100 years. The early gas collections of Jaggar, Shepherd, and Day showed that CO2 was the second most prevalent gas, next to water, in Kilauea's eruptive emissions. As one of Earth's few long-lived, effusive eruptions that have been closely monitored, Kilauea's measured CO2 emissions have served as a global benchmark. At Kilauea in the mid-1980's, conventional airborne, in-plume profiling measurements of CO2 underestimated emissions, due to plume geometry. Remotely-Piloted Aircraft (RPA) and vehicle-based measurements made a decade later showed that at Kilauea, CO2 concentrations were highest near ground level. Methods for quantifying emission rates of CO2 have since been improved via vehicle-based measurements of the ground-hugging plume. Gerlach and others, 2002, used the integrated CO2/SO2 molecular ratio and SO2 emission rate to derive the CO2 emission rate. Their results established a long-term characteristic CO2 emission rate for the summit of Kilauea of 8,500 t/d. This rate was based on several nearly equal measurements spanning a 4 year period, along with an independently reported, steady magma supply rate. Gerlach and others (1998) estimated a contemporaneous east rift CO2 emission rate of 300 t/d. From 2004 to mid-2007, summit CO2 emissions from Kilauea increased twofold on average, and then declined as a surge in magma supply eventually resulted in the forceful opening of a new vent within Halema`uma`u crater at Kilauea's summit in 2008. The elevated summit activity has provided opportunities to test other methods for measuring CO2 abundance in Kilauea's poorly mixed summit plume. Closed space continuous CO2 concentration monitoring within a subsurface vault, recorded transient (minutes-to-days) ambient fluctuations of thousands of parts per million, atop an overall slowly-varying (weeks to months) increase that led up to the 2008 summit eruption. Fumarole gas molecular CO2</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017404','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017404"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical characteristics of the hydrothermal systems of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kauahikaua, J.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Clues to the overall structure of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> can be obtained from spatial studies of gravity, magnetic, and seismic velocity variations. The rift zones and summit are underlain by dense, magnetic, high P-wave-velocity rocks at depths of about 2 km less. The gravity and seismic velocity studies indicate that the rift structures are broad, extending farther to the north than to the south of the surface features. The magnetic data give more definition to the rift structures by allowing separation into a narrow, highly-magnetized, shallow zone and broad, flanking, magnetic lows. The patterns of gravity, magnetic variations, and seismicity document the southward migration of the upper cast rift zone. Regional, hydrologic features of Kilauea can be determined from resistivity and self-potential studies. High-level groundwater exists beneath Kilauea summit to elevations of +800 m within a triangular area bounded by the west edge of the upper southwest rift zone, the east edge of the upper east rift zone, and the Koa'c fault system. High-level groundwater is present within the east rift zone beyond the triangular summit area. Self-potential mapping shows that areas of local heat produce local fluid circulation in the unconfined aquifer (water table). The dynamics of Kilauea eruptions are responsible for both the source of heat and the fracture permeability of the hydrothermal system. Shallow seismicity and surface deformation indicate that magma is intruding and that fractures are forming beneath the rift zones and summit area. Magma supply estimates are used to calculate the rate of heat input to Kilauea's hydrothermal systems. Heat flows of 370-820 mW/m2 are calculated from deep wells within the lower east rift zone. The estimated heat input rate for Kilauea of 9 gigawatts (GW) is at least 25 times higher than the conductive heat loss as estimated from the heat flow in wells extrapolated over the area of the summit caldera and rift zones. Heat must be dissipated by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015962','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015962"><span id="translatedtitle">The Ninole Basalt - Implications for the structural evolution of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lipman, P.W.; Rhodes, J.M.; Dalrymple, G.B.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Lava flows of the Ninole Basalt, the oldest rocks exposed on the south side of the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, provide age and compositional constraints on the evolution of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and the southeastward age progression of Hawaiian volcanism. Although the tholeiitic Ninole Basalt differs from historic lavas of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in most major-element contents (e.g., variably lower K, Na, Si; higher Al, Fe, Ti, Ca), REE and other relatively immobile minor elements are similar to historic and prehistoric Mauna Loa lavas, and the present major-element differences are mainly due to incipient weathering in the tropical environment. New K-Ar whole-rock ages, from relatively fresh roadcut samples, suggest that the age of the Ninole Basalt is approximately 0.1-0.2 Ma, although resolution is poor because of low contents of K and radiogenic Ar. Originally considered the remnants of a separate <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, the Ninole Hills are here interpreted as faulted remnants of the old south flank of Mauna Loa. Deep canyons in the Ninole Hills, eroded after massive landslide failure of flanks of the southwest rift zone, have been preserved from burial by younger lava due to westward migration of the rift zone. Landslide-induced depressurization of the southwest rift zone may also have induced phreatomagmatic eruptions that could have deposited widespread Basaltic ash that overlies the Ninole Basalt. Subaerial presence of the Ninole Basalt documents that the southern part of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Island had grown to much of its present size above sea level by 0.1-0.2 Ma, and places significant limits on subsequent enlargement of the south flank of Mauna Loa. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jstor.org/stable/4096539','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/4096539"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of pox-like lesions and malaria in forest bird communitites on leeward Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Dusek, R.J.; Samuel, M.D.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Introduced avian pox virus and malaria have had devastating impacts on native Hawaiian forest birds, yet little has been published about their prevalence and distribution in forest bird communities outside of windward <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Island. We surveyed native and non-native forest birds for these two diseases at three different elevations on leeward Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> at the Kona Forest Unit of Hakalau Forest <span class="hlt">National</span> Wildlife Refuge. Prevalence of malaria by both serology and microscopy varied by elevation and ranged from 28% at 710 m to 13% at 1830 m. Prevalence of pox-like lesions also varied by altitude, ranging in native species from 10% at 710 m to 2% at 1830 m. Native species at all elevations had the highest prevalence of malarial antibody and pox-like lesions. By contrast, pox-like lesions were not detected in individuals of four non-native species and only 5% of Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus) was positive for malaria. A significantly high proportion of birds with pox-like lesions also had serological evidence of concurrent, chronic malarial infections, suggesting an interaction between these diseases, dual transmission of both diseases by the primary mosquito vector (Culex quinquefasciatus) or complete recovery of some pox-infected birds without loss of toes. Results from this study document high prevalence of malaria and pox at this refuge. Development of effective disease control strategies will be important for restoration of remnant populations of the endangered 'Akiapola'au (Hemignathus munroi), <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Creeper (Oreomystis mana), and <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> 'Akepa (Loxops coccineus coccineus) that still occur on the refuge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024093','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024093"><span id="translatedtitle">Episodic thermal perturbations associated with groundwater flow: An example from Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hurwitz, S.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Sorey, M.L.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Temperature measurements in deep drill holes on <span class="hlt">volcano</span> summits or upper flanks allow a quantitative analysis of groundwater induced heat transport within the edifice. We present a new temperature-depth profile from a deep well on the summit of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, and analyze it in conjunction with a temperature profile measured 26 years earlier. We propose two groundwater flow models to interpret the complex temperature profiles. The first is a modified confined lateral flow model (CLFM) with a continuous flux of hydrothermal fluid. In the second, transient flow model (TFM), slow conductive cooling follows a brief, advective heating event. We carry out numerical simulations to examine the timescales associated with each of the models. Results for both models are sensitive to the initial conditions, and with realistic initial conditions it takes between 750 and 1000 simulation years for either model to match the measured temperature profiles. With somewhat hotter initial conditions, results are consistent with onset of a hydrothermal plume ???550 years ago, coincident with initiation of caldera subsidence. We show that the TFM is consistent with other data from hydrothermal systems and laboratory experiments and perhaps is more appropriate for this highly dynamic environment. The TFM implies that <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-hydrothermal systems may be dominated by episodic events and that thermal perturbations may persist for several thousand years after hydrothermal flow has ceased.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019466','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019466"><span id="translatedtitle">Imaging the crustal magma sources beneath Mauna Loa and Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Okubo, P.G.; Benz, H.M.; Chouet, B.A.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional seismic P-wave traveltime tomography is used to image the magma sources beneath Mauna Loa and Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. High-velocity bodies (>6.4 km/s) in the upper 9 km of the crust beneath the summits and rift zones of the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> correlate with zones of high magnetic intensities and are interpreted as solidified gabbro-ultramafic cumulates from which the surface volcanism is derived. The proximity of these high-velocity features to the rift zones is consistent with a ridge-spreading model of the volcanic flank. Southeast of the Hilina fault zone, along the south flank of Kilauea, low-velocity material (<6.0 km/s) is observed extending to depths of 9-11 km, indicating that the Hilina fault may extend possibly as deep as the basal decollement. Along the southeast flank of Mauna Loa, a similar low -velocity zone associated with the Kaoiki fault zone is observed extending to depths of 6-8 km. These two upper crustal low-velocity zones suggest common stages in the evolution of the Hawaiian shield <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in which these fault systems are formed as a result of upper crustal deformation in response to magma injection within the volcanic edifice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032448','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032448"><span id="translatedtitle">Rootless shield and perched lava pond collapses at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Effusion rate is a primary measurement used to judge the expected advance rate, length, and hazard potential of lava flows. At basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, the rapid draining of lava stored in rootless shields and perched ponds can produce lava flows with much higher local effusion rates and advance velocities than would be expected based on the effusion rate at the vent. For several months in 2007–2008, lava stored in a series of perched ponds and rootless shields on Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, was released episodically to produce fast-moving 'a'ā lava flows. Several of these lava flows approached Royal Gardens subdivision and threatened the safety of remaining residents. Using time-lapse image measurements, we show that the initial time-averaged discharge rate for one collapse-triggered lava flow was approximately eight times greater than the effusion rate at the vent. Though short-lived, the collapse-triggered 'a'ā lava flows had average advance rates approximately 45 times greater than that of the pāhoehoe flow field from which they were sourced. The high advance rates of the collapse-triggered lava flows demonstrates that recognition of lava accumulating in ponds and shields, which may be stored in a cryptic manner, is vital for accurately assessing short-term hazards at basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BVol...75..677B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BVol...75..677B"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in the aggregated rate of pre-eruptive <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-tectonic seismicity at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bell, Andrew F.; Kilburn, Christopher R. J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Accelerating rates of <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-tectonic (VT) earthquakes are commonly observed during volcanic unrest. Understanding the repeatability of their behaviour is essential to evaluating their potential to forecast eruptions. Quantitative eruption forecasts have focused on changes in precursors over intervals of weeks or less. Previous studies at basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in frequent eruption, such as Kilauea in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> and Piton de La Fournaise on Réunion, suggest that VT earthquake rates tend to follow a power-law acceleration with time about 2 weeks before eruption, but that this trend is often obscured by random fluctuations (or noise) in VT earthquake rate. These previous studies used a stacking procedure, in which precursory sequences for several eruptions are combined to enhance the signal from an underlying acceleration in VT earthquake rate. Such analyses assume a common precursory trend for all eruptions. This assumption is tested here for the 57 eruptions and intrusions recorded at Kilauea between 1959 and 1984. Applying rigorous criteria for selecting data (e.g. maximum depth; restricting magnitudes to be greater than the completeness magnitude, 2.1), we find a much less pronounced increase in the aggregate rate of earthquakes than previously reported. The stacked trend is also strongly controlled by the behaviour of one particular pre-eruptive sequence. In contrast, a robust signal emerges among stacked VT earthquake rates for a subset of the eruptions and intrusions. The results are consistent with two different precursory styles at Kilauea: (1) a small proportion of eruptions and intrusions that are preceded by accelerating rates of VT earthquakes over intervals of weeks to months and (2) a much larger number of eruptions that show no consistent increase until a few hours beforehand. The results also confirm the importance of testing precursory trends against data that have been filtered according to simple constraints on the spatial distribution and completeness</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7188921','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7188921"><span id="translatedtitle">Organic compounds on crack surfaces in olivine from San Carlos, Arizona, and Hualalai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Becker, C.H.; Malhotra, R. ); Tingle, T.N.; Hochella, M.F. Jr. Stanford Univ., CA )</p> <p>1990-02-01</p> <p>Organic compounds associated with thin carbonaceous films on crack surfaces have been detected by thermal-desorption photoionization mass spectrometry in large single crystals of olivine from San Carlos, Arizona, and Hualalai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Alkalis, silicon, aluminum, and halogens are also present in the 3-4 nm thick carbonaceous films. The organics probably were not derived from the upper mantle or lower crust or from environmental biogenic contamination after eruption and cooling. It is likely that the carbonaceous films and organics were deposited or formed on crack surfaces created during eruption and cooling of the host alkali basalts. Whether the organics were produced abiotically by Fischer-Tropsch-like reactions involving volcanic gases and fresh-fractured surfaces where reduced carbon was deposited, or whether the organics represent biogenic material that was assimilated into the magmatic system prior to or during magma ascent, cannot be ascertained at this time due to their low abundance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046830','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046830"><span id="translatedtitle">Shallow magma accumulation at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, revealed by microgravity surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Johnson, David J.; Eggers, Albert A.; Bagnardi, Marco; Battaglia, Maurizio; Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Using microgravity data collected at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> (United States), between November 1975 and January 2008, we document significant mass increase beneath the east margin of Halema'uma'u Crater, within Kilauea's summit caldera. Surprisingly, there was no sustained uplift accompanying the mass accumulation. We propose that the positive gravity residual in the absence of significant uplift is indicative of magma accumulation in void space (probably a network of interconnected cracks), which may have been created when magma withdrew from the summit in response to the 29 November 1975 M = 7.2 south flank earthquake. Subsequent refilling documented by gravity represents a gradual recovery from that earthquake. A new eruptive vent opened at the summit of Kilauea in 2008 within a few hundred meters of the positive gravity residual maximum, probably tapping the reservoir that had been accumulating magma since the 1975 earthquake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6692265','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6692265"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon isotopes in xenoliths from the Hualalai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, and the generation of isotopic variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pineau, F. ); Mathez, E.A. )</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The isotopic composition of carbon has been determined in a suite of xenoliths from lava of the 1800-1801 Kaupulehu eruption of Hualalai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Several lithologies are represented in the suite, including websterite, dunite, wehrlite, pyroxenite, and gabbro. In addition, there are composite xenoliths in which contacts between lithologies are preserved. Most of the xenoliths represent deformed cumulates. The contact relations in the composite samples indicate that the lithologies originated from the same source region, which, based on pressures determined from fluid inclusions, is estimated to be at a depth of {approx}20 km, or near the crust-mantle boundary. The observations and isotopic results demonstrate that isotopic variability can be generated by multistage fractionation processes such as degassing of CO{sub 2} from magma and precipitation of CO{sub 2}-rich fluids to form graphitic compounds. Such processes operated over regions the scales of which were determined by style and intensity of deformation and by lithology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70123185','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70123185"><span id="translatedtitle">Interagency collaboration on an active <span class="hlt">volcano</span>: a case study at Hawai‘i <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kauahikaua, James P.; Orlando, Cindy</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Because Kilauea and Mauna Loa are included within the <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, there is a natural intersection of missions for the <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service (NPS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). HAVO staff and the USGS Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory scientists have worked closely together to monitor and forecast multiple eruptions from each of these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> since HAVO’s founding in 1916.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029739','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029739"><span id="translatedtitle">ASAR images a diverse set of deformation patterns at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Poland, Michael P.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Since 2003, 27 independent look angles have been acquired by ENVISAT’s Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) instrument over the island of <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>, allowing for the formation of thousands of interferograms showing deformation of the ground surface. On Kīlauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, a transition from minor to broad-scale summit inflation was observed by interferograms that span 2003 to 2006. In addition, radar interferometry (InSAR) observations of Kīlauea led to the discovery of several previously unknown areas of localized subsidence in the caldera and along the volcano’s east rift zone. These features are probably caused by the cooling and contraction of accumulated lavas. After November 2005, a surface instability near the point that lava entered the ocean on the south flank of Kīlauea was observed in interferograms. The motion is most likely a result of unbuttressing of a portion of the coast following the collapse of a large lava delta in November 2005. InSAR data can also be used to map lava flow development over time, providing ~30 m spatial resolution maps at approximately monthly intervals. Future applications of InSAR to Kīlauea will probably result in more discoveries and insights, both as the style of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> deformation changes and as data from new instruments are acquired.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970011007','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970011007"><span id="translatedtitle">Emplacement of Xenolith Nodules in the Kaupulehu Lava Flow, Hualalai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Guest, J. E.; Spudis, P. D.; Greeley, R.; Taylor, G. J.; Baloga, S. M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The basaltic Kaupulehu 1800-1801 lava flow of Hualalai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> contains abundant ultramafic xenoliths. Many of these xenoliths occur as bedded layers of semi-rounded nodules, each thinly coated with a veneer (typically 1 mm thick) of lava. The nodule beds are analogous to cobble deposits of fluvial sedimentary systems. Although several mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of the nodule beds, it was found that, at more than one locality, the nodule beds are overbank levee deposits. The geological occurrence of the nodules, certain diagnostic aspects of the flow morphology and consideration of the inferred emplacement process indicate that the Kaupulehu flow had an exceptionally low viscosity on eruption and that the flow of the lava stream was extremely rapid, with flow velocities of at least 10 m/s (more than 40 km/h. This flow is the youngest on Hualalai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> and future eruptions of a similar type would pose considerable hazard to life as well as property.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5598678','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5598678"><span id="translatedtitle">Degassing history of water, sulfur, and carbon in submarine lavas from Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dixon, J.E.; Stolper, E.M. ); Clague, D.A. )</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>Major, minor, and dissolved volatile element concentrations were measured in tholeiitic glasses from the submarine portion (Puna Ridge) of the east rift zone of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Dissolved H{sub 2}O and S concentrations display a wide range relative to nonvolatile incompatible elements at all depths. This range cannot be readily explained by fractional crystallization, degassing of H{sub 2}O and S during eruption on the seafloor, or source region heterogeneities. Dissolved CO{sub 2} concentrations, in contrast, show a positive correlation with eruption depth and typically agree within error with the solubility at that depth. The authors propose that most magmas along the Puna Ridge result from (1) mixing of a relatively volatile-rich, undegassed component with magmas that experienced low pressure (perhaps subaerial) degassing during which substantial H{sub 2}O, S, and CO{sub 2} were lost, followed by (2) fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase from this mixture to generate a residual liquid; and (3) further degassing, principally of CO{sub 2} for samples erupted deeper than 1,000 m, during eruption on the seafloor. They predict that average Kilauean primary magmas with 16% MgO contain {approximately}0.47 wt % H{sub 2}0, {approximately}900 ppm S, and have {delta}D values of {approximately}{minus}30 to {minus}40%. The model predicts that submarine lavas from wholly submarine <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> (i.e., Loihi), for which there is no opportunity to generate the degassed end member by low pressure degassing, will be enriched in volatiles relative to those from <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> whose summits have breached the sea surface (i.e., Kilauea and Mauna Loa).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014124','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014124"><span id="translatedtitle">Coastal lava flows from Mauna Loa and Hualalai <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, Kona, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moore, J.G.; Clague, D.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A major carbonate reef which drowned 13 ka is now submerged 150 m below sea level on the west coast of the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. A 25-km span of this reef was investigated using the submersible Makali'i. The reef occurs on the flanks of two active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, Mauna Loa and Hualalai, and the lavas from both <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> both underlie and overlie the submerged reef. Most of the basaltic lava flows that crossed the reef did so when the water was much shallower, and when they had to flow a shorter distance from shoreline to reef face. Lava flows on top of the reef have protected it from erosion and solution and now occur at seaward-projecting salients on the reef face. These relations suggest that the reef has retreated shoreward as much as 50 m since it formed. A 7-km-wide "shadow zone" occurs where no Hualalai lava flows cross the reef south of Kailua. These lava flows were probably diverted around a large summit cone complex. A similar "shadow zone" on the flank of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in the Kealakekua Bay region is downslope from the present Mauna Loa caldera, which ponds Mauna Loa lava and prevents it from reaching the coastline. South of the Mauna Loa "shadow zone" the - 150 m reef has been totally covered and obscured by Mauna Loa lava. The boundary between Hualalai and Mauna Loa lava on land occurs over a 6-km-wide zone, whereas flows crossing the - 150 m reef show a sharper boundary offshore from the north side of the subaerial transition zone. This indicates that since the formation of the reef, Hualalai lava has migrated south, mantling Mauna Loa lava. More recently, Mauna Loa lava is again encroaching north on Hualalai lava. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.V12B0972G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.V12B0972G"><span id="translatedtitle">Perception of Lava Flow Hazards and Risk at Mauna Loa and Hualalai <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>, Kona, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Johnston, D. M.; Paton, D.; Swanson, D. A.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> is composed of five sub-aerially exposed <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, three of which have been active since 1801 (Kilauea, Mauna Loa, Hualalai). <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> has the fastest population growth in the state and the local economy in the Kona districts (i.e., western portion of the island) is driven by tourism. Kona is directly vulnerable to future lava flows from Mauna Loa and Hualalai <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, as well as indirectly from the effects of lava flows elsewhere that may sever the few roads that connect Kona to other vital areas on the island. A number of factors such as steep slopes, high volume eruptions, and high effusion rates, combine to mean that lava flows from Hualalai and Mauna Loa can be fast-moving and hence unusually hazardous. The proximity of lifelines and structures to potential eruptive sources exacerbates societies' risk to future lava flows. Approximately \\$2.3 billion has been invested on the flanks of Mauna Loa since its last eruption in 1984 (Trusdell 1995). An equivalent figure has not yet been determined for Hualalai, but an international airport, several large resort complexes, and Kailua-Kona, the second largest town on the island, are down-slope and within 15km of potential eruptive Hualalai vents. Public and perhaps official understanding of specific lava flow hazards and the perceptions of risk from renewed volcanism at each <span class="hlt">volcano</span> are proportional to the time lapsed since the most recent eruption that impacted Kona, rather than a quantitative assessment of risk that takes into account recent growth patterns. Lava flows from Mauna Loa and Hualalai last directly impacted upon Kona during the notorious 1950 and circa 1801 eruptions, respectively. Various non-profit organizations; local, state and federal government entities; and academic institutions have disseminated natural hazard information in Kona but despite the intuitive appeal that increased hazard understanding and risk perception results in increased hazard adjustment adoption, this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009908','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009908"><span id="translatedtitle">Rover-Based Instrumentation and Scientific Investigations During the 2012 Analog Field Test on Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Graham, L. D.; Graff, T. G.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) were recently completed on Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and operational constraints were tested in the context of existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration [1]. Several investigations were conducted by the rover mounted instruments to determine key geophysical and geochemical properties of the site, as well as capture the geological context of the area and the samples investigated. The rover traverse and associated science investigations were conducted over a three day period on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. The test area was at an elevation of 11,500 feet and is known as "Apollo Valley" (Fig. 1). Here we report the integration and operation of the rover-mounted instruments, as well as the scientific investigations that were conducted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17781932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17781932"><span id="translatedtitle">Radon-222 from the island of <span class="hlt">hawaii</span>: deep soils are more important than lava fields or <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilkening, M H</p> <p>1974-02-01</p> <p>The mean flux of radon-222 atoms from the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> is 0.45 atom per square centimeter per second. Lava fields occupy 50 percent of the land area, but their radon flux is only 1 percent of that from deep volcanic soils. The island yields approximately 10 curies of radon-222 per hour to the air surrounding it. The radon-222 contribuition of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> is negligible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GGG.....5.8006C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004GGG.....5.8006C"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth and collapse of Waianae <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, as revealed by exploration of its submarine flanks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coombs, Michelle L.; Clague, David A.; Moore, Gregory F.; Cousens, Brian L.</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>Wai`anae <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> comprises the western half of O`ahu Island, but until recently little was known about the submarine portion of this <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Seven new submersible dives, conducted in 2001 and 2002, and multibeam bathymetry offshore of Wai`anae provide evidence pertaining to the overall growth of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s edifice as well as the timing of collapses that formed the Wai`anae slump complex. A prominent slope break at ˜1400 mbsl marks the paleoshoreline of Wai`anae at the end of its shield-building stage and wraps around Ka`ena Ridge, suggesting that this may have been an extension of Wai`anae's northwest rift zone. Subaerially erupted tholeiitic lavas were collected from a small shield along the crest of Ka`ena Ridge. The length of Wai`anae's south rift zone is poorly constrained but reaches at least 65 km on the basis of recovered tholeiite pillows at this distance from the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s center. Wai`anae's growth was marked by multiple collapse and deformation events during and after its shield stage, resulting in the compound mass wasting features on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s southwest flank (Wai`anae slump complex). The slump complex, one of the largest in <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>, covering an area of ˜5500 km2, is composed of several distinct sections on the basis of morphology and the lithologies of recovered samples. Two dives ascended the outer bench of the slump complex and collected predominantly low-S tholeiites that correlate with subaerial lavas erupted early during the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s shield stage, from 3.9 to 3.5 Ma. Pillow lavas from the outer bench have Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic values that overlap with previously published subaerial Wai`anae lavas. On the basis of the compositions of the recovered samples, the main body of the slump complex, as represented by the outer bench, probably formed during and shortly after the early shield stage. To the southwest of the outer bench lies a broad debris field on the seafloor, interpreted to have formed by a catastrophic collapse event that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016435','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016435"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of xenoliths in the trachyte at Puu Waawaa, Hualalai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Clague, D.A.; Bohrson, W.A.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Rare dunite and 2-pyroxene gabbro xenoliths occur in banded trachyte at Puu Waawaa on Hualalai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Mineral compositions suggest that these xenoliths formed as cumulates of tholeiitic basalt at shallow depth in a subcaldera magma reservoir. Subsequently, the minerals in the xenoliths underwent subsolidus reequilibration that particularly affected chromite compositions by decreasing their Mg numbers. In addition, olivine lost CaO and plagioclase lost MgO and Fe2O3 during subsolidus reequilibration. The xenoliths also reacted with the host trachyte to form secondary mica, amphibole, and orthopyroxene, and to further modify the compositions of some olivine, clinopyroxene, and spinel grains. The reaction products indicate that the host trachyte melt was hydrous. Clinopyroxene in one dunite sample and olivine in most dunite samples have undergone partial melting, apparently in response to addition of water to the xenolith. These xenoliths do not contain CO2 fluid inclusions, so common in xenoliths from other localities on Hualalai, which suggests that CO2 was introduced from alkalic basalt magma between the time CO2-inclusion-free xenoliths erupted at 106??6 ka and the time CO2-inclusion-rich xenoliths erupted within the last 15 ka. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_78353.htm','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_78353.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic Map of the Middle East Rift Geothermal Subzone, Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Trusdell, Frank A.; Moore, Richard B.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>K'lauea is an active shield <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in the southeastern part of the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>. The middle east rift zone (MERZ) map includes about 27 square kilometers of the MERZ and shows the distribution of the products of 37 separate eruptions during late Holocene time. Lava flows erupted during 1983-96 have reached the mapped area. The subaerial part of the MERZ is 3-4 km wide and about 18 km long. It is a constructional ridge, 50-150 m above the adjoining terrain, marked by low spatter ramparts and cones as high as 60 m. Lava typically flowed either northeast or southeast, depending on vent location relative to the topographic crest of the rift zone. The MERZ receives more than 100 in. of rainfall annually and is covered by tropical rain forest. Vegetation begins to grow on lava a few months after its eruption. Relative heights of trees can be a guide to relative ages of underlying lava flows, but proximity to faults, presence of easily weathered cinders, and human activity also affect the rate of growth. The rocks have been grouped into five basic age groups. The framework for the ages assigned is provided by eight radiocarbon ages from previous mapping by the authors and a single date from the current mapping effort. The numerical ages are supplemented by observations of stratigraphic relations, degree of weathering, soil development, and vegetative cover.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029359','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029359"><span id="translatedtitle">Source process of a long-period event at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kumagai, H.; Chouet, B.A.; Dawson, P.B.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We analyse a long-period (LP) event observed by a dense seismic network temporarily operated at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, in 1996. We systematically perform spectral analyses, waveform inversions and forward modeling of the LP event to quantify its source process. Spectral analyses identify two dominant spectral frequencies at 0.6 and 1.3 Hz with associated Q values in the range 10-20. Results from waveform inversions assuming six moment-tensor and three single-force components point to the resonance of a horizontal crack located at a depth of approximately 150 m near the northeastern rim of the Halemaumau pit crater. Waveform simulations based on a fluid-filled crack model suggest that the observed frequencies and Q values can be explained by a crack filled with a hydrothermal fluid in the form of either bubbly water or steam. The shallow hydrothermal crack located directly above the magma conduit may have been heated by volcanic gases leaking from the conduit. The enhanced flux of heat raised the overall pressure of the hydrothermal fluid in the crack and induced a rapid discharge of fluid from the crack, which triggered the acoustic vibrations of the resonator generating the LP waveform. The present study provides further support to the idea that LP events originate in the resonance of a crack. ?? 2005 RAS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/big_island_hawaii','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/big_island_hawaii"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>article title:  Big Island, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>     View Larger ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of the Big Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, April - June 2000. The images have been rotated so that ... NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.169...63C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.169...63C"><span id="translatedtitle">Silicon isotope systematics of acidic weathering of fresh basalts, Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chemtob, Steven M.; Rossman, George R.; Young, Edward D.; Ziegler, Karen; Moynier, Fréderic; Eiler, John M.; Hurowitz, Joel A.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Silicon stable isotopes are fractionated by a host of low-temperature aqueous processes, making them potentially useful as a weathering proxy. Here we characterize the silicon isotope signature of surficial chemical weathering of glassy basaltic lava flows at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Fresh basalt flow surfaces (<40 years old) frequently feature opaque amorphous silica surface coatings up to 80 μm thick. These silica coatings and associated silica cements are enriched in the heavier isotopes of Si (δ30SiNBS-28 = +0.92‰ to +1.36‰) relative to their basaltic substrate (δ30SiNBS-28 = -0.3‰ to -0.2‰). Secondary clays and opals are typically depleted in 30Si relative to the dissolved reservoirs from which they precipitated, so this sense of isotopic fractionation is unusual. Mechanisms capable of producing isotopically heavy secondary minerals were explored by conducting batch alteration experiments on fresh basaltic glass. Batch acidic alteration of basalt glass in HCl, H2SO4, and HF produced silica-rich surface layers resembling the Hawaiian surface coatings. Differences in fluid chemical composition affected the direction and magnitude of Si isotope fractionation. Basalt leaching in HCl or H2SO4 produced 30Si-enriched fluids (1000 ln αprecip-Si(aq) ≅ -0.8‰) and 30Si-depleted secondary silica layers. In contrast, HF-bearing experiments produced highly 30Si-depleted fluid compositions (1000 ln αprecip-Si(aq) up to +8‰). Larger isotopic fractionations were observed in experiments with lower fluid-rock ratios. In <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, where altering fluids contain H2SO4 and HCl but minimal HF, high δ30Si values for the silica coatings were likely achieved by Rayleigh fractionation. Aqueous 30Si-enriched silica was released during incongruent basalt dissolution then subsequently transported and deposited from an evaporating solution at the flow surface. Our results indicate that (1) altering fluid chemistry and fluid-rock ratio impact the Si isotope signature of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016001','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016001"><span id="translatedtitle">Geometry of the September 1971 eruptive fissure at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dvorak, J.J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A three-dimensional model has been used to estimate the location and dimensions of the eruptive fissure for the 24-29 September 1971 eruption along the southwest rift zone of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. The model is an inclined rectangular sheet embedded in an elastic half-space with constant displacement on the plane of the sheet. The set of "best" model parameters suggests that the sheet is vertical, extends from a depth of about 2 km to the surface, and has a length of about 14 km. Because this sheet intersects the surface where eruptive vents and extensive ground cracking formed during the eruption, this sheet probably represents the conduit for erupted lava. The amount of displacement perpendicular to the sheet is about 1.9 m, in the middle range of values measured for the amount of opening across the September 1971 eruptive fissure. The thickness of the eruptive fissure associated with the January 1983 east rift zone eruption was determined in an earlier paper to be 3.6 m, about twice the thickness determined here for the September 1971 eruption. Because the lengths (12 km for 1983 and 14 km for 1971) and heights (about 2 km) of the sheet models derived for the January 1983 and September 1971 rift zone eruptions are nearly identical, the greater thickness for the January 1983 eruptive fissure implies that the magma pressure was about a factor of two greater to form the January 1983 eruptive fissure. Because the September 1971 and January 1983 eruptive fissures extent to depths of only a few kilometers, the region of greatest compressive stress produced along the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s flank by either of these eruptive fissures would also be within a few kilometers of the surface. Previous work has shown that rift eruptions and intrusions contribute to the buildup of compressive stress along Kilauea's south flank and that this buildup is released by increased seismicity along the south flank. Because south flank earthquakes occur at significantly greater depths, i.e., from 5</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012438','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012438"><span id="translatedtitle">Applications of the VLF induction method for studying some volcanic processes of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Zablocki, C.J.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The very low-frequency (VLF) induction method has found exceptional utility in studying various volcanic processes of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> because: (1) significant anomalies result exclusively from ionically conductive magma or still-hot intrusions (> 800??C) and the attendant electrolytically conductive hot groundwater; (2) basalt flows forming the bulk of Kilauea have very high resistivities at shallow depths that result in low geologic noise levels and relatively deep depths of investigation (???100 m); and (3) the azimuths to two of the usable transmitters (NLK and NPM) are aligned favorably with most of the principal geologic features. Measurements of the tilt angle and ellipticity of the polarization ellipse of the magnetic field, using a simple, hand-held receiver, have been used to: (1) delineate the lateral extent of shallow, partially solidified lava lakes, active lava tubes, and recent intrusive dikes; (2) obtain an indication of the attitude of some recent dikes; (3) show that many eruptive fissures cool faster than their intrusive counterparts; (4) show that some fumarolic areas are underlain by shallow, highly altered, and conductive zones; and (5) provide control information for interpreting data obtained with other electrical techniques. Complementary measurements of scalar apparent resistivity and surface impedance phase, using a new attachment for the VLF receiver, have substantially increased the utility of VLF studies in Kilauea. They provide better lateral resolution of conductors and reduce the ambiguity in interpretation. Notwithstanding recent advances in theoretical modeling techniques, the excellent quality of some of the data warrants extension of interpretive techniques, particularly for quantitatively characterizing the configuration and conductivity of small-dimension bodies. These VLF induction methods should have wide application to studies of active volcanic regions in other parts of the world and could provide some insights into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028052','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028052"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquakes triggered by silent slip events on Kīlauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Segall, Paul; Desmarais, Emily K.; Shelly, David; Miklius, Asta; Cervelli, Peter F.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Slow-slip events, or ‘silent earthquakes’, have recently been discovered in a number of subduction zones including the Nankai trough1, 2, 3 in Japan, Cascadia4, 5, and Guerrero6 in Mexico, but the depths of these events have been difficult to determine from surface deformation measurements. Although it is assumed that these silent earthquakes are located along the plate megathrust, this has not been proved. Slow slip in some subduction zones is associated with non-volcanic tremor7, 8, but tremor is difficult to locate and may be distributed over a broad depth range9. Except for some events on the San Andreas fault10, slow-slip events have not yet been associated with high-frequency earthquakes, which are easily located. Here we report on swarms of high-frequency earthquakes that accompany otherwise silent slips on Kīlauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. For the most energetic event, in January 2005, the slow slip began before the increase in seismicity. The temporal evolution of earthquakes is well explained by increased stressing caused by slow slip, implying that the earthquakes are triggered. The earthquakes, located at depths of 7–8 km, constrain the slow slip to be at comparable depths, because they must fall in zones of positive Coulomb stress change. Triggered earthquakes accompanying slow-slip events elsewhere might go undetected if background seismicity rates are low. Detection of such events would help constrain the depth of slow slip, and could lead to a method for quantifying the increased hazard during slow-slip events, because triggered events have the potential to grow into destructive earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017155','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017155"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, lower east rift zone of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moore, R.B.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Detailed geologic mapping and radiocarbon dating of tholeiitic basalts covering about 275 km2 on the lower east rift zone (LERZ) and adjoining flanks of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, show that at least 112 separate eruptions have occurred during the past 2360 years. Eruptive products include spatter ramparts and cones, a shield, two extensive lithic-rich tuff deposits, aa and pahoehoe flows, and three littoral cones. Areal coverage, number of eruptions and average dormant interval estimates in years for the five age groups assigned are: (I) historic, i.e. A D 1790 and younger: 25%, 5, 42.75; (II) 200-400 years old: 50%, 15, 14.3: (III) 400-750 years old: 20%, 54, 6.6; (IV) 750-1500 years old: 5%, 37, 20.8; (V) 1500-3000 years old: <1%, 1, unknown. At least 4.5-6 km3 of tholeiitic basalt have been erupted from the LERZ during the past 1500 years. Estimated volumes of the exposed products of individual eruptions range from a few tens of cubic meters for older units in small kipukas to as much as 0.4 km3 for the heiheiahulu shield. The average dormant interval has been about 13.6 years during the past 1500 years. The most recent eruption occurred in 1961, and the area may be overdue for its next eruption. However, eruptive activity will not resume on the LERZ until either the dike feeding the current eruption on the middle east rift zone extends farther down rift, or a new dike, unrelated to the current eruption, extends into the LERZ. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030662','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030662"><span id="translatedtitle">Puhimau thermal area: a window into the upper east rift zone of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McGee, K.A.; Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.; Doukas, M.P.; Gerlach, T.M.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We report the results of two soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed chamber circulation method at the Puhimau thermal area in the upper East Rift Zone (ERZ) of  <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. The surveys were undertaken in 1996 and 1998 to constrain how much CO2 might be reaching the ERZ after degassing beneath the summit caldera and whether the Puhimau thermal area might be a significant contributor to the overall CO2 budget of  . The area was revisited in 2001 to determine the effects of surface disturbance on efflux values by the collar emplacement technique utilized in the earlier surveys. Utilizing a cutoff value of 50 g m−2 d−1 for the surrounding forest background efflux, the CO2 emission rates for the anomaly at Puhimau thermal area were 27 t d−1 in 1996 and 17 t d−1 in 1998. Water vapor was removed before analysis in all cases in order to obtain CO2 values on a dry air basis and mitigate the effect of water vapor dilution on the measurements. It is clear that Puhimau thermal area is not a significant contributor to  CO2 output and that most of  CO2 (8500 t d−1) is degassed at the summit, leaving only magma with its remaining stored volatiles, such as SO2, for injection down the ERZ. Because of the low CO2emission rate and the presence of a shallow water table in the upper ERZ that effectively scrubs SO2 and other acid gases, Puhimau thermal area currently does not appear to be generally well suited for observing temporal changes in degassing at  .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014351','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014351"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of ultramafic xenoliths containing exsolved pyroxenes from Hualalai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bohrson, W.A.; Clague, D.A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Hualalai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, is best known for the abundant and varied xenoliths included in the historic 1800 Kaupulehu alkalic basalt flow. Xenoliths, which range in composition from dunite to anorthosite, are concentrated at 915-m elevation in the flow. Rare cumulate ultramafic xenoliths, which include websterite, olivine websterite, wehrlite, and clinopyroxenite, display complex pyroxene exsolution textures that indicate slow cooling. Websterite, olivine websterite, and one wehrlite are spinel-bearing orthopyroxene +olivine cumulates with intercumulus clinopyroxene +plagioclase. Two wehrlite samples and clinopyroxenite are spinel-bearing olivine cumulates with intercumulus clinopyroxene+orthopyroxene + plagioclase. Two-pyroxene geothermometry calculations, based on reconstructed pyroxene compositions, indicate that crystallization temperatures range from 1225?? to 1350?? C. Migration or unmixing of clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene stopped between 1045?? and 1090?? C. Comparisons of the abundance of K2O in plagioclase and the abundances of TiO2 and Fe2O3in spinel of xenoliths and mid-ocean ridge basalt, and a single 87Sr/ 86Sr determination, indicate that these Hualalai xenoliths are unrelated to mid-ocean ridge basalt. Similarity between the crystallization sequence of these xenoliths and the experimental crystallization sequence of a Hawaiian olivine tholeiite suggest that the parental magma of the xenoliths is Hualalai tholeiitic basalt. Xenoliths probably crystallized between about 4.5 and 9 kb. The 155??-230?? C of cooling which took place over about 120 ka - the age of the youngest Hualalai tholeiitic basalt - yield maximum cooling rates of 1.3??10-3-1.91??10-3 ??C/yr. Hualalai ultramafic xenoliths with exsolved pyroxenes crystallized from Hualalai tholeiitic basalt and accumulated in a magma reservoir located between 13 and 28 km below sealevel. We suspect that this reservoir occurs just below the base of the oceanic crust at about 19 km below sealevel</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BVol...78...71F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BVol...78...71F"><span id="translatedtitle">Magma decompression rates during explosive eruptions of Kīlauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, recorded by melt embayments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferguson, David J.; Gonnermann, Helge M.; Ruprecht, Philipp; Plank, Terry; Hauri, Erik H.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Swanson, Donald A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The decompression rate of magma as it ascends during volcanic eruptions is an important but poorly constrained parameter that controls many of the processes that influence eruptive behavior. In this study, we quantify decompression rates for basaltic magmas using volatile diffusion in olivine-hosted melt tubes (embayments) for three contrasting eruptions of Kīlauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Incomplete exsolution of H2O, CO2, and S from the embayment melts during eruptive ascent creates diffusion profiles that can be measured using microanalytical techniques, and then modeled to infer the average decompression rate. We obtain average rates of ~0.05-0.45 MPa s-1 for eruptions ranging from Hawaiian style fountains to basaltic subplinian, with the more intense eruptions having higher rates. The ascent timescales for these magmas vary from around ~5 to ~36 min from depths of ~2 to ~4 km, respectively. Decompression-exsolution models based on the embayment data also allow for an estimate of the mass fraction of pre-existing exsolved volatiles within the magma body. In the eruptions studied, this varies from 0.1 to 3.2 wt% but does not appear to be the key control on eruptive intensity. Our results do not support a direct link between the concentration of pre-eruptive volatiles and eruptive intensity; rather, they suggest that for these eruptions, decompression rates are proportional to independent estimates of mass discharge rate. Although the intensity of eruptions is defined by the discharge rate, based on the currently available dataset of embayment analyses, it does not appear to scale linearly with average decompression rate. This study demonstrates the utility of the embayment method for providing quantitative constraints on magma ascent during explosive basaltic eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6513558','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6513558"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrology, geochemistry, and petrogenesis of ultramafic xenoliths from 1800-1801 Kaupulehu flow, Hualalai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, C.H.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The 1800-1801 Kaupulehu alkalic flow on Hualalai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, contains abundant xenoliths of dunite, wehrlite, and olivine-clinopyroxenite with minor gabbro, troctolite, anorthosite, and websterite. The petrography and mineral chemistry of forty-six dunite, wehrlite, and olivine-clinopyroxenite xenoliths have been studied; eight were selected for determination of trace element concentrations and isotopic ratios of separated clinopyroxenes. Temperatures of equilibrium obtained from both olivine-spinel and pyroxene geo-thermometers range from 1000 C to 1200 C for these ultramafic xenoliths. A depth of 8-25 km is suggested for the formation of these ultramafic xenoliths. The rarity of othopyroxene, presence of clinopyroxene, Fe-rich olivine and clinopyroxene compositions, and high TiO content in spinel and clinopyroxene indicate that these xenoliths have a cumulate origin and are not residues from partial melting. Sr and Nd isotopic ratios from clinopyroxene are different from those of most Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts. Rare earth element (REE) concentrations in liquid that equilibrated with xenolith clinopyroxenes have light rare earth element (LREE) enriched patterns with (Ce/Yb)n between 4 and 10. Similar olivine, spinel, and clinopyroxene compositions in xenoliths and Hawaiian basalts as well as good agreement of their Sr and Nd isotopic ratios suggests a genetic relationship between Hualalai ultramafic xenoliths and Hawaiian basalts. Some xenoliths possibly are cumulates from alkalic or tholeiitic basalts. However, Hualalai tholeiitic basalts are excluded due to their different /sup 3/He//sup 4/He values and REE patterns. The magmas that crystallized the Mg-rich (>Fo/sub 87/) dunites with high REE contents are similar in Sr and Nd isotopic values to Hualalai 1800-1801 alkalic basalts but have higher REE and Sr contents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023691','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023691"><span id="translatedtitle">Wavefield properties of a shallow long-period event and tremor at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Saccorotti, G.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The wavefields of tremor and a long-period (LP) event associated with the ongoing eruptive activity at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, are investigated using a combination of dense small-aperture (300 m) and sparse large-aperture (5 km) arrays deployed in the vicinity of the summit caldera. Measurements of azimuth and slowness for tremor recorded on the small-aperture array indicate a bimodal nature of the observed wavefield. At frequencies below 2 Hz, the wavefield is dominated by body waves impinging the array with steep incidence. These arrivals are attributed to the oceanic microseismic noise. In the 2-6 Hz band, the wavefield is dominated by waves propagating from sources located at shallow depths (<1 km) beneath the eastern edge of the Halemaumau pit crater. The hypocenter of the LP event, determined from frequency-slowness analyses combined with phase picks, appears to be located close to the source of tremor but at a shallower depth (<0.1 km). The wavefields of tremor and LP event are characterized by a complex composition of body and surface waves, whose propagation and polarization properties are strongly affected by topographic and structural features in the summit caldera region. Analyses of the directional properties of the wavefield in the 2-6 Hz band point to the directions of main scattering sources, which are consistent with pronounced velocity contrasts imaged in a high-resolution three-dimensional velocity model of the caldera region. The frequency and Q of the dominant peak observed in the spectra of the LP event may be explained as the dominant oscillation mode of a crack with scale length 20-100 m and aperture of a few centimeters filled with bubbly water. The mechanism driving the shallow tremor appears to be consistent with a sustained excitation originating in the oscillations of a bubbly cloud resulting from vesiculation and degassing in the magma. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980227532&hterms=gps+deformation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dgps%2Bdeformation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980227532&hterms=gps+deformation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dgps%2Bdeformation"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Deformation and Coherence Measurements of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, from SIR-C Radar Interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Zebker, H. A.; Webb, F. H.; Fielding, E. J.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The shuttle imaging radar C/X synthetic aperture radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) radar on board the space shuttle Endeavor imaged Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, in April and October 1994 for the purpose of measuring active surface deformation by the methods of repeat-pass differential radar interferometry. Observations at 24 cm (L band) and 5.6 cm (C band) wavelengths were reduced to interferograms showing apparent surface deformation over the 6-month interval and over a succession of 1-day intervals in October. A statistically significant local phase signature in the 6-month interferogram is coincident with the Pu'u O'o lava vent. Interpreted as deformation, the signal implies centimeter-scale deflation in an area several kilometers wide surrounding the vent. Peak deflation is roughly 14 cm if the deformation is purely vertical, centered southward of the Pu'u O'o caldera. Delays in the radar signal phase induced by atmospheric refractivity anomalies introduce spurious apparent deformation signatures, at the level of 12 cm peak-to-peak in the radar line-of-sight direction. Though the phase observations are suggestive of the wide-area deformation measured by Global Positioning System (GPS) methods, the atmospheric effects are large enough to limit the interpretation of the result. It is difficult to characterize centimeter-scale deformations spatially distributed over tens of kilometers using differential interferometry without supporting simultaneous, spatially distributed measurements of reactivity along the radar line of sight. Studies of the interferometric correlation of images acquired at different times show that L band is far superior to C band in the vegetated areas, even when the observations are separated by only 1 day. These results imply longer wavelength instruments are more appropriate for studying surfaces by repeat-pass observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130010203','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130010203"><span id="translatedtitle">Moessbauer/XRF MIMOS Instrumentation and Operation During the 2012 Analog Field Test on Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Graff, Trevor G.; Morris, R. V.; Klingelhofer, G.; Blumers, M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Field testing and scientific investigations were conducted on the Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, as part of the 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA). Measurements were conducted using both stand-alone and rover-mounted instruments to determine the geophysical and geochemical properties of the field site, as well as provide operational constraints and science considerations for future robotic and human missions [1]. Reported here are the results from the two MIMOS instruments deployed as part of this planetary analog field test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.4082P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.4082P"><span id="translatedtitle">On the interaction of Tropical Cyclone Flossie and emissions from <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pattantyus, Andre; Businger, Steven</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>On 29 July 2013, Tropical Storm Flossie passed the Hawaiian Islands. This is the first interaction between an active, vigorously degassing <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and a tropical cyclone captured by a vog (volcanic smog) dispersion model run over the Hawaiian Islands since operational simulations began in 2010, providing a unique opportunity to analyze the influence of robust volcanic emissions entrained into a tropical cyclone. Results from the vog dispersion model are compared with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations, lightning data from Vaisala's Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360), and the <span class="hlt">National</span> Weather Service Weather Surveillance Radar, 1988 Dual-Polarmetric Doppler radar to investigate the effect of volcanic emissions on the storm. Observations and model results suggest that aerosol loading resulted in deep convection and glaciation which in turn enhanced charge separation and promoted active lightning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035394','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035394"><span id="translatedtitle">Shallow conduit system at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, revealed by seismic signals associated with degassing bursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phillip</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Eruptive activity at the summit of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, beginning in March, 2008 and continuing to the present time is characterized by episodic explosive bursts of gas and ash from a vent within Halemaumau Pit Crater. These bursts are accompanied by seismic signals that are well recorded by a broadband network deployed in the summit caldera. We investigate in detail the dimensions and oscillation modes of the source of a representative burst in the 1−10 s band. An extended source is realized by a set of point sources distributed on a grid surrounding the source centroid, where the centroid position and source geometry are fixed from previous modeling of very-long-period (VLP) data in the 10–50 s band. The source time histories of all point sources are obtained simultaneously through waveform inversion carried out in the frequency domain. Short-scale noisy fluctuations of the source time histories between adjacent sources are suppressed with a smoothing constraint, whose strength is determined through a minimization of the Akaike Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). Waveform inversions carried out for homogeneous and heterogeneous velocity structures both image a dominant source component in the form of an east trending dike with dimensions of 2.9 × 2.9 km. The dike extends ∼2 km west and ∼0.9 km east of the VLP centroid and spans the depth range 0.2–3.1 km. The source model for a homogeneous velocity structure suggests the dike is hinged at the source centroid where it bends from a strike E 27°N with northern dip of 85° west of the centroid, to a strike E 7°N with northern dip of 80° east of the centroid. The oscillating behavior of the dike is dominated by simple harmonic modes with frequencies ∼0.2 Hz and ∼0.5 Hz, representing the fundamental mode ν11 and first degenerate mode ν12 = ν21 of the dike. Although not strongly supported by data in the 1–10 s band, a north striking dike segment is required for enhanced compatibility with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRB..117.9204J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRB..117.9204J"><span id="translatedtitle">40Ar/39Ar geochronology of submarine Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jicha, Brian R.; Rhodes, J. Michael; Singer, Brad S.; Garcia, Michael O.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>New geochronologic constraints refine the growth history of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and enhance interpretations of the petrologic, geochemical, and isotopic evolution of Hawaiian magmatism. We report results of 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating experiments on low-K, tholeiitic lavas from the 1.6 km high Kahuku landslide scarp cutting Mauna Loa's submarine southwest rift zone, and from lavas in a deeper section of the rift. Obtaining precise40Ar/39Ar ages from young, tholeiitic lavas containing only 0.2-0.3 wt.% K2O is challenging due to their extremely low radiogenic 40Ar contents. Analyses of groundmass from 45 lavas yield 14 new age determinations (31% success rate) with plateau and isochron ages that agree with stratigraphic constraints. Lavas collected from a 1250 m thick section in the landslide scarp headwall were all erupted around 470 ± 10 ka, implying an extraordinary period of accumulation of ˜25 mm/yr, possibly correlating with the peak of the shield-building stage. This rate is three times higher than the estimated vertical lava accumulation rate for shield-building at Mauna Kea (8.6 ± 3.1 mm/yr) based on results from the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Scientific Drilling Project. Between ˜470 and 273 ka, the lava accumulation rate along the southwest rift zone decreased dramatically to ˜1 mm/yr. We propose that the marked reduction in lava accumulation rate does not mark the onset of post-shield volcanism as previously suggested, but rather indicates the upward migration of the magma system as Mauna Loa evolved from a submarine stage of growth to one that is predominantly subaerial, thereby cutting off supply to the distal rift zone. Prior to ˜250 ka, lavas with Loihi-like isotopic signatures were erupted along with lavas having typical Mauna Loa values, implying greater heterogeneity in the plume source earlier in Mauna Loa's growth. In addition to refining accumulation rates and the isotopic evolution of the lavas erupted along the southwest rift zone, our new40Ar/39Ar results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRB..11612317C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRB..11612317C"><span id="translatedtitle">Shallow conduit system at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, revealed by seismic signals associated with degassing bursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phillip</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Eruptive activity at the summit of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, beginning in March, 2008 and continuing to the present time is characterized by episodic explosive bursts of gas and ash from a vent within Halemaumau Pit Crater. These bursts are accompanied by seismic signals that are well recorded by a broadband network deployed in the summit caldera. We investigate in detail the dimensions and oscillation modes of the source of a representative burst in the 1-10 s band. An extended source is realized by a set of point sources distributed on a grid surrounding the source centroid, where the centroid position and source geometry are fixed from previous modeling of very-long-period (VLP) data in the 10-50 s band. The source time histories of all point sources are obtained simultaneously through waveform inversion carried out in the frequency domain. Short-scale noisy fluctuations of the source time histories between adjacent sources are suppressed with a smoothing constraint, whose strength is determined through a minimization of the Akaike Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). Waveform inversions carried out for homogeneous and heterogeneous velocity structures both image a dominant source component in the form of an east trending dike with dimensions of 2.9 × 2.9 km. The dike extends ˜2 km west and ˜0.9 km east of the VLP centroid and spans the depth range 0.2-3.1 km. The source model for a homogeneous velocity structure suggests the dike is hinged at the source centroid where it bends from a strike E 27°N with northern dip of 85° west of the centroid, to a strike E 7°N with northern dip of 80° east of the centroid. The oscillating behavior of the dike is dominated by simple harmonic modes with frequencies ˜0.2 Hz and ˜0.5 Hz, representing the fundamental mode ν11 and first degenerate mode ν12 = ν21 of the dike. Although not strongly supported by data in the 1-10 s band, a north striking dike segment is required for enhanced compatibility with the model</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JGRB..118.5352C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JGRB..118.5352C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Very long period conduit oscillations induced by rockfalls at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phillip</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Eruptive activity at the summit of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, beginning in 2010 and continuing to the present time is characterized by transient outgassing bursts accompanied by very long period (VLP) seismic signals triggered by rockfalls from the vent walls impacting a lava lake in a pit within the Halemaumau pit crater. We use raw data recorded with an 11-station broadband network to model the source mechanism of signals accompanying two large rockfalls on 29 August 2012 and two smaller average rockfalls obtained by stacking over all events with similar waveforms to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. To determine the source centroid location and source mechanism, we minimize the residual error between data and synthetics calculated by the finite difference method for a point source embedded in a homogeneous medium that takes topography into account. We apply a new waveform inversion method that accounts for the contributions from both translation and tilt in horizontal seismograms through the use of Green's functions representing the seismometer response to translation and tilt ground motions. This method enables a robust description of the source mechanism over the period range 1-1000 s. The VLP signals associated with the rockfalls originate in a source region ˜1 km below the eastern perimeter of the Halemaumau pit crater. The observed waveforms are well explained by a simple volumetric source with geometry composed of two intersecting cracks including an east striking crack (dike) dipping 80° to the north, intersecting a north striking crack (another dike) dipping 65° to the east. Each rockfall is marked by a similar step-like inflation trailed by decaying oscillations of the volumetric source, attributed to the efficient coupling at the source centroid location of the pressure and momentum changes induced by the rock mass impacting the top of the lava column. Assuming a simple lumped parameter representation of the shallow magmatic system, the observed</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title36-vol1-sec7-25.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title36-vol1-sec7-25.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">36 CFR 7.25 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... registration. No person shall explore or climb about the lava tubes or pit craters in the park without first... Thruston Lava Tube, nor the maintained trail down and across Kilauea Iki pit crater....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title36-vol1-sec7-25.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title36-vol1-sec7-25.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">36 CFR 7.25 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... registration. No person shall explore or climb about the lava tubes or pit craters in the park without first... Thruston Lava Tube, nor the maintained trail down and across Kilauea Iki pit crater....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title36-vol1-sec7-25.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title36-vol1-sec7-25.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">36 CFR 7.25 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... registration. No person shall explore or climb about the lava tubes or pit craters in the park without first... Thruston Lava Tube, nor the maintained trail down and across Kilauea Iki pit crater....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5117/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5117/"><span id="translatedtitle">A Versatile Time-Lapse Camera System Developed by the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory for Use at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Orr, Tim R.; Hoblitt, Richard P.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> can be difficult to study up close. Because it may be days, weeks, or even years between important events, direct observation is often impractical. In addition, <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are often inaccessible due to their remote location and (or) harsh environmental conditions. An eruption adds another level of complexity to what already may be a difficult and dangerous situation. For these reasons, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO) have, for years, built camera systems to act as surrogate eyes. With the recent advances in digital-camera technology, these eyes are rapidly improving. One type of photographic monitoring involves the use of near-real-time network-enabled cameras installed at permanent sites (Hoblitt and others, in press). Time-lapse camera-systems, on the other hand, provide an inexpensive, easily transportable monitoring option that offers more versatility in site location. While time-lapse systems lack near-real-time capability, they provide higher image resolution and can be rapidly deployed in areas where the use of sophisticated telemetry required by the networked cameras systems is not practical. This report describes the latest generation (as of 2008) time-lapse camera system used by HVO for photograph acquisition in remote and hazardous sites on Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.V41G..02D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.V41G..02D"><span id="translatedtitle">Concurrent Evaluation of Magma Production, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Growth, and Geochemical Structure in Mantle Plumes: <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Drilling Project (HSDP) Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Depaolo, D. J.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) completed its drilling and coring of the northeast flank of the Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in early 2007. The project obtained a nearly continuous core consisting of lava flows, hyaloclastite, minor intrusives and sediment from a 3260 m section of the Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, covering an age range from 200 to over 600 ka. It also recovered a 280m section of the Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. When combined with surface and dredge samples, there now is a 600-700 ky record of the lava output from Mauna Kea as well as a 200 ky record from Mauna Loa. These records can be interpreted in terms of the geochemical structure of the Hawaiian plume, given a model for the sampling of the plume by melting and melt transport. The continuous nature of the HSDP core, with the implied continuous monitoring of the lava output from the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, has dictated that we develop models for the plume behavior just below the lithosphere, and for how magma is collected from the plume melting region and supplied to an individual <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Although there are as yet no detailed physical models for the melt collection and transport, we have experimented with simple geometric models. These models can be constrained by the volume and volume-age structure of the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and by available geodynamic models for the Hawaiian plume. Using these models we can interpret geochemical data from the lavas in terms of plume structure. Any systematic variability in Hawaiian lavas with depth (age) in the drillcore can be attributed to structure in the plume, and one of the interesting results is that there is such structure even though melting within the plume samples only the innermost third or so the plume radius. The data show that there is radial geochemical zoning of the melting region of the plume in terms of He, Pb, Nd, Sr and Hf isotopes. This geochemical structure represents the hot core of the plume and does not reflect entrainment of ambient lower or upper mantle. To first</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VOLCANOES&pg=3&id=EJ118237','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VOLCANOES&pg=3&id=EJ118237"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kunar, L. N. S.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Describes the forces responsible for the eruptions of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and gives the physical and chemical parameters governing the type of eruption. Explains the structure of the earth in relation to <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and explains the location of volcanic regions. (GS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5563600','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5563600"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Decker, R.W.; Decker, B.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>This book describes <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> although the authors say they are more to be experienced than described. This book poses more question than answers. The public has developed interest and awareness in volcanism since the first edition eight years ago, maybe because since the time 120 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> have erupted. Of those, the more lethal eruptions were from <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> not included in the first edition's World's 101 Most Notorious <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/tm13a1/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/tm13a1/"><span id="translatedtitle">MATLAB tools for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam imagery; applications at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Patrick, Matthew R.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Antolik, Loren</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Webcams are now standard tools for <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring and are used at observatories in Alaska, the Cascades, Kamchatka, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, Italy, and Japan, among other locations. Webcam images allow invaluable documentation of activity and provide a powerful comparative tool for interpreting other monitoring datastreams, such as seismicity and deformation. Automated image processing can improve the time efficiency and rigor of Webcam image interpretation, and potentially extract more information on eruptive activity. For instance, Lovick and others (2008) provided a suite of processing tools that performed such tasks as noise reduction, eliminating uninteresting images from an image collection, and detecting incandescence, with an application to dome activity at Mount St. Helens during 2007. In this paper, we present two very simple automated approaches for improved characterization and quantification of volcanic incandescence in Webcam images at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>. The techniques are implemented in MATLAB (version 2009b, Copyright: The Mathworks, Inc.) to take advantage of the ease of matrix operations. Incandescence is a useful indictor of the location and extent of active lava flows and also a potentially powerful proxy for activity levels at open vents. We apply our techniques to a period covering both summit and east rift zone activity at Kilauea during 2008?2009 and compare the results to complementary datasets (seismicity, tilt) to demonstrate their integrative potential. A great strength of this study is the demonstrated success of these tools in an operational setting at the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO) over the course of more than a year. Although applied only to Webcam images here, the techniques could be applied to any type of sequential images, such as time-lapse photography. We expect that these tools are applicable to many other <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring scenarios, and the two MATLAB scripts, as they are implemented at HVO, are included in the appendixes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED238672.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED238672.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tilling, Robert I.</p> <p></p> <p>One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, this booklet provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Separate sections examine the nature and workings of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, types of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, volcanic geological structures such as plugs and maars, types of eruptions, volcanic-related activity such as geysers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V32A..04J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V32A..04J"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the Source Mechanisms of Deflation-Inflation Events at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, J. H.; Anderson, K. R.; Poland, M. P.; Miklius, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>At Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>, cyclic deflation-inflation ("DI") events have been observed on tiltmeters since 1988. Most DI events begin with deflation at the summit that generally lasts 12-72 hours and accumulate ~1-5 microradians of tilt as measured on the rim of Kilauea Caldera, followed by inflation that is initially rapid but wanes over the course of 12-48 hours as the net deformation approaches pre-event levels. This gives the tilt events a V- or U-shaped appearance in the tilt time series, depending on the onset deflation rates. DI events are also manifested at the Pu`u `O`o eruptive vent on Kilauea's east rift zone, about 20 km along the rift from the summit, and lag summit deformation by approximately 30-90 minutes (except during 2005-2007, when summit DI events were not detected at Pu`u `O`o). The temporal correlation of tilt at the caldera and east rift zone indicates that these events affect much of Kilauea's magma plumbing system, from the summit magma reservoir to the eruption site. Large-magnitude DI events are visible in data from continuously-recording GPS stations both at Kilauea's summit and at Pu`u `O`o, and some DI events have been imaged using InSAR. Tilt events with long-lived (several days) deflation phases are usually associated with decreases in lava effusion or even eruptive pauses on the east rift zone, while large inflationary phases are often accompanied by surges in lava effusion, new breakouts, and thus increased lava flow hazard. The lava level within the summit eruptive vent, which has been continuously visible since early 2010, correlates with tilt deformation associated with DI events. Seismic tremor levels measured at Kilauea summit at times also display a relation with DI events, sometimes correlated and sometimes anti-correlated. Tilt events have become more common since the onset of Kilauea's summit eruption in March 2008, increasing from about 5-10 per year before 2008 to more than 80 in the 8 months of 2012. Two possibly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V51D2697S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V51D2697S"><span id="translatedtitle">Concentric cylinder viscometry at subliquidus conditions on Mauna Ulu lavas, Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sehlke, A.; Robert, B.; Harris, A. J.; gurioli, L.; Whittington, A. G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The morphology of lava flows is controlled by the physical properties of the lava and its effusion rates, as well as environmental influences such as surface medium, slope and ambient temperature and pressure conditions. The important physical properties of lavas include viscosity (η), yield strength (σy), thermal diffusivity (κ) and heat capacity (CP), all of which strongly depend on temperature (T), composition (Χ), crystal fraction (φc) and vesicularity (φb). The crystal fraction (φc) typically increase as temperature decreases, and therefore is temperature dependent itself and influences the residual liquid composition (Χ). The rheological behavior of multi-phase lavas in lava flows is expressed as different flow types, forced from a smooth pahoehoe to a blocky ';a'a within a transition zone. Recent field studies of overflow units at the Muliwai a Pele lava flow erupted from Mauna Ulu in 1974 on Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (<span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>) reveal a transition zone in a distance approximately 4.5 km from the vent as a result of a cooling gradient of 6 °C/km, crystallization rates of 0.05/km and a density increase from 1010 × 150 kg/m3 near to 1410 × 120 kg/m3 6 km distant from the vent due to degassing. Concentric cylinder viscometry under atmospheric conditions has been conducted in order to investigate the rheological response of crystal-liquid lava suspensions at different equilibrium temperatures for Mauna Ulu lavas. We detect first solid phases around 1230 °C being clinopyroxene, olivine and spinel, followed by plagioclase appearing as microlites as observed in natural rock samples. Measured apparent viscosities (ηapp) with applied strain rates between 50 s-1 and 0.3 s-1 at 1201 °C, 1192 °C and 1181 °C show a strong stress-strain rate dependency, classifying our 2-phase suspensions as Herschel-Bulkey fluids with an extrapolated apparent yield strength (τ0) around 200 to 150 Pa in presence of different crystal fractions, resulting in a 2.5 fold increase of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026436','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026436"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of near real-time radial semblance to locate the shallow magmatic conduit at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dawson, P.; Whilldin, D.; Chouet, B.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Radial Semblance is applied to broadband seismic network data to provide source locations of Very-Long-Period (VLP) seismic energy in near real time. With an efficient algorithm and adequate network coverage, accurate source locations of VLP energy are derived to quickly locate the shallow magmatic conduit system at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. During a restart in magma flow following a brief pause in the current eruption, the shallow magmatic conduit is pressurized, resulting in elastic radiation from various parts of the conduit system. A steeply dipping distribution of VLP hypocenters outlines a region extending from sea level to about 550 m elevation below and just east of the Halemaumau Pit Crater. The distinct hypocenters suggest the shallow plumbing system beneath Halemaumau consists of a complex plexus of sills and dikes. An unconstrained location for a section of the conduit is also observed beneath the region between Kilauea Caldera and Kilauea Iki Crater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V41B2779M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V41B2779M"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of Offshore <span class="hlt">Hawai';i</span> Island Seismicity and Velocity Structure, including Lo';ihi Submarine <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Merz, D. K.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Thurber, C. H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Island of <span class="hlt">Hawai';i</span> is home to the most active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the Hawaiian Islands. The island's isolated nature, combined with the lack of permanent offshore seismometers, creates difficulties in recording small magnitude earthquakes with accuracy. This background offshore seismicity is crucial in understanding the structure of the lithosphere around the island chain, the stresses on the lithosphere generated by the weight of the islands, and how the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> interact with each other offshore. This study uses the data collected from a 9-month deployment of a temporary ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) network fully surrounding Lo';ihi <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. This allowed us to widen the aperture of earthquake detection around the Big Island, lower the magnitude detection threshold, and better constrain the hypocentral depths of offshore seismicity that occurs between the OBS network and the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory's land based network. Although this study occurred during a time of volcanic quiescence for Lo';ihi, it establishes a basis for background seismicity of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. More than 480 earthquakes were located using the OBS network, incorporating data from the HVO network where possible. Here we present relocated hypocenters using the double-difference earthquake location algorithm HypoDD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000), as well as tomographic images for a 30 km square area around the summit of Lo';ihi. Illuminated by using the double-difference earthquake location algorithm HypoDD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000), offshore seismicity during this study is punctuated by events locating in the mantle fault zone 30-50km deep. These events reflect rupture on preexisting faults in the lower lithosphere caused by stresses induced by <span class="hlt">volcano</span> loading and flexure of the Pacific Plate (Wolfe et al., 2004; Pritchard et al., 2007). Tomography was performed using the double-difference seismic tomography method TomoDD (Zhang & Thurber, 2003) and showed overall velocities to be slower than</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70170508','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70170508"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of Mauna Loa and Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> from local seismic tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lin, Guoqing; Shearer, Peter M.; Matoza, Robin S.; Okubo, Paul G.; Amelung, Falk</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We present a new three-dimensional seismic velocity model of the crustal and upper mantle structure for Mauna Loa and Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Our model is derived from the first-arrival times of the compressional and shear waves from about 53,000 events on and near the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> between 1992 and 2009 recorded by the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory stations. The Vp model generally agrees with previous studies, showing high-velocity anomalies near the calderas and rift zones and low-velocity anomalies in the fault systems. The most significant difference from previous models is in Vp/Vs structure. The high-Vp and high-Vp/Vs anomalies below Mauna Loa caldera are interpreted as mafic magmatic cumulates. The observed low-Vp and high-Vp/Vs bodies in the Kaoiki seismic zone between 5 and 15 km depth are attributed to the underlying volcaniclastic sediments. The high-Vp and moderate- to low-Vp/Vs anomalies beneath Kilauea caldera can be explained by a combination of different mafic compositions, likely to be olivine-rich gabbro and dunite. The systematically low-Vp and low-Vp/Vs bodies in the southeast flank of Kilauea may be caused by the presence of volatiles. Another difference between this study and previous ones is the improved Vp model resolution in deeper layers, owing to the inclusion of events with large epicentral distances. The new velocity model is used to relocate the seismicity of Mauna Loa and Kilauea for improved absolute locations and ultimately to develop a high-precision earthquake catalog using waveform cross-correlation data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH51C..06E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH51C..06E"><span id="translatedtitle">Never Trust Anyone Over 30: Mitigation Strategies for Adapting to Three Decades of Persistent Degassing at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elias, T.; Sutton, A. J.; Tam, E.; Businger, S.; Horton, K. A.; Ley, D.; Petrie, L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>As Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> approaches its 33rd year of nearly continuous activity, simultaneous summit and rift eruptions continue to challenge island populations, agriculture, and infrastructure with elevated levels of acidic gases and particles. In 2008, the opening of a new summit vent attended a ten- to one hundred- fold increase in SO2 summit emissions which, combined with the ongoing east rift emissions, resulted in the highest combined annual SO2 release since regular measurements began in 1979. While the overall emissions have decreased in a step-wise manner since 2008, this large local source still contributes 20-60% of the SO2 emitted by all stationary fuel combustion sources in the U.S., and ~ 7-20% of the estimated time-averaged annual global volcanogenic SO2 contribution. Research on the long-term health and environmental effects of chronic exposure to volcanic pollution is ongoing in <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>. Public health statistics suggest that incidences of respiratory emergency increased coincident with the onset of the summit eruption. From 2008-2011, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County received a Disaster Designation by the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture due to agricultural losses from the effects of volcanic emissions. A multifaceted approach is being used to address the current gas and particle hazards and to mitigate the impacts to affected areas. Multi-agency websites are providing forecast and real-time data regarding acid particle and SO2 gas concentrations to help people minimize their exposures. The short-term concentration data is linked to color-coded health-advisory levels developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> State Department of Health, with input from the <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service and the U.S. Geological Survey. Questions remain, however, on the appropriateness of the designated advisory levels for protecting chronically exposed populations, and if these tools are sufficiently useful to <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> residents and visitors. Other mitigation efforts include</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024379','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024379"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping the sources of the seismic wave field at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, using data recorded on multiple seismic Antennas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Almendros, J.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.; Huber, Caleb G.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Seismic antennas constitute a powerful tool for the analysis of complex wave fields. Well-designed antennas can identify and separate components of a complex wave field based on their distinct propagation properties. The combination of several antennas provides the basis for a more complete understanding of volcanic wave fields, including an estimate of the location of each individual wave-field component identified simultaneously by at least two antennas. We used frequency-slowness analyses of data from three antennas to identify and locate the different components contributing to the wave fields recorded at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, in February 1997. The wave-field components identified are (1) a sustained background volcanic tremor in the form of body waves generated in a shallow hydrothermal system located below the northeastern edge of the Halemaumau pit crater; (2) surface waves generated along the path between this hydrothermal source and the antennas; (3) back-scattered surface wave energy from a shallow reflector located near the southeastern rim of Kilauea caldera; (4) evidence for diffracted wave components originating at the southeastern edge of Halemaumau; and (5) body waves reflecting the activation of a deeper tremor source between 02 hr 00 min and 16 hr 00 min <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Standard Time on 11 February.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6363031','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6363031"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of historical eruptive-vent migration on the northeast rift zone of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lockwood, J.P. )</p> <p>1990-07-01</p> <p>Five times within the past 138 yr (1852, 1855-1856, 1880-1881, 1942, and 1984), lava flows from vents on the northeast rift zone of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> have reached within a few kilometres of Hilo (the largest city on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>). Most lavas erupted on this right zone in historical time have traveled northeastward (toward Hilo), because their eruptive vents have been concentrated north of the rift zone's broad topographic axis. However, with few exceptions each successive historical eruption on the northeast rift zone has occurred farther southeast than the preceding one. Had the 1984 eruptive vents (the most southeasterly yet) opened less than 200 m farther southeast, the bulk of the 1984 lavas would have flowed away from Hilo. If this historical vent-migration pattern continues, the next eruption on the northeast rift zone could send lavas to the southeast, toward less populated areas. The historical Mauna Loa vent-migration patterns mimic southeastern younging of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain and may be cryptically related to northwestward movement of the Pacific plate. Systematic temporal-spatial vent-migration patterns may characterize eruptive activity at other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> with flank activity and should be considered as an aid to long-term prediction of eruption sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1062/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1062/"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconnaissance gas measurements on the East Rift Zone of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McGee, Kenneth A.; Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jefferson; Doukas, Michael P.; Zemek, Peter G.; Gerlach, Terrence M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We report the results of a set of measurements of volcanic gases on two small ground level plumes in the vicinity of Pu`u `O`o cone on the middle East Rift Zone (ERZ) of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> on 15 June 2001 using open-path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The work was carried out as a reconnaissance survey to assess the monitoring and research value of FTIR measurements at this <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Despite representing emissions of residual volatiles from lava that has undergone prior degassing, the plumes contained detectable amounts of CO2, CO, SO2, HCl, HF and SiF4. Various processes, including subsurface cooling, condensation of water in the atmospheric plume, oxidation, dissolution in water, and reactions with wall rocks at plume vents affect the abundance of these gases. Low concentrations of volcanic CO2 measured against a high ambient background are not well constrained by FTIR spectroscopy. Although there appear to be some differences between these gases and Pu`u `O`o source gases, ratios of HCl/SO2, HF/SO2 and CO/SO2 determined by FTIR measurements of these two small plumes compare reasonably well with earlier published analyses of ERZ vent samples. The measurements yielded emission rate estimates of 4, 11 and 4 t d-1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3591B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3591B"><span id="translatedtitle">Expert elicitation for a <span class="hlt">national</span>-level <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazard model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bebbington, Mark; Stirling, Mark; Cronin, Shane; Wang, Ting; Jolly, Gill</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The quantification of volcanic hazard at <span class="hlt">national</span> level is a vital pre-requisite to placing volcanic risk on a platform that permits meaningful comparison with other hazards such as earthquakes. New Zealand has up to a dozen dangerous <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, with the usual mixed degrees of knowledge concerning their temporal and spatial eruptive history. Information on the 'size' of the eruptions, be it in terms of VEI, volume or duration, is sketchy at best. These limitations and the need for a uniform approach lend themselves to a subjective hazard analysis via expert elicitation. Approximately 20 New Zealand volcanologists provided estimates for the size of the next eruption from each <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and, conditional on this, its location, timing and duration. Opinions were likewise elicited from a control group of statisticians, seismologists and (geo)chemists, all of whom had at least heard the term '<span class="hlt">volcano</span>'. The opinions were combined via the Cooke classical method. We will report on the preliminary results from the exercise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5129/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5129/"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote-controlled pan, tilt, zoom cameras at Kilauea and Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hoblitt, Richard P.; Orr, Tim R.; Castella, Frederic; Cervelli, Peter F.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Lists of important <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-monitoring disciplines usually include seismology, geodesy, and gas geochemistry. Visual monitoring - the essence of volcanology - is usually not mentioned. Yet, observations of the outward appearance of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> provide data that is equally as important as that provided by the other disciplines. The eye was almost certainly the first <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring-tool used by early man. Early volcanology was mostly descriptive and was based on careful visual observations of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. There is still no substitute for the eye of an experienced volcanologist. Today, scientific instruments replace or augment our senses as monitoring tools because instruments are faster and more sensitive, work tirelessly day and night, keep better records, operate in hazardous environments, do not generate lawsuits when damaged or destroyed, and in most cases are cheaper. Furthermore, instruments are capable of detecting phenomena that are outside the reach of our senses. The human eye is now augmented by the camera. Sequences of timed images provide a record of visual phenomena that occur on and above the surface of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Photographic monitoring is a fundamental monitoring tool; image sequences can often provide the basis for interpreting other data streams. Monitoring data are most useful when they are generated and are available for analysis in real-time or near real-time. This report describes the current (as of 2006) system for real-time photograph acquisition and transmission from remote sites on Kilauea and Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> to the U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO). It also describes how the photographs are archived and analyzed. In addition to providing system documentation for HVO, we hope that the report will prove useful as a practical guide to the construction of a high-bandwidth network for the telemetry of real-time data from remote locations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V43A4852B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V43A4852B"><span id="translatedtitle">Lava Lake Thermal Pattern Classification Using Self-Organizing Maps and Relationships to Eruption Processes at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burzynski, A. M.; Anderson, S. W.; Morrison, K.; LeWinter, A. L.; Patrick, M. R.; Orr, T. R.; Finnegan, D. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Nested within the Halema'uma'u Crater on the summit of Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, the active lava lake of Overlook Crater poses hazards to local residents and <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park visitors. Since its formation in March 2008, the lava lake has enlarged to +28,500 m2 and has been closely monitored by researchers at the USGS Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO). Time-lapse images, collected via visible and thermal infrared cameras, reveal thin crustal plates, separated by incandescent cracks, moving across the lake surface as lava circulates beneath. We hypothesize that changes in size, shape, velocity, and patterns of these crustal plates are related to other eruption processes at the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Here we present a methodology to identify characteristic lava lake surface patterns from thermal infrared video footage using a self-organizing maps (SOM) algorithm. The SOM is an artificial neural network that performs unsupervised clustering and enables us to visualize the relationships between groups of input patterns on a 2-dimensional grid. In a preliminary trial, we input ~4 hours of thermal infrared time-lapse imagery collected on December 16-17, 2013 during a transient deflation-inflation deformation event at a rate of one frame every 10 seconds. During that same time period, we also acquired a series of one-second terrestrial laser scans (TLS) every 30 seconds to provide detailed topography of the lava lake surface. We identified clusters of characteristic thermal patterns using a self-organizing maps algorithm within the Matlab SOM Toolbox. Initial results from two SOMs, one large map (81 nodes) and one small map (9 nodes), indicate 4-6 distinct groups of thermal patterns. We compare these surface patterns with lava lake surface slope and crustal plate velocities derived from concurrent TLS surveys and with time series of other eruption variables, including outgassing rates and inflation-deflation events. This methodology may be applied to the continuous stream of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026919','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026919"><span id="translatedtitle">Community preparedness for lava flows from Mauna Loa and Hualālai <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, Kona, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F; Paton, Douglas; Swanson, Donald A.; Johnston, David M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Lava flows from Mauna Loa and Huala??lai <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are a major volcanic hazard that could impact the western portion of the island of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> (e.g., Kona). The most recent eruptions of these two <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> to affect Kona occurred in A.D. 1950 and ca. 1800, respectively. In contrast, in eastern <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, eruptions of neighboring Ki??lauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> have occurred frequently since 1955, and therefore have been the focus for hazard mitigation. Official preparedness and response measures are therefore modeled on typical eruptions of Ki??lauea. The combinations of short-lived precursory activity (e.g., volcanic tremor) at Mauna Loa, the potential for fast-moving lava flows, and the proximity of Kona communities to potential vents represent significant emergency management concerns in Kona. Less is known about past eruptions of Huala??lai, but similar concerns exist. Future lava flows present an increased threat to personal safety because of the short times that may be available for responding. Mitigation must address not only the specific characteristics of volcanic hazards in Kona, but also the manner in which the hazards relate to the communities likely to be affected. This paper describes the first steps in developing effective mitigation plans: measuring the current state of people's knowledge of eruption parameters and the implications for their safety. We present results of a questionnaire survey administered to 462 high school students and adults in Kona. The rationale for this study was the long lapsed time since the last Kona eruption, and the high population growth and expansion of infrastructure over this time interval. Anticipated future growth in social and economic infrastructure in this area provides additional justification for this work. The residents of Kona have received little or no specific information about how to react to future volcanic eruptions or warnings, and short-term preparedness levels are low. Respondents appear uncertain about how to respond</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..286...41C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..286...41C"><span id="translatedtitle">Timescales and mechanisms of formation of amorphous silica coatings on fresh basalts at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chemtob, Steven M.; Rossman, George R.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Young basalts from Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, frequently feature opaque surface coatings, 1-80 μm thick, composed of amorphous silica and Fe-Ti oxides. These coatings are the product of interaction of the basaltic surface with volcanically-derived acidic fluids. Previous workers have identified these coatings in a variety of contexts on <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, but the timescales of coating development, coating growth rates, and factors controlling lateral coating heterogeneity were largely unconstrained. We sampled and analyzed young lava flows (of varying ages, from hours to ~ 40 years) along Kīlauea's southwest and east rift zones to characterize variation in silica coating properties across the landscape. Coating thickness varies as a function of flow age, flow surface type, and proximity to acid sources like local fissure vents and regional plumes emitted from Kīlauea Caldera and Pu'u Ō'ō. Silica coatings that form in immediate proximity to acid sources are more chemically pure than those forming in higher pH environments, which contain significant Al and Fe. Incipient siliceous alteration was observed on basalt surfaces as young as 8 days old, but periods of a year or more are required to develop contiguous coatings with obvious opaque coloration. Inferred coating growth rates vary with environmental conditions but were typically 1-5 μm/year. Coatings form preferentially on flow surfaces with glassy outer layers, such as spatter ramparts, volcanic bombs, and dense pahoehoe breakouts, due to glass strain weakening during cooling. Microtextural evidence suggests that the silica coatings form both by in situ dissolution-reprecipitation and by deposition of silica mobilized in solution. Thin films of water, acidified by contact with volcanic vapors, dissolved near-surface basalt, then precipitated amorphous silica in place, mobilizing more soluble cations. Additional silica was transported to and deposited on the surface by silica-bearing altering fluids derived from the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V34B..05B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V34B..05B"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-period Rayleigh wave tomography for Kilauea and Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, from ambient seismic noise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ballmer, S.; Haney, M. M.; Wolfe, C. J.; Okubo, P.; Thurber, C. H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Imaging with ambient seismic noise has proven to be a useful complement to earthquake tomography. Ambient noise's surface wave energy at short periods (peaked at ~0.2 Hz) allows imaging of shallow structure (i.e., the uppermost ~10 km), with resolution dependent on the geometry of available inter-station propagation paths instead of earthquake-receiver paths. In addition, data is generated continuously allowing for relatively uniform imaging capabilities through time. These advantages are of great interest in imaging the shallow seismic structure of volcanic systems, since magmatic plumbing systems extend all the way to the surface and can structurally change with time. We here present the first demonstration of ambient noise tomography for the volcanic systems of Kilauea and Mauna Loa on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>. Using continuous noise records between May 2007 and December 2009 from the permanent network operated by the USGS Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory, we calculate noise correlation functions (NCFs) (vertical components only) at 0.1-0.9 Hz for more than 700 short-period station pairs. The presence of extended intervals in which volcanic tremor from Pu'u O'o and Halema'uma'u obscures the Green's functions above 0.3 Hz for all station pairs requires the exclusion of those intervals from the analysis. We use the NCF's summed absolute amplitude as a criterion to identify days that are contaminated by tremor. Stacks of the remaining 169 daily, uncontaminated NCFs are used to perform group velocity measurements with automatic frequency time analysis in 0.01 Hz intervals. We ensure quality of the measurements by manually selecting frequency bands in which we trust the automatic measurement for each dispersion curve. Assuming straight (i.e. great circle) propagation paths, we linearly invert for Rayleigh wave group velocity maps at each frequency. Our results in the frequency band from ~0.15 to 0.25 Hz show prominent anomalous high-velocities beneath Kilauea's rift zones</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1801/downloads/pp1801_Chap10_Tilling.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1801/downloads/pp1801_Chap10_Tilling.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural hazards and risk reduction in <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>: Chapter 10 in Characteristics of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kauahikaua, James P.; Tilling, Robert I.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Although HVO has been an important global player in advancing natural hazards studies during the past 100 years, it faces major challenges in the future, among which the following command special attention: (1) the preparation of an updated <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazards assessment and map for the Island of Hawai‘i, taking into account not only high-probability lava flow hazards, but also hazards posed by low-probability, high-risk events (for instance, pyroclastic flows, regional ashfalls, <span class="hlt">volcano</span> flank collapse and associated megatsunamis), and (2) the continuation of timely and effective communications of hazards information to all stakeholders and the general public, using all available means (conventional print media, enhanced Web presence, public-education/outreach programs, and social-media approaches).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046822','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046822"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity fluctuations induced by magma convection at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Carbone, Daniele; Poland, Michael P.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Convection in magma chambers is thought to play a key role in the activity of persistently active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, but has only been inferred indirectly from geochemical observations or simulated numerically. Continuous microgravity measurements, which track changes in subsurface mass distribution over time, provide a potential method for characterizing convection in magma reservoirs. We recorded gravity oscillations with a period of ~150 s at two continuous gravity stations at the summit of Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Hawai‘i. The oscillations are not related to inertial accelerations caused by seismic activity, but instead indicate variations in subsurface mass. Source modeling suggests that the oscillations are caused by density inversions in a magma reservoir located ~1 km beneath the east margin of Halema‘uma‘u Crater in Kīlauea Caldera—a location of known magma storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED432634.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED432634.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Land and Water Conservation; <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park; Little Rock Central High School; and Arches <span class="hlt">National</span> Park. Hearing on S. 1333, S. 2106, S. 2129, S. 2232, H.R. 2283 before the Subcommittee on <span class="hlt">National</span> Parks, Historic Preservation, and Recreation of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.</p> <p></p> <p>A Senate hearing considered five bills related to the <span class="hlt">national</span> parks. Of interest to the education community is S. 2232, which would establish Little Rock Central High School <span class="hlt">National</span> Historic Site in Arkansas as a unit of the <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service. In 1957 the school became a center of controversy over school desegregation when nine African…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001661','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001661"><span id="translatedtitle">Tholeiitic basalt magmatism of Kilauea and Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Murata, K.J.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>The primitive magmas of Kilauca and Mauna Loa are generated by partial melting of mantle peridotite at depths of -60 km or more. Results of high-pressure melting experiments indicate that the primitive melt must contain at least 20% MgO in order to have olivine as a liquidus mineral. The least fractionated lavas of both <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> have olivine (Fa13) on the liquidus at 1 atmosphere, suggesting that the only substance lost from the primitive melt, during a rather rapid ascent to the surface, is olivine. This relation allows the primitive composition to be computed by adding olivine to the composition of an erupted lava until total MgO is at least 20 percent. Although roughly similar, historic lavas of the two <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> show a consistent difference in composition. The primitive melt of Mauna Loa contains 20% more dissolved orthopyroxene, a high-temperature melting phase in the mantle, and is deficient in elements such as potassium, uranium, and niobium, which presumably occur in minor low-melting phases. Mauna Loa appears to be the older <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, deriving its magma at higher temperature and greater depth from a more depleted source rock. ?? 1970 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012457','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012457"><span id="translatedtitle">A large submarine sand-rubble flow on kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fornari, D.J.; Moore, J.G.; Calk, L.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Papa'u seamount on the south submarine slope of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is a large landslide about 19 km long, 6 km wide, and up to 1 km thick with a volume of about 39 km3. Dredge hauls, remote camera photographs, and submersible observations indicate that it is composed primarily of unconsolidated angular glassy basalt sand with scattered basalt blocks up to 1 m in size; no lava flows were seen. Sulfur contents of basalt glass from several places on the sand-rubble flow and nearby areas are low (< 240 ppm), indicating that the clastic basaltic material was all erupted on land. The Papa'u sandrubble flow was emplaced during a single flow event fed from a large near-shore bank of clastic basaltic material which in turn was formed as lava flows from the summit area of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> disintegrated when they entered the sea. The current eruptive output of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> suggests that the material in the submarine sand-rubble flow represents about 6000 years of accumulation, and that the flow event occurred several thousand years ago. ?? 1979.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70131497','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70131497"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity changes and deformation at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, associated with summit eruptive activity, 2009-2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bagnardi, Marco; Poland, Michael P.; Carbone, Daniele; Baker, Scott; Battaglia, Maurizio; Amelung, Falk</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of microgravity and surface displacement data collected at the summit of Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> (USA), between December 2009 and November 2012 suggests a net mass accumulation at ~1.5 km depth beneath the northeast margin of Halema‘uma‘u Crater, within Kīlauea Caldera. Although residual gravity increases and decreases are accompanied by periods of uplift and subsidence of the surface, respectively, the volume change inferred from the modeling of interferometric synthetic aperture radar deformation data can account for only a small portion (as low as 8%) of the mass addition responsible for the gravity increase. We propose that since the opening of a new eruptive vent at the summit of Kīlauea in 2008, magma rising to the surface of the lava lake outgasses, becomes denser, and sinks to deeper levels, replacing less dense gas-rich magma stored in the Halema‘uma‘u magma reservoir. In fact, a relatively small density increase (<200 kg m−3) of a portion of the reservoir can produce the positive residual gravity change measured during the period with the largest mass increase, between March 2011 and November 2012. Other mechanisms may also play a role in the gravity increase without producing significant uplift of the surface, including compressibility of magma, formation of olivine cumulates, and filling of void space by magma. The rate of gravity increase, higher than during previous decades, varies through time and seems to be directly correlated with the volcanic activity occurring at both the summit and the east rift zone of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023280','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023280"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications for eruptive processes as indicated by sulfur dioxide emissions from Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, 1979-1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.; Gerlach, T.M.; Stokes, J.B.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Ki??lauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, currently hosts the longest running SO2 emission-rate data set on the planet, starting with initial surveys done in 1975 by Stoiber and his colleagues. The 17.5-year record of summit emissions, starting in 1979, shows the effects of summit and east rift eruptive processes, which define seven distinctly different periods of SO2 release. Summit emissions jumped nearly 40% with the onset (3 January 1983) of the Pu'u 'O??'o??-Ku??paianaha eruption on the east rift zone (ERZ). Summit SO2 emissions from Ki??lauea showed a strong positive correlation with short-period, shallow, caldera events, rather than with long-period seismicity as in more silicious systems. This correlation suggests a maturation process in the summit magma-transport system from 1986 through 1993. During a steady-state throughput-equilibrium interval of the summit magma reservoir, integration of summit-caldera and ERZ SO2 emissions reveals an undegassed volume rate of effusion of 2.1 ?? 105 m3/d. This value corroborates the volume-rate determined by geophysical methods, demonstrating that, for Ki??lauea, SO2 emission rates can be used to monitor effusion rate, supporting and supplementing other, more established geophysical methods. For the 17.5 years of continuous emission rate records at Ki??lauea, the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has released 9.7 ?? 106 t (metric tonnes) of SO2, 1.7 ?? 106 t from the summit and 8.0 ?? 106 t from the east rift zone. On an annual basis, the average SO2 release from Ki??lauea is 4.6 ?? 105 t/y, compared to the global annual volcanic emission rate of 1.2 ?? 107 t/y. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046825','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046825"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of dike opening during the March 2011 Kamoamoa fissure eruption, Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lundgren, Paul; Poland, Michael; Miklius, Asta; Orr, Tim R.; Yun, Sang-Ho; Fielding, Eric; Liu, Zhen; Tanaka, Akiko; Szeliga, Walter; Hensley, Scott; Owen, Susan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The 5–9 March 2011 Kamoamoa fissure eruption along the east rift zone of Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>, followed months of pronounced inflation at Kīlauea summit. We examine dike opening during and after the eruption using a comprehensive interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data set in combination with continuous GPS data. We solve for distributed dike displacements using a whole Kīlauea model with dilating rift zones and possibly a deep décollement. Modeled surface dike opening increased from nearly 1.5 m to over 2.8 m from the first day to the end of the eruption, in agreement with field observations of surface fracturing. Surface dike opening ceased following the eruption, but subsurface opening in the dike continued into May 2011. Dike volumes increased from 15, to 16, to 21 million cubic meters (MCM) after the first day, eruption end, and 2 months following, respectively. Dike shape is distinctive, with a main limb plunging from the surface to 2–3 km depth in the up-rift direction toward Kīlauea's summit, and a lesser projection extending in the down-rift direction toward Pu`u `Ō`ō at 2 km depth. Volume losses beneath Kīlauea summit (1.7 MCM) and Pu`u `Ō`ō (5.6 MCM) crater, relative to dike plus erupted volume (18.3 MCM), yield a dike to source volume ratio of 2.5 that is in the range expected for compressible magma without requiring additional sources. Inflation of Kīlauea's summit in the months before the March 2011 eruption suggests that the Kamoamoa eruption resulted from overpressure of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s magmatic system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/volc','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/volc"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tilling, Robert I.; ,</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> destroy and <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> create. The catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, made clear the awesome destructive power of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Yet, over a time span longer than human memory and record, <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> have played a key role in forming and modifying the planet upon which we live. More than 80 percent of the Earth's surface--above and below sea level--is of volcanic origin. Gaseous emissions from volcanic vents over hundreds of millions of years formed the Earth's earliest oceans and atmosphere, which supplied the ingredients vital to evolve and sustain life. Over geologic eons, countless volcanic eruptions have produced mountains, plateaus, and plains, which subsequent erosion and weathering have sculpted into majestic landscapes and formed fertile soils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019629','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019629"><span id="translatedtitle">A dynamic balance between magma supply and eruption rate at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Denlinger, R.P.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The dynamic balance between magma supply and vent output at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is used to estimate both the volume of magma stored within Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and its magma supply rate. Throughout most of 1991 a linear decline in volume flux from the Kupaianaha vent on Kilauea's east rift zone was associated with a parabolic variation in the elevation of Kilauea's summit as vent output initially exceeded then lagged behind the magma supply to the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The correspondence between summit elevation and tilt established with over 30 years of data provided daily estimates of summit elevation in terms of summit tilt. The minimum in the parabolic variation in summit tilt and elevation (or zero elevation change) occurs when the magma supply to the reservoir from below the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> equals the magma output from the reservoir to the surface, so that the magma supply rate is given by vent flux on that day. The measurements of vent flux and tilt establish that the magma supply rate to Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on June 19, 1991, was 217,000 ?? 10,000 m3/d (or 0.079 ?? 0.004 km3/yr). This is close to the average eruptive rate of 0.08 km3/yr between 1958 and 1984. In addition, the predictable response of summit elevation and tilt to each east rift zone eruption near Puu Oo since 1983 shows that summit deformation is also a measure of magma reservoir pressure. Given this, the correlation between the elevation of the Puu Oo lava lake (4 km uprift of Kupaianaha and 18 km from the summit) and summit tilt provides an estimate for magma pressure changes corresponding to summit tilt changes. The ratio of the change in volume to the change in reservoir pressure (dV/dP) during vent activity may be determined by dividing the ratio of volume erupted to change in summit tilt (dV/dtilt) by the ratio of pressure change to change in summit tilt (dP/dtilt). This measure of dV/dP, when combined with laboratory measurements of the bulk modulus of tholeitic melt, provides an estimate of 240 ?? 50 km3 for the volume</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGR....90.8743C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGR....90.8743C"><span id="translatedtitle">Trace element and isotopic geochemistry of lavas from Haleakala <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, east Maui, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>: Implications for the origin of Hawaiian basalts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Chu-Yung; Frey, Frederick A.</p> <p>1985-09-01</p> <p>Haleakala <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on East Maui, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, consists of a tholeiitic basalt shield which grades into a younger alkalic series that was followed by a posterosional alkalic series. Tholeiitic, transitional, and alkalic basalts range widely in Sr and Nd isotopic ratios (from mid-ocean ridge basalt to bulk earth ratios) and incompatible element (P, K, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ba, REE, Hf, Ta, and Th) abundances, but isotopic ratios and incompatible element abundance ratios (e.g., Ba/La, Nb/La, La/Ce, La/Sm) vary systematically with age. The youngest series (posterosional alkalic lavas) has the highest Rb/Sr, Ba/La, Nb/La, La/Ce, and 143Nd/144Nd ratios and the lowest 87sr/86sr ratios, whereas the oldest series (dominantly tholeiitic basalts) has the lowest Rb/Sr, Ba/La, Nb/La, La/Ce, and 143Nd/144Nd ratios and the highest 87sr/86sr ratios. The most striking features of the trace element and isotopic data are the inverse correlations between isotopic ratios and parent/daughter abundance ratios in the Sr and Nd systems. Although some of the geochemical variations can be explained by shallow level fractional crystallization (e.g., alkali basalt to mugearite [Chen et al., 1984, and manuscript in preparation, 1985]), the temporal geochemical trends require a major role for mixing. We propose a model in which melts from a diaper interact with incipient melts of its wall rocks, presumed to be oceanic lithosphere. Because of motion between the lithosphere and mantle hot spot the relative contribution of melts from the diapir (mantle plume) material to the lavas decreases with time; consequently, with decreasing age the basalts become more enriched in incompatible trace elements and acquire Sr and Nd isotopic ratios which overlap with mid-ocean ridge basalts. This model quantitatively explains the isotopic ratios and incompatible trace element abundances in representative samples from the three Haleakala volcanic series. On the basis of the degrees of melting inferred for the mixing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BVol...73..335O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BVol...73..335O"><span id="translatedtitle">Lava tube shatter rings and their correlation with lava flux increases at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orr, Tim R.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Shatter rings are circular to elliptical volcanic features, typically tens of meters in diameter, which form over active lava tubes. They are typified by an upraised rim of blocky rubble and a central depression. Prior to this study, shatter rings had not been observed forming, and, thus, were interpreted in many ways. This paper describes the process of formation for shatter rings observed at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> during November 2005-July 2006. During this period, tilt data, time-lapse images, and field observations showed that episodic tilt changes at the nearby Pu`u `Ō`ō cone, the shallow magmatic source reservoir, were directly related to fluctuations in the level of lava in the active lava tube, with periods of deflation at Pu`u `Ō`ō correlating with increases in the level of the lava stream surface. Increases in lava level are interpreted as increases in lava flux, and were coincident with lava breakouts from shatter rings constructed over the lava tube. The repetitive behavior of the lava flux changes, inferred from the nearly continuous tilt oscillations, suggests that shatter rings form from the repeated rise and fall of a portion of a lava tube roof. The locations of shatter rings along the active lava tube suggest that they form where there is an abrupt decrease in flow velocity through the tube, e.g., large increase in tube width, abrupt decrease in tube slope, and (or) sudden change in tube direction. To conserve volume, this necessitates an abrupt increase in lava stream depth and causes over-pressurization of the tube. More than a hundred shatter rings have been identified on <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> and Maui, and dozens have been reported from basaltic lava fields in Iceland, Australia, Italy, Samoa, and the mainland United States. A quick study of other basaltic lava fields worldwide, using freely available satellite imagery, suggests that they might be even more common than previously thought. If so, this confirms that episodic fluctuation in lava</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018694','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018694"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of precipitation and groundwater isotopes to interpret regional hydrology on a tropical volcanic island: Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> area, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Scholl, M.A.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Janik, C.J.; Kauahikaua, J.P.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Isotope tracer methods were used to determine flow paths, recharge areas, and relative age for groundwater in the Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> area of the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. A network of up to 66 precipitation collectors was emplaced in the study area and sampled twice yearly for a 3-year period. Stable isotopes in rainfall show three distinct isotopic gradients with elevation, which are correlated with trade wind, rain shadow, and high- elevation climatological patterns. Temporal variations in precipitation isotopes are controlled more by the frequency of storms than by seasonal temperature fluctuations. Results from this study suggest that (1) sampling network design must take into account areal variations in rainfall patterns on islands and in continental coastal areas and (2) isotope/elevation gradients on other tropical islands may be predictable on the basis of similar climatology. Groundwater was sampled yearly in coastal springs, wells, and a few high-elevation springs. Areal contrasts in groundwater stable isotopes and tritium indicate that the volcanic rift zones compartmentalize the regional groundwater system, isolating the groundwater south of Kilauea's summit and rift zones. Part of the Southwest Rift gone appears to act as a conduit for water from higher elevation, but there is no evidence for downrift flow in the springs and shallow wells sampled in the lower East Rift Zone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18850456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18850456"><span id="translatedtitle">Acute bronchitis and volcanic air pollution: a community-based cohort study at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Longo, Bernadette M; Yang, Wei</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Eruption at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, has continued since 1983, emitting sulfurous air pollution into nearby communities. The purpose of this cohort study was to estimate the relative risk (RR) of acute bronchitis over a period from January 2004 to December 2006 in communities exposed to the volcanic air pollution. A community-based case review was conducted using medical records from clinics and emergency rooms in exposed and unexposed study areas. Initial visits by local residents for diagnosed acute bronchitis were clinically reviewed. The cumulative incidence rate for the 3-yr period was 117.74 per 1000 in unexposed communities and 184.63 per 1000 in exposed communities. RR estimates were standardized for age and gender, revealing an elevated cumulative incidence ratio (CIR) of 1.57 (95% CI = 1.36-1.81) for acute bronchitis in the exposed communities. Highest risk [CIR: 6.56 (95% CI = 3.16-13.6)] was observed in children aged 0-14 yr who resided in the exposed communities. Exposed middle-aged females aged 45-64 yr had double the risk for acute bronchitis than their unexposed counterparts. These findings suggest that communities continuously exposed to sulfurous volcanic air pollution may have a higher risk of acute bronchitis across the life span. PMID:18850456</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015106','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015106"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical response of the south flank of kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">hawaii</span>, to intrusive events along the rift systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dvorak, J.J.; Okamura, A.T.; English, T.T.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Nakata, J.S.; Sako, M.K.; Tanigawa, W.T.; Yamashita, K.M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Increased earthquake activity and compression of the south flank of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, have been recognized by previous investigators to accompany rift intrusions. We further detail the temporal and spatial changes in earthquake rates and ground strain along the south flank induced by six major rift intrusions which occurred between December 1971 and January 1981. The seismic response of the south flank to individual rift intrusions is immediate; the increased rate of earthquake activity lasts from 1 to 4 weeks. Horizontal strain measurements indicate that compression of the south flank usually accompanies rift intrusions and eruptions. Emplacement of an intrusion at a depth greater than about 4 km, such as the June 1982 southwest rift intrusion, however, results in a slight extension of the subaerial portion of the south flank. Horizontal strain measurements along the south flank are used to locate the January 1983 east-rift intrusion, which resulted in eruptive activity. The intrusion is modeled as a vertical rectangular sheet with constant displacement perpendicular to the plane of the sheet. This model suggests that the intrusive body that compressed the south flank in January 1983 extended from the surface to about 2.4 km depth, and was aligned along a strike of N66??E. The intrusion is approximately 11 km in length, extended beyond the January 1983 eruptive fissures, which are 8 km in length and is contained within the 14-km-long region of shallow rift earthquakes. ?? 1986.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019506','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019506"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for water influx from a caldera lake during the explosive hydromagmatic eruption of 1790, Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mastin, L.G.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>In 1790 a major hydromagmatic eruption at the summit of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, deposited up to 10 m of pyroclastic fall and surge deposits and killed several dozen Hawaiian natives who were crossing the island. Previous studies have hypothesized that the explosivity of this eruption was due to the influx of groundwater into the conduit and mixing of the groundwater with ascending magma. This study proposes that surface water, not groundwater, was the agent responsible for the explosiveness of the eruption. That is, a lake or pond may have existed in the caldera in 1790 and explosions may have taken place when magma ascended into the lake from below. That assertion is based on two lines of evidence: (1) high vesicularity (averaging 73% of more than 3000 lapilli) and high vesicle number density (105-107 cm-3 melt) of pumice clasts suggest that some phases of the eruption involved vigorous, sustained magma ascent; and (2) numerical calculations suggest that under most circumstances, hydrostatic pressure would not be sufficient to drive water into the eruptive conduit during vigorous magma ascent unless the water table were above the ground surface. These results are supported by historical data on the rate of infilling of the caldera floor during the early 1800s. When extrapolated back to 1790, they suggest that the caldera floor was below the water table.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019395','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019395"><span id="translatedtitle">Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of sulfur dioxide plumes: A case study from the East Rift Zone of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Realmuto, V.J.; Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The synoptic perspective and rapid mode of data acquisition provided by remote sensing are well suited for the study of volcanic SO2 plumes. In this paper we describe a plume-mapping procedure that is based on image data acquired with NASA's airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) and apply the procedure to TIMS data collected over the East Rift Zone of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, on September 30, 1988. These image data covered the Pu'u 'O'o and Kupaianaha vents and a skylight in the lava tube that was draining the Kupaianaha lava pond. Our estimate of the SO2 emission rate from Pu'u 'O'o (17 - 20 kg s-1) is roughly twice the average of estimates derived from correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) measurements collected 10 days prior to the TIMS overflight (10 kg s-1). The agreement between the TIMS and COSPEC results improves when we compare SO2 burden estimates, which are relatively independent of wind speed. We demonstrate the feasibility of mapping Pu'u 'O'o - scale SO2 plumes from space in anticipation of the 1998 launch of the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflectance radiometer (ASTER). Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5010115','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5010115"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>: Petrologic and geochemical constraints on postshield volcanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frey, F.A.; Kennedy, A. ); Wise, W.S.; Kwon, S.T. ); Garcia, M.O.; West, H. )</p> <p>1990-02-10</p> <p>The postshield stage of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> construction formed as the magma supply rate from the mantle decreased. The basaltic substage (Hamakua Volcanics) contains a diverse array of lava types including picrites, ankaramites, alkalic and tholeiitic basalt, and high Fe-Ti basalt. In contrast, the hawaiite substage (Laupahoehoe Volcanics) contains only evolved alkalic lavas, hawaiite, and mugearite; basalts are absent. Sr and Nd isotopic ratios for lavas from the two substages are similar, but there is a distinct compositional gap between the substages. The authors conclude that the petrogenetic processes forming the postshield lavas at Maina Kea and other Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> reflect movement of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> away from the hotspot. Specifically, they postulate the following sequence of events for postshield volcanism at Mauna Kea: (1) As the magma supply rate from the mantle decreased, major changes in volcanic plumbing occurred. The shallow magma chamber present during shield construction cooled and crystallized, and the fractures enabling magma ascent to the magma chamber closed. (2) Therefore subsequent basaltic magma ascending from the mantle stagnated within the lower crust, or perhaps at the crust-mantle boundary. Eruptions of basaltic magma ceased. (3) Continued volcanism was inhibited until basaltic magma in the lower crust cooled sufficiently to create relatively low-density, residual hawaiitic melts. Minor assimilation of MORB-related wall rocks, reflected by a trend toward lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}/Pb in evolved postshield lavas, may have occurred at this time. A compositional gap developed because magma ascent was not possible until a low-density hawaiitic melt could escape from a largely crystalline mush.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V21C2348W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V21C2348W"><span id="translatedtitle">Kilauea's Explosive Past: Understanding Violent Explosions at <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>'s most Active <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weaver, S. J.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, D.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A sequence of explosions that occurred from Kilauea caldera around 1790 A.D. includes the most deadly pyroclastic eruptions recorded in the USA. The products, the upper part of the Keanakāko`i tephra formation, are believed to be responsible for the deaths of a Hawaiian war party on the summit of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Little is known about the parent eruptions or even how many explosions there were in or around 1790; also, no hazard maps exist at Kilauea for this type of violent yet short-lived activity, with few clear precursors. The c. 1790 deposits show both marked sectoral changes and also, on a finer length scale, rapid lateral variability over distances of less than 1 kilometer. In the southern sector, they form a series of striking alternating coarse-grained beds, cross-bedded pyroclastic density current deposits (pdc) and accretionary-lapilli-bearing fine ashes. This study focuses primarily on the coarse-grained units, which are largely absent west and east of the caldera. Through characterization of the beds in the field and analysis of grain size and dispersal data, the size and intensity of these eruptions have been defined. The coarse-grained units include both pyroclastic fall and pdc deposits. Unusually, only bedding characteristics, (and not grain size or dispersal) unequivocally distinguish between these two transport processes. This study offers a clearer, more quantitative picture of the c. 1790 events and advances the understanding of how explosive eruptions can occur at an otherwise gently effusive <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. It also constrains the dynamics associated with these events and improves volcanic hazard mitigation at Kilauea and shield <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17812284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17812284"><span id="translatedtitle">Argon-40: excess in submarine pillow basalts from kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dalrymple, G B; Moore, J G</p> <p>1968-09-13</p> <p>Submarine pillow basalts from Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> contain excess radiogenic argon-40 and give anomalously high potassium-argon ages. Glassy rims of pillows show a systematic increase in radiogenic argon-40 with depth, and a pillow from a depth of 2590 meters shows a decrease in radiogenic argon40 inward from the pillow rim. The data indicate that the amount of excess radiogenic argon-40 is a direct function of both hydrostatic pressure and rate of cooling, and that many submarine basalts are not suitable for potassium-argon dating. PMID:17812284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010829','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010829"><span id="translatedtitle">Argon-40: Excess in submarine pillow basalts from Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brent, Dalrymple G.; Moore, J.G.</p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p>Submarine pillow basalts from Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> contain excess radiogenic argon-40 and give anomalously high potassium-argon ages. Glassy rims of pillows show a systematic increase in radiogenic argon-40 with depth, and a pillow from a depth of 2590 meters shows a decrease in radiogenic argon-40 inward from the pillow rim. The data indicate that the amount of excess radiogenic argon-40 is a direct function of both hydrostatic pressure and rate of cooling, and that many submarine basalts are not suitable for potassium-argon dating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.185..182H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.185..182H"><span id="translatedtitle">Compositional variation within thick (>10 m) flow units of Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> cored by the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Scientific Drilling Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Shichun; Vollinger, Michael J.; Frey, Frederick A.; Rhodes, J. Michael; Zhang, Qun</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Geochemical analyses of stratigraphic sequences of lava flows are necessary to understand how a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> works. Typically one sample from each lava flow is collected and studied with the assumption that this sample is representative of the flow composition. This assumption may not be valid. The thickness of flows ranges from <1 to >100 m. Geochemical heterogeneity in thin flows may be created by interaction with the surficial environment whereas magmatic processes occurring during emplacement may create geochemical heterogeneities in thick flows. The <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) cored ∼3.3 km of basalt erupted at Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. In order to determine geochemical heterogeneities in a flow, multiple samples from four thick (9.3-98.4 m) HSDP flow units were analyzed for major and trace elements. We found that major element abundances in three submarine flow units are controlled by the varying proportion of olivine, the primary phenocryst phase in these samples. Post-magmatic alteration of a subaerial flow led to loss of SiO2, CaO, Na2O, K2O and P2O5, and as a consequence, contents of immobile elements, such as Fe2O3 and Al2O3, increase. The mobility of SiO2 is important because Mauma Kea shield lavas divide into two groups that differ in SiO2 content. Post-magmatic mobility of SiO2 adds complexity to determining if these groups reflect differences in source or process. The most mobile elements during post-magmatic subaerial and submarine alteration are K and Rb, and Ba, Sr and U were also mobile, but their abundances are not highly correlated with K and Rb. The Ba/Th ratio has been used to document an important role for a plagioclase-rich source component for basalt from the Galapagos, Iceland and <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Although Ba/Th is anomalously high in Hawaiian basalt, variation in Ba abundance within a single flow shows that it is not a reliable indicator of a deep source component. In contrast, ratios involving elements that are typically immobile, such as La</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034757','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034757"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrasound from the 2007 fissure eruptions of Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fee, D.; Garces, M.; Orr, T.; Poland, M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Varied acoustic signals were recorded at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> in mid-2007, coincident with dramatic changes in the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s activity. Prior to this time period, Pu'u 'Ō'ō crater produced near-continuous infrasonic tremor and was the primary source of degassing and lava effusion at Kīlauea. Collapse and draining of Pu'u 'Ō'ō crater in mid-June produced impulsive infrasonic signals and fluctuations in infrasonic tremor. Fissure eruptions on 19 June and 21 July were clearly located spatially and temporally using infrasound arrays. The 19 June eruption from a fissure approximately mid-way between Kīlauea's summit and Pu'u 'O'o produced infrasound for ~30 minutes-the only observed geophysical signal associated with the fissure opening. The infrasound signal from the 21 July eruption just east of Pu'u 'Ō'ō shows a clear azimuthal progression over time, indicative of fissure propagation over 12.9 hours. The total fissure propagation rate is relatively slow at 164 m/hr, although the fissure system ruptured discontinuously. Individual fissure rupture times are estimated using the acoustic data combined with visual observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/13/a2/tm13-A2.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/13/a2/tm13-A2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A multipurpose camera system for monitoring Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim R.; Lee, Lopaka; Moniz, Cyril J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We describe a low-cost, compact multipurpose camera system designed for field deployment at active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> that can be used either as a webcam (transmitting images back to an observatory in real-time) or as a time-lapse camera system (storing images onto the camera system for periodic retrieval during field visits). The system also has the capability to acquire high-definition video. The camera system uses a Raspberry Pi single-board computer and a 5-megapixel low-light (near-infrared sensitive) camera, as well as a small Global Positioning System (GPS) module to ensure accurate time-stamping of images. Custom Python scripts control the webcam and GPS unit and handle data management. The inexpensive nature of the system allows it to be installed at hazardous sites where it might be lost. Another major advantage of this camera system is that it provides accurate internal timing (independent of network connection) and, because a full Linux operating system and the Python programming language are available on the camera system itself, it has the versatility to be configured for the specific needs of the user. We describe example deployments of the camera at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Hawai‘i, to monitor ongoing summit lava lake activity. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1998/0462/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1998/0462/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, 1979-1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.; Stokes, J.B.; Casadevall, T.J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Casadevall and others, 1987; Greenland and others, 1985; Elias and others, 1993; Elias and Sutton, 1996). The purpose of this report is to present a compilation of Kilauea SO2 emission rate data from 1979 through 1997 with ancillary meteorological data (wind speed and wind direction). We have included measurements previously reported by Casadevall and others (1987) for completeness and to improve the usefulness of this current database compilation. Kilauea releases SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and rift zones (fig. 1). From 1979 through 1982, vehicle-based COSPEC measurements made within the summit caldera were adequate to quantify most of the SO2 emitted from the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Beginning in 1983, the focus of SO2 release shifted from the summit to the east rift zone (ERZ) eruption site at Pu`u `O`o and, later, Kupaianaha. Since 1984, the Kilauea gas measurement effort has been augmented with intermittent airborne and tripod-based surveys made near the ERZ eruption site. In addition, beginning in 1992 vehicle-based measurements have been made along a section of Chain of Craters Road approximately 9 km downwind of the eruption site. These several types of COSPEC measurements continue to the present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V22C0597D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V22C0597D"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient Deformation Following the January 30, 1997 Dike Intrusion at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Desmarais, E. K.; Segall, P.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>On 30 January 1997 a new fissure opened within the East Rift Zone (ERZ) of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> at Napau Crater, 3km uprift from the ongoing eruptions at Pu'u O'o. The fissure eruption lasted for two days and opened a nearly vertical dike 1.96m wide by 5.15km long that extended from the surface to a depth of 2.4km (Owen et al., GRL, 1997). During the fissure eruption, the lava pond at Pu'u O'o drained pausing the eruptions there for nearly a month until it eventually refilled in late February; eruptions there resumed on 28 March 1997. The Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> permanent GPS network recorded the eruption and a significant transient following the dike intrusion in the ERZ. In the 120 days following the event the closest station to the fissure, KTPM, moved an additional 7 cm to the south. We invert continuous and campaign GPS data using an extended Network Inversion Filter (McGuire and Segall, in press, Geophys. J. Int.) for the time dependent volume change of a Mogi source under Kilauea's summit, opening of a nearly vertical dike in the ERZ and slip on a decollement under the south flank. The extended filter allows simultaneous estimation of slip rate with temporal smoothing, spatial smoothing, positivity, random walk and data error scale parameters resulting in improved spatial and temporal resolution over previous filters (Segall et al., EOS Mtg. Abs., 1998). This study models post eruptive deformation as the crust accommodates the opening of the dike to gain understanding about the relaxation time of the Hawaiian crust and the potential for catastrophic failure of the south flank of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. Preliminary results show that most dike opening is accommodated in the top 2-3 km of with maximum velocity around 15 cm/day. Every model shows Mogi source under Kilauea rapidly inflating after months of gradual pre-fissure eruption deflation. The decollement slips gradually seaward during the first month after the eruption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-11/pdf/2012-11426.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-11/pdf/2012-11426.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 27671 - State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>; Regional Haze Federal Implementation Plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-05-11</p> <p>... air pollution.'' <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> has two Class I areas: <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park on the Big Island and... hearings will provide the public with an opportunity to present data, views, or arguments concerning the... determines it is appropriate. Any person may provide written or oral comments and data pertaining to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1090/pdf/of2014-1090.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1090/pdf/of2014-1090.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron microprobe analyses of glasses from Kīlauea tephra units, Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Helz, Rosalind L.; Clague, David A.; Mastin, Larry G.; Rose, Timothy R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This report presents approximately 2,100 glass analyses from three tephra units of Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>: the Keanakākoʻi Tephra, the Kulanaokuaiki Tephra, and the Pāhala Ash. It also includes some new analyses obtained as part of a re-evaluation of the MgO contents of glasses in two of the three original datasets; this re-evaluation was conducted to improve the consistency of glass MgO contents among the three datasets. The glass data are a principal focus of Helz and others (in press), which will appear in the AGU Monograph Hawaiian Volcanoes—From Source to Surface. The report is intended to support this publication, in addition to making the data available to the scientific community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021143','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021143"><span id="translatedtitle">Airborne volcanic plume measurements using a FTIR spectrometer, Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McGee, K.A.; Gerlach, T.M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A prototype closed-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer system (FTIK), operating from battery power and with a Stirling engine microcooler for detector cooling, was successfully used for airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Airborne profiles of the volcanic plume emanating from the erupting Pu'u 'O'o vent on the East Rift of Kilauea revealed levels of nearly 3 ppm SO2 in the core of the plume. An emission rate of 2,160 metric tons per day of sulfur dioxide was calculated from the FTIR data, which agrees closely with simultaneous measurements by a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC). The rapid spatial sampling possible from an airborne platform distinguishes the methodology described here from previous FTIR measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022317','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022317"><span id="translatedtitle">January 30, 1997 eruptive event on Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, as monitored by continuous GPS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Owen, S.; Segall, P.; Lisowski, M.; Miklius, Asta; Murray, M.; Bevis, M.; Foster, J.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) network on Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> captured the most recent fissure eruption in Kilauea's East Rift Zone (ERZ) in unprecedented spatial and temporal detail. The short eruption drained the lava pond at Pu'u O' o, leading to a two month long pause in its on-going eruption. Models of the GPS data indicate that the intrusion's bottom edge extended to only 2.4 km. Continuous GPS data reveal rift opening 8 hours prior to the eruption. Absence of precursory summit inflation rules out magma storage overpressurization as the eruption's cause. We infer that stresses in the shallow rift created by the continued deep rift dilation and slip on the south flank decollement caused the rift intrusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015326','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015326"><span id="translatedtitle">Gas analyses from the Pu'u O'o eruption in 1985, Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Greenland, L.P.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Volcanic gas samples were collected from July to November 1985 from a lava pond in the main eruptive conduit of Pu'u O'o from a 2-week-long fissure eruption and from a minor flank eruption of Pu'u O'o. The molecular composition of these gases is consistent with thermodynamic equilibrium at a temperature slightly less than measured lava temperatures. Comparison of these samples with previous gas samples shows that the composition of volatiles in the magma has remained constant over the 3-year course of this episodic east rift eruption of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The uniformly carbon depleted nature of these gases is consistent with previous suggestions that all east rift eruptive magmas degas during prior storage in the shallow summit reservoir of Kilauea. Minor compositional variations within these gas collections are attributed to the kinetics of the magma degassing process. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011736','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011736"><span id="translatedtitle">Storage, migration, and eruption of magma at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, 1971-1972</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Duffield, W.A.; Christiansen, R.L.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Peterson, D.W.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The magmatic plumbing system of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> consists of a broad region of magma generation in the upper mantle, a steeply inclined zone through which magma rises to an intravolcano reservoir located about 2 to 6 km beneath the summit of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, and a network of conduits that carry magma from this reservoir to sites of eruption within the caldera and along east and southwest rift zones. The functioning of most parts of this system was illustrated by activity during 1971 and 1972. When a 29-month-long eruption at Mauna Ulu on the east rift zone began to wane in 1971, the summit region of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> began to inflate rapidly; apparently, blockage of the feeder conduit to Mauna Ulu diverted a continuing supply of mantle-derived magma to prolonged storage in the summit reservoir. Rapid inflation of the summit area persisted at a nearly constant rate from June 1971 to February 1972, when a conduit to Mauna Ulu was reopened. The cadence of inflation was twice interrupted briefly, first by a 10-hour eruption in Kilauea Caldera on 14 August, and later by an eruption that began in the caldera and migrated 12 km down the southwest rift zone between 24 and 29 September. The 14 August and 24-29 September eruptions added about 107 m3 and 8 ?? 106 m3, respectively, of new lava to the surface of Kilauea. These volumes, combined with the volume increase represented by inflation of the volcanic edifice itself, account for an approximately 6 ?? 106 m3/month rate of growth between June 1971 and January 1972, essentially the same rate at which mantle-derived magma was supplied to Kilauea between 1952 and the end of the Mauna Ulu eruption in 1971. The August and September 1971 lavas are tholeiitic basalts of similar major-element chemical composition. The compositions can be reproduced by mixing various proportions of chemically distinct variants of lava that erupted during the preceding activity at Mauna Ulu. Thus, part of the magma rising from the mantle to feed the Mauna Ulu</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....8058W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....8058W"><span id="translatedtitle">Highlights from the 2002 JASON2 marine expedition to Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weis, D.; Submarine Mauna Loa Science Team</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The new JASON2 ROV was used for 12 dives to explore and sample the submarine flanks of Mauna Loa, the world’s largest active <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. JASON2 collected 215 visually (using video and still camera) and spatially well-documented rock and sediment samples totaling 1130 kg from the volcano’s southwest rift zone and western flank. The goals of the expedition were to investigate the nature and history of the Hawaiian mantle plume as revealed in a 1.6 km thick, submarine landslide scarp, to examine volcanic processes along the 37 km long, submarine portion of the southwest rift zone, which has 4.5 km of relief, and to sample the newly discovered submarine radial vents. In addition, detailed bathymetric data was collected for an area of 2000 km2 using an EM300 system, which has a pixel resolution of 30 m allowing for identification of small (horizontal) scale volcanic and tectonic features. These surveys provide the first detailed examination of the volcano’s submarine rift zone and western flank. They revealed 11 new radial vents, many of which appear to be young based on examination by JASON2. Radial vents are uncommon on Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and represent only 2 of the 39 historical Mauna Loa eruptions. Picritic basalts are remarkably abundant in the rift zone section, which may record 400,000 years of eruptive activity representing about one half of the volcano’s total lifetime. This time period is comparable to that sampled by phase 2 of the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project. The initial bathymetric and geologic results from this cruise will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1995/4180/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1995/4180/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Ground-Water Resources From Available Data, 1992, East Molokai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Anthony, Stephen S.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Available ground-water data for East Molokai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> consist of well-construction information and records of ground-water pumpage, water levels, and chloride concentrations. Ground-water pumpage records are available for ten wells. Seventeen long-term (10 years or more) records of water-level and/or chloride concentration are available for eleven wells; however, only seven of these records are for observation wells. None of the available data show significant long-term changes in water level or chloride concentration; however, short-term changes due to variations in the quantity of water pumped, and rainfall are evident. Evaluation of the historical distribution and rates of ground-water pumpage, and variations in water levels and chloride concentrations is constrained by the scanty distribution of spatial and temporal data. Data show a range in water levels from greater than 850 feet above mean sea level in wells located in the windward valley of Waikolu to about 10 feet in wells located east of Kualapuu to 1 to 5 feet in the wells located along the south shore of East Molokai <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. An accurate contour map of water levels and chloride concentrations at the surface of the basal-water body cannot be constructed for any time period. Because water-level and chloride data are not collected at regular time intervals, many long-term records are incomplete. Information on the variation in chloride concentration with depth through the freshwater part of the basal-water body and into the zone of transition between freshwater and saltwater does not exist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..316...12L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..316...12L"><span id="translatedtitle">Local earthquake tomography with the inclusion of full topography and its application to Kīlauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Peng; Lin, Guoqing</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We develop a new three-dimensional local earthquake tomography algorithm with the inclusion of full topography (LETFT). We present both synthetic and real data tests based on the P- and S-wave arrival time data for Kīlauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>. A total of 33,768 events with 515,711 P-picks and 272,217 S-picks recorded by 35 stations at the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory are used in these tests. The comparison between the new and traditional methods based on the synthetic test shows that our new algorithm significantly improves the accuracy of the velocity model, especially at shallow depths. In the real data application, the P- and S-wave velocity models of Kīlauea show several intriguing features. We observe discontinuous high Vp (> 7.0 km/s) and Vs (> 3.9 km/s) zones at 5-14 km depth below Kīlauea caldera, its East Rift Zone (ERZ) and the Southwest Rift Zone, which may represent consolidated intrusive gabbro-ultramafic cumulates. At Kīlauea caldera, Vp and Vs decrease from ~ 3.9 km/s and ~ 2.6 km/s from the surface to ~ 3.7 km/s and ~ 2.3 km/s at 2 km depth. We resolve a high Vp zone (> 7.0 km/s) at 5-14 km depth and high Vs zone (> 3.9 km/s) at 5-11 km depth. This high Vp and Vs zone extends to the north of the ERZ at 5-10 km depth and to the upper ERZ at 8-12 km depth. In the Hilina Fault System, there is a high Vp layer (~ 7.0 km/s) at 4-6 km depth and a low Vp body of ~ 5.7 km/s at 6-11 km depth. The high Vp layer could be associated with the intrusive ultramafic gabbro sills. The velocity contrast on the north and south sides of the Koa'e Fault System indicates that the intrusive activities mainly occur to the north of the fault. Our new LETFT method performs well in both the synthetic and real data tests and we expect that it will reveal more robust velocity structures in areas with larger topographic variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43G2331P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43G2331P"><span id="translatedtitle">Source processes of short-term, transient tilt events at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poland, M. P.; Huth, T. E.; Miklius, A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Small tilt transients are a common occurrence at the summit of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. The events generally consist of a deflationary phase with a magnitude of a few microradians (as measured at the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory) that lasts for hours to a few days, followed by an abrupt transition to inflationary deformation that also lasts for hours to a few days, ultimately tapering to pre-event tilt levels. Models of tilt, InSAR, and strain data suggest a source location at shallow levels (about 1-2 km) beneath the center of the caldera (a region of subsurface magma storage known from other geophysical data). Except for during 2005-2007, the summit tilt patterns are duplicated at Kilauea’s east rift zone eruption site, but with a lag of approximately 30-90 minutes. The temporal correlation of tilt at the summit and east rift zone indicates that these events affect much of Kilauea’s magma plumbing system, from magma reservoir to eruption site. Tilt events with long-lived (several days) deflation phases are usually associated with decreases in lava effusion or even eruptive pauses on the east rift zone, and events with large inflationary phases are often followed by surges in lava effusion from east rift zone vents. Since the onset of Kilauea’s summit eruption in early 2008, the tilt events have become more common, increasing from about 5-10 per year before 2008 to about 50 per year during 2008 and 2009. At least two mechanisms can explain these tilt transients. As previously hypothesized by Cervelli and Miklius (2003, USGS Professional Paper 1676, p. 149-163), blockages in Kilauea’s magma plumbing system would reasonably lead to summit deflation and a waning of lava effusion, followed by summit inflation and an effusive surge upon removal of the blockage. Alternatively, the transients may represent small-scale convective overturns within Kilauea’s shallow summit magma storage area, with degassed magma being flushed downward (deflation) and replaced by gas</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017657','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017657"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of lava tubes in the light of observations at Mauna Ulu, Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Peterson, D.W.; Holcomb, R.T.; Tilling, R.I.; Christiansen, R.L.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>During the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu eruption on Kilauea's upper east rift zone, lava tubes were observed to develop by four principal processes: (1) flat, rooted crusts grew across streams within confined channels; (2) overflows and spatter accreted to levees to build arched roofs across streams; (3) plates of solidified crust floating downstream coalesced to form a roof; and (4) pahoehoe lobes progressively extended, fed by networks of distributaries beneath a solidified crust. Still another tube-forming process operated when pahoehoe entered the ocean; large waves would abruptly chill a crust across the entire surface of a molten stream crossing through the surf zone. These littoral lava tubes formed abruptly, in contrast to subaerial tubes, which formed gradually. All tube-forming processes were favored by low to moderate volume-rates of flow for sustained periods of time. Tubes thereby became ubiquitous within the pahoehoe flows and distributed a very large proportionof the lava that was produced during this prolonged eruption. Tubes transport lava efficiently. Once formed, the roofs of tubes insulate the active streams within, allowing the lava to retain its fluidity for a longer time than if exposed directly to ambient air temperature. Thus the flows can travel greater distances and spread over wider areas. Even though supply rates during most of 1970-1974 were moderate, ranging from 1 to 5 m3/s, large tube systems conducted lava as far as the coast, 12-13 km distant, where they fed extensive pahoehoe fields on the coastal flats. Some flows entered the sea to build lava deltas and add new land to the island. The largest and most efficient tubes developed during periods of sustained extrusion, when new lava was being supplied at nearly constant rates. Tubes can play a major role in building volcanic edifices with gentle slopes because they can deliver a substantial fraction of lava erupted at low to moderate rates to sites far down the flank of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. We</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011692','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011692"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemistry and isotope ratios of sulfur in basalts and volcanic gases at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sakai, H.; Casadevall, T.J.; Moore, J.G.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Eighteen basalts and some volcanic gases from the submarine and subaerial parts of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> were analyzed for the concentration and isotope ratios of sulfur. By means of a newly developed technique, sulfide and sulfate sulfur in the basalts were separately but simultaneously determined. The submarine basalt has 700 ?? 100 ppm total sulfur with ??34S??s of 0.7 ?? 0.1 ???. The sulfate/sulfide molar ratio ranges from 0.15 to 0.56 and the fractionation factor between sulfate and sulfide is +7.5 ?? 1.5???. On the other hand, the concentration and ??34S??s values of the total sulfur in the subaerial basalt are reduced to 150 ?? 50 ppm and -0.8 ?? 0.2???, respectively. The sulfate to sulfide ratio and the fractionation factor between them are also smaller, 0.01 to 0.25 and +3.0???, respectively. Chemical and isotopic evidence strongly suggests that sulfate and sulfide in the submarine basalt are in chemical and isotopic equilibria with each other at magmatic conditions. Their relative abundance and the isotope fractionation factors may be used to estimate the f{hook}o2 and temperature of these basalts at the time of their extrusion onto the sea floor. The observed change in sulfur chemistry and isotopic ratios from the submarine to subaerial basalts can be interpreted as degassing of the SO2 from basalt thereby depleting sulfate and 34S in basalt. The volcanic sulfur gases, predominantly SO2, from the 1971 and 1974 fissures in Kilauea Crater have ??34S values of 0.8 to 0.9%., slightly heavier than the total sulfur in the submarine basalts and definitely heavier than the subaerial basalts, in accord with the above model. However, the ??34S value of sulfur gases (largely SO2) from Sulfur Bank is 8.0%., implying a secondary origin of the sulfur. The ??34S values of native sulfur deposits at various sites of Kilauea and Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcanos</span>, sulfate ions of four deep wells and hydrogen sulfide from a geothermal well along the east rift zone are also reported. The high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1114/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1114/"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>, an Update: 2002-2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and Sutton, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2001 are available on the web. (Elias and others, 1998 and 2002). This report updates the database through 2006, and documents the changes in data collection and processing that have occurred during the interval 2002-2006. During the period covered by this report, Kilauea continued to release SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and others, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). These two distinct sources are always measured independently (fig.1). Sulphur Banks is a minor source of SO2 and does not contribute significantly to the total emissions for Kilauea (Stoiber and Malone, 1975). From 1979 until 2003, summit and east rift zone emission rates were derived using vehicle- and tripod- based Correlation Spectrometry (COSPEC) measurements. In late 2003, we began to augment traditional COSPEC measurements with data from one of the new generation of miniature spectrometer systems, the FLYSPEC (Horton and others, 2006; Elias and others, 2006, Williams-Jones and others, 2006).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S23B2256M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S23B2256M"><span id="translatedtitle">The hunt for tremor associated with slow slip events at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montgomery-Brown, E. D.; Thurber, C. H.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Several slow slip events have been observed on Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> providing opportunities to look for concurrent tectonic tremor. Slow slip events have been observed to be accompanied by tectonic tremor in numerous subduction zones worldwide. The HVO seismic monitoring network recorded continuous waveforms during slow slip events in 1998, 2007, and 2010. The 2007 event was also observed by a supplemental array of seismic instruments, but concurrently observed a large rift zone intrusion that makes it difficult to separate potential tectonic tremor from the volcanic tremor. We apply several methods to attempt to discover tectonic tremor at Kilauea including: envelope cross correlations (Wech and Creager, GRL, 2008), beamforming (Ghosh et al., GRL, 2009), template detection (Shelly et al., Nature, 2006), and autocorrelation (Brown et al., GRL, 2008). Tectonic tremor is difficult to distinguish on Kilauea because volcanic tremor is very prevalent, and seismic station coverage on the flank was sparse during some slow slip events. We have been able to identify short bursts of volcanic tremor in the caldera area and east rift zone, and deep episodes lasting tens of minutes that are thought to be related to the deep magma transport system. While co- and aftershocks of the slow slip events are common on Kilauea, tectonic tremor still remains elusive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/of02-460/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/of02-460/"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>, an Update: 1998-2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jefferson</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001). A compilation of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 1997 is available as Open-File Report 98-462 (Elias and others, 1998) and on the web at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/products/OF98462/. The purpose of this report is to update the existing database through 2001. Kilauea releases SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (fig. 1), as described in previous reports (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001). These two distinct sources are quantified independently. The summit and east rift zone emission rates reported here were derived using vehicle-based Correlation Spectrometry (COSPEC) measurements as described in Elias and others (1998). In 1998 and 1999, these measurements were augmented with airborne and tripod-based surveys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024503','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024503"><span id="translatedtitle">The 12 September 1999 Upper East Rift Zone dike intrusion at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cervelli, Peter; Segall, P.; Amelung, F.; Garbeil, H.; Meertens, C.; Owen, S.; Miklius, Asta; Lisowski, M.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Deformation associated with an earthquake swarm on 12 September 1999 in the Upper East Rift Zone of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> was recorded by continuous GPS receivers and by borehole tiltmeters. Analyses of campaign GPS, leveling data, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from the ERS-2 satellite also reveal significant deformation from the swarm. We interpret the swarm as resulting from a dike intrusion and model the deformation field using a constant pressure dike source. Nonlinear inversion was used to find the model that best fits the data. The optimal dike is located beneath and slightly to the west of Mauna Ulu, dips steeply toward the south, and strikes nearly east-west. It is approximately 3 by 2 km across and was driven by a pressure of ??? 15 MPa. The total volume of the dike was 3.3 x 106 m3. Tilt data indicate a west to east propagation direction. Lack of premonitory inflation of Kilauea's summit suggests a passive intrusion; that is, the immediate cause of the intrusion was probably tensile failure in the shallow crust of the Upper East Rift Zone brought about by persistent deep rifting and by continued seaward sliding of Kilauea's south flank.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020452','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020452"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations on basaltic lava streams in tubes from Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, island of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kauahikaua, J.; Cashman, K.V.; Mattox, T.N.; Christina, Heliker C.; Hon, K.A.; Mangan, M.T.; Thornber, C.R.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>From 1986 to 1997, the Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption of Kilauea produced a vast pahoehoe flow field fed by lava tubes that extended 10-12 km from vents on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s east rift zone to the ocean. Within a kilometer of the vent, tubes were as much as 20 m high and 10-25 m wide. On steep slopes (4-10??) a little farther away from the vent, some tubes formed by roofing over of lava channels. Lava streams were typically 1-2 m deep flowing within a tube that here was typically 5 m high and 3 m wide. On the coastal plain (<1??), tubes within inflated sheet flows were completely filled, typically 1-2 m high, and several tens of meters wide. Tubes develop as a flow's crust grows on the top, bottom, and sides of the tubes, restricting the size of the fluid core. The tubes start out with nearly elliptical cross-sectional shapes, many times wider than high. Broad, flat sheet flows evolve into elongate tumuli with an axial crack as the flanks of the original flow were progressively buried by breakouts. Temperature measurements and the presence of stalactites in active tubes confirmed that the tube walls were above the solidus and subject to melting. Sometimes, the tubes began downcutting. Progressive downcutting was frequently observed through skylights; a rate of 10 cm/d was measured at one skylight for nearly 2 months.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90401','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/90401"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemistry of spring and well waters on Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, and vicinity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Janik, C.J.; Nathenson, M.; Scholl, M.A.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>Published and new data for chemical and isotopic samples from wells and springs on Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> and vicinity are presented. These data are used to understand processes that determine the chemistry of dilute meteoric water, mixtures with sea water, and thermal water. Data for well and spring samples of non-thermal water indicate that mixing with sea water and dissolution of rock from weathering are the major processes that determine the composition of dissolved constituents in water. Data from coastal springs demonstrate that there is a large thermal system south of the lower east rift of Kilauea. Samples of thermal water from shallow wells in the lower east rift and vicinity have rather variable chemistry indicating that a number of processes operate in the near surface. Water sampled from the available deep wells is different in composition from the shallow thermal water, indicating that generally there is not a significant component of deep water in the shallow wells. Data for samples from available deep wells show significant gradients in chemistry and steam content of the reservoir fluid. These gradients are interpreted to indicate that the reservoir tapped by the existing wells is an evolving vapor-dominated system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JGR...10327303K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JGR...10327303K"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations on basaltic lava streams in tubes from Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, island of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kauahikaua, Jim; Cashman, Katharine V.; Mattox, Tari N.; Heliker, C. Christina; Hon, Ken A.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Thornber, Carl R.</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>From 1986 to 1997, the Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption of Kilauea produced a vast pahoehoe flow field fed by lava tubes that extended 10-12 km from vents on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s east rift zone to the ocean. Within a kilometer of the vent, tubes were as much as 20 m high and 10-25 m wide. On steep slopes (4-10°) a little farther away from the vent, some tubes formed by roofing over of lava channels. Lava streams were typically 1-2 m deep flowing within a tube that here was typically 5 m high and 3 m wide. On the coastal plain (<1°), tubes within inflated sheet flows were completely filled, typically 1-2 m high, and several tens of meters wide. Tubes develop as a flow's crust grows on the top, bottom, and sides of the tubes, restricting the size of the fluid core. The tubes start out with nearly elliptical cross-sectional shapes, many times wider than high. Broad, flat sheet flows evolve into elongate tumuli with an axial crack as the flanks of the original flow were progressively buried by breakouts. Temperature measurements and the presence of stalactites in active tubes confirmed that the tube walls were above the solidus and subject to melting. Sometimes, the tubes began downcutting. Progressive downcutting was frequently observed through skylights; a rate of 10 cm/d was measured at one skylight for nearly 2 months.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020517','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020517"><span id="translatedtitle">Waveform inversion of very long period impulsive signals associated with magmatic injection beneath Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ohminato, T.; Chouet, B.A.; Dawson, P.; Kedar, S.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We use data from broadband seismometers deployed around the summit of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> to quantify the mechanism associated with a transient in the flow of magma feeding the east rift eruption of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The transient is marked by rapid inflation of the Kilauea summit peaking at 22 ??rad 4.5 hours after the event onset, followed by slow deflation over a period of 3 days. Superimposed on the summit inflation is a series of sawtooth displacement pulses, each characterized by a sudden drop in amplitude lasting 5-10 s followed by an exponential recovery lasting 1-3 min. The sawtooth waveforms display almost identical shapes, suggesting a process involving the repeated activation of a fixed source. The particle motion associated with each sawtooth is almost linear, and its major swing shows compressional motion at all stations. Analyses of semblance and particle motion are consistent with a point source located 1 km beneath the northeast edge of the Halemaumau pit crater. To estimate the source mechanism, we apply a moment tensor inversion to the waveform data, assuming a point source embedded in a homogeneous half-space with compressional and shear wave velocities representative of the average medium properties at shallow depth under Kilauea. Synthetic waveforms are constructed by a superposition of impulse responses for six moment tensor components and three single force components. The origin times of individual impulses are distributed along the time axis at appropriately small, equal intervals, and their amplitudes are determined by least squares. In this inversion, the source time functions of the six tensor and three force components are determined simultaneously. We confirm the accuracy of the inversion method through a series of numerical tests. The results from the inversion show that the waveform data are well explained by a pulsating transport mechanism operating on a subhorizontal crack linking the summit reservoir to the east rift of Kilauea. The crack</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025878','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025878"><span id="translatedtitle">Shallow-velocity models at the Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, determined from array analyses of tremor wavefields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Saccorotti, G.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The properties of the surface wavefield at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> are analysed using data from small-aperture arrays of short-period seismometers deployed in and around the Kilauea caldera. Tremor recordings were obtained during two Japan-US cooperative experiments conducted in 1996 and 1997. The seismometers were deployed in three semi-circular arrays with apertures of 300, 300 and 400 m, and a linear array with length of 1680 m. Data are analysed using a spatio-temporal correlation technique well suited for the study of the stationary stochastic wavefields of Rayleigh and Love waves associated with volcanic activity and scattering sources distributed in and around the summit caldera. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients are obtained as a function of frequency and are inverted for the dispersion characteristics of Rayleigh and Love waves using a grid search that seeks phase velocities for which the L-2 norm between data and forward modelling operators is minimized. Within the caldera, the phase velocities of Rayleigh waves range from 1400 to 1800 m s-1 at 1 Hz down to 300-400 m s-1 at 10 Hz, and the phase velocities of Love waves range from 2600 to 400 m s-1 within the same frequency band. Outside the caldera, Rayleigh wave velocities range from 1800 to 1600 m s-1 at 1 Hz down to 260-360 m s-1 at 10 Hz, and Love wave velocities range from 600 to 150 m s-1 within the same frequency band. The dispersion curves are inverted for velocity structure beneath each array, assuming these dispersions represent the fundamental modes of Rayleigh and Love waves. The velocity structures observed at different array sites are consistent with results from a recent 3-D traveltime tomography of the caldera region, and point to a marked velocity discontinuity associated with the southern caldera boundary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018493','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018493"><span id="translatedtitle">Waters associated with an active basaltic <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Kilauea, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>: Variation in solute sources, 1973-1991</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tilling, R.I.; Jones, B.F.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Chemical and isotopic analyses of samples collected from a 1262-m-deep research borehole at the summit of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> provide unique time-series data for composition of waters in the uppermost part of its hydrothermal system. These waters have a distinctive geochemical signature: a very low proportion of chloride relative to other anions compared with other Hawaiian wa-ters - thermal (???30 ??C) or nonthermal (<30 ??C) - and with most thermal waters of the world. Isotope data demonstrate that the borehole waters are of essentially meteoric origin, with minimal magmatic input. The water chemistry exhibits marked temporal variations, including pronounced short-term (days to weeks) effects of rainfall dilution and longer term (months to years) decline of total solutes. The 1973-1974 samples are Na-sulfate-dominant, but samples collected after July 1975 are (Mg + Ca)-bicarbonate-dominant. This compositional shift, probably abrupt, was associated with an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) related to volcanic degassing of CO2 accompanying a large eruption (December 31, 1974) and associated intense seismicity. Following the initial sharp increase, the PCO2 then decreased, approaching preemption values in April 1976. Beginning in mid-1975, solute concentrations of the borehole waters decreased substantially, from ???45 meq/L to <25 meq/L in only eight months; by 1991, total solute concentrations were <17 meq/L. This decline in solutes cannot be attributed to rainfall dilution and is inferred to reflect the decreasing availability with time of the easily leachable salts of alkali metals and sulfate, which originated in sublimates and fumarolic encrustations in fractures and cavities of rocks along the hydrologic flow paths. The overall chemistry of the summit-borehole waters is largely determined by hydrolysis reactions associated with normal weathering of host tholeiitic basalts on a geologic time scale, despite short-term perturbations in composition</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70041334','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70041334"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrasonic harmonic tremor and degassing bursts from Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fee, David; Garcés, Milton; Patrick, Matt; Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phil; Swanson, Donald A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The formation, evolution, collapse, and subsequent resurrection of a vent within Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, produced energetic and varied degassing signals recorded by a nearby infrasound array between 2008 and early 2009. After 25 years of quiescence, a vent-clearing explosive burst on 19 March 2008 produced a clear, complex acoustic signal. Near-continuous harmonic infrasonic tremor followed this burst until 4 December 2008, when a period of decreased degassing occurred. The tremor spectra suggest volume oscillation and reverberation of a shallow gas-filled cavity beneath the vent. The dominant tremor peak can be sustained through Helmholtz oscillations of the cavity, while the secondary tremor peak and overtones are interpreted assuming acoustic resonance. The dominant tremor frequency matches the oscillation frequency of the gas emanating from the vent observed by video. Tremor spectra and power are also correlated with cavity geometry and dynamics, with the cavity depth estimated at ~219 m and volume ~3 x 106 m3 in November 2008. Over 21 varied degassing bursts were observed with extended burst durations and frequency content consistent with a transient release of gas exciting the cavity into resonance. Correlation of infrasound with seismicity suggests an open system connecting the atmosphere to the seismic excitation process at depth. Numerous degassing bursts produced very long period (0.03-0.1 Hz) infrasound, the first recorded at Kilauea, indicative of long-duration atmospheric accelerations. Kilauea infrasound appears controlled by the exsolution of gas from the magma, and the interaction of this gas with the conduits and cavities confining it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030492','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030492"><span id="translatedtitle">The airborne lava-seawater interaction plume at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Edmonds, M.; Gerlach, T.M.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Lava flows into the sea at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Hawaiʻi, and generates an airborne gas and aerosol plume. Water (H2O), hydrogen chloride (HCl), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) gases were quantified in the plume in 2004–2005, using Open Path Fourier Transform infra-red Spectroscopy. The molar abundances of these species and thermodynamic modelling are used to discuss their generation. The range in molar HCl / H2O confirms that HCl is generated when seawater is boiled dry and magnesium salts are hydrolysed (as proposed by [T.M. Gerlach, J.L. Krumhansl, R.O. Fournier, J. Kjargaard, Acid rain from the heating and evaporation of seawater by molten lava: a new volcanic hazard, EOS (Trans. Am. Geophys. Un.) 70 (1989) 1421–1422]), in contrast to models of Na-metasomatism. Airborne droplets of boiled seawater brine form nucleii for subsequent H2O and HCl condensation, which acidifies the droplets and liberates CO2 gas from bicarbonate and carbonate. NO2 is derived from the thermal decomposition of nitrates in coastal seawater, which takes place as the lava heats droplets of boiled seawater brine to 350–400 °C. SO2 is derived from the degassing of subaerial lava flows on the coastal plain. The calculated mass flux of HCl from a moderate-sized ocean entry significantly increases the total HCl emission at Kīlauea (including magmatic sources) and is comparable to industrial HCl emitters in the United States. For larger lava ocean entries, the flux of HCl will cause intense local environmental hazards, such as high localised HCl concentrations and acid rain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010JGRB..11511316F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010JGRB..11511316F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrasonic harmonic tremor and degassing bursts from Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fee, David; GarcéS, Milton; Patrick, Matt; Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phil; Swanson, Don</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>The formation, evolution, collapse, and subsequent resurrection of a vent within Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, produced energetic and varied degassing signals recorded by a nearby infrasound array between 2008 and early 2009. After 25 years of quiescence, a vent-clearing explosive burst on 19 March 2008 produced a clear, complex acoustic signal. Near-continuous harmonic infrasonic tremor followed this burst until 4 December 2008, when a period of decreased degassing occurred. The tremor spectra suggest volume oscillation and reverberation of a shallow gas-filled cavity beneath the vent. The dominant tremor peak can be sustained through Helmholtz oscillations of the cavity, while the secondary tremor peak and overtones are interpreted assuming acoustic resonance. The dominant tremor frequency matches the oscillation frequency of the gas emanating from the vent observed by video. Tremor spectra and power are also correlated with cavity geometry and dynamics, with the cavity depth estimated at ˜219 m and volume ˜3 × 106 m3 in November 2008. Over 21 varied degassing bursts were observed with extended burst durations and frequency content consistent with a transient release of gas exciting the cavity into resonance. Correlation of infrasound with seismicity suggests an open system connecting the atmosphere to the seismic excitation process at depth. Numerous degassing bursts produced very long period (0.03-0.1 Hz) infrasound, the first recorded at Kilauea, indicative of long-duration atmospheric accelerations. Kilauea infrasound appears controlled by the exsolution of gas from the magma, and the interaction of this gas with the conduits and cavities confining it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFM.V21C2342D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFM.V21C2342D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Very-long-period seismicity at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>, 2007-2010 (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dawson, P. B.; Benítez, M. C.; Chouet, B. A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>On 19 March, 2008 eruptive activity returned to the summit of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Hawai‘i with the formation of a new vent within the Halema‘uma‘u pit crater. The new vent has been gradually increasing in size, and exhibiting sustained degassing and the episodic bursting of gas slugs at the surface of a lava pond ~200 m below the floor of Halema‘uma‘u. The observation of broadband seismicity recorded within Kilauea Caldera provides an unprecedented view into the processes leading up to and beyond the renewal of eruptive activity at the summit. Resonant features in the Very-Long-Period spectra begin to appear in October, 2007, and by the end of November, 2007 the magma transport system sustained continuous oscillations that persist through 31 January, 2010. The lowest observed frequency, at about 0.04 Hz, represents the breathing mode of the shallow magmatic system with a source centroid located 1 km beneath the caldera floor and ~500 m north-northeast of the new pit in Halema‘uma‘u. Spectral peaks seen at 0.2 and 0.45 Hz are inferred to represent higher modes of resonance in the system. The marked shifts in frequencies over time are due to the complex interaction between the slowly changing magma-static head, conduit structure, and the acoustic properties of the magmatic fluid. Rockfall and collapse signals appear as random processes statistically disassociated from the degassing burst signals. These events have a frequency content ranging from 5 to 20 Hz. The spectral characteristics, source location obtained by radial semblance, and Hidden Markov Model pattern recognition of the degassing burst signals are consistent with an increase in gas content in the magma transport system beginning in October, 2007. This increase plateaus between March-September 2008, and exhibits a fluctuating pattern until 31 January, 2010, suggesting that the release of gas is slowly diminishing over time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016889','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016889"><span id="translatedtitle">The tholeiite to alkalic basalt transition at Haleakala <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Maui, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Chen, C.-Y.; Frey, F.A.; Garcia, M.O.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Hart, S.R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Previous studies of alkalic lavas erupted during the waning growth stages (<0.9 Ma to present) of Haleakala <span class="hlt">volcano</span> identified systematic temporal changes in isotopic and incompatible element abundance ratios. These geochemical trends reflect a mantle mixing process with a systematic change in the proportions of mixing components. We studied lavas from a 250-m-thick stratigraphic sequence in Honomanu Gulch that includes the oldest (???1.1 Ma) subaerial basalts exposed at Haleakaka. The lower 200 m of section is intercalated tholeiitic and alkalic basalt with similar isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) and incompatible element abundance ratios (e.g., Nb/La, La/Ce, La/Sr, Hf/Sm, Ti/Eu). These lava compositions are consistent with derivation of alkalic and tholeiitic basalt by partial melting of a compositionally homogeneous, clinopyroxene-rich, garnet lherzolite source. The intercalated tholeiitic and alkalic Honomanu lavas may reflect a process which tapped melts generated in different portions of a rising plume, and we infer that the tholeiitic lavas reflect a melting range of ???10% to 15%, while the intercalated alkalic lavas reflect a range of ???6.5% to 8% melting. However, within the uppermost 50 m of section. 87Sr/86Sr decreases from 0.70371 to 0.70328 as eruption age decreased from ???0.97 Ma to 0.78 Ma. We infer that as lava compositions changed from intercalated tholeiitic and alkalic lavas to only alkalic lavas at ???0.93 Ma, the mixing proportions of source components changed with a MORB-related mantle component becoming increasingly important as eruption age decreased. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018450','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018450"><span id="translatedtitle">Isotopic evolution of Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>: Results from the initial phase of the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Scientific Drilling Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lassiter, J.C.; DePaolo, D.J.; Tatsumoto, M.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>We have examined the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of Mauna Kea lavas recovered by the first drilling phase of the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Scientific Drilling Project. These lavas, which range in age from ???200 to 400 ka, provide a detailed record of chemical and isotopic changes in basalt composition during the shied/postshield transition and extend our record of Mauna Kea volcanism to a late-shield period roughly equivalent to the last ???100 ka of Mauna Loa activity. Stratigraphic variations in isotopic composition reveal a gradual shift over time toward a more depleted source composition (e.g., higher 143Nd/144Nd, lower 87Sr/86Sr, and lower 3He/4He). This gradual evolution is in sharp contrast with the abrupt appearance of alkalic lavas at ???240 ka recorded by the upper 50 m of Mauna Kea lavas from the core. Intercalated tholeiitic and alkalic lavas from the uppermost Mauna Kea section are isotopically indistinguishable. Combined with major element evidence (e.g., decreasing SiO2 and increasing FeO) that the depth of melt segregation increased during the transition from tholeiitic to alkalic volcanism, the isotopic similarity of tholeiitic and alkalic lavas argues against significant lithosphere involvement during melt generation. Instead, the depleted isotopic signatures found in late shield-stage lavas are best explained by increasing the proportion of melt generated from a depleted upper mantle component entrained and heated by the rising central plume. Direct comparison of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa lavas erupted at equivalent stages in these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>' life cycles reveals persistent chemical and isotopic differences independent of the temporal evolution of each <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The oldest lavas recovered from the drillcore are similar to modern Kilauea lavas, but are distinct from Mauna Loa lavas. Mauna Kea lavas have higher 143Nd/144Nd and 206Pb/204Pb and lower 87Sr/86Sr. Higher concentrations of incompatible trace elements in primary magmas, lower SiO2, and higher FeO also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5114/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5114/"><span id="translatedtitle">Instrumentation Recommendations for <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Monitoring at U.S. <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> Under the <span class="hlt">National</span> <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Early Warning System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can <span class="hlt">volcano</span> observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMGP31B..01L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMGP31B..01L"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermally Enhanced Magnetic Fabrics of Basaltic Dikes from Kapaa Quarry, Koolau <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Oahu, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lau, J.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Urrutia Fucugauchi, J.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Progressive thermal treatment has been used to investigate the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of a wide range of lithologies. Initial results on e.g., red sandstones, glacial tillites, granites and gneisses showed that laboratory stepwise heating resulted in thermal enhancement of AMS, showing the potential of thermal treatment in studying weak AMS and masked or cryptic fabrics. Studies have however shown that heating induced changes in AMS may be more complex that simple enhancement of the magnetic fabric In general, thermal induced magneto-mineralogical alterations are complex and not well understood, and further investigation of heating induced effects in mineralogy, grain size and texture systematically investigated for different lithologies is needed. For our experiment we have used a suite of samples from eight basaltic dikes from the Kappa Quarry, Koolau volcanic range in Oahu, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. The AMS fabric was determined as part of a study to investigate the influence of hydrothermal alteration by Krasa and Herrero-Bervera (2005). They found that hydrothermal alteration changes the bulk susceptibility and anisotropy degree, but AMS ellipsoid principal axes are not affected. Since hydrothermal alteration transforms the primary Ti-poor titanomagnetites into granular intergrowths of titanomagnetites, titanomaghemite and hematite, and that samples show varying degrees of alteration, the samples react differently to laboratory stepwise heating permitting study of thermal effects on the magnetic mineralogy, and AMS parameters and principal susceptibility axes. Further, thermal treatment results in fabric enhancement with reduced axial scatter associated with weak bulk susceptibilities and anisotropy degrees in the dikes. For the AMS experiment samples were heated progressively to temperatures up to 400° C or 560° C and the AMS measured after each step. AMS parameters and bulk susceptibility show changes with increasing temperature while the AMS</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V41A2489P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V41A2489P"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling "secular" flank motion at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (<span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>) during 2000-2003</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plattner, C.; Amelung, F.; Baker, S.; Govers, R. M.; Poland, M. P.; Lavallee, Y.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Kilauea's south flank is moving seaward due to flank instabilities. The rate is influenced by magmatic events (dike intrusions) and tectonic events (earthquakes and slow-slip events at the decollement), but the general flank motion signal remains significant at any time, with rates of 6-10 cm/yr during the past decade. The surface displacements were explained by fault slip along the decollement beneath Kilauea combined with deep-rift opening in elastic halfspace dislocation models. While these models explain the kinematics well, the dynamics of the rift opening are not resolved, and the question on contribution from magmatic driving forces versus an entirely gravitationally-driven system remains. InSAR time-series analysis (Small Baseline Algorithm; SBAS) showed linear surface subsidence at Kilauea summit (maximum rate 5.5 cm/yr south of the caldera) during 2000-2003, a time-period during which the influence of distinct deformation events is small in comparison to previous and later time-periods. Here, we investigate if summit subsidence can be explained as a consequence of secular flank motion at Kilauea by ductile creep of a deep magma mush, using a numerical model with time-dependent material deformation properties to constrain velocities rather than displacements. We developed a 2D finite element model that investigates the deformation response of Kilauea to gravitational driving forces only. The model geometry includes a decollement fault beneath the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> that can have locked and creeping fault segments. We introduce time-dependent material behavior using a viscoelastic model media. The host rock remains stable over geodetic timescales given its high viscosity value, while the deep-seated magma mush beneath Kilauea caldera is assigned a lower viscosity and spreads at significant rates. The deformation signal of the magma mush is transmitted to the surface, causing local subsidence at Kilauea summit, showing that summit subsidence can be explained by flank</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pesticides+AND+Legislation&pg=4&id=ED147125','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pesticides+AND+Legislation&pg=4&id=ED147125"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">National</span> Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.</p> <p></p> <p>This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034169','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034169"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal evolution of dike opening and décollement slip at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Sinnett, D.K.; Larson, K.M.; Poland, Michael P.; Segall, P.; Miklius, Asta</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Rapid changes in ground tilt and GPS positions on Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, are interpreted as resulting from a shallow, two-segment dike intrusion into the east rift zone that began at 1217 UTC (0217 HST) on 17 June 2007 and lasted almost 3 days. As a result of the intrusion, a very small volume of basalt (about 1500 m3) erupted on 19 June. Northward tilt at a coastal tiltmeter, subsidence of south flank GPS sites, southeastward displacements at southwestern flank GPS sites, and a swarm of flank earthquakes suggest that a slow slip event occurred on the décollement beneath Kīlauea's south flank concurrent with the rift intrusion. We use 4 min GPS positions that include estimates of time-dependent tropospheric gradients and ground tilt data to study the spatial and temporal relationships between the two inferred shallow, steeply dipping dike segments extending from the surface to about 2 km depth and décollement slip at 8 km depth. We invert for the temporal evolution of distributed dike opening and décollement slip in independent inversions at each time step using a nonnegative least squares algorithm. On the basis of these inversions, the intrusion occurred in two stages that correspond spatially and temporally with concentrated rift zone seismicity. The dike opening began on the western of the two segments before jumping to the eastern segment, where the majority of opening accumulated. Dike opening preceded the start of décollement slip at an 84% confidence level; the latter is indicated by the onset of northward tilt of a coastal tiltmeter. Displacements at southwest flank GPS sites began about 18 h later and are interpreted as resulting from slow slip on the southwestern flank. Additional constraints on the evolution of the intrusion and décollement slip come from inversion of an Envisat interferogram that spans the intrusion until 0822 UTC on 18 June 2007, combined with GPS and tilt data. This inversion shows that up to 0822 UTC on 18 June, d</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V22A0567R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V22A0567R"><span id="translatedtitle">A Geochemical Study of Magmatic Processes and Evolution along the Submarine Southwest Rift zone of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rhodes, J. M.; Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D.; Trusdell, F. A.; Vollinger, M. J.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Mauna Loa's southwest rift zone (SWR) extends for 102 km from its summit caldera, at an elevation of 4,170 m above sea level, to submarine depths of over 4,500 m. About 65% of the rift zone is subaerial and 35% submarine. Recent sampling with the Jason II submersible of the `mile-high' (1800 m) Ka Lae submarine landslide scarp and the deepest section of the rift zone, in conjunction with previous submersible and dredge-haul collecting, provides petrological and geochemical understanding of rift zone processes, as well as a record of Mauna Loa's eruptive history extending back about 400 ka. The major and trace element trends of the submarine lavas are remarkably similar to those of historical and young prehistoric lavas (<31 ka) erupted along the subaerial SWR. We take this to imply that magma-forming processes have remained relatively constant over much of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s recorded eruptive history. However, the distribution of samples along these trends has varied, and is correlated with elevation. There are very few picrites (>12% MgO) among the subaerial lavas, and compositions tend to cluster around 6.8-8.0% MgO. In contrast, picritic lavas are extremely abundant in the submarine samples, increasing in frequency with depth, especially below 1200 m. These observations support earlier interpretations that the submarine lavas are derived directly from deeper levels in the magma column, and that magmas from a shallow, steady-state, magma reservoir are of uncommon at these depths. Isotopic ratios of Pb and Sr in the submarine lavas, in conjunction with Nb/Y and Zr/Nb ratios, extend from values that are identical with subaerial historical Mauna Loa lavas to lavas with markedly lower 87Sr/86Sr and higher 206Pb/204Pb isotopic ratios. As yet, we see no correlation with depth or age, but the implications are that, in the past, the plume source of Mauna Loa magmas was more variable than in the last 31 ka, and contained a greater proportion of the Kea component. *Team members</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036677','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036677"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span>-tectonic implications of 3-D velocity structures derived from joint active and passive source tomography of the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Park, J.; Morgan, J.K.; Zelt, C.A.; Okubo, P.G.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We present a velocity model of the onshore and offshore regions around the southern part of the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, including southern Mauna Kea, southeastern Hualalai, and the active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of Mauna Loa, and Kilauea, and Loihi seamount. The velocity model was inverted from about 200,000 first-arrival traveltime picks of earthquakes and air gun shots recorded at the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO). Reconstructed volcanic structures of the island provide us with an improved understanding of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-tectonic evolution of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and their interactions. The summits and upper rift zones of the active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are characterized by high-velocity materials, correlated with intrusive magma cumulates. These high-velocity materials often do not extend the full lengths of the rift zones, suggesting that rift zone intrusions may be spatially limited. Seismicity tends to be localized seaward of the most active intrusive bodies. Low-velocity materials beneath parts of the active rift zones of Kilauea and Mauna Loa suggest discontinuous rift zone intrusives, possibly due to the presence of a preexisting volcanic edifice, e.g., along Mauna Loa beneath Kilauea's southwest rift zone, or alternatively, removal of high-velocity materials by large-scale landsliding, e.g., along Mauna Loa's western flank. Both locations also show increased seismicity that may result from edifice interactions or reactivation of buried faults. New high-velocity regions are recognized and suggest the presence of buried, and in some cases, previously unknown rift zones, within the northwest flank of Mauna Loa, and the south flanks of Mauna Loa, Hualalai, and Mauna Kea. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036848','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036848"><span id="translatedtitle">Kulanaokuaiki Tephra (ca, A.D. 400-1000): Newly recognized evidence for highly explosive eruptions at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fiske, R.S.; Rose, T.R.; Swanson, D.A.; Champion, D.E.; McGeehin, J.P.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>K??lauea may be one of the world's most intensively monitored <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, but its eruptive history over the past several thousand years remains rather poorly known. Our study has revealed the vestiges of thin basaltic tephra deposits, overlooked by previous workers, that originally blanketed wide, near-summit areas and extended more than 17 km to the south coast of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>. These deposits, correlative with parts of tephra units at the summit and at sites farther north and northwest, show that K??lauea, commonly regarded as a gentle <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, was the site of energetic pyroclastic eruptions and indicate the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is significantly more hazardous than previously realized. Seventeen new calibrated accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon ages suggest these deposits, here named the Kulanaokuaiki Tephra, were emplaced ca. A.D. 400-1000, a time of no previously known pyroclastic activity at the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Tephra correlations are based chiefly on a marker unit that contains unusually high values of TiO2 and K2O and on paleomagnetic signatures of associated lava flows, which show that the Kulanaokuaiki deposits are the time-stratigraphic equivalent of the upper part of a newly exhumed section of the Uw??kahuna Ash in the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s northwest caldera wall. This section, thought to have been permanently buried by rockfalls in 1983, is thicker and more complete than the previously accepted type Uw??kahuna at the base of the caldera wall. Collectively, these findings justify the elevation of the Uw??kahuna Ash to formation status; the newly recognized Kulanaokuaiki Tephra to the south, the chief focus of this study, is defined as a member of the Uw??kahuna Ash. The Kulanaokuaiki Tephra is the product of energetic pyroclastic falls; no surge- or pyroclastic-flow deposits were identified with certainty, despite recent interpretations that Uw??kahuna surges extended 10-20 km from K??lauea's summit. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol2-sec91-138.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol2-sec91-138.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 91.138 - Temporary flight restrictions in <span class="hlt">national</span> disaster areas in the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... disaster areas in the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. 91.138 Section 91.138 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.138 Temporary flight restrictions in <span class="hlt">national</span> disaster... area within a declared <span class="hlt">national</span> disaster area in the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> is in need of protection...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol2-sec91-138.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol2-sec91-138.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 91.138 - Temporary flight restrictions in <span class="hlt">national</span> disaster areas in the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... disaster areas in the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. 91.138 Section 91.138 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.138 Temporary flight restrictions in <span class="hlt">national</span> disaster... area within a declared <span class="hlt">national</span> disaster area in the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> is in need of protection...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-sec91-138.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-sec91-138.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 91.138 - Temporary flight restrictions in <span class="hlt">national</span> disaster areas in the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... disaster areas in the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. 91.138 Section 91.138 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.138 Temporary flight restrictions in <span class="hlt">national</span> disaster... area within a declared <span class="hlt">national</span> disaster area in the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> is in need of protection...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001405&hterms=Pineapple&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPineapple','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001405&hterms=Pineapple&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPineapple"><span id="translatedtitle">The Big Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the <span class="hlt">National</span> Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Land Cover Analysis project</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027511','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027511"><span id="translatedtitle">The perception of volcanic risk in Kona communities from Mauna Loa and Hualālai <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, B.F.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Swanson, D.A.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Volcanic hazards in Kona (i.e. the western side of the island of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>) stem primarily from Mauna Loa and Huala??lai <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. The former has erupted 39 times since 1832. Lava flows were emplaced in Kona during seven of these eruptions and last impacted Kona in 1950. Huala??lai last erupted in ca. 1800. Society's proximity to potential eruptive sources and the potential for relatively fast-moving lava flows, coupled with relatively long time intervals since the last eruptions in Kona, are the underlying stimuli for this study of risk perception. Target populations were high-school students and adults ( n =462). Using these data, we discuss threat knowledge as an influence on risk perception, and perception as a driving mechanism for preparedness. Threat knowledge and perception of risk were found to be low to moderate. On average, fewer than two-thirds of the residents were aware of the most recent eruptions that impacted Kona, and a minority felt that Mauna Loa and Huala??lai could ever erupt again. Furthermore, only about one-third were aware that lava flows could reach the coast in Kona in less than 3 h. Lava flows and ash fall were perceived to be among the least likely hazards to affect the respondent's community within the next 10 years, whereas vog (volcanic smog) was ranked the most likely. Less than 18% identified volcanic hazards as amongst the most likely hazards to affect them at home, school, or work. Not surprisingly, individual preparedness measures were found on average to be limited to simple tasks of value in frequently occurring domestic emergencies, whereas measures specific to infrequent hazard events such as volcanic eruptions were seldom adopted. Furthermore, our data show that respondents exhibit an 'unrealistic optimism bias' and infer that responsibility for community preparedness for future eruptions primarily rests with officials. We infer that these respondents may be less likely to attend to hazard information, react to warnings as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRB..120.2525C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRB..120.2525C"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic source dynamics of gas-piston activity at Kı¯lauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phillip</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Since 2008, eruptive activity at the summit of Kı¯lauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> has been confined to the new Overlook pit crater within the Halema`uma`u Crater. Among the broad range of magmatic processes observed in the new pit are recurring episodes of gas pistoning. The gas-piston activity is accompanied by seismic signals that are recorded by a broadband network deployed in the summit caldera. We use raw data recorded with this network to model the source mechanism of representative gas-piston events in a sequence that occurred on 20-25 August 2011 during a gentle inflation of the Kı¯lauea summit. To determine the source centroid location and source mechanism, we minimize the residual error between data and synthetics calculated by the finite difference method for a point source embedded in a homogeneous medium that takes topography into account. We apply a new waveform inversion method that accounts for the contributions from both translation and tilt in horizontal seismograms through the use of Green's functions representing the seismometer response to translation and tilt ground motions. This method enables a robust description of the source mechanism over the period range 1-10,000 s. Most of the seismic wavefield produced by gas-pistoning originates in a source region ˜1 km below the eastern perimeter of the Halema`uma`u pit crater. The observed waveforms are well explained by a simple volumetric source with geometry composed of two intersecting cracks featuring an east striking crack (dike) dipping 80°to the north, intersecting a north striking crack (another dike) dipping 65° to the east. Each gas-piston event is marked by a similar rapid inflation lasting a few minutes, trailed by a slower deflation ramp extending up to 15 min, attributed to the efficient coupling at the source centroid location of the pressure and momentum changes accompanying the growth and collapse of a layer of foam at the top of the lava column. Assuming a simple lumped parameter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002139&hterms=Peach&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DPeach','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002139&hterms=Peach&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DPeach"><span id="translatedtitle">Snow on Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>With summits of 13,792 ft (4,205 m) and 13,674 ft (4,169 m), it's not unusual for the Mauna Kea (north) and Mauna Loa (south) <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s Big Island to get wintertime snowfall. In this true-color MODIS image from February 28, 2002, a late winter snow has settled on the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>' flanks, creating large white circles in the north and central portions of the island. The white patchy areas along the west coast are clouds, and not snow, which is more evident in the false color image, in which ice crystals on the ground appear solid red and clouds appear peach. Don't be fooled by the red outlines on the eastern coast. They aren't snow, but rather are used to mark locations where MODIS detected the thermal signature of the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park. The dark streaks and patches reveal the location of lava flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70138541','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70138541"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the volcanic emission rate and atmospheric lifetime of SO2 from space: a case study for Kīlauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Beirle, Steffen; Hörmann, Christoph; Penning de Vries, Malouse; Dörner, Stefan; Kern, Christoph; Wagner, Thomas</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present an analysis of SO2 column densities derived from GOME-2 satellite measurements for the Kīlauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (<span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>) for 2007–2012. During a period of enhanced degassing activity in March–November 2008, monthly mean SO2 emission rates and effective SO2 lifetimes are determined simultaneously from the observed downwind plume evolution and meteorological wind fields, without further model input. Kīlauea is particularly suited for quantitative investigations from satellite observations owing to the absence of interfering sources, the clearly defined downwind plumes caused by steady trade winds, and generally low cloud fractions. For March–November 2008, the effective SO2 lifetime is 1–2 days, and Kīlauea SO2 emission rates are 9–21 kt day−1, which is about 3 times higher than initially reported from ground-based monitoring systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024422','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024422"><span id="translatedtitle">Sun photometer and lidar measurements of the plume from the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Pu'u O'o vent: Aerosol flux and SO2 lifetime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Porter, J.N.; Horton, K.A.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Lienert, B.; Sharma, S.K.; Lau, E.; Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.; Oppenheimer, C.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Aerosol optical depths and lidar measurements were obtained under the plume of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> on August 17, 2001, ???9 km downwind from the erupting Pu'u O'o vent. Measured aerosol optical depths (at 500 nm) were between 0.2-0.4. Aerosol size distributions inverted from the spectral sun photometer measurements suggest the volcanic aerosol is present in the accumulation mode (0.1-0.5 micron diameter), which is consistent with past in situ optical counter measurements. The aerosol dry mass flux rate was calculated to be 53 Mg d-1. The estimated SO2 emission rate during the aerosol measurements was ???1450 Mg d-1. Assuming the sulfur emissions at Pu'u O'o vent are mainly SO2 (not aerosol), this corresponds to a SO2 half-life of 6.0 hours in the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S33B2540M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S33B2540M"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of seismic data from a temporary small-aperture seismic array during the May 28, 2012 slow slip event at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montgomery-Brown, E.; Thurber, C. H.; Okubo, P.; Thelen, W. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>'s most recent slow slip event (SSE) occurred at the end of May 2012, as detected by GPS and tilt networks operated by the US Geological Survey's Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory. This event appears to be one of the largest slow slip events on Kilauea (~M6.1), and was accompanied by a swarm of over 75 triggered earthquakes. In anticipation of this event, expected due to an observed roughly periodic sequence of slow slip events at Kilauea, we deployed a 16-station small-aperture array in February 2012. The array is comprised of instruments borrowed from the IRIS/PASSCAL Instrument Center, including one Guralp CMG40T, three CMG3-ESP, and twelve 3-component Sercel L-22 seismometers. The array spans a 500-m footprint placed such that we might discriminate among various tremor sources at Kilauea using the beamforming approach of Ghosh and others [2009]. Of particular interest is whether we will be able to detect and separate potential tectonic or non-volcanic tremor associated with slow slip from ongoing volcanic tremor associated with Kilauea's eruptions, and whether non-volcanic tremor accompanies SSEs in <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> as observed elsewhere. Waveforms from this array could help by providing a lower signal-to-noise ratio during Kilauea's slow slip events, as well as characterizing attenuation and improving source locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016135','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016135"><span id="translatedtitle">SO2 from episode 48A eruption, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>: Sulfur dioxide emissions from the episode 48A East Rift Zone eruption of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Andres, R.J.; Kyle, P.R.; Stokes, J.B.; Rose, William I.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>An SO2 flux of 1170??400 (1??) tonnes per day was measured with a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) in October and November 1986 from the continuous, nonfountaining, basaltic East Rift Zone eruption (episode 48A) of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. This flux is 5-27 times less than those of highfountaining episodes, 3-5 times greater than those of contemporaneous summit emissions or interphase Pu'u O'o emissions, and 1.3-2 times the emissions from Pu'u O'o alone during 48A. Calculations based on the SO2 emission rate resulted in a magma supply rate of 0.44 million m3 per day and a 0.042 wt% sulfur loss from the magma upon eruption. Both of these calculated parameters agree with determinations made previously by other methods. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0542.photos.195461p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0542.photos.195461p/"><span id="translatedtitle">2. PARKING LOT AT JAGGAR MUSEUM, <span class="hlt">VOLCANO</span> OBSERVATORY. VIEW OF ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. PARKING LOT AT JAGGAR MUSEUM, <span class="hlt">VOLCANO</span> OBSERVATORY. VIEW OF MEDIAN. NOTE VOLCANIC STONE CURBING (EDGING) TYPICAL OF MOST PARKING AREAS; TRIANGLING AT END NOT TYPICAL. MAUNA LOA <span class="hlt">VOLCANO</span> IN BACK. - Crater Rim Drive, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6797546','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6797546"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">National</span> priorities list sites: California and <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, 1992</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>The publication provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State <span class="hlt">National</span> Priorities List (NPL) site. It clearly describes what the problems are, what EPA and others participating in site cleanups are doing, and how the <span class="hlt">nation</span> can move ahead in solving these serious problems. Compiles site summary fact sheets on each State site being cleaned up under the Superfund Program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31D1446T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31D1446T"><span id="translatedtitle">New Insights into the Influence of Structural Controls Affecting Groundwater Flow and Storage Within an Ocean Island <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Mauna Kea, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, D. M.; Haskins, E.; Wallin, E.; Pierce, H. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Humu'ula Groundwater Research Project was undertaken on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> in an effort to characterize the hydrologic structures controlling groundwater movement and storage within Saddle region between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. In 2013, the project drilled a 1764 m, continuously-cored, borehole from an elevation of 1946 m amsl near the center of the Saddle, and has now completed a second borehole at an elevation of 1645 m on the western edge of the Saddle. Although the stratigraphy of the rocks is similar, dominantly pahoehoe lava flows with somewhat fewer a'a lavas and occasional dike rock intervals, the hydrologic character of the formation in the latter is distinctly different from the former. Whereas the former test hole encountered a few high elevation perched aquifers that were underlain by an inferred regional, dike-impounded, water table at an elevation of 1390 m amsl, the latter bore encountered a sequence of confined aquifers with heads substantially higher than depth of entry. The shallowest of the confined aquifers was encountered at an elevation of 1340 m and showed a hydrostatic head of >160 m when the capping formation was breached. Deeper confined aquifers showed initial heads of > 400 m although none had heads sufficient to discharge at the surface. Most of the confined aquifers were associated with clay-rich ash beds that mantled the more permeable lavas however one of the deeper confined zones, that showed the highest head, was associated with a highly compacted breccia zone that has tentatively been ascribed to an explosive deposit. Chemical analysis of the clasts within this layer is underway to determine whether this deposit is associated with explosive activity of Mauna Kea or with another <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on the island. Previous geophysical surveys have suggested that these confined aquifers may extend well down the leeward slopes of Mauna Kea. Evidence of multiple confining layers within the flanks of Mauna Kea suggest that its</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001828','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001828"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Acid-Sulfate Alteration of Basaltic Material on Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>: Jarosite and Hydrated Halloysite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Graff, Trevor G.; Morris, R. V.; Archilles C. N.; Agresti, D. G.; Ming, D. W.; Hamilton, J. C.; Mertzman, S. A.; Smith, J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Sulfates have been identified on the martian surface during robotic surface exploration and by orbital remote sensing. Measurements at Meridiani Planum (MP) by the Alpha-Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Mossbauer (MB) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity document the presence of a ubiquitous sulfate-rich outcrop (20-40% SO3) that has jarosite as an anhydrous Fe3+-sulfate [1- 3]. The presence of jarosite implies a highly acidic (pH <3) formation environment [4]. Jarosite and other sulfate minerals, including kieserite, gypsum, and alunite have also been identified in several locations in orbital remote sensing data from the MEx OMEGA and MRO CRISM instruments [e.g. 5-8]. Acid sulfate weathering of basaltic materials is an obvious pathway for formation of sulfate-bearing phases on Mars [e.g. 4, 9, 10]. In order to constrain acid-sulfate pathways on Mars, we are studying the mineralogical and chemical manifestations of acid-sulfate alteration of basaltic compositions in terrestrial environments. We have previously shown that acidsulfate alteration of tephra under hydrothermal conditions on the Puu Poliahu cone (summit region of Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>) resulted in jarosite and alunite as sulfate-bearing alteration products [11-14]. Other, more soluble, sulfates may have formed, but were leached away by rain and melting snow. Acidsulfate processes on Puu Poliahu also formed hematite spherules similar (except in size) to the hematite spherules observed at MP as an alteration product [14]. Phyllosilicates, usually smectite }minor kaolinite are also present as alteration products [13]. We discuss here an occurrence of acid-sulfate alteration on Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (<span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>). We report VNIR spectra (0.35-2.5 microns ASD spectrometer), Mossbauer spectra (MER-like ESPI backscatter spectrometer), powder XRD (PANalytical), and major element chemical compositions (XRF with LOI and Fe redox) for comparison to similar data acquired or to be acquired by MRO</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940016200&hterms=migration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmigration','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940016200&hterms=migration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmigration"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal and rheological controls on magma migration in dikes: Examples from the east rift zone of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parfitt, E. A.; Wilson, L.; Pinkerton, H.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Long-lived eruptions from basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> involving episodic or steady activity indicate that a delicate balance has been struck between the rate of magma cooling in the dike system feeding the vent and the rate of magma supply to the dike system from a reservoir. We describe some key factors, involving the relationships between magma temperature, magma rheology, and dike geometry that control the nature of such eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1676/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1676/"><span id="translatedtitle">The Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha Eruption of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>: The First 20 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Heliker, Christina C.; Swanson, Donald A.; Takahashi, Taeko Jane</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption started on January 3, 1983. The ensuing 20-year period of nearly continuous eruption is the longest at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> since the famous lava-lake activity of the 19th century. No rift-zone eruption in more than 600 years even comes close to matching the duration and volume of activity of these past two decades. Fortunately, such a landmark event came during a period of remarkable technological advancements in <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring. When the eruption began, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Geographic Information System (GIS) were but glimmers on the horizon, broadband seismology was in its infancy, and the correlation spectrometer (COSPEC), used to measure SO2 flux, was still very young. Now, all of these techniques are employed on a daily basis to track the ongoing eruption and construct models about its behavior. The 12 chapters in this volume, written by present or past Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory staff members and close collaborators, celebrate the growth of understanding that has resulted from research during the past 20 years of Kilauea's eruption. The chapters range widely in emphasis, subject matter, and scope, but all present new concepts or important modifications of previous ideas - in some cases, ideas long held and cherished.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/0493/pdf/of03-493.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/0493/pdf/of03-493.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Trace element and Nd, Sr, Pb isotope geochemistry of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, near-vent eruptive products: 1983-2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Thornber, Carl R.; Budahn, James R.; Ridley, W. Ian; Unruh, Daniel M.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This open-file report serves as a repository for geochemical data referred to in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1676 (Heliker, Swanson, and Takahashi, eds., 2003), which includes multidisciplinary research papers pertaining to the first twenty years of Puu Oo Kupaianaha eruption activity. Details of eruption characteristics and nomenclature are provided in the introductory chapter of that volume (Heliker and Mattox, 2003). Geochemical relations of this data are depicted and interpreted by Thornber (2003), Thornber and others (2003a) and Thornber (2001). This report supplements Thornber and others (2003b) in which whole-rock and glass major-element data on ~1000 near-vent lava samples collected during the 1983 to 2001 eruptive interval of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, are presented. Herein, we present whole-rock trace element compositions of 85 representative samples collected from January 1983 to May 2001; glass trace-element compositions of 39 Pele’s Tear (tephra) samples collected from September 1995 to September 1996, and whole-rock Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic analyses of 10 representative samples collected from September 1983 to September 1993. Thornber and others (2003b) provide a specific record of sample characteristics, location, etc., for each of the samples reported here. Spreadsheets of both reports may be integrated and sorted based upon time of formation or sample numbers. General information pertaining to the selectivity and petrologic significance of this sample suite is presented by Thornber and others (2003b). As justified in that report, this select suite of time-constrained geochemical data is suitable for constructing petrologic models of pre-eruptive magmatic processes associated with prolonged rift zone eruption of Hawaiian shield <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033806','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033806"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping three-dimensional surface deformation by combining multiple-aperture interferometry and conventional interferometry: Application to the June 2007 eruption of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jung, H.-S.; Lu, Zhiming; Won, J.-S.; Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Surface deformation caused by an intrusion and small eruption during June 17-19, 2007, along the East Rift Zone of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, was three-dimensionally reconstructed from radar interferograms acquired by the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased-array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (PALSAR) instrument. To retrieve the 3-D surface deformation, a method that combines multiple-aperture interferometry (MAI) and conventional interferometric SAR (InSAR) techniques was applied to one ascending and one descending ALOS PALSAR interferometric pair. The maximum displacements as a result of the intrusion and eruption are about 0.8, 2, and 0.7 m in the east, north, and up components, respectively. The radar-measured 3-D surface deformation agrees with GPS data from 24 sites on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, and the root-mean-square errors in the east, north, and up components of the displacement are 1.6, 3.6, and 2.1 cm, respectively. Since a horizontal deformation of more than 1 m was dominantly in the north-northwest-south-southeast direction, a significant improvement of the north-south component measurement was achieved by the inclusion of MAI measurements that can reach a standard deviation of 3.6 cm. A 3-D deformation reconstruction through the combination of conventional InSAR and MAI will allow for better modeling, and hence, a more comprehensive understanding, of the source geometry associated with volcanic, seismic, and other processes that are manifested by surface deformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JVGR..137...15M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JVGR..137...15M"><span id="translatedtitle">What makes hydromagmatic eruptions violent? Some insights from the Keanakāko'i Ash, Kı¯lauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mastin, Larry G.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Thornber, Carl; Lowenstern, Jacob; Beeson, Melvin</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>Volcanic eruptions at the summit of Kı¯lauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, are of two dramatically contrasting types: (1) benign lava flows and lava fountains; and (2) violent, mostly prehistoric eruptions that dispersed tephra over hundreds of square kilometers. The violence of the latter eruptions has been attributed to mixing of water and magma within a wet summit caldera; however, magma injection into water at other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> does not consistently produce widespread tephras. To identify other factors that may have contributed to the violence of these eruptions, we sampled tephra from the Keanakāko'i Ash, the most recent large hydromagmatic deposit, and measured vesicularity, bubble-number density and dissolved volatile content of juvenile matrix glass to constrain magma ascent rate and degree of degassing at the time of quenching. Bubble-number densities (9×10 4-1×10 7 cm -3) of tephra fragments exceed those of most historically erupted Kı¯lauean tephras (3×10 3-1.8×10 5 cm -3), and suggest exceptionally high magma effusion rates. Dissolved sulfur (average=330 ppm) and water (0.15-0.45 wt.%) concentrations exceed equilibrium-saturation values at 1 atm pressure (100-150 ppm and ˜0.09%, respectively), suggesting that clasts quenched before equilibrating to atmospheric pressure. We interpret these results to suggest rapid magma injection into a wet crater, perhaps similar to continuous-uprush jets at Surtsey. Estimates of Reynolds number suggest that the erupting magma was turbulent and would have mixed with surrounding water in vortices ranging downward in size to centimeters. Such fine-scale mixing would have ensured rapid heat exchange and extensive magma fragmentation, maximizing the violence of these eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026627','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026627"><span id="translatedtitle">What makes hydromagmatic eruptions violent? Some insights from the Keanakāko'i Ash, Kı̄lauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mastin, Larry G.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Thornber, Carl R.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Beeson, Melvin H.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Volcanic eruptions at the summit of Ki??ilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, are of two dramatically contrasting types: (1) benign lava flows and lava fountains; and (2) violent, mostly prehistoric eruptions that dispersed tephra over hundreds of square kilometers. The violence of the latter eruptions has been attributed to mixing of water and magma within a wet summit caldera; however, magma injection into water at other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> does not consistently produce widespread tephras. To identify other factors that may have contributed to the violence of these eruptions, we sampled tephra from the Keanaka??ko'i Ash, the most recent large hydromagmatic deposit, and measured vesicularity, bubble-number density and dissolved volatile content of juvenile matrix glass to constrain magma ascent rate and degree of degassing at the time of quenching. Bubble-number densities (9 ?? 104- 1 ?? 107 cm-3) of tephra fragments exceed those of most historically erupted Ki??lauean tephras (3 ?? 103-1.8 ?? 105 cm-3), and suggest exceptionally high magma effusion rates. Dissolved sulfur (average = 330 ppm) and water (0.15-0.45 wt.%) concentrations exceed equilibrium-saturation values at 1 atm pressure (100-150 ppm and ???0.09%, respectively), suggesting that clasts quenched before equilibrating to atmospheric pressure. We interpret these results to suggest rapid magma injection into a wet crater, perhaps similar to continuous-uprush jets at Surtsey. Estimates of Reynolds number suggest that the erupting magma was turbulent and would have mixed with surrounding water in vortices ranging downward in size to centimeters. Such fine-scale mixing would have ensured rapid heat exchange and extensive magma fragmentation, maximizing the violence of these eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMGP21A1119M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMGP21A1119M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The Importance of Sampling Strategies on AMS Determination of Dykes II. Further Examples from the Kapaa Quarry, Koolau <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Oahu, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mendoza-Borunda, R.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Canon-Tapia, E.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Recent work has suggested the convenience of dyke sampling along several profiles parallel and perpendicular to its walls to increase the probability of determining a geologically significant magma flow direction using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements. For this work, we have resampled in great detail some dykes from the Kapaa Quarry, Koolau <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> in Oahu <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, comparing the results of a more detailed sampling scheme with those obtained previously with a traditional sampling scheme. In addition to the AMS results we will show magnetic properties, including magnetic grain sizes, Curie points and AMS measured at two different frequencies on a new MFK1-FA Spinner Kappabridge. Our results thus far provide further empirical evidence supporting the occurrence of a definite cyclic fabric acquisition during the emplacement of at least some of the dykes. This cyclic behavior can be captured using the new sampling scheme, but might be easily overlooked if the simple, more traditional sampling scheme is used. Consequently, previous claims concerning the advantages of adopting a more complex sampling scheme are justified since this approach can serve to reduce the uncertainty in the interpretation of AMS results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.1279R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.1279R"><span id="translatedtitle">TerraSAR-X interferometry reveals small-scale deformation associated with the summit eruption of Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richter, Nicole; Poland, Michael P.; Lundgren, Paul R.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>On 19 March 2008, a small explosive eruption at the summit of Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>, heralded the formation of a new vent along the east wall of Halema`uma`u Crater. In the ensuing years, the vent widened due to collapses of the unstable rim and conduit wall; some collapses impacted an actively circulating lava pond and resulted in small explosive events. We used synthetic aperture radar data collected by the TerraSAR-X satellite, a joint venture between the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and EADS Astrium, to identify and analyze small-scale surface deformation around the new vent during 2008-2012. Lidar data were used to construct a digital elevation model to correct for topographic phase, allowing us to generate differential interferograms with a spatial resolution of about 3 m in Kīlauea's summit area. These interferograms reveal subsidence within about 100 m of the rim of the vent. Small baseline subset time series analysis suggests that the subsidence rate is not constant and, over time, may provide an indication of vent stability and potential for rim and wall collapse—information with obvious hazard implications. The deformation is not currently detectable by other space- or ground-based techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JVGR..303..112M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JVGR..303..112M"><span id="translatedtitle">Rift zones and magma plumbing system of Piton de la Fournaise <span class="hlt">volcano</span>: How do they differ from <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> and Etna?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Michon, Laurent; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Di Muro, Andrea; Villeneuve, Nicolas; Famin, Vincent</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>On ocean basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, magma transfer to the surface proceeds by subvertical ascent from the mantle lithosphere through the oceanic crust and the volcanic edifice, possibly followed by lateral propagation along rift zones. We use a 19-year-long database of <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-tectonic seismic events together with detailed mapping of the cinder cones and eruptive fissures to determine the geometry and the dynamics of the magma paths intersecting the edifice of Piton de la Fournaise <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. We show that the overall plumbing system, from about 30 km depth to the surface, is composed of two structural levels that feed distinct types of rift zones. The deep plumbing system is rooted between Piton des Neiges and Piton de la Fournaise <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and has a N30-40 orientation. Above 20 km below sea level (bsl), the main axis switches to a N120 orientation, which permits magma transfer from the lithospheric mantle to the base of the oceanic crust, below the summit of Piton de la Fournaise. The related NW-SE rift zone is 15 km wide, linear, spotted by small to large pyroclastic cones and related lava flows and emits slightly alkaline magmas resulting from high-pressure fractionation of clinopyroxene ± olivine. This rift zone has low magma production rate of ~ 0.5-3.6 × 10- 3 m3s- 1 and an eruption periodicity of around 200 years over the last 30 ka. Seismic data suggest that the long-lasting activity of this rift zone result from regional NNE-SSW extension, which reactivates inherited lithospheric faults by the effect of underplating and/or thermal erosion of the mantle lithosphere. The shallow plumbing system (< 11 km bsl) connects the base of the crust with the Central Cone. It is separated from the deep plumbing system by a relatively large aseismic zone between 8 and 11 km bsl, which may represent a deep storage level of magma. The shallow plumbing system feeds frequent, short-lived summit and flank (NE and SE flanks) eruptions along summit and outer rift zones, respectively</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1250/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1250/"><span id="translatedtitle">Technical-Information Products for a <span class="hlt">National</span> <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Early Warning System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Guffanti, Marianne; Brantley, Steven R.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Nye, Christopher J.; Serafino, George N.; Siebert, Lee; Venezky, Dina Y.; Wald, Lisa</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Technical outreach - distinct from general-interest and K-12 educational outreach - for volcanic hazards is aimed at providing usable scientific information about potential or ongoing volcanic activity to public officials, businesses, and individuals in support of their response, preparedness, and mitigation efforts. Within the context of a <span class="hlt">National</span> <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Early Warning System (NVEWS) (Ewert et al., 2005), technical outreach is a critical process, transferring the benefits of enhanced monitoring and hazards research to key constituents who have to initiate actions or make policy decisions to lessen the hazardous impact of volcanic activity. This report discusses recommendations of the Technical-Information Products Working Group convened in 2006 as part of the NVEWS planning process. The basic charge to the Working Group was to identify a web-based, volcanological 'product line' for NVEWS to meet the specific hazard-information needs of technical users. Members of the Working Group were: *Marianne Guffanti (Chair), USGS, Reston VA *Steve Brantley, USGS, Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory HI *Peter Cervelli, USGS, Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory, Anchorage AK *Chris Nye, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory, Fairbanks AK *George Serafino, <span class="hlt">National</span> Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Camp Springs MD *Lee Siebert, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC *Dina Venezky, USGS, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Team, Menlo Park CA *Lisa Wald, USGS, Earthquake Hazards Program, Golden CO</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1190/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1190/"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'ukohola Heiau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historic Site, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast <span class="hlt">National</span> Parks of the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'ukohola Heiau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historic Site (PUHE) is the smallest (~86 acres) of three <span class="hlt">National</span> Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>. The main structure at PUHE, Pu'ukohola Heiau, is an important historical temple that was built during 1790-91 by King Kamehameha I</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1801/downloads/pp1801_Chap9_Cashman.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1801/downloads/pp1801_Chap9_Cashman.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A century of studying effusive eruptions in <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>: Chapter 9 in Characteristics of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cashman, Katherine V.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO) was established as a natural laboratory to study volcanic processes. Since the most frequent form of volcanic activity in Hawai‘i is effusive, a major contribution of the past century of research at HVO has been to describe and quantify lava flow emplacement processes. Lava flow research has taken many forms; first and foremost it has been a collection of basic observational data on active lava flows from both Mauna Loa and Kīlauea <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> that have occurred over the past 100 years. Both the types and quantities of observational data have changed with changing technology; thus, another important contribution of HVO to lava flow studies has been the application of new observational techniques. Also important has been a long-term effort to measure the physical properties (temperature, viscosity, crystallinity, and so on) of flowing lava. Field measurements of these properties have both motivated laboratory experiments and presaged the results of those experiments, particularly with respect to understanding the rheology of complex fluids. Finally, studies of the dynamics of lava flow emplacement have combined detailed field measurements with theoretical models to build a framework for the interpretation of lava flows in numerous other terrestrial, submarine, and planetary environments. Here, we attempt to review all these aspects of lava flow studies and place them into a coherent framework that we hope will motivate future research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024751','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024751"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying elements of the plumbing system beneath Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, from the source locations of very-long-period signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Almendros, J.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.; Bond, T.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>We analyzed 16 seismic events recorded by the Hawaiian broad-band seismic network at Kilauca <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> during the period September 9-26, 1999. Two distinct types of event are identified based on their spectral content, very-long-period (VLP) waveform, amplitude decay pattern and particle motion. We locate the VLP signals with a method based on analyses of semblance and particle motion. Different source regions are identified for the two event types. One source region is located at depths of ~1 km beneath the northeast edge of the Halemaumau pit crater. A second region is located at depths of ~8 km below the northwest quadrant of Kilauea caldera. Our study represents the first time that such deep sources have been identified in VLP data at Kilauea. This discovery opens the possibility of obtaining a detailed image of the location and geometry of the magma plumbing system beneath this <span class="hlt">volcano</span> based on source locations and moment tensor inversions of VLP signals recorded by a permanent, large-aperture broad-band network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019725','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019725"><span id="translatedtitle">Trace element abundances of high-MgO glasses from Kilauea, Mauna Loa and Haleakala <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wagner, T.P.; Clague, D.A.; Hauri, E.H.; Grove, T.L.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We performed an ion-microprobe study of eleven high-MgO (6.7-14.8 wt%) tholeiite glasses from the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> Kilauea, Mauna Loa and Haleakala. We determined the rare earth (RE), high field strength, and other selected trace element abundances of these glasses, and used the data to establish their relationship to typical Hawaiian shield tholeiite and to infer characteristics of their source. The glasses have trace element abundance characteristics generally similar to those of typical shield tholeiites, e.g. L(light)REE/H(heavy)REE(C1) > 1. The Kilauea and Mauna Loa glasses, however, display trace and major element characteristics that cross geochemical discriminants observed between Kilauea and Mauna Loa shield lavas. The glasses contain a blend of these discriminating chemical characteristics, and are not exactly like the typical shield lavas from either <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The production of these hybrid magmas likely requires a complexly zoned source, rather than two unique sources. When corrected for olivine fractionation, the glass data show correlations between CaO concentration and incompatible trace element abundances, indicating that CaO may behave incompatibly during melting of the tholeiite source. Furthermore, the tholeiite source must contain residual garnet and clinopyroxene to account for the variation in trace element abundances of the Kilauea glasses. Inversion modeling indicates that the Kilauea source is flat relative to C1 chondrites, and has a higher bulk distribution coefficient for the HREE than the LREE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volcanic+AND+activity&pg=3&id=EJ572543','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volcanic+AND+activity&pg=3&id=EJ572543"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring Geology on the World-Wide Web--<span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> and Volcanism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schimmrich, Steven Henry; Gore, Pamela J. W.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Focuses on sites on the World Wide Web that offer information about <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Web sites are classified into areas of Global <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Information, <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> in Alaska, <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> in the Cascades, European and Icelandic <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>, Extraterrestrial Volcanism, Volcanic Ash and Weather, and <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Resource Directories. Suggestions…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6771161','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6771161"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrothermal changes related to earthquake activity at Mud <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Yellowstone <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, Wyoming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pitt, A.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.</p> <p>1982-04-10</p> <p>The Mud <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> hydrothermal area in Yellowstone <span class="hlt">National</span> Park is near the intersection of a 20-km-long zone of northeast trending normal faults with the eastern resurgent dome within the 600,000-year-odd Yellowstone caldera. Recent crustal uplift along the northeast trending axis of the caldera is at a maximum (700 mm since 1923) near the Mud <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> area. From 1973 through April 1978, less than 10 earthquakes (largest M 2.4) were located within 3 km of the Mud <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> area. In May 1978, earthquakes began occurring beneath the hydrothermal area at depths of 1 to 5 km. The seismic activity continued until the end of November with intense swarms (100 events per hour) occurring on October 23 and November 7. The largest event (M 3.1) occured on November 14 and at least 8 events were M 2.5 or larger. In December 1978, heat flux in the Mud <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> hydrothermal features began increasing along a 2-km-long northeast trending zone. Existing mud cauldrons became more active, new mud cauldrons and fumeroles were formed, and vegetation (primarily lodgepole pine) was killed by increased soil temperature. The increase in heat flux continued through July 1979 then gradually declined, reaching the early 1978 level by June 1980. The spatial and temporal association of earthquakes and increased hydrothermal activity at Mud <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> suggests that the seismic activity expanded preexisting fracture systems, premitting increased fluid flow from depths of several kilometers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1806/pdf/pp1806_report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1806/pdf/pp1806_report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Two hundred years of magma transport and storage at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, 1790-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wright, Thomas L.; Klein, Fred W.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Kīlauea’s history can be considered in cycles of equilibrium, crisis, and recovery. The approach of a crisis is driven by a magma supply rate that greatly exceeds the capacity of the plumbing to deliver magma to the surface. Crises can be anticipated by inflation measured at Kīlauea’s summit coupled with an increase in overall seismicity, particularly manifest by intrusion and eruption in the southwest sector of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Unfortunately the nature of the crisis—for example, large earthquake, new eruption, or edifice-changing intrusion—cannot be specified ahead of time. We conclude that Kīlauea’s cycles are controlled by nonlinear dynamics, which underscores the difficulty in predicting eruptions and earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024980','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024980"><span id="translatedtitle">Groundwater level changes in a deep well in response to a magma intrusion event on Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hurwitz, S.; Johnston, M.J.S.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>On May 21, 2001, an abrupt inflation of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>'s summit induced a rapid and large increase in compressional strain, with a maximum of 2 ??strain recorded by a borehole dilatometer. Water level (pressure) simultaneously dropped by 6 cm. This mode of water level change (drop) is in contrast to that expected for compressional strain from poroelastic theory, and therefore it is proposed that the stress applied by the intrusion has caused opening of fractures or interflows that drained water out of the well. Upon relaxation of the stress recorded by the dilatometer, water levels have recovered at a similar rate. The proposed model has implications for the analysis of ground surface deformation and for mechanisms that trigger phreatomagmatic eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS052-95-037&hterms=5w&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D5w','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS052-95-037&hterms=5w&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D5w"><span id="translatedtitle">Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Three main <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> make up the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> (19.5N, 155.5W): the older <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and the recent Kilauea seen venting steam. This color infrared image is one of a pair (see STS052-77-002) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film. Color film presents an image as it appears to the human eye whereas color infrared imagery reduces atmospheric haze and portrays vegetation as shades of red.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V41D..03P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V41D..03P"><span id="translatedtitle">Lava Discharge Rates at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'I</span>, during 2011-2013 Determined from Tandem-X-Derived Topographic Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poland, M. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The effusion rate of lava from a basaltic <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is a parameter of critical importance given its direct association with hazard—for example, high effusion rates imply long lava flows. At Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, numerous methods have been used to quantify effusion rate, including direct observation of lava streams, measurement of gas emissions, geologic mapping, modeling of thermal radiance, and quantification of topographic change. None of these techniques, however, have consistently yielded reliable results since about 2008, due to either changes in the character of volcanism or the expense associated with data collection. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the TanDEM-X satellite mission offer a potential solution to this problem. Differencing digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from temporally sequential TanDEM-X SAR imagery provides measure of elevation change over time due to accumulation of lava across the entirety of Kīlauea's 100 km2 East Rift Zone lava flow field. Summing these elevation changes over the area of an active lava flow and dividing by the time spanned by the TanDEM-X data gives the time-averaged discharge rate (TADR) of lava. The TADR calculated from multiple TanDEM-X-derived DEMs spanning days to weeks at Kīlauea during mid-2011 to mid-2013 suggests a dense-rock equivalent lava discharge rate of approximately 2 m3/s, which is about half the long-term average rate over the course of Kīlauea's 1983-present East Rift Zone eruption. This result implies an increase in the rate of lava storage at Kīlauea, a decrease in the magma supply rate, or some combination of both with respect to previous years. TanDEM-X-derived topographic maps also provide insights into the four-dimensional growth of Kīlauea's lava flow field—a dataset not available by other means but important for assessing the factors that control current and future lava flow pathways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70128562','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70128562"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of very-long-period seismicity accompanying summit activity at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>: 2007-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dawson, Phillip; Chouet, Bernard</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Eruptive activity returned to the summit region of Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> with the formation of the “Overlook crater” within the Halema'uma'u Crater in March 2008. The new crater continued to grow through episodic collapse of the crater walls and as of late 2013 had grown into an approximately elliptical opening with dimensions of ~ 160 × 215 m extending to a depth of ~ 200 m. Occasional weak explosive events and a persistent gas plume continued to occur through 2013. Lava was first observed in the new crater in September 2008, and through 2009 the lava level remained deep in the crater and was only occasionally observed. Since early 2010 a lava lake with fluctuating level within the Overlook crater has been nearly continuously present, and has reached to within 22 m of the Overlook crater rim. Volcanic activity at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> is episodic at all time scales and the characterization of very-long-period seismicity in the band 2–100 s for the years 2007–2013 illuminates a portion of this broad spectrum of volcanic behavior. Three types of very-long-period events have been observed over this time and each is associated with distinct processes. Type 1 events are associated with vigorous degassing and occurred primarily between 2007 and 2009. Type 2 events are associated with rockfalls onto the lava lake and occurred primarily after early 2010. Both of these event types are induced by pressure and momentum changes at the top of the magma column that are transmitted downward to a source centroid ~ 1 km below the northeast corner of the Halema'uma'u Crater where the energy couples to the solid Earth at a geometrical discontinuity in the underlying dike system. Type 3 events are not related to surficial phenomena but are associated with transients in mass transfer that occur within the dike system. Very-long-period tremor has also accompanied the return of eruptive activity, with increasing amplitude associated with hours- to months-long changes in gas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023295','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023295"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial extent of a hydrothermal system at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, determined from array analyses of shallow long-period seismicity 2. Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Almendros, J.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Array data from a seismic experiment carried out at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, in February 1997, are analyzed by the frequency-slowness method. The slowness vectors are determined at each of three small-aperture seismic antennas for the first arrivals of 1129 long-period (LP) events and 147 samples of volcanic tremor. The source locations are determined by using a probabilistic method which compares the event azimuths and slownesses with a slowness vector model. The results show that all the LP seismicity, including both discrete LP events and tremor, was generated in the same source region along the east flank of the Halemaumau pit crater, demonstrating the strong relation that exists between the two types of activities. The dimensions of the source region are approximately 0.6 X 1.0 X 0.5 km. For LP events we are able to resolve at least three different clusters of events. The most active cluster is centered ???200 m northeast of Halemaumau at depths shallower than 200 m beneath the caldera floor. A second cluster is located beneath the northeast quadrant of Halemaumau at a depth of ???400 m. The third cluster is <200 m deep and extends southeastward from the northeast quadrant of Halemaumau. Only one source zone is resolved for tremor. This zone is coincident with the most active source zone of LP events, northeast of Halemaumau. The location, depth, and size of the source region suggest a hydrothermal origin for all the analyzed LP seismicity. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70160104','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70160104"><span id="translatedtitle">A delicate balance of magmatic-tectonic interaction at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>, revealed from slow slip events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Montgomery-Brown, Emily; Poland, Michael; Miklius, Asta</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Eleven slow slip events (SSEs) have occurred on the southern flank of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Hawai’i, since 1997 through 2014. We analyze this series of SSEs in the context of Kilauea’s magma system to assess whether or not there are interactions between these tectonic events and eruptive/intrusive activity. Over time, SSEs have increased in magnitude and become more regular, with interevent times averaging 2.44 ± 0.15 years since 2003. Two notable SSEs that impacted both the flank and the magmatic system occurred in 2007, when an intrusion and small eruption on the East Rift Zone were part of a feedback with a SSE and 2012, when slow slip induced 2.5 cm of East Rift Zone opening (but without any change in eruptive activity). A summit inflation event and surge in East Rift Zone lava effusion was associated with a SSE in 2005, but the inferred triggering relation is not clear due to a poorly constrained slip onset time. Our results demonstrate that slow slip along Kilauea’s décollement has the potential to trigger and be triggered by activity within the volcano’s magma system. Since only three of the SSEs have been associated with changes in magmatic activity within the summit and rift zones, both the décollement and magma system must be close to failure for triggering to occur.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2015/5076/pdf/sir2015-5076.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2015/5076/pdf/sir2015-5076.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite monitoring of dramatic changes at <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>'s only alpine lake: Lake Waiau on Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Patrick, Matthew R.; Kauahikaua, James P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Lake Waiau is a small, typically 100-meter-long lake, located near the summit of Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, on the Island of Hawaiʻi. It is Hawaiʻi’s only alpine lake and is considered sacred in Hawaiian cultural tradition. Over the past few years, the lake has diminished in size, and, by October 2013, surface water had almost completely disappeared from the lake. In this study, we use high-resolution satellite images and aerial photographs to document recent changes at the lake. Based on our reconstructions covering the past 200 years, the historical lake surface area has typically ranged from 5,000 to 7,000 square meters, but in 2010 a dramatic plunge in lake area ensued. The lake area rebounded significantly in early 2014, following heavy winter storms. This near disappearance of the lake, judging from analysis of visitor photographs and field reports, appears to be highly unusual, if not unprecedented, in the historical record. The unusually low water levels in the lake are consistent with a recent severe drought in Hawaiʻi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70009726','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70009726"><span id="translatedtitle">InSAR observations of deformation associated with new episodes of volcanism at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, 2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Poland, Michael P.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In June 2007, the Pu'u 'O??'o??-Kupaianaha eruption of Ki??lauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> was interrupted when magma intruded the east rift zone (ERZ), resulting in a small extrusion of lava near Makaopuhi Crater. Deformation associated with the activity was exceptionally well-documented by ASAR interferometry, which indicates deflation of the summit and uplift and extension of the ERZ. Models of co-intrusion interferograms suggest that the dike was emplaced in two distinct segments. The modeled volume of the dike greatly exceeds that of the deflation source, raising the possibility that magma from the downrift Pu'u 'O??'o?? vent (dominant extrusion site at Ki??lauea since 1983) contributed to the eruption near Makaopuhi, or that the magma that fed the eruption from the summit was compressible. A month following the Makaopuhi eruption, an eruptive fissure opened on the east flank of Pu'u 'O??'o??. Interferograms, processed within 48 hours of the event, were critical in demonstrating that the magma source feeding the eruption was shallow. The eruption probably resulted from overpressure in Pu'u 'O??'o??'s magmatic system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14657116','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14657116"><span id="translatedtitle">Idiomarina loihiensis sp. nov., a halophilic gamma-Proteobacterium from the Lō'ihi submarine <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Donachie, Stuart P; Hou, Shaobin; Gregory, Todd S; Malahoff, Alexander; Alam, Maqsudul</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>During an investigation of bacterial diversity at hydrothermal vents on the Lō'ihi Seamount, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, a novel bacterium (designated L2-TR(T)) was cultivated, which shares 99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity over 1415 nt with an uncultured eubacterium from sediment at a depth of 11 000 m in the Mariana Trench. The nearest cultivated neighbour of L2-TR(T), however, is Idiomarina abyssalis KMM 227(T), with which it shares 98.9 % 16S rRNA sequence similarity. L2-TR(T) differed from I. abyssalis KMM 227(T) in several phenotypic respects, including growth at 46 degrees C and in medium that contained 20 % (w/v) NaCl. DNA-DNA hybridization data showed that L2-TR(T) did not belong to the species I. abyssalis (43.4 % DNA-DNA reassociation). Cells of L2-TR(T) were Gram-negative rods, 0.35 microm wide and 0.7-1.0 microm long, which were occasionally up to 1.8 microm in length. Cells were motile by a single polar or subpolar flagellum. The major fatty acid in L2-TR(T) was iso-C(15 : 0) (32.6 %). The DNA G+C content was 47.4 mol%. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses indicated that L2-TR(T) could be assigned to the genus Idiomarina but, based on significant phenotypic and genotypic differences, constituted a novel species within this genus, Idiomarina loihiensis sp. nov., of which L2-TR(T) (=ATCC BAA-735(T)=DSM 15497(T)) is the type strain. PMID:14657116</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V33F..01O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V33F..01O"><span id="translatedtitle">Low intensity hawaiian fountaining as exemplified by the March 2011, Kamoamoa eruption at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orr, T. R.; Houghton, B. F.; Poland, M. P.; Patrick, M. R.; Thelen, W. A.; Sutton, A. J.; Parcheta, C. E.; Thornber, C. R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The latest 'classic' hawaiian high-fountaining activity at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> occurred in 1983-1986 with construction of the Pu`u `O`o pyroclastic cone. Since then, eruptions at Kilauea have been dominated by nearly continuous effusive activity. Episodes of sustained low hawaiian fountaining have occurred but are rare and restricted to short-lived fissure eruptions along Kilauea's east rift zone. The most recent of these weakly explosive fissure eruptions--the Kamoamoa eruption--occurred 5-9 March 2011. The Kamoamoa eruption was probably the consequence of a decrease in the carrying capacity of the conduit feeding the episode 58 eruptive vent down-rift from Pu`u `O`o in Kilauea's east rift zone. As output from the vent waned, Kilauea's summit magma storage and east rift zone transport system began to pressurize, as manifested by an increase in seismicity along the upper east rift zone, inflation of the summit and Pu`u `O`o, expansion of the east rift zone, and rising lava levels at both the summit and Pu`u `O`o. A dike began propagating towards the surface from beneath Makaopuhi Crater, 6 km west of Pu`u `O`o, at 1342 Hawaiian Standard Time (UTC - 10 hours) on 5 March. A fissure eruption started about 3.5 hours later near Nāpau Crater, 2 km uprift of Pu`u `O`o. Activity initially jumped between numerous en echelon fissure segments before centering on discrete vents near both ends of the 2.4-km-long fissure system for the final two days of the eruption. About 2.6 mcm of lava was erupted over the course of four days with a peak eruption rate of 11 m3/s. The petrologic characteristics of the fissure-fed lava indicate mixing between hotter mantle-derived magma and cooler rift-stored magma, with a greater proportion of the cooler component than was present in east rift zone lava erupting before March 2011. The fissure eruption was accompanied by the highest SO2 emission rates since 1986. Coincidentally, the summit and Pu`u `O`o deflated as magma drained away, causing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015131','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015131"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrologic constraints on rift-zone processes - Results from episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Garcia, M.O.; Ho, R.A.; Rhodes, J.M.; Wolfe, E.W.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The Puu Oo eruption in the middle of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s east rift zone provides an excellent opportunity to utilize petrologic constraints to interpret rift-zone processes. Emplacement of a dike began 24 hours before the start of the eruption on 3 January 1983. Seismic and geodetic evidence indicates that the dike collided with a magma body in the rift zone. Most of the lava produced during the initial episode of the Puu Oo eruption is of hybrid composition, with petrographic and geochemical evidence of mixing magmas of highly evllved and more mafic compositions. Some olivine and plagioclase grains in the hybrid lavas show reverse zoning. Whole-rock compositional variations are linear even for normally compatible elements like Ni and Cr. Leastsquares mixing calculations yield good residuals for major and trace element analyses for magma mixing. Crystal fractionation calculations yield unsatisfactory residuals. The highly evolved magma is similar in composition to the lava from the 1977 eruption and, at one point, vents for these two eruptions are only 200 m apart. Possibly both the 1977 lava and the highly evolved component of the episode 1 Puu Oo lava were derived from a common body of rift-zone-stored magma. The more mafic mixing component may be represented by the most mafic lava from the January 1983 eruption; it shows no evidence of magma mixing. The dike that was intruded just prior to the start of the Puu Oo eruption may have acted as a hydraulic plunger causing mixing of the two rift-zone-stored magmas. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012418','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012418"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical observations of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, 2. Constraints on the magma supply during November 1975-September 1977</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dzurisin, D.; Anderson, L.A.; Eaton, G.P.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Lipman, P.W.; Lockwood, J.P.; Okamura, R.T.; Puniwai, G.S.; Sako, M.K.; Yamashita, K.M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Following a 22-month hiatus in eruptive activity, Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> extruded roughly 35 ?? 106 m3 of tholeiitic basalt from vents along its middle east rift zone during 13 September-1 October, 1977. The lengthy prelude to this eruption began with a magnitude 7.2 earthquake on 29 November, 1975, and included rapid summit deflation episodes in June, July, and August 1976 and February 1977. Synthesis of seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, and electrical self-potential observations suggests the following model for this atypical Kilauea eruptive cycle. Rapid summit deflation initiated by the November 1975 earthquake reflected substantial migration of magma from beneath the summit region of Kilauea into the east and southwest rift zones. Simultaneous leveling and microgravity observations suggest that 40-90 ?? 106 m3 of void space was created within the summit magma chamber as a result of the earthquake. If this volume was filled by magma from depth before the east rift zone intrusive event of June 1976, the average rate of supply was 6-13 ?? 106 m3/month, a rate that is consistent with the value of 9 ?? 106 m3/month suggested from observations of long-duration Kilauea eruptions. Essentially zero net vertical change was recorded at the summit during the 15-month period beginning with the June 1976 intrusion and ending with the September 1977 eruption. This fact suggests that most magma supplied from depth during this interval was eventually delivered to the east rift zone, at least in part during four rapid summit deflation episodes. Microearthquake epicenters migrated downrift to the middle east rift zone for the first time during the later stages of the February 1977 intrusion, an occurrence presumably reflecting movement of magma into the eventual eruptive zone. This observation was confirmed by tilt surveys in May 1977 that revealed a major inflation center roughly 30 km east of the summit in an area of anomalous steaming and forest kill first noted in March 1976. ?? 1980.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/0477/pdf/of03-477.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/0477/pdf/of03-477.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A compilation of whole-rock and glass major-element geochemistry of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, near-vent eruptive products: January 1983 through September 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Thornber, Carl R.; Hon, Ken; Heliker, Christina; Sherrod, David A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This report presents major-element geochemical data from 652 glasses (~6,520 analyses) and 795 whole-rock aliquots from 1,002 fresh samples of olivine-tholeiitic lava collected throughout the near-continuous eruption of Kïlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, from January 1983 through September 2001. The data presented herein provide a unique temporal compilation of lava geochemistry that best reflects variations of pre-eruptive magma compositions during prolonged rift-zone eruption. This document serves as a repository for geochemical data referred to in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1676 (Heliker, Swanson, and Takahashi, eds., 2003) which includes multidisciplinary research papers pertaining to the first twenty years of Puu Oo-Kupaianaha eruption activity. Details of eruption characteristics and nomenclature are provided in the introductory chapter of that volume (Heliker and Mattox, 2003). Geochemical relations among all or portions of this data set are depicted and interpreted by Thornber (2003), Thornber and others (2003) and Thornber (2001). Trace element compositions and Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic analyses of representative samples of this select eruption suite will be provided in a separate and complimentary open file report. From 1983 to October 2001, approximately 2,500 eruption samples were collected and archived by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO). Geochemical data for 1,002 of these samples are included here. Previous reports present bulk-lava major- element chemistry for eruption samples collected from 1983 to 1986 and from 1990 to 1994 (Neal and others, 1988 and Mangan and others, 1995, respectively). Major element glass chemistry and thermometry data for samples collected from 1983 to 1994 is reported by Helz and Hearn (1998) and whole-rock and glass chemistry for samples collected from September 1994 to October 2001 is provided by Thornber and others (2002). This report is a compilation of previously published data along</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1224/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1224/"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary of the stakeholders workshop to develop a <span class="hlt">National</span> <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Early Warning System (NVEWS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Guffanti, Marianne; Scott, William E.; Driedger, Carolyn L.; Ewert, John W.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The importance of investing in monitoring, mitigation, and preparedness before natural hazards occur has been amply demonstrated by recent disasters such as the Indian Ocean Tsunami in December 2004 and Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. Playing catch-up with hazardous natural phenomena such as these limits our ability to work with public officials and the public to lessen adverse impacts. With respect to volcanic activity, the starting point of effective pre-event mitigation is monitoring capability sufficient to detect and diagnose precursory unrest so that communities at risk have reliable information and sufficient time to respond to hazards with which they may be confronted. Recognizing that many potentially dangerous U.S. <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> have inadequate or no ground-based monitoring, the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program (VHP) and partners recently evaluated U.S. <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-monitoring capabilities and published 'An Assessment of Volcanic Threat and Monitoring Capabilities in the United States: Framework for a <span class="hlt">National</span> <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Early Warning System (NVEWS).' Results of the NVEWS volcanic threat and monitoring assessment are being used to guide long-term improvements to the <span class="hlt">national</span> <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-monitoring infrastructure operated by the USGS and affiliated groups. The NVEWS report identified the need to convene a workshop of a broad group of stakeholders--such as representatives of emergency- and land-management agencies at the Federal, State, and local levels and the aviation sector--to solicit input about implementation of NVEWS and their specific information requirements. Accordingly, an NVEWS Stakeholders Workshop was held in Portland, Oregon, on 22-23 February 2006. A summary of the workshop is presented in this document.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.V43D2177E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.V43D2177E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The 2008 Eruption of Chaitén <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Chile and <span class="hlt">National</span> <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>-Monitoring Programs in the U.S. and Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ewert, J. W.; Lara, L. E.; Moreno, H.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p> Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) that will emphasize studies of volcanic history, <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazard assessments, and establishing real time monitoring at 43 of the highest threat <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. To prioritize monitoring and hazard mitigation efforts in Chile, SERNAGEOMIN has adopted the threat assessment methodology developed by the USGS for U.S. <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> along with the USGS conceptual framework for a <span class="hlt">National</span> <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Early Warning System (NVEWS). When complete, the new Chilean <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring networks will close one of the largest gaps in global <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH13A1914G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNH13A1914G"><span id="translatedtitle">Response To And Lessons Learned From Two Back-To-Back Disasters At Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Puna District, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Kim, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Puna District, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, is exposed to many natural hazards, including those associated with volcanic eruptions and tropical storms, but for decades Puna has also been the fastest growing District in the state due to its affordable real estate. In 2014, populated areas were affected by back-to-back hurricane and volcanic eruption crises. Both events were declared Presidential Disasters and tested response and recovery systems of many of Puna's 49, 000 residents, government services and businesses. This paper summarizes individual and organizational response to the two crises: the relatively rapid onset Tropical Storm Iselle, which made landfall in Puna on August 5 and the slow onset June 27 lava flow. The latter took some 2 months to advance to the edge of developed areas, prompting widespread community reaction. While the lava flows no longer pose an immediate threat to development because they are repaving remote, near-source and upflow areas, the lava could again advance into developed areas over similar time scales as in 2014. Puna is mostly a rural setting with many narrow, privately owned dirt roads. Some residents have no municipal electricity and water; they use solar and gasoline generators and rain catchment systems. High winds and collapse of exotic Albizia trees during Iselle isolated many residents, but people self-organized through social media to respond and recover. Social media and community meetings dominated information sharing during the lava crisis. Major expenses were incurred in response to the lava crisis, primarily through upgraded alternate roads that provide redundancy and construction of temporary school buildings linked to evacuation and relocation of students. Experiences during Iselle primed residents to rapidly self-organize and address the impending inundation by slow moving lava flows which advanced in uncertain directions at rates of 0-450 m/day. People's demand for constant and near-real time information from authorities placed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pacificislandparks.com/2012/12/19/juvenile-iiwi-detected-in-lower-elevations-of-hawaii-volcanoes-national-park/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pacificislandparks.com/2012/12/19/juvenile-iiwi-detected-in-lower-elevations-of-hawaii-volcanoes-national-park/"><span id="translatedtitle">Juvenile i`iwi detected in lower elevations of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gaudioso, Jacqueline M.; Beck, Angela T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Hawaiian islands are home to a diverse array of plants and animals found nowhere else on Earth. Among the most famous of these are the spectacular Hawaiian honeycreepers, a group that evolved from a single flock of ancestral finches into at least 54 unique species. Unfortunately, the same isolation that fostered such dramatic adaptive radiation left Hawaiian species vulnerable. Under the onslaught of alien species predation and competition, habitat degradation, and introduced infectious diseases and parasites, most of the surviving honeycreepers have become largely confined to higher elevations. Intact habitat exists above the warm-weather range of deadly introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum), and its mosquito vector (Culex quinquefasciatus).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70040383','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70040383"><span id="translatedtitle">Pacific Island landbird monitoring annual report, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, tract group 1 and 2, 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Judge, S. W.; Gaudioso, J. M.; Hsu, B. H.; Camp, Richard J.; Hart, P. J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In concordance with the stated role of the I&M Program, the objectives of this survey were to provide information for monitoring long-term trends in forest bird distribution, density, and abundance in HAVO. Ultimately, this information will help to inform and implement management actions to stabilize and/or increase bird populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1254471','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1254471"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Gravity Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nicole Lautze</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>Gravity model for the state of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Data is from the following source: Flinders, A.F., Ito, G., Garcia, M.O., Sinton, J.M., Kauahikaua, J.P., and Taylor, B., 2013, Intrusive dike complexes, cumulate cores, and the extrusive growth of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 40, p. 3367–3373, doi:10.1002/grl.50633.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43G2330O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43G2330O"><span id="translatedtitle">What has driven degassing events during the 2008-2009 Summit Eruption of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>? (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orr, T. R.; Patrick, M. R.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Unparalled access during the 2008-2009 summit eruption of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> has allowed collection of a rich and diverse suite of geologic observations. Video, thermal imagery, and field observations since the eruption began in March 2008 show an open vent over an active lava column. Observations of degassing cycles and explosive events have improved our understanding of vent processes, including the transport and storage of gas within the shallow magma system. Previous studies have ascribed degassing events to the rise of discrete gas slugs through the lava column that then burst at the surface. In this study we suggest alternative modes of degassing. The eruptive vent, initially about 30 m in diameter, grew to more than 130 m across by August 2009 and has hosted hundreds of tephra-producing events. While most were relatively benign, ejecting only small quantities of ash, dozens of events were explosive, accompanied by Very Long Period (VLP) seismicity. Geologic observations, supplemented by seismic data, suggest that most, if not all, of these tephra-emitting events were initiated by the collapse of wall-rock within the vent conduit above the top of the lava column. In fact, several of the VLP-producing events were immediately preceded by directly-observed vent-rim collapses. These collapses are a natural consequence of the widening of the upper part of the vent. Initiation of degassing events and, potentially, small explosive eruptions, may require little more than disruption of the gas-charged lava column by a rock fall from the vent walls or rim. Also, periods of cyclic degassing, characterized by the rise and fall of the top of the lava column and coinciding with periods of episodic tremor, have been observed and recorded on several occasions during the eruption. In general, each cycle occurred over several minutes and consisted of a rising and falling lava level. Video observations show that the lava level rose rapidly at first then slowed as it approached its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980JVGR....7..241D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980JVGR....7..241D"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical observations of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, 2. Constraints on the magma supply during November 1975 September 1977</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dzurisin, Daniel; Anderson, Lennart A.; Eaton, Gordon P.; Koyanagi, Robert Y.; Lipman, Peter W.; Lockwood, John P.; Okamura, Reginald T.; Puniwai, Gary S.; Sako, Maurice K.; Yamashita, Kenneth M.</p> <p>1980-05-01</p> <p>Following a 22-month hiatus in eruptive activity, Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> extruded roughly 35 × 10 6m3 of tholeiitic basalt from vents along its middle east rift zone during 13 September-1 October, 1977. The lengthy prelude to this eruption began with a magnitude 7.2 earthquake on 29 November, 1975, and included rapid summit deflation episodes in June, July, and August 1976 and February 1977. Synthesis of seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, and electrical self-potential observations suggests the following model for this atypical Kilauea eruptive cycle. Rapid summit deflation initiated by the November 1975 earthquake reflected substantial migration of magma from beneath the summit region of Kilauea into the east and southwest rift zones. Simultaneous leveling and microgravity observations suggest that 40-90 × 10 6 m 3 of void space was created within the summit magma chamber as a result of the earthquake. If this volume was filled by magma from depth before the east rift zone intrusive event of June 1976, the average rate of supply was 6-13 × 10 6 m 3/month, a rate that is consistent with the value of 9 × 10 6 m 3/month suggested from observations of long-duration Kilauea eruptions. Essentially zero net vertical change was recorded at the summit during the 15-month period beginning with the June 1976 intrusion and ending with the September 1977 eruption. This fact suggests that most magma supplied from depth during this interval was eventually delivered to the east rift zone, at least in part during four rapid summit deflation episodes. Microearthquake epicenters migrated downrift to the middle east rift zone for the first time during the later stages of the February 1977 intrusion, an occurrence presumably reflecting movement of magma into the eventual eruptive zone. This observation was confirmed by tilt surveys in May 1977 that revealed a major inflation center roughly 30 km east of the summit in an area of anomalous steaming and forest kill first noted in March 1976.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016249','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016249"><span id="translatedtitle">Phreatomagmatic and phreatic fall and surge deposits from explosions at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, 1790 a.d.: Keanakakoi Ash Member</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McPhie, J.; Walker, G.P.L.; Christiansen, R.L.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>In or around 1790 a.d. an explosive eruption took place in the summit caldera of Kilauea shield <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. A group of Hawaiian warriors close to the caldera at the time were killed by the effects of the explosions. The stratigraphy of pyroclastic deposits surrounding Kilauea (i.e., the Keanakakoi Ash Member) suggests that the explosions referred to in the historic record were the culmination of a prolonged hydrovolcanic eruption consisting of three main phases. The first phase was phreatomagmatic and generated well-bedded, fine fallout ash rich in glassy, variably vesiculated, juvenile magmatic and dense, lithic pyroclasts. The ash was mainly dispersed to the southwest of the caldera by the northeasterly trade winds. The second phase produced a Strombolian-style scoria fall deposit followed by phreatomagmatic ash similar to that of the first phase, though richer in accretionary lapilli and lithics. The third and culminating phase was phreatic and deposited lithic-rich lapilli and block fall layers, interbedded with cross-bedded surge deposits, and accretionary lapilli-rich, fine ash beds. These final explosions may have been responsible for the deaths of the warriors. The three phases were separated by quiescent spells during which the primary deposits were eroded and transported downwind in dunes migrating southwestward and locally excavated by fluvial runoff close to the rim. The entire hydrovolcanic eruption may have lasted for weeks or perhaps months. At around the same time, lava erupted from Kilauea's East Rift Zone and probably drained magma from the summit storage. The earliest descriptions of Kilauea (30 years after the Keanakakoi eruption) emphasize the great depth of the floor (300-500 m below the rim) and the presence of stepped ledges. It is therefore likely that the Keanakakoi explosions were deepseated within Kilauea, and that the vent rim was substantially lower than the caldera rim. The change from phreatomagmatic to phreatic phases may reflect the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V41A2481R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V41A2481R"><span id="translatedtitle">High-MgO Vitric Ash in Upper Kulanaokuaiki Tephra, Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>: A Preliminary Description</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rose, T. R.; Fiske, R. S.; Swanson, D.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p> magma probably rose rapidly from deep within, or below, the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> just before its eruption. Remnants of the Kulanaokuaiki-3 scoria deposit, a subunit of the upper Kulanaokuaiki Tephra, are preserved over wide areas 7-12 km south and southeast of the summit and have characteristics also suggesting rapid rise and eruption (Fiske et al., this meeting). Some relatively primitive vitric ash occurs in the younger Keanakako`i Tephra (Garcia et al., this meeting) and can be interpreted to indicate little if any shallow storage. Thus the high-MgO glass reported here may be an end member in a family of relatively primitive compositions that can erupt under some circumstances at Kilauea's summit. Most recent tephra deposits at and near Kilauea's summit are attributed to phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosive eruptions that originated at relatively shallow depth. One important implication of our findings is that some highly energetic pyroclastic eruptions at Kilauea likely originated at far greater depths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046831','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046831"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodetic evidence for en echelon dike emplacement and concurrent slow slip during the June 2007 intrusion and eruption at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Montgomery-Brown, E. K.; Sinnett, D.K.; Poland, M.; Segall, P.; Orr, T.; Zebker, H.; Miklius, Asta</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A series of complex events at Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, 17 June to 19 June 2007, began with an intrusion in the upper east rift zone (ERZ) and culminated with a small eruption (1500 m3). Surface deformation due to the intrusion was recorded in unprecedented detail by Global Positioning System (GPS) and tilt networks as well as interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired by the ENVISAT and ALOS satellites. A joint nonlinear inversion of GPS, tilt, and InSAR data yields a deflationary source beneath the summit caldera and an ENE-striking uniform-opening dislocation with ~2 m opening, a dip of ∼80° to the south, and extending from the surface to ~2 km depth. This simple model reasonably fits the overall pattern of deformation but significantly misfits data near the western end of an inferred dike-like source. Three more complex dike models are tested that allow for distributed opening including (1) a dike that follows the surface trace of the active rift zone, (2) a dike that follows the symmetry axis of InSAR deformation, and (3) two en echelon dike segments beneath mapped surface cracks and newly formed steaming areas. The en echelon dike model best fits near-field GPS and tilt data. Maximum opening of 2.4 m occurred on the eastern segment beneath the eruptive vent. Although this model represents the best fit to the ERZ data, it still fails to explain data from a coastal tiltmeter and GPS sites on Kīlauea's southwestern flank. The southwest flank GPS sites and the coastal tiltmeter exhibit deformation consistent with observations of previous slow slip events beneath Kīlauea's south flank, but inconsistent with observations of previous intrusions. Slow slip events at Kīlauea and elsewhere are thought to occur in a transition zone between locked and stably sliding zones of a fault. An inversion including slip on a basal decollement improves fit to these data and suggests a maximum of ~15 cm of seaward fault motion, comparable to previous slow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981746','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981746"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined U-Th/He and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of post-shield lavas from the Mauna Kea and Kohala <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aciego, S.M.; Jourdan, F.; DePaolo, D.J.; Kennedy, B.M.; Renne, P.R.; Sims, K.W.W.</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Late Quaternary, post-shield lavas from the Mauna Kea and Kohala <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the Big Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> have been dated using the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar and U-Th/He methods. The objective of the study is to compare the recently demonstrated U-Th/He age method, which uses basaltic olivine phenocrysts, with {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages measured on groundmass from the same samples. As a corollary, the age data also increase the precision of the chronology of volcanism on the Big Island. For the U-Th/He ages, U, Th and He concentrations and isotopes were measured to account for U-series disequilibrium and initial He. Single analyses U-Th/He ages for Hamakua lavas from Mauna Kea are 87 {+-} 40 ka to 119 {+-} 23 ka (2{sigma} uncertainties), which are in general equal to or younger than {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages. Basalt from the Polulu sequence on Kohala gives a U-Th/He age of 354 {+-} 54 ka and a {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age of 450 {+-} 40 ka. All of the U-Th/He ages, and all but one spurious {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages conform to the previously proposed stratigraphy and published {sup 14}C and K-Ar ages. The ages also compare favorably to U-Th whole rock-olivine ages calculated from {sup 238}U - {sup 230}Th disequilibria. The U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results agree best where there is a relatively large amount of radiogenic {sup 40}Ar (>10%), and where the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 36}Ar intercept calculated from the Ar isochron diagram is close to the atmospheric value. In two cases, it is not clear why U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages do not agree within uncertainty. U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results diverge the most on a low-K transitional tholeiitic basalt with abundant olivine. For the most alkalic basalts with negligible olivine phenocrysts, U-Th/He ages were unattainable while {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results provide good precision even on ages as low as 19 {+-} 4 ka. Hence, the strengths and weaknesses of the U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar methods are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/57379','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/57379"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerial observations of <span class="hlt">Hawaii`s</span> wake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, R.B.; Grubisic, V.</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>Under the influence of the east-northeasterly trade winds, the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> generates a wake that extends about 200 km to the west-southwest. During the Hawaiian Rain Band Project (NCAR) Electra. The patterns of wind aerosol concentration revealed by these flights suggest that <span class="hlt">Hawaii`s</span> wake consists of two large quasi-steady conterrotating eddies. The southern clockwise-rotating eddy carries a heavy aerosol load due to input from the Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. At the eastern end of the wake, the eddies are potentially warmer and more humid than the surrounding trade wind air. Several other features are discussed: sharp shear lines near the northern and southern tips of the island, dry and warm air bands along the shear lines, a small embedded wake behind the Kohala peninsula, wake centerline clouds, hydraulic jumps to the north and south of the island, a descending inversion connected with accelerating trade winds, and evidence for side-to-side wake movement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1069/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1069/"><span id="translatedtitle">Coastal change rates and patterns: Kaloko-Honokohau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hapke, Cheryl J.; Gmirkin, Rick; Richmond, Bruce M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A collaborative project between the U.S. Geological Survey's Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service (NPS) has been developed to create an inventory of geologic resources for <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service lands on the Big Island of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>. The NPS Geologic Resources Inventories are recognized as essential for the effective management, interpretation, and understanding of vital park resources. In general, there are three principal components of the inventories: geologic bibliographies, digital geologic maps, and geologic reports. The geologic reports are specific to each individual park and include information on the geologic features and processes that are important to the management of park resources, including ecological, cultural and recreational resources. This report summarizes a component of the geologic inventory concerned specifically with characterizing the coastal geomorphology of the beach system within Kaloko-Honokohau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park (NHP) and describes an analysis that utilizes georeferenced and orthorectified aerial photography to understand the spatial and temporal trends in shoreline change from 1950 to 2002. In addition, spatial patterns of beach change were examined and a beach stability map was developed. Both the shoreline change rates and the beach stability map are designed to help Park personnel effectively manage the valuable park resources within the context of understanding natural changes to the KAHO beach system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1954/0318/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1954/0318/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Eruption of Trident <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Katmai <span class="hlt">National</span> Monument, Alaska, February-June 1953</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Snyder, George L.</p> <p>1954-01-01</p> <p>Trident <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, one of several 'extinct' <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Katmai <span class="hlt">National</span> Monument, erupted on February 15, 1953. Observers in a U. S. Navy plane, 50 miles away, and in King Salmon, 75 miles away, reported an initial column of smoke that rose to an estimated 30, 000 feet. Thick smoke and fog on the succeeding 2 days prevented observers from identifying the erupting <span class="hlt">volcano</span> or assessing the severity of the eruption. It is almost certain, however, that during the latter part of this foggy period, either Mount Martin or Mount Mageik, or both, were also erupting sizable ash clouds nearby. The first close aerial observations were made in clear weather on February 18. At this time a thick, blocky lava flow was seen issuing slowly from a new vent at an altitude of 3,600 feet on the southwest flank of Trident <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. Other volcanic orifices in the area were only steaming mildly on this and succeeding days. Observations made in the following weeks from Naval aircraft patrolling the area indicated that both gas and ash evolution and lava extrusion from the Trident vent were continuing without major interruption. By March 11 an estimated 80-160 million cubic yards of rock material had been extruded. Air photographs taken in April and June show that the extrusion of lava had continued intermittently and, by June 17, the volume of the pile was perhaps 300-400 million cubic yards of rock material. Ash eruptions also apparently occurred sporadically during this period, the last significant surge taking place June 30. No civilian or military installations have been endangered by this eruption at the date of writing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED494489.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED494489.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Workforce: <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Employment in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> (including hourly and salaried jobs and self-employment) is projected to grow by 14 percent from 2002 to 2012, adding over 78,000 new jobs to the state's economy and growing the workforce from 558,220 to 636,480. The rate of growth is slightly lower than the 15 percent increase projected for the <span class="hlt">nation</span> as a whole. Over the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/99/pdf/gip99.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/99/pdf/gip99.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Alaska <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> guidebook for teachers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Adleman, Jennifer N.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Alaska’s <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier <span class="hlt">National</span> Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023659','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023659"><span id="translatedtitle">Anomalously high b-values in the South Flank of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>: Evidence for the distribution of magma below Kilauea's East rift zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wyss, M.; Klein, F.; Nagamine, K.; Wiemer, S.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The pattern of b-value of the frequency-magnitude relation, or mean magnitude, varies little in the Kaoiki-Hilea area of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, and the b-values are normal, with b = 0.8 in the top 10 km and somewhat lower values below that depth. We interpret the Kaoiki-Hilea area as relatively stable, normal Hawaiian crust. In contrast, the b-values beneath Kilauea's South Flank are anomalously high (b = 1.3-1.7) at depths between 4 and 8 km, with the highest values near the East Rift zone, but extending 5-8 km away from the rift. Also, the anomalously high b-values vary along strike, parallel to the rift zone. The highest b-values are observed near Hiiaka and Pauahi craters at the bend in the rift, the next highest are near Makaopuhi and also near Puu Kaliu. The mildest anomalies occur adjacent to the central section of the rift. The locations of the three major and two minor b-value anomalies correspond to places where shallow magma reservoirs have been proposed based on analyses of seismicity, geodetic data and differentiated lava chemistry. The existence of the magma reservoirs is also supported by magnetic anomalies, which may be areas of dike concentration, and self-potential anomalies, which are areas of thermal upwelling above a hot source. The simplest explanation of these anomalously high b-values is that they are due to the presence of active magma bodies beneath the East Rift zone at depths down to 8 km. In other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, anomalously high b-values correlate with volumes adjacent to active magma chambers. This supports a model of a magma body beneath the East Rift zone, which may widen and thin along strike, and which may reach 8 km depth and extend from Kilauea's summit to a distance of at least 40 km down rift. The anomalously high b-values at the center of the South Flank, several kilometers away from the rift, may be explained by unusually high pore pressure throughout the South Flank, or by anomalously strong heterogeneity due to extensive cracking, or by both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V23D2128J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V23D2128J"><span id="translatedtitle">InSAR observations of localized deformation of volcanic deposits apparently triggered by regional earthquakes: Examples from <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> and Lascar <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jay, J.; Poland, M. P.; Pritchard, M. E.; Calder, E. S.; Whelley, P.; Pavez, A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We document that large earthquakes (e.g., Mw > 6.7) can induce surface deformation on volcanic deposits (lava and pyroclastic flows) using satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data. The observed deformation may provide clues to the material properties of the deposits or the subsurface, and to the intensity of ground shaking. InSAR data spanning 1993 to 2009 show long-term subsidence of the pyroclastic flow deposit from the 19-20 April 1993 eruption of Lascar <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in northern Chile. We constructed 39 InSAR interferograms using data obtained from the JERS-1 (L-band), ERS-1 and -2 (C-band), and Envisat (C-band) radar satellites spanning the time intervals 1993-1994, 1995-2001, and 2003-2009, respectively. We remove topographic effects with the 3 m/pixel DEM of Pavez et al., (2005). Time periods of individual interferograms range from one month to four years. Rates of subsidence were highest immediately after emplacement and have decreased with time, a general trend that is consistent with a model of a rapidly de-aerating deposit followed by gradual sedimentary compaction. Over the time period covered by the available data, subsidence rates are seen to show two sudden, isolated increases that are concurrent with the 1995 Antofagasta earthquake (Mw 8.1) and the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake (Mw 7.7). The centers of both earthquakes are about 280 km from Lascar. In the two-month interferogram spanning the 1995 earthquake, the subsidence rate is ~2.4 cm/yr (extrapolating the 2 months to an entire year), an increase from the ~1.1 cm/yr subsidence rate observed from 1993 to 1994. Likewise, concurrent with the 2007 earthquake, a deformation pattern with a subsidence rate of ~2.3 cm/yr (again extrapolated to the entire year) is seen to reappear after 7 years of little to no deformation of the deposit (~0.2 cm/yr). This phenomenon suggests that shaking helps to accelerate/intensify the compaction by aiding grain reorientation into a more densely packed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS052-77-002&hterms=5w&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D5w','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS052-77-002&hterms=5w&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D5w"><span id="translatedtitle">Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The three main <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> which make up the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> (19.5N, 155.5W) include the older large shield <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and the more recent Kilauea. The rift zones of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea are delineated by the black lava flows whereas the smaler Kilauea can be seen venting steam. This color image is one of a pair (see STS052-95-037) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70040381','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70040381"><span id="translatedtitle">Population trends of forest birds at Hakalau Forest <span class="hlt">National</span> Wildlife Refuge, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Jeffrey, John J.; Woodworth, Bethany L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Hakalau Forest <span class="hlt">National</span> Wildlife Refuge was established to protect native Hawaiian forest birds, particularly endangered species. Management for forest restoration on the refuge has consisted mainly of removing feral ungulates, controlling invasive alien plants, and reforesting former pastures. To assess effects of this habitat improvement for forest birds, we estimated density annually by distance sampling and examined population trends for native and alien passerines over the 21 years since the refuge was established. We examined long-term trends and recent short-term trajectories in three study areas: (1) reforested pastureland, (2) heavily grazed open forest that was recovering, and (3) lightly grazed closed forest that was relatively intact. Three species of native birds and two species of alien birds had colonized the reforested pasture and were increasing. In the open forest, densities of all eight native species were either stable or increasing. Long-term trends for alien birds were also generally stable or increasing. Worryingly, however, during the most recent 9 years, in the open forest trajectories of native species were decreasing or inconclusive, but in the reforested pasture they generally increased. The closed forest was surveyed in only the most recent 9 years, and trajectories of native species there were mixed. Overall, long-term population trends in Hakalau are stable or increasing, contrasting with declines in most other areas of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> over the same period. However, more recent mixed results may indicate emergent problems for this important bird area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037646','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037646"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of ungulate management on vegetation at Hakalau Forest <span class="hlt">National</span> Wildlife Refuge, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> Island</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hess, S.C.; Jeffrey, J.J.; Pratt, L.W.; Ball, D.L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We compiled and analysed data from 1987-2004 on vegetation monitoring during feral ungulate management at Hakalau Forest <span class="hlt">National</span> Wildlife Refuge, a tropical montane rainforest on the island of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> All areas in the study had previously been used by ungulates, but cattle (Bos taurus) were removed and feral pig (Sus scrofa) populations were reduced during the study period. We monitored six line-intercept transects, three in previously high ungulate use areas and three in previously low ungulate use areas. We measured nine cover categories with the line-intercept method: native ferns; native woody plants; bryophytes; lichens; alien grasses; alien herbs; litter; exposed soil; and coarse woody debris. Vegetation surveys were repeated four times over a 16-year period. Vegetation monitoring revealed a strong increase in native fern cover and slight decreases in cover of bryophytes and exposed soil. Mean cover of native plants was generally higher in locations that were formerly lightly grazed, while alien grass and herb cover was generally higher in areas that were heavily grazed, although these effects were not statistically significant. These responses may represent early serai processes in forest regeneration following the reduction of feral ungulate populations. In contrast to many other Hawaiian forests which have become invaded by alien grasses and herbs after ungulate removal, HFNWR has not experienced this effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1154/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1154/"><span id="translatedtitle">Coastal circulation and water column properties off Kalaupapa <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park, Molokai, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, 2008-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, Katherine; Brown, Eric K.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>More than 2.2 million measurements of oceanographic forcing and the resulting water-column properties were made off U.S. <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service's Kalaupapa <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park on the north shore of Molokai, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, between 2008 and 2010 to understand the role of oceanographic processes on the health and sustainability of the area's marine resources. The tides off the Kalaupapa Peninsula are mixed semidiurnal. The wave climate is dominated by two end-members: large northwest Pacific winter swell that directly impacts the study site, and smaller, shorter-period northeast trade-wind waves that have to refract around the peninsula, resulting in a more northerly direction before propagating over the study site. The currents primarily are alongshore and are faster at the surface than close to the seabed; large wave events, however, tend to drive flow in a more cross-shore orientation. The tidal currents flood to the north and ebb to the south. The waters off the peninsula appear to be a mix of cooler, more saline, deeper oceanic waters and shallow, warmer, lower-salinity nearshore waters, with intermittent injections of freshwater, generally during the winters. Overall, the turbidity levels were low, except during large wave events. The low overall turbidity levels and rapid return to pre-event background levels following the cessation of forcing suggest that there is little fine-grained material. Large wave events likely inhibit the settlement of fine-grained sediment at the site. A number of phenomena were observed that indicate the complexity of coastal circulation and water-column properties in the area and may help scientists and resource managers to better understand the implications of the processes on marine ecosystem health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02672&hterms=Pineapple&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPineapple','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02672&hterms=Pineapple&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPineapple"><span id="translatedtitle">Oahu, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/>This 60 by 55 km ASTER scene shows almost the entire island of Oahu, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> on June 3, 2000. The data were processed to produce a simulated natural color presentation. Oahu is the commercial center of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> and is important to United States defense in the Pacific. Pearl Harbor naval base is situated here. The chief agricultural industries are the growing and processing of pineapples and sugarcane. Tourism also is important to the economy. Among the many popular beaches is the renowned Waikiki Beach, backed by the famous Diamond Head, an extinct <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The largest community, Honolulu, is the state capital.<p/>The image is located at 21.5 degrees north latitude and 158 degrees west longitude. <p/>Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.<p/>The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576742p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576742p/"><span id="translatedtitle">New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, and roof structure. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018732','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018732"><span id="translatedtitle">The Uwekahuna Ash Member of the Puna Basalt: product of violent phreatomagmatic eruptions at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, between 2800 and 2100 14C years ago</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dzurisin, D.; Lockwood, J.P.; Casadevall, T.J.; Rubin, M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s reputation for relatively gentle effusive eruptions belies a violent geologic past, including several large phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions that are recorded by Holocene pyroclastic deposits which mantle Kilauea's summit area and the southeast flank of adjacent Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The most widespread of these deposits is the Uwekahuna Ash Member, a basaltic surge and fall deposit emplaced during two or more eruptive episodes separated by a few decades to several centuries. It is infered that the eruptions which produced the Uwekahuna were driven by water interacting with a fluctuating magma column. The volume, extent and character of the Uwekahuna deposits underscore the hazards posed by relatively infrequent but potentially devastating explosive eruptions at Kilauea, as well as at other basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. -from Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS007-22-1141&hterms=coffee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcoffee','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS007-22-1141&hterms=coffee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcoffee"><span id="translatedtitle">Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, Hawaiian Archipelago</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>This single photo covers almost all of the big island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span> crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and lava flow in the right center.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA43C2207T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA43C2207T"><span id="translatedtitle">A Broadly-Based Training Program in <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Monitoring at the Center for the Study of Active <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, D. M.; Bevens, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Center for the Study of Active <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>, in cooperation with the USGS <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program at HVO and CVO, offers a broadly based <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazards training program targeted toward scientists and technicians from developing <span class="hlt">nations</span>. The program has been offered for 25 years and provides a hands-on introduction to a broad suite of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring techniques, rather than detailed training with just one. The course content has evolved over the life of the program as the needs of the trainees have changed: initially emphasizing very basic monitoring techniques (e.g. precise leveling, interpretation of seismic drum records, etc.) but, as the level of sophistication of the trainees has increased, training in more advanced technologies has been added. Currently, topics of primary emphasis have included <span class="hlt">volcano</span> seismology and seismic networks; acquisition and modeling of geodetic data; methods of analysis and monitoring of gas geochemistry; interpretation of volcanic deposits and landforms; training in LAHARZ, GIS mapping of lahar risks; and response to and management of volcanic crises. The course also provides training on public outreach, based on CSAV's <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>-specific hazards outreach programs, and <span class="hlt">volcano</span> preparedness and interactions with the media during volcanic crises. It is an intensive eight week course with instruction and field activities underway 6 days per week; it is now offered in two locations, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Island, for six weeks, and the Cascades <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of the Pacific Northwest, for two weeks, to enable trainees to experience field conditions in both basaltic and continental volcanic environments. The survival of the program for more than two decades demonstrates that a need for such training exists and there has been interaction and contribution to the program by the research community, however broader engagement with the latter continues to present challenges. Some of the reasons for this will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7204349','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7204349"><span id="translatedtitle">Spaceport <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> - Environmental issues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hayward, T.B. )</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>The geographical, economic, and infrastructural factors of the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> make this island an ideal site for a privately owned and operated commercial launching facility for launching small- to medium-sized payloads into both equatorial and polar orbits. This paper describes the preparation of an environmental impact statement, which was initiated as a prelude to the eventual construction and operation of the commercial launching facility on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> and which follows the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> State law and the <span class="hlt">National</span> Environmental Policy Act. The issues discussed are the regional characteristics of the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, the candidate launch vehicles, the flight safety considerations, the spaceport development issues, and the potential impact of the future spaceport on the Mauna Kea Observatory on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cost+AND+abortion&pg=3&id=ED186321','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cost+AND+abortion&pg=3&id=ED186321"><span id="translatedtitle">The Value of Children: A Cross-<span class="hlt">National</span> Study, Volume Three. <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Arnold, Fred; Fawcett, James T.</p> <p></p> <p>The document, one in a series of seven reports from the Value of Children Project, discusses results of the survey in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Specifically, the study investigated the social, psychological, and economic costs and benefits associated with having children. The volume is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I describes the background of the study and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6224987','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6224987"><span id="translatedtitle">Mount St. Helens and Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barrat, J. )</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Mount St. Helens' eruption has taught geologists invaluable lessons about how <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> work. Such information will be crucial in saving lives and property when other dormant <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the northwestern United States--and around the world--reawaken, as geologists predict they someday will. Since 1912, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory have pioneered the study of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> through work on Mauna Loa and Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. In Vancouver, Wash., scientists at the Survey's Cascades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory are studying the after-effects of Mount St. Helens' catalysmic eruption as well as monitoring a number of other now-dormant <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the western United States. This paper briefly reviews the similarities and differences between the Hawaiian and Washington <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and what these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are teaching the volcanologists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1076/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1076/"><span id="translatedtitle">Forest Bird Distribution, Density and Trends in the Ka'u Region of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> Island</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>An accurate and current measure of population status and trend is necessary for conservation and management efforts. Scott and Kepler (1985) provided a comprehensive review of the status of native Hawaiian birds based on the extensive <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Forest Bird Survey (HFBS) of the main islands (Scott et al. 1986). At that time, they documented declining populations and decreasing ranges for most species, and the extinction of several species over the previous 50 years. Many native bird species continue to decline throughout <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> (Camp et al. In review, Gorresen et al. In prep.). The focus of this study is the mid-to-high elevation rainforest on the southeast windward slopes of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (Figure 1). Known as Ka`u, the region encompasses forest lands protected by Kamehameha Schools, The Nature Conservancy, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park (HVNP), and the State of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>'s Ka`u Forest Reserve, Kapapala Forest Reserve and Kapapala Cooperative Game Management Area,. Together these lands support one of three main concentrations of native forest birds on the <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> Island (the other two being centered on the Hakalau Forest <span class="hlt">National</span> Wildlife Refuge and Kulani-Keauhou area in the north and central windward part of the island, respectively.) Because this region harbors important populations of native and endangered forest birds in some of the best remaining forest habitat on the island, it has been a focus of forest bird surveys since the 1970s. The Ka`u region was first quantitatively surveyed in 1976 by the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Forest Bird Survey (Scott et al. 1986). Surveys were conducted by State of <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> Division of Forestry and Wildlife in 1993 and 2002 and by the U.S. <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service and the U.S. Geological Survey in 2004 and 2005. In this report, we present analyses of the density, distribution and trends of native and introduced forest bird within the Ka`u region of <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> Island. The analyses cover only those species with sufficient detections to model detection</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750012768','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750012768"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> geothermal project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kamins, R. M.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the <span class="hlt">national</span>, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JVGR...66..163D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JVGR...66..163D"><span id="translatedtitle">The Uwekahuna Ash Member of the Puna Basalt: product of violent phreatomagmatic eruptions at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, between 2800 and 2100 14C years ago</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dzurisin, Daniel; Lockwood, John P.; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Rubin, Meyer</p> <p>1995-07-01</p> <p>Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s reputation for relatively gentle effusive eruptions belies a violent geologic past, including several large phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions that are recorded by Holocene pyroclastic deposits which mantle Kilauea's summit area and the southeast flank of adjacent Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The most widespread of these deposits whose original distribution can be reconstructed is the Uwekahuna Ash Member of the Puna Basalt, a basaltic surge and fall deposit emplaced during two or more eruptive episodes separated by a few decades to several centuries. The first episode occurred between 2770 ± 70 and 2265 ± 50 14C yr ago. It included two major pyroclastic surges, each preceded by unusually vigorous lava fountaining from a vent near the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s summit. Before the second eruptive episode, 2110 ± 120 14C yr ago, plants had re-colonized the rainforest environment northeast of the summit, and at least two lava flows from Mauna Loa had buried parts of the first-episode deposits. The second episode also began with vigorous lava fountaining, followed by widespread lithic ashfall, a third major surge and finally a fourth fountaining event. Before the final pumice deposit could be significantly reworked, it was partly buried by picritic basalt flows that are unusual in Kilauea's summit area. In proximal areas, the Uwekahuna Ash Member is more than 1 m thick (locally > 5 m) and includes lithic blocks up to 0.8 m in diameter. Coarse, primarily lithic debris was deposited around the vent by laterally expanding surges; fallout deposits accumulated preferentially to the northeast under the influence of high-altitude counter-tradewinds. The area devastated by surges and originally buried by at least 15 cm of the Uwekahuna was about 420 km 2. The bulk volume of the deposits was approximately 0.3 km 3, including less than 0.1 km 3 of juvenile material. Juvenile constituents are olivine-tholeiitic basalts similar in major-element composition to typical Kilauea summit</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1192/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1192/"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'uhonua O Honaunau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast <span class="hlt">National</span> Parks of the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'uhonua O Honaunau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park ('Place of Refuge of Honaunau') is the southernmost of the three <span class="hlt">National</span> Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>. It is a relatively small park originally 73 ha (182 acres), and was expanded in 2006 with the acquisition</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V53C2269S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V53C2269S"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Volatiles During Historical Eruptions of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>: Constraints on Source to Surface Processes Using Melt Inclusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sides, I.; Edmonds, M.; Maclennan, J.; Swanson, D.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> is known to tap a heterogeneous source region, giving rise to changes in the isotopic and trace element compositions of parental melts supplied to the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> over decades to millennia. The source region is also expected to be heterogeneous with respect to volatiles. Variation in parental magma CO2 and H2O contents will influence melt transport, degassing and eruption style. While Kilauea is famous for its effusive eruptions and lava fountains, the eruptive history of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has also been punctuated by violent explosive episodes. We investigate changes in the volatile concentrations of parental melts with time, melt degassing prior to and during eruption, and the impact on eruption style. Tephra samples from more than 30 eruptions of the past 600 years were collected from the summit region. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) and matrix glasses from each eruption were analysed for major, volatile and trace elements using electron microprobe (S, Cl, F), SIMS (CO2, H2O, B, Li) and LA-ICP-MS. MIs contain 0.09 - 0.6 wt% H2O and <30 - 1000 ppm CO2. Many of the MIs do not follow predicted degassing pathways, with higher than expected CO2 concentrations for their H2O contents. This relative dehydration or CO2 enrichment is, in some samples, due to diffusive loss of H+ from MIs during shallow melt storage. For other samples, the low H2O concentrations correlate with low sulphur values, suggesting convective degassing and flushing of stored magmas with a CO2-rich vapour phase. MI sulphur contents vary between 0.02 and 0.17 wt%. Sulphides are present within some MIs and glasses, indicating sulphur saturation; these may buffer melt sulphur concentrations during decompressional degassing. Previous studies have shown the ratio of CO2/Nb and H2O/Ce to be nearly constant during mantle melting. Using these ratios, with measurements of incompatible trace elements, we estimate that the parental melts supplying Kilauea over the past 600 years have varied in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090001315&hterms=production+process&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dproduction%2Bprocess','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090001315&hterms=production+process&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dproduction%2Bprocess"><span id="translatedtitle">In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) on the Moon: Moessbauer Spectroscopy as a Process Monitor for Oxygen Production. Results from a Field Test on Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morris, R.V.; Schroder, C.; Graff, T.G.; Sanders, G.B.; Lee, K.A.; Simon, T.M.; Larson, W.E.; Quinn, J.W.; Clark, L.D.; Caruso, J.J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Essential consumables like oxygen must to be produced from materials on the lunar surface to enable a sustained, long-term presence of humans on the Moon. The Outpost Precursor for ISRU and Modular Architecture (OPTIMA) field test on Mauna Kea, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, facilitated by the Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) of the University of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> at Hilo, was designed to test the implementation of three hardware concepts to extract oxygen from the lunar regolith: Precursor ISRU Lunar Oxygen Testbed (PILOT) developed by Lockheed Martin in Littleton, CO; Regolith & Environmental Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatiles Extraction (RESOLVE) developed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, FL; and ROxygen developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. The three concepts differ in design, but all rely on the same general principle: hydrogen reduction of metal cations (primarily Fe2+) bonded to oxygen to metal (e.g., Fe0) with the production of water. The hydrogen source is residual hydrogen in the fuel tanks of lunar landers. Electrolysis of the water produces oxygen and hydrogen (which is recycled). We used the miniaturized M ssbauer spectrometer MIMOS II to quantify the yield of this process on the basis of the quantity of Fe0 produced. Iron M ssbauer spectroscopy identifies iron-bearing phases, determines iron oxidation states, and quantifies the distribution of iron between mineral phases and oxidation states. The oxygen yield can be calculated by quantitative measurements of the distribution of Fe among oxidation states in the regolith before and after hydrogen reduction. A M ssbauer spectrometer can also be used as a prospecting tool to select the optimum feedstock for the oxygen production plants (e.g., high total Fe content and easily reduced phases). As a demonstration, a MIMOS II backscatter spectrometer (SPESI, Germany) was mounted on the Cratos rover (NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, OH), which is one of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176393','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176393"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> monitoring at the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> has one of the youngest landscapes on Earth, formed by the frequent addition of new lava to its surface. Because Hawaiian eruptions are generally nonexplosive and easily accessible, the island has long attracted geologists interested in studying the extraordinary power of volcanic eruption. The U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO), now nearing its 75th anniversary, has been in the forefront of volcanology since the early 1900s. This issue of <i>Earthquakes and <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></i> is devoted to the work of the Observatory and its role in studying the most recent eruptions of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s two currently active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, Kilauea and Mauna Loa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/77/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/77/"><span id="translatedtitle">Yellowstone <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Venezky, Dina Y.; Lowenstern, Jacob</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Eruption of Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser. Yellowstone hosts the world's largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features, which are the surface expression of magmatic heat at shallow depths in the crust. The Yellowstone system is monitored by the Yellowstone <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (YVO), a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, and the University of Utah. YVO is one of five USGS <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> for science and public safety. Learn more about Yellowstone and YVO at http://<span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>.usgs.gov/yvo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70175162','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70175162"><span id="translatedtitle">Limiting factors of four rare plant species in `Ōla`A Forest of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>VanDeMark, Joshua R.; Pratt, Linda W.; Euaparadorn, Melody</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In conclusion, 2 of the 3 regularly-monitored rare plant species of `Ōla`a Forest appeared to have more than 1 limiting factor inhibiting the natural increase in their populations, while for P. floribunda the most important factor was high seedling mortality. Most plants of the monitored C. giffardii population appeared to be hybrids, probably with the more common species C. lysiosepala. Seed germination rates were low, and natural seedlings were not observed. Pollinators were not seen in many hours of observation, indicating that cross pollination is a rare or uncommon event. The re-introduced population of P. floribunda had relatively low mortality, and reproduction was successful with high rates of fruit formation from abundant flowers. Seed germination rates were high, and a soil seed bank was detected. Natural seedling recruitment was observed, but high seedling mortality indicated that this life stage was the most vulnerable in the species. The population of S. alba was small and the vine life form precluded an accurate estimate of the number of adult plants in `Ōla`a Forest. Natural dormancy was likely a factor in the observed low rate of seed germination. No soil seed bank was detected, and alien rodents were implicated as seed predators. Natural recruitment was observed at multiple sites in `Ōla`a, but seedling mortality was high. The cause of seedling mortality was not identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70040354','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70040354"><span id="translatedtitle">Status and limiting factors of two rare plant species in dry montane communities of <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pratt, Linda W.; VanDeMark, Joshua R.; Euaparadorn, Melody</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Silene hawaiiensis had a stable population structure at the Mauna Loa study area, but its population structure at the Kīlauea study site was flat to declining. Mortality of adult plants was low on Mauna Loa (6.5%), but was greater than 30% at the Kīlauea Crater Rim site. Among regularly monitored plants at the Kīlauea site, losses were observed in all size classes between 2006 and 2008. Natural seedling recruitment was observed in stand structure plots at both sites between 2006 and 2007, but numbers of seedlings were low and did not compensate for losses of adult plants. Reproductive phenology was annual with buds and flowers observed in summer and fall, and fruit formed in the fall and winter. The production of immature fruit capsules from buds and flowers was high (51.2%) and tagged immature fruit became mature fruit at a high rate of 66.7%. Floral visitation rates were very low in timed observations and only three insect species were identified visiting S. hawaiiensis flowers: native yellow-faced bees Hylaeus difficilis and H. volcanicus, and the alien hover fly Allograpta exotica. A seed dispersal experiment at the Kīlauea Crater Rim site demonstrated that wind dispersed seeds could travel at least 40 m from S. hawaiiensis plants with mature open capsules. Seed germination rates varied from 7.0 to 73.0% in greenhouse trials. Mortality of planted seedlings at Kahuku was not significantly greater outside ungulate exclosures than inside, but growth in height and production of reproductive structures was significantly greater in protected areas inside exclosures. In the current study, the seedling stage was the most vulnerable part of the life cycle for both P. stachyoides and S. hawaiiensis, and low seedling recruitment appeared to be the most important limiting factor for these species</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P23C..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P23C..06M"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of a Phyllosilicate-, K-feldspar-, and Sulfate-Bearing Hematite Ridge on Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, Under Hydrothermal, Acid-Sulfate Conditions: Process and Mineralogical Analog for the Hematite Ridge on Mt. Sharp, Gale Crater, Mars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Adams, M. E.; Catalano, J. G.; Graff, T. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Guinness, E. A.; Hamilton, J. C.; Mertzman, S. A.; Fraeman, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity is currently moving upslope on Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater toward a hematite-bearing ridge. This hematite exposure was originally detected in CRISM spectra and subsequently mapped as part of a ~200 m wide, 6.5 km long ridge extending roughly parallel to the base of Mt. Sharp. CRISM spectra in the region suggest that hematite, smectite, and hydrated sulfates occur as secondary phases in lower layers of Mt. Sharp, separated by an unconformity from overlying anhydrous strata. A potential process and mineralogical analog is a hematite-bearing and weathering-resistant stratum (ridge) is exposed on the Puu Poliahu cinder cone on Mauna Kea (MK) <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. The MK ridge is the product of hydrothermal alteration of basaltic precursors under acid-sulfate conditions. We are acquiring chemical and mineralogical (VNIR, Mid-IR, and backscatter Moessbauer spectroscopy, and transmission XRD) data on the MK ridge area that correspond to rover and orbiting spacecraft measurements at Gale Crater and elsewhere. The hematite-bearing stratum does not have detectable sulfate minerals by XRD, and hematite is variably present as up to mm-sized black crystals which, together with associated trioctahedral smectite and K-feldspar (from XRD), imply hydrothermal conditions. Adjacent to the MK hematite-bearing stratum are sulfates (jarosite and alunite) that are evidence for aqueous alteration under acid-sulfate conditions, and more soluble sulfates are absent but such phases would not persist if formed because of annual precipitation. Dioctahedral smectite is associated with red hematite and alunite-rich samples. The black and red hematite zones have the highest and lowest MgO/Al2O3 and K2O/Na2O ratios, respectively. Hematite, smectite, jarosite, and K-feldspar have been detected by Curiosity XRD downslope from the Mt. Sharp hematite ridge. MK field work and samples were obtained with PISCES partnership and OMKM, MKMB, BLNR, and KKMC permissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080026259&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DBurns','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080026259&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DBurns"><span id="translatedtitle">Hematite Spherules in Basaltic Tephra Altered Under Aqueous, Acid-Sulfate Conditions on Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>: Possible Clues for the Occurrence of Hematite-Rich Spherules in the Burns Formation at Meridiani Planum, Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Graff, T. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Mertzman, S. A.; Gruener, J. E.; Golden, D. C.; Robinson, G. A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Iron-rich spherules (>90% Fe2O3 from electron microprobe analyses) approx.10-100 microns in diameter are found within sulfate-rich rocks formed by aqueous, acid-sulfate alteration of basaltic tephra on Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Although some spherules are nearly pure Fe, most have two concentric compositional zones, with the core having a higher Fe/Al ratio than the rim. Oxide totals less than 100% (93-99%) suggest structural H2O and/or /OH. The transmission Moessbauer spectrum of a spherule-rich separate is dominated by a hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) sextet whose peaks are skewed toward zero velocity. Skewing is consistent with Al(3+) for Fe(3+) substitution and structural H2O and/or /OH. The grey color of the spherules implies specular hematite. Whole-rock powder X-ray diffraction spectra are dominated by peaks from smectite and the hydroxy sulfate mineral natroalunite as alteration products and plagioclase feldspar that was present in the precursor basaltic tephra. Whether spherule formation proceeded directly from basaltic material in one event (dissolution of basaltic material and precipitation of hematite spherules) or whether spherule formation required more than one event (formation of Fe-bearing sulfate rock and subsequent hydrolysis to hematite) is not currently constrained. By analogy, a formation pathway for the hematite spherules in sulfate-rich outcrops at Meridiani Planum on Mars (the Burns formation) is aqueous alteration of basaltic precursor material under acid-sulfate conditions. Although hydrothermal conditions are present on Mauna Kea, such conditions may not be required for spherule formation on Mars if the time interval for hydrolysis at lower temperatures is sufficiently long.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023329','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023329"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial extent of a hydrothermal system at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, determined from array analyses of shallow long-period seismicity 1. Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Almendros, J.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We present a probabilistic method to locate the source of seismic events using seismic antennas. The method is based on a comparison of the event azimuths and slownesses derived from frequency-slowness analyses of array data, with a slowness vector model. Several slowness vector models are considered including both homogeneous and horizontally layered half-spaces and also a more complex medium representing the actual topography and three-dimensional velocity structure of the region under study. In this latter model the slowness vector is obtained from frequency-slowness analyses of synthetic signals. These signals are generated using the finite difference method and include the effects of topography and velocity structure to reproduce as closely as possible the behavior of the observed wave fields. A comparison of these results with those obtained with a homogeneous half-space demonstrates the importance of structural and topographic effects, which, if ignored, lead to a bias in the source location. We use synthetic seismograms to test the accuracy and stability of the method and to investigate the effect of our choice of probability distributions. We conclude that this location method can provide the source position of shallow events within a complex volcanic structure such as Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> with an error of ??200 m. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178168','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178168"><span id="translatedtitle">Food Habits of Introduced Rodents in High-Elevation Shrubland of Haleakala <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, Maui, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cole, F. Russell; Loope, Lloyd L.; Medeiros, Arthur C.; Howe, Cameron E.; Anderson, Laurel J.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Mus musculus and Rattus rattus are ubiquitous consumers in the high-elevation shrubland of Haleakala <span class="hlt">National</span> Park. Food habits of these two rodent species were determined from stomach samples obtained by snaptrapping along transects located at four different elevations during November 1984 and February, May, and August 1985. Mus musculus fed primarily on fruits, grass seeds, and arthropods. Rattus rattus ate various fruits, dicot leaves, and arthropods. Arthropods, many of which are endemic, were taken frequently by Mus musculus throughout the year at the highest elevation where plant food resources were scarce. Araneida, Lepidoptera (primarily larvae), Coleoptera, and Homoptera were the main arthropod taxa taken. These rodents, particularly Mus musculus, exert strong predation pressure on populations of arthropod species, including locally endemic species on upper Haleakala <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H23A1561L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H23A1561L"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating Geologic, Geochemical and Geophysical Data in a Statistical Analysis of Geothermal Resource Probability across the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lautze, N. C.; Ito, G.; Thomas, D. M.; Hinz, N.; Frazer, L. N.; Waller, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> offers the opportunity to gain knowledge and develop geothermal energy on the only oceanic hotspot in the U.S. As a remote island state, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> is more dependent on imported fossil fuel than any other state in the U.S., and energy prices are 3 to 4 times higher than the <span class="hlt">national</span> average. The only proven resource, located on <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Island's active Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, is a region of high geologic risk; other regions of probable resource exist but lack adequate assessment. The last comprehensive statewide geothermal assessment occurred in 1983 and found a potential resource on all islands (<span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Institute of Geophysics, 1983). Phase 1 of a Department of Energy funded project to assess the probability of geothermal resource potential statewide in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> was recently completed. The execution of this project was divided into three main tasks: (1) compile all historical and current data for <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> that is relevant to geothermal resources into a single Geographic Information System (GIS) project; (2) analyze and rank these datasets in terms of their relevance to the three primary properties of a viable geothermal resource: heat (H), fluid (F), and permeability (P); and (3) develop and apply a Bayesian statistical method to incorporate the ranks and produce probability models that map out <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s geothermal resource potential. Here, we summarize the project methodology and present maps that highlight both high prospect areas as well as areas that lack enough data to make an adequate assessment. We suggest a path for future exploration activities in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, and discuss how this method of analysis can be adapted to other regions and other types of resources. The figure below shows multiple layers of GIS data for <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Island. Color shades indicate crustal density anomalies produced from inversions of gravity (Flinders et al. 2013). Superimposed on this are mapped calderas, rift zones, volcanic cones, and faults (following Sherrod et al., 2007). These features were used</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1983/4066/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1983/4066/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploratory drilling and aquifer testing at the Kipahulu District, Haleakala <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, Maui, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Souza, W.R.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>An exploratory well, located at 388 feet above sea level in Kipahulu Valley on Maui, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, was completed and tested in October 1980. The 410-foot well penetrates a series of very dense basaltic lava flows of the Hana Formation. At an elevation of 10 feet above mean sea level, the well penetrated a water-bearing zone of permeable basaltic rock. Water from this zone had a head of about 76 feet above sea level. In October of 1980, the well was pump tested for 9 hours at various discharge rates up to 350 gallons per minute with a maximum drawdown of about 12 feet. Based on the test data, the well should produce water at a rate of 200 gallons per minute with a drawdown of less than 3 feet. The water level in the well was continuously monitored from October 1980 to mid-November 1981, during which period a maximum decline of 20 feet was recorded. Water level fluctuations in the well can be correlated to the flow in nearby Palikea Stream. The long-term water level in the well should stabilize at about 75 feet above sea level. Water quality was excellent. The total dissolved-solids content was 49 milligrams per liter and the chloride content was 4.2 milligrams per liter. (USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028434','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028434"><span id="translatedtitle">Emplacement of subaerial pahoehoe lava sheet flows into water: 1990 Kūpaianaha flow of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> at Kaimū Bay, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Umino, Susumu; Nonaka, Miyuki; Kauahikaua, James P.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Episode 48 of the ongoing eruption of Kilauea, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>, began in July 1986 and continuously extruded lava for the next 5.5 years from a low shield, Kūpaianaha. The flows in March 1990 headed for Kalapana and inundated the entire town under 15–25 m of lava by the end of August. As the flows advanced eastward, they entered into Kaimū Bay, replacing it with a plain of lava that extends 300 m beyond the original shoreline. The focus of our study is the period from August 1 to October 31, 1990, when the lava buried almost 406,820 m2 of the 5-m deep bay. When lava encountered the sea, it flowed along the shoreline as a narrow primary lobe up to 400 m long and 100 m wide, which in turn inflated to a thickness of 5–6 m. The flow direction of the primary lobes was controlled by the submerged delta below the lavas and by damming up lavas fed at low extrusion rates. Breakout flows through circumferential and axial inflation cracks on the inflating primary lobes formed smaller secondary lobes, burying the lows between the primary lobes and hiding their original outlines. Inflated flow lobes eventually ruptured at proximal and/or distal ends as well as mid-points between the two ends, feeding new primary lobes which were emplaced along and on the shore side of the previously inflated lobes. The flow lobes mapped with the aid of aerial photographs were correlated with daily observations of the growing flow field, and 30 primary flow lobes were dated. Excluding the two repose periods that intervened while the bay was filled, enlargement of the flow field took place at a rate of 2,440–22,640 square meters per day in the bay. Lobe thickness was estimated to be up to 11 m on the basis of cross sections of selected lobes measured using optical measurement tools, measuring tape and hand level. The total flow-lobe volume added in the bay during August 1–October 31 was approximately 3.95 million m3, giving an average supply rate of 0.86 m3/s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1254465','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1254465"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Rifts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nicole Lautze</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Rifts mapped through reviewing the location of dikes and vents on the USGS 2007 Geologic Map of the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, as well as our assessment of topography, and, to a small extent, gravity data. Data is in shapefile format.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1191/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1191/"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic Resource Evaluation of Kaloko-Honokohau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>: Geology and Coastal Landforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues that link the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast <span class="hlt">National</span> Parks of the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Kaloko-Honokohau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park (KAHO) was established in 1978 in order to preserve and protect traditional native Hawaiian culture and cultural sites. The park is the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement, occupies 469 ha and is considered a locale of considerable cultural and historical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED425950.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED425950.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">NAEP 1996 Mathematics State Report for <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Findings from the <span class="hlt">National</span> Assessment of Educational Progress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Reese, Clyde M.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">National</span> Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the only <span class="hlt">nationally</span> representative and continuing assessment of what students in the United States know and can do in various academic subjects. The 1996 NAEP in mathematics assessed the current level of mathematical achievement as a mechanism for informing education reform. In 1996, 44…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4227647','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4227647"><span id="translatedtitle">Diversity of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, Rwanda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sak, Bohumil; Petrželková, Klára J.; Květoňová, Dana; Mynářová, Anna; Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Modrý, David; Cranfield, Michael R.; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Kváč, Martin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Infectious diseases represent the greatest threats to endangered species, and transmission from humans to wildlife under increased anthropogenic pressure has been always stated as a major risk of habituation. Aims To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, one hundred mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) from seven groups habituated either for tourism or for research in <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, Rwanda were screened for the presence of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. using molecular diagnostics. Results The most frequently detected parasites were Enterocytozoon bieneusi found in 18 samples (including genotype EbpA, D, C, gorilla 2 and five novel genotypes gorilla 4–8) and Encephalitozoon cuniculi with genotype II being more prevalent (10 cases) compared to genotype I (1 case). Cryptosporidium muris (2 cases) and C. meleagridis (2 cases) were documented in great apes for the first time. Cryptosporidium sp. infections were identified only in research groups and occurrence of E. cuniculi in research groups was significantly higher in comparison to tourist groups. No difference in prevalence of E. bieneusi was observed between research and tourist groups. Conclusion Although our data showed the presence and diversity of important opportunistic protists in <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> gorillas, the source and the routes of the circulation remain unknown. Repeated individual sampling, broad sampling of other hosts sharing the habitat with gorillas and quantification of studied protists would be necessary to acquire more complex data. PMID:25386754</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S51D2741O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S51D2741O"><span id="translatedtitle">Updating <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Seismicity Catalogs with Systematic Relocations and Subspace Detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okubo, P.; Benz, H.; Matoza, R. S.; Thelen, W. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We continue the systematic relocation of seismicity recorded in <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> by the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO), with interests in adding to the products derived from the relocated seismicity catalogs published by Matoza et al., (2013, 2014). Another goal of this effort is updating the systematically relocated HVO catalog since 2009, when earthquake cataloging at HVO was migrated to the USGS Advanced <span class="hlt">National</span> Seismic System Quake Management Software (AQMS) systems. To complement the relocation analyses of the catalogs generated from traditional STA/LTA event-triggered and analyst-reviewed approaches, we are also experimenting with subspace detection of events at Kilauea as a means to augment AQMS procedures for cataloging seismicity to lower magnitudes and during episodes of elevated volcanic activity. Our earlier catalog relocations have demonstrated the ability to define correlated or repeating families of earthquakes and provide more detailed definition of seismogenic structures, as well as the capability for improved automatic identification of diverse volcanic seismic sources. Subspace detectors have been successfully applied to cataloging seismicity in situations of low seismic signal-to-noise and have significantly increased catalog sensitivity to lower magnitude thresholds. We anticipate similar improvements using event subspace detections and cataloging of volcanic seismicity that include improved discrimination among not only evolving earthquake sequences but also diverse volcanic seismic source processes. Matoza et al., 2013, Systematic relocation of seismicity on <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> Island from 1992 to 2009 using waveform cross correlation and cluster analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 2275-2288, doi:10.1002/jgrb.580189 Matoza et al., 2014, High-precision relocation of long-period events beneath the summit region of Kīlauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>, from 1986 to 2009, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 3413-3421, doi:10.1002/2014GL059819</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED413208.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED413208.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">NAEP 1996 Science State Report for <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Findings from the <span class="hlt">National</span> Assessment of Educational Progress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>O'Sullivan, Christine Y.; Jerry, Laura; Ballator, Nada; Herr, Fiona</p> <p></p> <p>In 1990, the <span class="hlt">National</span> Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) included a Trial State Assessment (TSA); for the first time in the NAEP's history, voluntary state-by-state assessments were made. The sample was designed to represent the 8th grade public school population in a state or territory. In 1996, 44 states, the District of Columbia, Guam,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15000962','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15000962"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">National</span> Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Honolulu Laboratory Renewal Project, Honolulu, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>2002-08-01</p> <p>This brochure provides an overview of The <span class="hlt">National</span> Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Honolulu Laboratory Renewal Project, a project designed to adhere to the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system. Diagrams of the HVAC system and the rainwater collection system are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED532438.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED532438.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Nation</span>'s Report Card Science 2011 State Snapshot Report. <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Grade 8, Public Schools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>National Center for Education Statistics, 2012</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A representative sample of 122,000 eighth-graders participated in the 2011 <span class="hlt">National</span> Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science assessment, which is designed to measure students' knowledge and abilities in the areas of physical science, life science, and Earth and space sciences. This report covers the overall results, achievement level…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/79167','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/79167"><span id="translatedtitle">Attack of the vog: Natural air pollution has residents of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> all choked up</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Monastersky, R.</p> <p>1995-05-06</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, measurements of sulfur dioxide of 600-1000 ppb have been measured, almost as high as the deadly London Fog of 1952. The Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> has produced a slow but steady supply of lava since 1986, emiting as a by product about 1,000 tones of sulfur dioxide gas each day, one of the biggest air pollution sources on the island. This article examines the origins of the `Vog` and discusses its effect on human health, comparing it to <span class="hlt">National</span> Ambient Air Quality Standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/nicaraguan_volcanoes','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/nicaraguan_volcanoes"><span id="translatedtitle">Nicaraguan <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-18</p> <p>article title:  Nicaraguan <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>     View Larger Image Nicaraguan <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, February 26, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... February 26, 2000 - Plumes from the San Cristobal and Masaya <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/mf/1992/2193/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/mf/1992/2193/"><span id="translatedtitle">Map showing lava-flow hazard zones, Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wright, Thomas L.; Chun, Jon Y.F.; Exposo, Jean; Heliker, Christina; Hodge, Jon; Lockwood, John P.; Vogt, Susan M.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This map shows lava-flow hazard zones for the five <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> boundaries are shown as heavy, dark bands, reflecting the overlapping of lava flows from adjacent <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> along their common boundary. Hazard-zone boundaries are drawn as double lines because of the geologic uncertainty in their placement. Most boundaries are gradational, and the change In the degree of hazard can be found over a distance of a mile or more. The general principles used to place hazard-zone boundaries are discussed by Mullineaux and others (1987) and Heliker (1990). The differences between the boundaries presented here and in Heliker (1990) reflect new data used in the compilation of a geologic map for the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> (E.W. Wolfe and Jean Morris, unpub. data, 1989). The primary source of information for <span class="hlt">volcano</span> boundaries and generalized ages of lava flows for all five <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> is the geologic map of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> (E.W. Wolfe and Jean Morris, unpub. data, 1989). More detailed information is available for the three active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. For Hualalai, see Moore and others (1987) and Moore and Clague (1991); for Mauna Loa, see Lockwood and Lipman (1987); and for Kilauea, see Holcomb (1987) and Moore and Trusdell (1991).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V31E..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V31E..01C"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical Motions of Oceanic <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Oceanic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active <span class="hlt">volcano</span> keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger <span class="hlt">volcano</span> as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Flat-topped <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V53A1745J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V53A1745J"><span id="translatedtitle">Fossil Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems in Pleistocene Brokeoff <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Lassen Volcanic <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>John, D. A.; Breit, G. N.; Lee, R. G.; Dilles, J. H.; Muffler, L. P.; Clynne, M. A.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The mineralogy, distribution, and isotopic composition of altered rocks exposed in the core of Brokeoff <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> are attributed to two fossil magmatic-hydrothermal systems that are partly masked by younger alteration related to modern hot springs. Brokeoff <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> was a large andesitic <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (~600 to 400 ka) that preceded formation of Lassen Peak and the Lassen dome field. The two centers of fossil hydrothermal activity are about 1 km apart and are identified here as the Brokeoff Mountain (BM) and Mt. Diller (MD) systems. The BM system, centered about 1 km NE of Brokeoff Mountain, covers about 1.5 km2 extending 2.5 km west from Diamond Peak, through Sulphur Works, to west of the ridge between Brokeoff Mountain and Mt. Diller. Alteration affected mostly andesite lavas and breccias of the Mill Canyon sequence (~600-475 ka). Core alteration extends westward and upward from an altered andesite plug exposed west of Sulphur Works. It consists of narrow, west-trending, brecciated vuggy silica ledges as long as 600 m surrounded by zones of variable thickness (<1 to 30 m) composed of alunite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite, dickite, topaz, pyrite, and a range of silica minerals. Farther outward from the advanced argillic alteration are broader zones of propylitic (chlorite-calcite-illite-pyrite) and smectite-pyrite alteration. Initial S-O isotopic data indicate that alunite formed by high-temperature disproportionation of magmatic SO2. The ~3 km2 MD system, centered about 1 km SE of Mt. Diller, extends 3 km ESE to near Bumpass Hell. Lavas and breccias of the Mill Canyon sequence and the Mt. Diller sequence (ca. 400 ka) have been hydrothermally altered. Although the center of the MD system is largely obscured by landslides and by superimposed steam-heated acid leaching related to present-day hydrothermal activity, recognized core alteration consists of pyrite-rich quartz-dickite and quartz-kaolinite breccias; pyrite content locally exceeds 50%. Only minor amounts of alunite and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010744','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010744"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrared surveys of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fischer, W. A.; Moxham, R.M.; Polcyn, F.; Landis, G.H.</p> <p>1964-01-01</p> <p>Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in location with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain. Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities. Approximately 25 large springs issuing into the ocean around the periphery of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> have been detected. Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.sciencemag.org/content/146/3645.toc','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.sciencemag.org/content/146/3645.toc"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrared science of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fischer, William A.; Moxham, R.M.; Polcyn, R.C.; Landis, G.H.</p> <p>1964-01-01</p> <p>Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in location with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain. Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities. Approximately 25 large springs is- suing into the ocean around the periphery of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> have been detected. Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5572883','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5572883"><span id="translatedtitle">Mahukona: The missing Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Garcia, M.O.; Muenow, D.W. ); Kurz, M.D. )</p> <p>1990-11-01</p> <p>New bathymetric and geochemical data indicate that a seamount west of the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, Mahukona, is a Hawaiian shield <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Mahukona has weakly alkalic lavas that are geochemically distinct. They have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios (12-21 times atmosphere), and high H{sub 2}O and Cl contents, which are indicative of the early state of development of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. The He and Sr isotopic values for Mahukona lavas are intermediate between those for lavas from Loihi and Manuna Loa <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and may be indicative of a temporal evolution of Hawaiian magmas. Mahukona <span class="hlt">volcano</span> became extinct at about 500 ka, perhaps before reaching sea level. It fills the previously assumed gap in the parallel chains of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> forming the southern segment of the Hawaiian hotspot chain. The paired sequence of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> was probably caused by the bifurcation of the Hawaiian mantle plume during its ascent, creating two primary areas of melting 30 to 40 km apart that have persisted for at least the past 4 m.y.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1997/0513/pdf/of1997-0513.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1997/0513/pdf/of1997-0513.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> hazards at Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sherrod, David R.; Mastin, Larry G.; Scott, William E.; Schilling, Steven P.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Newberry <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is a broad shield <span class="hlt">volcano</span> located in central Oregon. It has been built by thousands of eruptions, beginning about 600,000 years ago. At least 25 vents on the flanks and summit have been active during several eruptive episodes of the past 10,000 years. The most recent eruption 1,300 years ago produced the Big Obsidian Flow. Thus, the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s long history and recent activity indicate that Newberry will erupt in the future. The most-visited part of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is Newberry Crater, a volcanic depression or caldera at the summit of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Seven campgrounds, two resorts, six summer homes, and two major lakes (East and Paulina Lakes) are nestled in the caldera. The caldera has been the focus of Newberry's volcanic activity for at least the past 10,000 years. Other eruptions during this time have occurred along a rift zone on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s northwest flank and, to a lesser extent, the south flank. Many striking volcanic features lie in Newberry <span class="hlt">National</span> Volcanic Monument, which is managed by the U.S. Forest Service. The monument includes the caldera and extends along the northwest rift zone to the Deschutes River. About 30 percent of the area within the monument is covered by volcanic products erupted during the past 10,000 years from Newberry <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Newberry <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is presently quiet. Local earthquake activity (seismicity) has been trifling throughout historic time. Subterranean heat is still present, as indicated by hot springs in the caldera and high temperatures encountered during exploratory drilling for geothermal energy. This report describes the kinds of hazardous geologic events that might occur in the future at Newberry <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. A hazard-zonation map is included to show the areas that will most likely be affected by renewed eruptions. In terms of our own lifetimes, volcanic events at Newberry are not of day-to-day concern because they occur so infrequently; however, the consequences of some types of eruptions can be severe. When Newberry</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23208819','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23208819"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term temporal and spatial dynamics of food availability for endangered mountain gorillas in <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, Rwanda.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grueter, Cyril C; Ndamiyabo, Ferdinand; Plumptre, Andrew J; Abavandimwe, Didier; Mundry, Roger; Fawcett, Katie A; Robbins, Martha M</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Monitoring temporal and spatial changes in the resource availability of endangered species contributes to their conservation. The number of critically endangered mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Virunga <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> population has doubled over the past three decades, but no studies have examined how food availability has changed during that period. First, we assessed if the plant species consumed by the gorillas have changed in abundance and distribution during the past two decades. In 2009-2010, we replicated a study conducted in 1988-1989 by measuring the frequency, density, and biomass of plant species consumed by the gorillas in 496 plots (ca. 6 km(2)) in the Karisoke study area in <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, Rwanda. We expected to observe a decreased presence of major gorilla food plants as a likely result of density-dependent overharvesting by gorillas. Among the five most frequently consumed species (composing approximately 70% of the gorilla's diet, excluding bamboo), two have decreased in availability and abundance, while three have increased. Some species have undergone shifts in their altitudinal distribution, possibly due to regional climatic changes. Second, we made baseline measurements of food availability in a larger area currently utilized by the gorillas. In the extended sampling (n = 473 plots) area (ca. 25 km(2) ), of the five most frequently consumed species, two were not significantly different in frequency from the re-sampled area, while two occurred significantly less frequently, and one occurred significantly more frequently. We discuss the potential impact of gorilla-induced herbivory on changes of vegetation abundance. The changes in the species most commonly consumed by the gorillas could affect their nutrient intake and stresses the importance of monitoring the interrelation among plant population dynamics, species density, and resource use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23208819','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23208819"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term temporal and spatial dynamics of food availability for endangered mountain gorillas in <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, Rwanda.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grueter, Cyril C; Ndamiyabo, Ferdinand; Plumptre, Andrew J; Abavandimwe, Didier; Mundry, Roger; Fawcett, Katie A; Robbins, Martha M</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Monitoring temporal and spatial changes in the resource availability of endangered species contributes to their conservation. The number of critically endangered mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Virunga <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> population has doubled over the past three decades, but no studies have examined how food availability has changed during that period. First, we assessed if the plant species consumed by the gorillas have changed in abundance and distribution during the past two decades. In 2009-2010, we replicated a study conducted in 1988-1989 by measuring the frequency, density, and biomass of plant species consumed by the gorillas in 496 plots (ca. 6 km(2)) in the Karisoke study area in <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, Rwanda. We expected to observe a decreased presence of major gorilla food plants as a likely result of density-dependent overharvesting by gorillas. Among the five most frequently consumed species (composing approximately 70% of the gorilla's diet, excluding bamboo), two have decreased in availability and abundance, while three have increased. Some species have undergone shifts in their altitudinal distribution, possibly due to regional climatic changes. Second, we made baseline measurements of food availability in a larger area currently utilized by the gorillas. In the extended sampling (n = 473 plots) area (ca. 25 km(2) ), of the five most frequently consumed species, two were not significantly different in frequency from the re-sampled area, while two occurred significantly less frequently, and one occurred significantly more frequently. We discuss the potential impact of gorilla-induced herbivory on changes of vegetation abundance. The changes in the species most commonly consumed by the gorillas could affect their nutrient intake and stresses the importance of monitoring the interrelation among plant population dynamics, species density, and resource use. PMID:23208819</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17756040','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17756040"><span id="translatedtitle">Holocene eruptions of mauna kea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Porter, S C</p> <p>1971-04-23</p> <p>Postglacial lava flows, interstratified with thick locally derived sheets of tephra, cover some 27.5 square kilometers on the south slope of Mauna Kea. Most of the volcanics were erupted about 4500 years ago and overlie a regionally extensive paleosol which developed largely during the last glaciation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17756040','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17756040"><span id="translatedtitle">Holocene eruptions of mauna kea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Porter, S C</p> <p>1971-04-23</p> <p>Postglacial lava flows, interstratified with thick locally derived sheets of tephra, cover some 27.5 square kilometers on the south slope of Mauna Kea. Most of the volcanics were erupted about 4500 years ago and overlie a regionally extensive paleosol which developed largely during the last glaciation. PMID:17756040</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70145850','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70145850"><span id="translatedtitle">Plant invasions in protected areas of tropical pacific islands, with special reference to <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>R. Flint Hughes,; Jean-Yves Meyer, jean-yves.meyer@recherche.gov.pf; Loope, Lloyd L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Isolated tropical islands are notoriously vulnerable to plant invasions. Serious management for protection of native biodiversity in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> began in the 1970s, arguably at <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park. Concerted alien plant management began there in the 1980s and has in a sense become a model for protected areas throughout <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> and Pacific Island countries and territories. We review the relative successes of their strategies and touch upon how their experience has been applied elsewhere. Protected areas in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> are fortunate in having relatively good resources for addressing plant invasions, but many invasions remain intractable, and invasions from outside the boundaries continue from a highly globalised society with a penchant for horticultural novelty. There are likely few efforts in most Pacific Islands to combat alien plant invasions in protected areas, but such areas may often have fewer plant invasions as a result of their relative remoteness and/or socio-economic development status. The greatest current needs for protected areas in this region may be for establishment of yet more protected areas, for better resources to combat invasions in Pacific Island countries and territories, for more effective control methods including biological control programme to contain intractable species, and for meaningful efforts to address prevention and early detection of potential new invaders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=singapore&pg=5&id=EJ1038934','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=singapore&pg=5&id=EJ1038934"><span id="translatedtitle">Do Learning Environments Differ across Subjects and <span class="hlt">Nations</span>: Case Studies in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> and Singapore Using the WIHIC Questionnaire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Singh, Malkeet; McNeil, Jan Torbet</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to survey a sample of high school students in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> and Singapore about what they perceive to be helpful aspects of classroom environments in their learning of science and humanities subjects. The What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire was administered in the fall of 2003 to 73 high school students in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.V44A..02M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.V44A..02M"><span id="translatedtitle">Discoveries From the Cross-Disciplinary, Multi-Institutional South Seas Expedition from <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> to New Zealand and Back</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Malahoff, A.; Wiltshire, J. C.; Smith, J. R.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Undersea Research Laboratory organised an international research team to explore the chemistry, geology, biology, hydrothermal venting processes, mineral deposition, and biodiversity of seamounts extending south from <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> to New Zealand, including the submarine <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of the Tonga-Kermadec Island Arc. Research team members came from a Consortium comprising of principal investigators from the NOAA Pacific Marine Environment Lab and VENTS program, the Inst of Geological and Nuclear Sciences and the <span class="hlt">National</span> Inst of Water and Atmospheric Research both of New Zealand, the Univ of Kiel in Germany, the Univ of Mississippi, Univ of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, the NOAA Marine Fisheries Service, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Univ of Oregon, Oregon State Univ, Stanford Univ, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Funding came from the member organizations of the Consortium and the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and <span class="hlt">National</span> Undersea Research Program. The expedition left <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> on 18 March 2005 and returned on 05 August, aboard the R/V Ka`imikai-o-Kanaloa with the submersibles Pisces IV and Pisces V and the ROV RCV-150. Sixty-one science dives were executed during the eight legs of the expedition. Twelve active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the Samoa to New Zealand legs, one in the Samoan hot spot chain and the flanks of five islands and atolls on the legs between Samoa and <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> were investigated. Hundreds of specimens of new and unusual marine life, corals and other benthic organisms, extremophile micro- and macro-organisms, water samples for chemical analysis, polymetallic sulfides and rock samples were collected during the expedition. Unusual processes were observed at the Kermadec submarine <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, including the oozing of liquid sulphur onto the seafloor and profuse carbon dioxide venting into seawater. Extensive submarine hydrothermal venting, black smoker activity and extraordinary chimney formations were studied in the caldera of Brothers <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. In addition, extensive</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1009/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1009/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">National</span> assessment of shoreline change: A GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the sandy shorelines of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Romine, Bradley M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Genz, Ayesha S.; Barbee, Matthew M.; Dyer, Matthew; Anderson, Tiffany R.; Lim, S. Chyn; Vitousek, Sean; Bochicchio, Christopher; Richmond, Bruce M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination, and often are surrounded by communities that consist of valuable real estate. Development is increasing despite the fact that coastal infrastructure may be repeatedly subjected to flooding and erosion. As a result, the demand for accurate information regarding past and present shoreline changes is increasing. Working with researchers from the University of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, investigators with the U.S. Geological Survey's <span class="hlt">National</span> Assessment of Shoreline Change Project have compiled a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and shoreline-change rates for the islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. No widely accepted standard for analyzing shoreline change currently exists. Current measurement and rate-calculation methods vary from study to study, precluding the combination of study results into statewide or regional assessments. The impetus behind the <span class="hlt">National</span> Assessment was to develop a standardized method for measuring changes in shoreline position that is consistent from coast to coast. The goal was to facilitate the process of periodically and systematically updating the measurements in an internally consistent manner. A detailed report on shoreline change for Kauai, Maui, and Oahu that contains a discussion of the data presented here is available and cited in the Geospatial Data section of this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title50-vol13-sec665-260.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title50-vol13-sec665-260.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.260 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> precious coral fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> precious coral fisheries. 665.260 Section 665.260 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Fisheries § 665.260 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> precious...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol13-sec665-260.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol13-sec665-260.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.260 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> precious coral fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> precious coral fisheries. 665.260 Section 665.260 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Fisheries § 665.260 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> precious...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol11-sec665-260.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol11-sec665-260.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.260 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> precious coral fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> precious coral fisheries. 665.260 Section 665.260 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Fisheries § 665.260 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> precious...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol13-sec665-260.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol13-sec665-260.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.260 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> precious coral fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> precious coral fisheries. 665.260 Section 665.260 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Fisheries § 665.260 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> precious...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-sec665-260.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-sec665-260.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.260 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> precious coral fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> precious coral fisheries. 665.260 Section 665.260 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Fisheries § 665.260 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> precious coral...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030899','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030899"><span id="translatedtitle">Landscape factors influencing the spatial distribution and abundance of mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a mixed residential-agricultural community in <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Mosquito-borne avian diseases, principally avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox (Avipoxvirus sp.) have been implicated as the key limiting factor associated with recent declines of endemic avifauna in the Hawaiian Island archipelago. We present data on the relative abundance, infection status, and spatial distribution of the primary mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) across a mixed, residential-agricultural community adjacent to <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park on <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> Island. We modeled the effect of agriculture and forest fragmentation in determining relative abundance of adult Cx. quinquefasciatus in <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Village, and we implement our statistical model in a geographic information system to generate a probability of mosquito capture prediction surface for the study area. Our model was based on biweekly captures of adult mosquitoes from 20 locations within <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Village from October 2001 to April 2003. We used mixed effects logistic regression to model the probability of capturing a mosquito, and we developed a set of 17 competing models a priori to specifically evaluate the effect of agriculture and fragmentation (i.e., residential landscapes) at two spatial scales. In total, 2,126 mosquitoes were captured in CO 2-baited traps with an average probability of 0.27 (SE = 0.10) of capturing one or more mosquitoes per trap night. Twelve percent of mosquitoes captured were infected with P. relictum. Our data indicate that agricultural lands and forest fragmentation significantly increase the probability of mosquito capture. The prediction surface identified areas along the <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park boundary that may have high relative abundance of the vector. Our data document the potential of avian malaria transmission in residential-agricultural landscapes and support the need for vector management that extends beyond reserve boundaries and considers a reserve's spatial position in a highly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800015420','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800015420"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcanic features of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. A basis for comparison with Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carr, M. H.; Greeley, R.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Despite the difference in size Martian and Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> have numerous characteristics in common. Specific features such as lava channels, collapsed lava tubes, levees and flow fronts, all very common in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, are also abundant on the flanks of some of the Martian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Striking differences also exist, such as the apparent lack of radial rift zones on some Martian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and the paucity of cinder and spatter cones. Some of the best photographs of Martian and Hawaiian volcanic features are presented. Descriptive legends are provided for each picture. An overview of the geological processes and structures depicted is included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1082572','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1082572"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>'s EVolution: <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> Powered. Technology Driven. (Brochure)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) brochure outlines <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s energy and transportation goals and the implementation of electric vehicles (EV) and electric vehicle infrastructure since HCEI began in 2008. It includes information about <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s role in leading the <span class="hlt">nation</span> in available EV charging infrastructure per capita; challenges for continuing to implement EV technology; features on various successful EV users, including the Hawaiian Electric Company, Enterprise Rent-A-Car, and Senator Mike Gabbard; how EVs can integrate into and help propel <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s evolving smart grid; and much more.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950004572&hterms=onboard+camera+robot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Donboard%2Bcamera%2Brobot','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950004572&hterms=onboard+camera+robot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Donboard%2Bcamera%2Brobot"><span id="translatedtitle">Dante's <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active <span class="hlt">volcano</span> at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, and to report on its journey to the floor of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994nasa.reptU.....','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994nasa.reptU....."><span id="translatedtitle">Dante's <span class="hlt">volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active <span class="hlt">volcano</span> at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, and to report on its journey to the floor of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hilo.hawaii.edu/hcsu/documents/TR-026CampetalOFNWRFINALPDFsmall.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://hilo.hawaii.edu/hcsu/documents/TR-026CampetalOFNWRFINALPDFsmall.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Forest bird monitoring protocol for strategic habitat conservation and endangered species management on O'ahu Forest <span class="hlt">National</span> Wildlife Refuge, Island of O'ahu, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Banko, Paul C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This report describes the results of a pilot forest bird survey and a consequent forest bird monitoring protocol that was developed for the O'ahu Forest <span class="hlt">National</span> Wildlife Refuge, O'ahu Island, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>. The pilot survey was conducted to inform aspects of the monitoring protocol and to provide a baseline with which to compare future surveys on the Refuge. The protocol was developed in an adaptive management framework to track bird distribution and abundance and to meet the strategic habitat conservation requirements of the Refuge. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S23B2499J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S23B2499J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Infrasound</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, J. B.; Fee, D.; Matoza, R. S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Open-vent <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> generate prodigious low frequency sound waves that tend to peak in the infrasound (<20 Hz) band. These long wavelength (> ~20 m) atmospheric pressure waves often propagate long distances with low intrinsic attenuation and can be well recorded with a variety of low frequency sensitive microphones. Infrasound records may be used to remotely monitor eruptions, identify active vents or track gravity-driven flows, and/or characterize source processes. Such studies provide information vital for both scientific study and <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring efforts. This presentation proposes to summarize and standardize some of the terminology used in the still young, yet rapidly growing field of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> infrasound. Herein we suggest classification of typical infrasound waveform types, which include bimodal pulses, blast (or N-) waves, and a variety of infrasonic tremors (including broadband, harmonic, and monotonic signals). We summarize various metrics, including reduced pressure, intensity, power, and energy, in which infrasound excess pressures are often quantified. We also describe the spectrum of source types and radiation patterns, which are typically responsible for recorded infrasound. Finally we summarize the variety of propagation paths that are common for <span class="hlt">volcano</span> infrasound radiating to local (<10 km), regional (out to several hundred kilometers), and global distances. The effort to establish common terminology requires community feedback, but is now timely as <span class="hlt">volcano</span> infrasound studies proliferate and infrasound becomes a standard component of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022059','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022059"><span id="translatedtitle">In search of ancestral Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lipman, P.W.; Sisson, T.W.; Ui, T.; Naka, J.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Submersible observations and samples show that the lower south flank of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, offshore from Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and the active Hilina slump system, consists entirely of compositionally diverse volcaniclastic rocks; pillow lavas are confined to shallow slopes. Submarine-erupted basalt clasts have strongly variable alkalic and transitional basalt compositions (to 41% SiO2, 10.8% alkalies), contrasting with present-day Kilauea tholeiites. The volcaniclastic rocks provide a unique record of ancestral alkalic growth of an archetypal hotspot <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, including transition to its tholeiitic shield stage, and associated slope-failure events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Natur.366..554F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Natur.366..554F"><span id="translatedtitle">Endogenous growth of persistently active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Francis, Peter; Oppenheimer, Clive; Stevenson, David</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>LAVA lakes and active strombolian vents have persisted at some <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> for periods exceeding the historic record. They liberate prodigious amounts of volatiles and thermal energy but erupt little lava, a paradox that raises questions about how <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> grow. Although long-lasting surface manifestations can be sustained by convective exchange of magma with deeper reservoirs, residence times of magmas beneath several basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are & sim10-100 years1,2, indicating that where surface activity continues for more than 100-1,000 years, the reservoirs are replenished by new magma. Endogenous growth of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (<span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>) through dyke intrusion and cumulate formation is a well-understood consequence of the steady supply of mantle-derived magma3,4. As we show here, inferred heat losses from the Halemaumau lava lake indicate a period of dominantly endogenous growth of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> during the nineteenth century. Moreover, heat losses and degassing rates for several other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, including Stromboli, also indicate cryptic influxes of magma that far exceed visible effluxes of lavas. We propose that persistent activity at Stromboli, and at other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in different tectonic settings, is evidence of endogenous growth, involving processes similar to those at Kilauea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576770p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576770p/"><span id="translatedtitle">View of slow sand filters with pump house/chlorinator in foreground. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>View of slow sand filters with pump house/chlorinator in foreground. Clear well tank located behind pump house and trees. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576746p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576746p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Steel tanks T5 and T4 with overhead pipeline between. Redwood ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Steel tanks T5 and T4 with overhead pipeline between. Redwood tanks seen in background - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576730p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576730p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Detail of redwood tank on lava rock platform. Trestle and ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Detail of redwood tank on lava rock platform. Trestle and steel tanks can be see in right background. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576724p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576724p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241). Note pipeline ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241). Note pipeline connection from collection trough. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576762p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576762p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical posts on concrete footing with diagonal timber bracing and wire bracing. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576726p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576726p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Redwood tanks with pipeline on trestle passing behind. Old rain ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Redwood tanks with pipeline on trestle passing behind. Old rain shed (Building No. 43) can be seen at right behind the trestle. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576741p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576741p/"><span id="translatedtitle">New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw water tank T4. Distribution pump house can be seen at the center of building. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576738p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576738p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Rooftop view of new rain shed (Building No. 241) showing ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Rooftop view of new rain shed (Building No. 241) showing collection gutter and overhead pipeline. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576752p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576752p/"><span id="translatedtitle">3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing southwest corner with open bays. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576744p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576744p/"><span id="translatedtitle">New rain shed (Building No. 241) on right with Tanks ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>New rain shed (Building No. 241) on right with Tanks T5, T4 and T2 on left from front to back. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576750p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576750p/"><span id="translatedtitle">3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northwest corner with corrugated siding. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576737p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576737p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Rooftop view of old rain shed (Building No. 43), pipeline ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Rooftop view of old rain shed (Building No. 43), pipeline on trestle, and water tanks. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576758p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576758p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing redwood dry storage building located inside. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576755p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576755p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with gutter ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with gutter box on northwest side. Maintenance staff in foreground. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576756p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576756p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with collection ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with collection downspouts from gutter to reservoir. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576725p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576725p/"><span id="translatedtitle">View of pipeline carried on a trestle from new rain ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>View of pipeline carried on a trestle from new rain shed (Building No. 241). Redwood tanks in background. Steel tanks behind trestle. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576757p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576757p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing truss type A in foreground and truss type B behind that. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576739p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576739p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Rooftop detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241) with ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Rooftop detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241) with flume and overhead pipeline. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576729p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576729p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Redwood tanks in foreground with old rain shed (Building No. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Redwood tanks in foreground with old rain shed (Building No. 43) and steel tanks in background. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576748p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0822.photos.576748p/"><span id="translatedtitle">Detail of pipeline on trestle with redwood tank and old ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Detail of pipeline on trestle with redwood tank and old rain shed (Building No. 43) on either side. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Water Collection System, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/7000036/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/7000036/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcanic and seismic hazards on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The eruptions of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> often have direct, dramatic effects on the lives of people and on their property. People who live on or near active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> can benefit greatly from clear, scientific information about the volcanic and seismic hazards of the area. This booklet provides such information for the residents of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> so they may effectively deal with the special geologic hazards of the island. Identifying and evaluating possible geologic hazards is one of the principal roles of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory. When USGS scientists recognize a potential hazard, such as an impending eruption, they notify the appropriate government officials, who in turn are responsible for advising the public to evacuate certain areas or to take other actions to insure their safety. This booklet was prepared in cooperation with the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County Civil Defense Agency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1225/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1225/"><span id="translatedtitle">Digital Data for <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards at Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Sherrod, D.R.; Mastin, L.G.; Scott, W.E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Newberry <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is a broad shield <span class="hlt">volcano</span> located in central Oregon, the product of thousands of eruptions, beginning about 600,000 years ago. At least 25 vents on the flanks and summit have been active during the past 10,000 years. The most recent eruption 1,300 years ago produced the Big Obsidian Flow. Thus, the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s long history and recent activity indicate that Newberry will erupt in the future. Newberry Crater, a volcanic depression or caldera has been the focus of Newberry's volcanic activity for at least the past 10,000 years. Newberry <span class="hlt">National</span> Volcanic Monument, which is managed by the U.S. Forest Service, includes the caldera and extends to the Deschutes River. Newberry <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is quiet. Local earthquake activity (seismicity) has been trifling throughout historic time. Subterranean heat is still present, as indicated by hot springs in the caldera and high temperatures encountered during exploratory drilling for geothermal energy. The report USGS Open-File Report 97-513 (Sherrod and others, 1997) describes the kinds of hazardous geologic events that might occur in the future at Newberry <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. A hazard-zonation map is included to show the areas that will most likely be affected by renewed eruptions. When Newberry <span class="hlt">volcano</span> becomes restless, the eruptive scenarios described herein can inform planners, emergency response personnel, and citizens about the kinds and sizes of events to expect. The geographic information system (GIS) <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazard data layers used to produce the Newberry <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-513 are included in this data set. Scientists at the USGS Cascades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory created a GIS data layer to depict zones subject to the effects of an explosive pyroclastic eruption (tephra fallout, pyroclastic flows, and ballistics), lava flows, volcanic gasses, and lahars/floods in Paulina Creek. A separate GIS data layer depicts drill holes on the flanks of Newberry <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> that were used to estimate the probability</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2007/5174/a/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2007/5174/a/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Assessment for Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Northern California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Nathenson, Manuel; Champion, Duane E.; Ramsey, David W.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Ewert, John W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Medicine Lake <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (MLV) is a very large shield-shaped <span class="hlt">volcano</span> located in northern California where it forms part of the southern Cascade Range of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. It has erupted hundreds of times during its half-million-year history, including nine times during the past 5,200 years, most recently 950 years ago. This record represents one of the highest eruptive frequencies among Cascade <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and includes a wide variety of different types of lava flows and at least two explosive eruptions that produced widespread fallout. Compared to those of a typical Cascade stratovolcano, eruptive vents at MLV are widely distributed, extending 55 km north-south and 40 km east-west. The total area covered by MLV lavas is >2,000 km2, about 10 times the area of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Judging from its long eruptive history and its frequent eruptions in recent geologic time, MLV will erupt again. Although the probability of an eruption is very small in the next year (one chance in 3,600), the consequences of some types of possible eruptions could be severe. Furthermore, the documented episodic behavior of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> indicates that once it becomes active, the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> could continue to erupt for decades, or even erupt intermittently for centuries, and very likely from multiple vents scattered across the edifice. Owing to its frequent eruptions, explosive nature, and proximity to regional infrastructure, MLV has been designated a 'high threat <span class="hlt">volcano</span>' by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) <span class="hlt">National</span> <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Early Warning System assessment. Volcanic eruptions are typically preceded by seismic activity, but with only two seismometers located high on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and no other USGS monitoring equipment in place, MLV is at present among the most poorly monitored Cascade <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10143151','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10143151"><span id="translatedtitle">Annotated bibliography, seismicity of and near the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> and seismic hazard analysis of the East Rift of Kilauea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Klein, F.W.</p> <p>1994-03-28</p> <p>This bibliography is divided into the following four sections: Seismicity of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> and Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>; Occurrence, locations and accelerations from large historical Hawaiian earthquakes; Seismic hazards of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>; and Methods of seismic hazard analysis. It contains 62 references, most of which are accompanied by short abstracts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130391','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130391"><span id="translatedtitle">Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and <span class="hlt">National</span> Trails. An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, Alaska, and <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kuiper, James A; Krummel, John R; Hlava, Kevin J; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B; Schlueter, Scott O; Sullivan, Robert G; Zvolanek, Emily A</p> <p>2014-03-25</p> <p>As has been noted in many reports and publications, acquiring new or expanded rights-of-way for transmission is a challenging process, because numerous land use and land ownership constraints must be overcome to develop pathways suitable for energy transmission infrastructure. In the eastern U.S., more than twenty federally protected <span class="hlt">national</span> trails (some of which are thousands of miles long, and cross many states) pose a potential obstacle to the development of new or expanded electricity transmission capacity. However, the scope of this potential problem is not well-documented, and there is no baseline information available that could allow all stakeholders to study routing scenarios that could mitigate impacts on <span class="hlt">national</span> trails. This report, Electricity Transmission, Pipelines, and <span class="hlt">National</span> Trails: An Analysis of Current and Potential Intersections on Federal Lands in the Eastern United States, was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne <span class="hlt">National</span> Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the “footprint” of the current network of <span class="hlt">National</span> Historic and Scenic Trails and the electricity transmission system in the 37 eastern contiguous states, Alaska, and <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>; assess the extent to which <span class="hlt">national</span> trails are affected by electrical transmission; and investigate the extent to which <span class="hlt">national</span> trails and other sensitive land use types may be affected in the near future by planned transmission lines. Pipelines are secondary to transmission lines for analysis, but are also within the analysis scope in connection with the overall directives of Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and because of the potential for electrical transmission lines being collocated with pipelines. Based on Platts electrical transmission line data, a total of 101 existing intersections with <span class="hlt">national</span> trails on federal land were found, and 20 proposed intersections. Transmission lines and pipelines are proposed in Alaska; however there are no</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2014/3120/downloads/fs2014-3120.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2014/3120/downloads/fs2014-3120.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The California <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory: Monitoring the state's restless <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stovall, Wendy K.; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Volcanic eruptions happen in the State of California about as frequently as the largest earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault Zone. At least 10 eruptions have taken place in California in the past 1,000 years—most recently at Lassen Peak in Lassen Volcanic <span class="hlt">National</span> Park (1914 to 1917) in the northern part of the State—and future volcanic eruptions are inevitable. The U.S. Geological Survey California <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory monitors the State's potentially hazardous <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/0435/ofr01-435_report.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/0435/ofr01-435_report.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcanism in <span class="hlt">national</span> parks: summary of the workshop convened by the U.S. Geological Survey and <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service, 26-29 September 2000, Redding, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Guffanti, Marianne; Brantley, Steven R.; McClelland, Lindsay</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Spectacular volcanic scenery and features were the inspiration for creating many of our <span class="hlt">national</span> parks and monuments and continue to enhance the visitor experience today (Table 1). At the same time, several of these parks include active and potentially active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> that could pose serious hazards - earthquakes, mudflows, and hydrothermal explosions, as well as eruptions - events that would profoundly affect park visitors, employees, and infrastructure. Although most parks are in relatively remote areas, those with high visitation have daily populations during the peak season equivalent to those of moderate-sized cities. For example, Yellowstone and Grand Teton <span class="hlt">national</span> parks can have a combined daily population of 80,000 during the summer, with total annual visitation of 7 million. Nearly 3 million people enter <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park every year, where the on-going (since 1983) eruption of Kilauea presents the challenge of keeping visitors out of harm's way while still allowing them to enjoy the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s spellbinding activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FrEaS...2...28C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FrEaS...2...28C"><span id="translatedtitle">Common processes at unique <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> - a volcanological conundrum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cashman, Katharine; Biggs, Juliet</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among <span class="hlt">volcano</span> morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> show that a single <span class="hlt">volcano</span> often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each <span class="hlt">volcano</span> has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or “personality”). In contrast, <span class="hlt">volcano</span> classification schemes define eruption “styles” referenced to “type” <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian); this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>1). The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to <span class="hlt">volcano</span> research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T23A0475S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T23A0475S"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards the Establishment of the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Integrated Seismic Network for Tsunami, Seismic, and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shiro, B. R.; Koyanagi, S. K.; Okubo, P. G.; Wolfe, C. J.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The NOAA Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) located in `Ewa Beach, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>, provides warnings to the State of <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> regarding locally generated tsunamis. The USGS Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO) located in <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park monitors earthquakes on the island of <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> in order to characterize volcanic and earthquake activity and hazards. In support of these missions, PTWC and HVO operate seismic networks for rapidly detecting and evaluating earthquakes for their tsunamigenic potential and volcanic risk, respectively. These existing seismic networks are comprised mostly of short-period vertical seismometers with analog data collection and transmission based on decades-old technology. The USGS <span class="hlt">National</span> Strong Motion Program (NSMP) operates 31 accelerometers throughout the state, but none currently transmit their data in real time. As a result of enhancements to the U.S. Tsunami Program in the wake of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami disaster, PTWC is upgrading and expanding its seismic network using digital real-time telemetry from broadband and strong motion accelerometer stations. Through new cooperative agreements with partners including the USGS (HVO and NSMP), IRIS, University of <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>, and Germany's GEOFON, the enhanced seismic network has been designed to ensure maximum benefit to all stakeholders. The <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Integrated Seismic Network (HISN) will provide a statewide resource for tsunami, earthquake, and volcanic warnings. Furthermore, because all data will be archived by the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC), the HISN will become a research resource to greater scientific community. The performance target for the enhanced HISN is for PTWC to provide initial local tsunami warnings within 90 seconds of the earthquake origin time. This will be accomplished using real-time digital data transmission over redundant paths and by implementing contemporary analysis algorithms in real-time and near-real-time. Earthquake location, depth, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/0112/pdf/of03-112.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/0112/pdf/of03-112.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-hazard assessment for Great Sitkin <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Waythomas, Christopher F.; Miller, Thomas P.; Nye, Christopher J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p> distribution of snow on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Glacier ice is no longer present on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> or on other parts of Great Sitkin Island as previously reported by Simons and Mathewson (1955). Great Sitkin Island is presently uninhabited and is part of the Alaska Maritime <span class="hlt">National</span> Wildlife Refuge, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/74/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/74/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Venezky, Dina Y.; Myers, Bobbie; Driedger, Carolyn</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Diagram of common <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazards. The U.S. Geological Survey <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program (VHP) monitors unrest and eruptions at U.S. <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, assesses potential hazards, responds to volcanic crises, and conducts research on how <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> work. When conditions change at a monitored <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, the VHP issues public advisories and warnings to alert emergency-management authorities and the public. See http://<span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>.usgs.gov/ to learn more about <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and find out what's happening now.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3204774','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3204774"><span id="translatedtitle">Leptospirosis in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, USA, 1999–2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buchholz, Arlene E.; Hinson, Kialani; Park, Sarah Y.; Effler, Paul V.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Although infrequently diagnosed in the United States, leptospirosis is a notable reemerging infectious disease throughout developing countries. Until 1995, when the disease was eliminated from the US list of <span class="hlt">nationally</span> notifiable diseases, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> led the <span class="hlt">nation</span> in reported annual incidence rates. Leptospirosis remains a notifiable disease in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. To ascertain the status of leptospirosis in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> since the most recent US report in 2002, we reviewed 1999–2008 data obtained from case investigation reports by the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> State Department of Health. Of the 345 case reports related to in-state exposures, 198 (57%) were laboratory confirmed. Our findings indicate a change in seasonal disease occurrence from summer to winter and in the infective serogroup from Icterohemorrhagiae to Australis. Also, during the past 20 years, recreational exposures have plateaued, while occupational exposures have increased. Ongoing surveillance is needed to clarify and track the dynamic epidemiology of this widespread zoonosis. PMID:21291592</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/chikurachki_volcano','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/chikurachki_volcano"><span id="translatedtitle">Chikurachki <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-16</p> <p>... and ice. According to the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), the temperature of the plume near the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on April ... D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005vag..book.....L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005vag..book.....L"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Adventure Guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lopes, Rosaly</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>This guide contains vital information for anyone wishing to visit, explore, and photograph active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> safely and enjoyably. Following an introduction that discusses eruption styles of different types of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and how to prepare for an exploratory trip that avoids volcanic dangers, the book presents guidelines to visiting 42 different <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> around the world. It is filled with practical information that includes tour itineraries, maps, transportation details, and warnings of possible non-volcanic dangers. Three appendices direct the reader to a wealth of further <span class="hlt">volcano</span> resources in a volume that will fascinate amateur enthusiasts and professional volcanologists alike. Rosaly Lopes is a planetary geology and volcanology specialist at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. In addition to her curatorial and research work, she has lectured extensively in England and Brazil and written numerous popular science articles. She received a Latinas in Science Award from the Comision Feminil Mexicana Nacional in 1991 and since 1992, has been a co-organizer of the United <span class="hlt">Nations</span>/European Space Agency/The Planetary Society yearly conferences on Basic Science for the Benefit of Developing Countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011943','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011943"><span id="translatedtitle">Iridium emissions from Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Finnegan, D. L.; Zoller, W. H.; Miller, T. M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Particle and gas samples were collected at Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span> during and after its eruption in March and April, 1984 and at Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in 1983, 1984, and 1985 during various phases of its ongoing activity. In the last two Kilauea sampling missions, samples were collected during eruptive activity. The samples were collected using a filterpack system consisting of a Teflon particle filter followed by a series of 4 base-treated Whatman filters. The samples were analyzed by INAA for over 40 elements. As previously reported in the literature, Ir was first detected on particle filters at the Mauna Loa Observatory and later from non-erupting high temperature vents at Kilauea. Since that time Ir was found in samples collected at Kilauea and Mauna Loa during fountaining activity as well as after eruptive activity. Enrichment factors for Ir in the volcanic fumes range from 10,000 to 100,000 relative to BHVO. Charcoal impregnated filters following a particle filter were collected to see if a significant amount of the Ir was in the gas phase during sample collection. Iridium was found on charcoal filters collected close to the vent, no Ir was found on the charcoal filters. This indicates that all of the Ir is in particulate form very soon after its release. Ratios of Ir to F and Cl were calculated for the samples from Mauna Loa and Kilauea collected during fountaining activity. The implications for the KT Ir anomaly are still unclear though as Ir was not found at <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> other than those at <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Further investigations are needed at other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> to ascertain if basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> other than hot spots have Ir enrichments in their fumes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1032396','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1032396"><span id="translatedtitle">Kaneohe, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Wind Resource Assessment Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robichaud, R.; Green, J.; Meadows, B.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The Department of Energy (DOE) has an interagency agreement to assist the Department of Defense (DOD) in evaluating the potential to use wind energy for power at residential properties at DOD bases in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. DOE assigned the <span class="hlt">National</span> Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to facilitate this process by installing a 50-meter (m) meteorological (Met) tower on residential property associated with the Marine Corps Base Housing (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS051-102-085&hterms=ola&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dola','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS051-102-085&hterms=ola&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dola"><span id="translatedtitle">Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> eruption seen from orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The STS-51 crew had a clear view of the erupting Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> during the early morning pass over the Hawaiian islands. Kilauea, on the southwest side of the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, has been erupting almost continuously since January, 1983. Kilauea's summit caldera, with the smaller Halemaumau crater nestled within, is highlighted in the early morning sun (just above the center of the picture). The lava flows which covered roads and subdivisions in 1983-90 can be seen as dark flows to the east (toward the upper right) of the steam plumes on this photo. The summit crater and lava flows of Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span> make up the left side of the photo. Features like the <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> House and Kilauea Visitor Center on the edge of the caldera, the small subdivisions east of the summit, Ola's Rain Forest north of the summit, and agricultural land along the coast are easily identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030288','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030288"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution, 14C chronology, and paleomagnetism of latest Pleistocene and Holocene lava flows at Haleakala <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Island of Maui, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>: a revision of lava flow hazard zones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sherrod, David R.; Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; McGeehin, John P.; Champion, Duane E.; Trusdell, Frank A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>New mapping and 60 new radiocarbon ages define the age and distribution of latest Pleistocene and Holocene (past 13,000 years) lava flows at Haleakalā <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Island of Maui. Paleomagnetic directions were determined for 118 sites, of which 89 are in lava flows younger than 13,000 years. The paleomagnetic data, in conjunction with a reference paleosecular variation (PSV) curve for the Hawaiian Islands, are combined with our knowledge of age limitations based on stratigraphic control to refine age estimates for some of the undated lava flows. The resulting volumetric rate calculations indicate that within analytical error, the extrusion rate has remained nearly constant during the past 13,000 years, in the range 0.05–0.15 km3/kyr, only about half the long-term rate required to produce the postshield strata emplaced in the past ∼1 Myr. Haleakalā's eruptive frequency is similar to that of Hualālai <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on the Island of Hawai‘i, but its lava flows cover substantially less area per unit time. The reduced rates of lava coverage indicate a lower volcanic hazard than in similar zones at Hualālai.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730019508','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730019508"><span id="translatedtitle">Establishment, test and evaluation of a prototype <span class="hlt">volcano</span> surveillance system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ward, P. L.; Eaton, J. P.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D.; Marquez, D.; Allen, R.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-surveillance system utilizing 23 multilevel earthquake counters and 6 biaxial borehole tiltmeters is being installed and tested on 15 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in 4 States and 4 foreign countries. The purpose of this system is to give early warning when apparently dormant <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are becoming active. The data are relayed through the ERTS-Data Collection System to Menlo Park for analysis. Installation was completed in 1972 on the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> St. Augustine and Iliamna in Alaska, Kilauea in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, Baker, Rainier and St. Helens in Washington, Lassen in California, and at a site near Reykjavik, Iceland. Installation continues and should be completed in April 1973 on the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> Santiaguito, Fuego, Agua and Pacaya in Guatemala, Izalco in El Salvador and San Cristobal, Telica and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/882440','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/882440"><span id="translatedtitle">Implementation Plan for the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Statement (DOE Review Draft:)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-09-18</p> <p>The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that identifies and evaluates the environmental impacts associated with the proposed <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Geothermal Project (HGP), as defined by the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> in its 1990 proposal to Congress (DBED 1990). The location of the proposed project is shown in Figure 1.1. The EIS is being prepared pursuant to the requirements of the <span class="hlt">National</span> Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as implemented by the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and the DOE NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021), effective May 26, 1992. The State's proposal for the four-phase HGP consists of (1) exploration and testing of the geothermal resource beneath the slopes of the active Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> (Big Island), (2) demonstration of deep-water power cable technology in the Alenuihaha Channel between the Big Island and Mau, (3) verification and characterization of the geothermal resource on the Big Island, and (4) construction and operation of commercial geothermal power production facilities on the Big Island, with overland and submarine transmission of electricity from the Big Island to Oahu and possibly other islands. DOE prepared appropriate NEPA documentation for separate federal actions related to Phase 1 and 2 research projects, which have been completed. This EIS will consider Phases 3 and 4, as well as reasonable alternatives to the HGP. Such alternatives include biomass coal, solar photovoltaic, wind energy, and construction and operation of commercial geothermal power production facilities on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> (for exclusive use on the Big Island). In addition, the EIs will consider the reasonable alternatives among submarine cable technologies, geothermal extraction, production, and power generating technologies; pollution control technologies; overland and submarine power transmission routes; sites reasonably suited to support</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/0397/pdf/of02-397.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/0397/pdf/of02-397.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-hazard assessment for Kanaga <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Waythomas, Christopher F.; Miller, Thomas P.; Nye, Christopher J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Kanaga <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> is a steep-sided, symmetrical, cone-shaped, 1307 meter high, andesitic stratovolcano on the north end of Kanaga Island (51°55’ N latitude, 177°10’ W longitude) in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Kanaga Island is an elongated, low-relief (except for the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>) island, located about 35 kilometers west of the community of Adak on Adak Island and is part of the Andreanof Islands Group of islands. Kanaga <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> is one of the 41 historically active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Alaska and has erupted numerous times in the past 11,000 years, including at least 10 eruptions in the past 250 years (Miller and others, 1998). The most recent eruption occurred in 1993-95 and caused minor ash fall on Adak Island and produced blocky aa lava flows that reached the sea on the northwest and west sides of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> (Neal and others, 1995). The summit of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is characterized by a small, circular crater about 200 meters in diameter and 50-70 meters deep. Several active fumaroles are present in the crater and around the crater rim. The flanking slopes of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> are steep (20-30 degrees) and consist mainly of blocky, linear to spoonshaped lava flows that formed during eruptions of late Holocene age (about the past 3,000 years). The modern cone sits within a circular caldera structure that formed by large-scale collapse of a preexisting <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Evidence for eruptions of this preexisting <span class="hlt">volcano</span> mainly consists of lava flows exposed along Kanaton Ridge, indicating that this former volcanic center was predominantly effusive in character. In winter (October-April), Kanaga <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> may be covered by substantial amounts of snow that would be a source of water for lahars (volcanic mudflows). In summer, much of the snowpack melts, leaving only a patchy distribution of snow on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Glacier ice is not present on the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> or on other parts of Kanaga Island. Kanaga Island is uninhabited and is part of the Alaska Maritime <span class="hlt">National</span> Wildlife Refuge, managed by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2725I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2725I"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalogue of Icelandic <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Catalogue of Icelandic <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic <span class="hlt">volcano</span> supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state <span class="hlt">volcano</span> observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the <span class="hlt">National</span> Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0541.photos.195455p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0541.photos.195455p/"><span id="translatedtitle">2. CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS ENROLLERS MARCHING IN THE KAMEHAMEHA DAY ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS ENROLLERS MARCHING IN THE KAMEHAMEHA DAY PARADE IN HILO. FROM SUPERINTENDENT'S MONTHLY REPORT, JUNE 1934. - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Roads, <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-06/pdf/2012-21924.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-06/pdf/2012-21924.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 54902 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Input From <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s Boat-based Anglers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-09-06</p> <p>... From <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s Boat-based Anglers AGENCY: <span class="hlt">National</span> Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION... local boat-based anglers under NOAA's <span class="hlt">National</span> Recreational Saltwater Fishing Initiative. II. Method...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.bioone.org.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/toc/wils/124/4','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.bioone.org.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/toc/wils/124/4"><span id="translatedtitle">Reoccurrence of 'Öma'o in leeward woodland habitat and their distribution in alpine habitat on <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> Island</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Judge, Seth W.; Gaudioso, Jacqueline M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The endemic solitaire, 'Ōma'o (Myadestes obscurus), is common in windward forests of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> Island, but has been historically extirpated from leeward forests. The last detections of Ōma'o on the leeward side of the island were in woodland habitat on the western flank of Mauna Loa in 1978. 'Ōma'o were detected in woodland habitat in relatively low densities during a 2010 forest bird survey of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park. The source of the population is unknown. It is probable they originated from a documented but unsurveyed population of Ōma'o in scrub alpine lava. Alternatively, the birds may have persisted undetected for nearly 35 years, or expanded from windward mesic forests on southeast Mauna Loa. There is no evidence 'Ōma'o recolonized the wet mesic forests of leeward Mauna Loa. The 'Ōma'o can occupy diverse native habitats compared to other species in the <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> Myadestes genus, of which most species are now extinct. The connectivity of each population is not understood but we assume there are significant geographic, physiological, and behavioral barriers for scrub alpine and wet mesic forest populations. The expansion of 'Ōma'o to leeward woodlands is encouraging as the species is <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> Island's last native frugivore capable of dispersing small and medium sized seeds of rare angiosperms, and could have an important role in re-establishing ecosystem function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA09968&hterms=spatial+economy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dspatial%2Beconomy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA09968&hterms=spatial+economy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dspatial%2Beconomy"><span id="translatedtitle">Lava Flow at Kilauea, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><p/> On July 21, 2007, the world's most active <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Kilauea on <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s Big Island, produced a new fissure eruption from the Pu'u O'o vent, which fed an open lava channel and lava flows toward the east. Access to the Kahauale'a Natural Area Reserve was closed due to fire and gas hazards. The two Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) nighttime thermal infrared images were acquired on August 21 and August 30, 2007. The brightest areas are the hottest lava flows from the recent fissure eruption. The large lava field extending down to the ocean is part of the Kupaianaha field. The most recent activity there ceased on June 20, but the lava is still hot and appears bright on the images. Magenta areas are cold lava flows from eruptions that occurred between 1969 and 2006. Clouds are cold (black) and the ocean is a uniform warm temperature, and light gray in color. These images are being used by volcanologists at the U.S. Geological Survey <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory to help monitor the progress of the lava flows. <p/> <p/> With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. <p/> <p/> ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. <p/> <p/> The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>; identifying crop stress; determining cloud</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED544819.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED544819.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Nation</span>'s Report Card Mathematics 2013 State Snapshot Report. <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Grade 4, Public Schools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>National Center for Education Statistics, 2013</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Results from the 2013 NAEP assessments show fourth- and eighth-graders making progress in mathematics and reading. <span class="hlt">Nationally</span> representative samples of more than 376,000 fourth-graders and 341,000 eighth-graders were assessed in either mathematics or reading in 2013. Results are reported for public and private school students in the <span class="hlt">nation</span>, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019816','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019816"><span id="translatedtitle">Rates of volcanic CO2 degassing from airborne determinations of SO2 Emission rates and plume CO2SO2: test study at Pu′u ′O′o Cone, Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gerlach, Terrence M.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Sutton, A. Jefferson; Elias, Tamar</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We present an airborne method that eliminates or minimizes several disadvantages of the customary plume cross-section sampling method for determining volcanic CO2 emission rates. A LI-COR CO2analyzer system (LICOR), a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer system (FTIR), and a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) were used to constrain the plume CO2/SO2 and the SO2 emission rate. The method yielded a CO2 emission rate of 300 td−1 (metric tons per day) for Pu′u ′O′o cone, Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, on 19 September 1995. The CO2/SO2 of 0.20 determined from airborne LICOR and FTIR plume measurements agreed with the CO2/SO2 of 204 ground-based samples collected from vents over a 14-year period since the Pu′u ′O′o eruption began in January 1983.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029697','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029697"><span id="translatedtitle">Indoor radon risk potential of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Reimer, G.M.; Szarzi, S.L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A comprehensive evaluation of radon risk potential in the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> indicates that the potential for <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> is low. Using a combination of factors including geology, soils, source-rock type, soil-gas radon concentrations, and indoor measurements throughout the state, a general model was developed that permits prediction for various regions in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. For the nearly 3,100 counties in the coterminous U.S., <span class="hlt">National</span> Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) aerorad data was the primary input factor. However, NURE aerorad data was not collected in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, therefore, this study used geology and soil type as the primary and secondary components of potential prediction. Although the radon potential of some Hawaiian soils suggests moderate risk, most houses are built above ground level and the radon soil potential is effectively decoupled from the house. Only underground facilities or those with closed or recirculating ventilation systems might have elevated radon potential. ?? 2005 Akade??miai Kiado??.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70094778','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70094778"><span id="translatedtitle">Santorini <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Druitt, T.H.; Edwards, L.; Mellors, R.M.; Pyle, D.M.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Lanphere, M.; Davies, M.; Barreirio, B.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Santorini is one of the most spectacular caldera <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the world. It has been the focus of significant scientific and scholastic interest because of the great Bronze Age explosive eruption that buried the Minoan town of Akrotiri. Santorini is still active. It has been dormant since 1950, but there have been several substantial historic eruptions. Because of this potential risk to life, both for the indigenous population and for the large number of tourists who visit it, Santorini has been designated one of five European Laboratory <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> by the European Commission. Santorini has long fascinated geologists, with some important early work on <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> being conducted there. Since 1980, research groups at Cambridge University, and later at the University of Bristol and Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferrand, have collected a large amount of data on the stratigraphy, geochemistry, geochronology and petrology of the volcanics. The volcanic field has been remapped at a scale of 1:10 000. A remarkable picture of cyclic volcanic activity and magmatic evolution has emerged from this work. Much of this work has remained unpublished until now. This Memoir synthesizes for the first time all the data from the Cambridge/Bristol/Clermont groups, and integrates published data from other research groups. It provides the latest interpretation of the tectonic and magmatic evolution of Santorini. It is accompanied by the new 1:10 000 full-colour geological map of the island.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050220574','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050220574"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> on the Natural Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The primary focus of this project has been on the development of techniques to study the thermal and gas output of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and to explore our options for the collection of vegetation and soil data to enable us to assess the impact of this volcanic activity on the environment. We originally selected several <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> that have persistent gas emissions and/or magma production. The investigation took an integrated look at the environmental effects of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Through their persistent activity, basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> such as Kilauea (<span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>) and Masaya (Nicaragua) contribute significant amounts of sulfur dioxide and other gases to the lower atmosphere. Although primarily local rather than regional in its impact, the continuous nature of these eruptions means that they can have a major impact on the troposphere for years to decades. Since mid-1986, Kilauea has emitted about 2,000 tonnes of sulfur dioxide per day, while between 1995 and 2000 Masaya has emotted about 1,000 to 1,500 tonnes per day (Duffel1 et al., 2001; Delmelle et al., 2002; Sutton and Elias, 2002). These emissions have a significant effect on the local environment. The volcanic smog ("vog" ) that is produced affects the health of local residents, impacts the local ecology via acid rain deposition and the generation of acidic soils, and is a concern to local air traffic due to reduced visibility. Much of the work that was conducted under this NASA project was focused on the development of field validation techniques of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> degassing and thermal output that could then be correlated with satellite observations. In this way, we strove to develop methods by which not only our study <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, but also <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in general worldwide (Wright and Flynn, 2004; Wright et al., 2004). Thus <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> could be routinely monitored for their effects on the environment. The selected <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> were: Kilauea (<span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>; 19.425 N, 155.292 W); Masaya (Nicaragua; 11.984 N, 86.161 W); and Pods (Costa Rica; 10.2OoN, 84.233 W).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-14/pdf/2013-11447.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-14/pdf/2013-11447.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 28241 - Notice of Approval of Record of Decision for Plan To Protect and Restore Native Ecosystems by...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-05-14</p> <p>... Ecosystems by Managing Non-Native Ungulates, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> AGENCY: <span class="hlt">National</span> Park...: <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park has selected and will implement Alternative D (identified as the agency... Superintendent, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, P.O. Box 52, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, HI 96718-0052 or via...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1183461','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1183461"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural Energy Laboratory of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Authority (NELHA): <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Ocean Science & Technology Park; Kailua-Kona, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Olson, K.; Andreas, A.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>A partnership with the Natural Energy Laboratory of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Authority and U.S. Department of Energy's <span class="hlt">National</span> Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15124743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15124743"><span id="translatedtitle">Melanoma and <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s youth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Laura</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s sandy beaches, warm crystal waters, and mild climate attract tourists and residents alike to enjoy hours of outdoor activities under the sun. As frequent participants of these sun related activities, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s youth are exposed to high levels and duration of ultraviolet radiation throughout their early lives. This study aims to define occurrence trends of cutaneous malignant melanoma in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> in correlation to increased childhood ultraviolet exposure. This paper addresses trends in melanoma incidence during 1979-2002 for <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> residents < 25 years of age. Data obtained from this review were analyzed by age group and ethnicity. Results show that although the incidence of melanoma is increasing for <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> residents over 25 years of age, the rate of melanoma occurrence in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s youth (< 25 years) is not increasing. PMID:15124743</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs169-97/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs169-97/"><span id="translatedtitle">Volcanic Air Pollution - A Hazard in <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sutton, Jeff; Elias, Tamar; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Noxious sulfur dioxide gas and other pollutants emitted from Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> on the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> react with oxygen and atmospheric moisture to produce volcanic smog (vog) and acid rain. Vog poses a health hazard by aggravating preexisting respiratory ailments, and acid rain damages crops and can leach lead into household water supplies. The U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory is closely monitoring gas emissions from Kilauea and working with health professionals and local officials to better understand volcanic air pollution and to enhance public awareness of this hazard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018133','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018133"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> scientific drilling protect: Summary of preliminary results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>DePaolo, D.; Stolper, E.; Thomas, D.; Albarede, F.; Chadwick, O.; Clague, D.; Feigenson, M.; Frey, F.; Garcia, M.; Hofmann, A.; Ingram, B.L.; Kennedy, B.M.; Kirschvink, J.; Kurz, M.; Laj, Carlo; Lockwood, J.; Ludwig, K.; McEvilly, T.; Moberly, R.; Moore, G.; Moore, J.; Morin, R.; Paillet, F.; Renne, P.; Rhodes, M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Taylor, H.; Walker, G.; Wilkins, R.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Petrological, geochemical, geomagnetic, and volcanological characterization of the recovered core from a 1056-m-deep well into the flank of the Mauna Kea <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in Hilo, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, and downhole logging and fluid sampling have provided a unique view of the evolution and internal structure of a major oceanic <span class="hlt">volcano</span> unavailable from surface exposures. Core recovery was ???90%, yielding a time series of fresh, subaerial lavas extending back to ???400 ka. Results of this 1993 project provide a basis for a more ambitious project to core drill a well 4.5 km deep in a nearby location with the goal of recovering an extended, high-density stratigraphic sequence of lavas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA43C2206D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA43C2206D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span>-hazards Education for Emergency Officials Through Study Trip Learning—The 2013 Colombia-USA Bi-<span class="hlt">national</span> Exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Driedger, C. L.; Ewert, J. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A central tenant of hazard communication is that colleagues with principal responsibilities for emergency planning and response sustain a 'long-term conversation' that builds trust, and increases understanding of hazards and successful protocols. This requires well maintained partnerships among a broad spectrum of officials who are knowledgeable about <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazards; credible within their communities; and who have personal and professional stake in their community's safety. It can require that <span class="hlt">volcano</span> scientists facilitate learning opportunities for partners in emergency management who have little or no familiarity with eruption response. Scientists and officials from Colombia and the Cascades region of the United States recognized that although separated by geographic and cultural distance, their communities faced similar hazards from lahars. For the purpose of sharing best practices, the 2013 Colombia-USA Bi-<span class="hlt">national</span> Exchange was organized by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Washington Emergency Management Division, with support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). Nine Colombian emergency officials and scientists visited the U.S. to observe emergency response planning and protocols and to view the scale of a potential lahar disaster at Mount Rainier. Ten U.S. delegates visited Colombia to absorb best practices developed after the catastrophic 1985 eruption and lahars at Nevado del Ruiz. They observed the devastation and spoke with survivors, first responders, and emergency managers responsible for post-disaster recovery efforts. Delegates returned to their <span class="hlt">nations</span> energized and with improved knowledge about volcanic crises and effective mitigation and response. In the U.S., trainings, hazard signage, evacuation routes and assembly points, and community websites have gained momentum. Colombian officials gained a deeper appreciation of and a renewed commitment to response planning, education, and disaster preparedness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title50-vol13-sec665-220.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title50-vol13-sec665-220.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.220 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.220 Section 665.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Fisheries § 665.220 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> coral...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-sec665-220.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-sec665-220.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.220 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.220 Section 665.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Fisheries § 665.220 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> coral...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol13-sec665-220.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol13-sec665-220.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.220 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.220 Section 665.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Fisheries § 665.220 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> coral...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol11-sec665-220.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol11-sec665-220.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.220 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.220 Section 665.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Fisheries § 665.220 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> coral...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol13-sec665-220.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol13-sec665-220.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.220 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.220 Section 665.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Fisheries § 665.220 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> coral...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED424955.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED424955.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Making <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>'s Kids Count. Issue Paper Number 3.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hawaii Univ., Manoa. Center on the Family.</p> <p></p> <p>This issue paper from <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> Kids Count addresses the issue of teen pregnancy and birth rates. The paper notes that teen pregnancy and birth rates are declining both <span class="hlt">nationally</span> and in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> and describes key risk factors associated with having a baby before age 20: (1) early school failure; (2) early behavioral problems; (3) family dysfunction;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-sec665-240.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-sec665-240.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.240 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> crustacean fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> crustacean fisheries. 665.240 Section 665.240 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.240 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> crustacean fisheries....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol11-sec665-240.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol11-sec665-240.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.240 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> crustacean fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> crustacean fisheries. 665.240 Section 665.240 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.240 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> crustacean fisheries....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title50-vol13-sec665-240.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title50-vol13-sec665-240.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.240 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> crustacean fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> crustacean fisheries. 665.240 Section 665.240 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.240 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> crustacean fisheries....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol13-sec665-240.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol13-sec665-240.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.240 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> crustacean fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> crustacean fisheries. 665.240 Section 665.240 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.240 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> crustacean fisheries....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol13-sec665-240.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol13-sec665-240.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.240 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> crustacean fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> crustacean fisheries. 665.240 Section 665.240 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND... Fisheries § 665.240 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> crustacean fisheries....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS030-151-122&hterms=5w&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D5w','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS030-151-122&hterms=5w&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D5w"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>, Nicaragua</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>This 150 kilometer stretch of the Pacific coastal plain of Nicaragua (12.0N, 86.5W) from the Gulf of Fonseca to Lake Managua. The large crater on the peninsula is Coseguina, which erupted in 1835, forming a 2 km. wide by 500 meter deep caldera and deposited ash as far away as Mexico City, some 1400 km. to the north. A plume of Steam can be seen venting from San Cristobal <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, in the Marabios Range, the highest mouintain in Nicaragua.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6250610','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6250610"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> generate devastating waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lockridge, P. )</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Although volcanic eruptions can cause many frightening phenomena, it is often the power of the sea that causes many <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-related deaths. This destruction comes from tsunamis (huge <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-generated waves). Roughly one-fourth of the deaths occurring during volcanic eruptions have been the result of tsunamis. Moreover, a tsunami can transmit the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s energy to areas well outside the reach of the eruption itself. Some historic records are reviewed. Refined historical data are increasingly useful in predicting future events. The U.S. <span class="hlt">National</span> Geophysical Data Center/World Data Center A for Solid Earth Geophysics has developed data bases to further tsunami research. These sets of data include marigrams (tide gage records), a wave-damage slide set, digital source data, descriptive material, and a tsunami wall map. A digital file contains information on methods of tsunami generation, location, and magnitude of generating earthquakes, tsunami size, event validity, and references. The data can be used to describe areas mot likely to generate tsunamis and the locations along shores that experience amplified effects from tsunamis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70174998','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70174998"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrating physiology, population dynamics and climate to make multi-scale predictions for the spread of an invasive insect: the Argentine ant at Haleakala <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hartley, Stephen; Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Lester, Philip J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Mechanistic models for predicting species’ distribution patterns present particular advantages and challenges relative to models developed from statistical correlations between distribution and climate. They can be especially useful for predicting the range of invasive species whose distribution has not yet reached equilibrium. Here, we illustrate how a physiological model of development for the invasive Argentine ant can be connected to differences in micro-site suitability, population dynamics and climatic gradients; processes operating at quite different spatial scales. Our study is located in the subalpine shrubland of Haleakala <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, where the spread of Argentine ants Linepithema humile has been documented for the past twenty-five years. We report four main results. First, at a microsite level, the accumulation of degree-days recorded in potential ant nest sites under bare ground or rocks was significantly greater than under a groundcover of grassy vegetation. Second, annual degree-days measured where population boundaries have not expanded (456-521 degree-days), were just above the developmental requirements identified from earlier laboratory studies (445 degree-days above 15.98C). Third, rates of population expansion showed a strong linear relationship with annual degree-days. Finally, an empirical relationship between soil degree-days and climate variables mapped at a broader scale predicts the potential for future range expansion of Argentine ants at Haleakala, particularly to the west of the lower colony and the east of the upper colony. Variation in the availability of suitable microsites, driven by changes in vegetation cover and ultimately climate, provide a hierarchical understanding of the distribution of Argentine ants close to their cold-wet limit of climatic tolerances. We conclude that the integration of physiology, population dynamics and climate mapping holds much promise for making more robust predictions about</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03462&hterms=Swallowing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSwallowing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03462&hterms=Swallowing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSwallowing"><span id="translatedtitle">Nyiragonga <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>This image of the Nyiragonga <span class="hlt">volcano</span> eruption in the Congo was acquired on January 28, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.<p/>Image: A river of molten rock poured from the Nyiragongo <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in the Congo on January 18, 2002, a day after it erupted, killing dozens, swallowing buildings and forcing hundreds of thousands to flee the town of Goma. The flow continued into Lake Kivu. The lave flows are depicted in red on the image indicating they are still hot. Two of them flowed south form the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s summit and went through the town of Goma. Another flow can be seen at the top of the image, flowing towards the northwest. One of Africa's most notable <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. Extremely fluid, fast-moving lava flows draining from the summit lava lake in 1977 killed 50 to 100 people, and several villages were destroyed. The image covers an area of 21 x 24 km and combines a thermal band in red, and two infrared bands in green and blue.<p/>Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol1-sec110-128b.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol1-sec110-128b.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 110.128b - Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. (a) Hilo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol1-sec110-128b.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol1-sec110-128b.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 110.128b - Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. (a) Hilo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol1-sec110-128b.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol1-sec110-128b.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 110.128b - Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. (a) Hilo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol1-sec110-128b.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol1-sec110-128b.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 110.128b - Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. (a) Hilo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec110-128b.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec110-128b.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 110.128b - Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. (a) Hilo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=district+AND+heating&pg=2&id=EJ817753','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=district+AND+heating&pg=2&id=EJ817753"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Schools See Green</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jacobson, Linda</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This article discusses <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s energy conservation efforts. Faced with high electricity costs, the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Department of Education instituted a pilot program in which schools could earn back half the amount they saved in electricity over the course of a semester. As a result, one school's electricity use decreased by more than 10% for the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=shark&id=EJ758644','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=shark&id=EJ758644"><span id="translatedtitle">Studying Hammerheads in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Handler, Alex; Duncan, Kanesa</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the author discusses the High School Scalloped Hammerhead Shark Tagging Program in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> which is an example of a successful partnership research collaboration. High school students and teachers worked with biologists from the University of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>-Manoa (UHM) to conduct research on the life history of scalloped hammerhead sharks…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/135/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/135/"><span id="translatedtitle">The story of the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory -- A remarkable first 100 years of tracking eruptions and earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Babb, Janet L.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Tilling, Robert I.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The year 2012 marks the centennial of the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO). With the support and cooperation of visionaries, financiers, scientists, and other individuals and organizations, HVO has successfully achieved 100 years of continuous monitoring of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. As we celebrate this milestone anniversary, we express our sincere mahalo—thanks—to the people who have contributed to and participated in HVO’s mission during this past century. First and foremost, we owe a debt of gratitude to the late Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., the geologist whose vision and efforts led to the founding of HVO. We also acknowledge the pioneering contributions of the late Frank A. Perret, who began the continuous monitoring of Kīlauea in 1911, setting the stage for Jaggar, who took over the work in 1912. Initial support for HVO was provided by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Carnegie Geophysical Laboratory, which financed the initial cache of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring instruments and Perret’s work in 1911. The Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Research Association, a group of Honolulu businessmen organized by Lorrin A. Thurston, also provided essential funding for HVO’s daily operations starting in mid-1912 and continuing for several decades. Since HVO’s beginning, the University of Hawaiʻi (UH), called the College of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> until 1920, has been an advocate of HVO’s scientific studies. We have benefited from collaborations with UH scientists at both the Hilo and Mänoa campuses and look forward to future cooperative efforts to better understand how Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> work. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated HVO continuously since 1947. Before then, HVO was under the administration of various Federal agencies—the U.S. Weather Bureau, at the time part of the Department of Agriculture, from 1919 to 1924; the USGS, which first managed HVO from 1924 to 1935; and the <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service from 1935 to 1947. For 76 of its first 100 years, HVO has been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21886288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21886288"><span id="translatedtitle">Poorer general health status in children is associated with being overweight or obese in <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>: findings from the 2007 <span class="hlt">National</span> Survey of Children's Health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teranishi, Kristen; Hayes, Donald K; Iwaishi, Louise K; Fuddy, Loretta J</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Obesity is a widespread <span class="hlt">national</span> issue that affects the health and well-being of millions of people; particular attention has been focused on the burden among children. The <span class="hlt">National</span> Survey of Children's Health data from 2007 was used to examine the relationship of child health status and unhealthy weight (overweight/obese defined as body mass index in ≥ 85 th percentile) among 874 children aged 10 to 17 years of age in <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>. In particular, the parentally reported child's general health status was assessed comparing those with a poorer health status (defined as "good/fair/poor") to those with a better one (defined as "excellent/very good"). Descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis examined risk for overweight/obese with child's general health status, accounting for gender, race, and socioeconomic factors. More children with a poorer health status (46.5%; 95%CI=33.2-60.2) were overweight/obese compared to those of better health status (25.8%; 95%CI=21.9-30.2). Estimates of overweight/obese were high in Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (38.6%; 95%CI: 28.9-49.4), multiracial (30.9%; 95%CI=24.2-38.6) children, and children whose parents had less than 12 years education (56.8%; 95%CI=32.8-78.0). Multivariate logistic regression modeling showed a 2.92 (95%CI=1.52-5.61) greater odds for overweight/obese status in children with a poorer health status compared to those of better health status after accounting for age, race, gender, and parental education. Gender, race, and parental education were also significant factors associated with overweight/obese in the final adjusted model. It is important that children that are overweight or obese receive appropriate health screenings including assessments of general health status. Children in high risk socioeconomic groups should be a particular focus of prevention efforts to promote health equity and provide opportunities for children to reach their potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044209','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044209"><span id="translatedtitle">Short- and long-term control of Vespula pensylvanica in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> by fipronil baiting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hanna, Cause; Foote, David; Kremen, Claire</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND: The invasive western yellowjacket wasp, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), has significantly impacted the ecological integrity and human welfare of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. The goals of the present study were (1) to evaluate the immediate and long-term efficacy of a 0.1% fipronil chicken bait on V. pensylvanica populations in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, (2) to quantify gains in efficacy using the attractant heptyl butyrate in the bait stations and (3) to measure the benefits of this approach for minimizing non-target impacts to other arthropods. RESULTS: The 0.1% fipronil chicken bait reduced the abundance of V. pensylvanica by 95 ± 1.2% during the 3 months following treatment and maintained a population reduction of 60.9 ± 3.1% a year after treatment in the fipronil-treated sites when compared with chicken-only sites. The addition of heptyl butyrate to the bait stations significantly increased V. pensylvanica forager visitation and bait take and significantly reduced the non-target impacts of fipronil baiting. CONCLUSION: In this study, 0.1% fipronil chicken bait with the addition of heptyl butyrate was found to be an extremely effective large-scale management strategy and provided the first evidence of a wasp suppression program impacting Vepsula populations a year after treatment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176959','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70176959"><span id="translatedtitle">Interaction between the Hawaiian dark-rumped petrel and the Argentine ant in Haleakala <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, Maui, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Hodges, Cathleen S.N.; Medeiros, Arthur C.; Loope, Lloyd L.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The endemic biota of the Hawaiian islands is believed to have evolved in the absence of ant predation. However, it was suspected that this endemic biota is highly vulnerable to the effect of immigrant ants especially with regard to an aggressive predator known as the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). First recorded in the Haleakala <span class="hlt">National</span> Park on the island of Maui in 1967, this ant was believed to have reduced populations of native arthropods in high-elevation subalpine shrublands. In addition, concerns were raised that this immigrant ant may have also reduced the breeding success of the endangered Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis), a native seabird. If so, then it was believe that this ant could become another major threat to the survival of this endangered seabird in addition to the threat that was caused by the introduction of introduced mammals, the advent of hunting by the Polynesians, and a loss of breeding habitat. As a result, the purpose of this study was to determine if the Argentine ant affects the nesting success of this native Hawaiian seabird.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814217P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814217P"><span id="translatedtitle">Spreading and collapse of big basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Puglisi, Giuseppe; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Peltier, Aline; Poland, Michael</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Among the different types of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, basaltic ones usually form the most voluminous edifices. Because <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are growing on a pre-existing landscape, the geologic and structural framework of the basement (and earlier volcanic landforms) influences the stress regime, seismicity, and volcanic activity. Conversely, the masses of these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> introduce a morphological anomaly that affects neighboring areas. Growth of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> disturbs the tectonic framework of the region, clamps and unclamps existing faults (some of which may be reactivated by the new stress field), and deforms the substratum. A <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s weight on its basement can trigger edifice spreading and collapse that can affect populated areas even at significant distance. <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> instability can also be driven by slow tectonic deformation and magmatic intrusion. The manifestations of instability span a range of temporal and spatial scales, ranging from slow creep on individual faults to large earthquakes affecting a broad area. In the frame of MED-SVU project, our work aims to investigate the relation between basement setting and volcanic activity and stability at three Supersite <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>: Etna (Sicily, Italy), Kilauea (Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, USA) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island, France). These <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> host frequent eruptive activity (effusive and explosive) and share common features indicating lateral spreading and collapse, yet they are characterized by different morphologies, dimensions, and tectonic frameworks. For instance, the basaltic ocean island <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of Kilauea and Piton de la Fournaise are near the active ends of long hotspot chains while Mt. Etna has developed at junction along a convergent margin between the African and Eurasian plates and a passive margin separating the oceanic Ionian crust from the African continental crust. Magma supply and plate velocity also differ in the three settings, as to the sizes of the edifices and the extents of their rift zones. These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002eso..presP...4.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002eso..presP...4."><span id="translatedtitle">Of Rings and <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p> observed with the NASA Galileo spacecraft since 1996 at higher resolution in the visible and infrared, especially during close encounters with the satellite (a link to Galileo maps of Io is available below). However, this NAOS image fills a gap in the surface coverage of the infrared images from Galileo. The capability of NAOS/CONICA to map Io in the infrared at the present high image resolution will allow astronomers to continue the survey of the volcanic activity and to monitor regularly the related surface processes . Related sites The following links point to a number of prominent photos of these two objects that were obtained elsewhere. Saturn Voyager images : http://vraptor.jpl.nasa.gov/voyager/vgrsat_img.html HST images : http://hubble.stsci.edu/news_.and._views/pr.cgi.2001+15 Pic du Midi images : http://www.bdl.fr/s2p/saturne.html IfA-CFHT : http://www.ifa.<span class="hlt">hawaii</span>.edu/ao/images/solarsys/new/new.html Io NASA/Galileo site : http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/moons/io.html <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> on Io : http://<span class="hlt">volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/planet_volcano</span>/Io/Overview.html HST image of Io : http://hubble.stsci.edu/news_.and._views/pr.cgi.1997+21 Keck I image of Io : http://www.astro.caltech.edu/mirror/keck/realpublic/inst/ao/Io/IoSnapshot.jpg Galileo and Voyager maps of Io : http://www.lowell.edu/users/ijw/maps/ (also with names of surface features) Notes [1]: The following astronomers and engineers from ESO and the partner institutes have participated in the current commissioning observations of Saturn and Io with NAOS-CONICA: Wolfgang Brandner, Jean-Gabriel Cuby, Pierre Drossart, Thierry Fusco, Eric Gendron, Markus Hartung, Norbert Hubin, François Lacombe, Anne-Marie Lagrange, Rainer Lenzen, David Mouillet, Claire Moutou, Gérard Rousset, Jason Spyromilio and Gérard Zins . [2]: New archive users may register via the ESO/ST-ECF Archive Registration Form. Technical information about the photos PR Photo 04a/02 is based on four exposures, obtained with VLT YEPUN and NAOS-CONICA on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E3002D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E3002D"><span id="translatedtitle">International lunar observatory / power station: from <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> to the Moon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Durst, S.</p> <p></p> <p>-like lava flow geology adds to Mauna Kea / Moon similarities. Operating amidst the extinct <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s fine grain lava and dust particles offers experience for major challenges posed by silicon-edged, powdery, deep and abundant lunar regolith. Power stations for lunar observatories, both robotic and low cost at first, are an immediate enabling necessity and will serve as a commercial-industrial driver for a wide range of lunar base technologies. Both microwave rectenna-transmitters and radio-optical telescopes, maybe 1-meter diameter, can be designed using the same, new ultra-lightweight materials. Five of the world's six major spacefaring powers - America, Russia, Japan, China and India, are located around <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> in the Pacific / Asia area. With Europe, which has many resources in the Pacific hemisphere including Arianespace offices in Tokyo and Singapore, they have 55-60% of the global population. New international business partnerships such as Sea Launch in the mid-Pacific, and <span class="hlt">national</span> ventures like China's Hainan spaceport, Japan's Kiribati shuttle landing site, Australia and Indonesia's emerging launch sites, and Russia's Ekranoplane sea launcher / lander - all combine with still more and advancing technologies to provide the central Pacific a globally representative, state-of-the-art and profitable access to space in this new century. The astronomer / engineers tasked with operation of the lunar observatory / power station will be the first to voyage from <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> to the Moon, before this decade is out. Their scientific and technical training at the world's leading astronomical complex on the lunar-like landscape of Mauna Kea may be enhanced with the learning and transmission of local cultures. Following the astronomer / engineers, tourism and travel in the commercially and technologically dynamic Pacific hemisphere will open the new ocean of space to public access in the 21st century like they opened the old ocean of sea and air to <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> in the 20th - with <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1173/pdf/ofr2014-1173.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1173/pdf/ofr2014-1173.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Water-chemistry data collected in and near Kaloko-Honokohau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, 2012–2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tillman, Fred D; Oki, Delwyn S.; Johnson, Adam G.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Kaloko-Honokōhau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park (KAHO) on western Hawaiʻi was established in 1978 to preserve, interpret, and perpetuate traditional Native Hawaiian culture and activities, including the preservation of a variety of culturally and ecologically significant water resources that are vital to this mission. KAHO water bodies provide habitat for 1 threatened, 11 endangered, and 3 candidate threatened or endangered species. These habitats are sustained by, and in the case of ʻAimakapā Fishpond and the anchialine pools, entirely dependent on, groundwater from the Keauhou aquifer system. Development of inland impounded groundwater in the Keauhou aquifer system may affect the coastal freshwater-lens system on which KAHO depends, if the inland impounded-groundwater and coastal freshwater-lens systems are hydrologically connected. This report documents water-chemistry results from a U.S. Geological Survey study that collected and analyzed water samples from 2012 to 2014 from 25 sites in and near KAHO to investigate potential geochemical indicators in water that might indicate the presence or absence of a hydrologic connection between the inland impounded-groundwater and coastal freshwater-lens systems in the area. Samples were collected under high-tide and low-tide conditions for KAHO sites, and in dry-season and wet-season conditions for all sites. Samples were collected from two ocean sites, two fishponds, three anchialine pools, and three monitoring wells within KAHO. Two additional nearshore wells were sampled on property adjacent to and north of KAHO. Additional samples from the freshwater-lens system were collected from six inland wells located upslope from KAHO, including three production wells. Seven production wells in the inland impounded-groundwater system also were sampled. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, rare-earth elements, strontium-isotope ratio, and stable isotopes of water. Precipitation samples from five</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1047/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1047/"><span id="translatedtitle">Publications of the <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nathenson, Manuel</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is part of the Geologic Hazards Assessments subactivity as funded by congressional appropriation. Investigations are carried out in the USGS and with cooperators at the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, University of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Manoa and Hilo, University of Utah, and University of Washington Geophysics Program. This report lists publications from all these institutions. Only published papers and maps are included here; numerous abstracts presented at scientific meetings are omitted. Publications dates are based on year of issue, with no attempt to assign them to fiscal year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70041340','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70041340"><span id="translatedtitle">Slow slip event at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta; Wilson, J. David; Okubo, Paul G.; Montgomery-Brown, Emily; Segall, Paul; Brooks, Benjamin; Foster, James; Wolfe, Cecily; Syracuse, Ellen; Thurbe, Clifford</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Early in the morning of 1 February 2010 (UTC; early afternoon 31 January 2010 local time), continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) and tilt instruments detected a slow slip event (SSE) on the south flank of Kilauea <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. The SSE lasted at least 36 hours and resulted in a maximum of about 3 centimeters of seaward displacement. About 10 hours after the start of the slip, a flurry of small earthquakes began (Figure 1) in an area of the south flank recognized as having been seismically active during past SSEs [Wolfe et al., 2007], suggesting that the February earthquakes were triggered by stress associated with slip [Segall et al., 2006].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1164/of2013-1164.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1164/of2013-1164.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Publications of the <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nathenson, Manuel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is part of the Geologic Hazards Assessments subactivity, as funded by Congressional appropriation. Investigations are carried out by the USGS and with cooperators at the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, University of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Manoa and Hilo, University of Utah, and University of Washington Geophysics Program. This report lists publications from all these institutions. Only published papers and maps are included here; abstracts presented at scientific meetings are omitted. Publication dates are based on year of issue, with no attempt to assign them to fiscal year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1177/of2012-1177.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1177/of2012-1177.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Publications of the <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nathenson, Manuel</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is part of the Geologic Hazards Assessments subactivity as funded by Congressional appropriation. Investigations are carried out in the USGS and with cooperators at the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, University of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Manoa and Hilo, University of Utah, and University of Washington Geophysics Program. This report lists publications from all these institutions. Only published papers and maps are included here; numerous abstracts presented at scientific meetings are omitted. Publication dates are based on year of issue, with no attempt to assign them to fiscal year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1147/pdf/ofr2014-1147.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2014/1147/pdf/ofr2014-1147.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Publications of the <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program 2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nathenson, Manuel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is part of the Geologic Hazards Assessments subactivity, as funded by Congressional appropriation. Investigations are carried out by the USGS and with cooperators at the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, University of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Manoa and Hilo, University of Utah, and University of Washington Geophysics Program. This report lists publications from all of these institutions. Only published papers and maps are included here; abstracts presented at scientific meetings are omitted. Publication dates are based on year of issue, with no attempt to assign them to a fiscal year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V23A3078U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V23A3078U"><span id="translatedtitle"><p>Pattern recognition in <span class="hlt">volcano</span> seismology - Reducing spectral dimensionality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Unglert, K.; Radic, V.; Jellinek, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Variations in the spectral content of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> seismicity can relate to changes in volcanic activity. Low-frequency seismic signals often precede or accompany volcanic eruptions. However, they are commonly manually identified in spectra or spectrograms, and their definition in spectral space differs from one volcanic setting to the next. Increasingly long time series of monitoring data at <span class="hlt">volcano</span> observatories require automated tools to facilitate rapid processing and aid with pattern identification related to impending eruptions. Furthermore, knowledge transfer between volcanic settings is difficult if the methods to identify and analyze the characteristics of seismic signals differ. To address these challenges we evaluate whether a machine learning technique called Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) can be used to characterize the dominant spectral components of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> seismicity without the need for any a priori knowledge of different signal classes. This could reduce the dimensions of the spectral space typically analyzed by orders of magnitude, and enable rapid processing and visualization. Preliminary results suggest that the temporal evolution of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> seismicity at Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span>, can be reduced to as few as 2 spectral components by using a combination of SOMs and cluster analysis. We will further refine our methodology with several datasets from <span class="hlt">Hawai`i</span> and Alaska, among others, and compare it to other techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7188826','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7188826"><span id="translatedtitle">Voluminous submarine lava flows from Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Holcomb, R.T.; Moore, J.G.; Lipman, P.W.; Belderson, R.H.</p> <p>1988-05-01</p> <p>The GLORIA long-range sonar imaging system has revealed fields of large lava flows in the Hawaiian Trough east and south of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> in water as deep as 5.5 km. Flows in the most extensive field (110 km long) have erupted from the deep submarine segment of Kilauea's east rift zone. Other flows have been erupted from Loihi and Mauna Loa. This discovery confirms a suspicion, long held from subaerial studies, that voluminous submarine flows are erupted from Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and it supports an inference that summit calderas repeatedly collapse and fill at intervals of centuries to millenia owing to voluminous eruptions. These extensive flows differ greatly in form from pillow lavas found previously along shallower segments of the rift zones; therefore, revision of concepts of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> stratigraphy and structure may be required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri994171','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri994171"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrology and Water and Sediment Quality at James Campbell <span class="hlt">National</span> Wildlife Refuge near Kahuku, Island of Oahu, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hunt, Charles D.; De Carlo, Eric H.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The James Campbell <span class="hlt">National</span> Wildlife Refuge occupies two lowland marsh and pond complexes on the northern coastal plain of Oahu: the mostly natural ponds and wetlands of the Punamano Unit and the constructed ponds of the Kii Unit. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages the Refuge primarily to protect and enhance habitat for four endangered species of Hawaiian waterbirds. Kii Unit is fed by artesian wells and rainfall, whereas Punamano Unit is fed naturally by rainfall, runoff, and ground-water seepage. Streams drain from the uplands into lowland ditches that pass through Kii Unit on their way to the ocean. A high-capacity pump transfers water from the inner ditch terminus at Kii to the ocean outlet channel. Stormwaters also exit the inner ditch system over flood-relief swales near the outlet pump and through a culvert with a one-way valve. A hydrologic investigation was done from November 1996 through February 1998 to identify and quantify principal inflows and outflows of water to and from the Refuge, identify hydraulic factors affecting flooding, document ground-water/surface-water interactions, determine the adequacy of the current freshwater supply, and determine water and sediment quality. These goals were accomplished by installing and operating a network of stream-gaging stations, meteorology stations, and shallow ground-water piezometers, by computing water budgets for the two Refuge units, and by sampling and analyzing water and pond-bottom sediments for major ions, trace metals, and organic compounds. Streamflow during the study was dominated by winter stormflows, followed by a gradual recession of flow into summer 1997, as water that had been stored in alluvial fans drained to lowland ditches. Outflow at the ditch terminus in 1997 was 125 million gallons greater than measured inflow to the coastal plain, mainly reflecting gains from ground water along the ditches between outlying gages and the ditch terminus. Of the measured 1997 outflow, 98 percent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/19/downloads/gip19.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/19/downloads/gip19.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Living with a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in your backyard: an educator's guide with emphasis on Mount Rainier</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Driedger, Carolyn L.; Doherty, Anne; Dixon, Cheryl; Faust, Lisa M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service and the U.S. Geological Survey’s <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program (USGS-VHP) support development and publication of this educator’s guide as part of their mission to educate the public about <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. The USGS-VHP studies the dynamics of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, investigates eruption histories, develops hazard assessments, monitors <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-related activity, and collaborates with local officials to lower the risk of disruption when <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> become restless.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70164342','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70164342"><span id="translatedtitle">Scientists probe Earth’s secrets at the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Unger, J.D.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO) sits on the edge of Kilauea Caldera at the summit of Kilauea Volcao, one of the five <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, the largest island in the Hawaiian Islands chain. Of the five, only Kilauea and Mauna Loa have been active in the past 100 years. Before its last eruption in June 1950, Mauna Loa had erupted more frequently and copiously than Kilauea, but since then only Kilauea has been active. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70009946','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70009946"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> hazards program in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tilling, R.I.; Bailey, R.A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> monitoring and volcanic-hazards studies have received greatly increased attention in the United States in the past few years. Before 1980, the Volcanic Hazards Program was primarily focused on the active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of Kilauea and Mauna Loa, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, which have been monitored continuously since 1912 by the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory. After the reawakening and catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, the program was substantially expanded as the government and general public became aware of the potential for eruptions and associated hazards within the conterminous United States. Integrated components of the expanded program include: volcanic-hazards assessment; <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring; fundamental research; and, in concert with federal, state, and local authorities, emergency-response planning. In 1980 the David A. Johnston Cascades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory was established in Vancouver, Washington, to systematically monitor the continuing activity of Mount St. Helens, and to acquire baseline data for monitoring the other, presently quiescent, but potentially dangerous Cascade <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the Pacific Northwest. Since June 1980, all of the eruptions of Mount St. Helens have been predicted successfully on the basis of seismic and geodetic monitoring. The largest volcanic eruptions, but the least probable statistically, that pose a threat to western conterminous United States are those from the large Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic systems, such as Long Valley caldera (California) and Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming), which are underlain by large magma chambers still potentially capable of producing catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions. In order to become better prepared for possible future hazards associated with such historically unpecedented events, detailed studies of these, and similar, large volcanic systems should be intensified to gain better insight into caldera-forming processes and to recognize, if possible, the precursors of caldera-forming eruptions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGeo....3..425T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGeo....3..425T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> hazards program in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tilling, Robert I.; Bailey, Roy A.</p> <p>1985-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> monitoring and volcanic-hazards studies have received greatly increased attention in the United States in the past few years. Before 1980, the Volcanic Hazards Program was primarily focused on the active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of Kilauea and Mauna Loa, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, which have been monitored continuously since 1912 by the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory. After the reawakening and catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, the program was substantially expanded as the government and general public became aware of the potential for eruptions and associated hazards within the conterminous United States. Integrated components of the expanded program include: volcanic-hazards assessment; <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring; fundamental research; and, in concert with federal, state, and local authorities, emergency-response planning. In 1980 the David A. Johnston Cascades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory was established in Vancouver, Washington, to systematically monitor the continuing activity of Mount St. Helens, and to acquire baseline data for monitoring the other, presently quiescent, but potentially dangerous Cascade <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in the Pacific Northwest. Since June 1980, all of the eruptions of Mount St. Helens have been predicted successfully on the basis of seismic and geodetic monitoring. The largest volcanic eruptions, but the least probable statistically, that pose a threat to western conterminous United States are those from the large Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic systems, such as Long Valley caldera (California) and Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming), which are underlain by large magma chambers still potentially capable of producing catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions. In order to become better prepared for possible future hazards associated with such historically unpecedented events, detailed studies of these, and similar, large volcanic systems should be intensified to gain better insight into caldera-forming processes and to recognize, if possible, the precursors of caldera-forming eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116256','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/116256"><span id="translatedtitle">The PVUSA-<span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Satellite Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rezachek, D.A.; Seki, A.; Sakai, K.</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) Project is a <span class="hlt">national</span>, cooperative research, development and demonstration program designed to promote utility-scale use of photovoltaics. Five 20-kilowatt-peak (nominal) emerging technologies, as well as several other photovoltaic systems, are being demonstrated at a site near Davis, California and one emerging technology system is being demonstrated at Kihei, Maui, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. The PVUSA-<span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Satellite Project was the first satellite system in the US. This paper describes the design, installation, operation and testing, maintenance, performance, and costs of the PVUSA-<span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Satellite Project. This system is compared to a similar system in Davis, and conclusions and recommendations based on more than five years of operation are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1412b/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1412b/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Geohydrology of the Island of Oahu, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hunt, Charles D.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The island of Oahu, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, is the eroded remnant of two coalesced shield <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, the Waianae <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> and the Koolau <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>. Shield-building lavas emanated mainly from the rift zones of the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Subaerial eruptions of the Waianae <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> occurred between 3.9 and 2.5 million years ago, and eruptions of the Koolau <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> occurred between 2.6 and 1.8 million years ago. The <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> have subsided more then 6,000 feet, and erosion has destroyed all but the western rim of the Koolau <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> and the eastern part of the Waianae <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, represented by the Koolau and Waianae Ranges, respectively. Hydraulic properties of the volcanic-rock aquifers are determined by the distinctive textures and geometry of individual lava flows. Individual lava flows are characterized by intergranular, fracture, and conduit-type porosity and commonly are highly permeable. The stratified nature of the lava flows imparts a layered heterogeneity. The flows are anisotropic in three dimensions, with the largest permeability in the longitudinal direction of the lava flow, an intermediate permeability in the direction transverse to the flow, and the smallest permeability normal to bedding. Averaged over several lava-flow thicknesses, lateral hydraulic conductivity of dike-free lava flows is about 500 to 5,000 feet per day, with smaller and larger values not uncommon. Systematic areal variations in lava-flow thickness or other properties may impart trends in the heterogeneity. The aquifers of Oahu contain two flow regimes: shallow freshwater and deep saltwater. The freshwater floats on underlying saltwater in a condition of buoyant displacement, although the relation is not necessarily a simple hydrostatic balance everywhere. Natural driving mechanisms for freshwater and saltwater flow differ. Freshwater moves mainly by simple gravity flow; meteoric water flows from inland recharge areas at higher altitudes to discharge areas at lower altitudes near the coast. Remnant volcanic heat also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA41B2169D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPA41B2169D"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking space observations to <span class="hlt">volcano</span> observatories in Latin America: Results from the CEOS DRM <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Pilot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Within Latin American, about 315 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United <span class="hlt">Nations</span> Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> observatories that are governmentally responsible for <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by <span class="hlt">volcano</span> observatories during the last 18 months to monitor <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> observatories in different countries.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162563','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162563"><span id="translatedtitle">The ten-year eruption of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Clague, D.A.; Heliker, C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>About 1 km3 of lava erupted during the first 0 years of the eruption. Lava flows have destroyed 181 houses and severed the coastal highway along the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s south flank, severely restricting transportation on this part of the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. the eruption consisted of many distinct episodes characterized by activity at different vents and by different eruptive styles. the following summarizes the first 10 years of the eruption, starting with the initial outbreak in 1983.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5179/downloads/sir2014-5179.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5179/downloads/sir2014-5179.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic instrumentation plan for the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Thelen, Weston A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The installation of new seismic stations is only the first part of building a volcanic early warning capability for seismicity in the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Additional personnel will likely be required to study the volcanic processes at work under each <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, analyze the current seismic activity at a level sufficient for early warning, build new tools for monitoring, maintain seismic computing resources, and maintain the new seismic stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04503&hterms=vents&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dvents','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04503&hterms=vents&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dvents"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Vents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><p/> [figure removed for brevity, see original site] <p/>Released 5 May 2003<p/>This low-relief shield <span class="hlt">volcano</span> imaged with the THEMIS visible camera has two large vents which have erupted several individual lava flows. The positions of the origins of many of the flows indicate that it is probable that the vents are secondary structures that formed only after the shield was built up by eruptions from a central caldera.<p/>Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 17.6, Longitude 243.6 East (116.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.<p/>Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.<p/>NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.<p/></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volcanic+AND+activity&id=EJ273318','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volcanic+AND+activity&id=EJ273318"><span id="translatedtitle">A Scientific Excursion: <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Olds, Henry, Jr.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Reviews an educationally valuable and reasonably well-designed simulation of volcanic activity in an imaginary land. <span class="hlt">VOLCANOES</span> creates an excellent context for learning information about <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and for developing skills and practicing methods needed to study behavior of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. (Author/JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AsNow..21c..59C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AsNow..21c..59C"><span id="translatedtitle">Focus: alien <span class="hlt">volcanos</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carroll, Michael; Lopes, Rosaly</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Part 1: <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> on Earth - blowing their top; Part 2: <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> of the inner Solar System - dead or alive: the Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus; Part 3: <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> of the outer Solar System - fire and ice: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Miranda, Titan, Triton, Enceladus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050196698','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050196698"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Space Grant Consortium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Flynn, Luke P.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> Space Grant Consortium is composed of ten institutions of higher learning including the University of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> at Manoa, the University of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> at Hilo, the University of Guam, and seven Community Colleges spread over the 4 main Hawaiian islands. Geographic separation is not the only obstacle that we face as a Consortium. <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> has been mired in an economic downturn due to a lack of tourism for almost all of the period (2001 - 2004) covered by this report, although hotel occupancy rates and real estate sales have sky-rocketed in the last year. Our challenges have been many including providing quality educational opportunities in the face of shrinking State and Federal budgets, encouraging science and technology course instruction at the K-12 level in a public school system that is becoming less focused on high technology and more focused on developing basic reading and math skills, and assembling community college programs with instructors who are expected to teach more classes for the same salary. Motivated people can overcome these problems. Fortunately, the <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> Space Grant Consortium (HSGC) consists of a group of highly motivated and talented individuals who have not only overcome these obstacles, but have excelled with the Program. We fill a critical need within the State of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> to provide our children with opportunities to pursue their dreams of becoming the next generation of NASA astronauts, engineers, and explorers. Our strength lies not only in our diligent and creative HSGC advisory board, but also with <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>'s teachers, students, parents, and industry executives who are willing to invest their time, effort, and resources into <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>'s future. Our operational philosophy is to FACE the Future, meaning that we will facilitate, administer, catalyze, and educate in order to achieve our objective of creating a highly technically capable workforce both here in <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> and for NASA. In addition to administering to programs and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022640','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022640"><span id="translatedtitle">A new method for monitoring global volcanic activity. [Alaska, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ward, P. L.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D. H.; Allen, R.; Eaton, J. P.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The ERTS Data Collection System makes it feasible for the first time to monitor the level of activity at widely separated <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and to relay these data rapidly to one central office for analysis. While prediction of specific eruptions is still an evasive goal, early warning of a reawakening of quiescent <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> is now a distinct possibility. A prototypical global <span class="hlt">volcano</span> surveillance system was established under the ERTS program. Instruments were installed in cooperation with local scientists on 15 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in Alaska, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The sensors include 19 seismic event counters that count four different sizes of earthquakes and six biaxial borehole tiltmeters that measure ground tilt with a resolution of 1 microradian. Only seismic and tilt data are collected because these have been shown in the past to indicate most reliably the level of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> activity at many different <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Furthermore, these parameters can be measured relatively easily with new instrumentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70040349','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70040349"><span id="translatedtitle">Biological inventory of anchialine pools in the Pu'uhonua o Hōnaunau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park and Pu'ukoholā Heiau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Site, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Island</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tango, Lori K.; Foote, David; Magnacca, Karl N.; Foltz, Sarah J.; Cutler, Kerry</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Inventories for major groups of invertebrates were completed at anchialine pool complexes in Pu‘uhonua o Hōnaunau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historical Park (PUHO) and Pu‘ukoholā Heiau <span class="hlt">National</span> Historic Site (PUHE) on the island of Hawai‘i. Nine pools within two pool complexes were surveyed at PUHO, along with one extensive pool at the terminus of Makeāhua Gulch at PUHE. At both parks, inventories documented previously unreported diversity, with pool complexes at PUHO exhibiting greater species richness for most taxa than the pool at PUHE. Inventories at PUHO recorded five species of molluscs, four species of crustaceans (including the candidate endangered shrimp Metabetaeus lohena), two species of Orthoptera, four species of Odonata (including the candidate endangered damselfly Megalagrion xanthomelas), fourteen species of Diptera, nine taxa of plankton, and thirteen species of ants; inventories at the PUHE pool produced only one species of mollusc, two species of crustacean, at least one species of Orthoptera, four species of Odonata, thirty species of Diptera, five taxa of plankton, and four species of ants. Further survey work may be necessary to document the full diversity of pool fauna, especially in species-rich groups like the Diptera. Inventory data will be used to generate a network wide database of species presence and distribution, and will aid in developing management plans for anchialine pool resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs04503/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs04503/"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface Water in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Oki, Delwyn S.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Surface water in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> is a valued resource as well as a potential threat to human lives and property. The surface-water resources of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> are of significant economic, ecologic, cultural, and aesthetic importance. Streams supply more than 50 percent of the irrigation water in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, and although streams supply only a few percent of the drinking water statewide, surface water is the main source of drinking water in some places. Streams also are a source of hydroelectric power, provide important riparian and instream habitats for many unique native species, support traditional and customary Hawaiian gathering rights and the practice of taro cultivation, and possess valued aesthetic qualities. Streams affect the physical, chemical, and aesthetic quality of receiving waters, such as estuaries, bays, and nearshore waters, which are critical to the tourism-based economy of the islands. Streams in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> pose a danger because of their flashy nature; a stream's stage, or water level, can rise several feet in less than an hour during periods of intense rainfall. Streams in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> are flashy because rainfall is intense, drainage basins are small, basins and streams are steep, and channel storage is limited. Streamflow generated during periods of heavy rainfall has led to loss of property and human lives in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Most Hawaiian streams originate in the mountainous interiors of the islands and terminate at the coast. Streams are significant sculptors of the Hawaiian landscape because of the erosive power of the water they convey. In geologically young areas, such as much of the southern part of the island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, well-defined stream channels have not developed because the permeability of the surface rocks generally is so high that rainfall infiltrates before flowing for significant distances on the surface. In geologically older areas that have received significant rainfall, streams and mass wasting have carved out large valleys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01304&hterms=coffee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcoffee','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01304&hterms=coffee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcoffee"><span id="translatedtitle">Space radar image of Mauna Loa, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This image of the Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">volcano</span> on the Big Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> shows the capability of imaging radar to map lava flows and other volcanic structures. Mauna Loa has erupted more than 35 times since the island was first visited by westerners in the early 1800s. The large summit crater, called Mokuaweoweo Caldera, is clearly visible near the center of the image. Leading away from the caldera (towards top right and lower center) are the two main rift zones shown here in orange. Rift zones are areas of weakness within the upper part of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> that are often ripped open as new magma (molten rock) approaches the surface at the start of an eruption. The most recent eruption of Mauna Loa was in March and April 1984, when segments of the northeast rift zones were active. If the height of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> was measured from its base on the ocean floor instead of from sea level, Mauna Loa would be the tallest mountain on Earth. Its peak (center of the image) rises more than 8 kilometers (5 miles) above the ocean floor. The South Kona District, known for cultivation of macadamia nuts and coffee, can be seen in the lower left as white and blue areas along the coast. North is toward the upper left. The area shown is 41.5 by 75 kilometers (25.7 by 46.5 miles), centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.6 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 36th orbit on October 2, 1994. The radar illumination is from the left of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). The resulting color combinations in this radar image are caused by differences in surface roughness of the lava flows. Smoother flows</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1254466','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1254466"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Island Groundwater Flow Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Nicole Lautze</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Groundwater flow model for <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> – Final. Prepared by the University of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050169486','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050169486"><span id="translatedtitle">Revisiting Valley Development on Martian <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> Using MGS and Odyssey Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gulick, Virginia C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The valley networks found on the slopes of Martian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> represent an interesting subset of the Martian valley networks. Not only do the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> constrain the possible geologic settings, they also provide a window into Martian valley development through time, as the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> formed throughout the geologic history of Mars. Here I take another look at this intriguing subset of networks by revisiting conclusions reached in my earlier studies using the Viking imagery and the valleys on <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> as an analog. I then examine more recent datasets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/75/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/75/"><span id="translatedtitle">Cascades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Venezky, Dina Y.; Driedger, Carolyn; Pallister, John</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Washington's Mount St. Helens <span class="hlt">volcano</span> reawakens explosively on October 1, 2004, after 18 years of quiescence. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (CVO) study and observe Mount St. Helens and other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of the Cascade Range in Washington, Oregon, and northern California that hold potential for future eruptions. CVO is one of five USGS <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> for science and public safety. Learn more about Mount St. Helens and CVO at http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026283','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026283"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> seismology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Chouet, B.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A fundamental goal of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24171566','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24171566"><span id="translatedtitle">Giardia in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and domestic cattle in <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, Rwanda.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Woutrina A; Cranfield, Michael R; Ramer, Jan; Hassell, James; Noheri, Jean Bosco; Conrad, Patricia A; Gilardi, Kirsten V K</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) are critically endangered primates surviving in two isolated populations in protected areas within the Virunga Massif of Rwanda, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Bwindi Impenetrable <span class="hlt">National</span> Park in Uganda. Mountain gorillas face intense ecologic pressures due to their proximity to humans. Human communities outside the <span class="hlt">national</span> parks, and numerous human activities within the <span class="hlt">national</span> parks (including research, tourism, illegal hunting, and anti-poaching patrols), lead to a high degree of contact between mountain gorillas and wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. To assess the pathogen transmission potential between wildlife and livestock, feces of mountain gorillas, forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and domestic cattle (Bos taurus) in Rwanda were examined for the parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia was found in 9% of mountain gorillas, 6% of cattle, and 2% of forest buffalo. Our study represents the first report of Giardia prevalence in forest buffalo. Cryptosporidium-like particles were also observed in all three species. Molecular characterization of Giardia isolates identified zoonotic genotype assemblage B in the gorilla samples and assemblage E in the cattle samples. Significant spatial clustering of Giardia-positive samples was observed in one sector of the park. Although we did not find evidence for transmission of protozoa from forest buffalo to mountain gorillas, the genotypes of Giardia samples isolated from gorillas have been reported in humans, suggesting that the importance of humans in this ecosystem should be more closely evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1090205','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1090205"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> electric system reliability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>This report addresses <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/79/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/79/"><span id="translatedtitle">Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine <span class="hlt">volcano</span> in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (AVO) monitors these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996LPI....27..687K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996LPI....27..687K"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Study of Submarine <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> and Small Venusian Volcanic Edifices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Komatsu, G.; Krempasky, M. C.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>The small volcanic edifices on Venus are important because of their common occurrence on the planet's surface. They normally range 0-10 km in diameter. An extensive inventory has been compiled for more than 2000 small edifices. Based on this inventory, it is estimated that there are about half million identifiable small volcanic edifices on the planet. This work also indicates that the small volcanic edifices' size frequency distribution is very similar to that of submarine <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> (seamounts) distributed on the East Pacific Rise. It has been suggested that submarine <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, particularly flat-topped seamounts located off the coast of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, are analogous to "pancake domes" on Venus. However the detailed geomorphic analysis of seamounts located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Pacific Ocean Basin indicates that submarine <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are better analogs for small volcanic edifices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3104/fs2012-3104.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Mauna Loa--history, hazards and risk of living with the world's largest <span class="hlt">volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Trusdell, Frank A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Mauna Loa on the Island Hawaiʻi is the world’s largest <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. People residing on its flanks face many hazards that come with living on or near an active <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and local tsunami (giant seawaves). The County of Hawaiʻi (Island of Hawaiʻi) is the fastest growing County in the State of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Its expanding population and increasing development mean that risk from <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazards will continue to grow. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO) closely monitor and study Mauna Loa <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> to enable timely warning of hazardous activity and help protect lives and property.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_54493.htm','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/Prodesc/proddesc_54493.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Map Showing Lava Inundation Zones for Mauna Loa, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Trusdell, F.A.; Graves, P.; Tincher, C.R.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Introduction The Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> is composed of five coalesced basaltic <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Lava flows constitute the greatest volcanic hazard from these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. This report is concerned with lava flow hazards on Mauna Loa, the largest of the island shield <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Hilo lies 58 km from the summit of Mauna Loa, the Kona coast 33 km, and the southernmost point of the island 61 km. Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> erupt two morphologically distinct types of lava, aa and pahoehoe. The surfaces of pahoehoe flows are rather smooth and undulating. Pahoehoe flows are commonly fed by lava tubes, which are well insulated, lava-filled conduits contained within the flows. The surfaces of aa flows are extremely rough and composed of lava fragments. Aa flows usually form lava channels rather than lava tubes. In <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, lava flows are known to reach distances of 50 km or more. The flows usually advance slowly enough that people can escape from their paths. Anything overwhelmed by a flow will be damaged or destroyed by burial, crushing, or ignition. Mauna Loa makes up 51 percent of the surface area of the Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Geologic mapping shows that lava flows have covered more than 40 percent of the surface every 1,000 years. Since written descriptions of its activity began in A.D. 1832, Mauna Loa has erupted 33 times. Some eruptions begin with only brief seismic unrest, whereas others start several months to a year following increased seismic activity. Once underway, the eruptions can produce lava flows that reach the sea in less than 24 hours, severing roads and utilities. For example, the 1950 flows from the southwest rift zone reached the ocean in approximately three hours. The two longest flows of Mauna Loa are pahoehoe flows from the 50-kilometer-long 1859 and the 48-kilometer-long 1880-81 eruptions. Mauna Loa will undoubtedly erupt again. When it does, the first critical question that must be answered is: Which areas are threatened with inundation? Once the threatened areas are</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volcanic+AND+activity&pg=2&id=EJ305892','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volcanic+AND+activity&pg=2&id=EJ305892"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>: Nature's Caldrons Challenge Geochemists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zurer, Pamela S.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Reviews various topics and research studies on the geology of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Areas examined include <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and weather, plate margins, origins of magma, magma evolution, United States Geological Survey (USGS) <span class="hlt">volcano</span> hazards program, USGS <span class="hlt">volcano</span> observatories, volcanic gases, potassium-argon dating activities, and <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring strategies.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title32-vol5-sec765-6.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title32-vol5-sec765-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>.... 341, 62 Stat. 799; 18 U.S.C. 2152, 33 U.S.C. 475; E.O. 8143, 4 FR 2179, 3 CFR 1943 Cum. Supp. 504) ... 32 <span class="hlt">National</span> Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. The Commander,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title32-vol5-sec765-6.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title32-vol5-sec765-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>.... 341, 62 Stat. 799; 18 U.S.C. 2152, 33 U.S.C. 475; E.O. 8143, 4 FR 2179, 3 CFR 1943 Cum. Supp. 504) ... 32 <span class="hlt">National</span> Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. The Commander,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title32-vol5-sec765-6.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title32-vol5-sec765-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>.... 341, 62 Stat. 799; 18 U.S.C. 2152, 33 U.S.C. 475; E.O. 8143, 4 FR 2179, 3 CFR 1943 Cum. Supp. 504) ... 32 <span class="hlt">National</span> Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. The Commander,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title32-vol5-sec765-6.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title32-vol5-sec765-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>.... 341, 62 Stat. 799; 18 U.S.C. 2152, 33 U.S.C. 475; E.O. 8143, 4 FR 2179, 3 CFR 1943 Cum. Supp. 504) ... 32 <span class="hlt">National</span> Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. The Commander,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol5-sec765-6.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol5-sec765-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>.... 341, 62 Stat. 799; 18 U.S.C. 2152, 33 U.S.C. 475; E.O. 8143, 4 FR 2179, 3 CFR 1943 Cum. Supp. 504) ... 32 <span class="hlt">National</span> Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. The Commander,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hi.water.usgs.gov/publications/pubs/adr/adr02.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://hi.water.usgs.gov/publications/pubs/adr/adr02.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Water Resources Data: <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> and Other Pacific Areas, Water Year 2002. Volume 1. <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wong, M.F.; Nishimoto, D.C.; Teeters, P.C.; Taogoshi, R.I.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Water resources data for the 2002 water year for <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and springs; water levels and quality of water wells; and rainfall totals. * Water discharge for 71 gaging stations on streams, springs, and ditches. * Discharge data for 93 crest-stage partial-record stations. * Water-quality data for 5 streams, 28 partial-record stations, and 65 wells. * Water levels for 83 observation wells. * Rainfall data for 38 rainfall stations. These data represent that part of the <span class="hlt">National</span> Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and other local agencies in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GJWASq1b3Q0','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GJWASq1b3Q0"><span id="translatedtitle">Galactic Super <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Similar to Iceland <span class="hlt">Volcano</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This composite image from NASAs Chandra X-ray Observatory with radio data from the Very Large Array shows a cosmic <span class="hlt">volcano</span> being driven by a black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy. This eruptio...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168534','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168534"><span id="translatedtitle">Where lava meets the sea; Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mattox, T.N.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Seaside explosions of the type and magnitude of the event on November 24, 1992, are infrequent. the observation of this event represents a rare opportunity to enhance our understanding of the birth of littoral cones and the nature of explosive activity when lava enters the ocean. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7615M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7615M"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric influence on <span class="hlt">volcano</span>-acoustic signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matoza, Robin; de Groot-Hedlin, Catherine; Hedlin, Michael; Fee, David; Garcés, Milton; Le Pichon, Alexis</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> are natural sources of infrasound, useful for studying infrasonic propagation in the atmosphere. Large, explosive volcanic eruptions typically produce signals that can be recorded at ranges of hundreds of kilometers propagating in atmospheric waveguides. In addition, sustained volcanic eruptions can produce smaller-amplitude repetitive signals recordable at >10 km range. These include repetitive impulsive signals and continuous tremor signals. The source functions of these signals can remain relatively invariant over timescales of weeks to months. Observed signal fluctuations from such persistent sources at an infrasound recording station may therefore be attributed to dynamic atmospheric propagation effects. We present examples of repetitive and sustained <span class="hlt">volcano</span> infrasound sources at Mount St. Helens, Washington and Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, USA. The data recorded at >10 km range show evidence of propagation effects induced by tropospheric variability at the mesoscale and microscale. Ray tracing and finite-difference simulations of the infrasound propagation produce qualitatively consistent results. However, the finite-difference simulations indicate that low-frequency effects such as diffraction, and scattering from topography may be important factors for infrasonic propagation at this scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035604','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035604"><span id="translatedtitle">Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>'s endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park, <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (<50%). Less than 20% of trees surveyed at ' Ainahou Ranch had treeholes and few mosquito larvae were detected. Aerial surveys at 'Ainahou Ranch detected 56% (95% CI: 42-68%) of the potential larval habitat identified in ground surveys. At Mauna Loa Strip Road, Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were only found in the rock holes of small intermittent stream drainages that made up 20% (5 of 25) of the total potential larval habitat. The volume of the potential larval habitat did not influence the probability of mosquito occurrence at Mauna Loa Strip Road. Our results suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance, and subsequently avian malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span> where anthropogenic sources predominate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013esm..book..473T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013esm..book..473T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>, Observations and Impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thurber, Clifford; Prejean, Stephanie</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> are critical geologic hazards that challenge our ability to make long-term forecasts of their eruptive behaviors. They also have direct and indirect impacts on human lives and society. As is the case with many geologic phenomena, the time scales over which <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> evolve greatly exceed that of a human lifetime. On the other hand, the time scale over which a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> can move from inactivity to eruption can be rather short: months, weeks, days, and even hours. Thus, scientific study and monitoring of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> is essential to mitigate risk. There are thousands of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Earth, and it is impractical to study and implement ground-based monitoring at them all. Fortunately, there are other effective means for <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring, including increasing capabilities for satellite-based technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005EOSTr..86..214G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005EOSTr..86..214G"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Adventure Guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goff, Fraser</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>Adventure travels to <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> offer chance encounters with danger, excitement, and romance, plus opportunities to experience scientific enlightenment and culture. To witness a violently erupting <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and its resulting impacts on landscape, climate, and humanity is a powerful personal encounter with gigantic planetary forces. To study <span class="hlt">volcano</span> processes and products during eruptions is to walk in the footsteps of Pliny himself. To tour the splendors and horrors of 25 preeminent <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> might be the experience of a lifetime, for scientists and nonscientists alike. In The <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Adventure Guide, we now have the ultimate tourist volume to lead us safely to many of the world's famous <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and to ensure that we will see the important sites at each one.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047253','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047253"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>: observations and impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Thurber, Clifford; Prejean, Stephanie G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> are critical geologic hazards that challenge our ability to make long-term forecasts of their eruptive behaviors. They also have direct and indirect impacts on human lives and society. As is the case with many geologic phenomena, the time scales over which <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> evolve greatly exceed that of a human lifetime. On the other hand, the time scale over which a <span class="hlt">volcano</span> can move from inactivity to eruption can be rather short: months, weeks, days, and even hours. Thus, scientific study and monitoring of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> is essential to mitigate risk. There are thousands of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Earth, and it is impractical to study and implement ground-based monitoring at them all. Fortunately, there are other effective means for <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring, including increasing capabilities for satellite-based technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/unnumbered/70039068/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/unnumbered/70039068/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Earthquakes & <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span>, Volume 21, Number 1, 1989: Featuring the U.S. Geological Survey's <span class="hlt">National</span> Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,; Spall, Henry; Schnabel, Diane C.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Earthquakes and <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> is published bimonthly by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide current information on earthquakes and seismology, <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, and related natural hazards of interest to both generalized and specialized readers. The Secretary of the Interior has determined that the publication of this periodical is necessary in the transaction of the public business required by law of this Department. Use of funds for printing this periodical has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget through June 30, 1989. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Administration+AND+publishes&id=ED239619','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Administration+AND+publishes&id=ED239619"><span id="translatedtitle">School Libraries in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bard, Therese Bissen</p> <p></p> <p>This paper outlines the history, functions, administration, and current focus of school library services in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, which is the only state in the United States with a library staffed by a trained librarian in every public school. Its first school library was established in 1882. Elementary school libraries developed concurrently with secondary…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sugarcane&id=ED235049','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sugarcane&id=ED235049"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s Sugar Islands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.</p> <p></p> <p>A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED314048.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED314048.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Networking <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s School Libraries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.</p> <p></p> <p>This guide is designed to assist school librarians in becoming part of the planned statewide school library network in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. Approaches to the guide for librarians at all stages of planning are suggested, and an overview of the benefits, goals, steps, and historical development are provided together with a model of the networking plan. The steps…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/135/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/135/"><span id="translatedtitle">The story of the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory -- A remarkable first 100 years of tracking eruptions and earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Babb, Janet L.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Tilling, Robert I.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The year 2012 marks the centennial of the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO). With the support and cooperation of visionaries, financiers, scientists, and other individuals and organizations, HVO has successfully achieved 100 years of continuous monitoring of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. As we celebrate this milestone anniversary, we express our sincere mahalo—thanks—to the people who have contributed to and participated in HVO’s mission during this past century. First and foremost, we owe a debt of gratitude to the late Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., the geologist whose vision and efforts led to the founding of HVO. We also acknowledge the pioneering contributions of the late Frank A. Perret, who began the continuous monitoring of Kīlauea in 1911, setting the stage for Jaggar, who took over the work in 1912. Initial support for HVO was provided by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Carnegie Geophysical Laboratory, which financed the initial cache of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> monitoring instruments and Perret’s work in 1911. The Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Research Association, a group of Honolulu businessmen organized by Lorrin A. Thurston, also provided essential funding for HVO’s daily operations starting in mid-1912 and continuing for several decades. Since HVO’s beginning, the University of Hawaiʻi (UH), called the College of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> until 1920, has been an advocate of HVO’s scientific studies. We have benefited from collaborations with UH scientists at both the Hilo and Mänoa campuses and look forward to future cooperative efforts to better understand how Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> work. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated HVO continuously since 1947. Before then, HVO was under the administration of various Federal agencies—the U.S. Weather Bureau, at the time part of the Department of Agriculture, from 1919 to 1924; the USGS, which first managed HVO from 1924 to 1935; and the <span class="hlt">National</span> Park Service from 1935 to 1947. For 76 of its first 100 years, HVO has been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920001720','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920001720"><span id="translatedtitle">Mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Mars?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Komar, Paul D.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The term mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is applied to a variety of landforms having in common a formation by extrusion of mud from beneath the ground. Although mud is the principal solid material that issues from a mud <span class="hlt">volcano</span>, there are many examples where clasts up to boulder size are found, sometimes thrown high into the air during an eruption. Other characteristics of mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> (on Earth) are discussed. The possible presence of mud <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, which are common and widespread on Earth, on Mars is considered.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/117/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/117/"><span id="translatedtitle">Eruptions of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> - Past, Present, and Future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tilling, Robert I.; Heliker, Christina; Swanson, Donald A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Viewing an erupting <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is a memorable experience, one that has inspired fear, superstition, worship, curiosity, and fascination since before the dawn of civilization. In modern times, volcanic phenomena have attracted intense scientific interest, because they provide the key to understanding processes that have created and shaped more than 80 percent of the Earth's surface. The active Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> have received special attention worldwide because of their frequent spectacular eruptions, which often can be viewed and studied with relative ease and safety. In January 1987, the Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> Observatory (HVO), located on the rim of Kilauea <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, celebrated its 75th Anniversary. In honor of HVO's Diamond Jubilee, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) published Professional Paper 1350 (see list of Selected Readings, page 57), a comprehensive summary of the many studies on Hawaiian volcanism by USGS and other scientists through the mid-1980s. Drawing from the wealth of data contained in that volume, the USGS also published in 1987 the original edition of this general-interest booklet, focusing on selected aspects of the eruptive history, style, and products of two of <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>'s active <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. This revised edition of the booklet-spurred by the approaching Centennial of HVO in January 2012-summarizes new information gained since the January 1983 onset of Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption, which has continued essentially nonstop through 2010 and shows no signs of letup. It also includes description of Kilauea's summit activity within Halema'uma'u Crater, which began in mid-March 2008 and continues as of this writing (late 2010). This general-interest booklet is a companion to the one on Mount St. Helens <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> first published in 1984 and revised in 1990 (see Selected Readings). Together, these publications illustrate the contrast between the two main types of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>: shield <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, such as those in <span class="hlt">Hawai'i</span>, which generally</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volcanos&id=EJ904764','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volcanos&id=EJ904764"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Google Earth to Study the Basic Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schipper, Stacia; Mattox, Stephen</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Landforms, natural hazards, and the change in the Earth over time are common material in state and <span class="hlt">national</span> standards. <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> exemplify these standards and readily capture the interest and imagination of students. With a minimum of training, students can recognize erupted materials and types of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>; in turn, students can relate these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-08/pdf/2013-02887.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-02-08/pdf/2013-02887.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 9327 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-02-08</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE <span class="hlt">National</span> Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XC453 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: <span class="hlt">National</span> Marine Fisheries...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-26/pdf/2011-1640.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-26/pdf/2011-1640.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 4551 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-26</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE <span class="hlt">National</span> Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XA159 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: <span class="hlt">National</span> Marine Fisheries...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-12/pdf/2011-31809.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-12-12/pdf/2011-31809.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 77214 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-12-12</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE <span class="hlt">National</span> Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA838 <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: <span class="hlt">National</span> Marine Fisheries Service...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811888G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811888G"><span id="translatedtitle">On the morphometry of terrestrial shield <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grosse, Pablo; Kervyn, Matthieu</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Shield <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> are described as low angle edifices that have convex up topographic profiles and are built primarily by the accumulation of lava flows. This generic view of shields' morphology is based on a limited number of monogenetic shields from Iceland and Mexico, and a small set of large oceanic islands (<span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, Galapagos). Here, the morphometry of over 150 monogenetic and polygenetic shield <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, identified inthe Global Volcanism Network database, are analysed quantitatively from 90-meter resolution DEMs using the MORVOLC algorithm. An additional set of 20 <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> identified as stratovolcanoes but having low slopes and being dominantly built up by accumulation of lava flows are documented for comparison. Results show that there is a large variation in shield size (volumes range from 0.1 to >1000 km3), profile shape (height/basal width ratios range from 0.01 to 0.1), flank slope gradients, elongation and summit truncation. Correlation and principal component analysis of the obtained quantitative database enables to identify 4 key morphometric descriptors: size, steepness, plan shape and truncation. Using these descriptors through clustering analysis, a new classification scheme is proposed. It highlights the control of the magma feeding system - either central, along a linear structure, or spatially diffuse - on the resulting shield <span class="hlt">volcano</span> morphology. Genetic relationships and evolutionary trends between contrasted morphological end-members can be highlighted within this new scheme. Additional findings are that the Galapagos-type morphology with a central deep caldera and steep upper flanks are characteristic of other shields. A series of large oceanic shields have slopes systematically much steeper than the low gradients (<4-8°) generally attributed to large Hawaiian-type shields. Finally, the continuum of morphologies from flat shields to steeper complex volcanic constructs considered as stratovolcanoes calls for a revision of this oversimplified</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1254462','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1254462"><span id="translatedtitle">Recharge Data for <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Island</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Nicole Lautze</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Recharge data for <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Island in shapefile format. The data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> – Final, Prepared for <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. Oki, D. S. 1999. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. U.S. Water-Resources Investigation Report: 99-4073. Oki, D. S. 2002. Reassessment of Ground-water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation report 02-4006.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JVGR..206...61J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JVGR..206...61J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> infrasound: A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Jeffrey Bruce; Ripepe, Maurizio</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Exploding <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, which produce intense infrasound, are reminiscent of the veritable explosion of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> infrasound papers published during the last decade. <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> infrasound is effective for tracking and quantifying eruptive phenomena because it corresponds to activity occurring near and around the volcanic vent, as opposed to seismic signals, which are generated by both surface and internal volcanic processes. As with seismology, infrasound can be recorded remotely, during inclement weather, or in the dark to provide a continuous record of a <span class="hlt">volcano</span>'s unrest. Moreover, it can also be exploited at regional or global distances, where seismic monitoring has limited efficacy. This paper provides a literature overview of the current state of the field and summarizes applications of infrasound as a tool for better understanding volcanic activity. Many infrasound studies have focused on integration with other geophysical data, including seismic, thermal, electromagnetic radiation, and gas spectroscopy and they have generally improved our understanding of eruption dynamics. Other work has incorporated infrasound into <span class="hlt">volcano</span> surveillance to enhance capabilities for monitoring hazardous <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> and reducing risk. This paper aims to provide an overview of <span class="hlt">volcano</span> airwave studies (from analog microbarometer to modern pressure transducer) and summarizes how infrasound is currently used to infer eruption dynamics. It also outlines the relative merits of local and regional infrasound surveillance, highlights differences between array and network sensor topologies, and concludes with mention of sensor technologies appropriate for <span class="hlt">volcano</span> infrasound study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS032-80-071&hterms=5w&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D5w','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=STS032-80-071&hterms=5w&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D5w"><span id="translatedtitle">San Cristobal <span class="hlt">Volcano</span>, Nicaragua</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A white plume of smoke, from San Cristobal <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> (13.0N, 87.5W) on the western coast of Nicaragua, blows westward along the Nicaraguan coast just south of the Gulf of Fonseca and the Honduran border. San Csistobal is a strato <span class="hlt">volcano</span> some 1,745 meters high and is frequently active.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01717&hterms=pahoehoe&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpahoehoe','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01717&hterms=pahoehoe&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpahoehoe"><span id="translatedtitle">Space Radar Image of Kilauea, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> in 3-D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p> erupted travels the 8 kilometers (5 miles) from the Pu'u O'o crater (the active vent) just outside this image to the coast through a series of lava tubes, but in the past there have been many large lava flows that have traveled this distance, destroying houses and parts of the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park. This SIR-C/X-SAR image shows two types of lava flows that are common to Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Pahoehoe lava flows are relatively smooth, and appear very dark blue because much of the radar energy is reflected away from the radar. In contrast other lava flows are relatively rough and bounce much of the radar energy back to the radar, making that part of the image bright blue. This radar image is valuable because it allows scientists to study an evolving lava flow field from the Pu'u O'o vent. Much of the area on the northeast side (right) of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is covered with tropical rain forest, and because trees reflect a lot of the radar energy, the forest appears bright in this radar scene. The linear feature running from Kilauea Crater to the right of the image is Highway 11leading to the city of Hilo which is located just beyond the right edge of this image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01717&hterms=evolving+planet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Devolving%2Bplanet','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA01717&hterms=evolving+planet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Devolving%2Bplanet"><span id="translatedtitle">Space Radar Image of Kilauea, <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> in 3-D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p> erupted travels the 8 kilometers (5 miles) from the Pu'u O'o crater (the active vent) just outside this image to the coast through a series of lava tubes, but in the past there have been many large lava flows that have traveled this distance, destroying houses and parts of the <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> <span class="hlt">Volcanoes</span> <span class="hlt">National</span> Park. This SIR-C/X-SAR image shows two types of lava flows that are common to Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. Pahoehoe lava flows are relatively smooth, and appear very dark blue because much of the radar energy is reflected away from the radar. In contrast other lava flows are relatively rough and bounce much of the radar energy back to the radar, making that part of the image bright blue. This radar image is valuable because it allows scientists to study an evolving lava flow field from the Pu'u O'o vent. Much of the area on the northeast side (right) of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> is covered with tropical rain forest, and because trees reflect a lot of the radar energy, the forest appears bright in this radar scene. The linear feature running from Kilauea Crater to the right of the image is Highway 11leading to the city of Hilo which is located just beyond the right edge of this image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hi.water.usgs.gov/publications/pubs/fs/fs126-00.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://hi.water.usgs.gov/publications/pubs/fs/fs126-00.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Ground Water in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Ground water is one of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>'s domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012BVol...74..743D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012BVol...74..743D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between <span class="hlt">volcano</span> gravitational spreading and magma intrusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delcamp, Audray; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; James, Mike R.; Gailler, L. S.; Lebas, E.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Volcano</span> spreading, with its characteristic sector grabens, is caused by outward flow of weak substrata due to gravitational loading. This process is now known to affect many present-day edifices. A <span class="hlt">volcano</span> intrusive complex can form an important component of an edifice and may induce deformation while it develops. Such intrusions are clearly observed in ancient eroded <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, like the Scottish Palaeocene centres, or in geophysical studies such as in La Réunion, or inferred from large calderas, such as in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, the Canaries or Galapagos <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. <span class="hlt">Volcano</span> gravitational spreading and intrusive complex emplacement may act simultaneously within an edifice. We explore the coupling and interactions between these two processes. We use scaled analogue models, where an intrusive complex made of Golden syrup is emplaced within a granular model <span class="hlt">volcano</span> based on a substratum of a ductile silicone layer overlain by a brittle granular layer. We model specifically the large intrusive complex growth and do not model small-scale and short-lived events, such as dyke intrusion, that develop above the intrusive complex. The models show that the intrusive complex develops in continual competition between upward bulging and lateral gravity spreading. The brittle substratum strongly controls the deformation style, the intrusion shape and also controls the balance between intrusive complex spreading and ductile layer-related gravitational spreading. In the models, intrusive complex emplacement and spreading produce similar structures to those formed during <span class="hlt">volcano</span> gravitational spreading alone (i.e. grabens, folds, en échelon fractures). Therefore, simple analysis of fault geometry and fault kinetic indicators is not sufficient to distinguish gravitational from intrusive complex spreading, except when the intrusive complex is eccentric from the <span class="hlt">volcano</span> centre. However, the displacement fields obtained for (1) a solely gravitational spreading <span class="hlt">volcano</span> and for (2) a gravitational</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162575','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70162575"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracking the movement of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>; Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dvorak, J.J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>At some well-studied <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, surface movements of at least several centimeters take place out to distances of about 10 km from the summit of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Widespread deformation of this type is relatively easy to monitor, because the necessary survey stations can be placed at favorable sites some distance from the summit of the <span class="hlt">volcano</span>. Examples of deformation of this type include Kilauea and Mauna Loa in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span>, Krafla in Iceland, Long Valley in California, Camp Flegrei in Italy, and Sakurajima in Japan. In contrast, surface movement at some other <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, usually <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> with steep slopes, is restricted to places within about 1 km of their summits. Examples of this class of <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> include Mount St. Helens in Washington, Etna in Italy, and Tangkuban Parahu in Indonesia. Local movement on remote, rugged <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> of this type is difficult to observe using conventional methods of measuring ground movement, which generally require a clear line-of-sight between points of interest. However, a revolutionary new technique, called the Global Positional System (GPS), provides a very efficient, alternative method of making such measurements. GPS, which uses satellites and ground-based receivers to accurately record slight crustal movements, is rapidly becoming the method of choice to measure deformation at <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880021110&hterms=structural+channel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dstructural%2Bchannel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880021110&hterms=structural+channel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dstructural%2Bchannel"><span id="translatedtitle">Rifts of deeply eroded Hawaiian basaltic shields: A structural analog for large Martian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Knight, Michael D.; Walker, G. P. L.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Rowland, Scott K.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Recently derived morphologic evidence suggests that intrusive events have not only influenced the growth of young shield <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> on Mars but also the distribution of volatiles surrounding these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>: in addition to rift zones and flank eruptions on Arsia Mons and Pavonis Mons, melt water channels were identified to the northwest of Hecates Tholus, to the south of Hadriaca Patera, and to the SE of Olympus Mons. Melt water release could be the surface expression of tectonic deformation of the region or, potentially, intrusive events associated with dike emplacement from each of these <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. In this study the structural properties of Hawaiian shield <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> were studied where subaerial erosion has removed a sufficient amount of the surface to enable a direct investigation of the internal structure of the <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>. The field investigation of dike morphology and magma flow characteristics for several <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span> in <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> is reported. A comprehensive investigation was made of the Koolau dike complex that passes through the summit caldera. A study of two other dissected Hawaiian <span class="hlt">volcanoes</span>, namely Waianae and East Molokai, was commenced. The goal is not only to understand the emplacement process and magma flow within these terrestrial dikes, but also to explore the possible role that intrusive events may have played in <span class="hlt">volcano</span> growth and the distribution of melt water release on Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED463814.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED463814.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">University of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Community Colleges Strategic Plan Update, 2003-2007.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of the Chancellor for Community Colleges.</p> <p></p> <p>This strategic plan for the University of <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Community Colleges includes a contextual study, supported by data from the <span class="hlt">National</span> Center for Public Policy and Higher Education (NCPPHE). Statistics include: (1) <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> ranked with the top states in high school completion (93%), but 18-24 year olds enrolling in college in the top states was 42%,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title50-vol13-sec665-200.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title50-vol13-sec665-200.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.200 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. 665.200 Section 665.200 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Fisheries § 665.200...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol13-sec665-200.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol13-sec665-200.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.200 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. 665.200 Section 665.200 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Fisheries § 665.200...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-sec665-200.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-sec665-200.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.200 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. 665.200 Section 665.200 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Fisheries § 665.200...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol13-sec665-200.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol13-sec665-200.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.200 - <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> bottomfish and seamount groundfish fisheries. 665.200 Section 665.200 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, <span class="hlt">NATIONAL</span> OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC <span class="hlt">Hawaii</span> Fisheries § 665.200...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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