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Sample records for hawaiian islands lobster

  1. 78 FR 9327 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XC453 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  2. 76 FR 4551 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XA159 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  3. 76 FR 77214 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA838 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  4. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Monument (74 FR 47119, September 15, 2009). During December 2009 and January 2010, eligible NWHI lobster... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT33 Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010... INFORMATION: The NWHI commercial lobster fishery is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for...

  5. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  6. Some preliminary findings on the nutritional status of the Hawaiian spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, F.A.; Martinelli-Liedtke, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the nutritional status of spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus) were collected on the commercial trapping grounds of Necker Bank, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, in the summers of 1991, 1994, and 1995. Glycogen levels measured in abdominal tissue of intermolt males were used as an index of nutritional health of the field population. The range of glycogen sampled from wild lobster was less than half the level measured in captive lobster fed to satiation in a previous study. An analysis of covariance identified significant interannual and spatial effects explaining 46% of the variance in the sample of wild lobsters. Most significant was a decline in lobster glycogen levels between samples collected in 1991 and 1994-1995. Seasonal influences on lobster nutrition are unknown and were identified as an obvious direction for future ecological research.

  7. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  8. Hawaiian Islands, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This cloudy view of the Hawaiian Islands (21.0N, 157.5W) demonstrates the phenomena of island water wakes and, to a lesser extent, cloud wakes as well. The islands form an obstruction to the ocean current flow and in effect create an observable turbulence in the water on the backside of the islands. The same effect can be observed in clouds as they leave wind blown wisps or streamers around obstacles in their path.

  9. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (Map of the US with the states that have significant Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations according to the Census Bureau) HI - ...

  10. Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Diabetes Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans, in general, have the same ... However, there are differences within the Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander population. From a national survey, Native Hawaiians/ ...

  11. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have ... being told they had asthma, 2014 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic White Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander/ ...

  12. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  13. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were four times more likely than non- ... a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander adults have developed several of the high ...

  14. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders were seven times ... At a glance – Cancer Rates for Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Liver & IBD Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  15. Pearl and Hermes Reef, Hawaiian Island Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Pearl and Hermes Reef (28.0N, 176.0W) in the Hawaiian Island Chain, are seen with several small sandy islands, forming an atoll that caps a seamount on the long chain that extends some 1,500 miles northwestward from the more familiar Hawaiian Islands proper. Pearl and Hermes Reef lies about 100 miles southeast of Midway island. A reticulate network of coral patch reefs separates the lagoon into more or less isolated pools.

  16. Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

  17. Hydrogeology of the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.; Cabrera, Maria del Carmen; Lambán, Luis Javier; Valverde, Margarida

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic-rock aquifers are the most extensive and productive aquifers in the Hawaiian Islands. These aquifers contain different types of groundwater systems depending on the geologic setting in which they occur. The most common groundwater systems include coastal freshwater-lens systems in the dike-free flanks of the volcanoes and dike-impounded systems within the dike-intruded areas of the volcanoes. In some areas, a thick (hundreds of meters) freshwater lens may develop because of the presence of a coastal confining unit, or caprock, that impedes the discharge of groundwater from the volcanic-rock aquifer, or because the permeability of the volcanic rocks forming the aquifer is low. In other areas with low groundwater-recharge rates and that lack a caprock, the freshwater lens may be thin or brackish water may exist immediately below the water table. Dike-impounded groundwater systems commonly have high water levels (hundreds of meters above sea level) and contribute to the base flow of streams where the water table intersects the stream. Recent numerical modeling studies have enhanced the conceptual understanding of groundwater systems in the Hawaiian Islands.

  18. Minority Women's Health: Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Islanders Minority Women's Health Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders Related information How to Talk to Your ... Health conditions common in Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander women Accidents Alcoholism and drug abuse Asthma ...

  19. Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from: Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders.

  20. Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders Suicide affects Americans of every racial and ... group is the Asian, Native Hawaiian, or other Pacific Islander population. According to the combined 2008 to ...

  1. Thysanoptera-Terebrantia of the Hawaiian Islands: an identification manual

    PubMed Central

    Mound, Laurence; Nakahara, Sueo; Tsuda, Dick M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated identification system is presented to 99 species and 49 genera in three families recorded from the Hawaiian Islands in the Thysanoptera suborder Terebrantia. Only seven (possibly eight) of these species are considered endemic, the remainder being adventive to these islands. The only previous study of Hawaiian Thysanoptera, by Zimmerman in 1948, included 47 Terebrantia species in 21 genera. PMID:26843832

  2. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall infant mortality rate for Asians/Pacific Islanders is comparable to the white population, disparities ...

  3. Geology of the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Harold T.

    1946-01-01

    A brief summary of the geography, climate, and geomorphology is given. Streams develop slowly after the extinction of a volcano because of the high permeability of the rock. Once established they cut rapidly because of the steep slopes and fractured condition of the rock. Stream erosion varies enormously on different slopes of the same mountain due to the great differences in rainfall and to other causes. Six reasons are given for the development of amphitheater-headed valleys. Marine erosion has formed cliffs as much as 1,000 feet high on the leeward side and 3,000 feet high on the windward side of some of the domes. The islands have undergone a complex series of emergences and submergences leaving marine fossiliferous limestone up to 1,070 feet above sea level and valleys drowned more than 1,200 feet. Twelve terrace levels are recognized. Some are definitely eustatic.A synopsis is given of the present knowledge of the geology of each volcanic mountain, as well as a table of the rock units, and geologic maps of all major islands. The volcanoes pass through four major phases between birth and extinction and are built around one minor and two major rift zones. The volcanoes began their history above sea level in the Tertiary. Most of them became dormant either before or during the early Quaternary. Activity was renewed in the late Quaternary. Mauna Kea was glaciated in the late Pleistocene. The character of each islet in the archipelago is tabulated.

  4. PCB and metal concentrations in American lobsters from the Acushnet River estuary and Long Island Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Mercaldo-Allen, R.; Kuropat, C.A.; Greig, R.A.; Sennefelder, G. )

    1994-12-01

    The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is commonly found in coastal waters adjacent to heavily industrialized areas where pollutant input generally occurs. Environmental contamination is known to affect many aspects of lobster biology. Heavy metals, pesticides, pulp mill effluent, petroleum hydrocarbons and other pollutants can adversely affect lobster physiology and behavior. Sublethal concentrations of contaminants can stress lobsters, making them more susceptible to disease or other conditions that would normally be tolerated. Lobster embryos and larvae, particularly the first-stage, are sensitive to a variety of organic and metal pollutants. Sediments in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, are heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); edible tissues of lobsters collected there have been found to contain PCB concentrations exceeding the FDA action level of 2 [mu]g/g wet wt. PCBs are strongly lipophilic and accumulate in fatty tissues including egg masses. Metals and PCBs are contaminants of concern in Long Island Sound. This study examines whether field exposure of ovigerous female lobsters to PCBs results in subsequent contamination of embryos, first-stage larvae, postlarvae, and juvenile offspring of [open quotes]berried[close quotes] lobsters from New Bedford Harbor and selected locations in Long Island Sound. Metal contamination in the embryos and offspring of Long Island Sound lobsters was also measured. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing.

  6. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Eben H.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  7. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Eben H; Camp, Richard J; Gorresen, P Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H; Leonard, David L; VanderWerf, Eric A

    2016-09-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua'i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species' ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua'i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai'i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  8. 77 FR 27185 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  9. Environmental Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, L. Elaine; Reynolds, Paul R.; Smith, Terry; Iakhiaeva, Elena; Bankowski, Matthew J.; Wallace, Richard J.; Chan, Edward D.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Strong, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Epidemiologic studies have shown the Hawaiian Islands have the highest prevalence of NTM lung infections in the United States. However, potential environmental reservoirs and species diversity have not been characterized. In this cross-sectional study, we describe molecular and phylogenetic comparisons of NTM isolated from 172 household plumbing biofilms and soil samples from 62 non-patient households and 15 respiratory specimens. Although non-uniform geographic sampling and availability of patient information were limitations, Mycobacterium chimaera was found to be the dominant species in both environmental and respiratory specimens. In contrast to previous studies from the continental U.S., no Mycobacterium avium was identified. Mycobacterium intracellulare was found only in respiratory specimens and a soil sample. We conclude that Hawai’i’s household water sources contain a unique composition of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), increasing our appreciation of NTM organisms of pulmonary importance in tropical environments. PMID:27780201

  10. Historical Air Temperatures Across the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa-Viviani, A.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on an analysis of daily temperature from over 290 ground-based stations across the Hawaiian Islands from 1905-2015. Data from multiple stations were used to model environmental lapse rates by fitting linear regressions of mean daily Tmax and Tmin on altitude; piecewise regressions were also used to model the discontinuity introduced by the trade wind inversion near 2150m. Resulting time series of both model coefficients and lapse rates indicate increasing air temperatures near sea level (Tmax: 0.09°C·decade-1 and Tmin: 0.23°C·decade-1 over the most recent 65 years). Evaluation of lapse rates during this period suggest Tmax lapse rates (~0.6°C·100m-1) are decreasing by 0.006°C·100m-1decade-1 due to rapid high elevation warming while Tmin lapse rates (~0.8°C·100m-1) are increasing by 0.002°C·100m-1decade-1 due to the stronger increase in Tmin at sea level versus at high elevation. Over the 110 year period, temperatures tend to vary coherently with the PDO index. Our analysis verifies warming trends and temperature variability identified earlier by analysis of selected index stations. This method also provides temperature time series we propose are more robust to station inhomogeneities.

  11. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  16. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL COMPARISON OF ALGAL BIODIVERSITY AND BENTHIC COVER AT GARDNER PINNACLES, NORTHWESTERN HAWAI`IAN ISLANDS(1).

    PubMed

    Vroom, Peter S; Timmers, Molly A V

    2009-04-01

    Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawai`ian Islands is the second largest marine protected area in the world, providing an opportunity for scientists to understand natural ecosystem fluctuations in subtropical marine communities with little anthropogenic impact. Gardner Pinnacles is composed of two emergent basaltic rocks and has the smallest land area of any island in the Northwestern Hawai`ian Island chain but has among the largest submerged reef area. Gardner Pinnacles is also among the least anthropogenically impacted island in the Hawai`ian Archipelago, although a thriving lobster and bottomfish industry existed in the area for many years. This study assesses nearshore algal biodiversity and percent cover at Gardner Pinnacles to examine interannual differences in community dynamics and places them in an ecosystem context by also examining associated invertebrate and fish communities. Biodiversity surveys increased the number of known eukaryotic algal species occurring in marine environments immediately adjacent to the emergent portion of Gardner Pinnacles from 31 to 77. Algal percent cover, specifically populations of the green alga Microdictyon setchellianum M. Howe, varied dramatically between sampling years, possibly in response to seasonal differences. Towed-diver surveys revealed that macroalgae covered >90% of the substrate during the 2003 sampling period but returned to 2000 levels (1%-35% cover) by 2004 without any detectable damage to other reef organisms. Fish communities remained statistically similar between sampling years, and percent cover of live coral around the island did not exceed 7%.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in the endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) from the main Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jessica; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; Littnan, Charles; Pearce, Ronald

    2012-11-01

    Little is known about levels or effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Hawaiian monk seals (HMS) from the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) subpopulation. This study examined concentrations of a large suite of POPs in blubber and serum of juvenile and adult HMS from the MHI. Adult females have the lowest blubber levels of most POPs, whereas adult males have highest levels. POPs in serum were significantly different in adult males compared with adult females for chlordanes and summed dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Lipid-normalized concentrations of chlordanes, DDTs, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mirex in paired blubber and serum samples were significantly correlated. Contaminant levels from the MHI were at similar or lower levels than those from remote Northwestern Hawaiian Island populations. Determining initial ranges of POPs is an important step towards assessing one of the many potential health threats to this critically endangered species. PMID:22884537

  18. Shoreline Change in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, B. M.; Fletcher, C. H.; Barbee, M.; Frazer, L.; Anderson, T. R.

    2010-12-01

    Historical shoreline studies aid the coastal management community in identifying and managing coastal areas facing an increased risk of future beach erosion, assuming historical trends of shoreline change have a relationship to future shoreline changes. Beaches around the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are investigated for chronic beach erosion, defined as shoreline change occurring over 10’s to 100 years. Historical shoreline positions are mapped from orthorectified aerial photographs and topographic survey charts. Positional uncertainty is calculated for each historical shoreline using data from seasonal beach profile measurements and from the mapping process. Shoreline movement through time is measured along 244 km of beach at 12,203 transects spaced every 20 m along the shore. Shoreline change rates are calculated using two methods of weighted least-squares regression, providing cross-validation of model results and identification of statistically significant shoreline trends. Rates are calculated for long (full time series) and short (1940’s-) time series allowing rudimentary investigation into whether rates may be changing with time. Shoreline change behavior is spatially variable along Hawaii beaches with cells of erosion and accretion often separated by only a few hundred meters on a continuous beach, or by short headlands that separate the coast into many small embayments and pocket beaches. Twenty-one km or 9% of the total length of beach studied was completely lost to erosion over the time-span of available data. The remaining beaches of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are erosional over the long and short term with an average long-term rate of all transects of -0.061 ± 0.005 m/yr and average short-term rate of -0.023 ± 0.008 m/yr. The majority of the shoreline on the three islands (61% long-term, 54% short-term) has a significant trend of erosion or is more likely erosional than accretional. Looking at the islands individually, Kauai beaches are

  19. 78 FR 29089 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... of the harbors in the event a tsunami warning is issued for the main Hawaiian Islands....

  20. 78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register A. Regulatory History and... harbors in the event a tsunami warning is issued for the main Hawaiian Islands. DATES: This rule is... order to evacuate any or all of Hawaii's nine commercial harbors in response to a tsunami warning....

  1. Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Percy, Diana M; Garver, Adam M; Wagner, Warren L; James, Helen F; Cunningham, Clifford W; Miller, Scott E; Fleischer, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the evolutionary history of plants that are ecologically dominant in modern ecosystems is critical to understanding the historical development of those ecosystems. Metrosideros is a plant genus found in many ecological and altitudinal zones throughout the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, Metrosideros polymorpha is an ecologically dominant species and is also highly polymorphic in both growth form and ecology. Using 10 non-coding chloroplast regions, we investigated haplotype diversity in the five currently recognized Hawaiian Metrosideros species and an established out-group, Metrosideros collina, from French Polynesia. Multiple haplotype groups were found, but these did not match morphological delimitations. Alternative morphologies sharing the same haplotype, as well as similar morphologies occurring within several distinct island clades, could be the result of developmental plasticity, parallel evolution or chloroplast capture. The geographical structure of the data is consistent with a pattern of age progressive island colonizations and suggests de novo intra-island diversification. If single colonization events resulted in a similar array of morphologies on each island, this would represent parallel radiations within a single, highly polymorphic species. However, we were unable to resolve whether the pattern is instead explained by ancient introgression and incomplete lineage sorting resulting in repeated chloroplast capture. Using several calibration methods, we estimate the colonization of the Hawaiian Islands to be potentially as old as 3.9 (−6.3) Myr with an ancestral position for Kaua'i in the colonization and evolution of Metrosideros in the Hawaiian Islands. This would represent a more ancient arrival of Metrosideros to this region than previous studies have suggested. PMID:18426752

  2. Roots of the Hawaiian Hotspot. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Exploration--Grades 9-12 (Earth Science). Seismology and Geological Origins of the Hawaiian Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This activity is designed to introduce to students the processes of plate tectonics and volcanism that resulted in the formation of the Hawaiian Islands and the difference between S waves and P waves. Students are expected to explain how seismic data recorded at different locations can be used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake, infer a…

  3. Dynamical Downscaling of Climate Change over the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Hamilton, K. P.; Lauer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The pseudo-global-warming (PGW) method was applied to the Hawaii Regional Climate Model (HRCM) to dynamically downscale the projected climate in the late 21st century over the Hawaiian Islands. The initial and boundary conditions were adopted from MERRA reanalysis and NOAA SST data for the present-day simulations. The global warming increments constructed from the CMIP3 multi-model ensemble mean were added to the reanalysis and SST data to perform the future climate simulations. We found that the Hawaiian Islands are vulnerable to global warming effects and the changes are diverse due to the varied topography. The windward side will have more clouds and receive more rainfall. The increase of the moisture in the boundary layer makes the major contribution. On the contrary, the leeward side will have less clouds and rainfall. The clouds and rain can slightly slow down the warming trend over the windward side. The temperature increases almost linearly with the terrain height. Cloud base and top heights will slightly decline in response to the slightly lower trade wind inversion base height, while the trade wind occurrence frequency will increase by about 8% in the future. More extreme rainfall events will occur in the warming climate over the Hawaiian Islands. And the snow cover on the top of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa will nearly disappear in the future winter.

  4. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Dan; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  5. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americansus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in Western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Daniel; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically naïve lobsters heldin situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4–0.8 μ g/g/d (~16 μg/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 μg/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 μg/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 μg/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  6. Organochlorine contaminants in endangered Hawaiian monk seals from four subpopulations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Ylitalo, Gina M; Myers, Matthew; Stewart, Brent S; Yochem, Pamela K; Braun, Robert; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Boyd, Daryle; Antonelis, George A; Atkinson, Shannon; Aguirre, A Alonso; Krahn, Margaret M

    2008-02-01

    We analyzed blubber and blood samples for organochlorines (OCs) from 158 Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) at four of their six primary breeding colonies in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Levels of OCs in blubber were lower in adult females compared to juveniles or adult males, evidently owing to the transfer of these lipophilic compounds to pups by pregnant and lactating females. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs and p,p'-DDE in blubber generally increased with age until seals were sexually mature and then continued to increase with age in males after puberty. Average levels of PCBs and PCB toxic equivalents (TEQs) in blubber were significantly higher in adult male and juvenile seals at Midway Atoll than the same age class of seals at the other colonies. Unlike concentrations of OCs in blubber, circulating levels of OCs in blood did not vary consistently among age classes of seals or among breeding colonies. Though the concentrations of OCs measured in Hawaiian monk seals were generally equal to or lower than those reported for other pinniped species in the North Pacific Ocean, they were high enough in a few seals to potentially affect their health. PMID:18031765

  7. Aloha, Welcome to the Hawaiian Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue

    A 4-week unit introduces intermediate grade students to Hawaii. Nine lessons of varying lengths cover the map of Hawaii and its climate, history, islands, economy and resources, sugar cane, pineapple, life and customs, and language. Each lesson contains 1 or more question-and-answer worksheets and, in many cases, a reading and a list of enrichment…

  8. Phylogenetics of the Antopocerus-Modified Tarsus Clade of Hawaiian Drosophila: Diversification across the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Lapoint, Richard T.; Magnacca, Karl N.; O’Grady, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophilidae radiation is an ecologically and morphologically diverse clade of almost 700 described species. A phylogenetic approach is key to understanding the evolutionary forces that have given rise to this diverse lineage. Here we infer the phylogeny for the antopocerus, modified tarsus and ciliated tarsus (AMC) clade, a lineage comprising 16% (91 of 687 species) of the described Hawaiian Drosophilidae. To improve on previous analyses we constructed the largest dataset to date for the AMC, including a matrix of 15 genes for 68 species. Results strongly support most of the morphologically defined species groups as monophyletic. We explore the correlation of increased diversity in biogeography, sexual selection and ecology on the present day diversity seen in this lineage using a combination of dating methods, rearing records, and distributional data. Molecular dating analyses indicate that AMC lineage started diversifying about 4.4 million years ago, culminating in the present day AMC diversity. We do not find evidence that ecological speciation or sexual selection played a part in generating this diversity, but given the limited number of described larval substrates and secondary sexual characters analyzed we can not rule these factors out entirely. An increased rate of diversification in the AMC is found to overlap with the emergence of multiple islands in the current chain of high islands, specifically Oahu and Kauai. PMID:25420017

  9. Surges around the Hawaiian Islands from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Kwok Fai; Bai, Yefei; Yamazaki, Yoshiki

    2013-10-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami devastated the northeastern Japan coasts and caused localized damage to coastal infrastructure across the Pacific. The tsunami resulted in strong currents around the Hawaiian Islands that led to closure of harbors and marinas for up to 38 h after its arrival. We utilize a nonhydrostatic model to reconstruct the tsunami event from the seismic source for elucidation of the physical processes and inference of the coastal hazards. A number of tide gauges, bottom pressure sensors, and ADCPs provided point measurements for validation and assessment of the model results in Hawaii. Spectral analysis of the computed surface elevation and current reveals complex flow patterns due to multiscale resonance. Standing waves with 33-75 min period develop along the island chains, while oscillations of 27 min or shorter are primarily confined to an island or an island group with interconnected shelves. Standing edge waves with periods 16 min or shorter, which are able to form nodes on the reefs and inside harbors, are the main driving force of the observed coastal currents. Resonance and constructive interference of the oscillation modes provide an explanation of the impacts observed in Hawaii with implications for emergency management in Pacific island communities.

  10. Book review: Conservation biology of Hawaiian forest birds: Implications for island avifauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engstrom, R. Todd; van Riper, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Review info: Conservation Biology of Hawaiian Forest Birds: Implications for Island Avifauna. By Thane K. Pratt, Carter T. Atkinson, Paul C. Banko, James D. Jacobi, and Bethany L. Woodworth, Eds., 2009. ISBN 978-0300141085, 707 pp.

  11. Maternal and Child Health of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) women and infants, but do not ... and childbirth are meaningful and important to many AA and NHPI families. The health care system must ...

  12. Stroke Disparities: Disaggregating Native Hawaiians from other Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; MacDonald, Pippa R.; Asai, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the clinical characteristics of Native Hawaiians (NH) and other Pacific Islanders (PI) who are hospitalized with ischemic stroke. Design Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of medical records. Setting Tertiary, Primary Stroke Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. Patients Consecutive patients with race/ethnicity identified as NH or PI who were hospitalized for ischemic stroke between January 2006 and December 2012. Outcome Measures Age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) utilization rate and hospital length of stay. Results A total of 561 patients (57% NH and 43% PI) were studied. PI were younger (59 ± 13 years vs 62 ± 14 years, ,P=.002), had higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (58% vs 41%, P<.0001) and prosthetic valve (6% vs 2%, P=.007), lower prevalence of smoking (14% vs 21%, P=.03), lower HDL cholesterol (38 ± 11 mg/dL vs 41 ± 13 mg/dL, P=.004), and higher discharge diastolic blood pressure (79 ± 15 vs 76 mm Hg ± 14 mm Hg, P=.04) compared to NH. No difference was seen in other cardiovascular risk factors. The IV-tPA utilization rate (5% vs 6%, P=.48) and the hospital length of stay (10 ± 17 days vs 10 ± 49 days, P=.86) were not different between the two groups. Conclusion Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders with ischemic stroke have modestly different age of stroke presentation and burden of risk factors compared to each other. Disaggregating these two racial groups may be important to unmask any potential clinical differences in future studies. PMID:26118142

  13. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume II. Impact of geothermal development on the geology and hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, C.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: the geological setting of the Hawaiian Islands, regional geology of the major islands, geohydrology of the Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiis' geothermal resources, and potential geological/hydrological problems associated with geothermal development. Souces of information on the geology of Hawaii are presented. (MHR)

  14. Pathways and Predictors of Juvenile Justice Involvement for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youths: A Focus on Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasko, Lisa; Mayeda, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growth of Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) youths in court and correctional involvement, studies of their delinquency and juvenile justice involvement are quite limited, and the literature becomes almost nonexistent when examining gender differences. Using case file analysis of 150 Native Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian and…

  15. Extreme convergence in stick insect evolution: phylogenetic placement of the Lord Howe Island tree lobster

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Thomas R.; Attanayake, Dilini; Bradler, Sven

    2008-01-01

    The ‘tree lobsters’ are an enigmatic group of robust, ground-dwelling stick insects (order Phasmatodea) from the subfamily Eurycanthinae, distributed in New Guinea, New Caledonia and associated islands. Its most famous member is the Lord Howe Island stick insect Dryococelus australis (Montrouzier), which was believed to have become extinct but was rediscovered in 2001 and is considered to be one of the rarest insects in the world. To resolve the evolutionary position of Dryococelus, we constructed a phylogeny from approximately 2.4 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from representatives of all major phasmatodean lineages. Our data placed Dryococelus and the New Caledonian tree lobsters outside the New Guinean Eurycanthinae as members of an unrelated Australasian stick insect clade, the Lanceocercata. These results suggest a convergent origin of the ‘tree lobster’ body form. Our reanalysis of tree lobster characters provides additional support for our hypothesis of convergent evolution. We conclude that the phenotypic traits leading to the traditional classification are convergent adaptations to ground-living behaviour. Our molecular dating analyses indicate an ancient divergence (more than 22 Myr ago) between Dryococelus and its Australian relatives. Hence, Dryococelus represents a long-standing separate evolutionary lineage within the stick insects and must be regarded as a key taxon to protect with respect to phasmatodean diversity. PMID:19129110

  16. Temporal variability of marine debris deposition at Tern Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Agustin, Alyssa E; Merrifield, Mark A; Potemra, James T; Morishige, Carey

    2015-12-15

    A twenty-two year record of marine debris collected on Tern Island is used to characterize the temporal variability of debris deposition at a coral atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Debris deposition tends to be episodic, without a significant relationship to local forcing processes associated with winds, sea level, waves, and proximity to the Subtropical Convergence Zone. The General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment is used to estimate likely debris pathways for Tern Island. The majority of modeled arrivals come from the northeast following prevailing trade winds and surface currents, with trajectories indicating the importance of the convergence zone, or garbage patch, in the North Pacific High region. Although debris deposition does not generally exhibit a significant seasonal cycle, some debris types contain considerable 3 cycle/yr variability that is coherent with wind and surface pressure over a broad region north of Tern.

  17. Temporal variability of marine debris deposition at Tern Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Agustin, Alyssa E; Merrifield, Mark A; Potemra, James T; Morishige, Carey

    2015-12-15

    A twenty-two year record of marine debris collected on Tern Island is used to characterize the temporal variability of debris deposition at a coral atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Debris deposition tends to be episodic, without a significant relationship to local forcing processes associated with winds, sea level, waves, and proximity to the Subtropical Convergence Zone. The General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment is used to estimate likely debris pathways for Tern Island. The majority of modeled arrivals come from the northeast following prevailing trade winds and surface currents, with trajectories indicating the importance of the convergence zone, or garbage patch, in the North Pacific High region. Although debris deposition does not generally exhibit a significant seasonal cycle, some debris types contain considerable 3 cycle/yr variability that is coherent with wind and surface pressure over a broad region north of Tern. PMID:26578295

  18. First Record of the Hawaiian Endemic Scale, Colobopyga pritchardiae (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), on the Big Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colobopyga pritchardiae (Stickney 1934) (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), an endemic Hawaiian scale insect associated with Pritchardia sp. was recorded for the first time on the Big Island. We began searching for palm scales on the Big Island to include in a host range testing program in quarantine for E...

  19. 76 FR 78309 - Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex; Wilderness Review and Legislative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex; Wilderness... Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Refuge Complex), to identify Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs), and...: Information about the Refuge Complex is available on our Web ] site http://www.pacificislands.fws.gov ....

  20. Breastfeeding Practices among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T. C.; Tanaka, Keiko; Polanin, Joshua R.; Koempel, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Breastfeeding is associated with a decreased risk of obesity in the early and adult years. Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) experience high rates of obesity which is often obfuscated with aggregated data. Using disaggregated data, we examined breastfeeding practices among NHPI. Methods. Seven databases and reference lists were searched. Two independent researchers extracted relevant studies based on predetermined criteria. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria and a meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects, inverse-various weighted models. Results. Few studies disaggregated NHPI populations when examining breastfeeding practices. Most studies were cross-sectional and our search yielded no randomized or quasirandomized control trials. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that 46.5% NHPI women initiated breastfeeding with 40.8% breastfeeding exclusively. These pooled analyses show that NHPI breastfeeding practices are below the recommended national and international goals and guidelines. Conclusion. Breastfeeding practices among NHPI are heterogeneous and critical disparities exist among certain NHPI subgroups and additional research needs to be conducted to determine the reasons for the disparity. Future studies should work to disaggregate data for NHPI and the various subpopulations. Multicomponent, multilevel strategies are needed to support breastfeeding practices among NHPI. PMID:27774314

  1. Hawaiian Islands Captured by Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Launched February 11, 2000, the STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) was the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. A 200-ft long (60 meter) mast supporting the SRTM jutted into space from the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Orbiting some 145 miles (233 kilometers) above Earth, the giant structure was deployed on February 12, 2000 and the C-band and X-band anternae mounted on it quickly went to work mapping parts of the Earth. The SRTM radar was able to penetrate clouds as well as provide its own illumination, independent of daylight, and obtained 3-dimentional topographic images of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. The mission completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping, gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs. This image is an example of the data required by the SRTM. This is a view of the three Hawaiian Islands; Molokai (lower left), Lanai (right), and the northwest tip of Maui (upper left). The image brightness corresponds to the strength of radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM, ranging from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains 5900 feet (1800 meters) of total relief. SRTM will help local officials to better understand and prepare for volcanic, tidal wave, and earthquake activities.

  2. Toward improved health: disaggregating Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander data.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, S; Guillermo, T

    2000-01-01

    The 2000 census, with its option for respondents to mark 1 or more race categories, is the first US census to recognize the multiethnic nature of all US populations but especially Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. If Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders have for the most part been "invisible" in policy debates regarding such matters as health care and immigration, it has been largely because of a paucity of data stemming from the lack of disaggregated data on this heterogeneous group of peoples. Studies at all levels should adhere to these disaggregated classifications. Also, in addition to oversampling procedures, there should be greater regional/local funding for studies in regions where Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations are substantial. PMID:11076241

  3. Toward improved health: disaggregating Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander data.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S; Guillermo, T

    2000-11-01

    The 2000 census, with its option for respondents to mark 1 or more race categories, is the first US census to recognize the multiethnic nature of all US populations but especially Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. If Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders have for the most part been "invisible" in policy debates regarding such matters as health care and immigration, it has been largely because of a paucity of data stemming from the lack of disaggregated data on this heterogeneous group of peoples. Studies at all levels should adhere to these disaggregated classifications. Also, in addition to oversampling procedures, there should be greater regional/local funding for studies in regions where Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations are substantial.

  4. Dominant influence of volcanic loading on vertical motions of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, Kimberly L.; Royden, Leigh H.; Perron, J. Taylor

    2015-05-01

    Rates of island vertical motion above intra-plate hotspots record the processes that arise from interactions between lithospheric plates and mantle plumes. To assess the contribution of mantle and lithospheric processes to surface motion above the Hawaiian hotspot, we compare simple models of lithospheric deformation to vertical motion rates measured from dated paleoshorelines and tide gauge records in the Hawaiian Islands. Our analysis shows that observed uplift and subsidence rates mainly record the flexural response of the lithosphere to volcanic loads. The effective elastic plate thickness that best fits the spatial distribution of subsidence and uplift rates is ∼40 km, consistent with previous estimates based on total vertical deflection. Because volcanic loading dominates the vertical motion signal, Hawaiian Islands appear to follow a predictable trajectory of vertical motion when they reside within one flexural half-wavelength of the active volcanic center. Islands initially subside at rapid and decreasing rates in the first ∼1 Myr following their construction, uplift relatively slowly ∼1-2.5 Myr following their construction, and eventually subside again, but at slow rates, within ∼5 Myr of their construction. This observed pattern of uplift and subsidence is consistent with the pattern of vertical motion predicted to result from volcanic loading at the Hawaiian hotspot. Lithospheric migration over the long-wavelength topographic swell associated with the Hawaiian hotspot has a comparatively minor influence on island uplift and subsidence. Its contribution to island vertical motion is not readily observed in our data, with the possible exception of some uplift observed in the past ∼500 kyr on O'ahu that might correspond to non-steady state behavior of the Hawaiian plume.

  5. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4

  6. Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets for the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Manobianco, J.; Alonge, C.; Frank, J.; Brower, M.

    2010-07-01

    In March 2009, AWS Truepower was engaged by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a set of wind resource and plant output data for the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this project was to expand the methods and techniques employed in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) to include the state of Hawaii.

  7. 76 FR 54689 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR Part... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI AGENCY: Federal...

  8. 76 FR 77779 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory....byers@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a ]...

  9. 77 FR 16211 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a marine protected area designed to...

  10. 75 FR 970 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... and alternate members of the following seats on its Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine... other various groups that help to focus efforts and attention on the humpback whale and its...

  11. English Learners (ELs) Who Are Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHPI). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) who are Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHPI) include: (1) Local Education Agencies (LEAs) With the Largest Number…

  12. Identification of ciguatoxins in Hawaiian monk seals Monachus schauinslandi from the Northwestern and Main Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Bottein, Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Wang, Zhihong; Littnan, Charles; Ramsdell, John S

    2011-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are potent algal neurotoxins that concentrate in fish preyed upon by the critically endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi). The only report for Hawaiian monk seal exposure to ciguatoxins occurred during a 1978 mortality event when two seal liver extracts tested positive by mouse bioassay. Ciguatoxins were thus proposed as a potential threat to the Hawaiian monk seal population. To reinvestigate monk seal exposure to ciguatoxins we utilized more selective detection methods, the Neuro-2A cytotoxicity assay, to quantify ciguatoxin activity and an analytical method LC-MS/MS to confirm the molecular structure. Tissue analysis from dead stranded animals revealed ciguatoxin activity in brain, liver, and muscle, whereas analysis of blood samples from 55 free-ranging animals revealed detectable levels of ciguatoxin activity (0.43 to 5.49 pg/mL P-CTX-1 equiv) in 19% of the animals. Bioassay-guided LC fractionation of two monk seal liver extracts identified several ciguatoxin-like peaks of activity including a peak corresponding to the P-CTX-3C which was confirmed present by LC-MS/MS. In conclusion, this work provides first confirmation that Hawaiian monk seals are exposed to significant levels of ciguatoxins and first evidence of transfer of ciguatoxin to marine mammals. This threat could pose management challenges for this endangered marine mammal species.

  13. Identification of ciguatoxins in Hawaiian monk seals Monachus schauinslandi from the Northwestern and Main Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Bottein, Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Wang, Zhihong; Littnan, Charles; Ramsdell, John S

    2011-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are potent algal neurotoxins that concentrate in fish preyed upon by the critically endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi). The only report for Hawaiian monk seal exposure to ciguatoxins occurred during a 1978 mortality event when two seal liver extracts tested positive by mouse bioassay. Ciguatoxins were thus proposed as a potential threat to the Hawaiian monk seal population. To reinvestigate monk seal exposure to ciguatoxins we utilized more selective detection methods, the Neuro-2A cytotoxicity assay, to quantify ciguatoxin activity and an analytical method LC-MS/MS to confirm the molecular structure. Tissue analysis from dead stranded animals revealed ciguatoxin activity in brain, liver, and muscle, whereas analysis of blood samples from 55 free-ranging animals revealed detectable levels of ciguatoxin activity (0.43 to 5.49 pg/mL P-CTX-1 equiv) in 19% of the animals. Bioassay-guided LC fractionation of two monk seal liver extracts identified several ciguatoxin-like peaks of activity including a peak corresponding to the P-CTX-3C which was confirmed present by LC-MS/MS. In conclusion, this work provides first confirmation that Hawaiian monk seals are exposed to significant levels of ciguatoxins and first evidence of transfer of ciguatoxin to marine mammals. This threat could pose management challenges for this endangered marine mammal species. PMID:21591690

  14. When worlds collide: challenges and opportunities for conservation of biodiversity in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Pratt, Thane K.; Banko, Paul C.; Jacobi, James D.; Woodworth, Bethany L.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter identifies four key challenges and opportunities for long-term conservation of biodiversity in the Hawaii's Islands. Following are the challenges that need to be resolved for remaining species of native forest birds to survive into the next century: invasive species, landscape processes, social factors, and climate change. These challenges are also relevant to other threatened terrestrial taxonomic groups (i.e., plants and invertebrates) in the Hawaiian Islands. Such threats are familiar to conservation biologists the world over, but rarely do they act as synergistically as they do in the Hawaiian Islands. The chapter reviews conservation successes and failures in Hawaii, and provides an example of the possible future course of conservation in other island communities.

  15. Phylogeographic patterns of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) correlate with Pleistocene island boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, Stephen A.; Simon, C.; Foote, D.; Englund, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Pleistocene geological history of the Hawaiian Islands is becoming well understood. Numerous predictions about the influence of this history on the genetic diversity of Hawaiian organisms have been made, including the idea that changing sea levels would lead to the genetic differentiation of populations isolated on individual volcanoes during high sea stands. Here, we analyse DNA sequence data from two closely related, endemic Hawaiian damselfly species in order to test these predictions, and generate novel insights into the effects of Pleistocene glaciation and climate change on island organisms. Megalagrion xanthomelas and Megalagrion pacificum are currently restricted to five islands, including three islands of the Maui Nui super-island complex (Molokai, Lanai, and Maui) that were connected during periods of Pleistocene glaciation, and Hawaii island, which has never been subdivided. Maui Nui and Hawaii are effectively a controlled, natural experiment on the genetic effects of Pleistocene sea level change. We confirm well-defined morphological species boundaries using data from the nuclear EF-1?? gene and show that the species are reciprocally monophyletic. We perform phylogeographic analyses of 663 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene sequence data from 157 individuals representing 25 populations. Our results point to the importance of Pleistocene land bridges and historical island habitat availability in maintaining inter-island gene flow. We also propose that repeated bottlenecks on Maui Nui caused by sea level change and restricted habitat availability are likely responsible for low genetic diversity there. An island analogue to northern genetic purity and southern diversity is proposed, whereby islands with little suitable habitat exhibit genetic purity while islands with more exhibit genetic diversity. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Genetic Diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an Introduction Pathway Into California.

    PubMed

    Barr, Norman B; Ledezma, Lisa A; Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel; Geib, Scott M; Fujita, Brian; Bartels, David W; Garza, Daniel; Kerr, Peter; Hauser, Martin; Gaimari, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. In total, 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across the four islands were sequenced for a 1,500-bp fragment of the gene named the C1500 marker. Genetic variation was low on the Hawaiian Islands with >96% of flies having just two haplotypes: C1500-Haplotype 1 (63.2%) or C1500-Haplotype 2 (33.3%). The other 33 flies (3.5%) had haplotypes similar to the two dominant haplotypes. No population structure was detected among the islands or within islands. The two haplotypes were present at similar frequencies at each sample site, suggesting that flies on the various islands can be considered one population. Comparison of the Hawaiian data set to DNA sequences of 165 flies from outbreaks in California between 2006 and 2012 indicates that a single-source introduction pathway of Hawaiian origin cannot explain many of the flies in California. Hawaii, however, could not be excluded as a maternal source for 69 flies. There was no clear geographic association for Hawaiian or non-Hawaiian haplotypes in the Bay Area or Los Angeles Basin over time. This suggests that California experienced multiple, independent introductions from different sources. PMID:26309285

  17. Copious, Long-lived Rejuvenated Volcanism in the Northern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D.; Hanano, D. W.; Jicha, B. R.; Ito, G.

    2015-12-01

    New marine surveying and submersible sampling of Kaul'a Volcano, located 100 km off the axis of the Hawaiian Chain, have revealed widespread areas of young volcanism. New 40Ar/39Ar and geochemical analyses of the olivine-phyric submarine and subaerial volcanic rocks show that Kaul'a is shrouded with young alkalic basalts (1.9 to 0.5 Ma). The ages and chemistry of these rocks overlap with rejuvenated lavas from nearby shields Ni'ihau, Kaua'i and South Kaua'i Swell. Collectively, rejuvenated lavas cover a vast area (~7000 km2) in the northern Hawaiian Islands. Kaul'a rejuvenated lavas show a much larger (5x) variation of incompatible elements than those from adjacent Ni'ihau but comparable to Honolulu rejuvenated lavas. Unlike both suites, heavy REE elements in Kaul'a lavas are pinned at Ybn 10, indicating a strong garnet signature in the source. Rejuvenated lavas from the Kaua'i Ridge have slightly higher radiogenic Pb isotope ratios than those from the southern Hawaiian Islands (Maui to O'ahu) and partly straddle the LOA-KEA boundary. Rejuvenated volcanism was nearly coeval occurrence from ~0.3 to 0.6 Ma along a 450 km segment of the Hawaiian Islands (West Maui to north of Ni'ihau), which is inconsistent with most models for rejuvenated volcanism except the Ballmer et al.2 dynamic melting model. This model invokes increasing pyroxenite contributions and the interaction with scale-scale convection rolls in the lithosphere to enhance the volume and duration of rejuvenation volcanism. Thus, a pyroxenite-bearing, mixed Kea-Loa source component may have contributed to the prolonged and extensive rejuvenated volcanism in the northern Hawaiian Islands. 1Robinson & Eakins 2006, J. Vol. Geotherm. Res., 151, 309-317; 2Ballmer et al. 2011, Nat. Geosc. 4, 457-460.

  18. Annotated bibliography: Marine geologic hazards of the Hawaiian Islands with special focus on submarine slides and turbidity currents

    SciTech Connect

    Normark, W.R.; Herring, H.H.

    1993-10-01

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to highlight the submarine geology of the Hawaiian Islands and identify known and potential marine geologic hazards with special emphasis on turbidity currents, submarine slides and tsunamis. Some references are included that are not specific to Hawaii but are needed to understand the geologic processes that can affect the integrity of submarine cables and other man-made structures. Entries specific to the Hawaiian Island area are shown in bold type.

  19. Composition and origin of basaltic magma of the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, H.A.

    1955-01-01

    Silica-saturated basaltic magma is the source of the voluminous lava flows, erupted frequently and rapidly in the primitive shield-building stage of activity, that form the bulk of each Hawaiian volcano. This magma may be available in batches that differ slightly in free silica content from batch to batch both at the same and at different volcanoes; differentiation by fractionation of olivine does not occur within this primitive magma. Silica-deficient basaltic magma, enriched in alkali, is the source of commonly porphyritic lava flows erupted less frequently and in relatively negligible volume during a declining and decadent stage of activity at some Hawaiian volcanoes. Differentiation by fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and augite is evident among these lavas, but does not account for the silica deficiency or the alkali enrichment. Most of the data of Hawaiian volcanism and petrology can be explained by a hypothesis that batches of magma are melted from crystalline paridotite by a recurrent process (distortion of the equatorial bulge by forced and free nutational stresses) that accomplishes the melting only of the plagioclase and pyroxene component but not the excess olivine and more refractory components within a zone of fixed and limited depth. Eruption exhausts the supply of meltable magma under a given locality and, in the absence of more violent melting processes, leaves a stratum of crystalline refractory components. ?? 1955.

  20. Length-based assessment of coral reef fish populations in the main and northwestern Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Nadon, Marc O; Ault, Jerald S; Williams, Ivor D; Smith, Steven G; DiNardo, Gerard T

    2015-01-01

    The coral reef fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock assessment of Hawaiian coral reef fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable "average length in the exploited phase of the population ([Formula: see text])", estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian reef fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR). We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model) and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited reef fish species assessed in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus), and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens) had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus), had SPRs above the 30% threshold. PMID:26267473

  1. Length-Based Assessment of Coral Reef Fish Populations in the Main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Nadon, Marc O.; Ault, Jerald S.; Williams, Ivor D.; Smith, Steven G.; DiNardo, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    The coral reef fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock assessment of Hawaiian coral reef fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable “average length in the exploited phase of the population (L¯)”, estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian reef fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR). We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model) and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited reef fish species assessed in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus), and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens) had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus), had SPRs above the 30% threshold. PMID:26267473

  2. Length-based assessment of coral reef fish populations in the main and northwestern Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Nadon, Marc O; Ault, Jerald S; Williams, Ivor D; Smith, Steven G; DiNardo, Gerard T

    2015-01-01

    The coral reef fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock assessment of Hawaiian coral reef fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable "average length in the exploited phase of the population ([Formula: see text])", estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian reef fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR). We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model) and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited reef fish species assessed in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus), and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens) had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus), had SPRs above the 30% threshold.

  3. Diurnal trends in the mid-water biomass community of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands observed acoustically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Marc O.; Brainard, Russell E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2004-10-01

    The nighttime mid-water biomass occurring near six banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands was investigated using 38- and 120-kHz EK60 echosounders. Locations investigated included: French Frigate Shoals, Maro Reef, Lisianksi Island/Neva Shoals, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Kure Atoll and Midway Atoll. Surveys were designed to sample transect lines parallel and normal to shore between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m. and once during daylight hours. A diurnal trend was found in the occurrence of mid-water sound scattering organisms at all six locations. Communities of organisms accumulate at night on the edges of each island between the 20- and 100-fathom isobaths. The highest densities of organisms restrict their horizontal movements to depths of 20 fathoms or deeper, but increases in biomass were also observed at shallower depths. The northern islands of Kure, Midway, and Pearl and Hermes Atolls exhibited patchier distributions than the southern islands. The composition of the biomass is presently unclear but resembles the mesopelagic boundary community found near the Main Hawaiian Islands. Simultaneous observations with the TOAD camera system revealed clouds of zooplankton mixed with small fish and other micronekton. The nightly influx of these organisms is likely a significant, though poorly understood, component of these islands ecosystems.

  4. Shallow terraces in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Implications for carbonate accretion and sea level variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, J. R.; Edwards, M.; Fletcher, C. H.; Rooney, J. J.; Clague, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data recently collected by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Division permit the first detailed analysis of the submarine geomorphology of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Here we focus on the character, spatial extent, depth, and number of terraces, scarps, and other shallow seafloor features in the NWHI. The islands and atolls at or near sea level and the flat top banks have terraces and scarps at a variety of depths above the major breaks in slope and consistent paleoreef complexes are present at average depths of 30-45 m, 55-65 m, and 110-130 m. Their geomorphology is controlled by vertical coral reef accretion during sea-level highstands and erosion and karstification during lowstands. Wave energy also plays a major role in shaping the NWHI. Our results suggest that although the NWHI features are discontinuous and probably occupied by sea level on more than one occasion they group into general depth ranges that correlate with late-Quaternary sea-level features in the MHI and phases of postglacial reef growth separated by melt-water pulses. Identification and correlation of these features is important for developing sea-level and reef accretion histories in the Hawaiian Islands. Further work is needed to constrain the absolute ages of these reef features and construct an accurate sea-level curve for the Hawaiian Archipelago.

  5. The search for Father Bachelot: first Catholic missionary to the Hawaiian Islands (1827-1837).

    PubMed

    Pietrusewsky, M; Willacker, L M

    1997-03-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine if the remains of Father Bachelot, leader of the first Catholic missionary group to the Hawaiian Islands, can be identified among the commingled human skeletal remains brought back from Pohnpei, Caroline Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, in 1977. An osteological/forensic examination of these remains, a review of the literature, interviews with leaders of the expedition, and ancillary considerations suggest that, in all probability, none of the skeletal remains from Pohnpei are those of Father Bachelot. Father Alexis Bachelot, born in France, in 1796, was leader of the first Catholic missionary group to the Hawaiian Islands. He died in 1837, after being exiled from the Hawaiian Kingdom. His remains were buried on the small islet of Na, off the coast of Pohnpei, the same year. An expedition to Pohnpei in 1977, to recover the remains of Father Bachelot, resulted in the recovery of several sets of commingled remains which are the subject of this study. A detailed osteological/forensic study of these remains indicates the presence of at least ten individuals, including two subadults, two adult females, and six adult males. Stature estimates, the presence of osseous changes suggestive of treponemal disease, and other cranial, dental, and skeletal features are more consistent with Pohnpean than European ancestry. The presence of shell beads and other mortuary features strengthens this assertion. Recommendations for any future attempts to recover the remains of this famous personage are made.

  6. The Hawaiian Islands - Integrated Approach to Understanding the Tsunami Risk in the Pacific (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chague-Goff, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands, because of their location in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, act as natural ';barometers' for tsunamis generated along the Pacific Ring of Fire, which is the most seismically active area in the world. A multi-proxy study in the remote Pololu valley on the Big Island provided the first evidence for two trans-Pacific events, namely the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These were identified using radiometric, stratigraphic, microfossil, pollen and geochemical proxies and were corroborated by historical accounts. The islands have been impacted repeatedly by tsunamis in historical times (inc. the recent 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku-oki events), and there is strong archaeological evidence for large events affecting humans in prehistory. However, no geological research has yet been carried out, except for some associated with a palaeoecological study on Kauai. Historical evidence shows that tsunamis emanating from the Pacific Ring of Fire have run up to different elevations on different islands within the island chain depending upon their source. Here there is a possible key to understanding some of the key questions about the magnitude and frequency of tsunamis from various parts of the Pacific. Tsunamis from Japan are large on the SW side of the Big Island, those from Alaska seem to have been large in the NE of the island and so on throughout the island chain. A careful site selection from throughout the islands offers a unique opportunity to chart the palaeotsunami record of the Hawaiian Islands while at the same time matching and enhancing the palaeoseismic record of sources in the Pacific Ring of Fire. How big and how often events have occurred in circum-Pacific locations, and how badly they affected other Pacific nations may therefore be addressed by looking in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

  7. Genetic diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an introduction pathway into California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. A total of 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across...

  8. Collection of High Energy Yielding Strains of Saline Microalgae from the Hawaiian Islands: Final Technical Report, Year 1

    SciTech Connect

    York, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Microalgae were collected from 48 locations in the Hawaiian Islands in 1985. The sites were an aquaculture tank; a coral reef; bays; a geothermal steam vent; Hawaiian fish ponds; a Hawaiian salt punawai (well); the ocean; river mouths; saline lakes; saline pools; saline ponds; a saline swamp; and the ponds, drainage ditches and sumps of commercial shrimp farms. From 4,800 isolations, 100 of the most productive clones were selected to be maintained by periodic transfer to sterile medium. Five clones were tested for growth rate and production in a full-spectrum-transmitting solarium.

  9. More than black and white: differences in predictors of obesity among Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Madan, Alok; Archambeau, Olga G; Milsom, Vanessa A; Goldman, Rachel L; Borckardt, Jeffery J; Grubaugh, Anouk L; Tuerk, Peter W; Frueh, B Christopher

    2012-06-01

    Although Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders exhibit the highest rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases of any racial/ethnic group, they remain vastly underrepresented in health research. In a cross-sectional survey of college students (N = 402) we examined BMI and health outcomes in an ethno-racially diverse rural sample of Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders (25.1%), Asian Americans (39.8%), and European Americans (35.1%). Measures assessed BMI, health status, health behaviors, frequency of exercise, and symptoms of psychiatric disorders (i.e., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and substance abuse and dependence). Regression analyses revealed that an overall model of five predictors (gender, race, regular exercise, difficulty sleeping, and anxiety) was significantly associated with obesity (P < 0.001) and correctly classified 84.2% of cases. A 30.7% of Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were obese as compared with 9.2% of European Americans and 10.6% of Asian Americans. These findings suggest that Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islanders are at high risk for obesity and associated medical comorbidities, but that regular physical activity may ameliorate this risk. Further, these results support the consideration of Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders as a distinct racial/ethnic subgroup separate from other Asian populations.

  10. A pre- and post-MARPOL Annex V summary of Hawaiian monk seal entanglements and marine debris accumulation in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1982-1998.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J R

    2001-07-01

    Entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals, Monachus schauinslandi, were documented in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) from 1982 to 1998, and debris which presented a threat of entanglement was inventoried and removed from 1987 to 1996. A total of 173 entanglements was documented. The number of entanglements did not change after implementation of MARPOL Annex V in 1989. Pups and juvenile seals were more likely to become entangled than older seals, and became entangled primarily in nets, whereas entanglement of subadults and adults was more likely to involve line. The subpopulation of seals at Lisianski Island experienced the most entanglements, although Lisianski did not accumulate the most debris. Localized high entanglement rates may gravely affect individual monk seal subpopulations. Accumulation of debris has not diminished since implementation of Annex V, nor has occurrence of derelict drift nets abated since a 1989 moratorium. Debris washing ashore has likely been circulating in the North Pacific Ocean for some time. PMID:11488238

  11. Developing and testing solar irradiance forecasting techniques in the Hawaiian Islands region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D. K.; Souza, J. M.; Stein, K.

    2014-12-01

    Irradiance variability, primarily driven by cloud formation and advection, can be problematic in the state of Hawaíi, because of the high penetration of distributed solar and the small scale of the island electrical grids. The Hawaíi Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) is developing an operational system in order to research and test new techniques to generate solar forecasts for the Hawaiian Islands. The operational system comprises the following three components.(i) A ground-observation-based advection model, using sky imagers and a ceilometer located at the University of Hawaíi at Mānoa. Every 10 minutes (during daylight hours), this component generates a high-resolution 1 hour Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) prediction for a region that is within ~15 km of the instrumentation. (ii) A satellite-image-based advection model, using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery and the Heliosat-II method. Every 30 minutes (during daylight hours), this component generates a 1 km resolution, 6 hour GHI prediction for the entire Hawaiian Archipelago. (iii) A coupled ocean-atmosphere model, using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, including newly available microphysics, shallow convection parameterization, and radiative transfer model options. Nightly, this component generates 48 hour GHI, Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), and Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (DHI) predictions for (a) a 10 km resolution domain covering the full Hawaiian Archipelago and (b) a nested 2 km resolution domain covering the islands of Maui, Óahu, and Hawaíi. We discuss the development and validation of the system, and the scales of forecasting accuracy for each component. We also examine the impact of the coupled model on the simulations of surface flux processeses and ocean-atmosphere feedbacks, both of which influence the prediction of regional cloud properties.

  12. Lithospheric deformation induced by loading of the Hawaiian Islands and its implications for mantle rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shijie; Watts, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    long-term rheological properties of the lithosphere are fundamental for understanding both surface tectonics and mantle dynamics on Earth. In this study, we have developed 3-D finite element models for computing the load-induced surface deformation and stress for lithosphere and mantle with realistic nonlinear viscoelastic rheology including the frictional sliding, low-temperature plasticity, and high-temperature creep. We have determined the lithospheric deformation and stress due to volcano loading in the Hawaiian Islands region for the last few million years. By comparing model predictions with seismic observations of the depth to the top of oceanic crust and depth dependence of seismicity in the Hawaiian Islands region, we have sought to constrain lithospheric rheology. Our calculations show that the load-induced surface deformation is controlled by low-temperature plasticity and frictional sliding but is insensitive to high-temperature creep. Lithospheric strength predicted from laboratory-derived low-temperature plasticity needs to be reduced significantly, and a frictional coefficient μf ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 is required in order to account for the observations. However, μf = 0.1 weakens the shallow part of the lithosphere so much that it causes the minima in strain rate and stress to occur at too large depths to be consistent with the observed depth distribution of seismicity. Our results therefore suggest a value for μf between 0.25 and 0.7. Finally, the maximum stress that accumulates in the deformed lithosphere beneath the Hawaiian Islands is about 100-200 MPa for models that match the observations, and this stress may be viewed as the largest lithospheric stress on Earth.

  13. A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Hank; Lorence, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cyanea kauaulaensis H. Oppenheimer & Lorence, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated with field photos, and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from 62 mature plants and is restricted to Kaua`ula and Waikapu valleys on leeward western Maui. It differs from all other species of Cyanea by its combination of many-branched habit; glabrous, unarmed, undivided leaves; small, narrow, glabrous corollas with small calyx lobes that do not persist in fruit; and bright orange, subglobose to obovoid fruits. PMID:22787424

  14. A new species of Hibiscadelphus Rock (Malvaceae, Hibisceae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Hank L.; Bustamente, Keahi M.; Perlman, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hibiscadelphus stellatus H. Oppenheimer, Bustamente, & Perlman, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from three populations totaling 99 plants in Kaua`ula valley on leeward western Maui. It differs from H. wilderianus, its nearest congener, in its denser white or tan stellate pubescence on most parts; larger externally purple colored corollas that are 5–6.5 cm long; linear-subulate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate involucral bracts; globose-cuboid to ovoid capsules; and endocarp with scattered hairs. PMID:25197226

  15. 50 CFR 622.458 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.458 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There...

  16. 50 CFR 622.458 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.458 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There...

  17. 50 CFR 622.455 - Landing spiny lobster intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Landing spiny lobster intact. 622.455... ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.455 Landing spiny lobster intact. (a) A Caribbean spiny lobster in or from the Caribbean EEZ must be maintained with head...

  18. 50 CFR 622.455 - Landing spiny lobster intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Landing spiny lobster intact. 622.455... ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.455 Landing spiny lobster intact. (a) A Caribbean spiny lobster in or from the Caribbean EEZ must be maintained with head...

  19. Extreme heterogeneity in parasitism despite low population genetic structure among monarch butterflies inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Amanda A; de Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

  20. Extreme heterogeneity in parasitism despite low population genetic structure among monarch butterflies inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Amanda A; de Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here.

  1. Structure of Mesophotic Reef Fish Assemblages in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Atsuko; Kosaki, Randall K; Wagner, Daniel; Kane, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) support diverse communities of marine organisms with changes in community structure occurring along a depth gradient. In recent years, MCEs have gained attention due to their depths that provide protection from natural and anthropogenic stressors and their relative stability over evolutionary time periods, yet ecological structures of fish assemblages in MCEs remain largely un-documented. Here, we investigated composition and trophic structure of reef fish assemblages in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) along a depth gradient from 1 to 67 m. The structure of reef fish assemblages as a whole showed a clear gradient from shallow to mesophotic depths. Fish assemblages at mesophotic depths had higher total densities than those in shallower waters, and were characterized by relatively high densities of planktivores and invertivores and relatively low densities of herbivores. Fishes that typified assemblages at mesophotic depths included six species that are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The present study showed that mesophotic reefs in the NWHI support unique assemblages of fish that are characterized by high endemism and relatively high densities of planktivores. Our findings underscore the ecological importance of these undersurveyed ecosystems and warrant further studies of MCEs. PMID:27383614

  2. Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Amanda A.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4–85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

  3. Structure of Mesophotic Reef Fish Assemblages in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kosaki, Randall K.; Wagner, Daniel; Kane, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) support diverse communities of marine organisms with changes in community structure occurring along a depth gradient. In recent years, MCEs have gained attention due to their depths that provide protection from natural and anthropogenic stressors and their relative stability over evolutionary time periods, yet ecological structures of fish assemblages in MCEs remain largely un-documented. Here, we investigated composition and trophic structure of reef fish assemblages in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) along a depth gradient from 1 to 67 m. The structure of reef fish assemblages as a whole showed a clear gradient from shallow to mesophotic depths. Fish assemblages at mesophotic depths had higher total densities than those in shallower waters, and were characterized by relatively high densities of planktivores and invertivores and relatively low densities of herbivores. Fishes that typified assemblages at mesophotic depths included six species that are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The present study showed that mesophotic reefs in the NWHI support unique assemblages of fish that are characterized by high endemism and relatively high densities of planktivores. Our findings underscore the ecological importance of these undersurveyed ecosystems and warrant further studies of MCEs. PMID:27383614

  4. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  5. Structure of Mesophotic Reef Fish Assemblages in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Atsuko; Kosaki, Randall K; Wagner, Daniel; Kane, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) support diverse communities of marine organisms with changes in community structure occurring along a depth gradient. In recent years, MCEs have gained attention due to their depths that provide protection from natural and anthropogenic stressors and their relative stability over evolutionary time periods, yet ecological structures of fish assemblages in MCEs remain largely un-documented. Here, we investigated composition and trophic structure of reef fish assemblages in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) along a depth gradient from 1 to 67 m. The structure of reef fish assemblages as a whole showed a clear gradient from shallow to mesophotic depths. Fish assemblages at mesophotic depths had higher total densities than those in shallower waters, and were characterized by relatively high densities of planktivores and invertivores and relatively low densities of herbivores. Fishes that typified assemblages at mesophotic depths included six species that are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The present study showed that mesophotic reefs in the NWHI support unique assemblages of fish that are characterized by high endemism and relatively high densities of planktivores. Our findings underscore the ecological importance of these undersurveyed ecosystems and warrant further studies of MCEs.

  6. On the possibility of a ridge current along the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, James Michael; Van Woert, Michael L.; Vitousek, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Four evenly spaced aircraft-deployed expendable bathythermograph and concurrent satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) surveys were made over an extended areas during a 1-year period to observe possible ridge currents along the Hawaiian Islands predicted or hypothesized by other investigators. None of the surveys found extended currents running along the ridge. Instead, fields of energetic eddies were found, and a curious cusp-shaped sea surface temperature pattern was observed in two of the AVHRR fields. Apparent cyclonic currents around the island of Hawaii were also observed. We conclude that either ridge currents do not exist or that they exist but are intermittent (episodic) in nature or exist in a form more complicated than could be observed by this study.

  7. Bacterial communities of two parthenogenetic aphid species cocolonizing two host plants across the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan T; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M; Fierer, Noah

    2011-12-01

    Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants. PMID:21965398

  8. Mapping plant species ranges in the Hawaiian Islands: developing a methodology and associated GIS layers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Jonathan P.; Jacobi, James D.; Gon, Samuel M.; Matsuwaki, Dwight; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Wagner, Warren; Lucas, Matthew; Rowe, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This report documents a methodology for projecting the geographic ranges of plant species in the Hawaiian Islands. The methodology consists primarily of the creation of several geographic information system (GIS) data layers depicting attributes related to the geographic ranges of plant species. The most important spatial-data layer generated here is an objectively defined classification of climate as it pertains to the distribution of plant species. By examining previous zonal-vegetation classifications in light of spatially detailed climate data, broad zones of climate relevant to contemporary concepts of vegetation in the Hawaiian Islands can be explicitly defined. Other spatial-data layers presented here include the following: substrate age, as large areas of the island of Hawai'i, in particular, are covered by very young lava flows inimical to the growth of many plant species; biogeographic regions of the larger islands that are composites of multiple volcanoes, as many of their species are restricted to a given topographically isolated mountain or a specified group of them; and human impact, which can reduce the range of many species relative to where they formerly were found. Other factors influencing the geographic ranges of species that are discussed here but not developed further, owing to limitations in rendering them spatially, include topography, soils, and disturbance. A method is described for analyzing these layers in a GIS, in conjunction with a database of species distributions, to project the ranges of plant species, which include both the potential range prior to human disturbance and the projected present range. Examples of range maps for several species are given as case studies that demonstrate different spatial characteristics of range. Several potential applications of species-range maps are discussed, including facilitating field surveys, informing restoration efforts, studying range size and rarity, studying biodiversity, managing

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Terasakiispira papahanaumokuakeensis PH27AT, a Spiral Bacterium from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Dasilveira, Luis; Hou, Shaobin; Saito, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Terasakiispira hosts only Terasakiispira papahanaumokuakeensis PH27AT, cultivated from an anchialine pond on Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The strain’s genome sequence may provide insights into the evolution of free-living Oceanospirillaceae. PMID:27795280

  10. Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, T.K.; Balazs, G.H.; Work, T.M.; Aguirre, A.A.; Ellis, D.M.; Murakawa, S.K.K.; Morris, R.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

  11. Has Social Work Met Its Commitment to Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders? A Review of the Periodical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokuau, Noreen; Garlock-Tuialii, Jessica; Lee, Palama

    2008-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPIs) were recognized in the 2000 U.S. census as a distinct racial minority group, with unique histories, values, and traditions. The profession of social work, with its historical commitment to social and cultural diversity, has begun to establish a knowledge base on this population in the…

  12. Cryptosporidium sp. Infections in Green Turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a Potential Source of Marine Waterborne Oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Graczyk, T. K.; Balazs, G. H.; Work, T.; Aguirre, A. A.; Ellis, D. M.; Murakawa, S.; Morris, R.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum. PMID:16535658

  13. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  14. Lithospheric flexure revealed by Pleistocene emerged marine terraces on the southern Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.T. . Dept. of Oceanography)

    1992-01-01

    New field and geochronological data from emerged marine deposits in the southern Hawaiian Islands suggest uplift of the islands of Molokai, Lanai and Oahu. Corals from these islands were dated by ESR. The accumulated dose for aragonitic coral at ESR signal, g = 2.0007, was determined by the additive dose method. The environmental dose rate was estimated from the Uranium concentration in corals and by using an estimate of 2.5 rad/a for the cosmic ray dose. The ESR ages of the highest terraces on Molokai are 290 [+-] 31 ka (30 m), on Lanai 217 [+-] 19 ka (50 m) and on Oahu 468 [+-] 36 ka (28 m). The age and elevation of the marine terraces are interpreted to imply uplift during the Late Quaternary. Lithospheric flexure combined with horizontal plate motion is proposed as a mechanism to describe the pattern of uplifted terraces on these islands. Using two-dimensional elastic plate models, the height of maximum bulge is approximately 4% to 7% of the maximum deflection for a continuous or broken plate model. Drowned reefs off Hawaii indicate subsidence of 1 km since 340 ka. Thus, the magnitude of observed uplift (30--50 m) is consistent with theoretical maximum bulge heights derived from numerical results.

  15. Lithospheric flexure at the Hawaiian Islands and its implications for mantle rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shijie; Watts, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    The response of the lithosphere to long-term geological loads such as volcanoes, sediments and ice provide important insights to both plate mechanics and mantle dynamics. One of the largest loads on Earth's surface are the shield volcanoes that comprise the Hawaiian Islands in the Central Pacific Ocean. We have developed a 3-D finite element model for calculating the flexure and stress associated with the emplacement of an arbitrary-shaped volcano load on a crust and mantle with realistic non-linear viscoelastic rheology, including frictional sliding, low-temperature plasticity, and high-temperature creep. By comparing model predictions with seismic reflection and refraction observations of the depth to the top of the oceanic crust and the depth dependence of seismicity at the Hawaiian Islands, we have been able to constrain the long-term rheological properties of intraplate, plume influenced, Late Cretaceous (83-96 Ma) oceanic lithosphere. Our calculations show that while the load-induced surface flexure is insensitive to high-temperature creep, it is sensitive to both the frictional sliding and low-temperature plasticity laws. Results show that a frictional coefficient ranging from 0.25 to 0.70 and a low-temperature plasticity law that is significantly weaker than ones recently proposed from experimental rock mechanics data are required in order to account for the observations. For example, a frictional coefficient of 0.1 weakens the shallow part of the lithosphere so much that it causes the minima in strain rate and stress to occur at too large depths to be consistent with the observed depth distribution of seismicity while the low-temperature plasticity law of Mei et al (2010) strengthens the deep part of the lithosphere so much that it predicts too small an amplitude and long a wavelength flexure compared to the observed. Our best fit model suggest the maximum stress that accumulates in the flexed lithosphere beneath the Hawaiian Islands is 100-200 MPa, and

  16. New and resurrected Hawaiian species of pilo (Coprosma, Rubiaceae) from the island of Maui

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Jason T.; Sporck-Koehler, Margaret J.; Chau, Marian M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae) J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. are described from the island of Maui of the Hawaiian Archipelago. A newly described taxon, Coprosma cordicarpa J.Cantley, Sporck-Koehler, & M.Chau, sp. nov. is locally common in medium to high elevation dry forests and shrublands of leeward East Maui. The second taxon is resurrected from the synonymy of Coprosma foliosa A.Gray as Coprosma stephanocarpa Hillebr. and occurs in mesic to wet rainforests of both East and West Maui. Both taxa are segregated from Coprosma foliosa, with which they share similar morphological characters. A conspicuous and persistent calyx of the fruit and various floral characters most easily differentiate both taxa from other Hawaiian taxa. The newly described Coprosma cordicarpa is further distinguished from Coprosma stephanocarpa by a central constriction of the fruit with a depressed apex, which gives it a characteristic heart shape. Furthermore, the taxa are largely separated phenologically, ecologically, and geographically. Descriptions, conservation status, and specimens examined for the new species are included. PMID:27081343

  17. Pliocene and Pleistocene alkalic flood basalts on the seafloor north of the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Holcomb, R.T.; Sinton, J.M.; Detrick, R. S.; Torresan, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The North Arch volcanic field is located north of Oahu on the Hawaiian Arch, a 200-m high flexural arch formed by loading of the Hawaiian Islands. These flood basalt flows cover an area of about 25,000 km2; the nearly flat-lying sheet-like flows extend about 100 km both north and south from the axis of the flexural arch. Samples from 26 locations in the volcanic field range in composition from nephelinite to alkalic basalt. Ages estimated from stratigraphy, thickness of sediment on top of the flows, and thickness of palagonite alteration rinds on the recovered lavas, range from about 0.75-0.9 Ma for the youngest lavas to somewhat older than 2.7 Ma for the oldest lavas. Most of the flow field consists of extensive sheetflows of dense basanite and alkalic basalt. Small hills consisting of pillow basalt and hyaloclastite of mainly nephelinite and alkalic basalt occur within the flow field but were not the source vents for the extensive flows. Many of the vent lavas are highly vesicular, apparently because of degassing of CO2. The lavas are geochemically similar to the rejuvenated-stage lavas of the Koloa and Honolulu Volcanics and were generated by partial melting of sources similar to those of the Koloa Volcanics. Prior to eruption, these magmas may have accumulated at or near the base of the lithosphere in a structural trap created by upbowing of the lithosphere. ?? 1990.

  18. Erosion of Fluted Cliffs on the Na Pali Coast, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, G.; Mohr, S.; Blay, C.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitous sea cliffs on the northwest side of Kauai, sculpted into deep bedrock gullies and sharp divides, are known as "Na Pali", Hawaiian for "the cliffs", and are commonly referred to as fluted cliffs. Rising 500 m above the coast, they constitute some of the most dramatic scenery on planet Earth and are a world famous tourist attraction. After the discovery of flank collapses on some Hawaiian volcanoes the great Na Pali escarpment was hypothesized to have been generated by a megalandslide, but bathymetric data show the shallow submarine shelf off the Na Pali coast bears no landslide deposits. It is likely that wave erosion at the base of the local thin-bedded lavas, particularly in winter, is responsible for the escarpment. Superimposed on the escarpment are the deep gullies, or grooves, and divides, which constitute drainage networks that happen to be developed on very steep slopes. Networks are poorly developed on relatively young parts of the escarpment and well developed on older parts, which feature coalescing tributaries and very deep gullies. In most cases gullies shallow going upslope, and many fade out completely just below drainage divides, just like in drainage networks developed on more gently sloping landscapes. The drainage networks show that the basalts along this coast are relatively easily eroded by runoff. Rocks easily eroded by runoff generally do not stand in 500-m-high cliffs because they are not mechanically strong enough to resist failure and mass movement. The key to development of high fluted cliffs is a mix of mechanical strength and erodibiity, a combination whose rarity explains why analogs to the Na Pali cliffs are not found outside the Hawaiian Islands. The combination here is provided by basalt which is strong where unweathered but rotten and in some case completely decomposed close to the surface, courtesy of the Hawaiian climate. Weathering must proceed downward at about the same rate as removal of mass by runoff erosion

  19. Maximizing Multi-core Performance of the Weather Research and Forecast Model over the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, K.; Stevens, D.

    2010-09-01

    The Hawaiian Islands consist of dramatic terrain changes over short distances, resulting in a variety of microclimates in close proximity. To handle these challenging conditions, weather models must be run at very fine vertical and horizontal resolutions to produce accurate forecasts. Computational demands require WRF to be executed in parallel on the Maui High Performance Computing Center’s Mana system, a PowerEdge M610 Linux cluster. This machine has 1,152 compute nodes, each with two 2.8 GHz quad-core Intel® Nehalem processors and 24 GB RAM. Realizing maximum performance on Mana relied on the determination of an optimal number of cores to use per socket, the efficiency of an MPI only implementation, an optimal set of parameters for adaptive time stepping, a way to meet the strict stability requirements necessary for Hawaii, effective choices for processor and memory affinity, and parallel automation techniques for producing forecast imagery.

  20. Improving Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health: National Organizations Leading Community Research Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Chung, Corina; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Background Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. Objectives To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Methods Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations Results Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Conclusions Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research. PMID:22643786

  1. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Carbonate Chemistry in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, C.; Winn, C. D.; Kahng, S.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid increase in atmospheric and surface ocean CO2 concentrations has the potential to drastically alter the metabolic processes particularly in nearshore ecosystems. However, much of what is known about carbonate chemistry is based on observations and analysis of surface waters of the open ocean where spatial and temporal variability is far less dynamic than in nearshore coral reef ecosystems. Carbon system dynamics data from four consecutive years has been examined in the coastal and nearshore waters of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands. This data has been collected for the purpose of improving our understanding of the carbon system dynamics in this unique and pristine environment. The data collected includes continuous CTD data and discrete bottle samples, as well as continuous underway measurements. In addition to standard hydrographic profile data, water column alkalinity and pH have been measured on discrete water samples, and continuous underway measurements of pCO2 and pH have been obtained. This data is used to investigate the impact of NWHI coral reef ecosystems on the carbon system in and surrounding the archipelago. The data demonstrates that a significant "island mass effect" with respect to the oceanographic carbon system exists around the islands within the archipelago. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of several oceanographic features that exhibit a radial, latitudinal, or longitudinal gradient in the nearshore waters of the NWHI islands, islets, and atolls will be described. Finally, a shallow pH maximum coincident with the shallow oxygen maximum is observed, which suggests an open ocean feature substantially influenced by turbulence surrounding the islands within the monument. The data analysis and coral reef ecosystem monitoring will aid in developing a long-term plan to assist in the sustainability of Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument.

  2. Drowned reefs and antecedent karst topography, Au'au channel, S.E. Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grigg, R.W.; Grossman, E.E.; Earle, S.A.; Gittings, S.R.; Lott, D.; McDonough, J.

    2002-01-01

    During the last glacial maximum (LGM), about 21,000 years ago, the Hawaiian Islands of Maui, Lanai, and Molokai were interconnected by limestone bridges, creating a super-island known as Maui-Nui. Approximately 120 m of sea-level rise during the Holocene Transgression flooded, and then drowned, these bridges separating the islands by inter-island channels. A new multibeam high-resolution bathymetric survey of the channels between the islands, coupled with observations and video-transects utilizing DeepWorker-2000 submersibles, has revealed the existence of numerous drowned reef features including concentric solution basins, solution ridges (rims), sand and sediment plains, and conical-shaped reef pinnacles. The concentric basins contain flat lagoon-like bottoms that are rimmed by steep-sided limestone walls. Undercut notches rim the basins at several depths, marking either sea-level still stands or paleo-lake levels. All of the solution basins shallower than 120 m were subaerial at the LGM, and at one stage or another may have been shallow shoreline lakes. Today, about 70 drowned reef pinnacles are scattered across the Maui-Lanai underwater bridge and all are situated in wave-sheltered positions. Most drowned during the interval between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago when sea-level rise averaged 15 mm/year. Virtually all of the surficial topography in the Au'au Channel today is a product of karst processes accentuated by marginal reef growth during the Holocene. Both the submerged basins and the drowned reefs represent an archive of sea-level and climate history in Hawaii during the late Quaternary.

  3. Geographic structure and host specificity shape the community composition of symbiotic dinoflagellates in corals from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stat, Michael; Yost, Denise M.; Gates, Ruth D.

    2015-12-01

    How host-symbiont assemblages vary over space and time is fundamental to understanding the evolution and persistence of mutualistic symbioses. In this study, the diversity and geographic structure of coral-algal partnerships across the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands archipelago was investigated. The diversity of symbionts in the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium was characterised using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene in corals sampled at ten reef locations across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Symbiodinium diversity was reported using operational taxonomic units and the distribution of Symbiodinium across the island archipelago investigated for evidence of geographic structure using permutational MANOVA. A 97 % sequence similarity of the ITS2 gene for characterising Symbiodinium diversity was supported by phylogenetic and ecological data. Four of the nine Symbiodinium evolutionary lineages (clades A, C, D, and G) were identified from 16 coral species at French Frigate Shoals, and host specificity was a dominant feature in the symbiotic assemblages at this location. Significant structure in the diversity of Symbiodinium was also found across the archipelago in the three coral species investigated. The latitudinal gradient and subsequent variation in abiotic conditions (particularly sea surface temperature dynamics) across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands encompasses an environmental range that decouples the stability of host-symbiont assemblages across the archipelago. This suggests that local adaptation to prevailing environmental conditions by at least one partner in coral-algal mutualism occurs prior to the selection pressures associated with the maintenance of a symbiotic state.

  4. Developing and testing solar irradiance forecasting techniques in the Hawaiian Islands region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Hawaíi Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) is developing an operational solar forecasting for the Hawaiian Islands. The system comprises the following three components, covering forecasting horizons from seconds to days ahead. (i) A ground-observation driven advection model, using sky imagery and cloud height data. (ii) A satellite-image based advection model, primarily driven by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery. (iii) A coupled ocean-atmosphere model, using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, including newly available microphysics, shallow convection parameterization, and radiative transfer physics options. The satellite and NWP components provide coverage for the entire island chain, however, lack the resolution in time and space, to accurately forecast ramp events (large changes in irradiance that occur over a short period of time). Knowledge of the magnitude, duration and timing of ramp events are particularly important in Hawaíi due to the small size of the electric grids. Currently, HNEI employs a sky imager and ceilometer installed on the University of Hawaíi campus for high resolution forecasting, however, instrument design and cost limit widespread deployment. We discuss the development and preliminary validation of a new forecasting system based on inexpensive, panoramic (large FOV), off-the-shelf cameras with a cloud base height retrieval algorithm that does not require additional instrumentation.

  5. Stability of submerged slopes on the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands, a simplified approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.J.; Torresan, M.E.; McArthur, W.

    1994-12-31

    Undersea transmission lines and shoreline AC-DC conversion stations and near-shore transmission lines are being considered as part of a system for transporting energy between the Hawaiian Islands. These facilities will need to be designed so that they will not be damaged or destroyed by coastal or undersea landslides. Advanced site surveys and engineering design of these facilities will require detailed site specific analyses, including sediment sampling and laboratory testing of samples, in situ testing of sediment and rock, detailed charting of bathymetry, and two- or three-dimensional numerical analyses of the factors of safety of the slopes against failure from the various possible loading mechanisms. An intermediate approximate approach can be followed that involves gravity and piston cores, laboratory testing and the application of simplified models to determine a seismic angle of repose for actual sediment in the vicinity of the planned facility. An even simpler and more approximate approach involves predictions of angles of repose using classification of the sediment along a proposed route as either a coarse volcaniclastic sand, a calcareous ooze, or a muddy terrigenous sediment. The steepest slope that such a sediment can maintain is the static angle of repose. Sediment may be found on slopes as steep as these, but it must be considered metastable and liable to fail in the event of any disturbance, storm or earthquake. The seismic angle of repose likely governs most slopes on the Hawaiian Ridge. This declivity corresponds to the response of the slope to a continuing seismic environment. As a long history of earthquakes affects the slopes, they gradually flatten to this level. Slopes that exceed or roughly equal this value can be considered at risk to fail during future earthquakes. Seismic and static angles of repose for three sediment types are tabulated in this report.

  6. Predicting sea-level rise vulnerability of terrestrial habitat and wildlife of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    If current climate change trends continue, rising sea levels may inundate low-lying islands across the globe, placing island biodiversity at risk. Recent models predict a rise of approximately one meter (1 m) in global sea level by 2100, with larger increases possible in areas of the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Islands are unique ecosystems home to many endangered endemic plant and animal species. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), which extend 1,930 kilometers (km) beyond the main Hawaiian Islands, are a World Heritage Site and part of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. These NWHI support the largest tropical seabird rookery in the world, providing breeding habitat for 21 species of seabirds, 4 endemic land bird species and essential foraging, breeding, or haul-out habitat for other resident and migratory wildlife. In recent years, concern has grown about the increasing vulnerability of the NWHI and their wildlife populations to changing climatic patterns, particularly the uncertainty associated with potential impacts from global sea-level rise (SLR) and storms. In response to the need by managers to adapt future resource protection strategies to climate change variability and dynamic island ecosystems, we have synthesized and down scaled analyses for this important region. This report describes a 2-year study of a remote northwestern Pacific atoll ecosystem and identifies wildlife and habitat vulnerable to rising sea levels and changing climate conditions. A lack of high-resolution topographic data for low-lying islands of the NWHI had previously precluded an extensive quantitative model of the potential impacts of SLR on wildlife habitat. The first chapter (chapter 1) describes the vegetation and topography of 20 islands of Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, the distribution and status of wildlife populations, and the predicted impacts for a range of SLR scenarios. Furthermore, this chapter explores the potential effects of SLR on

  7. Predicting sea-level rise vulnerability of terrestrial habitat and wildlife of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    If current climate change trends continue, rising sea levels may inundate low-lying islands across the globe, placing island biodiversity at risk. Recent models predict a rise of approximately one meter (1 m) in global sea level by 2100, with larger increases possible in areas of the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Islands are unique ecosystems home to many endangered endemic plant and animal species. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), which extend 1,930 kilometers (km) beyond the main Hawaiian Islands, are a World Heritage Site and part of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. These NWHI support the largest tropical seabird rookery in the world, providing breeding habitat for 21 species of seabirds, 4 endemic land bird species and essential foraging, breeding, or haul-out habitat for other resident and migratory wildlife. In recent years, concern has grown about the increasing vulnerability of the NWHI and their wildlife populations to changing climatic patterns, particularly the uncertainty associated with potential impacts from global sea-level rise (SLR) and storms. In response to the need by managers to adapt future resource protection strategies to climate change variability and dynamic island ecosystems, we have synthesized and down scaled analyses for this important region. This report describes a 2-year study of a remote northwestern Pacific atoll ecosystem and identifies wildlife and habitat vulnerable to rising sea levels and changing climate conditions. A lack of high-resolution topographic data for low-lying islands of the NWHI had previously precluded an extensive quantitative model of the potential impacts of SLR on wildlife habitat. The first chapter (chapter 1) describes the vegetation and topography of 20 islands of Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, the distribution and status of wildlife populations, and the predicted impacts for a range of SLR scenarios. Furthermore, this chapter explores the potential effects of SLR on

  8. Marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: an examination of rates and processes.

    PubMed

    Dameron, Oliver J; Parke, Michael; Albins, Mark A; Brainard, Russell

    2007-04-01

    Large amounts of derelict fishing gear accumulate and cause damage to shallow coral reefs of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). To facilitate maintenance of reefs cleaned during 1996-2005 removal efforts, we identify likely high-density debris areas by assessing reef characteristics (depth, benthic habitat type, and energy regime) that influence sub-regional debris accumulation. Previously cleaned backreef and lagoonal reefs at two NWHI locations were resurveyed for accumulated debris using two survey methods. Accumulated debris densities and weights were found to be greater in lagoonal reef areas. Sample weight-based debris densities are extrapolated to similar habitats throughout the NWHI using a spatial 'net habitat' dataset created by generalizing IKONOS satellite derivatives for depth and habitat classification. Prediction accuracy for this dataset is tested using historical debris point data. Annual NWHI debris accumulation is estimated to be 52.0 metric tonnes. For planning purposes, individual NWHI atolls/reefs are allotted a proportion of this total. PMID:17217968

  9. Elements needed in design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.

    1977-01-01

    The elements needed in the design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands are described and summarized. The elements are given by geohydrologie units which represent areas where there are similarities in the occurrence of ground water or in the geology pertinent to the occurrence of ground water. The goal is to establish a network of observation points to inventory and maintain surveillance of existing and potential sources of pollution of ground water. Of principal concern to Hawaii's environment is pollution of the potable ground-water supplies and of the near-shore recreational waters, the latter by the discharge of polluted ground water. Existing monitoring efforts, although intensive in many areas, are not adequate because they are geared more toward (1) the detection and surveillance of pollutants in the conveyances of ground water instead of in the sources of ground water and (2) the monitoring of extensive nonpoint sources of pollution instead of from discrete point sources.

  10. Diabetes Among Asians and Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders--United States, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Kirtland, Karen A; Cho, Pyone; Geiss, Linda S

    2015-11-20

    Asians and Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) are fast-growing U.S. minority populations at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Although national studies have described diabetes prevalence, incidence, and risk factors among Asians and NHPIs compared with non-Hispanic whites, little is known about state-level diabetes prevalence among these two racial groups, or about how they differ from one another with respect to diabetes risk factors. To examine state-level prevalence of self-reported, physician-diagnosed (diagnosed) diabetes and risk factors among Asians and NHPIs aged ≥18 years, CDC analyzed data from the 2011-2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Among five states and Guam with sufficient data about NHPIs for analysis, the age-adjusted diabetes prevalence estimate for NHPIs ranged from 13.4% (New York) to 19.1% (California). Among 32 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Guam that had sufficient data about Asians for analysis, diabetes prevalence estimates for Asians ranged from 4.9% (Arizona) to 15.3% (New York). In the five states and Guam with sufficient NHPI data, NHPIs had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes than did Asians, and a higher proportion of NHPIs were overweight or obese and had less than a high school education compared with Asians. Effective interventions and policies might reduce the prevalence of diabetes in these growing, high-risk minority populations. PMID:26583766

  11. Physical and chemical properties of submarine basaltic rocks from the submarine flanks of the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yokose, H.; Lipman, P.W.; Kanamatsu, T.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate physical and chemical diversity in submarine basaltic rocks, approximately 280 deep submarine samples recovered by submersibles from the underwater flanks of the Hawaiian Islands were analyzed and compared. Based on observations from the submersibles and hand specimens, these samples were classified into three main occurrence types (lavas, coarse-grained volcaniclastic rocks, and fine-grained sediments), each with several subtypes. The whole-rock sulfur content and porosity in submarine basaltic rocks, recovered from depths greater than 2000 m, range from < 10 ppm and 2 vol.% to 2200 ppm and 47 vol.%, respectively. These wide variations cannot be due just to different ambient pressures at the collection depths, as inferred previously for submarine erupted lavas. The physical and chemical properties of the recovered samples, especially a combination of three whole-rock parameters (Fe-oxidation state, Sulfur content, and Porosity), are closely related to the occurrence type. The FSP triangular diagram is a valuable indicator of the source location of basaltic fragments deposited in deep submarine areas. This diagram can be applied to basaltic rocks such as clasts in debris-flow deposits, submarine-emplaced lava flows that may have crossed the shoreline, and slightly altered geological samples. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modifiable Determinants of Obesity in Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youth.

    PubMed

    Braden, Katherine W; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Obesity disproportionately affects Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) who demonstrate alarming rates of obesity and its related chronic conditions. However, little is known about the causes of obesity for this group. Given the modest effects of individual-level obesity treatments, identifying the most impactful determinants that can be modified to prevent or reduce obesity in NHOPI youth is critical to the development of interventions that best meet the needs of this population. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, with additional expert-recommended articles identified through the Hawai'i Initiative for Childhood Obesity Research and Education (HICORE) research database, to evaluate the current body of research on modifiable determinants or correlates of obesity in NHOPI youth. Of an initial pool of 471 articles, 60 articles were read in full and 14 articles were selected for inclusion in the qualitative synthesis. Utilizing an ecological framework to identify gaps in the literature and suggest areas for future research, findings from this review indicate that early life and contextual factors-namely, infant-feeding mode, geographic location, and education-appear to play an important role in obesity in NHOPI youth. However, more research is needed, particularly pre-birth cohort studies evaluating the effects of prenatal and early life risk factors, studies on the sociocultural influences on obesity-related psychosocial factors and health behaviors, as well as the influence of environmental and policy-level variables.

  13. Chemical ecology of red mangroves, Rhizophora mangle, in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, Brian; Cormier, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The coastal red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands from Florida 100 yr ago and has spread to cover many shallow intertidal shorelines that once were unvegetated mudflats. We used a field survey approach to test whether mangroves at the land-ocean interface could indicate watershed inputs, especially whether measurements of leaf chemistry could identify coasts with high nutrient inputs and high mangrove productivities. During 2001-2002, we sampled mangroves on dry leeward coasts of southern Moloka'i and O'ahu for 14 leaf variables including stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (delta13C, delta15N), macronutrients (C, N, P), trace elements (B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), and cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca). A new modeling approach using leaf Na, N, P, and delta13C indicated two times higher productivity for mangroves in urban versus rural settings, with rural mangroves more limited by low N and P nutrients and high-nutrient urban mangroves more limited by freshwater inputs and salt stress. Leaf chemistry also helped identify other aspects of mangrove dynamics: especially leaf delta15N values helped identify groundwater N inputs, and a combination of strongly correlated variables (C, N, P, B, Cu, Mg, K, Ca) tracked the mangrove growth response to nutrient loading. Overall, the chemical marker approach is an efficient way to survey watershed forcing of mangrove forest dynamics.

  14. Two new paratanaid Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Peracarida) from the Hawaiian Islands, with illustrated taxonomic keys.

    PubMed

    Morales-Núñez, Andrés G; Pelleteri, Sara; Heard, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Two new tanaidomorphan tanaidaceans, Aparatanais hawaiensis, sp. nov. and Metatanais spinipropodus, sp. nov. represent the first members of the Family Paratanaidae to be described from the Hawaiian Islands. Aparatanais hawaiensis is distinguished from the other species of the genus by the setation of the antenna, maxilliped, chela, and pereopods. Metatanais spinipropodus is distinguished from the other three members of its genus by its chela having a strongly developed, chisel-like, spiniform seta on the inner face of propodus near the sub-distal margin of the fixed finger. The Hawaiian occurrence of M. spinipropodus extends the range for the genus Metatanais well-eastward into the mid-Pacific Ocean. This study presents the first description of a male attributable to the genus Aparatanais. PMID:27615684

  15. Two new paratanaid Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Peracarida) from the Hawaiian Islands, with illustrated taxonomic keys.

    PubMed

    Morales-Núñez, Andrés G; Pelleteri, Sara; Heard, Richard W

    2016-08-15

    Two new tanaidomorphan tanaidaceans, Aparatanais hawaiensis, sp. nov. and Metatanais spinipropodus, sp. nov. represent the first members of the Family Paratanaidae to be described from the Hawaiian Islands. Aparatanais hawaiensis is distinguished from the other species of the genus by the setation of the antenna, maxilliped, chela, and pereopods. Metatanais spinipropodus is distinguished from the other three members of its genus by its chela having a strongly developed, chisel-like, spiniform seta on the inner face of propodus near the sub-distal margin of the fixed finger. The Hawaiian occurrence of M. spinipropodus extends the range for the genus Metatanais well-eastward into the mid-Pacific Ocean. This study presents the first description of a male attributable to the genus Aparatanais.

  16. Microsatellite variation and rare alleles in a bottlenecked Hawaiian Islands endemic: implications for reintroductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Pearce, John M.; Lavretsky, Philip; Seixas, Pedro P.; Courtot, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of genetic biodiversity in endangered wildlife populations is an important challenge to address since the loss of alleles and genetic drift may influence future adaptability. Reintroduction aims to re-establish species to restored or protected ecosystems; however, moving a subset of individuals may result in loss of gene variants during the management-induced bottleneck (i.e. translocation). The endangered Laysan teal Anas laysanensis was once widespread across the Hawaiian archipelago, but became isolated on Laysan Island (415 ha) from the mid-1800s until 2004 when a translocation to Midway Atoll (596 ha) was undertaken to reduce extinction risks. We compared genetic diversity and quantified variation at microsatellite loci sampled from 230 individuals from the wild populations at Laysan (1999 to 2009) and Midway (2007 to 2010; n = 133 Laysan, n = 96 Midway birds). We identified polymorphic markers by screening nuclear microsatellites (N = 83). Low nuclear variation was detected, consistent with the species’ insular isolation and historical bottleneck. Six of 83 microsatellites were polymorphic. We found limited but similar estimates of allelic richness (2.58 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity within populations. However, 2 rare alleles found in the Laysan source population were not present in Midway’s reintroduced population, and a unique allele was discovered in an individual on Midway. Differentiation between island populations was low (FST = 0.6%), but statistically significant. Our results indicate that genetic drift had little effect on offspring generations 3 to 6 yr post-release and demonstrate the utility of using known founder events to help quantify genetic capture during translocations and to inform management decisions.

  17. Public Awareness of a Long-Established Siren-Based Warning System for Tsunami in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C.; Houghton, B.; Paton, D.; Johnston, D.

    2003-12-01

    Tsunami represent one of the greatest threats in the Hawaiian Islands because much of the built environment is located in the coastal areas and has been constructed after the last statewide damaging tsunami (1960). Moreover, the threat posed by short warning times of locally generated tsunami suggests an urgent need for a well briefed and prepared society. The Federal Emergency Alert System (EAS) is employed to communicate emergency information to the Hawaiian population (1.2 million residents; 6.4 million annual visitors). A network of sirens located throughout the islands supplements the EAS. These sirens have been used since the mid 20th Century to provide emergency information to islanders. The siren is currently defined as an "Attention Alert Signal" i.e. is intended to prompt people to listen to the radio or television for specific information. The sirens are tested monthly. Since the inception of the sirens there have been a range of tones and number of soundings used to indicate various threats and prompt specific public responses. However, the impact of these changes on interpretation of the sirens has received little attention (Lachman et al. 1961). The long time during which the warning system has been in place and the routine tests of the sirens would suggest that the population in Hawaii is largely aware of the siren. We present data from four Hawaiian Islands showing the relationship between awareness of the routine tests and interpretations of the sirens. We link this to findings from a tsunami preparedness study in Hilo, Hawaii.

  18. 50 CFR 622.453 - Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... spiny lobster. 622.453 Section 622.453 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.453 Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster. (a) Egg-bearing spiny lobster in the Caribbean EEZ...

  19. 50 CFR 622.453 - Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... spiny lobster. 622.453 Section 622.453 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.453 Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster. (a) Egg-bearing spiny lobster in the Caribbean EEZ...

  20. Substance use and dependence among Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asian ethnic groups in the United States: contrasting multiple-race and single-race prevalence rates from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Joseph T; Wang, Cynthia; Price, Rumi Kato

    2010-01-01

    The percentage of multiracial youth appears to be increasing in the United States. However, little has been disseminated about problem behaviors among multiracial Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians on a national level. Using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the authors compared multiple-race Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, while disaggregating by ethnic subgroups, with single-race individuals within respective Asian ethnic subgroups and Caucasians for prevalence of alcohol/drug use and dependence. For multiple-race Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, high rates of alcohol dependence were observed compared with both single-race Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, and Asian subgroups and single-race Caucasians; for some multiracial Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, high rates of drug dependence were also observed.

  1. Tropical cyclone inundation potential on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Andrew B.; Westerink, Joannes J.; Smith, Jane M.; Hope, Mark E.; Hartman, Michael; Taflanidis, Alexandros A.; Tanaka, Seizo; Westerink, Hans; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Smith, Tom; Hamann, Madeleine; Minamide, Masashi; Ota, Aina; Dawson, Clint

    2012-08-01

    The lack of a continental shelf in steep volcanic islands leads to significant changes in tropical cyclone inundation potential, with wave setup and runup increasing in importance and wind driven surge decreasing when compared to more gently-sloped mainland regions. This is illustrated through high resolution modeling of waves, surge, and runup on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai. A series of hurricane waves and water levels were computed using the SWAN + ADCIRC models for a suite of 643 synthetic storm scenarios, while local wave runup was evaluated along a series of 1D transects using the phase-resolving model Bouss1D. Waves are found to be an extremely important component of the inundation, both from breaking wave forced increases in storm surge and also from wave runup over the relatively steep topography. This is clear in comparisons with debris lines left by Hurricane Iniki on the Island of Kauai, where runup penetration is much greater than still water inundation in most instances. The difference between steeply-sloping and gently-sloping topographies was demonstrated by recomputing Iniki with the same landfall location as Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana. Surge was greatly increased for the mild-slope Iniki-in-Louisiana case, while pure wind surge for Iniki-in-Kauai was very small. For the entire suite of storms, maxima on Kauai show predicted inundation largely confined to a narrow coastal strip, with few locations showing more than a few hundred meters of flooding from the shoreline. As expected, maximum flooded areas for the 643 storms were somewhat greater than the Iniki inundation. Oahu has significantly more low-lying land compared to Kauai, and consequently hypothetical tropical cyclone landfalls show much more widespread inundation. Under direct impact scenarios, there is the potential for much of Honolulu and most of Waikiki to be inundated, with both still water surge and wave runup contributing. Other regions of Oahu show inundation confined

  2. Desires and management preferences of stakeholders regarding feral cats in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2014-04-01

    Feral cats are abundant in many parts of the world and a source of conservation conflict. Our goal was to clarify the beliefs and desires held by stakeholders regarding feral cat abundance and management. We measured people's desired abundance of feral cats in the Hawaiian Islands and identified an order of preference for 7 feral cat management techniques. In 2011 we disseminated a survey to 5407 Hawaii residents. Approximately 46% of preidentified stakeholders and 20% of random residents responded to the survey (1510 surveys returned). Results from the potential for conflict index revealed a high level of consensus (86.9% of respondents) that feral cat abundance should be decreased. The 3 most common explanatory variables for respondents' stated desires were enjoyment from seeing feral cats (84%), intrinsic value of feral cats (12%), and threat to native fauna (73%). The frequency with which respondents saw cats and change in the perceived abundance of cats also affected respondent's desired abundance of cats; 41.3% of respondents stated that they saw feral cats daily and 44.7% stated that the cat population had increased in recent years. Other potential environmental impacts of feral cats had little affect on desired abundance. The majority of respondents (78%) supported removing feral cats from the natural environment permanently. Consensus convergence models with data from 1388 respondents who completed the relevant questions showed live capture and lethal injection was the most preferred technique and trap-neuter-release was the least preferred technique for managing feral cats. However, the acceptability of each technique varied among stakeholders. Our results suggest that the majority of Hawaii's residents would like to see effective management that reduces the abundance of feral or free-roaming cats.

  3. Desires and management preferences of stakeholders regarding feral cats in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2014-04-01

    Feral cats are abundant in many parts of the world and a source of conservation conflict. Our goal was to clarify the beliefs and desires held by stakeholders regarding feral cat abundance and management. We measured people's desired abundance of feral cats in the Hawaiian Islands and identified an order of preference for 7 feral cat management techniques. In 2011 we disseminated a survey to 5407 Hawaii residents. Approximately 46% of preidentified stakeholders and 20% of random residents responded to the survey (1510 surveys returned). Results from the potential for conflict index revealed a high level of consensus (86.9% of respondents) that feral cat abundance should be decreased. The 3 most common explanatory variables for respondents' stated desires were enjoyment from seeing feral cats (84%), intrinsic value of feral cats (12%), and threat to native fauna (73%). The frequency with which respondents saw cats and change in the perceived abundance of cats also affected respondent's desired abundance of cats; 41.3% of respondents stated that they saw feral cats daily and 44.7% stated that the cat population had increased in recent years. Other potential environmental impacts of feral cats had little affect on desired abundance. The majority of respondents (78%) supported removing feral cats from the natural environment permanently. Consensus convergence models with data from 1388 respondents who completed the relevant questions showed live capture and lethal injection was the most preferred technique and trap-neuter-release was the least preferred technique for managing feral cats. However, the acceptability of each technique varied among stakeholders. Our results suggest that the majority of Hawaii's residents would like to see effective management that reduces the abundance of feral or free-roaming cats. PMID:24372971

  4. Modifiable Determinants of Obesity in Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youth.

    PubMed

    Braden, Katherine W; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Obesity disproportionately affects Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) who demonstrate alarming rates of obesity and its related chronic conditions. However, little is known about the causes of obesity for this group. Given the modest effects of individual-level obesity treatments, identifying the most impactful determinants that can be modified to prevent or reduce obesity in NHOPI youth is critical to the development of interventions that best meet the needs of this population. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, with additional expert-recommended articles identified through the Hawai'i Initiative for Childhood Obesity Research and Education (HICORE) research database, to evaluate the current body of research on modifiable determinants or correlates of obesity in NHOPI youth. Of an initial pool of 471 articles, 60 articles were read in full and 14 articles were selected for inclusion in the qualitative synthesis. Utilizing an ecological framework to identify gaps in the literature and suggest areas for future research, findings from this review indicate that early life and contextual factors-namely, infant-feeding mode, geographic location, and education-appear to play an important role in obesity in NHOPI youth. However, more research is needed, particularly pre-birth cohort studies evaluating the effects of prenatal and early life risk factors, studies on the sociocultural influences on obesity-related psychosocial factors and health behaviors, as well as the influence of environmental and policy-level variables. PMID:27413626

  5. Paleohydrology of arid southeastern maui, hawaiian islands, and its implications for prehistoric human settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Jonathan; Coil, James; Kirch, Patrick V.

    2003-01-01

    Arid slopes on the southeastern side of Maui are densely covered with archaeological remains of Hawaiian settlement from the late prehistoric to early postcontact period (ca. A.D. 1500-1860). Permanent habitation sites, agricultural features, and religious structures indicate perennial occupation and farming in a subregion called Kahikinui, yet there is presently no year-round water source. We explore the possibility that postcontact deforestation led to the loss of either (1) perennial channel flow or (2) perennial springs or seeps. To investigate the first possibility, we estimated ancient peak flows on 11 ephemeral channels in Kahikinui using field measurements and paleohydrology. Peak-flow estimates (3-230 m 3/s) for a given drainage area are smaller than those for current perennial Maui streams, but are equivalent to gauged peak flows from ephemeral and intermittent streams in the driest regions of Hawai'i and Maui islands. This is consistent with the long-term absence of perennial channel flow in Kahikinui. On the other hand, others have shown that canopy fog-drip in Hawai'i can be greater than rainfall and thus a large part of groundwater recharge. Using isolated live remnants and snags, we estimate the former extent of the forest upstream from archaeological sites. We use rough estimates of the loss of fog-drip recharge caused by deforestation and apply a simple, steady-state hydrologic model to calculate potential groundwater table fall. These order-of-magnitude estimates indicate that groundwater could have fallen by a minimum of several meters, abandoning perennial seeps. This is consistent with archaeological evidence for former perennial seeps, such as stonewalls enclosing potential seeps to protect them. Although longer-term reductions in rainfall cannot be ruled out as a factor, deforestation and loss of fog-drip recharge are obvious and more immediate reasons for a recent loss of perennial water in Kahikinui, Maui.

  6. Modifiable Determinants of Obesity in Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youth

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Obesity disproportionately affects Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) who demonstrate alarming rates of obesity and its related chronic conditions. However, little is known about the causes of obesity for this group. Given the modest effects of individual-level obesity treatments, identifying the most impactful determinants that can be modified to prevent or reduce obesity in NHOPI youth is critical to the development of interventions that best meet the needs of this population. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, with additional expert-recommended articles identified through the Hawai‘i Initiative for Childhood Obesity Research and Education (HICORE) research database, to evaluate the current body of research on modifiable determinants or correlates of obesity in NHOPI youth. Of an initial pool of 471 articles, 60 articles were read in full and 14 articles were selected for inclusion in the qualitative synthesis. Utilizing an ecological framework to identify gaps in the literature and suggest areas for future research, findings from this review indicate that early life and contextual factors—namely, infant-feeding mode, geographic location, and education—appear to play an important role in obesity in NHOPI youth. However, more research is needed, particularly pre-birth cohort studies evaluating the effects of prenatal and early life risk factors, studies on the sociocultural influences on obesity-related psychosocial factors and health behaviors, as well as the influence of environmental and policy-level variables. PMID:27413626

  7. Early recovery of a Hawaiian lowland rainforest following clearcutting at Kalapana on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The recovery of lowland rainforest vegetation on the Island of Hawaii was evaluated 2 years after clearcutting. Rainforest quality was assessed with regeneration success associated with the environmental changes. Sixty-three percent of the 57 vascular species in the forest were native to the Hawaiian rainforest. Phanerophytes were the most important life form. The presence of Psidium cattleianum and other alien species demonstrated disturbances had occurred in selected areas prior to the clearcutting. Two years after clearcutting (1987), only 24% of the 101 species coming into the clearcut area were native. The shrubs, micro- and nano-phanerophyte, were the dominant life forms, represented by Pipturus albidus, a native rainforest shrub or tree, and four non-native shrub species. Metrosideros polymorpha, the dominant tree in the native forest, was successfully regenerating from seed across the clear-cut area. The forest seedbank analysis also demonstrated that Metrosideros, along with the seeds of important exotic species colonizing the clearcut area were presented in the forest soils. The forest and clearcut species had a high rate of correlation with the elevation gradient. The underlying lava flows strong influenced past and present vegetation associations. In the clearcut area, the degree of compaction and distance from the forest were critical factors determining the composition of recovering vegetation. The microclimate variables of soils, significantly altered due to the effects of clearcutting, and competition from weeds probably lead to poor germination and growth of native rainforest species. This native forest is not pristine, but unique in stature, in complex of cohort stands, and in position on the landscape. It is extremely prone to species composition shift following perturbation, due to the presence of the weed seedbank in the forest seedbank as demonstrated in the dominance of these species across the clearcut area.

  8. Racial Disparities in the Prevalence of Arthritis among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, Whites, and Asians

    PubMed Central

    Obana, Kyle K

    2016-01-01

    The health disparities of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are well established for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but less is known about disparities in arthritis. This study examined possible disparities in the prevalence of arthritis by age, sex, and severity comparing NHPI, Whites, and Asians. The study population included adult Hawai‘i participants in the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. NHPI males had a significantly higher prevalence of arthritis, which peaked twenty years earlier, than White and Asian males (P<.001). The prevalence of arthritis peaked at 65–79 years in males and females in all racial groups, except in NHPI males where it peaked at 45–54 years. The mean ages (years) for males with arthritis were 46.2 for NHPI, 59.1 for Whites, and 60.5 for Asians; the respective ages for females were 54.2, 60.5, and 58.8. NHPI males body mass index averaged 2.4 kg/m2 greater than White males (P<.001), and obese NHPI males had twice the age-adjusted odds of arthritis than obese White males. Although NHPI females had a greater body mass index than White females (P=.05), the prevalence of arthritis was only slightly and not significantly higher. NHPI males and females reported high pain scores more frequently than Whites did, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Diabetes was a comorbidity more than twice as often in NHPI and Asians of both sexes than among Whites. This study demonstrated racial disparities in the prevalence of arthritis among NHPI, Whites, and Asians. PMID:27413625

  9. Evolution, insular restriction, and extinction of oceanic land crabs, exemplified by the loss of an endemic Geograpsus in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Paulay, Gustav; Starmer, John

    2011-01-01

    Most oceanic islands harbor unusual and vulnerable biotas as a result of isolation. As many groups, including dominant competitors and predators, have not naturally reached remote islands, others were less constrained to evolve novel adaptations and invade adaptive zones occupied by other taxa on continents. Land crabs are an excellent example of such ecological release, and some crab lineages made the macro-evolutionary transition from sea to land on islands. Numerous land crabs are restricted to, although widespread among, oceanic islands, where they can be keystone species in coastal forests, occupying guilds filled by vertebrates on continents. In the remote Hawaiian Islands, land crabs are strikingly absent. Here we show that absence of land crabs in the Hawaiian Islands is the result of extinction, rather than dispersal limitation. Analysis of fossil remains from all major islands show that an endemic Geograpsus was abundant before human colonization, grew larger than any congener, and extended further inland and to higher elevation than other land crabs in Oceania. Land crabs are major predators of nesting sea birds, invertebrates and plants, affect seed dispersal, control litter decomposition, and are important in nutrient cycling; their removal can lead to large-scale shifts in ecological communities. Although the importance of land crabs is obvious on remote and relatively undisturbed islands, it is less apparent on others, likely because they are decimated by humans and introduced biota. The loss of Geograpsus and potentially other land crabs likely had profound consequences for Hawaiian ecosystems.

  10. Evolution, Insular Restriction, and Extinction of Oceanic Land Crabs, Exemplified by the Loss of an Endemic Geograpsus in the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Paulay, Gustav; Starmer, John

    2011-01-01

    Most oceanic islands harbor unusual and vulnerable biotas as a result of isolation. As many groups, including dominant competitors and predators, have not naturally reached remote islands, others were less constrained to evolve novel adaptations and invade adaptive zones occupied by other taxa on continents. Land crabs are an excellent example of such ecological release, and some crab lineages made the macro-evolutionary transition from sea to land on islands. Numerous land crabs are restricted to, although widespread among, oceanic islands, where they can be keystone species in coastal forests, occupying guilds filled by vertebrates on continents. In the remote Hawaiian Islands, land crabs are strikingly absent. Here we show that absence of land crabs in the Hawaiian Islands is the result of extinction, rather than dispersal limitation. Analysis of fossil remains from all major islands show that an endemic Geograpsus was abundant before human colonization, grew larger than any congener, and extended further inland and to higher elevation than other land crabs in Oceania. Land crabs are major predators of nesting sea birds, invertebrates and plants, affect seed dispersal, control litter decomposition, and are important in nutrient cycling; their removal can lead to large-scale shifts in ecological communities. Although the importance of land crabs is obvious on remote and relatively undisturbed islands, it is less apparent on others, likely because they are decimated by humans and introduced biota. The loss of Geograpsus and potentially other land crabs likely had profound consequences for Hawaiian ecosystems. PMID:21603620

  11. Derelict fishing gear in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands: diving surveys and debris removal in 1999 confirm threat to coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Donohue, M J; Boland, R C; Sramek, C M; Antonelis, G A

    2001-12-01

    Marine debris threatens Northwestern Hawaiian Islands' (NWHI) coral reef ecosystems. Debris, a contaminant, entangles and kills endangered Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi), coral, and other wildlife. We describe a novel multi-agency effort using divers to systematically survey and remove derelict fishing gear from two NWHI in 1999. 14 t of derelict fishing gear were removed and debris distribution, density, type and fouling level documented at Lisianski Island and Pearl and Hermes Atoll. Reef debris density ranged from 3.4 to 62.2 items/km2. Trawl netting was the most frequent debris type encountered (88%) and represented the greatest debris component recovered by weight (35%), followed by monofilament gillnet (34%), and maritime line (23%). Most debris recovered, 72%, had light or no fouling, suggesting debris may have short oceanic circulation histories. Our study demonstrates that derelict fishing gear poses a persistent threat to the coral reef ecosystems of the Hawaiian Archipelago. PMID:11827117

  12. Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over Hawaiian island N'ihau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non

  13. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian island N'ihau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non

  14. Pathfinder-Plus on flight near Hawaiian island N'ihau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight with the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in the background. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and

  15. The implementation of rare events logistic regression to predict the distribution of mesophotic hard corals across the main Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Lindsay M; Franklin, Erik C; Kelley, Christopher; Rooney, John; Frazer, L Neil; Toonen, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Predictive habitat suitability models are powerful tools for cost-effective, statistically robust assessment of the environmental drivers of species distributions. The aim of this study was to develop predictive habitat suitability models for two genera of scleractinian corals (Leptoserisand Montipora) found within the mesophotic zone across the main Hawaiian Islands. The mesophotic zone (30-180 m) is challenging to reach, and therefore historically understudied, because it falls between the maximum limit of SCUBA divers and the minimum typical working depth of submersible vehicles. Here, we implement a logistic regression with rare events corrections to account for the scarcity of presence observations within the dataset. These corrections reduced the coefficient error and improved overall prediction success (73.6% and 74.3%) for both original regression models. The final models included depth, rugosity, slope, mean current velocity, and wave height as the best environmental covariates for predicting the occurrence of the two genera in the mesophotic zone. Using an objectively selected theta ("presence") threshold, the predicted presence probability values (average of 0.051 for Leptoseris and 0.040 for Montipora) were translated to spatially-explicit habitat suitability maps of the main Hawaiian Islands at 25 m grid cell resolution. Our maps are the first of their kind to use extant presence and absence data to examine the habitat preferences of these two dominant mesophotic coral genera across Hawai'i.

  16. The implementation of rare events logistic regression to predict the distribution of mesophotic hard corals across the main Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Erik C.; Kelley, Christopher; Frazer, L. Neil; Toonen, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Predictive habitat suitability models are powerful tools for cost-effective, statistically robust assessment of the environmental drivers of species distributions. The aim of this study was to develop predictive habitat suitability models for two genera of scleractinian corals (Leptoserisand Montipora) found within the mesophotic zone across the main Hawaiian Islands. The mesophotic zone (30–180 m) is challenging to reach, and therefore historically understudied, because it falls between the maximum limit of SCUBA divers and the minimum typical working depth of submersible vehicles. Here, we implement a logistic regression with rare events corrections to account for the scarcity of presence observations within the dataset. These corrections reduced the coefficient error and improved overall prediction success (73.6% and 74.3%) for both original regression models. The final models included depth, rugosity, slope, mean current velocity, and wave height as the best environmental covariates for predicting the occurrence of the two genera in the mesophotic zone. Using an objectively selected theta (“presence”) threshold, the predicted presence probability values (average of 0.051 for Leptoseris and 0.040 for Montipora) were translated to spatially-explicit habitat suitability maps of the main Hawaiian Islands at 25 m grid cell resolution. Our maps are the first of their kind to use extant presence and absence data to examine the habitat preferences of these two dominant mesophotic coral genera across Hawai‘i. PMID:27441122

  17. UV Responses in Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders and Asians Residing in Hawai'i and in Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Colmenares, Leticia U.; Coelho, Sergio; Miller, Sharon A.; Boomer, KB; Beer, Janusz Z.

    2013-01-01

    Background UV exposure causes a wide range of skin damage including cutaneous melanoma. The mechanisms of cellular and molecular damage as well as erythemal and pigmentation responses to UV exposure have largely been studied in the White population. Methods This study systematically investigates responses to UV exposure in the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) and Asian populations living in Hawai'i (A/HI) as well as in Asians living in Maryland (A/MD). Results Our analyses indicate that the NHPI population is less sensitive to UV exposure than the A/HI population. Comparisons between the two Asian groups suggest that, despite slightly but not statistically different baseline constitutive pigmentation (pre-UV exposure), the A/HI and A/MD had similar UV sensitivity, measured as minimal erythemal dose (MED). However, the A/MD population had higher levels of oxy-hemoglobin at doses of 2.0, 2.8 and 4.0 MED. Unexpectedly the A/MD subjects retained higher levels of pigmentation 2 weeks post UV exposure. Conclusion This study provides insight into UV responses of the inhabitants of Hawai'i and shows that such responses are statistically significant for relatively small samples of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders, and for Asians living in Hawai'i and Asians living in Maryland. PMID:23651272

  18. The implementation of rare events logistic regression to predict the distribution of mesophotic hard corals across the main Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Lindsay M; Franklin, Erik C; Kelley, Christopher; Rooney, John; Frazer, L Neil; Toonen, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Predictive habitat suitability models are powerful tools for cost-effective, statistically robust assessment of the environmental drivers of species distributions. The aim of this study was to develop predictive habitat suitability models for two genera of scleractinian corals (Leptoserisand Montipora) found within the mesophotic zone across the main Hawaiian Islands. The mesophotic zone (30-180 m) is challenging to reach, and therefore historically understudied, because it falls between the maximum limit of SCUBA divers and the minimum typical working depth of submersible vehicles. Here, we implement a logistic regression with rare events corrections to account for the scarcity of presence observations within the dataset. These corrections reduced the coefficient error and improved overall prediction success (73.6% and 74.3%) for both original regression models. The final models included depth, rugosity, slope, mean current velocity, and wave height as the best environmental covariates for predicting the occurrence of the two genera in the mesophotic zone. Using an objectively selected theta ("presence") threshold, the predicted presence probability values (average of 0.051 for Leptoseris and 0.040 for Montipora) were translated to spatially-explicit habitat suitability maps of the main Hawaiian Islands at 25 m grid cell resolution. Our maps are the first of their kind to use extant presence and absence data to examine the habitat preferences of these two dominant mesophotic coral genera across Hawai'i. PMID:27441122

  19. Factors affecting marine debris deposition at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 1990-2006.

    PubMed

    Morishige, Carey; Donohue, Mary J; Flint, Elizabeth; Swenson, Christopher; Woolaway, Christine

    2007-08-01

    Data on the amount and type of small debris items deposited on the beaches of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Tern Island station, French Frigate Shoals were collected over 16 years. We calculated deposition rates and investigated the relationship among deposition and year, season, El Niño and La Niña events from 1990 to 2006. In total 52,442 debris items were collected with plastic comprising 71% of all items collected. Annual debris deposition varied significantly (range 1116-5195 items) but was not influenced by season. Debris deposition was significantly greater during El Niño events as compared to La Niña events. Although often deduced to influence floating marine pollution, this study provides the first quantitative evidence of the influence of El Niño/La Niña cycles on marine debris deposition. PMID:17572447

  20. Evolution on a volcanic conveyor belt: using phylogeographic reconstructions and K-Ar-based ages of the Hawaiian Islands to estimate molecular evolutionary rates.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, R C; McIntosh, C E; Tarr, C L

    1998-04-01

    The Hawaiian Islands form as the Pacific Plate moves over a 'hot spot' in the earth's mantle where magma extrudes through the crust to build huge shield volcanos. The islands subside and erode as the plate carries them to the north-west, eventually to become coral atolls and seamounts. Thus islands are ordered linearly by age, with the oldest islands in the north-west (e.g. Kauai at 5.1 Ma) and the youngest in the south-east (e.g. Hawaii at 0.43 Ma). K-Ar estimates of the date of an island's formation provide a maximum age for the taxa inhabiting the island. These ages can be used to calibrate rates of molecular change under the following assumptions: (i) K-Ar dates are accurate; (ii) tree topologies show that derivation of taxa parallels the timing of island formation; (iii) populations do not colonize long after island emergence; (iv) the coalescent point for sister taxa does not greatly predate the formation of the colonized younger island; (v) saturation effects and (vi) among-lineage rate variation are minimal or correctable; and (vii) unbiased standard errors of distances and regressions can be estimated from multiple pairwise comparisons. We use the approach to obtain overall corrected rate calibrations for: (i) part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Hawaiian drepanidines (0.016 sequence divergence/Myr); (ii) the Yp1 gene in Hawaiian Drosophila (0.019/Myr Kambysellis et al. 1995); and (iii) parts of the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and tRNAval in Laupala crickets (0.024-0.102/Myr, Shaw 1996). We discuss the reliability of the estimates given the assumptions (i-vii) above and contrast the results with previous calibrations of Adh in Hawaiian Drosophila and chloroplast DNA in lobeliods. PMID:9628004

  1. Evolution on a volcanic conveyor belt: using phylogeographic reconstructions and K-Ar-based ages of the Hawaiian Islands to estimate molecular evolutionary rates.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, R C; McIntosh, C E; Tarr, C L

    1998-04-01

    The Hawaiian Islands form as the Pacific Plate moves over a 'hot spot' in the earth's mantle where magma extrudes through the crust to build huge shield volcanos. The islands subside and erode as the plate carries them to the north-west, eventually to become coral atolls and seamounts. Thus islands are ordered linearly by age, with the oldest islands in the north-west (e.g. Kauai at 5.1 Ma) and the youngest in the south-east (e.g. Hawaii at 0.43 Ma). K-Ar estimates of the date of an island's formation provide a maximum age for the taxa inhabiting the island. These ages can be used to calibrate rates of molecular change under the following assumptions: (i) K-Ar dates are accurate; (ii) tree topologies show that derivation of taxa parallels the timing of island formation; (iii) populations do not colonize long after island emergence; (iv) the coalescent point for sister taxa does not greatly predate the formation of the colonized younger island; (v) saturation effects and (vi) among-lineage rate variation are minimal or correctable; and (vii) unbiased standard errors of distances and regressions can be estimated from multiple pairwise comparisons. We use the approach to obtain overall corrected rate calibrations for: (i) part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Hawaiian drepanidines (0.016 sequence divergence/Myr); (ii) the Yp1 gene in Hawaiian Drosophila (0.019/Myr Kambysellis et al. 1995); and (iii) parts of the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and tRNAval in Laupala crickets (0.024-0.102/Myr, Shaw 1996). We discuss the reliability of the estimates given the assumptions (i-vii) above and contrast the results with previous calibrations of Adh in Hawaiian Drosophila and chloroplast DNA in lobeliods.

  2. 77 FR 76458 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ..., and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Exempted Fishing... contracted commercial fishermen to temporarily possess undersized and berried Caribbean spiny lobster for non... would include implanting a tag on each spiny lobster before releasing the lobster with minimal...

  3. Cancer Incidence Trends Among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders in the United States, 1990–2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of annual population estimates for disaggregated Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) populations limits the ability to examine cancer incidence rates and trends to understand the cancer burdens among NHOPIs. Methods Utilizing 1990 and 2000 population census data, we estimated the annual populations by age and sex for Native Hawaiians, Samoans, and Guamanians/Chamorros for 1990–2008 in regions covered by 13 of the National Cancer Institute’s SEER registries. Cancer diagnoses during 1990–2008 from these registries were used to calculate the age-adjusted (2000 US Standard) incidence rates by sex, calendar year/period, and cancer type for each population. The annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rates was estimated with the 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) calculated for both the rate and APC estimates. Results Statistically significant declining trends were found in Native Hawaiians, in men for lung and stomach cancers (APC = –2.3%; 95% CI = –3.3 to –1.3; and APC = –3.8%; 95% CI = –6.0 to –1.6, respectively), and in women for breast cancer (APC = –4.1%; 95% CI = –5.7 to –2.5) since 1998 and lung cancer (APC = –6.4%; 95% CI = –10.7 to –1.8) since 2001. Rising incidence trends were experienced by Samoans, especially by Samoan women for breast (APC = 2.7%; 95% CI = 0.9 to 4.5) and uterus (APC = 7.3%; 95% CI = 6.2 to 8.4) cancers. With limited data, Guamanians/Chamorros demonstrated lower, but increasing, incidence rates than other NHOPIs. Conclusions Population-based cancer incidence rates for disaggregated NHOPI populations help identify disparities in cancer burden and provide valuable information to improve cancer control efforts among NHOPIs. PMID:23878354

  4. Report from the workshop on climate downscaling and its application in high Hawaiian Islands, September 16–17, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helweg, David A.; Keener, Victoria; Burgett, Jeff M.

    2016-07-14

    In the subtropical and tropical Pacific islands, changing climate is predicted to influence precipitation and freshwater availability, and thus is predicted to impact ecosystems goods and services available to ecosystems and human communities. The small size of high Hawaiian Islands, plus their complex microlandscapes, require downscaling of global climate models to provide future projections of greater skill and spatial resolution. Two different climate modeling approaches (physics-based dynamical downscaling and statistics-based downscaling) have produced dissimilar projections. Because of these disparities, natural resource managers and decision makers have low confidence in using the modeling results and are therefore are unwilling to include climate-related projections in their decisions. In September 2015, the Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PICSC), the Pacific Islands Climate Change Cooperative (PICCC), and the Pacific Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (Pacific RISA) program convened a 2-day facilitated workshop in which the two modeling teams, plus key model users and resource managers, were brought together for a comparison of the two approaches, culminating with a discussion of how to provide predictions that are useable by resource managers. The proceedings, discussions, and outcomes of this Workshop are summarized in this Open-File Report.

  5. Abundance, distribution, and population trends of the iconic Hawaiian Honeycreeper, the ʻIʻiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) throughout the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben H.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Naturalists in the 1800s described the ʻIʻiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) as one of the most abundant forest birds, detected in forested areas from sea level to tree line across all the major Hawaiian Islands. However, in the late 1800s, ʻIʻiwi began to disappear from low elevation forests, and by the mid-1900s, the species was largely absent from low- and mid-elevation areas. Today, ʻIʻiwi are restricted to high-elevation forests on the islands of Hawaiʻi, east Maui, and Kauaʻi, with a few birds apparently persisting on Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, and west Maui. ʻIʻiwi are highly vulnerable to introduced disease, and the prevalence of avian malaria in low and mid-elevations is believed to be the cause of ʻIʻiwi being restricted to high elevations where temperatures are too cold for the development of the disease and its mosquito vector. With global warming, it is feared that the disease will move quickly into the high-elevation forests where the last ʻIʻiwi reside, threatening their viability. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service was petitioned to list the ʻIʻiwi as an Endangered Species in 2010, and this report provides a comprehensive review of the abundance, distribution, and trends using historical survey data as well as the most recently available survey information (up to 2012). We estimate the total population size of ‘I‘iwi at 550,972–659,864 (mean = 605,418) individuals. Of these, 90 percent are on the island of Hawaiʻi, followed by east Maui (about 10 percent), with less than 1 percent on Kauaʻi. ʻIʻiwi population trends vary across the islands. ʻIʻiwi population in Kauaʻi has experienced sharp declines, with a projected trend of 92 percent decline over a 25 year period based on the 2000–2012 surveys. On East Maui, the northeastern region has experienced declines (34 percent over a 25 year period), while the southeastern region has been stable to moderately increasing. On the island of Hawaiʻi, population trends are mixed. On the windward

  6. New records of the squat lobster genus Munida Leach, 1820 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Munididae) from deep-water off Okinawa Islands, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Higashiji, Takuo

    2016-05-11

    Two species of the squat lobster genus Munida Leach, 1820, M. pollioculus n. sp. and M. zebra Macpherson, 1994, are recorded from deep-waters off Okinawa Islands, the Ryukyu Islands, at depths of 1000 m and 495 m, respectively. The new species closely resembles M. clevai Macpherson, 1999 and M. microps Alcock, 1894, but it differs from the latter two in the absence of a proximal spine on the mesial margin of the cheliped dactylus and the more stout dactylus of the second pereopod. Munida zebra is first recorded from the Northwest Pacific, as well as Japanese waters, with its geographical range extended to the north from the previously known southwestern Pacific localities.

  7. New records of the squat lobster genus Munida Leach, 1820 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Munididae) from deep-water off Okinawa Islands, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Higashiji, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    Two species of the squat lobster genus Munida Leach, 1820, M. pollioculus n. sp. and M. zebra Macpherson, 1994, are recorded from deep-waters off Okinawa Islands, the Ryukyu Islands, at depths of 1000 m and 495 m, respectively. The new species closely resembles M. clevai Macpherson, 1999 and M. microps Alcock, 1894, but it differs from the latter two in the absence of a proximal spine on the mesial margin of the cheliped dactylus and the more stout dactylus of the second pereopod. Munida zebra is first recorded from the Northwest Pacific, as well as Japanese waters, with its geographical range extended to the north from the previously known southwestern Pacific localities. PMID:27394885

  8. Risk factors of suicide and depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander youth: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth. PMID:25981098

  9. Recommendations for Implementing Policy, Systems, and Environmental Improvements to Address Chronic Diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025

  10. A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae), from the Ko‘olau Mountains of O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sporck-Koehler, Margaret J.; Koehler, Tobias B.; Marquez, Sebastian N.; Waite, Mashuri; Williams, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cyanea konahuanuiensis Sporck-Koehler, M. Waite, A.M. Williams, sp. nov., a recently documented, narrowly endemic species from the Hawaiian Island of O‘ahu, is described and illustrated with photographs from the field. The closest likely relatives to the species, current conservation needs, and management future are discussed. It is currently known from 20 mature plants from two subpopulations and is restricted to a drainage below the Kōnāhua-nui summit (K1), the highest summit of the Ko‘olau Mountains, located on Windward O‘ahu. It differs from all other Cyanea species by its combination of densely pubescent leaves, petioles, and flowers; sparsely pubescent to glabrous stems, long calyx lobes, and staminal column being adnate to the corolla. PMID:25829854

  11. Vertical Motions of the Hawaiian Islands during the last 400 ka and their Implications for Plate-Plume Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S. J.; Watts, A. B.

    2001-11-01

    Radiometric dating on drowned coral reefs and sub-aerial lavas indicates that Hawaii has subsided for ~1.2 km in the last 450 ka. Studies of elevated coral deposits on Lanai and Molokai, which are located ~250 km from Hawaii, indicate ~60-80 meters uplift in the last 300 ka for these islands. These observations have been attributed to the flexural effects of loading of Hawaii. We have formulated a viscoelastic model to investigate the vertical motion induced by the loading of Hawaii. The viscosity structure is determined from thermal age and a Newtonian flow law with activation energy 120 KJ/mol and reference viscosity 10^20 Pa s [Watts and Zhong, 2000]. Our studies show that while a viscoelastic model can explain the subsidence at Hawaii, it fails to account for the uplift at Lanai and Molokai. One possibility is that these islands have been influenced by dynamic uplift due to an ascending plume beneath Hawaii. Our 3-D convection calculations show that the 10 cm/year motion of the Pacific plate causes the topography induced by a plume to peak "downstream" of Hawaii in the region of Lanai and Molokai. The vertical motion of the Hawaiian islands is, therefore, a consequence of the interaction between load-induced deformation and mantle dynamics.

  12. An autogamous rainforest species of Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) from East Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, W.L.; Weller, S.G.; Sakai, A.K.; Medeiros, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    A new autogamous species of Schiedea is described and illustrated. It is known only from cliff habitat in rainforest on a single ridge in the Natural Area Reserve, Hanawi, East Maui. With the addition of this species there are 28 species in this endemic Hawaiian genus. The new species appears to be most closely related to Schiedea nuttallii, a species of mesic habitats on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Maui.

  13. Melicope oppenheimeri, section Pelea (Rutaceae), a new species from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands: with notes on its ecology, conservation, and phylogenetic placement

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kennetah R.; Appelhans, Marc S.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Melicope oppenheimeri K.R. Wood, Appelhans & W.L. Wagner (section Pelea (A. Gray) Hook. f., Rutaceae), a rare endemic tree from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands, is described and illustrated with notes on its ecology, conservation, and phylogenetic placement. The new species differs from Hawaiian congeners by its carpels basally connate 1/5, narrowed into a strongly reflexed beak 10–15 mm long. It also differs in a combination of leaves with 7–10 pair of secondary veins; cymes to 3 cm long; peduncles 5–6.5 mm long; flowers perfect; capsules 4–9 × 40–52 mm; and a densely appressed short-sericeous ovary. Melicope oppenheimeri is known only from an isolated cliff-base plateau in upper Waihe‘e Valley, West Maui. Its discovery brings the number of recognized Melicope J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. species in the Hawaiian Islands to 49. A table is included indicating the conservation status of Hawaiian Melicope and Platydesma H. Mann., which is nested within Melicope sect. Pelea. Melicope oppenheimeri falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) Red List category. PMID:27698584

  14. Melicope oppenheimeri, section Pelea (Rutaceae), a new species from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands: with notes on its ecology, conservation, and phylogenetic placement

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kennetah R.; Appelhans, Marc S.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Melicope oppenheimeri K.R. Wood, Appelhans & W.L. Wagner (section Pelea (A. Gray) Hook. f., Rutaceae), a rare endemic tree from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands, is described and illustrated with notes on its ecology, conservation, and phylogenetic placement. The new species differs from Hawaiian congeners by its carpels basally connate 1/5, narrowed into a strongly reflexed beak 10–15 mm long. It also differs in a combination of leaves with 7–10 pair of secondary veins; cymes to 3 cm long; peduncles 5–6.5 mm long; flowers perfect; capsules 4–9 × 40–52 mm; and a densely appressed short-sericeous ovary. Melicope oppenheimeri is known only from an isolated cliff-base plateau in upper Waihe‘e Valley, West Maui. Its discovery brings the number of recognized Melicope J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. species in the Hawaiian Islands to 49. A table is included indicating the conservation status of Hawaiian Melicope and Platydesma H. Mann., which is nested within Melicope sect. Pelea. Melicope oppenheimeri falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) Red List category.

  15. 75 FR 57441 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ..., Conservation, Tourism, Lana`i Island Representative, and Moloka`i Island Representative. Applicants are chosen... concern throughout the sanctuary, offering recommendations on specific issues, and aiding in achieving...

  16. Spatial scale-dependent habitat heterogeneity influences submarine canyon macrofaunal abundance and diversity off the Main and Northwest Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Leo, Fabio C.; Vetter, Eric W.; Smith, Craig R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; McGranaghan, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    The mapping of biodiversity on continental margins on landscape scales is highly relevant to marine spatial planning and conservation. Submarine canyons are widespread topographic features on continental and island margins that enhance benthic biomass across a range of oceanic provinces and productivity regimes. However, it remains unclear whether canyons enhance faunal biodiversity on landscape scales relevant to marine protected area (MPA) design. Furthermore, it is not known which physical attributes and heterogeneity metrics can provide good surrogates for large-scale mapping of canyon benthic biodiversity. To test mechanistic hypotheses evaluating the role of different canyon-landscape attributes in enhancing benthic biodiversity at different spatial scales we conducted 34 submersible dives in six submarine canyons and nearby slopes in the Hawaiian archipelago, sampling infaunal macrobenthos in a depth-stratified sampling design. We employed multivariate multiple regression models to evaluate sediment and topographic heterogeneity, canyon transverse profiles, and overall water mass variability as potential drivers of macrobenthic community structure and species richness. We find that variables related to habitat heterogeneity at medium (0.13 km2) and large (15-33 km2) spatial scales such as slope, backscatter reflectivity and canyon transverse profiles are often good predictors of macrobenthic biodiversity, explaining 16-30% of the variance. Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux and distance from shore are also important variables, implicating food supply as a major predictor of canyon biodiversity. Canyons off the high Main Hawaiian Islands (Oahu and Moloka'i) are significantly affected by organic enrichment, showing enhanced infaunal macrobenthos abundance, whereas this effect is imperceptible around the low Northwest Hawaiian Islands (Nihoa and Maro Reef). Variable canyon alpha-diversity and high rates of species turnover (beta-diversity), particularly for

  17. Occurrence of Pasteuria-like Organisms on Selected Plant-Pamsitic Nematodes of Pineapple in the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Ko, M. P.; Bernard, E. C.; Schmitt, D. P.; Sipes, B. S.

    1995-01-01

    Soils from 320 sites representing diverse undisturbed habitats from five Hawaiian Islands were assessed for occurrence of Pasteuria-like organisms. Mean annual rainfall at sites ranged from 125-350 cm, elevation from 69-2,286 m, and annual mean temperature from 12-24 C. Seven different natural communities were represented: wet lowland, mesic lowland, wet montane, mesk montane, dry montane, mesic subalpine, and dry alpine. Pasteuria spp. in a soil sample was detected by baiting with infective stages of Helicotylenchus dihystera, Meloidogyne javanica, Pratylenchus brachyurus, and Rotylenchulus reniformis, followed by cultivation of the nematodes on pineapple plants for 10-11 months. All nematode baits except R. reniformis were readily recovered from the soil samples. A sample was considered Pasteuria-positive if at least 5 % of the nematode specimens showed endospore attachment. Thirteen percent of all samples were positive for Pasteuria-like organisms. The frequencies of association between Pasteuria spp. and Meloidogyne, Helicotylenchus, or Pratylenchus species were 52%, 24%, and 24%, respectively. Positive samples were more prevalent on the older islands of Kauai and Oahu (75%), in lowland communities (61%), and in areas with introduced vegetation (60%). More than 27% of the positive samples were associated with plant species in a few selected families that included Meliaceae and Myrtaceae. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. seemed to be positively associated with mean annual rainfall or temperature, but negatively associated with elevation. PMID:19277305

  18. Use of integrated landscape indicators to evaluate the health of linked watersheds and coral reef environments in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Ku'ulei S; Kido, Michael H; Jokiel, Paul L; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K

    2012-07-01

    A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai'i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management.

  19. Use of Integrated Landscape Indicators to Evaluate the Health of Linked Watersheds and Coral Reef Environments in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Ku`ulei S.; Kido, Michael H.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K.

    2012-07-01

    A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai`i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management.

  20. Population structure and comparative phylogeography of jack species (Caranx ignobilis and C. melampygus) in the high Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Santos, Scott R; Xiang, Yu; Tagawa, Annette W

    2011-01-01

    Members of the family Carangidae are top-level predators and highly prized food and sport fishes. Although ecologically and economically important, little is known about the biology of numerous species in the family. This is particularly true of the jacks Caranx ignobilis and C. melampygus, which have experienced recent population reductions around the high Hawaiian Islands due to overfishing. Previous studies have documented territorial tendencies as well as cases of long-distance excursions in both species, suggesting populations may exhibit a range of structure at the genetic level. To explore this possibility, mitochondrial DNA ATPase6 and ATPase8 gene sequence variation was assessed from 91 individuals (33 C. ignobilis and 58 C. melampygus) spanning the islands of Kaua'i, O'ahu, Moloka'i, Maui, and Hawai'i. Although a total of 20 distinct haplotypes (8 for C. ignobilis; 12 for C. melampygus) were recovered, no evidence of population structure was found for either species across the examined geographic range. However, distinct demographic patterns were identified, implying differing evolutionary histories and/or population dynamics. Additionally, ∼ 6% of the examined C. ignobilis were C. ignobilis × C. melampygus hybrids because they harbored mitochondrial haplotypes typical of C. melampygus. These hybrids contribute to measurable gene flow between the species and may play a significant role in the evolution of the genus.

  1. Evidence for retrovirus infections in green turtles Chelonia mydas from the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casey, R.N.; Quackenbush, S.L.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Bowser, P.R.; Casey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Apparently normal Hawaiian green turtles Chelonia mydas and those displaying fibropapillomas were analyzed for infection by retroviruses. Strikingly, all samples were positive for polymerase enhanced reverse transcriptase (PERT) with levels high enough to quantitate by the conventional reverse transcriptase (RT) assay. However, samples of skin, even from asymptomatic turtles, were RT positive, although the levels of enzyme activity in healthy turtles hatched and raised in captivity were much lower than those observed in asymptomatic free-ranging turtles. Turtles with fibropapillomas displayed a broad range of reverse transcriptase activity. Skin and eye fibropapillomas and a heart tumor were further analyzed and shown to have reverse transcriptase activity that banded in a sucrose gradient at 1.17 g ml-1. The reverse transcriptase activity purified from the heart tumor displayed a temperature optimum of 37??C and showed a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. Sucrose gradient fractions of this sample displaying elevated reverse transcriptase activity contained primarily retrovitalsized particles with prominent envelope spikes, when negatively stained and examined by electron microscopy. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of gradient-purified virions revealed a conserved profile among 4 independent tumors and showed 7 prominent proteins having molecular weights of 116, 83, 51, 43, 40, 20 and 14 kDa. The data suggest that retroviral infections are widespread in Hawaiian green turtles and a comprehensive investigation is warranted to address the possibility that these agents cause green turtle fibropapillomatosis (GTFP).

  2. The Impact of Resort Development on an Hawaiian Island: Implications for Community Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuoka, Jon K.; Shera, Wes J.

    1991-01-01

    The impact of resort development on Lana'i island (Hawaii) was investigated through community and island assessments, surveys of households and high school students, and focus groups. Assessment results relate to economic impacts, community services, community satisfaction, quality of life, and social impacts. Recommendations are included for…

  3. Description of a new species of Leiopathes (Antipatharia: Leiopathidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Daniel; Opresko, Dennis M

    2015-06-22

    The Hawaiian antipatharian coral previously identified as Leiopathes glaberrima (Esper, 1792) and Leiopathes sp. is described using polyp morphology, skeletal spine morphology and in situ photographs, and assigned the new name of Leiopathes annosa sp. nov. The species is characterized by tall (1 m or more), fan-shaped colonies, with thick, sometimes overlapping branches, and tissues that are colored bright orange when alive. Skeletal spines are smooth, hemispherical, often times multi-lobed, and typically 75 μm tall, but range between 30-225 μm. Polyps are of variable size (0.88-3.35 mm) and arranged on all sides of the corallum on thicker branches, and uniserially on terminal branches. Leiopathes annosa sp. nov differs from all other nominal species of Leiopathes by having a generally flabellate corallum with thick branches and conspicuous skeletal spines that are multi-lobed and hemispherical. The biogeographical distribution of species within the monogeneric family Leiopathidae is presented and discussed.

  4. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

  5. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  6. Tsunami surges around the Hawaiian Islands from the 1 April 2014 North Chile Mw 8.1 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yefei; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Lay, Thorne; Ye, Lingling

    2014-12-01

    The 1 April 2014 Iquique Mw 8.1 earthquake ruptured a segment of the megathrust fault offshore of northern Chile and generated a moderate-size tsunami across the Pacific. Tide gauges in Hawaii recorded over 1 m of wave height despite the long distance from the source and position away from the main radiated energy lobe. Inversion of global teleseismic body waves combined with forward modeling of the tsunami at four near-field DART stations arrives iteratively at a self-consistent finite-fault model with very compact dimensions. The slip distribution produces a NNE-SSW trending seafloor uplift patch that enhances the tsunami directionality in the WNW, resulting in good matches to observed DART and tide gauge records around the Hawaiian Islands. The relatively large waves at selected locations in Hawaii can be attributed to a combination of the spatial slip distribution and the resulting short-period waves that triggered localized resonance over the insular shelves. This event highlights the importance of characterizing detailed slip distributions in analysis or forecasting of tsunamis even for a compact source.

  7. Retrospective pathology survey of green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis in the Hawaiian Islands, 1993-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Rameyer, R.A.; Morris, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    We necropsied 255 stranded green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis (FP) from the Hawaiian Islands, North Pacific, from August 1993 through May 2003. Of these, 214 (84%) were euthanized due to advanced FP and the remainder were found dead in fresh condition. Turtles were assigned a standardized tumor severity score ranging from 1 (lightly tumored) to 3 (heavily tumored). Tumors were counted and measured and categorized as external, oral, or internal and tissues evaluated by light microscopy. Turtles in tumor score 2 and 3 categories predominated, and tumor score 3 turtles were significantly larger than the other 2 categories. More juveniles stranded than subadults or adults. Total cross-sectional area of tumors increased significantly with straight carapace length (SCL). Frequency distribution of total number of external tumors per turtle was significantly skewed to the right, and there were significantly more tumors at the front than rear of turtles. Eighty percent of turtles had oral tumors, and 51% of turtles with oral tumors had tumors in the glottis. Thirty-nine percent of turtles had internal tumors, most of them in the lung, kidney and heart. Fibromas predominated in lung, kidney and musculoskeletal system whereas myxofibromas were more common in intestines and spleen. Fibrosarcomas of low-grade malignancy were most frequent in the heart, and heart tumors had a predilection for the right atrium. Turtles with FP had significant additional complications including inflammation with vascular flukes, bacterial infections, poor body condition, and necrosis of salt gland. Turtles with oral tumors were more likely to have secondary complications such as pneumonia. Most turtles came from the island of Oahu (74%) followed by Maui (20%), Hawaii, Molokai, and Lanai (<3% each). On Oahu, significantly more turtles we necropsied stranded along the northwestern and northeastern shores.

  8. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for analysis of population differentiation in the tree legume Acacia koa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Fredua-Agyeman, Rudolph; Adamski, Daniel; Liao, Richard Junfu; Morden, Clifford; Borthakur, Dulal

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and use microsatellite markers to characterize the high-value timber tree Acacia koa (koa), which is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Genomic DNA fragments of 300-1000 bp were cloned and sequenced following enrichment for microsatellite motifs by PCR using 7 oligonucleotide repeat primers in separate reactions. Among 96 sequences analyzed, 63 contained unique microsatellite motifs flanked by variable sequences. A dual PCR method involving a primer walking step was used to develop 15 primer pairs. Another 16 primer pairs were developed directly from the variable sequences on both sides of the microsatellite motifs. These 31 primer pairs were tested on 172 koa plants representing 11 populations collected from 4 of the major Hawaiian Islands. Nine of the primers that identified polymorphic microsatellite loci and 3 that detected unique alleles exclusively in some populations were used for genetic diversity studies of koa. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling of the allelic phenotype data revealed that koa from Kauai formed a distinct group separate from koa of the neighboring islands of Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii. The oldest of the four islands, Kauai, also had the most diverse populations of koa.

  9. 78 FR 59626 - Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures for 2013-14

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... proposed specifications, finalized here, and a request for public comments (78 FR 52125). Additional... of the Fishery Ecosystem Plan for the Hawaiian Archipelago are available from the Western Pacific... Zone around the Hawaiian Archipelago lying to the east of 161 20'' W. longitude. The Deep 7...

  10. 76 FR 54715 - Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... published proposed specifications that are finalized here, and a request for public comments (76 FR 46719...: Copies of the Fishery Ecosystem Plan for the Hawaiian Archipelago and associated Environmental Impact... is the portion of U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone around the Hawaiian Archipelago lying to the east...

  11. Description of a new species of Leiopathes (Antipatharia: Leiopathidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Daniel; Opresko, Dennis M

    2015-01-01

    The Hawaiian antipatharian coral previously identified as Leiopathes glaberrima (Esper, 1792) and Leiopathes sp. is described using polyp morphology, skeletal spine morphology and in situ photographs, and assigned the new name of Leiopathes annosa sp. nov. The species is characterized by tall (1 m or more), fan-shaped colonies, with thick, sometimes overlapping branches, and tissues that are colored bright orange when alive. Skeletal spines are smooth, hemispherical, often times multi-lobed, and typically 75 μm tall, but range between 30-225 μm. Polyps are of variable size (0.88-3.35 mm) and arranged on all sides of the corallum on thicker branches, and uniserially on terminal branches. Leiopathes annosa sp. nov differs from all other nominal species of Leiopathes by having a generally flabellate corallum with thick branches and conspicuous skeletal spines that are multi-lobed and hemispherical. The biogeographical distribution of species within the monogeneric family Leiopathidae is presented and discussed. PMID:26249904

  12. Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands - an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Carter T; Utzurrum, Ruth B; Lapointe, Dennis A; Camp, Richard J; Crampton, Lisa H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Giambelluca, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the 'Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and 'Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994-1997 and again during 2007-2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased

  13. Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands: an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Utzurrum, Ruth B.; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Camp, Richard J.; Crampton, Lisa H.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the ‘Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and ‘Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994–1997 and again during 2007–2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i ‘Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased

  14. Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands - an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Carter T; Utzurrum, Ruth B; Lapointe, Dennis A; Camp, Richard J; Crampton, Lisa H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Giambelluca, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the 'Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and 'Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994-1997 and again during 2007-2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased

  15. Phylogeny, Floral Evolution, and Inter-Island Dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) Based on ISSR Variation and Plastid Spacer Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Givnish, Thomas J.; Bean, Gregory J.; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies based on DNA restriction-site and sequence variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea and Clermontia, diverged from each other ca. 9.7 Mya. Sequence divergence among species of Clermontia is quite limited, however, and extensive hybridization is suspected, which has interfered with production of a well-resolved molecular phylogeny for the genus. Clermontia is of considerable interest because several species posses petal-like sepals, raising the question of whether such a homeotic mutation has arisen once or several times. In addition, morphological and molecular studies have implied different patterns of inter-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five plastid non-coding sequences to derive biparental and maternal phylogenies for Clermontia. Our findings imply that (1) Clermontia is not monophyletic, with Cl. pyrularia nested within Cyanea and apparently an intergeneric hybrid; (2) the earliest divergent clades within Clermontia are native to Kauài, then Òahu, then Maui, supporting the progression rule of dispersal down the chain toward progressively younger islands, although that rule is violated in later-evolving taxa in the ISSR tree; (3) almost no sequence divergence among several Clermontia species in 4.5 kb of rapidly evolving plastid DNA; (4) several apparent cases of hybridization/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting (i.e., Cl. oblongifolia, peleana, persicifolia, pyrularia, samuelii, tuberculata), based on extensive conflict between the ISSR and plastid phylogenies; and (5) two origins and two losses of petaloid sepals, or—perhaps more plausibly—a single origin and two losses of this homeotic mutation, with its introgression into Cl. persicifolia. Our phylogenies are better resolved and geographically more informative than others based on ITS and 5S-NTS sequences and nuclear SNPs, but agree

  16. Vertical Motions of the Hawaiian Islands during the last 400 ka and their Implications for Plate-Plume Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S.; Watts, A. B.

    2001-12-01

    Radiometric dating on drowned coral reefs and sub-aerial lavas including those from the Hilo scientific drilling hole [e.g., Lipman and Moore, 1996] indicates that Hawaii has subsided for ~1.2 km in the last 450 ka. Studies by Grigg and Jones [1997] of elevated coral deposits on Lanai and Molokai, which are located ~250 km from Hawaii, indicate up to ~60-80 meters uplift in the last 300 ka for these islands. Similar studies show that Oahu which is ~340 km from Hawaii has experienced smaller amount of uplift during approximately the same period. The observed patterns of vertical motions have been attributed to the flexural effects of loading of Hawaii on an elastic plate overlying an inviscid substratum. Such a model, however, is time-invariant and does not take into account any changes that may occur in the subsidence and uplift history during loading. We have therefore formulated a viscoelastic model to investigate the vertical motion induced by the loading of Hawaii. The viscosity structure is determined from thermal age and a Newtonian flow law with activation energy 120 KJ/mol and reference viscosity 1020 Pa s [Watts and Zhong, 2000]. A feature of the model is that at the time-scales appropriate to loading at Hawaii a significant portion of the lithosphere with viscosity greater than 1022 Pa s may still support stresses, which results in a larger apparent elastic thickness than has been deduced from flexural loading studies. Our studies show that while a viscoelastic model with a variable loading history can explain the subsidence at Hawaii, it fails to account for the uplift that is observed at Lanai and Molokai. One possibility is that these islands have been influenced by dynamic uplift due to an ascending plume beneath Hawaii. Our 3-D convection calculations show that the 10 cm/year motion of the Pacific plate causes the topography induced by a plume to peak "downstream" of Hawaii in the region of Lanai and Molokai. The vertical motion of the Hawaiian

  17. Sea level higher than present 3500 years ago on the northern main Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H., III

    1998-04-01

    New data from an emerged coastal bench and associated fossil beach on Kapapa Island (Oahu), Hawaii, preserve a detailed history of middle to late Holocene sea level. These include 29 new calibrated radiocarbon ages and elevations indicating mean sea level reached a maximum position of 2.00 ± 0.35 m ca. 3500 yr B.P. These results correlate with additional evidence from Hawaii and other Pacific islands and provide constraints on Oahu's long-term uplift rate (0.03 0.07 mm/yr), previously based solely on Pleistocene age shorelines. Our sea-level reconstruction is consistent with geophysical model predictions of Earth's geoid response to the last deglaciation and with observations of increased Antarctic ice volume during the late Holocene.

  18. Using evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental strategies to increase access to healthy food and opportunities for physical activity among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa; Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-07-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities. PMID:25905839

  19. Using Evidence-Based Policy, Systems, and Environmental Strategies to Increase Access to Healthy Food and Opportunities for Physical Activity Among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities. PMID:25905839

  20. Responses to Light and Water Availability of Four Invasive Melastomataceae in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Baruch; Pattison; Goldstein

    2000-01-01

    largest quantitative responses. When compared with a large group of native species, the four melastomes appear to be better suited to capture and use light, which is consistent with their rapid spread in mesic and disturbed Hawaiian environments. PMID:10648200

  1. Illicit and nonmedical drug use among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Burchett, Bruce; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The racial/ethnic composition of the United States is shifting rapidly, with non-Hispanic Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals the fastest growing segments of the population. We determined new drug use estimates for these rising groups. Prevalences among Whites were included as a comparison. Methods Data were from the 2005–2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted self-interviewing methods. Respondents’ self-reported race/ethnicity, age, gender, household income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode, history of being arrested, tobacco use, and alcohol use were examined as correlates. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity and used logistic regression to estimate odds of drug use. Results Prevalence of past-year marijuana use among Whites increased from 10.7% in 2005 to 11.6–11.8% in 2009–2011 (P<0.05). There were no significant yearly changes in drug use prevalences among Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs, and mixed-race people; but use of any drug, especially marijuana, was prevalent among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people (21.2% and 23.3%, respectively, in 2011). Compared with Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs had higher odds of marijuana use, and mixed-race individuals had higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers. Compared with Whites, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of any drug use, mainly marijuana, and NHs/PIs resembled Whites in odds of any drug use. Conclusions Findings reveal alarmingly prevalent drug use among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people. Research on drug use is needed in these rising populations to inform prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:23890491

  2. Cancer statistics for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, 2016: Converging incidence in males and females.

    PubMed

    Torre, Lindsey A; Sauer, Ann M Goding; Chen, Moon S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). In this report, the American Cancer Society presents AANHPI cancer incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among AANHPIs in 2016, there will be an estimated 57,740 new cancer cases and 16,910 cancer deaths. While AANHPIs have 30% to 40% lower incidence and mortality rates than non-Hispanic whites for all cancers combined, risk of stomach and liver cancers is double. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio among AANHPIs declined from 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.49) in 1992 to 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07) in 2012 because of declining prostate and lung cancer rates in males and increasing breast cancer rates in females. The diversity within the AANHPI population is reflected in the disparate cancer risk by subgroup. For example, the overall incidence rate in Samoan men (526.5 per 100,000) is more than twice that in Asian Indian/Pakistani men (216.8). Variations in cancer rates in AANHPIs are related to differences in behavioral risk factors, use of screening and preventive services, and exposure to cancer-causing infections. Cancer-control strategies include improved use of vaccination and screening; interventions to increase physical activity and reduce excess body weight, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption; and subgroup-level research on burden and risk factors. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:182-202. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26766789

  3. Impact of Diabetes on Prolonged Hospital Stay among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders with Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Vento, Megan A; Ing, Marissa M; Asai, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that minority groups have prolonged hospital stays after ischemic stroke. However, disparities in the hospital stay after ischemic stroke among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have not been studied. A retrospective study on consecutive patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke at a single tertiary center in Honolulu between 2008 and 2010 was performed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the independent predictors of prolonged hospital stay (hospitalization > 12 days after admission) after ischemic stroke. A total of 740 patients (whites 22%, Asians 53%, NHPI 21%, others 4%) hospitalized for ischemic stroke were studied. NHPI were significantly younger (59 ± 14 years vs 72 ± 13 years) and had significantly higher prevalence of female sex (51% vs 38%), no insurance (10% vs 4%), diabetes (53% vs 18%), hypertension (82% vs 62%), obesity (55% vs 20%) and prolonged hospital stay (20% vs 11%), and lower prevalence of residence outside of O‘ahu (12% vs 23%) compared to whites. Univariate analyses showed that NHPI were more likely to have prolonged hospital stay (OR 1.87, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.49) compared to whites. After adjusting for age, sex, race, risk factors, health insurance status, and geographical factor, diabetes (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.89) was the only independent predictor of prolonged hospital stay. NHPI are associated with prolonged hospitalization after ischemic stroke. However, this effect was attenuated by the impact of diabetes. Further prospective studies are needed to understand the relationship between diabetes and prolonged hospital stay after ischemic stroke. PMID:25535594

  4. Association of Modifiable Risk Factors and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction among Hospitalized Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Todd B; Kaholokula, Joseph K; Howard, Barbara; Ratner, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heart Failure (HF) disproportionately affects Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPIs). This study examines risk factors associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) among 151 hospitalized NHOPI HF patients enrolled at a single tertiary care hospital between June 2006 and April 2010. Methods: Enrollment criteria: (1) NHOPI by self-identification. (2) Age ≥ 21 yrs. (3) Diagnosis of HF defined: (a) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40% or LVEF ≤ 60% with abnormal diastolic function and (b) classic HF signs/symptoms. LVEF was measured by echocardiography within 6 weeks of hospitalization. Clinical measures, medical history, and questionnaires were assessed using standardized protocols. Linear regression modeling was used to examine the association of significant correlates of LVEF, which were then included en bloc into the final model. A P-value < .05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 151 participants, 69% were men, mean age 54.3 ± 13.5 years, blood pressure 112 ± 20/69 ± 15 mmHg, and body mass index (BMI) 36.9 ± 9 kg/m2. Twenty-five percent of participants were smokers, 45% used alcohol and 23% reported a history of methamphetamine use. Clinically, 72% had hypertension, 49% were diabetic and 37% had a prior myocardial infarction. Nearly 60% had moderate to severe LVEF (< 35%). Higher LVEF was independently associated with female sex and greater BMI (P < .04) while pacemaker/defibrillator and methamphetamine use was independently associated with lower LVEF (P < .05). Conclusions: Methamphetamine use and BMI may be important modifiable risk factors associated with LVEF and may be important targets for improving HF morbidity and mortality. PMID:25535596

  5. Cancer statistics for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, 2016: Converging incidence in males and females.

    PubMed

    Torre, Lindsey A; Sauer, Ann M Goding; Chen, Moon S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). In this report, the American Cancer Society presents AANHPI cancer incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among AANHPIs in 2016, there will be an estimated 57,740 new cancer cases and 16,910 cancer deaths. While AANHPIs have 30% to 40% lower incidence and mortality rates than non-Hispanic whites for all cancers combined, risk of stomach and liver cancers is double. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio among AANHPIs declined from 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.49) in 1992 to 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07) in 2012 because of declining prostate and lung cancer rates in males and increasing breast cancer rates in females. The diversity within the AANHPI population is reflected in the disparate cancer risk by subgroup. For example, the overall incidence rate in Samoan men (526.5 per 100,000) is more than twice that in Asian Indian/Pakistani men (216.8). Variations in cancer rates in AANHPIs are related to differences in behavioral risk factors, use of screening and preventive services, and exposure to cancer-causing infections. Cancer-control strategies include improved use of vaccination and screening; interventions to increase physical activity and reduce excess body weight, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption; and subgroup-level research on burden and risk factors. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:182-202. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  6. Diverse Gastropod Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm, Globally and with a Focus on the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaynee R.; Hayes, Kenneth A.; Yeung, Norine W.; Cowie, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally. PMID:24788772

  7. 76 FR 46719 - Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... accountability measures; that process is codified at 50 CFR 665.4 (76 FR 37285, June 27, 2011). The regulations... is managed under the Fishery Ecosystem Plan for the Hawaiian Archipelago (Hawaii FEP), developed...

  8. Quantifying Atmospheric Fallout of Fukushima-derived Radioactive Isotopes in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Trista; Dulai, Henrietta

    2016-04-01

    On March 11, 2011, several reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered damage and released the radioisotopes iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137 into the atmosphere. A week later, these isotopes were detected in aerosols over the state of Hawaii and in milk samples analyzed from the Big Island. Because the detected levels were significantly below levels of health concern, the state did not attempt to quantify the deposition of these nuclides on the islands. This study estimated the magnitude of atmospheric fallout of cesium and iodine, and examined the patterns of cesium wet deposition with precipitation observed in March 2011. Mushroom and soil samples were collected along precipitation gradients on Oahu and the island of Hawaii and analyzed for cesium isotopes using gamma spectrometry. Fukushima-derived fallout was differentiated from historic nuclear weapons testing fallout by the presence of Cs-134, which has a shorter half-life of 2.06 years and the fact that Cs-134 and 137 were released from the severed power plant nearly in parity. We found that Fukushima-derived cesium was present in both mushrooms and soil and the soil inventories ranged 2.2-60.9 Bq/m2 for Cs-137 and 16.1-445.8 Bq/m2 for I-131. Additionally, we found that Fukushima-derived cesium inventories in soils were correlated with precipitation gradients. This research confirmed and quantified the presence of Fukushima-derived fallout in Hawaii, however the activities detected were orders of magnitude lower than fallout associated with the nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific.

  9. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands, with N'ihau and Lehua in the background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands, with N'ihau and Lehua in the background. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet

  10. Applying Tafkaa For Atmospheric Correction of Aviris Over Coral Ecosystems In The Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, James A.; Montes, Marcos J.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Growing concern over the health of coastal ecosystems, particularly coral reefs, has produced increased interest in remote sensing as a tool for the management and monitoring of these valuable natural resources. Hyperspectral capabilities show promising results in this regard, but as yet remain somewhat hindered by the technical and physical issues concerning the intervening water layer. One such issue is the ability to atmospherically correct images over shallow aquatic areas, where complications arise due to varying effects from specular reflection, wind blown surface waves, and reflectance from the benthic substrate. Tafkaa, an atmospheric correction algorithm under development at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, addresses these variables and provides a viable approach to the atmospheric correction issue. Using imagery from the Advanced Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over two shallow coral ecosystems in the Hawai ian Islands, French Frigate Shoals and Kane ohe Bay, we first demonstrate how land-based atmospheric corrections can be limited in such an environment. We then discuss the input requirements and underlying algorithm concepts of Tafkaa and conclude with examples illustrating the improved performance of Tafkaa using the same AVIRIS images.

  11. Ingestion of plastic debris by Laysan albatrosses and wedge-tailed shearwaters in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, D.M.; Fefer, S.I.; Sileo, L.

    1987-01-01

    Surveys of Laysan Albatross and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters on Midway and Oahu Island, Hawaii, identified a high proportion of birds with plastic in the upper gastrointestinal tract, representing hazards to the health of adult birds and their chicks. Fifty Laysan Albatross chicks were examined for plastic items lodged within the upper digestive tract. Forty-five (90%) contained plastic, including 3 chicks having proventricular impactions or ulcerative lesions. Plastic items in 21 live albatross chicks weighed a mean of 35.7 g chicka??1 (range 1a??175 g). Four dead birds contained 14a??175 g (mean 76.7 g). Two of four adult albatross examined contained plastic in the gut. Laysan albatross chicks have the highest reported incidence and amount of ingested plastic of any seabird species. Twelve of 20 adult Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (60%) contained plastic particles 2a??4 mm in diameter. Impaction did not appear to be a significant hazard for adult shearwaters. Shearwater chicks were not examined. Chemical toxicity of plastic polymers, plasticizers and antioxidant additives is low, although many pigments are toxic and plastics may serve as vehicles for the adsorption of organochlorine pollutants from sea water, and the toxicity of plastics is unlikely to pose significant hazard compared to obstruction and impaction of the gut.

  12. Benthic composition of a healthy subtropical reef: baseline species-level cover, with an emphasis on algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Vroom, Peter S; Braun, Cristi L

    2010-01-01

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a "healthy" reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated. PMID:20305808

  13. The Lobster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  14. Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Kimberlie S.; Nimmo, John R.; Medeiros, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    Over historic time Hawai'i's dryland forests have been largely replaced by grasslands for grazing livestock. On-going efforts have been undertaken to restore dryland forests to bring back native species and reduce erosion. The reestablishment of native ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use requires reversal of the impacts of erosion, organic-matter loss, and soil structural damage on soil hydraulic properties. This issue is perhaps especially critical in dryland forests where the soil must facilitate native plants' optimal use of limited water. These reforestation efforts depend on restoring soil ecological function, including soil hydraulic properties. We hypothesized that reforestation can measurably change soil hydraulic properties over restoration timescales. At a site on the island of Maui (Hawai'i, USA), we measured infiltration capacity, hydrophobicity, and abundance of preferential flow channels in a deforested grassland and in an adjacent area where active reforestation has been going on for fourteen years. Compared to the nearby deforested rangeland, mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity in the newly restored forest measured by 55 infiltrometer tests was greater by a factor of 2.0. Hydrophobicity on an 8-point scale increased from average category 6.0 to 6.9. A 4-point empirical categorization of preferentiality in subsurface wetting patterns increased from an average 1.3 in grasslands to 2.6 in the restored forest. All of these changes act to distribute infiltrated water faster and deeper, as appropriate for native plant needs. This study indicates that vegetation restoration can lead to ecohydrologically important changes in soil hydraulic properties over decadal time scales.

  15. Health disparities in the Native Hawaiian homeless.

    PubMed

    Yamane, David P; Oeser, Steffen G; Omori, Jill

    2010-06-01

    While it is well accepted that Native Hawaiians have poor health statistics compared to other ethnic groups in Hawaii, it is not well documented if these disparities persist when comparing Native Hawaiian homeless individuals to the general homeless population. This paper examines the Native Hawaiian homeless population living in three shelters on the island of Oahu, to determine if there are significant differences in the frequency of diseases between the Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian homeless. A retrospective data collection was performed using records from the Hawaii Homeless Outreach and Medical Education (H.O.M.E.) project. Data from 1182 patients was collected as of 12/05/09. Information collected included patient demographics, frequency of self reported diseases, family history of diseases, risk factors, prevalence of chronic diseases, and most common complaints. The data from Native Hawaiians and non-Native Hawaiians were examined for differences and a 1-tail Fisher exact analysis was done to confirm significance. The data reveals that the Native Hawaiian homeless population is afflicted more frequently with asthma and hypertension compared to other ethnic groups. While diabetes constituted more visits to the clinics for Native Hawaiians compared to the non-Native Hawaiians, there was no significant difference in patient reported prevalence of diabetes. The Native Hawaiian homeless also had increased rates of risky behaviors demonstrated by higher past use of marijuana and methamphetamines. Interestingly, there was a lower use of alcohol in the Native Hawaiian homeless and no significant difference between Native Hawaiians and non-native Hawaiians in current use of illicit drugs, which may represent a hopeful change in behaviors. These troubling statistics show that some of the health disparities seen in the general Native Hawaiian population persist despite the global impoverished state of all homeless. Hopefully, these results will aid

  16. 75 FR 40759 - Initiation of Review of Management Plan/Regulations of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... and submerged cultural heritage resources within the sanctuary. This proposal is detailed in the State... regulations that became effective December 29, 1999 (64 FR 63262). NOAA anticipates completion of the revised... of traditional religious and cultural importance to an Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian...

  17. GRB Astrophysics with LOBSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Sveda, L.; Inneman, A.

    2006-05-19

    We refer on the recent developments of LOBSTER project suggesting novel wide-field Lobster-Eye type of X-ray All Sky Monitor to detect and to analyze GRBs including XRF and X-ray rich GRBs. The triggers can be detected and localized by their X-ray emission in the 0.1 - 8 keV energy range. The system exhibits fine detecting sensitivities of order of 10-12 ergcm-2s-1 and the localization accuracy is of order of a few arcmin. The LOBSTER is expected to contribute significantly to analyses of GRBs and especially the XRFs.

  18. New R/V Falkor Multibeam Data from the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R., Jr.; Kelley, C.; Boston, B.; Dechnik, B.; Habel, S.; Harrison, L.; Leonard, J.; Lichowski, F.; Luers, D.; Miller, J. E.; Orange, R.; Patterson, M. A.; Shiro, B.; Taylor, J.; Togia, H.; Tree, J. P.; Tucker, J.; Wagner, D.; Webster, J.; Wright, N.

    2014-12-01

    From March to June 2014, the Schmidt Ocean Institute, along with National Marine Sanctuaries and the National Science Foundation, supported 72 days of mapping surveys on two cruises using R/V Falkor in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM) located within the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). PMNM is one of the largest marine protected areas in the world. Approximately 127,000 km2, 35% of the PMNM, were surveyed using dual multibeam systems from less than 30 to >5000 meters water depth, and thus covering the habitat depth ranges for shallow living corals, mesophotic corals, drowned reefs, to deep-sea corals and sponge communities. A total of 18 seamounts, guyots, banks, or atoll flanks (e.g., Midway and Kure) were mapped in the upper northwestern section of the monument, including the generically named Bank 9 Seamount, which appears to be a composite of a younger Hawaiian seamount and an older Cretaceous guyot. The middle segment of the PMNM consists mostly of large volcanic rift zone ridges and broad carbonate platforms. The rift zones located there are comparable in shape and size with those off Maui and the Island of Hawai'i in the main islands. Likewise, the magnitude of the largest carbonate platform of Gardner Pinnacles suggests its original high island may have met or exceeded the enormity of the Island of Hawai'i. Furthermore, the new mapping data have revealed the detail of numerous landslides and their deposits all along the chain, including an unusual rift zone flank failure creating a knife-edge ridge off Pioneer Bank. Dives with the Pisces V submersible were previously carried out on this feature, where extensive filter feeding biological communities were discovered. Not to be overlooked, the sidescan backscatter component of the multibeam data proved essential for identifying subtle reef features, numerous carbonate terraces, and debris channels that appear to transport sediment down the edifice flanks to the deep seafloor

  19. Coprosma kawaikiniensis (Rubiaceae) a new species from the Dubautia-Sadleria shrubland-fernland community on Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kenneth R; Lorence, David H; Kiehn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Coprosma kawaikiniensis K.R. Wood, Lorence & Kiehn (Rubiaceae), a rare endemic tree from Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands, is described and illustrated along with a previously undescribed endemic plant community, the Dubautia-Sadleria shrubland-fernland (DSSF). The new species differs from Hawai'i congeners by its combination of opposite, long, elliptic to narrowly elliptic or ovate-elliptic leaves with revolute margins; caducous stipules 7-10 mm long, externally glabrous, densely hirtellous-pilose near the margins of the inner surface; unbranched inflorescences with peduncles 20-28 mm long; flowers 6-8 per cluster; and persistent calyx tube with 4-8 irregular dentate lobes. Known only from the windward slopes and ridges of southeastern Kaua'i below the Kawaikini summit, Coprosma kawaikiniensis falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) Red List category. PMID:27081342

  20. Coprosma kawaikiniensis (Rubiaceae) a new species from the Dubautia-Sadleria shrubland-fernland community on Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kenneth R.; Lorence, David H.; Kiehn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coprosma kawaikiniensis K.R. Wood, Lorence & Kiehn (Rubiaceae), a rare endemic tree from Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands, is described and illustrated along with a previously undescribed endemic plant community, the Dubautia-Sadleria shrubland-fernland (DSSF). The new species differs from Hawai‘i congeners by its combination of opposite, long, elliptic to narrowly elliptic or ovate-elliptic leaves with revolute margins; caducous stipules 7–10 mm long, externally glabrous, densely hirtellous-pilose near the margins of the inner surface; unbranched inflorescences with peduncles 20–28 mm long; flowers 6–8 per cluster; and persistent calyx tube with 4–8 irregular dentate lobes. Known only from the windward slopes and ridges of southeastern Kaua‘i below the Kawaikini summit, Coprosma kawaikiniensis falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) Red List category. PMID:27081342

  1. LIGA for lobster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peele, Andrew G.; Irving, Thomas H.; Nugent, Keith A.; Mancini, Derrick C.; Moldovan, Nicolaie A.; Christenson, Todd R.; Petre, Robert; Brumby, Steven P.; Priedhorsky, William C.

    2001-01-01

    The prospect of making a lobster-eye telescope is drawing closer with recent developments in the manufacture of microchannel-plate optics. This would lead to an x-ray all-sky monitor with vastly improved sensitivity and resolution over existing and other planned instruments. We consider a new approach, using deep etch x-ray lithography, to making a lobster-eye lens that offers certain advantages even over microchannel-plate technology.

  2. LIGA FOR LOBSTER?

    SciTech Connect

    Peele, A.G.; Irving, T.H.

    2000-09-01

    The prospect of making a lobster-eye telescope is drawing closer with recent developments in the manufacture of microchannel-plate optics. This would lead to an x-ray all-sky monitor with vastly improved sensitivity and resolution over existing and other planned instruments. We consider a new approach, using deep etch x-ray lithography, to making a lobster-eye lens that offers certain advantages even over microchannel-plate technology.

  3. Lithospheric Rheology Constrained by Loading of the Hawaiian Islands and its Implications for the Dynamics of Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S.; Watts, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Lithospheric rheology is important for understanding crustal and lithospheric dynamics, and the conditions for plate tectonics. For example, numerical modeling studies suggest that plate tectonics emerge from the dynamics of mantle convection when a small coefficient of friction (<0.1) or small yield stress for lithosphere is used. However, lithospheric rheology is not well understood. In this study, we developed 3-D finite element models for computing load-induced surface deformation and stress for lithosphere and mantle with realistic non-linear viscoelastic rheology including the frictional sliding, low-temperature plasticity, and high-temperature creep. We determined the deformation and stress due to volcano loading in the Hawaiian region in the last few million years. By comparing model predictions with seismic observations of the depth to the top of oceanic crust and depth-dependence of seismicity in the Hawaiian region, we sought to constrain lithospheric rheology. Our calculations show that the load-induced surface deformation in the Hawaiian region is controlled by low-temperature plasticity and frictional sliding but is insensitive to high-temperature creep. Lithospheric strength predicted from laboratory derived low-temperature plasticity needs to be reduced significantly to match the observations, together with frictional coefficient in the range from 0.1 to 0.7. However, the small coefficient of friction weakens the shallow part of the lithosphere so much that it causes the minima in strain rate and stress to occur at too large depths to be consistent with the depth distribution of seismicity at Hawaii. Our results therefore suggest that the coefficient of friction is between 0.25 and 0.7. Finally, maximum lithospheric stress under Hawaiian loads is about 100-200 MPa for models that match the observations, and this stress may be viewed as the largest lithospheric stress on the Earth.

  4. Hawaiian Duck's Future Threatened by Feral Mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uyehara, Kimberly J.; Engilis, Andrew; Reynolds, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Nearly 70 percent of Hawaii's native bird species are found nowhere else on Earth, and many of these species are declining or in danger of extinction. Although the Hawaiian Islands were once home to a remarkable diversity of waterfowl, only three species remain-the Hawaiian Goose (Nene), Laysan Duck, and Hawaiian Duck (Koloa maoli)-all Federally endangered. The Koloa maoli is the only Hawaiian bird threatened by 'genetic extinction' from hybridization with an invasive species-feral Mallard ducks. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) biologists in Hawaii are working to find the causes of bird endangerment and ways to prevent extinction of the Koloa maoli and other threatened birds.

  5. Island of Kauai, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The island of Kauai, of the Hawaiian Island archipelago (22.0N, 159.5W) peeks out from scattered cloud cover. The island's volcanic origins are easily seen by the distinctive lava flow topography and lush vegetation.

  6. Multibeam Synthesis of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Supports Diverse Research in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Kelley, C. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) was established in 2006 and is both the single largest conservation area under U.S. jurisdiction (366,631 km2), and one of the largest marine protected areas in the world. The NWHI stretches over 2200 km to the northwest of the 775 km-long Main or Southeastern Hawaiian Islands and contains 47 individual islands, seamounts, atolls, ridges, and submerged banks. The PMNM boundary is 100 nm (185 km) wide centered on the emergent landforms and thus nearly the entire monument (98%) is in deepwater (>100 m) beyond the range of technical wet diving. Because of its remote location, dedicated multibeam mapping of the PMNM region began only ten years ago, although research in the NWHI has taken place for decades. In an effort to consolidate the more recent systematic surveys with older transit data swaths for this region, a synthesis of all existing multibeam data was undertaken between 2009 and 2010. This dataset was then merged with the much lower resolution global bathymetry dataset to generate a more complete picture and allow users to visualize the remainder of the as yet unmapped features within and adjacent to the PMNM boundaries. One of the primary benefits of the synthesis has been to provide researchers with base maps for study site selection including submersible and ROV dive locations. In addition, fusion with the global dataset permits calculation of statistics using geospatial software and may serve as input for physical oceanographic models. With a number of different entities carrying out mapping activities in the PMNM in recent years, this data compilation also provides a road map showing where existing multibeam data are located so as to avoid duplication of effort. The synthesis was prepared with a grid cell interval of 120 m in order to accommodate the large area and water depths to >5000 m, although some of the individual surveys are of much higher

  7. Nighttime foraging by deep diving echolocating odontocetes off the Hawaiian islands of Kauai and Ni'ihau as determined by passive acoustic monitors.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Giorli, Giacomo; Chen, Jessica; Copeland, Adrienne; Lammers, Marc; Richlen, Michael; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald; Moretti, David; Klinck, Holger

    2013-05-01

    Remote autonomous ecological acoustic recorders (EARs) were deployed in deep waters at five locations around the island of Kauai and one in waters off Ni'ihau in the main Hawaiian island chain. The EARs were moored to the bottom at depths between 400 and 800 m. The data acquisition sampling rate was 80 kHz and acoustic signals were recorded for 30 s every 5 min to conserve battery power and disk space. The acoustic data were analyzed with the M3R (Marine Mammal Monitoring on Navy Ranges) software, an energy-ratio-mapping algorithm developed at Oregon State University and custom MATLAB programs. A variety of deep diving odontocetes, including pilot whales, Risso's dolphins, sperm whales, spinner and pan-tropical spotted dolphins, and beaked whales were detected at all sites. Foraging activity typically began to increase after dusk, peaked in the middle of the night and began to decrease toward dawn. Between 70% and 84% of biosonar clicks were detected at night. At present it is not clear why some of the known deep diving species, such as sperm whales and beaked whales, concentrate their foraging efforts at night. PMID:23654414

  8. Nighttime foraging by deep diving echolocating odontocetes off the Hawaiian islands of Kauai and Ni'ihau as determined by passive acoustic monitors.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Giorli, Giacomo; Chen, Jessica; Copeland, Adrienne; Lammers, Marc; Richlen, Michael; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald; Moretti, David; Klinck, Holger

    2013-05-01

    Remote autonomous ecological acoustic recorders (EARs) were deployed in deep waters at five locations around the island of Kauai and one in waters off Ni'ihau in the main Hawaiian island chain. The EARs were moored to the bottom at depths between 400 and 800 m. The data acquisition sampling rate was 80 kHz and acoustic signals were recorded for 30 s every 5 min to conserve battery power and disk space. The acoustic data were analyzed with the M3R (Marine Mammal Monitoring on Navy Ranges) software, an energy-ratio-mapping algorithm developed at Oregon State University and custom MATLAB programs. A variety of deep diving odontocetes, including pilot whales, Risso's dolphins, sperm whales, spinner and pan-tropical spotted dolphins, and beaked whales were detected at all sites. Foraging activity typically began to increase after dusk, peaked in the middle of the night and began to decrease toward dawn. Between 70% and 84% of biosonar clicks were detected at night. At present it is not clear why some of the known deep diving species, such as sperm whales and beaked whales, concentrate their foraging efforts at night.

  9. Understanding the scale of Marine protection in Hawai'i: from community-based management to the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities. PMID:25358300

  10. Understanding the scale of Marine protection in Hawai'i: from community-based management to the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities.

  11. New K-Ar ages for calculating end-of-shield extrusion rates at West Maui volcano, Hawaiian island chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, D.R.; Murai, T.; Tagami, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-seven new K-Ar ages from West Maui volcano, Hawai'i, are used to define the waning stages of shield growth and a brief episode of postshield volcanism. All but two samples from shield-stage strata have reversed polarity magnetization, so conceivably the exposed shield is not much older than the Olduvai Normal-Polarity subchron, or about 1.8 Ma. The oldest ages obtained are in the range 1.9-2.1 Ma but have large analytical error. Shield volcanism ended about 1.35 Ma, and postshield volcanism followed soon thereafter, persisting until about 1.2 Ma. Exposed shield-stage strata were emplaced at a rate of about 0.001 km3 per year, a rate smaller than historic Hawaiian magmatic rates by a factor of 100. Stratigraphic accumulation rates are similar to those measured previously at Wai'anae volcano (O'ahu) or the upper part of the Mauna Kea shield sequence (Hilo drill core, Hawai'i). These rates diminish sharply during the final 0.3-0.5 m.y. of the shield stage. Hawaiian shield volcanoes begin waning well before their last 0.5 m.y. of life, then end quickly, geologically speaking, if West Maui is representative. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  12. Lobster claw deformity.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ashish; Agrawal, Rahul; Singh, Rajat; Agrawal, Romi; Agrawal, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits) can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM) or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-syndromic form). In this article, describes a rare case report of lobster claw deformity patient.

  13. Lobster claw deformity.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ashish; Agrawal, Rahul; Singh, Rajat; Agrawal, Romi; Agrawal, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits) can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM) or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-syndromic form). In this article, describes a rare case report of lobster claw deformity patient. PMID:24992861

  14. Exploring Hawaiian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken

    2013-01-01

    In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pelée in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawai‘i provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVO’s founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists’ understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.

  15. Hawaiian angiosperm radiations of North American origin

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Bruce G.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Putative phytogeographical links between America (especially North America) and the Hawaiian Islands have figured prominently in disagreement and debate about the origin of Pacific floras and the efficacy of long-distance (oversea) plant dispersal, given the obstacles to explaining such major disjunctions by vicariance. Scope Review of past efforts, and of progress over the last 20 years, toward understanding relationships of Hawaiian angiosperms allows for a historically informed re-evaluation of the American (New World) contribution to Hawaiian diversity and evolutionary activity of American lineages in an insular setting. Conclusions Temperate and boreal North America is a much more important source of Hawaiian flora than suggested by most 20th century authorities on Pacific plant life, such as Fosberg and Skottsberg. Early views of evolution as too slow to account for divergence of highly distinctive endemics within the Hawaiian geological time frame evidently impeded biogeographical understanding, as did lack of appreciation for the importance of rare, often biotically mediated dispersal events and ecological opportunity in island ecosystems. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for North American ancestry of Hawaiian plant radiations, such as the silversword alliance, mints, sanicles, violets, schiedeas and spurges, underlines the potential of long-distance dispersal to shape floras, in accordance with hypotheses championed by Carlquist. Characteristics important to colonization of the islands, such as dispersibility by birds and ancestral hybridization or polyploidy, and ecological opportunities associated with ‘sky islands’ of temperate or boreal climate in the tropical Hawaiian archipelago may have been key to extensive diversification of endemic lineages of North American origin that are among the most species-rich clades of Hawaiian plants. Evident youth of flowering-plant lineages from North America is highly consistent with recent geological

  16. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... data have been referenced to WGS84 (NAD83) and have been converted to geographic (latitude and... (Big Island) 2 20°16′5.3″20°17′59.9″ −155°51′0.5″−155°51′17.2″ 13 Keahole Pt., Hawaii (Big Island) 2 19...). ER29NO99.002 Bound No. (Fig.2) Geographic Name No. of Points Latitude Longitude 14 Kawaihae Harbor,...

  17. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... data have been referenced to WGS84 (NAD83) and have been converted to geographic (latitude and... (Big Island) 2 20°16′5.3″20°17′59.9″ −155°51′0.5″−155°51′17.2″ 13 Keahole Pt., Hawaii (Big Island) 2 19...). ER29NO99.002 Bound No. (Fig.2) Geographic Name No. of Points Latitude Longitude 14 Kawaihae Harbor,...

  18. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... data have been referenced to WGS84 (NAD83) and have been converted to geographic (latitude and... (Big Island) 2 20°16′5.3″20°17′59.9″ −155°51′0.5″−155°51′17.2″ 13 Keahole Pt., Hawaii (Big Island) 2 19...). ER29NO99.002 Bound No. (Fig.2) Geographic Name No. of Points Latitude Longitude 14 Kawaihae Harbor,...

  19. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... data have been referenced to WGS84 (NAD83) and have been converted to geographic (latitude and... (Big Island) 2 20°16′5.3″20°17′59.9″ −155°51′0.5″−155°51′17.2″ 13 Keahole Pt., Hawaii (Big Island) 2 19...). ER29NO99.002 Bound No. (Fig.2) Geographic Name No. of Points Latitude Longitude 14 Kawaihae Harbor,...

  20. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... data have been referenced to WGS84 (NAD83) and have been converted to geographic (latitude and... (Big Island) 2 20°16′5.3″20°17′59.9″ −155°51′0.5″−155°51′17.2″ 13 Keahole Pt., Hawaii (Big Island) 2 19...). ER29NO99.002 Bound No. (Fig.2) Geographic Name No. of Points Latitude Longitude 14 Kawaihae Harbor,...

  1. Sky monitoring with LOBSTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Tichy, V.

    2014-12-01

    The X--ray sky monitoring represents valuable energy spectral extension to optical sky monitoring. Lobster--Eye all--sky monitors are able to provide relatively high sensitivity and good time resolution in the soft X--ray energy range up to 10 keV. The fine time resolution can be used to alert optical robotic telescopes for follow--up and multispectral analyzes in the visible light.

  2. Mahukona: The missing Hawaiian volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.O.; Muenow, D.W. ); Kurz, M.D. )

    1990-11-01

    New bathymetric and geochemical data indicate that a seamount west of the island of Hawaii, Mahukona, is a Hawaiian shield volcano. Mahukona has weakly alkalic lavas that are geochemically distinct. They have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios (12-21 times atmosphere), and high H{sub 2}O and Cl contents, which are indicative of the early state of development of Hawaiian volcanoes. The He and Sr isotopic values for Mahukona lavas are intermediate between those for lavas from Loihi and Manuna Loa volcanoes and may be indicative of a temporal evolution of Hawaiian magmas. Mahukona volcano became extinct at about 500 ka, perhaps before reaching sea level. It fills the previously assumed gap in the parallel chains of volcanoes forming the southern segment of the Hawaiian hotspot chain. The paired sequence of volcanoes was probably caused by the bifurcation of the Hawaiian mantle plume during its ascent, creating two primary areas of melting 30 to 40 km apart that have persisted for at least the past 4 m.y.

  3. Effects of habitat patchiness on American lobster movement across a gradient of predation risk and shelter competition.

    PubMed

    Hovel, Kevin A; Wahle, Richard A

    2010-07-01

    The influence of landscape structure on marine ecological processes is receiving increasing attention. However, few studies conducted in coastal marine habitats have evaluated whether the effects of landscape structure on species interactions and organismal behavior are consistent across the range of an organism, over which landscape context and the strength of species interactions typically vary. American lobster (Homarus americanus) juveniles seek refuge from predators within shallow rocky habitat but make short-distance movements to forage outside of shelter. We evaluated how the patchiness of cobble habitat influences juvenile lobster movement by conducting mark-recapture experiments on lobsters placed within patchy and contiguous cobble plots in three regions of New England among which risk of predation and intraspecific shelter competition vary (Rhode Island, mid-coast Maine, and eastern Maine, USA). We also evaluated whether habitat patchiness influenced lobster colonization of plots and whether lobster fidelity to individual shelters corresponds to variability in predator abundance and conspecific density among regions. Cobble patchiness reduced rates of lobster movement in all three regions in 2004 and in two of three regions in 2005, despite large differences in landscape context among regions. Region had much larger effects on lobster colonization than did patchiness, but patchy plots were colonized at higher rates than were contiguous plots where lobster densities were highest. Fidelity to shelter was higher in regions with low conspecific density (Rhode Island and eastern Maine) than in mid-coast Maine where conspecific density is high and where unmarked lobsters often occupied shelters vacated by marked lobsters. Our results indicate that cobble patchiness influences juvenile lobster movement at small scales, but that the effects of patchiness on movement were consistent across much of the range of the American lobster despite strong regional

  4. Attraction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects to methyl eugenol bucket traps with different preservative fluids on Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Grant K; Mackey, Bruce E; McInnis, Donald O; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-06-01

    Attraction of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and nontarget insects to preservative fluids ethylene glycol antifreeze, propylene glycol antifreeze, or mineral oil in bucket traps that contained captured decaying male oriental fruit flies, a male lure (methyl eugenol), and a toxicant (DDVP vapor insecticidal strip) were compared with dry control traps. Significantly (P < 0.05) greater numbers of B. dorsalis were captured in propylene glycol antifreeze traps than in other attractant trap types. Among attractant trap types with lowest negative impacts on nontarget insects, control traps captured significantly lower numbers of three species and one morphospecies of scavenger flies, one species of plant-feeding fly, and one species each of sweet-and lipid-feeding ants. Mineral oil traps captured significantly lower numbers of two species of scavengers flies and one morphospecies of plant-feeding fly, and one species of sweet-feeding ant. Because of the fragile nature of endemic Hawaiian insect fauna, the propylene glycol antifreeze bucket trap is best suited for use in environments (e.g., non-native habitats) where endemic species are known to be absent and mineral oil traps are more suited for minimizing insect captures in environmentally sensitive habitats. PMID:17598531

  5. Influences of wind-wave exposure on the distribution and density of recruit reef fishes at Kure and Pearl and Hermes Atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeMartini, E.E.; Zgliczynski, B.J.; Boland, R.C.; Friedlander, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a field survey designed to test the prediction that the density of benthic juveniles of shallow-reef fishes is greater on wind-wave "exposed" sectors of a pair of isolated oceanic atolls (Kure, Pearl and Hermes) at the far northwestern end of the Hawaiian Islands, an archipelago in which east-northeasterly trade winds dominate onshore water flow and transport by surface currents. The densities of recruits (juveniles ???5 cm total length) were higher overall on windward versus leeward sectors of carbonate rock-rubble back reefs at both atolls, and the pattern was stronger for smaller (likely younger, more recently settled) recruits of four of the five most abundant species and the remainder pooled as an "Other" taxon. The windward-leeward disparity was four-fold greater at Pearl Hermes (the atoll with a three-fold longer perimeter) than at Kure. Resident predator biomass also was correlated with recruit densities, but habitat (benthic substratum) effects were generally weak. The distribution and abundance of recruits and juveniles of the primarily endemic reef fishes on shallow back reefs at these atolls appear partly influenced by relative rates of water flow over windward vs. leeward sectors of barrier reef and by the size, shape, and orientation of habitat parcels that filter out postlarval fishes with relatively weak swimming capabilities like labroids. Whole-reef geomorphology as well as fine-scale habitat heterogeneity and rugosity should be considered among the suite of many factors used to interpret observed spatial patterns of post-settlement juvenile fish distribution at atolls and perhaps some other tropical reefs. ?? The Author(s) 2009.

  6. Nonmedical Stimulant Use among Young Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and Mixed-Race Individuals Aged 12–34 years In the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Blazer, Dan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2014-01-01

    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12–34 years in the 2005–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, “Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin” was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; “got them from a friend/relative for free” and “bought them from a friends/relative” were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18–25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations. PMID:25263275

  7. Nonmedical stimulant use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race individuals aged 12-34 years in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S; Brady, Kathleen T; Blazer, Dan G; Hoyle, Rick H

    2014-12-01

    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12-34 years in the 2005-2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, "Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin" was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; "got them from a friend/relative for free" and "bought them from a friends/relative" were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18-25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations.

  8. Morphology and pathology of the ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci ('lobster louse') in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Emma C; Pope, Edward C; Vogan, Claire L; Roberts, Emily C; Davies, Charlotte E; Rowley, Andrew F

    2011-09-01

    Ectoparasitic copepods have been reported in a wide range of aquatic animals, including crustacean shellfish. However, with the exception of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, our knowledge of such parasites in commercial species is rudimentary. The current study examines the morphology and pathology of the parasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse') in its host, the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Lobsters were sampled from waters surrounding Lundy Island (Bristol Channel, UK) and all individuals collected were found to harbour female adult N. astaci in their gills, with a mean of 47·3 parasites/lobster. The majority of N. astaci were found in the basal region of pleurobranch gills. The parasite was found to attach to gill filaments via its oral sucker, maxillae and maxillipeds, and to feed on host haemolymph (blood) through a funnel-like feeding channel. It caused varying degrees of damage to the host gill, including occlusion of gill filaments and disruption to the vascular system in the central axis. Although there was evidence of extensive host response (haemocytic infiltration) to the parasite, it was displaced from the parasite attachment site and thus was observed in the central gill axis below. The region of gill filament immediately underlying the parasite feeding channel was devoid of such activity suggesting that the parasite interferes with the cellular defence and haemostatic mechanisms of the lobster in order to maintain invasion of the host. PMID:21756425

  9. Morphology and pathology of the ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci ('lobster louse') in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Emma C; Pope, Edward C; Vogan, Claire L; Roberts, Emily C; Davies, Charlotte E; Rowley, Andrew F

    2011-09-01

    Ectoparasitic copepods have been reported in a wide range of aquatic animals, including crustacean shellfish. However, with the exception of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, our knowledge of such parasites in commercial species is rudimentary. The current study examines the morphology and pathology of the parasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse') in its host, the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. Lobsters were sampled from waters surrounding Lundy Island (Bristol Channel, UK) and all individuals collected were found to harbour female adult N. astaci in their gills, with a mean of 47·3 parasites/lobster. The majority of N. astaci were found in the basal region of pleurobranch gills. The parasite was found to attach to gill filaments via its oral sucker, maxillae and maxillipeds, and to feed on host haemolymph (blood) through a funnel-like feeding channel. It caused varying degrees of damage to the host gill, including occlusion of gill filaments and disruption to the vascular system in the central axis. Although there was evidence of extensive host response (haemocytic infiltration) to the parasite, it was displaced from the parasite attachment site and thus was observed in the central gill axis below. The region of gill filament immediately underlying the parasite feeding channel was devoid of such activity suggesting that the parasite interferes with the cellular defence and haemostatic mechanisms of the lobster in order to maintain invasion of the host.

  10. A comparison of static versus dynamic models of sea-level rise impacts to atolls: Insights from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storlazzi, C. D.; Berkowitz, P.; Reynolds, M.; Logan, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Two inundation events in 2011 underscored the potential for elevated water levels to damage infrastructure and impact terrestrial ecosystems on the low-lying Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The goal of this study was to compare passive GIS-based "bathtub" inundation models to those that include dynamic water levels caused by wave-induced set-up and run-up for two end-member island morphologies: Midway, a classic atoll with islets on the shallow (2-8 m) atoll rim and a deep, central lagoon; and Laysan, which is characterized by a deep (20-30 m) atoll rim and an islet at the center of the atoll. Vulnerability to elevated water levels was assessed using US Army Corps of Engineers hindcast wind and wave data to drive coupled Delft3D wave, current, and water level models for the atolls. The resulting model data were then used to compute run-up elevations using a parametric run-up equation under both present conditions and future sea-level rise scenarios. In both geomorphologies, wave heights and wavelengths adjacent to the islet shorelines increased more than three times and four times, respectively, with increasing values of sea-level rise, as more deep-water wave energy could propagate over the atoll rim and larger wind-driven waves could develop on the atoll. Although these increases in water depth resulted in decreased set-up, the larger wave heights and longer wavelengths due to sea-level rise increased the resulting wave-induced run-up. Run-up values were spatially heterogeneous and dependent on the direction of incident wave direction, bathymetry, and islet configuration. Islet inundation was modeled to increase substantially when wave-driven effects were included, suggesting that inundation and impacts to infrastructure and terrestrial habitats will occur at lower values of predicted sea-level rise, and thus sooner in the 21st century, than suggested by passive GIS-based "bathtub" inundation models.

  11. ISS-Lobster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, S. D.; Petre, R.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L.; Ptak, A.

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents ISS-Lobster, a wide-field X-ray transient mission proposed to be deployed on the International Space Station. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 30 deg FoV, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 10^-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ISS-Lobster will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving both stellar mass and supermassive black holes. A 3-axis gimbal system will allow fast pointing in response to any independent, multi-wavelength indication of these events. Finally, deployment of this detector on the ISS will realize significant cost savings compared to a free-flying satellite as power, communication, and ISS transport are provided.

  12. Applications of lobster eye optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Tichy, V.

    2015-05-01

    Applications of wide field Lobster Eye X ray telescopes are presented and discussed. The wide field X ray optics was originally proposed for use in X-ray astronomy, but there are numerous other application areas as well.

  13. 75 FR 23245 - American Lobster Fishery Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-AT31 American Lobster Fishery Management AGENCY... American lobster fishery in Federal waters. The management actions are based on recommendations to NMFS by... Fishery Management Plan for American Lobster (ISFMP). Two of the three proposed management...

  14. Hawaii Play Fairway Analysis: Hawaiian Place Names

    SciTech Connect

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-11-15

    Compilation of Hawaiian place names indicative of heat. Place names are from the following references: Pukui, M.K., and S.H. Elbert, 1976, Place Names of Hawaii, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI 96822, 289 pp. ; Bier, J. A., 2009, Map of Hawaii, The Big Island, Eighth Edition, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI  96822, 1 sheet.; and Reeve, R., 1993, Kahoolawe Place Names, Consultant Report No. 16, Kahoolawe Island Conveyance Commission, 259 pp.

  15. Biogeochemistry of mineral-organic associations across a long-term mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr), Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikutta, Robert; Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Gildemeister, Daniela; Bonneville, Steeve; Kramer, Marc G.; Chorover, Jon; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Guggenberger, Georg

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter (OM) in mineral-organic associations (MOAs) represents a large fraction of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems which is considered stable against biodegradation. To assess the role of MOAs in carbon cycling, there is a need to better understand (i) the time-dependent biogeochemical evolution of MOAs in soil, (ii) the effect of the mineral composition on the physico-chemical properties of attached OM, and (iii) the resulting consequences for the stabilization of OM. We studied the development of MOAs across a mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr) at the Hawaiian Islands that derived from basaltic tephra under comparable climatic and hydrological regimes. Mineral-organic associations were characterized using biomarker analyses of OM with chemolytic methods (lignin phenols, non-cellulosic carbohydrates) and wet chemical extractions, surface area/porosity measurements (N 2 at 77 K and CO 2 at 273 K), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that in the initial weathering stage (0.3 kyr), MOAs are mainly composed of primary, low-surface area minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar) with small amounts of attached OM and lignin phenols but a large contribution of microbial-derived carbohydrates. As high-surface area, poorly crystalline (PC) minerals increase in abundance during the second weathering stage (20-400 kyr), the content of mineral-associated OM increased sharply, up to 290 mg C/g MOA, with lignin phenols being favored over carbohydrates in the association with minerals. In the third and final weathering stage (1400-4100 kyr), metastable PC phases transformed into well crystalline secondary Fe and Al (hydr)oxides and kaolin minerals that were associated with less OM overall, and depleted in both lignin and carbohydrate as a fraction of total OM. XPS, the N 2 pore volume data and OM-mineral volumetric ratios suggest that, in contrast to the

  16. Predictors of Dental Cleaning Over a Two-year Time Period Around Pregnancy Among Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Race Subgroups in Hawai‘i, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Turnure, Matthew; Mattheus, Deborah J; Shannon, Maureen T

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oral health disease is linked to several chronic diseases including adverse health outcomes around pregnancy. Optimizing a woman's oral health before, during, and after pregnancy can impact her health and the health of her children. Preventive, diagnostic, and restorative dental services can be done safely and effectively including during pregnancy. We examined data from the 2009–2011 Hawai‘i Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) to assess the prevalence of dental cleanings over an approximately 2 year (Median: 2.0 years, Range:1.6–2.5 years) time period (12 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and in the first few months postpartum) among 4,735 mothers who recently had a live birth. Adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) of dental cleanings were calculated for both race and Medicaid/QUEST insurance status adjusting for maternal age and education. During a two-year span before, during, and after pregnancy an estimated 60.8% of women had dental cleanings. Native Hawaiian (APR=0.87; 95% CI=0.80–0.93), Other Pacific Islander (0.70; 0.58–0.83), Filipino (0.90; 0.82–0.97), and Chinese (0.76; 0.63–0.93) mothers were less likely to have had dental cleanings compared to white mothers. Additionally, mothers with Medicaid/QUEST health insurance (0.73; 0.68–0.79) were less likely to have had cleanings. More than one-third of recently pregnant mothers did not have dental cleanings in the approximately two-year time period. Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, Filipino, and Chinese mothers and those on Medicaid/QUEST health insurance were less likely to receive regular dental care. Identification of the reasons why these populations do not seek regular dental care can inform programmatic efforts to improve oral health outcomes for women and families. PMID:26535162

  17. Pathological findings in the Hawaiian monk seal.

    PubMed

    Banish, L D; Gilmartin, W G

    1992-07-01

    Postmortem examinations were performed on 45 Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) collected during field research on the beaches of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (USA) from 1981 to 1985. Both males and females of all age groups, perinatal through adult, were examined. Frequent findings included parasites, trauma, cardiovascular disease (congenital and acquired), and respiratory infections. Emaciation was a common condition. All animals except neonates were infected with parasites; infection was severe in several cases. Splenic hematopoiesis was a universal histopathologic finding. Some cases exhibited lesions consistent with renal, gastrointestinal, and toxic disorders; ectopic tissue calcification; gallstones; and ophthalmologic and dental problems. PMID:1512875

  18. Optical sensor for measuring American Lobster vitality

    SciTech Connect

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F.

    2011-06-10

    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  19. Mapping the Hawaiian plume conduit with converted seismic waves

    PubMed

    Li; Kind; Priestley; Sobolev; Tilmann; Yuan; Weber

    2000-06-22

    The volcanic edifice of the Hawaiian islands and seamounts, as well as the surrounding area of shallow sea floor known as the Hawaiian swell, are believed to result from the passage of the oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Although geochemical and gravity observations indicate the existence of a mantle thermal plume beneath Hawaii, no direct seismic evidence for such a plume in the upper mantle has yet been found. Here we present an analysis of compressional-to-shear (P-to-S) converted seismic phases, recorded on seismograph stations on the Hawaiian islands, that indicate a zone of very low shear-wave velocity (< 4 km s(-1)) starting at 130-140 km depth beneath the central part of the island of Hawaii and extending deeper into the upper mantle. We also find that the upper-mantle transition zone (410-660 km depth) appears to be thinned by up to 40-50 km to the south-southwest of the island of Hawaii. We interpret these observations as localized effects of the Hawaiian plume conduit in the asthenosphere and mantle transition zone with excess temperature of approximately 300 degrees C. Large variations in the transition-zone thickness suggest a lower-mantle origin of the Hawaiian plume similar to the Iceland plume, but our results indicate a 100 degrees C higher temperature for the Hawaiian plume.

  20. Collaborative assessment of California spiny lobster population and fishery responses to a marine reserve network.

    PubMed

    Kay, Matthew C; Lenihan, Hunter S; Guenther, Carla M; Wilson, Jono R; Miller, Christopher J; Shrout, Samuel W

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of the conservation and fisheries effects of marine reserves typically focus on single reserves where sampling occurs over narrow spatiotemporal scales. A strategy for broadening the collection and interpretation of data is collaborative fisheries research (CFR). Here we report results of a CFR program formed in part to test whether reserves at the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, USA, influenced lobster size and trap yield, and whether abundance changes in reserves led to spillover that influenced trap yield and effort distribution near reserve borders. Industry training of scientists allowed us to sample reserves with fishery relevant metrics that we compared with pre-reserve fishing records, a concurrent port sampling program, fishery effort patterns, the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of fishermen, and fishery-independent visual surveys of lobster abundance. After six years of reserve protection, there was a four- to eightfold increase in trap yield, a 5-10% increase in the mean size (carapace length) of legal sized lobsters, and larger size structure of lobsters trapped inside vs. outside of three replicate reserves. Patterns in trap data were corroborated by visual scuba surveys that indicated a four- to sixfold increase in lobster density inside reserves. Population increases within reserves did not lead to increased trap yields or effort concentrations (fishing the line) immediately outside reserve borders. The absence of these catch and effort trends, which are indicative of spillover, may be due to moderate total mortality (Z = 0.59 for legal sized lobsters outside reserves), which was estimated from analysis of growth and length frequency data collected as part of our CFR program. Spillover at the Channel Islands reserves may be occurring but at levels that are insufficient to influence the fishery dynamics that we measured. Future increases in fishing effort (outside reserves) and lobster biomass (inside reserves) are likely and may lead to

  1. A baseline analysis of the distribution, host-range, and severity of the rust Puccinia Psidii in the Hawaiian islands, 2005-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    state of Florida in the United States. While the rust has been present in Florida for over 30 years, only recently has it spread westward. Although possibly present earlier, P. psidii was found in California in November 2005 in a nursery in San Diego County on Myrtus communis and documented by a report in a nursery newsletter (Mellano 2006). Puccinia psidii was first found in Hawai`i on a young plant of `ōhi`a (Metrosideros polymorpha) in April 2005, in a nursery on the island of O`ahu (Killgore and Heu 2005; Uchida et al. 2006). The fungus subsequently spread to most islands of the Hawaiian chain, infecting `ōhi`a and other myrtaceous hosts (Hauff 2006, Anderson et al. 2007). P. psidii was first found in Japan in May 2007 on cultivated `ōhi`a (Kawanishi et al. 2009).


    Most recently, a rust identified as Uredo rangelii was discovered in April 2010 in New South Wales, Australia (Carnegie et al. 2010). This rust is closely related to Puccinia psidii and is part of the guava rust complex described by Simpson et al. (2006). Although treated as a separate species by Simpson et al. (2006), many authors now consider U. rangelii a synonym for U. psidii, which is the anamorph (asexual stage) of P. psidii, and therefore, the same species (Glen et al. 2007, Carnegie et al. 2010). Because of the large diversity of native Myrtaceae present in Australia, the number of Myrtaceae hosts attacked by species of the guava rust complex will likely grow now that U. rangelii has arrived and is spreading in the country. As of this writing (June 2011), 94 species of Myrtaceae have been identified as hosts of U. rangelii in the states of New South Wales and Queensland. Damage is severe on nearly one-third of the species affected, and 16 of these species are threatened or endangered native species (Secretary of Australia, May 2011).

  2. Scientists probe Earth’s secrets at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unger, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) sits on the edge of Kilauea Caldera at the summit of Kilauea Volcao, one of the five volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, the largest island in the Hawaiian Islands chain. Of the five, only Kilauea and Mauna Loa have been active in the past 100 years. Before its last eruption in June 1950, Mauna Loa had erupted more frequently and copiously than Kilauea, but since then only Kilauea has been active. 

  3. 78 FR 60850 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Recovery Plan for Main Hawaiian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... rule to implement the Plan (77 FR 71260). The Plan and the final rule were developed to address the... Intent To Prepare a Recovery Plan for Main Hawaiian Islands Insular False Killer Whale Distinct... for the Main Hawaiian Islands insular false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) distinct...

  4. Latitudinal limits to coral reef accretion: Testing the Darwin Point hypothesis at Kure Atoll, northwestern Hawaiian Islands, using new evidence from high resolution remote sensing and in situ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siciliano, Daria

    This dissertation focused on assessing patterns of carbonate production in a marginal reef environment as the key to understand the mechanisms that limit modern reef distribution, and those that effect the response of coral reefs to a changing environment. This investigation was carried out at Kure atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, the northernmost atoll in the world. A less detailed comparative study was carried out throughout the 10 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, with the goal of revisiting Grigg's (1982) Darwin Point hypothesis on the limit of coral reef formation. Patterns of carbonate metabolism and benthic diversity at Kure Atoll were obtained from analysis of high resolution IKONOS multispectral imagery; calcification rates were obtained from x-rayed slabs of coral samples and cores of the main coral reef-builders, collected in different habitats at Kure; data on habitat-specific bioerosion rates were obtained from in situ surveys of the main bioeroding taxa. These data were used to construct a habitat-specific carbonate budget for Kure Atoll. The main sources and sinks of CaCO3 at Kure Atoll were identified and their spatial extent quantified. Calcification rates vary significantly between the different habitats, with the warmer and wave-protected lagoonal patch reefs and back reef habitat exhibiting the largest growth rates. Average calcification rates were found to be one order of magnitude greater than those reported by Grigg (1982), as was the total amount of CaCO3 deposited by reef-building corals. The new habitat mapping techniques employed here show that the reef building area and amount of live coral cover in all three main geomorphic habitats of Kure Atoll is greater than previously estimated, and that the lagoonal environments of Kure Atoll contribute the greatest amount to the accretion potential of the atoll, followed by the actively accreting fore reef environment. Stable isotopic measurements indicate that the decrease in coral

  5. Health Status of Kanaka Maoli (Indigenous Hawaiians).

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Richard Kekuni

    1993-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE PAPER: To summarize the current health status of Kanaka Maoli (indigenous Hawaiians) with historical background, underlying factors responsible for the Kanaka Maoli health plight and recommendations. METHODS: The author reviewed the available literature and some not readily available, unpublished information. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Kanaka Maoli continue to have the worst health and socio­economic indicators of the various ethnic groups in their home islands of Ka Pae'aina (Hawai'i). Cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, obstructive lung disease, maternal and infant health and mental distress are the prominent maladies. Tobacco smoking, high­fat diet, alcohol drinking, hyperlipidemia and obesity are the major lifestyle risk factors. Societal factors, such as depopulation, foreign transmigration, colonial exploitation, coercive assimilation, cultural conflict and racism persist. Since 1990, Kanaka Maoli communities have established five island­wide Native Hawaiian Health Care Systems to improve availability, accessibility, and acceptability of health services to their people, but with inadequate resources. CONCLUSIONS: Under present conditions, while the future may bring some amelioration of Kanaka Maoli ill health, the price will be progressive acculturation and loss of Kanaka Maoli identity. Accordingly, recommendations include augmented revitalization of the traditional culture, effective recontrol by the Kanaka Maoli of their lives and natural resources and thus, improved total health. KEY WORDS: Pacific Islander Americans, Kanaka Maoli, Hawaiians, Indigenous Health, Culture, Ethnicity, Racism, Colonialism, Sovereignty

  6. Distinct and extinct: genetic differentiation of the Hawaiian eagle.

    PubMed

    Hailer, Frank; James, Helen F; Olson, Storrs L; Fleischer, Robert C

    2015-02-01

    Eagles currently occur in the Hawaiian Islands only as vagrants, but Quaternary bones of Haliaeetus eagles have been found on three of the major islands. A previous study of a ∼3500-year-old skeleton from Maui found its mtDNA more similar to White-tailed (H. albicilla) than to Bald (H. leucocephalus) Eagles, but low intraspecific resolution of the markers and lack of comparative data from mainland populations precluded assessment of whether the individual was part of the diversity found in Eurasia, or whether it represented an endemic Hawaiian lineage. Using ancient DNA techniques, we sequenced part of the rapidly evolving mtDNA control region from the same specimen, and compared it to published range-wide control region data from White-tailed Eagles and newly generated sequences from Bald Eagles. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Hawaiian eagle represents a distinct (>3% divergent) mtDNA lineage most closely related to those of extant White-tailed Eagles. Based on fossil calibration, we estimate that the Hawaiian mtDNA lineage diverged from mainland sequences around the Middle Pleistocene. Although not clearly differentiated morphologically from mainland forms, the Hawaiian eagle thus likely constituted an isolated, resident population in the Hawaiian archipelago for more than 100,000 years, where it was the largest terrestrial predator.

  7. Distinct and extinct: genetic differentiation of the Hawaiian eagle.

    PubMed

    Hailer, Frank; James, Helen F; Olson, Storrs L; Fleischer, Robert C

    2015-02-01

    Eagles currently occur in the Hawaiian Islands only as vagrants, but Quaternary bones of Haliaeetus eagles have been found on three of the major islands. A previous study of a ∼3500-year-old skeleton from Maui found its mtDNA more similar to White-tailed (H. albicilla) than to Bald (H. leucocephalus) Eagles, but low intraspecific resolution of the markers and lack of comparative data from mainland populations precluded assessment of whether the individual was part of the diversity found in Eurasia, or whether it represented an endemic Hawaiian lineage. Using ancient DNA techniques, we sequenced part of the rapidly evolving mtDNA control region from the same specimen, and compared it to published range-wide control region data from White-tailed Eagles and newly generated sequences from Bald Eagles. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Hawaiian eagle represents a distinct (>3% divergent) mtDNA lineage most closely related to those of extant White-tailed Eagles. Based on fossil calibration, we estimate that the Hawaiian mtDNA lineage diverged from mainland sequences around the Middle Pleistocene. Although not clearly differentiated morphologically from mainland forms, the Hawaiian eagle thus likely constituted an isolated, resident population in the Hawaiian archipelago for more than 100,000 years, where it was the largest terrestrial predator. PMID:25463753

  8. Diversification in Hawaiian long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Campsicnemus): biogeographic isolation and ecological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; Evenhuis, Neal L; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, Patrick M

    2014-12-01

    Flies in the genus Campsicnemus have diversified into the second-largest adaptive radiation of Diptera in the Hawaiian Islands, with 179 Hawaiian endemic species currently described. Here we present the first phylogenetic analysis of Campsicnemus, with a focus on the Hawaiian fauna. We analyzed a combination of two nuclear (CAD, EF1α) and five mitochondrial (COI, COII, 12S, 16S, ND2) loci using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus Campsicnemus. Our sampling included a total of 84 species (6 species from Europe, 1 from North America, 7 species from French Polynesia and 70 species from the Hawaiian Islands). The phylogenies were used to estimate divergence times, reconstruct biogeographic history, and infer ancestral ecological associations within this large genus. We found strong support for a South Pacific+Hawaiian clade, as well as for a monophyletic Hawaiian lineage. Divergence time estimates suggest that Hawaiian Islands were colonized approximately 4.6 million years ago, suggesting that most of the diversity within Campsicnemus evolved since the current high islands began forming ∼5 million years ago. We also observe a novel ecotype within the Pacific Campsicnemus; a widespread obligate water-skating form that has arisen multiple times across the Pacific Islands. Together, these analyses suggest that a combination of ecological, biogeographic and temporal factors have led to the impressive diversity of long-legged flies in Hawaii and elsewhere in the Pacific.

  9. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  10. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  11. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  12. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  13. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  14. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  15. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  16. 50 CFR 622.409 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 622... ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic § 622.409 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that...

  17. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  18. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  19. 50 CFR 622.409 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 622... ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic § 622.409 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that...

  20. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  1. Coral diversity and the severity of disease outbreaks: a cross-regional comparison of Acropora white syndrome in a species-rich region (American Samoa) with a species-poor region (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Bourne, D.G.; Wilson, B.; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of the coral disease, Acropora white syndrome (AWS), was directly compared on reefs in the species-poor region of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and the species-rich region of American Samoa (AS) with results suggesting that biodiversity, which can affect the abundance of susceptible hosts, is important in influencing the impacts of coral disease outbreaks. The diversity-disease hypothesis predicts that decreased host species diversity should result in increased disease severity of specialist pathogens. We found that AWS was more prevalent and had a higher incidence within the NWHI as compared to AS. Individual Acropora colonies affected by AWS showed high mortality in both regions, but case fatality rate and disease severity was higher in the NWHI. The site within the NWHI had a monospecific stand of A. cytherea; a species that is highly susceptible to AWS. Once AWS entered the site, it spread easily amongst the abundant susceptible hosts. The site within AS contained numerous Acropora species, which differed in their apparent susceptibility to infection and disease severity, which in turn reduced disease spread. Manipulative studies showed AWS was transmissible through direct contact in three Acropora species. These results will help managers predict and respond to disease outbreaks.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Hawaiian Corals: Possible Protection from Disease?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochfeld, D. J.; Aeby, G. S.; Miller, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    Reports of coral diseases in the Caribbean have appeared with increasing frequency over the past two decades; however, records of coral diseases in the Pacific have lagged far behind. Recent surveys of coral disease in the Hawaiian Islands indicate relatively low, but consistent, levels of disease throughout the inhabited Main and uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and demonstrate variation in levels of disease among the major genera of Hawaiian corals. Although little is known about immune defense to disease in corals, one potential mechanism of defense is the production of antimicrobial compounds that protect corals from pathogens. A preliminary survey of antibacterial chemical defenses among three dominant species of Hawaiian corals was undertaken. Crude aqueous extracts of Porites lobata, Pocillopora meandrina and Montipora capitata were tested against nine strains of bacteria in a growth inhibition assay. Inhibitory extracts were further tested to determine whether their effects were cytostatic or cytotoxic. The bacteria selected included known coral pathogens, potential marine pathogens found in human waste and strains previously identified from the surfaces of Hawaiian corals. Extracts from all three species of coral exhibited a high degree of antibacterial activity, but also a high degree of selectivity against different bacterial strains. In addition, some extracts were stimulatory to some bacteria. In addition to interspecific variability, extracts also exhibited intraspecific variability, both within and between sites. Hawaiian corals have significant antibacterial activity, which may explain the relatively low prevalence of disease in these corals; however, further characterization of pathogens specifically responsible for disease in Hawaiian corals is necessary before we can conclude that antibacterial activity protects Hawaiian corals from disease.

  3. Molokai fracture zone: continuation west of the hawaiian ridge.

    PubMed

    Malahoff, A; Strange, W E; Woollard, G P

    1966-07-29

    The Molokai Fracture Zone is one of the principal east-west (striking) fracture zones between California and the mid-Pacific. On the basis of bathymetry alone, it has been assumed that the zone ended abruptly east of the Hawaiian Islands. Use of correlation techniques between bathymetric features and their magnetic anomalies in the vicinity of the islands now show that structural elements of the zone cross the islands and continue westward for at least 130 kilometers. Recent volcanism and deep rift zones of the islands parallel the zone, suggesting structural correlation between the strike of the zone and the origin of recent volcanism in the islands.

  4. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    PubMed

    Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY).

  5. Antimicrobial activity in the cuticle of the American lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Mars Brisbin, Margaret; McElroy, Anne E; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Allam, Bassem

    2015-06-01

    American lobster, Homarus americanus, continues to be an ecologically and socioeconomically important species despite a severe decline in catches from Southern New England and Long Island Sound (USA) and a high prevalence of epizootic shell disease in these populations. A better understanding of lobster immune defenses remains necessary. Cuticle material collected from Long Island Sound lobsters was found to be active against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including Gram-negative and -positive species. The antimicrobial activity was characterized by boiling, muffling, and size fractioning. Boiling did not significantly reduce activity, while muffling did have a significant effect, suggesting that the active component is organic and heat stable. Size fractioning with 3 and 10 kDa filters did not significantly affect activity. Fast protein liquid chromatography fractions were also tested for antimicrobial activity, and fractions exhibiting protein peaks remained active. MALDI mass spectrometry revealed peptide peaks at 1.6, 2.8, 4.6, and 5.6 kDa. The data presented suggest that one or several antimicrobial peptides contribute to antimicrobial activity present in the American lobster cuticle.

  6. Antimicrobial activity in the cuticle of the American lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Mars Brisbin, Margaret; McElroy, Anne E; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Allam, Bassem

    2015-06-01

    American lobster, Homarus americanus, continues to be an ecologically and socioeconomically important species despite a severe decline in catches from Southern New England and Long Island Sound (USA) and a high prevalence of epizootic shell disease in these populations. A better understanding of lobster immune defenses remains necessary. Cuticle material collected from Long Island Sound lobsters was found to be active against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including Gram-negative and -positive species. The antimicrobial activity was characterized by boiling, muffling, and size fractioning. Boiling did not significantly reduce activity, while muffling did have a significant effect, suggesting that the active component is organic and heat stable. Size fractioning with 3 and 10 kDa filters did not significantly affect activity. Fast protein liquid chromatography fractions were also tested for antimicrobial activity, and fractions exhibiting protein peaks remained active. MALDI mass spectrometry revealed peptide peaks at 1.6, 2.8, 4.6, and 5.6 kDa. The data presented suggest that one or several antimicrobial peptides contribute to antimicrobial activity present in the American lobster cuticle. PMID:25804485

  7. Principal sources and dispersal patterns of suspended particulate matter in nearshore surface waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean and the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Numerous geologic features can be discerned on ERTS-1 imagery of the northwestern Olympic Peninsula, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A thick homoclinal sequence of north-dipping Tertiary marine strata along the northwestern Olympic Peninsula is readily discernible because of the banded nature of its outcrop. The submarine basalt on which the sequence rests shows as a high, rugged ridge. Within the sedimentary sequence, alternating sandstone and siltstone members 100 m or more thick show in the southeast corner of the image. Broad folds in this banded sequence and faults that cut it can be detected. One large fault, the Pysht River fault, and a large syncline in sandstone and siltstone east of it show prominently on the image. Numerous lineations on the image of southern Vancouver Island correlate with faults shown on Muller's map. Particularly prominent are the Leech River and San Juan faults along the southernmost part of the island.

  8. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Orr, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    Lava from Kilauea volcano flowing through a forest in the Royal Gardens subdivision, Hawai'i, in February 2008. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitors the volcanoes of Hawai'i and is located within Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park. HVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Kilauea and HVO at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov.

  9. Hawaiian Music for Hawaii's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Dorothy K.

    1972-01-01

    Hawaiian music has developed from the simple chant and accompanying hula to choral singing and the use of the guitar and ukulele. Article also presents a compositional and choreographic analysis of Hawaiian music. (RK)

  10. 76 FR 68711 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Service. For the reasons set out in the preamble, 50 CFR part 622, as proposed to be amended at 76 FR..., Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management... and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands...

  11. Prognathodes basabei, a new species of butterflyfish (Perciformes, Chaetodontidae) from the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Richard L.; Kosaki, Randall K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the butterflyfish genus Prognathodes is described from specimens collected at a depth of 55–61 m off Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This species has been observed by mixed-gas divers and from submersibles at depths ranging from 45–187 m throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago, with shallower sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and deeper in the Main Hawaiian Islands. It is similar to Prognathodes guezei (Maugé and Bauchot 1976) from the western Indian Ocean, and at least one other undescribed species of Prognathodes from Palau, differing from these species in the number of soft dorsal-fin rays, size of head, and body depth. There are also differences in the life color, and a substantial genetic difference from the Palauan species (d » .08 in mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I).

  12. Prognathodes basabei, a new species of butterflyfish (Perciformes, Chaetodontidae) from the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Richard L.; Kosaki, Randall K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the butterflyfish genus Prognathodes is described from specimens collected at a depth of 55–61 m off Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This species has been observed by mixed-gas divers and from submersibles at depths ranging from 45–187 m throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago, with shallower sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and deeper in the Main Hawaiian Islands. It is similar to Prognathodes guezei (Maugé and Bauchot 1976) from the western Indian Ocean, and at least one other undescribed species of Prognathodes from Palau, differing from these species in the number of soft dorsal-fin rays, size of head, and body depth. There are also differences in the life color, and a substantial genetic difference from the Palauan species (d » .08 in mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I). PMID:27667937

  13. Prognathodes basabei, a new species of butterflyfish (Perciformes, Chaetodontidae) from the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Richard L; Kosaki, Randall K

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the butterflyfish genus Prognathodes is described from specimens collected at a depth of 55-61 m off Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This species has been observed by mixed-gas divers and from submersibles at depths ranging from 45-187 m throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago, with shallower sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and deeper in the Main Hawaiian Islands. It is similar to Prognathodes guezei (Maugé and Bauchot 1976) from the western Indian Ocean, and at least one other undescribed species of Prognathodes from Palau, differing from these species in the number of soft dorsal-fin rays, size of head, and body depth. There are also differences in the life color, and a substantial genetic difference from the Palauan species (d » .08 in mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I). PMID:27667937

  14. Pesticide sorption and leaching potential on three Hawaiian soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the Hawaiian Islands, groundwater is the principal source of potable water and contamination of this key resource by pesticides is of great concern. To evaluate the leaching potential of four weak acid herbicides [aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, metsulfuron-methyl, biologically active diketonitril...

  15. Coral: A Hawaiian Resource. An Instructional Guidebook for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Ann; Moniz, Barbara

    Described are eight field trips to various sites on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. These experiences are designed to help teachers develop middle school students' awareness and understanding of Hawaii's natural resources, with particular emphasis upon coral. Each field trip unit contains a physical and biological description of the area and two to…

  16. Hawaiian Performance Cartography of Kaua'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akana, Kalani

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a discussion that examines Hawaiian performance cartography as described by Oliveira--but only as it relates to the island of Kaua'i. Section I begins with a chant asking permission to "enter" into the cultural landscape described in "mele" (songs) and "hula" (dance). Section II looks…

  17. MARINE ENVIRONMENT: Clinton Creates Huge Hawaiian Coral Haven.

    PubMed

    Malakoff, D

    2000-12-01

    President Bill Clinton last week signed an executive order creating the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve. Marine scientists say that the megareserve, which holds nearly 70% of the nation's reefs, will help protect some of the globe's most pristine ocean habitats.

  18. Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  19. Shear-wave velocity characterization of the USGS Hawaiian strong-motion network on the Island of Hawaii and development of an NEHRP site-class map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Ivan G.; Stokoe, Kenneth; Cox, Brady R.; Yuan, Jiabei; Knudsen, Keith L.; Terra, Fabia; Okubo, Paul G.; Lin, Yin-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    To assess the level and nature of ground shaking in Hawaii for the purposes of earthquake hazard mitigation and seismic design, empirical ground-motion prediction models are desired. To develop such empirical relationships, knowledge of the subsurface site conditions beneath strong-motion stations is critical. Thus, as a first step to develop ground-motion prediction models for Hawaii, spectral-analysis-of-surface-waves (SASW) profiling was performed at the 22 free-field U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strong-motion sites on the Big Island to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) data. Nineteen of these stations recorded the 2006 Kiholo Bay moment magnitude (M) 6.7 earthquake, and 17 stations recorded the triggered M 6.0 Mahukona earthquake. VS profiling was performed to reach depths of more than 100 ft. Most of the USGS stations are situated on sites underlain by basalt, based on surficial geologic maps. However, the sites have varying degrees of weathering and soil development. The remaining strong-motion stations are located on alluvium or volcanic ash. VS30 (average VS in the top 30 m) values for the stations on basalt ranged from 906 to 1908 ft/s [National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classes C and D], because most sites were covered with soil of variable thickness. Based on these data, an NEHRP site-class map was developed for the Big Island. These new VS data will be a significant input into an update of the USGS statewide hazard maps and to the operation of ShakeMap on the island of Hawaii.

  20. Growth and degradation of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 3 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, David A.; Sherrod, David R.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Large Hawaiian volcanoes can persist as islands through the rapid subsidence by building upward rapidly enough. But in the long run, subsidence, coupled with surface erosion, erases any volcanic remnant above sea level in about 15 m.y. One consequence of subsidence, in concert with eustatic changes in sea level, is the drowning of coral reefs that drape the submarine flanks of the actively subsiding volcanoes. At least six reefs northwest of the Island of Hawai‘i form a stairstep configuration, the oldest being deepest.

  1. Phylogenetic position and biogeography of Hillebrandia sandwicensis (Begoniaceae): a rare Hawaiian relict.

    PubMed

    Clement, Wendy L; Tebbitt, Mark C; Forrest, Laura L; Blair, Jaime E; Brouillet, Luc; Eriksson, Torsten; Swensen, Susan M

    2004-06-01

    The Begoniaceae consist of two genera, Begonia, with approximately 1400 species that are widely distributed in the tropics, and Hillebrandia, with one species that is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and the only member of the family native to those islands. To help explain the history of Hillebrandia on the Hawaiian Archipelago, phylogenetic relationships of the Begoniaceae and the Cucurbitales were inferred using sequence data from 18S, rbcL, and ITS, and the minimal age of both Begonia and the Begoniaceae were indirectly estimated. The analyses strongly support the placement of Hillebrandia as the sister group to the rest of the Begoniaceae and indicate that the Hillebrandia lineage is at least 51-65 million years old, an age that predates the current Hawaiian Islands by about 20 million years. Evidence that Hillebrandia sandwicensis has survived on the Hawaiian Archipelago by island hopping from older, now denuded islands to younger, more mountainous islands is presented. Various scenarios for the origin of ancestor to Hillebrandia are considered. The geographic origin of source populations unfortunately remains obscure; however, we suggest a boreotropic or a Malesian-Pacific origin is most likely. Hillebrandia represents the first example in the well-studied Hawaiian flora of a relict genus.

  2. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that apply to importation of...

  3. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 640.27... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits...

  4. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 640.27... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits...

  5. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that apply to importation of...

  6. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 640.27... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits...

  7. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that apply to importation of...

  8. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, John

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  9. Corrosion tests in Hawaiian geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen-Basse, J.; Lam, Kam-Fai

    1984-01-01

    Exposure tests were conductd in binary geothermal brine on the island of Hawaii. The steam which flashes from the high pressure, high temperature water as it is brought to ambient pressure contains substantial amounts of H{sub 2}S. In the absence of oxygen this steam is only moderately aggressive but in the aerated state it is highly aggressive to carbon steels and copper alloys. The liquid after flasing is intermediately aggressive. The Hawaiian fluid is unique in chemistry and corrosion behavior; its corrosiveness is relatively mild for a geothermal fluid falling close to the Iceland-type resources. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. The Hawaiian Mantle Plume from Toe to Head along the Northwest Hawaiian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L.; Weis, D.; Garcia, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Hawaiian-Emperor (HE) chain records ~82 Myr of volcanism1 with two distinct geochemical and geographical trends, Kea and Loa, identified on the archipelago. The Northwest Hawaiian Ridge (NWHR) includes 51 volcanoes, spanning ~42 Myr between the bend in the HE chain and the Hawaiian Islands (47% of the HE chain2), that has no high-precision isotopic data aside from two volcanoes near the bend1. Only Kea compositions have been observed on Emperor seamounts (>50 Ma)1,3, whereas the Hawaiian Islands (<6.5 Ma) have both Kea and Loa lavas3,4. We have analyzed 23 samples of shield stage tholeiitic lavas from 13 NWHR volcanoes for Pb isotopes to test if the Loa trend exhibits a persistent presence along the ridge after Diakakuji seamount1. Age corrected 206Pb/204Pb range from 17.870 at Diakakuji to 18.654 at Midway atoll. The most enriched Loa isotopic compositions are erupted at Diakakuji (comparable to Lanai), and Mokumanamana, West Nihoa, and Nihoa have isotopic compositions similar to Mauna Loa. These observations suggest an ephemeral presence of the Loa geochemical trend along the NWHR. When shield-stage lavas of each Hawaiian volcano is averaged, NWHR volcanoes shows the most and least radiogenic Pb of the entire HE dataset: Diakakuji (0.9703) and Midway (0.9247). The NWHR exhibits the most geochemically extreme lava compositions along a region where many geophysical parameters (volcanic propagation rate, magmatic flux, mantle potential temperature) were changing significantly2,5. At a broader scale, correlation between radiogenic Pb and magmatic flux suggests source composition may control some of these changes, and help explain why the Hawaiian mantle plume seems to be strengthening5 rather than waning like classic plumes and LIPs. 1Regelous et al., 2003, J. Pet., 44, 1, 113-140. 2Garcia et al., 2015, GSA Sp. Pap. 511. 3Tanaka et al., 2008, EPSL, 265, 450-465. 4Weis et al., 2011, Nat. Geosci., 4, 831-838. 5Vidal & Bonneville, 2004, J. Geophy. Res., 109.

  11. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera II: New Distributional Records for Endemic Scatella (Ephydridae)

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Keith; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Here we summarize the known distributional data for the Hawaiian Scatella (Ephydridae). We report on four new island records; Scatella amnica and Scatella stagnalis from Kauai, Scatella oahuense from Lanai, and Scatella terryi from Maui. A list of material present, comprising over 3100 individual specimen records in the collections of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Essig Musuem of Entomology at UC Berkeley is included, along with details distributional maps for the Hawaiian endemic species. PMID:25197231

  12. GLORIA mosaic of the U. S. Hawaiian exclusive economic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Torresan, M.E. )

    1990-06-01

    Digital long-range side-scan sonar reconnaissance surveys using GLORIA have imaged about 65% of the nearly 2.4 million km{sup 2} of the Hawaiian EEZ. The images have been processed and compiled into one mosaic that comprises the EEZ area surrounding the principal Hawaiian islands (from Hawaii to Kauai); extending on the south side of the ridge west to Kure Island, and on the north side to St. Rogatien Bank. The GLORIA images depict a variety of features that include enormous slumps and debris avalanches, lava flows, seafloor spreading fabric, fracture zones, seamounts, and unusual sedimentation patterns with more detail than previously had been possible with typical seismic reflection techniques. Some of these features were unknown before the GLORIA surveys. In particular, the GLORIA images show that the major degradational processes that affect the island and ridge areas are massive, likely tsunamogenic, blocky debris avalanches and slumps. These failures mantle the flanks of the ridge; some extending across the trough and up on to the Hawaiian Arch (up to 230 km from their sources). Over 30 failures are identified, ranging in area from 250 to > 6,000 km{sup 2} and having volumes from 500 to > 5,000 km{sup 3}. Such deposits cover > 125,000 km{sup 3} of the Ridge and adjacent seafloor. Also imaged are large Cenozoic submarine volcanic flow fields situated on the Hawaiian Arch. One such field, the North Arch field, is located north of Oahu between the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, and covers about 200,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to the GLORIA imagery only a small portion of this flow field was mapped. In addition, the imagery depicts the finer details of the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, the Cretaceous seafloor spreading fabric, and tensional faults on the Hawaiian Arch.

  13. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    PubMed

    Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

  14. Genetic Isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific Populations of Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F.; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142–1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535–546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

  15. LIGA for lobster: First observation of lobster-eye focusing from lithographically produced optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peele, Andrew G.; Irving, Thomas H. K.; Nugent, Keith A.; Mancini, Derrick C.; Christenson, Todd R.; Petre, Rob; Brumby, Steven P.; Priedhorsky, William C.

    2001-03-01

    The prospect of making a lobster-eye telescope is drawing closer with recent developments in the manufacture of microchannel-plate optics. This would lead to an x-ray all-sky monitor with vastly improved sensitivity and resolution over existing and other planned instruments. We consider a new approach, using deep etch x-ray lithography, to making a lobster-eye lens that offers certain advantages even over microchannel-plate technology.

  16. Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Joel E.; Eakins, Barry W.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands are used to calculate the volumes of individual shield volcanoes and island complexes (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, the Maui Nui complex, and Hawaii), taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the Hawaiian Ridge. Our calculated volume for the Island of Hawaii and its submarine extent (213 × 103 km3) is nearly twice the previous estimate (113 × 103 km3), due primarily to crustal subsidence that had not been accounted for in the earlier work. The volcanoes that make up the Island of Hawaii (Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea and Loihi) are generally considered to have been formed within the past million years, and our revised volume for the island indicates that magma supply rates are greater than previously estimated, 0.21 km3/yr as opposed to ∼ 0.1 km3/yr. This result also shows that compared with rates calculated for the Hawaiian Islands (0–6 Ma, 0.095 km3/yr), the Hawaiian Ridge (0–45 Ma, 0.017 km3/yr), and the Emperor Seamounts (45–80 Ma, 0.010 km3/yr), magma supply rates have increased dramatically to build the Island of Hawaii.

  17. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a : Astronomy of the Hawaiian Navigators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa C.

    2016-01-01

    This poster provides an introduction to the astronomy of the Hawaiian wayfinders, Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a. Rooted in a legacy of navigation across the Polynesian triangle, wayfinding astronomy has been part of a suite of skills that allows navigators to deliberately hop between the small islands of the Pacific, for thousands of years. Forty years ago, in one manifestation of the Hawaiian Renaissance, our teachers demonstrated that ancient Hawaiians were capable of traversing the wide Pacific to settle and trade on islands separated by thousands of miles. Today those same mentors train a new generation of navigators, making Hawaiian voyaging a living, evolving, sustainable endeavor. This poster presents two components of astronomical knowledge that all crewmen, but particularly those in training to become navigators, learn early in their training. Na Ohana Hoku, the Hawaiian Star Families constitute the basic units of the Hawaiian sky. In contrast to the Western system of 88 constellations, Na Ohana Hoku divides the sky into four sections that each run from the northern to the southern poles. This configuration reduces cognitive load, allowing the navigator to preserve working memory for other complex tasks. In addition, these configurations of stars support the navigator in finding and generatively using hundreds of individual, and navigationally important pairs of stars. The Hawaiian Star Compass divides the celestial sphere into a directional system that uses 32 rather than 8 cardinal points. Within the tropics, the rising and setting of celestial objects are consistent within the Hawaiian Star Compass, providing for extremely reliable direction finding. Together, Na Ohana Hoku and the Hawaiian Star Compass provide the tropical navigator with astronomical assistance that is not available to, and would have been unknown to Western navigators trained at higher latitudes.

  18. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a : Astronomy of the Modern Hawaiian Wayfinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha`o, Celeste; Dye, Ahia G.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa

    2015-08-01

    This paper provides an introduction to Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a, the astronomy of the Hawaiian wayfinders. Rooted in a legacy of navigation across the Polynesian triangle, wayfinding astronomy has been part of a suite of skills that allows navigators to deliberately hop between the small islands of the Pacific, for thousands of years. Forty years ago, in one manifestation of the Hawaiian Renaissance, our teachers demonstrated that ancient Hawaiians were capable of traversing the wide Pacific to settle and trade on islands separated by thousands of miles. Today those same mentors train a new generation of navigators, making Hawaiian voyaging a living, evolving, sustainable endeavor. This paper presents two components of astronomical knowledge that all crewmen, but particularly those in training to become navigators, learn early in their training. Na Ohana Hoku, the Hawaiian Star Families constitute the basic units of the Hawaiian sky. In contrast to the Western system of 88 constellations, Na Ohana Hoku divides the sky into four sections that each run from the northern to the southern poles. This configuration reduces cognitive load, allowing the navigator to preserve working memory for other complex tasks. In addition, these configurations of stars support the navigator in finding and generatively using hundreds of individual, and navigationally important pairs of stars. The Hawaiian Star Compass divides the celestial sphere into a directional system that uses 32 rather than 8 cardinal points. Within the tropics, the rising and setting of celestial objects are consistent within the Hawaiian Star Compass, providing for extremely reliable direction finding. Together, Na Ohana Hoku and the Hawaiian Star Compass provide the tropical navigator with astronomical assistance that is not available to, and would have been unknown to Western navigators trained at higher latitudes.

  19. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  20. Native Hawaiian Epistemology: Exploring Hawaiian Views of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Manu Aluli

    1998-01-01

    Empiricism is culturally defined in that culture shapes sensory knowledge. Hawaiians recognize senses beyond the five that Western culture recognizes. Hawaiians are not unempirical; they draw conclusions of their own from their empirical experiences. It is time to validate other ways of knowing, long suppressed in the U.S. educational system. (TD)

  1. The Case of Lobster Shell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollen, Shawna; Toney, Jaime L.; Bisaccio, Daniel; Haberstroh, Karen Marie; Herbert, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The authors combined content-driven and inquiry-based lessons into the framework of problem-based learning (PBL). They did this in eight third- through sixth-grade classrooms--two each from grades 3-5, one from sixth grade, and one mixed-grade special education. These older elementary students explored a local problem of lobsters infected by…

  2. Exploiting volatile opportunistic computing resources with Lobster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Mueller, Charles; Tovar, Ben; Donnelly, Patrick; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Brenner, Paul; Lannon, Kevin; Hildreth, Mike; Thain, Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of high energy physics experiments using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be limited by availability of computing resources. As a joint effort involving computer scientists and CMS physicists at Notre Dame, we have developed an opportunistic workflow management tool, Lobster, to harvest available cycles from university campus computing pools. Lobster consists of a management server, file server, and worker processes which can be submitted to any available computing resource without requiring root access. Lobster makes use of the Work Queue system to perform task management, while the CMS specific software environment is provided via CVMFS and Parrot. Data is handled via Chirp and Hadoop for local data storage and XrootD for access to the CMS wide-area data federation. An extensive set of monitoring and diagnostic tools have been developed to facilitate system optimisation. We have tested Lobster using the 20 000-core cluster at Notre Dame, achieving approximately 8-10k tasks running simultaneously, sustaining approximately 9 Gbit/s of input data and 340 Mbit/s of output data.

  3. Founder effects initiated rapid species radiation in Hawaiian cave planthoppers.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Andreas; Hoch, Hannelore; Asche, Manfred; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Heck, Volker; Stone, Fred D; Howarth, Francis G

    2013-06-01

    The Hawaiian Islands provide the venue of one of nature's grand experiments in evolution. Here, we present morphological, behavioral, genetic, and geologic data from a young subterranean insect lineage in lava tube caves on Hawai'i Island. The Oliarus polyphemus species complex has the potential to become a model for studying rapid speciation by stochastic events. All species in this lineage live in extremely similar environments but show strong differentiation in behavioral and morphometric characters, which are random with respect to cave age and geographic distribution. Our observation that phenotypic variability within populations decreases with increasing cave age challenges traditional views on founder effects. Furthermore, these cave populations are natural replicates that can be used to test the contradictory hypotheses. Moreover, Hawaiian cave planthoppers exhibit one of the highest speciation rates among animals and, thus, radically shift our perception on the evolutionary potential of obligate cavernicoles.

  4. Culture Studies: Hawaiian Studies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazama, Dorothy, Ed.

    Reports and materials from the Hawaiian Studies Project are presented. The document, designed for elementary school teachers contains two major sections. The first section describes the planning phase of the project, the Summer Institute for Hawaiian Culture Studies (1976) and the follow-up workshops and consultant help (1976-77). The appendix to…

  5. Convergent evolution of morphology and habitat use in the explosive Hawaiian fancy case caterpillar radiation.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, A Y; Rubinoff, D

    2013-08-01

    Species occurring in unconnected, but similar habitats and under similar selection pressures often display strikingly comparable morphology, behaviour and life history. On island archipelagos where colonizations and extinctions are common, it is often difficult to separate whether similar traits are a result of in situ diversification or independent colonization without a phylogeny. Here, we use one of Hawaii's most ecologically diverse and explosive endemic species radiations, the Hawaiian fancy case caterpillar genus Hyposmocoma, to test whether in situ diversification resulted in convergence. Specifically, we examine whether similar species utilizing similar microhabitats independently developed largely congruent larval case phenotypes in lineages that are in comparable, but isolated environments. Larvae of these moths are found on all Hawaiian Islands and are characterized by an extraordinary array of ecomorphs and larval case morphology. We focus on the 'purse cases', a group that is largely specialized for living within rotting wood. Purse cases were considered a monophyletic group, because morphological, behavioural and ecological traits appeared to be shared among all members. We constructed a phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from 38 Hyposmocoma species, including all 14 purse case species and 24 of non-purse case congeners. Divergence time estimation suggests that purse case lineages evolved independently within dead wood and developed nearly identical case morphology twice: once on the distant Northwest Hawaiian Islands between 15.5 and 9 Ma and once on the younger main Hawaiian Islands around 3.0 Ma. Multiple ecomorphs are usually found on each island, and the ancestral ecomorph of Hyposmocoma appears to have lived on tree bark. Unlike most endemic Hawaiian radiations that follow a clear stepwise progression of colonization, purse case Hyposmocoma do not follow a pattern of colonization from older to younger island. We

  6. Convergent evolution of morphology and habitat use in the explosive Hawaiian fancy case caterpillar radiation.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, A Y; Rubinoff, D

    2013-08-01

    Species occurring in unconnected, but similar habitats and under similar selection pressures often display strikingly comparable morphology, behaviour and life history. On island archipelagos where colonizations and extinctions are common, it is often difficult to separate whether similar traits are a result of in situ diversification or independent colonization without a phylogeny. Here, we use one of Hawaii's most ecologically diverse and explosive endemic species radiations, the Hawaiian fancy case caterpillar genus Hyposmocoma, to test whether in situ diversification resulted in convergence. Specifically, we examine whether similar species utilizing similar microhabitats independently developed largely congruent larval case phenotypes in lineages that are in comparable, but isolated environments. Larvae of these moths are found on all Hawaiian Islands and are characterized by an extraordinary array of ecomorphs and larval case morphology. We focus on the 'purse cases', a group that is largely specialized for living within rotting wood. Purse cases were considered a monophyletic group, because morphological, behavioural and ecological traits appeared to be shared among all members. We constructed a phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from 38 Hyposmocoma species, including all 14 purse case species and 24 of non-purse case congeners. Divergence time estimation suggests that purse case lineages evolved independently within dead wood and developed nearly identical case morphology twice: once on the distant Northwest Hawaiian Islands between 15.5 and 9 Ma and once on the younger main Hawaiian Islands around 3.0 Ma. Multiple ecomorphs are usually found on each island, and the ancestral ecomorph of Hyposmocoma appears to have lived on tree bark. Unlike most endemic Hawaiian radiations that follow a clear stepwise progression of colonization, purse case Hyposmocoma do not follow a pattern of colonization from older to younger island. We

  7. Volcano monitoring at the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1986-01-01

    The island of Hawaii has one of the youngest landscapes on Earth, formed by the frequent addition of new lava to its surface. Because Hawaiian eruptions are generally nonexplosive and easily accessible, the island has long attracted geologists interested in studying the extraordinary power of volcanic eruption. The U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), now nearing its 75th anniversary, has been in the forefront of volcanology since the early 1900s. This issue of Earthquakes and Volcanoes is devoted to the work of the Observatory and its role in studying the most recent eruptions of Hawaii's two currently active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa.

  8. Geophysics with Hawaiian Anti-neutrino Observatory (Hanohano)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maricic, J.; Hanohano Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The design studies are under way for the deep ocean anti-neutrino observatory located in the vicinity of the Big Island (Hawaii) with the main goal of measuring geo-neutrino flux from the mantle and core which can exclusively be done in a location far from the continental plates such is Hawaiian Islands chain. Hanohano will also accomplish the definitive measurement of the electron anti-neutrino signal from the core to observe or eliminate a hypothetical natural reactor in the Earth's core.

  9. A PCR test for avian malaria in Hawaiian birds.

    PubMed

    Feldman, R A; Freed, L A; Cann, R L

    1995-12-01

    The decline of native Hawaiian forest birds since European contact is attributed to factors ranging from habitat destruction to interactions with introduced species. Remaining populations of Hawaiian honeycreepers (Fringillidae: Drepanidinae) are most abundant and diverse in high elevation refuges above the normal range of disease-carrying mosquitoes. Challenge experiments suggest that honeycreepers are highly susceptible to avian malaria (Plasmodium sp.) but resistance exists in some species. In order to detect low levels of malarial infection and quantify prevalence of Plasmodium in high elevation natural populations of Hawaiian birds, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnostic test was developed that identifies rRNA genes of Plasmodium in avian blood samples. Quantitative competitive PCR (QC-PCR) experiments indicate that the detection limit of our test is an order of magnitude greater than that reported for human malaria DNA blot tests. Compared with standard histological methods, the PCR test detected a higher prevalence of diseased birds at mid-elevations. Malaria was detected in three species of native birds living in a high elevation wildlife refuge on the island of Hawaii and in four species from Maui. Our results show that avian malaria is more widespread in Hawaiian forests than previously thought, a finding that has important conservation implications for these threatened species.

  10. Genetic diversity and relationships in native Hawaiian Saccharum officinarum sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Schenck, S; Crepeau, M W; Wu, K K; Moore, P H; Yu, Q; Ming, R

    2004-01-01

    Commercial sugarcane hybrid cultivars currently in production are high-yielding, disease-resistant, millable canes and are the result of years of breeding work. In Hawaii, these commercial hybrids are quite distinct from many Saccharum officinarum canes still in existence that were brought to the islands and cultivated by the native Polynesians. The actual genetic relationships among the native canes and the extent to which they contributed to the commercial hybrid germplasm has been the subject of speculation over the years. Genetic analysis of 43 presumed native Hawaiian S. officinarum clones using 228 DNA markers confirmed them to be a group distinct from the modern hybrid cultivars. The resulting dendrogram tended to confirm that there were several separate S. officinarum introductions that, owing to selections of somatic mutations, diverged into a number of cluster groups. When the "Sandwich Isles" were discovered by Captain James Cook in 1778, the Hawaiians were found to be growing sugarcane, S. officinarum ( Cook 1785). Sugarcane (ko, in the Hawaiian language) appeared in a variety of stalk and leaf colors, often with stripes (the "ribbon canes"). In the interest of preserving this historic germplasm, a collection was assembled in the 1920s by Edward L. Caum of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association and W. W. G. Moir of American Factors. Histories and descriptions of the canes were reported by Moir (1932). PMID:15247312

  11. Evolutionary relationships, interisland biogeography, and molecular evolution in the Hawaiian violets (Viola: Violaceae).

    PubMed

    Havran, J Christopher; Sytsma, Kenneth J; Ballard, Harvey E

    2009-11-01

    The endemic Hawaiian flora offers remarkable opportunities to study the patterns of plant morphological and molecular evolution. The Hawaiian violets are a monophyletic lineage of nine taxa distributed across six main islands of the Hawaiian archipelago. To describe the evolutionary relationships, biogeography, and molecular evolution rates of the Hawaiian violets, we conducted a phylogenetic study using nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequences from specimens of each species. Parsimony, maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian inference reconstructions of island colonization and radiation strongly suggest that the Hawaiian violets first colonized the Maui Nui Complex, quickly radiated to Kaua'i and O'ahu, and recently dispersed to Hawai'i. The lineage consists of "wet" and "dry" clades restricted to distinct precipitation regimes. The ML and Bayesian inference reconstructions of shifts in habitat, habit, and leaf shape indicate that ecologically analogous taxa have undergone parallel evolution in leaf morphology and habit. This parallel evolution correlates with shifts to specialized habitats. Relative rate tests showed that woody and herbaceous sister species possess equal molecular evolution rates. The incongruity of molecular evolution rates in taxa on younger islands suggests that these rates may not be determined by growth form (or lifespan) alone, but may be influenced by complex dispersal events.

  12. 1-/sup 14/C-n-hexadecane disposition in the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus and the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Little, P.J.; James, M.O.; Foureman, G.L.; Weatherby, R.P.; Bend, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    1-/sup 14/C-n-hexadecane, a model compound for the non-volatile aliphatic hydrocarbon components of crude oil, was administered by intrapericardial injection to the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, and the clawed or American lobster, Homarus americanus. Experiments were conducted in Florida (spiny lobster) and Maine (American lobster). The animals were sacrificed at various times from 0.5 hr to 8 wks after administration of the dose. The tissues and fluids were analyzed for /sup 14/C content by digestion or catalytic oxidation and liquid scintillation counting. Selected tissues (hepatopancreas, tail muscle and hemolymph) were extracted with ethyl acetate to allow quantitation of the unmetabolized n-hexadecane by thin layer chromatography. n-Hexadecane-derived radioactivity was very persistent in both the spiny lobster (t1/2 = 4.6 wk) and the American lobster (t1/2 = 11.2 wk). In both lobsters, the hepatopancreas (HP) acquired the highest specific activity and the tail muscle had the longest half life for elimination from an individual tissue. Although hexadecane was metabolized more rapidly in the HP of the spiny lobster than in the HP of the American lobster, unmetabolized hexadecane persisted in the HPs of both species for at least 8 weeks after the dose (the longest time studied).

  13. Genetic Consequences of Pleistocene Sea-Level Change on Hawaiian Megalagrion Damselflies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brandon R; Jordan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands have long been an important laboratory for evolutionary research because their geological histories offer many natural experiments. For example, the Maui Nui complex, 4 islands that have been repeatedly connected and separated by fluctuating sea levels, lie near Hawaii Island, which has never been connected to another island. Here, we examine the genetic consequences of fluctuating island areas and connectivity using microsatellite analysis of 2 widespread, endemic Hawaiian damselflies. We screened 152 Megalagrion xanthomelas individuals from 5 islands at 14 loci and 34 Megalagrion pacificum from 3 islands at 11 loci to explore dispersal patterns and genetic diversity. Our data suggest that Pleistocene fluctuations in sea level alternated between creating land bridges that facilitated gene flow between once and future islands, and ocean channels that inhibited dispersal. Furthermore, interglacial periods of high sea stands likely reduced suitable habitat availability, causing the loss of genetic diversity on Maui Nui due to bottlenecks and founder events. Finally, we propose that gene flow from Molokai to Lanai may be enhanced by assisted dispersal from the trade winds that are channeled between volcanoes on western Maui and eastern Molokai. Our results emphasize the importance of variable microevolutionary processes in Hawaiian biogeography. PMID:26093025

  14. Galatheid squat lobster species from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-11-01

    Five galatheid squat lobster species belonging to four genera of two galatheid families are reported for the first time from Chinese waters, namely Lauriea simulata Macpherson and Robainas-Barcia, 2013, Phylladiorhynchus ikedai (Miyake and Baba, 1965), Phylladiorhynchus integrirostris (Dana, 1852), Babamunida sp., and Raymunida elegantissima (de Man, 1902). The genera Lauriea Baba, 1971 and Babamunida Cabezas, Macpherson, and Machordom, 2008 have not previously been recorded from Chinese waters.

  15. Lobster-Eye X-Ray Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2010-07-15

    We report on technical and astrophysical aspects of Lobster-Eye wide-field X-ray telescopes expected to monitor the sky with high sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They will contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.

  16. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  17. Early growth of Kohala volcano and formation of long Hawaiian rift zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Transitional-composition pillow basalts from the toe of the Hilo Ridge, collected from outcrop by submersible, have yielded the oldest ages known from the Island of Hawaii: 1138 ?? 34 to 1159 ?? 33 ka. Hilo Ridge has long been interpreted as a submarine rift zone of Mauna Kea, but the new ages validate proposals that it is the distal east rift zone of Kohala, the oldest subaerial volcano on the island. These ages constrain the inception of tholeiitic volcanism at Kohala, provide the first measured duration of tholeiitic shield building (???870 k.y.) for any Hawaiian volcano, and show that this 125-km-long rift zone developed to near-total length during early growth of Kohala. Long eastern-trending rift zones of Hawaiian volcanoes may follow fractures in oceanic crust activated by arching of the Hawaiian Swell in front of the propagating hotspot. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  18. Native Hawaiian Views on Biobanking

    PubMed Central

    Tauali‘i, Maile; Davis, Elise Leimomi; Braun, Kathryn L.; Tsark, JoAnn Umilani; Brown, Ngiare; Hudson, Maui; Burke, Wylie

    2014-01-01

    Genomic science represents a new frontier for health research and will provide important tools for personalizing health care. Biospecimen-based research is an important mechanism for expanding the genomic research capacity, and indigenous peoples are a target of biospecimen-based research due to their relative isolation and the potential to discover rare or unique genotypes. This study explored Native Hawaiian perceptions of and expectations for biobanking. Ten discussion groups were conducted with Native Hawaiians (N=92), who first heard a presentation on biobanking. Six themes emerged: 1) biobank governance by the Native Hawaiian community, 2) research transparency, 3) priority of Native Hawaiian health concerns, 4) leadership by Native Hawaiian scientists accountable to community, 5) re-consenting each time specimen is used, and 6) education of Native Hawaiian communities. Considered together, these findings suggest that biobanking should be guided by six principles that comprise “G.R.E.A.T. Research:” (Governance, Re-consent, Education, Accountability, Transparency, Research priorities). These recommendations are being shared with biobanking facilities in Hawai‘i as they develop protocols for biobanking participation, governance, and education. These findings also inform researchers and indigenous peoples throughout the world who are working on biobanking and genomic research initiatives in their nations. PMID:24683042

  19. Restoration of Native Hawaiian Dryland Forest at Auwahi, Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medieros, Arthur C.; vonAllmen, Erica

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The powerful volcanoes that formed the high islands of the Hawaiian archipelago block northeasterly tradewinds, creating wet, windward rain forests and much drier, leeward forests. Dryland forests in Hawai'i receive only about 20 inches of rain a year. However, the trees in these forests intercept fog and increase ground moisture levels, thereby enabling these seemingly inhospitable habitats to support a diverse assemblage of plants and animals. Dryland forests of the Hawaiian Islands, like those worldwide, have been heavily impacted by humans both directly and indirectly. Less than 10% of Hawai'i's original dryland forest habitat remains. These forests have been severely impacted by urban development, ranching and agriculture, and invasive species. In particular, browsing animals and alien grasses have caused significant damage. Feral ungulates, including goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs, consume sensitive plants. Alien grasses have become dominant in the understory in many dryland habitats. In addition, these introduced grasses are fire-adapted and have increased the incidence of wildfire in these ecosystems. Native Hawaiian plants did not evolve with frequent fires or mammalian herbivores and typically do not survive well under these pressures.

  20. Ancient origin for Hawaiian Drosophilinae inferred from protein comparisons.

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, S M; Wilson, A C

    1985-01-01

    Immunological comparisons of a larval hemolymph protein enabled us to build a tree relating major groups of drosophiline flies in Hawaii to one another and to continental flies. The tree agrees in topology with that based on internal anatomy. Relative rate tests suggest that evolution of hemolymph proteins has been about as fast in Hawaii as on continents. Since the absolute rate of evolution of hemolymph proteins in continental flies is known, one can erect an approximate time scale for Hawaiian fly evolution. According to this scale, the Hawaiian fly fauna stems from a colonist that landed on the archipelago about 42 million years ago-i.e., before any of the present islands harboring drosophilines formed. This date fits with the geological history of the archipelago, which has witnessed the sequential rise and erosion of many islands during the past 70 million years. We discuss the bearing of the molecular time scale on views about rates of organismal evolution in the Hawaiian flies. PMID:3860822

  1. 15. 'PLAN AND PROFILE OF THE ANNISQUAM BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. 'PLAN AND PROFILE OF THE ANNISQUAM BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER COVE ... JUNE 5, 1899.' Winslow Webber, City Engineer. Photocopied from the original plan in the office of the City Engineer, Gloucester, Massachusetts. - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  2. 16. 'BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER COVE, ANNISQUAM, MASS.) SEPT. 15, 1908 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 'BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER COVE, ANNISQUAM, MASS.) SEPT. 15, 1908 ... SCHEDULE FOR REPAIRS.' Plan) elevation, and typical section. Photocopied from the original drawing in the office of the City Engineer, Gloucester, Massachusetts. - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  3. Fishing for lobsters indirectly increases epidemics in sea urchins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2004-01-01

    Two ecological paradigms, the trophic cascade and the host-density threshold in disease, interact in the kelp-forest ecosystem to structure the community. To investigate what happens when a trophic cascade pushes a host population over a host-threshold density, I analyzed a 20-year data set of kelp forest communities at 16 sites in the region of the Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. Historically, lobsters, and perhaps other predators, kept urchin populations at low levels and kelp forests developed a community-level trophic cascade. In geographic areas where the main predators on urchins were fished, urchin populations increased to the extent that they overgrazed algae and starvation eventually limited urchin-population growth. Despite the limitation of urchin population size by food availability, urchin densities, at times, well exceeded the host-density threshold for epidemics. An urchin-specific bacterial disease entered the region after 1992 and acted as a density-dependent mortality source. Dense populations were more likely to experience epidemics and suffer higher mortality. Disease did not reduce the urchin population at a site to the density that predators previously did. Therefore, disease did not fully replace predators in the trophic cascade. These results indicate how fishing top predators can indirectly favor disease transmission in prey populations.

  4. Rejuvenation of the lithosphere by the Hawaiian plume.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueqing; Kind, Rainer; Yuan, Xiaohui; Wölbern, Ingo; Hanka, Winfried

    2004-02-26

    The volcanism responsible for creating the chain of the Hawaiian islands and seamounts is believed to mark the passage of the oceanic lithosphere over a mantle plume. In this picture hot material rises from great depth within a fixed narrow conduit to the surface, penetrating the moving lithosphere. Although a number of models describe possible plume-lithosphere interactions, seismic imaging techniques have not had sufficient resolution to distinguish between them. Here we apply the S-wave 'receiver function' technique to data of three permanent seismic broadband stations on the Hawaiian islands, to map the thickness of the underlying lithosphere. We find that under Big Island the lithosphere is 100-110 km thick, as expected for an oceanic plate 90-100 million years old that is not modified by a plume. But the lithosphere thins gradually along the island chain to about 50-60 km below Kauai. The width of the thinning is about 300 km. In this zone, well within the larger-scale topographic swell, we infer that the rejuvenation model (where the plume thins the lithosphere) is operative; however, the larger-scale topographic swell is probably supported dynamically.

  5. Hawaiian Studies Curriculum Guide. Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This curriculum guide suggests activities and educational experiences within a Hawaiian cultural context for Grade 3 students in Hawaiian schools. First, an introduction discusses the contents of the guide; the relationship of classroom teacher and the kupuna (Hawaiian-speaking elder); the identification and scheduling of Kupunas; and how to use…

  6. Hawaiian Studies Curriculum Guide. Grades K-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This curriculum guide suggests activities and educational experiences within a Hawaiian cultural context for kindergarten and Grade 1 students in Hawaiian schools. First, an introduction discusses the contents of the guide, the relationship of the classroom teacher and the kupuna (Hawaiian-speaking elder); the identification and scheduling of…

  7. Evolution and biogeography of the woody Hawaiian violets (Viola, Violaceae): arctic origins, herbaceous ancestry and bird dispersal.

    PubMed

    Ballard, H E; Sytsma, K J

    2000-10-01

    Specialists studying the genus Viola have consistently allied the Hawaiian violets comprising section Nosphinium--most of which are subshrubs or treelets--with putatively primitive subshrubs in certain South American violet groups. Hawaiian violets also possess inflorescences, a floral disposition otherwise found only in other genera of the Violaceae, thus strengthening the hypothesis of a very ancient origin for the Hawaiian species. A survey of phylogenetic relationships among infrageneric groups of Viola worldwide using nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a dramatically different biogeographic origin for the Hawaiian violets: A monophyletic Hawaiian clade was placed in a close sister relationship with the amphi-Beringian tundra violet, V. langsdorffii s. 1., in a highly derived position. This remarkable and unforeseen relationship received strong clade support values across analyses, and monophyly of the Hawaiian lineage was further indicated by a unique 26-base-pair deletion in section Nosphinium. The high polyploid base chromosome number (n approximately equal to 40) in the Hawaiian violets relates them to Alaskan and eastern Siberian populations in the polyploid V. langsdorffii complex. More than 50 species of the 260 allochthonous birds wintering in the Hawaiian Islands are found to breed in the Arctic, occupying habitats in which individual birds might have encountered ancestral V. langsdorffii populations and served as dispersers to the central Pacific region. Acquisition of derived morphological traits (e.g., arborescence and inflorescences), significance of a confirmed Arctic origin for a component of the Hawaiian flora, and the likelihood of other "cryptic" Arctic elements in the Hawaiian flora deserving independent molecular phylogenetic corroboration are discussed.

  8. Origin and diversification of the endemic Hawaiian tree snails (Achatinellidae: Achatinellinae) based on molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Holland, Brenden S; Hadfield, Michael G

    2004-08-01

    Tree snails of the endemic subfamily Achatinellinae comprise a diverse and important component of the Hawaiian fauna. In recent decades anthropogenic impacts have resulted in devastating extinction rates in Hawaiian tree snails. To address long-standing biogeographic, systematic, and evolutionary questions we used cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences to reconstruct the phylogeny of 23 extant species spanning the range of the subfamily from five Hawaiian Islands. To investigate family-level relationships, data were analyzed from 11 terrestrial pulmonate families. Although nodal support for monophyly of the endemic Pacific family Achatinellidae and endemic Hawaiian subfamily Achatinellinae was strong, bifurcation order among deeper ingroup nodes was not well-supported by bootstrap resampling. We hypothesize that lineage extinction and rapidity of lineage formation may have rendered evolutionary reconstruction difficult using a standard phylogenetic approach. Use of an optimized evolutionary model, however, improved resolution and recovered three main clades. The diversification pattern inferred contradicts the traditional biogeographic hypothesis of a Maui origin of the achatinelline lineage. Taxa comprising the basal ingroup clade (Achatinella spp.) and seeding lineages for subsequent clades originated on O'ahu. Therefore it appears that the ancestral colonizing species of achatinellines arrived first on O'ahu from an unknown source, and that O'ahu is the Hawaiian origin of the subfamily. Species previously defined by morphological criteria were generally found to be phylogenetically distinct, and the overall colonization pattern follows the island-age progression rule with several instances of generic polyphyly and back-colonization.

  9. THE VITAMIN A OF THE LOBSTER

    PubMed Central

    Wald, George; Burg, Stanley P.

    1957-01-01

    In many crustacea, including the lobster, the bulk of the vitamin A of the whole animal is concentrated in the eyes. Recently Fisher, Kon, and Thompson found that vitamin A extracted from the eyes of euphausiid crustacea has only about one half the biological potency of the same amount of the all-trans acetate or fish liver vitamin A. In the present experiments the vitamin A of the lobster eye is found to consist almost entirely of the hindered cis isomer, neo-b, the precursor in the vertebrate retina of the visual pigments rhodopsin and iodopsin. This isomer is known to have a low biological potency in the rat, only about one quarter that of all-trans vitamin A. In the lobster eye it is virtually all extractable with petroleum ether, about 30 per cent in the form of free alcohol, about 70 per cent in the form of esters. It was identified by its absorption spectrum, as derived from measurements on crude extracts, and measured directly in purified preparations; the changes in absorption which accompany isomerization; oxidation to the corresponding retinene; and synthesis from the latter of rhodopsin. The examination of an extract of euphausiid eyes, provided by Dr. Kon, also revealed the presence of neo-b vitamin A virtually alone. This may be the characteristic condition in the eyes of Eucarid crustacea. It is peculiar in that the neo-b isomer, being a sterically hindered form, is ordinarily expected to be represented in any equilibrium mixture of geometric isomers in very small amount. Apparently certain crustacea have ways of circumventing the difficulties implicit in producing and retaining this isomer, and store it in the eye virtually alone. PMID:13416534

  10. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine.

    The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington

  11. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  12. Diversity of zoanthids (anthozoa: hexacorallia) on Hawaiian seamounts: description of the Hawaiian gold coral and additional zoanthids.

    PubMed

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V; Baco, Amy R

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals. PMID:23326345

  13. Diversity of zoanthids (anthozoa: hexacorallia) on Hawaiian seamounts: description of the Hawaiian gold coral and additional zoanthids.

    PubMed

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V; Baco, Amy R

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals.

  14. Diversity of Zoanthids (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) on Hawaiian Seamounts: Description of the Hawaiian Gold Coral and Additional Zoanthids

    PubMed Central

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V.; Baco, Amy R.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals. PMID:23326345

  15. Behavioral Immunity Suppresses an Epizootic in Caribbean Spiny Lobsters

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Mark J.; Behringer, Donald C.; Dolan, Thomas W.; Moss, Jessica; Shields, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of “behavioral immunity”; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics) practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA) resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system. PMID:26061629

  16. Behavioral Immunity Suppresses an Epizootic in Caribbean Spiny Lobsters.

    PubMed

    Butler, Mark J; Behringer, Donald C; Dolan, Thomas W; Moss, Jessica; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of "behavioral immunity"; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics) practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA) resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system. PMID:26061629

  17. Diseases of American lobsters (Homarus americanus): a review.

    PubMed

    Cawthorn, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    The American lobster fishery is a significant economic driver in coastal communities of North America. Increasingly, the impacts of infectious disease are recognized as important components and factors in the population ecology and subsequent management of the lobster fishery. Both environmental and anthropogenic factors impact marine diseases. The review herein highlights aspects of several important bacterial, fungal and protistan diseases, including gaffkemia, shell disease, vibriosis, disease caused by species of Lagenidium, Haliphthoros and Fusarium, paramoebiasis and Bumper Car disease. As the global environment continues to change, these diseases could more severely affect both wild caught and impounded lobsters. PMID:21215356

  18. Diversity of Thermophilic Microorganisms within Hawaiian Fumaroles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, C. A.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, C.

    2007-12-01

    Fumaroles provide heat and moisture characteristic of an environment suitable for thermophilic microorganisms. On the Island of Hawaii, fumaroles are scattered across the southeastern portion of the island as a result of the volcanic activity from Kilauea Crater and Pu'u' O'o vent. We used metagenomics to detect 16S rDNA from archaeal and bacterial thermophilic microorganisms indicating their presence in Hawaiian fumaroles. The fumaroles sampled exist along elevation and precipitation gradients; varying from sea level to 4,012ft and annual rainfall from less than 20in to greater than 80in. To determine the effects of environmental gradients (including temperature, pH, elevation, and precipitation) on microbial diversity within and among fumaroles, we obtained 22 samples from 7 fumaroles over a three-day period in February of 2007. Temperature variations within individual fumaroles vary from 2.3oC to 35oC and the pH variances that range from 0.4 to 2.0. Temperatures of the different fumaroles range from 29.9oC to greater than 105oC, with pH values that vary from 2.55 to 6.93. Further data on the microbial diversity within fumaroles and among fumaroles will be determined once the sequencing of the microbial 16S rDNA regions is completed. We are currently assembling and sequencing clone libraries of bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA fragments from fumaroles.

  19. Extremophilic Eukaryote Life in Hawaiian Fumaroles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, C.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, C.

    2008-12-01

    Extremophilic microorganisms exist in all three domains of life (Eukarya, Archaea, Bacteria), but are less known in eukaryotes. Fumaroles provide heat and moisture characteristic of an environment suitable for these organisms. On the Island of Hawaii, fumaroles are scattered across the southeastern portion of the island as a result of the volcanic activity from Kilauea Crater and Pu'u' O'o vent with all forming within geochemically similar basalt substrates. We used metagenomics to detect 18S rDNA from eukaryotic extremophilic microorganisms indicating their presence in Hawaiian fumaroles. To determine the effects of environmental gradients (temperature and pH) on microbial diversity within and among fumaroles, 11 samples from 3 fumaroles were collected over a three-day period in February of 2007. Temperatures of the different fumaroles range from 31.0oC to 62.7oC, with pH values that vary from 2.55 to 6.93 allowing for 8 different microenvironments. Fifty sequences per sample were analyzed with eighteen different organisms identified, the majority belonging to the family Cercozoa. The most diverse fumarole consisted of 8 different genera residing in a temperature of 34.1oC and a pH of 3.0. Unclassified mosses were identified in the fumarole with the highest temperature and Phaeoceros (hornworts) were identified at the most acidic fumarole. Both of these groups have been previously identified in geothermal areas.

  20. Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.; ,

    2000-01-01

    Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

  1. Nutritional quality of the edible tissues of European lobster Homarus gammarus and American lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Barrento, Sara; Marques, António; Teixeira, Bárbara; Vaz-Pires, Paulo; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2009-05-13

    The clawed lobsters Homarus gammarus and Homarus americanus are high-priced and appreciated food items in southern Europe. From a nutritional point of view there is still limited information on the chemical composition of edible tissues (muscle, hepatopancreas, and gonads) of both species. Therefore, the aims of the present work were to study the proximate chemical composition, energy, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and cholesterol content in each edible tissue of both species and to evaluate their nutritional quality. Differences were observed between tissues, sexes, and species. Muscle and gonads were rich in protein, whereas hepatopancreas had high fat, cholesterol, and energy contents. All edible tissues were valuable sources of essential amino acids. Contrary to the common belief that shellfish consumption should be reduced in a low-fat and -cholesterol diet, all edible tissues of clawed lobsters have a nutritious value perfectly compatible with nutritious and healthy diets. PMID:19334784

  2. Infectious disease monitoring of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A Alonso; Keefe, Thomas J; Reif, John S; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Yochem, Pamela K; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Stott, Jeffrey L; Goldstein, Tracey; Dubey, J P; Braun, Robert; Antonelis, George

    2007-04-01

    As part of conservation efforts between 1997 and 2001, more than 25% (332 animals) of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) population was sampled in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to viruses, bacteria, and parasites known to cause morbidity and mortality in other marine mammal species. Antibodies were found to phocine herpesvirus-1 by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but seropositive results were not confirmed by virus neutralization test. Antibodies to Leptospira bratislava, L. hardjo, L. icterohaemorrhagiae, and L. pomona were detected in seals from several sites with the microagglutination test. Antibodies to Brucella spp. were detected using 10 conventional serologic tests, but because of inconsistencies in test results and laboratories used, and the lack of validation by culture, the Brucella serology should be interpreted with caution. Antibodies to B. canis were not detected by card test. Chlamydophila abortus antibodies were detected by complement fixation (CF) test, and prevalence increased significantly as a function of age; the low sensitivity and specificity associated with the CF make interpretation of results difficult. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Dirofilaria immitis were rarely found. There was no serologic evidence of exposure to four morbilliviruses, influenza A virus, canine adenovirus, caliciviruses, or other selected viruses. Continuous surveillance provides a means to detect the introduction or emergence of these or other infectious diseases, but it is dependent on the development or improvement of diagnostic tools. Continued and improved surveillance are both needed as part of future conservation efforts of Hawaiian monk seals. PMID:17495307

  3. Multiple Reversals of Bill Length over 1.7 Million Years in a Hawaiian Bird Lineage.

    PubMed

    Freed, Leonard A; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Cann, Rebecca L

    2016-03-01

    Evolutionary change has been documented over geological time, but reversals in morphology, from an ancestral state to a derived state and back again, tend to be rare. Multiple reversals along the same lineage are even rarer. We use the chronology of the Hawaiian Islands and an avian example, the Hawaiian honeycreeper 'amakihi (Hemignathus spp.) lineage, which originated on the oldest main island of Kaua'i 1.7 million years ago, to examine the process of sequential reversals in bill length. We document three single and two multiple reversals of bill length on six main islands from oldest to youngest, consistent with the phylogeny of the lineage. Longer bills occur on islands with endemic species, including phylogenetically relevant outgroups, that may compete with or dominate the 'amakihi. On islands without those species, the 'amakihi had shorter bills of similar length. Both types of reversals in morphology in this lineage integrate microevolutionary processes with macroevolution in the adaptive radiation of Hawaiian honeycreepers. PMID:26913948

  4. Petrology and Geochronology of Kaula Volcano lavas: An off-axis window into the Hawaiian Mantle Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D.; Jicha, B. R.; Tree, J. P.; Bizimis, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands extend NW for 625 km from Lō'ihi to Ka'ula island. One anomalous feature cross-cutting the Hawaiian Islands is the Kaua'i Ridge, a 165 km-long bathymetric high with three well-defined gravity highs. These gravity highs are centered under or near the islands of Ka'ula, Ni'ihau and Kaua'i, and represent the cores of three shield volcanoes whose volumes decrease dramatically with distance from the axis of the Hawaiian Chain (Kaua'i, 58 x 103 km3, Ni'ihau x 103 km, Ka'ula 10 x 103 km; Robinson and Eakins 2006). Ka'ula Volcano, on the SW end of the Kaua'i Ridge, is centered 100 km off the axis of the Hawaiian mantle plume. The volcano is capped by a small island, which is a remnant of a nephelinitic tuff cone. The cone contains abundant accidental bombs of lava (tholeiite, phonolite and basanite), peridotite and pyroxenite, and unexploded ordnance from US military bombing. Two JASON dives on the flanks of Ka'ula recovered only alkalic lavas. Three stage of Ka'ula volcanism have been identified from sampling the volcanic bombs and flanks of the volcano. These rocks were dated using 40Ar/39Ar methods for the basalts and K-Ar for the phonolites. A tholeiitic shield basalt yielded an age of 6.2 Ma, the oldest reliable age for any Hawaiian Island tholeiite. Post-shield phonolites gave ages of 4.0 to 4.2 Ma (Garcia et al., 1986) and rejuvenation stage alkalic basalts yielded ages of 1.9 to 0.5 Ma. These ages are nearly identical to those for the same stages for adjacent Ni'ihau volcano but slightly older than on Kauai, 100 km to the NE (Sherrod et al. 2007). Thus, volcanism was nearly simultaneous along Kaua'i Ridge. The new age results extend to 420 km the distance within the Hawaiian Islands that experienced coeval rejuvenated volcanism. Geochemically, the rejuvenated and tholeiitic lavas from the Kaua'i Ridge are very similar with mixed source signatures of Loa and Kea trend compositions. Mixed Loa-Kea sources have been found for many other Hawaiian

  5. Hawaii Forest Bird Interagency Database Project: Collecting, Understanding, and Sharing Population Data on Hawaiian Forest Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Thane K.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2006-01-01

    The forest birds of the Hawaiian Islands are distinguished by the diversity of endemic forms derived from a small number of ancestral colonists. However, the avifauna has been decimated by human activities both before and after Western contact. At least 71 species or subspecies disappeared before the arrival of Capt. James Cook in 1778, and an additional 24 went extinct after 1778, of which 11 were lost since the 1960s alone. Many of the remaining Hawaiian bird populations are declining or are in danger of extinction. Vigorous efforts to survey and monitor bird populations over the past 3 decades have generated considerable information from which to assess the current status of the Hawaiian forest birds.

  6. Surviving Paradise: A Hawaiian Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    An Ohio University program that introduces botany students to field work sent a team to study Hawaiian species of violets and algae, endangered by invasive, imported plants. The situation of the native species relates to larger scientific and ecological issues because algae is the basis of the aquatic food chain, and violets adapt in unique ways…

  7. Atlas of natural hazards in the Hawaiian coastal zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Charles H.; Grossman, Eric E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to communicate to citizens and regulatory authorities the history and relative intensity of coastal hazards in Hawaii. This information is the key to the wise use and management of coastal resources. The information contained in this document,we hope,will improve the ability of Hawaiian citizens and visitors to safely enjoy the coast and provide a strong data set for planners and managers to guide the future of coastal resources. This work is largely based on previous investigations by scientific and engineering researchers and county, state, and federal offices and agencies. The unique aspect of this report is that, to the extent possible, it assimilates prior efforts in documenting Hawaiian coastal hazards and combines existing knowledge into a single comprehensive coastal hazard data set. This is by no means the final word on coastal hazards in Hawaii. Every hazardous phenomenon described here, and others such as slope failure and rocky shoreline collapse, need to be more carefully quantified, forecast, and mitigated. Our ultimate goal, of course, is to make the Hawaiian coast a safer place by educating the people of the state, and their leaders, about the hazardous nature of the environment. In so doing, we will also be taking steps toward improved preservation of coastal environments, because the best way to avoid coastal hazards is to avoid inappropriate development in the coastal zone. We have chosen maps as the medium for both recording and communicating the hazard history and its intensity along the Hawaiian coast.Two types of maps are used: 1) smallscale maps showing a general history of hazards on each island and summarizing coastal hazards in a readily understandable format for general use, and 2) a large-scale series of technical maps (1:50,000) depicting coastal sections approximately 5 to 7 miles in length with color bands along the coast ranking the relative intensity of each hazard at the adjacent shoreline.

  8. Mating asymmetry and the direction of evolution in the Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala.

    PubMed

    Shaw, K L; Lugo, E

    2001-03-01

    Based on studies from native Hawaiian Drosophila, a model was proposed to explain sexual isolation and mating asymmetry, from which one could potentially infer the 'direction of evolution'. We examined sexual isolation between allopatric cricket species of the genus Laupala, another endemic Hawaiian insect with an elaborate mating system, to begin to explore the nature of sexual isolation and mating asymmetry in closely related Hawaiian organisms. We studied sexual isolation and mating asymmetry in two contrasts. First, an inter-island comparison, including L. makaio from the older island of Maui and L. paranigra from the younger island of Hawaii, and second, an intra-island (Hawaii) comparison, including L. nigra from the older volcano of Mauna Kea and L. paranigra with a primary distribution on the younger volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea. We used a 'no-choice' experimental design, pairing individual males and females in homospecific or heterospecific combinations. Several behavioural aspects of courtship (proportion of male singing, latency to male singing, production of spermatophores and courtship initiation speed) were quantified as well as the success or failure of matings. We demonstrate asymmetry in sexual isolation between reciprocal combinations of L. makaio and L. paranigra. This result is examined in light of the differences in courtship behaviour manifest in the experiments with these two species. We did not find evidence of asymmetry in sexual isolation between L. nigra and L. paranigra, although differences in courtship initiation speed were evident between reciprocal combinations of these two species. In addition to the geological argument that species on older islands and older volcanoes give rise to species on younger islands and younger volcanoes, we discuss phylogenetic evidence consistent with these biogeographic hypotheses of relationships among the focal taxa. The patterns of asymmetrical sexual isolation and mating asymmetry are

  9. Mating asymmetry and the direction of evolution in the Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala.

    PubMed

    Shaw, K L; Lugo, E

    2001-03-01

    Based on studies from native Hawaiian Drosophila, a model was proposed to explain sexual isolation and mating asymmetry, from which one could potentially infer the 'direction of evolution'. We examined sexual isolation between allopatric cricket species of the genus Laupala, another endemic Hawaiian insect with an elaborate mating system, to begin to explore the nature of sexual isolation and mating asymmetry in closely related Hawaiian organisms. We studied sexual isolation and mating asymmetry in two contrasts. First, an inter-island comparison, including L. makaio from the older island of Maui and L. paranigra from the younger island of Hawaii, and second, an intra-island (Hawaii) comparison, including L. nigra from the older volcano of Mauna Kea and L. paranigra with a primary distribution on the younger volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea. We used a 'no-choice' experimental design, pairing individual males and females in homospecific or heterospecific combinations. Several behavioural aspects of courtship (proportion of male singing, latency to male singing, production of spermatophores and courtship initiation speed) were quantified as well as the success or failure of matings. We demonstrate asymmetry in sexual isolation between reciprocal combinations of L. makaio and L. paranigra. This result is examined in light of the differences in courtship behaviour manifest in the experiments with these two species. We did not find evidence of asymmetry in sexual isolation between L. nigra and L. paranigra, although differences in courtship initiation speed were evident between reciprocal combinations of these two species. In addition to the geological argument that species on older islands and older volcanoes give rise to species on younger islands and younger volcanoes, we discuss phylogenetic evidence consistent with these biogeographic hypotheses of relationships among the focal taxa. The patterns of asymmetrical sexual isolation and mating asymmetry are

  10. Effects of molting and environmental factors on trace metal body-burdens and hemocyanin concentrations in the American lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Engel, D W; Brouwer, M; Mercaldo-Allen, R

    2001-09-01

    Hemocyanin concentrations in the hemolymph of marine crustacea are dependent on the molt cycle and on environmental conditions. Studies in our laboratories have found that hemocyanin levels in blue crabs are reduced after ecdysis and under conditions of environmental stress (Engel, Brouwer, & McKenna, 1993. Hemocyanin concentrations in marine crustaceans as a function of environmental conditions. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 93, 233-244). We have extended those studies to include the American lobster, Homarus americanus. Hemolymph and digestive gland tissues from Long Island Sound lobsters were analyzed for hemocyanin, copper, and zinc during different stages of the molt cycle. Hemocyanin, copper and zinc in the hemolymph were highest in premolt stages (D1-D4), and lowest in the postecdysal papershell stages (B1-B2). Concomitantly, copper in digestive glands decreased significantly following ecdysis, but no significant changes in the metals bound to metallothionein (MT) were observed. Copper-MT was the predominant form throughout the molt cycle, presumably because lobsters were obtained from copper-contaminated areas. To examine the effects of environmental factors, intermolt lobsters were collected from locations of different environmental quality along the Atlantic coast, and were analyzed for hemocyanin and trace metals. In general, animals from areas with a history of contamination showed the highest hemocyanin concentrations.

  11. Disease effects on lobster fisheries, ecology, and culture: overview of DAO Special 6.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Stentiford, Grant D

    2012-08-27

    Lobsters are prized by commercial and recreational fishermen worldwide, and their populations are therefore buffeted by fishery practices. But lobsters also remain integral members of their benthic communities where predator-prey relationships, competitive interactions, and host-pathogen dynamics push and pull at their population dynamics. Although lobsters have few reported pathogens and parasites relative to other decapod crustaceans, the rise of diseases with consequences for lobster fisheries and aquaculture has spotlighted the importance of disease for lobster biology, population dynamics and ecology. Researchers, managers, and fishers thus increasingly recognize the need to understand lobster pathogens and parasites so they can be managed proactively and their impacts minimized where possible. At the 2011 International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management a special session on lobster diseases was convened and this special issue of Diseases of Aquatic Organisms highlights those proceedings with a suite of articles focused on diseases discussed during that session.

  12. Genomic Signatures of Speciation in Sympatric and Allopatric Hawaiian Picture-Winged Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Lin; Settlage, Robert; McMahon, Wyatt; Michalak, Katarzyna; Tae, Hongseok; Garner, Harold R.; Stacy, Elizabeth A.; Price, Donald K.; Michalak, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The Hawaiian archipelago provides a natural arena for understanding adaptive radiation and speciation. The Hawaiian Drosophila are one of the most diverse endemic groups in Hawaiì with up to 1,000 species. We sequenced and analyzed entire genomes of recently diverged species of Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila, Drosophila silvestris and Drosophila heteroneura from Hawaiì Island, in comparison with Drosophila planitibia, their sister species from Maui, a neighboring island where a common ancestor of all three had likely occurred. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism patterns suggest the more recent origin of D. silvestris and D. heteroneura, as well as a pervasive influence of positive selection on divergence of the three species, with the signatures of positive selection more prominent in sympatry than allopatry. Positively selected genes were significantly enriched for functional terms related to sensory detection and mating, suggesting that sexual selection played an important role in speciation of these species. In particular, sequence variation in Olfactory receptor and Gustatory receptor genes seems to play a major role in adaptive radiation in Hawaiian pictured-winged Drosophila. PMID:27189993

  13. Posterosional volcanism in the Cretaceous part of the Hawaiian hotspot trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Peter; Dieu, Julie; Natland, James

    1993-03-01

    Multibeam bathymetry and seismic reflection profiling shows the Cretaceous products of the Hawaiian hotspot to be a ridge of coalesced guyots that prolong the N-NW trend of the more isolated Paleocene Emperor Seamounts, a 10,000 sq km plateau (Detroit Plateau), where the trail changes strike to NW, and the Obruchev Rise hotspot ridge, which extends to the Kamchatka Trench. The northernmost guyots were submerged and tilted southeast by the load of new shield volcanoes added to the end of the chain, then secondary volcanism built small cones on their summit platforms and in a gap between two guyots. On one guyot these submarine eruptions were in the alkalic postshield stage of Hawaiian volcanism and at another were probably in the alkalic rejuvenated stage. Seamount-building eruptions at Detroit Plateau produced lavas that belong geochemically to the alkalic rejuvenated stage and are very similar to Pleistocene lavas in the Hawaiian Islands. However, these eruptions postdated passage off the hotspot plume by a much longer time than the 0.5-2.5 m.y. observed in the Hawaiian Islands and were probably initiated by different tectonic processes.

  14. Penguin Bank: A Loa-Trend Hawaiian Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Clague, D. A.; Cousens, B.; Frey, F. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes along the Hawaiian Ridge from Molokai Island in the northwest to the Big Island in the southeast, define two parallel trends of volcanoes known as the Loa and Kea spatial trends. In general, lavas erupted along these two trends have distinctive geochemical characteristics that have been used to define the spatial distribution of geochemical heterogeneities in the Hawaiian plume (e.g., Abouchami et al., 2005). These geochemical differences are well established for the volcanoes forming the Big Island. The longevity of the Loa- Kea geochemical differences can be assessed by studying East and West Molokai volcanoes and Penguin Bank which form a volcanic ridge perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trends. Previously we showed that East Molokai volcano (~1.5 Ma) is exclusively Kea-like and that West Molokai volcano (~1.8 Ma) includes lavas that are both Loa- and Kea-like (Xu et al., 2005 and 2007).The submarine Penguin Bank (~2.2 Ma), probably an independent volcano constructed west of West Molokai volcano, should be dominantly Loa-like if the systematic Loa and Kea geochemical differences were present at ~2.2 Ma. We have studied 20 samples from Penguin Bank including both submarine and subaerially-erupted lavas recovered by dive and dredging. All lavas are tholeiitic basalt representing shield-stage lavas. Trace element ratios, such as Sr/Nb and Zr/Nb, and isotopic ratios of Sr and Nd clearly are Loa-like. On an ɛNd-ɛHf plot, Penguin Bank lavas fall within the field defined by Mauna Loa lavas. Pb isotopic data lie near the Loa-Kea boundary line defined by Abouchami et al. (2005). In conclusion, we find that from NE to SW, i.e., perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trend, there is a shift from Kea-like East Molokai lavas to Loa-like Penguin Bank lavas with the intermediate West Molokai volcano having lavas with both Loa- and Kea-like geochemical features. Therefore, the Loa and Kea geochemical dichotomy exhibited by Big Island volcanoes

  15. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... lobster permits. A person or vessel holding a valid permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person to engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval...

  16. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... lobster permits. A person or vessel holding a valid permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person to engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval...

  17. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  18. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... lobster permits. A person or vessel holding a valid permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person to engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval...

  19. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  20. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... lobster permits. A person or vessel holding a valid permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person to engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval...

  1. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  2. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  3. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... lobster permits. A person or vessel holding a valid permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person to engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval...

  4. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions in... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  5. Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders.

    PubMed

    Blackledge, Todd A; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2004-11-16

    Species in ecologically similar habitats often display patterns of divergence that are strikingly comparable, suggesting that natural selection can lead to predictable evolutionary change in communities. However, the relative importance of selection as an agent mediating in situ diversification, versus dispersal between habitats, cannot be addressed without knowledge of phylogenetic history. We used an adaptive radiation of spiders within the Hawaiian Islands to test the prediction that species of spiders on different islands would independently evolve webs with similar architectures. Tetragnatha spiders are the only nocturnal orb-weaving spiders endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago, and multiple species of orb-weaving Tetragnatha co-occur within mesic and wet forest habitats on each of the main islands. Therefore, comparison of web architectures spun by spiders on different islands allowed study of replicated evolutionary events of past behavioral diversification. We found that species within each island construct webs with architectures that differ from one another. However, pairs of species on different islands, "ethotypes," share remarkable similarities in web architectures. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the species comprising these ethotypes evolved independent of one another. Our study illustrates the high degree of predictability that can be exhibited by the evolutionary diversification of complex behaviors. However, not all web architectures were shared between islands, demonstrating that unique effects also have played an important role in the historical diversification of behavior.

  6. How old is the Hawaiian biota? Geology and phylogeny suggest recent divergence.

    PubMed

    Price, Jonathan P; Clague, David A

    2002-12-01

    This study quantifies long-term landscape changes in the Hawaiian archipelago relating to dispersal, speciation and extinction. Accounting for volcano growth, subsidence and erosion, we modelled the elevations of islands at time intervals of 0.5 Myr for the last 32 Myr; we also assessed the variation in the spacing of volcanoes during this period. The size, spacing and total number of volcanic islands have varied greatly over time, with the current landscape of large, closely spaced islands preceded by a period with smaller, more distantly spaced islands. Considering associated changes in rates of dispersal and speciation, much of the present species pool is probably the result of recent colonization from outside the archipelago and divergence within contemporary islands, with limited dispersal from older islands. This view is in accordance with abundant phylogenetic studies of Hawaiian organisms that estimate the timing of colonization and divergence within the archipelago. Twelve out of 15 multi-species lineages have diverged within the lifetime of the current high islands (last 5 Myr). Three of these, and an additional seven (mostly single-species) lineages, have colonized the archipelago within this period. The timing of colonization of other lineages remains uncertain.

  7. Native gold in Hawaiian alkalic magma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    Native gold found in fresh basanite glass from the early submarine phase of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, may be the first documented case of the transport of gold as a distinct precious metal phase in a mantle-derived magma. The gold-bearing glass is a grain in bedded volcanic glass sandstone (Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC) sample S508-R3) collected by the submersible Shinkai 6500 at 3879 m depth off Kilauea's south flank. Extensive outcrops there expose debris-flow breccias and sandstones containing submarine-erupted alkalic rock fragments and glasses from early Kilauea. Precipitation of an immiscible gold liquid resulted from resorption of magmatic sulfides during crystallization-differentiation, with consequent liberation of sulfide-hosted gold. Elevated whole-rock gold concentrations (to 36 ppb) for fresh lavas and clasts from early Kilauea further show that some magmas erupted at the beginning stages of Hawaiian shield volcanoes were distinctly gold rich, most likely owing to limited residual sulfide in their mantle source. Alkalic magmas at other ocean islands may also be gold rich, and oceanic hot-spot provinces may contain underappreciated gold resources.

  8. The Hawaiian Rhodophyta Biodiversity Survey (2006-2010): a summary of principal findings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Hawaiian red algal flora is diverse, isolated, and well studied from a morphological and anatomical perspective, making it an excellent candidate for assessment using a combination of traditional taxonomic and molecular approaches. Acquiring and making these biodiversity data freely available in a timely manner ensures that other researchers can incorporate these baseline findings into phylogeographic studies of Hawaiian red algae or red algae found in other locations. Results A total of 1,946 accessions are represented in the collections from 305 different geographical locations in the Hawaiian archipelago. These accessions represent 24 orders, 49 families, 152 genera and 252 species/subspecific taxa of red algae. One order of red algae (the Rhodachlyales) was recognized in Hawaii for the first time and 196 new island distributional records were determined from the survey collections. One family and four genera are reported for the first time from Hawaii, and multiple species descriptions are in progress for newly discovered taxa. A total of 2,418 sequences were generated for Hawaiian red algae in the course of this study - 915 for the nuclear LSU marker, 864 for the plastidial UPA marker, and 639 for the mitochondrial COI marker. These baseline molecular data are presented as neighbor-joining trees to illustrate degrees of divergence within and among taxa. The LSU marker was typically most conserved, followed by UPA and COI. Phylogenetic analysis of a set of concatenated LSU, UPA and COI sequences recovered a tree that broadly resembled the current understanding of florideophyte red algal relationships, but bootstrap support was largely absent above the ordinal level. Phylogeographic trends are reported here for some common taxa within the Hawaiian Islands and include examples of those with, as well as without, intraspecific variation. Conclusions The UPA and COI markers were determined to be the most useful of the three and are recommended for

  9. A young source for the Hawaiian plume.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Alexander V; Hofmann, Albrecht W; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Kuzmin, Dmitry V; Stoll, Brigitte

    2011-08-25

    Recycling of oceanic crust through subduction, mantle upwelling, and remelting in mantle plumes is a widely accepted mechanism to explain ocean island volcanism. The timescale of this recycling is important to our understanding of mantle circulation rates. Correlations of uranogenic lead isotopes in lavas from ocean islands such as Hawaii or Iceland, when interpreted as model isochrons, have yielded source differentiation ages between 1 and 2.5 billion years (Gyr). However, if such correlations are produced by mixing of unrelated mantle components they will have no direct age significance. Re-Os decay model ages take into account the mixing of sources with different histories, but they depend on the assumed initial Re/Os ratio of the subducted crust, which is poorly constrained because of the high mobility of rhenium during subduction. Here we report the first data on (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios for 138 melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from lavas of Mauna Loa shield volcano, Hawaii, indicating enormous mantle source heterogeneity. We show that highly radiogenic strontium in severely rubidium-depleted melt inclusions matches the isotopic composition of 200-650-Myr-old sea water. We infer that such sea water must have contaminated the Mauna Loa source rock, before subduction, imparting a unique 'time stamp' on this source. Small amounts of seawater-derived strontium in plume sources may be common but can be identified clearly only in ultra-depleted melts originating from generally highly (incompatible-element) depleted source components. The presence of 200-650-Myr-old oceanic crust in the source of Hawaiian lavas implies a timescale of general mantle circulation with an average rate of about 2 (±1) cm yr(-1), much faster than previously thought. PMID:21832996

  10. A global analysis of island pyrogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauernicht, C.; Murphy, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Islands have provided insight into the ecological role of fire worldwide through research on the positive feedbacks between fire and nonnative grasses, particularly in the Hawaiian Islands. However, the global extent and frequency of fire on islands as an ecological disturbance has received little attention, possibly because 'natural fires' on islands are typically limited to infrequent dry lightning strikes and isolated volcanic events. But because most contemporary fires on islands are anthropogenic, islands provide ideal systems with which to understand the linkages between socio-economic development, shifting fire regimes, and ecological change. Here we use the density of satellite-derived (MODIS) active fire detections for the years 2000-2014 and global data sets of vegetation, climate, population density, and road development to examine the drivers of fire activity on islands at the global scale, and compare these results to existing pyrogeographic models derived from continental data sets. We also use the Hawaiian Islands as a case study to understand the extent to which novel fire regimes can pervade island ecosystems. The global analysis indicates that fire is a frequent disturbance across islands worldwide, strongly affected by human activities, indicating people can more readily override climatic drivers than on continental land masses. The extent of fire activity derived from local records in the Hawaiian Islands reveals that our global analysis likely underestimates the prevalence of fire among island systems and that the combined effects of human activity and invasion by nonnative grasses can create conditions for frequent and relatively large-scale fires. Understanding the extent of these novel fire regimes, and mitigating their impacts, is critical to reducing the current and rapid degradation of native island ecosystems worldwide.

  11. Indigenous Youth Bilingualism from a Hawaiian Activist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William H.; Kamana, Kauanoe

    2009-01-01

    Hawai'i's massive language shift began a century ago. In the late 1800s, everyone spoke Hawaiian, but being monolingual in Hawaiian marked one as unsophisticated. Then Hawaiian medium schools were banned, resulting in young people speaking Hawaiian with adults and Hawai'i Creole English with peers. The next generation could understand, but not…

  12. Ecology and diagnosis of introduced avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.

    2005-01-01

    Avian malaria is a disease caused by species of protozoan parasites (Plasmodium) that infect birds. Related species commonly infect reptiles, birds and mammals in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Transmitted by mosquitoes, the parasites spend part of their lives in the red blood cells of birds (Figure 1). Avian malaria is common in continental areas, but is absent from the most isolated island archipelagos where mosquitoes do not naturally occur. More than 40 different species of avian Plasmodium have been described, but only one, P. relictum, has been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands. Because they evolved without natural exposure to avian malaria, native Hawaiian honeycreepers are extremely susceptible to this disease. Malaria currently limits the geographic distribution of native species, has population level impacts on survivorship, and is limiting the recovery of threatened and endangered species of forest birds.

  13. Waves and Currents in Hawaiian Waters Induced by the Dispersive 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongqiang; Wei, Yong; Wright, Lindsey; Titov, Vasily V.

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the effects of frequency dispersion on tsunami-induced coastal water waves and currents, exemplified by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami event. The investigation relies on numerical simulations. We start from a tsunami source constrained through the inversion algorithm of NOAA's tsunami inundation forecast system. The trans-Pacific propagation and the hydrodynamic processes in the Hawaiian Islands region are simulated with a weakly dispersive Boussinesq model and a shallow-water model that neglects dispersion effects. From these modeling results, boundary conditions are derived to force the high-resolution simulations in the coastal waters in the Hawaiian Islands region through MOST, a tsunami simulating code based on the shallow-water theory. We note that the dispersion effects generally lower the amplitudes of leading waves. Trailing waves of short wavelengths and high amplitudes can develop in coastal waters. A model neglecting dispersion effects could under-predict the wave heights and current speeds at the trailing waves.

  14. Tenure Experiences of Native Hawaiian Women Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka opua, Heipua

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the status of women of color in academe with a particular focus on Native Hawaiian women faculty. Using a qualitative narrative design, this research examined the experiences of tenured instructional Native Hawaiian women faculty (Na Wahine) at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. Two research questions guided this inquiry:…

  15. We Are Hawaiians. (He Hawaii Makou.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alu Like, Inc., Honolulu, HI.

    This report is a statistical analysis of the socioeconomic status of native Hawaiians in Hawaii. Data presented for native Hawaiians are compared to data for the overall state population. A section on population contains information on geographic distribution, age group distribution, ethnic distribution, residency status, and population growth. An…

  16. Solitary electromechanical pulses in lobster neurons.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Perez, A; Mosgaard, L D; Budvytyte, R; Villagran-Vargas, E; Jackson, A D; Heimburg, T

    2016-09-01

    Investigations of nerve activity have focused predominantly on electrical phenomena. Nerves, however, are thermodynamic systems, and changes in temperature and in the dimensions of the nerve can also be observed during the action potential. Measurements of heat changes during the action potential suggest that the nerve pulse shares many characteristics with an adiabatic pulse. First experiments in the 1980s suggested small changes in nerve thickness and length during the action potential. Such findings have led to the suggestion that the action potential may be related to electromechanical solitons traveling without dissipation. However, there have been no modern attempts to study mechanical phenomena in nerves. Here, we present ultrasensitive AFM recordings of mechanical changes on the order of 2-12Å in the giant axons of the lobster. We show that the nerve thickness changes in phase with voltage changes. When stimulated at opposite ends of the same axon, colliding action potentials pass through one another and do not annihilate. These observations are consistent with a mechanical interpretation of the nervous impulse. PMID:27448851

  17. Solitary electromechanical pulses in lobster neurons.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Perez, A; Mosgaard, L D; Budvytyte, R; Villagran-Vargas, E; Jackson, A D; Heimburg, T

    2016-09-01

    Investigations of nerve activity have focused predominantly on electrical phenomena. Nerves, however, are thermodynamic systems, and changes in temperature and in the dimensions of the nerve can also be observed during the action potential. Measurements of heat changes during the action potential suggest that the nerve pulse shares many characteristics with an adiabatic pulse. First experiments in the 1980s suggested small changes in nerve thickness and length during the action potential. Such findings have led to the suggestion that the action potential may be related to electromechanical solitons traveling without dissipation. However, there have been no modern attempts to study mechanical phenomena in nerves. Here, we present ultrasensitive AFM recordings of mechanical changes on the order of 2-12Å in the giant axons of the lobster. We show that the nerve thickness changes in phase with voltage changes. When stimulated at opposite ends of the same axon, colliding action potentials pass through one another and do not annihilate. These observations are consistent with a mechanical interpretation of the nervous impulse.

  18. Systematics and position of Nephrops among the lobsters.

    PubMed

    Tshudy, Dale

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents and explains the position of Nephrops norvegicus in the classification of lobsters. Covered, in order, are systematic classification of Nephrops, taxonomic history of Nephrops, and analysis of Nephrops in nephropid phylogeny. The genus Nephrops was erected by Leach in 1814 and has a long and interesting taxonomic history. Prior to 1972, Nephrops was known by 14 Recent species. All but one of these, N. norvegicus, were removed to a new genus, Metanephrops, by Jenkins (1972). Today, N. norvegicus is still the only known living representative of the genus. Similarly, Nephrops is known by only one fossil species, the Miocene Nephrops kvistgaardae, although several other fossil species have been previously referred to this genus. Nephrops, along with the other familiar and commercially important marine clawed lobsters, is referred to Family Nephropidae, one of 17 marine clawed lobster families arrayed in 3 infraorders, 6 families each in the Astacidea and Glypheidea and 5 in the Polychelida. Infraorder Astacidea includes the Superfamily Nephropoidea, as well as the lesser known 'reef lobsters' of the Superfamily Enoplometopoidea, and the freshwater crayfish, Superfamily Astacoidea. In phylogenetic analyses, the freshwater crayfish form a sister group to the Nephropoidea. It is interpreted that freshwater crayfish evolved from nephropoid lobsters, but from which lobster group is uncertain. The taxonomic placement of N. norvegicus is stable at all levels, from species on up. Despite that, the phylogenetic relationships of Nephrops to other nephropid genera are unsettled due to conflicting results in morphological and molecular analyses. Currently, new morphological characters and new genes are being analysed in the hope of elucidating nephropid phylogeny.

  19. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery. PMID:26489035

  20. Interactions between finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, E Brian

    2014-11-15

    Interactions between open-net pen finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, were investigated using fishermen's participatory research in annual lobster trap surveys over seven years. Fishermen recorded lobster catches during the last two weeks of May from 2007 to 2013. Catches for each trap haul were recorded separately for ovigerous and market-sized lobsters. Catch trends within the bay were compared to regional trends. Results of correlation analyses indicated that ovigerous catch trends were strongly affected by the fish farm's feeding/fallow periods. There was no significant correlation between trends for bay and LFA lobster landings. Patterns of lobster catch per unit effort extending over considerable distance in Port Mouton Bay appear to be influenced by proximity to the fish farm regardless of year-to-year variation in water temperatures and weather conditions. Odours and habitat changes surrounding open-net pen finfish operations are potential factors affecting lobster displacement.

  1. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery.

  2. Interactions between finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, E Brian

    2014-11-15

    Interactions between open-net pen finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, were investigated using fishermen's participatory research in annual lobster trap surveys over seven years. Fishermen recorded lobster catches during the last two weeks of May from 2007 to 2013. Catches for each trap haul were recorded separately for ovigerous and market-sized lobsters. Catch trends within the bay were compared to regional trends. Results of correlation analyses indicated that ovigerous catch trends were strongly affected by the fish farm's feeding/fallow periods. There was no significant correlation between trends for bay and LFA lobster landings. Patterns of lobster catch per unit effort extending over considerable distance in Port Mouton Bay appear to be influenced by proximity to the fish farm regardless of year-to-year variation in water temperatures and weather conditions. Odours and habitat changes surrounding open-net pen finfish operations are potential factors affecting lobster displacement. PMID:25242235

  3. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery. PMID:26489035

  4. Metallothionein-like protein in lobsters (Homarus americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.; White, M.

    1981-12-01

    A metallothionein-like protein (MLP) was isolated from naturally cadmium-contaminated lobster hepatopancreas, gills, and green glands. Between 76-99% of the total cadmium was associated with this protein (molecular weight 9,500 daltons) while the remainder was associated with both high (>68,000 daltons) and low (<6,000 daltons) molecular weight proteins. MLP was not present in uncontaminated lobster hepatopancreas and only 1% of the total cadmium was associated with the gel filtration fraction corresponding to the protein.

  5. Ca Isotope Fractionation in the Hawaiian Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, B. A.; Chadwick, O. A.; Vitousek, P. M.; Wooden, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    Investigations of the nutrient budgets in Hawaiian soils show the sources of major cations to be weathering of volcanic rock, marine aerosols, and Asian dust inputs. Especially at deeply weathered sites older than 150 ka, soils show strong depletion of the macronutrient calcium. Most of the calcium supply in these soils is of atmospheric origin (marine aerosols and continental dust). In contrast, younger soils are mainly supplied by calcium from weathering of volcanic bedrock. Based on the results of previous studies using strontium isotopic signatures and Sr/Ca ratios (e.g. Kennedy et al. 1998, Chadwick et al. 1999, Whipkey et al. 2000, Stewart et al. 2001) we have conducted research focusing on the isotope composition of calcium as a new tool for the investigation of sources of calcium and biogeochemical processes effecting Ca isotope fractionation in the plant-soil system. The study combines δ 44Ca with 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ca data of soils (bulk compositions and extractable Ca and Sr from soil exchange sites) and different plant species including native Ohia trees (Metrosideros polymorpha) from a soil chronosequence along the Hawaiian Island chain. The study sites differ in age of the underlying substrate from 0.3 ka to 4,100 ka, but show similar recent climate (mean annual temperature of 16 ° C) and amount of precipitation (about 2,500 mm/y). 44Ca/40Ca ratios were measured on a MAT262 at Stanford University, using a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and are reported as δ 44Ca values relative to seawater (δ 44Ca = 0 ‰ ). Results of the extractable, plant available calcium from six soil sites show δ 44Ca values in the range of +1.2 ‰ to -1.3 ‰ with generally more negative values related to younger soil sites where calcium is mainly derived from weathering of volcanic rocks. Bulk soil samples, however, show δ 44Ca values between -0.1 ‰ and -2.5 ‰ , indicating differences in composition as a result of contributions from volcanic minerals, continental dust, and

  6. New species, corallivory, in situ video observations and overview of the Goniasteridae (Valvatida, Asteroidea) in the Hawaiian Region.

    PubMed

    Mah, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Goniasteridae, Astroceramus eldredgei n. sp. and Apollonaster kelleyi n. sp. are described from the Hawaiian Islands region. Prior to this occurrence, Apollonaster was known only from the North Atlantic. The Goniasteridae is the most diverse family of asteroids in the Hawaiian region. Additional in situ observations of several goniasterid species, including A. eldredgei n. sp. are reported. These observations extend documentation of deep-sea corallivory among goniasterid asteroids. New species occurrences presented herein suggested further biogeographic affinities between tropical Pacific and Atlantic goniasterid faunas. PMID:25781779

  7. Paraliparis hawaiiensis, a new species of snailfish (Scorpaeniformes: Liparidae) and the first described from the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Stein, D L; Drazen, J C

    2014-05-01

    Paraliparis hawaiiensis n.sp. is described from the north-western Hawaiian Islands from two specimens collected at 2196 and 3055 m. It differs from other North Pacific Ocean species in its chin pore arrangement, tooth pattern and body proportions. Although liparid specimens have previously been collected from Hawaii, they were undescribed and are now lost. Therefore, this is the first liparid species described from the archipelago. In situ photographs of Hawaiian snailfishes are also shown and discussed here. PMID:24697612

  8. Pesticide sorption and leaching potential on three Hawaiian soils.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kathleen E; Ray, Chittaranjan; Ki, Seo Jin; Spokas, Kurt A; Koskinen, William C

    2015-08-15

    On the Hawaiian Islands, groundwater is the principal source of potable water and contamination of this key resource by pesticides is of great concern. To evaluate the leaching potential of four weak acid herbicides [aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, metsulfuron-methyl, biologically active diketonitrile degradate of isoxaflutole (DKN)] and two neutral non-ionizable herbicides [oxyfluorfen, alachlor], their sorption coefficients were determined on three prevalent soils from the island of Oahu. Metsulfuron-methyl, aminocylcopyrachlor, picloram, and DKN were relatively low sorbing herbicides (K(oc) = 3-53 mL g(-1)), alachlor was intermediate (K(oc) = 120-150 mL g(-1)), and oxyfluorfen sorbed very strongly to the three soils (K(oc) > 12,000 mL g(-1)). Following determination of K(oc) values, the groundwater ubiquity score (GUS) indices for these compounds were calculated to predicted their behavior with the Comprehensive Leaching Risk Assessment System (CLEARS; Tier-1 methodology for Hawaii). Metsulfuron-methyl, aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, and DKN would be categorized as likely leachers in all three Hawaiian soils, indicating a high risk of groundwater contamination across the island of Oahu. In contrast, oxyfluorfen, regardless of the degradation rate, would possess a low and acceptable leaching risk due to its high sorption on all three soils. The leaching potential of alachlor was more difficult to classify, with a GUS value between 1.8 and 2.8. In addition, four different biochar amendments to these soils did not significantly alter their sorption capacities for aminocyclopyrachlor, indicating a relatively low impact of black carbon additions from geologic volcanic inputs of black carbon. Due to the fact that pesticide environmental risks are chiefly dependent on local soil characteristics, this work has demonstrated that once soil specific sorption parameters are known one can assess the potential pesticide leaching risks.

  9. Source Mineralogy for Hawaiian Tholeiites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presnall, D. C.

    2009-05-01

    Hawaiian tholeiites commonly have been thought to be the melting product of garnet lherzolite. However, Sobolev, et al. (2005, Nature, 434, 590) proposed a pyroxenite source. This idea is based on their claim that melting of garnet lherzolite at P > 3 GPa would yield magmas with low SiO2 (< 47%), a feature that is not characteristic of Hawaiian tholeiites. Phase relations for the CaO-MgO-Al2O3- SiO2 (CMAS) system show that melt at the lherzolite solidus with the lowest SiO2 at any pressure occurs just at the solidus transition from spinel lherzolite to garnet lherzolite (3 GPa), and that solidus melts become progressively richer in SiO2 as pressure either decreases (spinel lherzolite field) or increases (garnet lherzolite field) from 3 GPa. Absolute values of melt compositions in CMAS do not precisely reproduce natural compositions, but the trends hold. As pressure increases from 3 to 6 GPa (the high-pressure limit of the experimental data), model basalt liquid compositions at the garnet lherzolite solidus increase significantly in both MgO (22.1 to 30.8 wt. %) and SiO2 (47.3 to 51.6 wt. %). This is consistent with the characteristically high SiO2 of Hawaiian tholeiites and strongly supports a source with a garnet lherzolite mineralogy, olivine + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + garnet. This result holds for a wide range of lherzolitic to pyroxenitic bulk source compositions, as long as the bulk compositional variations are not so extreme that one or more of these minerals is lost. Phase relations in the CMAS tetrahedron at 3 GPa (Milholland and Presnall, 1998, J. Petrol., 39, 3-27) show that an eclogitic mineralogy produces melts that are enriched in SiO2 and low in MgO - very different from the least-fractionated Kilauea glasses. Glass compositions at the least- fractionated end of the olivine-controlled trend for the Puna Ridge at Kilauea (Clague, D. A., et al., 1995, J. Petrol., 36, 299-346) plot very close to the experimental determination of the initial melt

  10. Hawaiian Starlight: Sharing the Beauty of the Hawaiian Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuillandre, J. C.

    Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. The summit of Mauna Kea (14,000 feet) offers the best viewing of the Cosmos in the northern hemisphere, and the film "Hawaiian Starlight" delivers a pure esthetic experience from the mountain into the Universe. Seven years in the making, this cinematic symphony reveals the spectacular beauty of the mountain and its connection to the Cosmos through the magical influence of time-lapse cinematography scored exclusively (no narration) with the awe-inspiring, critically acclaimed, Halo music by Martin O'Donnell and Michael Salvatori. Daytime and nighttime landscapes and skyscapes alternate with stunning true color images of the Universe captured by an observatory on Mauna Kea, all free of any computer generated imagery. An extended segment of the film will be presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference to celebrate the international year of Astronomy 2009, a global effort initiated by the IAU (International Astronomical Union) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe through the day- and night-time sky, and thereby engage a personal sense of wonder and discovery. Hawaiian Starlight is true to this commitment. The inspiration and technology of the film will be shortly presented by the film's director.

  11. Thermoluminescence dating of Hawaiian basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Rodd James

    1979-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of plagioclase separates from 11 independently dated alkalic basalts 4,500 years to 3.3 million years old and 17 tholeiitic basalts 16 years to 450,000 years old from the Hawaiian Islands were investigated for the purpose of developing a TL dating method for young volcanic rocks. Ratios of natural to artificial TL intensity, when normalized for natural radiation dose rates, were used to quantify the thermoluminescence response of individual samples for age-determination purposes. The TL ratios for the alkalic basalt plagioclase were found to increase with age at a predictable exponential rate that permits the use of the equation for the best-fit line through a plot of the TL ratios relative to known age as a TL age equation. The equation is applicable to rocks ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to trachyte over the age range from about 2,000 to at least 250,000 years before present (B.P.). The TL ages for samples older than 50,000 years have a calculated precision of less than :t 10 percent and a potential estimated accuracy relative to potassium-argon ages of approximately :t 10 percent. An attempt to develop a similar dating curve for the tholeiitic basalts was not as successful, primarily because the dose rates are on the average lower than those for the alkalic basalts by a factor of 6, resulting in lower TL intensities in the tholeiitic basalts for samples of equivalent age, and also because the age distribution of dated material is inadequate. The basic TL properties of the plagioclase from the two rock types are similar, however, and TL dating of tholeiitic basalts should eventually be feasible over the age range 10,000 to at least 200,000 years B.P. The average composition of the plagioclase separates from the alkalic basalts ranges from oligoclase to andesine; compositional variations within this range have no apparent effect on the TL ratios. The average composition of the plagioclase from the tholeiitic

  12. From Lobster Shells to Plastic Objects: A Bioplastics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Reuben; Glaisher, Samuel; Bishop, Alexandra; Katz, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    A multiple day activity for students to create large-scale plastic objects from the biopolymer chitin (major component of lobster, crab, and shrimp shells) is described. The plastic objects created are durable and made from benign materials, making them suitable for students to take home to play with. Since the student-created plastic objects are…

  13. Subcuticular urate accumulation in an American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    PubMed

    Battison, A L

    2013-05-01

    An unusually "lumpy" lobster, Homarus americanus, was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College Lobster Science Centre for evaluation. The lobster was weak with numerous pale, raised, and flat areas (diameter, 3-15 mm) on the exoskeleton, some of which were ulcerated. On postmortem examination, the pale areas corresponded to accumulations of viscous to free-flowing white material, which was found in only the subcuticular connective tissues. No internal organs were affected. Direct light examination of nonstained impression smears of the material showed abundant crystals resembling uric acid, amorphous urates, and sodium urate, which were readily soluble in 1 M potassium hydroxide. Wright-Giemsa stained imprints showed numerous fine, rounded, nonstaining granules free in the background and within individual round cells. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of urates or mixed urate salts. Hemolymph plasma urea (1.7 mmol/liter) and uric acid (287 μmol/liter) concentrations were slightly higher than those seen with 36-hour emersion. Histologic sections showed aggregates of vacuolated mononuclear cells in the loose subcuticular connective tissue occasionally infiltrating between underlying muscle fibers. Grossly visible urate deposits are occasionally documented in land crabs and rarely reported in the blue crab; none, however, are associated with deformation of the cuticle. Possible etiologies include increased uric acid intake or production or decreased excretion. Anecdotal reports of similarly affected lobsters have been received but are intermittent and undocumented.

  14. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase mediated signaling in lobster olfactory receptor neurons.

    PubMed

    Corey, Elizabeth A; Bobkov, Yuriy; Pezier, Adeline; Ache, Barry W

    2010-04-01

    In vertebrates and some invertebrates, odorant molecules bind to G protein-coupled receptors on olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to initiate signal transduction. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity has been implicated physiologically in olfactory signal transduction, suggesting a potential role for a G protein-coupled receptor-activated class I PI3K. Using isoform-specific antibodies, we identified a protein in the olfactory signal transduction compartment of lobster ORNs that is antigenically similar to mammalian PI3Kgamma and cloned a gene for a PI3K with amino acid homology with PI3Kbeta. The lobster olfactory PI3K co-immunoprecipitates with the G protein alpha and beta subunits, and an odorant-evoked increase in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate can be detected in the signal transduction compartment of the ORNs. PI3Kgamma and beta isoform-specific inhibitors reduce the odorant-evoked output of lobster ORNs in vivo. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that PI3K is indeed activated by odorant receptors in lobster ORNs and further support the potential involvement of G protein activated PI3K signaling in olfactory transduction.

  15. The Lobster Tale: An Exercise in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepanovich, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Professors in management and business are encouraged to incorporate critical thinking as an objective in their courses. "The Lobster Tale" provides an opportunity to engage students in various levels of critical thinking, ranging from a relatively superficial reading to an examination of the deeper, often hidden issues. Using the foundations of…

  16. The Hawaiian freshwater algae biodiversity survey (2009–2014): systematic and biogeographic trends with an emphasis on the macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A remarkable range of environmental conditions is present in the Hawaiian Islands due to their gradients of elevation, rainfall and island age. Despite being well known as a location for the study of evolutionary processes and island biogeography, little is known about the composition of the non-marine algal flora of the archipelago, its degree of endemism, or affinities with other floras. We conducted a biodiversity survey of the non-marine macroalgae of the six largest main Hawaiian Islands using molecular and microscopic assessment techniques. We aimed to evaluate whether endemism or cosmopolitanism better explain freshwater algal distribution patterns, and provide a baseline data set for monitoring future biodiversity changes in the Hawaiian Islands. Results 1,786 aquatic and terrestrial habitats and 1,407 distinct collections of non-marine macroalgae were collected from the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai and Hawaii from the years 2009–2014. Targeted habitats included streams, wet walls, high elevation bogs, taro fields, ditches and flumes, lakes/reservoirs, cave walls and terrestrial areas. Sites that lacked freshwater macroalgae were typically terrestrial or wet wall habitats that were sampled for diatoms and other microalgae. Approximately 50% of the identifications were of green algae, with lesser proportions of diatoms, red algae, cyanobacteria, xanthophytes and euglenoids. 898 DNA sequences were generated representing eight different markers, which enabled an assessment of the number of taxonomic entities for genera collected as part of the survey. Forty-four well-characterized taxa were assessed for global distribution patterns. This analysis revealed no clear biogeographic affinities of the flora, with 27.3% characterized as “cosmopolitan”, 11.4% “endemic”, and 61.3% as intermediate. Conclusions The Hawaiian freshwater algal biodiversity survey represents the first comprehensive effort to characterize the non

  17. Kahua A'o: A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Place and Culture-based Geoscience Teacher Education and Curriculum Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinwood, I.; Stone, K.; Spencer, L.

    2012-12-01

    Kahua A'o is a collaborative project funded by the National Science Foundation aimed at developing science curriculum grounded in Hawaiian culture and place-based education. The project team is composed of members who contribute expertise in meteorology, geology, curriculum development, and Hawaiian language. To date, six lessons have been produced, four with a focus in meteorology and two with a focus in geology. The lessons are geared towards the middle school level, but can easily be adapted for other levels. Each lesson combines a scientific topic with relevant Hawaiian language resources. Serving as the main source for resources is the Hawaiian language newspaper archive, which is an online database of 75,000 pages from newspapers that were published between 1834 and 1948. By incorporating Hawaiian language newspaper articles into science lessons, we aim to teach science through culture and show a history of scientific inquiry intrinsic to Hawaiian culture in order to generate more interest in science among Hawai'i students, especially native Hawaiian students, who are underrepresented in scientific fields. Since most of the articles are specific to the Hawaiian Islands, all students will find more relevance with the lesson through place-based education. Kahua A'o lessons are currently being piloted with groups of public school teachers. Bishop Museum is also incorporating elements of the meteorology lessons into their science education curriculum. The goal of Kahua A'o is to become the first of many such interdisciplinary collaborations, especially those that utilize the rich repository of untapped knowledge in the Hawaiian language newspaper archive.

  18. Mermithid parasitism of Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders in a fragmented landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, Amy; Roderick, George K.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders inhabiting small forest fragments on the Big Island of Hawaii are parasitized by mermithid nematodes. This is the first report of mermithid nematodes infecting spiders in Hawaii, and an initial attempt to characterize this host–parasite interaction. Because immature mermithids were not morphologically identifiable, a molecular identification was performed. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S small ribosomal subunit nuclear gene sequences suggested that Hawaiian spider mermithids are more closely related to a mainland presumptive Aranimemis species that infects spiders, than to an insect-infecting mermithid collected on Oahu, HI, or to Mermis nigrescens, also a parasite of insects. Measured infection prevalence was low (ranging from 0 to 4%) but differed significantly among forest fragments. Infection prevalence was associated significantly with fragment area, but not with spider density nor spider species richness. Results suggest that mermithid populations are sensitive to habitat fragmentation, but that changes in infection prevalence do not appear to affect spider community structure.

  19. Evidence that potential fish predators elicit the production of carapace vibrations by the American lobster.

    PubMed

    Ward, Daniel; Morison, Françoise; Morrissey, Elizabeth; Jenks, Kyle; Watson, Winsor H

    2011-08-01

    American lobsters (Homarus americanus) will on rare occasions produce sounds by vibrating their dorsal carapace. Although this behavior can be elicited in the laboratory by handling lobsters, the stimulus that triggers the production of sounds in the lobster's natural habitat is not known. We investigated the influence of two fish that are known to prey on lobsters, cod (Gadus morhua) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis), on the production of sounds by American lobsters. In addition, we examined the response of the same fish to the sounds the lobsters produced. Although solitary lobsters spontaneously produced sounds at a low rate of 1.2 ± 0.23 sound events per 30 min, the presence of a single cod or striped bass led to an increase in the rate of sound production (cod: 51.1 ± 13.1 events per 30 min; striped bass: 17.0 ± 7.0 events per 30 min). Most (74.6 ± 6.6%) of the 292 sound events recorded occurred when a fish came within 0.5 m of a lobster, but a fish did not have to come into contact with a lobster to elicit sounds. Immediately following the production of a sound by a lobster, fish turned and swam away significantly faster than when they encountered a lobster that did not make a sound. Moreover, after striped bass (but not cod) experienced a number of these sound events, they subsequently tended to avoid swimming close to the lobsters. These data, taken together, suggest that sound production by American lobsters may serve to deter potential fish predators. PMID:21753058

  20. Evidence that potential fish predators elicit the production of carapace vibrations by the American lobster.

    PubMed

    Ward, Daniel; Morison, Françoise; Morrissey, Elizabeth; Jenks, Kyle; Watson, Winsor H

    2011-08-01

    American lobsters (Homarus americanus) will on rare occasions produce sounds by vibrating their dorsal carapace. Although this behavior can be elicited in the laboratory by handling lobsters, the stimulus that triggers the production of sounds in the lobster's natural habitat is not known. We investigated the influence of two fish that are known to prey on lobsters, cod (Gadus morhua) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis), on the production of sounds by American lobsters. In addition, we examined the response of the same fish to the sounds the lobsters produced. Although solitary lobsters spontaneously produced sounds at a low rate of 1.2 ± 0.23 sound events per 30 min, the presence of a single cod or striped bass led to an increase in the rate of sound production (cod: 51.1 ± 13.1 events per 30 min; striped bass: 17.0 ± 7.0 events per 30 min). Most (74.6 ± 6.6%) of the 292 sound events recorded occurred when a fish came within 0.5 m of a lobster, but a fish did not have to come into contact with a lobster to elicit sounds. Immediately following the production of a sound by a lobster, fish turned and swam away significantly faster than when they encountered a lobster that did not make a sound. Moreover, after striped bass (but not cod) experienced a number of these sound events, they subsequently tended to avoid swimming close to the lobsters. These data, taken together, suggest that sound production by American lobsters may serve to deter potential fish predators.

  1. A complex evolutionary history in a remote archipelago: phylogeography and morphometrics of the Hawaiian endemic Ligia isopods.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O'ahu and Kaua'i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka'i, Lana'i, and Hawai'i), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai'i, O'ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua'i) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A taxonomic

  2. A Complex Evolutionary History in a Remote Archipelago: Phylogeography and Morphometrics of the Hawaiian Endemic Ligia Isopods

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Carlos A.; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Hurtado, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from Oʻahu and Kauaʻi revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Molokaʻi, Lanaʻi, and Hawaiʻi), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kauaʻi) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A

  3. Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states.

    PubMed

    Kirch, Patrick V; Mills, Peter R; Lundblad, Steven P; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G

    2012-01-24

    Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua'a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai'i Island as well as quarries on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Lāna'i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states. PMID:22203984

  4. Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states.

    PubMed

    Kirch, Patrick V; Mills, Peter R; Lundblad, Steven P; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G

    2012-01-24

    Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua'a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai'i Island as well as quarries on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Lāna'i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states.

  5. Intrusive dike complexes, cumulate cores, and the extrusive growth of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinders, Ashton F.; Ito, Garrett; Garcia, Michael O.; Sinton, John M.; Kauahikaua, Jim; Taylor, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are the most geologically studied hot-spot islands in the world yet surprisingly, the only large-scale compilation of marine and land gravity data is more than 45 years old. Early surveys served as reconnaissance studies only, and detailed analyses of the crustal-density structure have been limited. Here we present a new chain-wide gravity compilation that incorporates historical island surveys, recently published work on the islands of Hawai‘i, Kaua‘i, and Ni‘ihau, and >122,000 km of newly compiled marine gravity data. Positive residual gravity anomalies reflect dense intrusive bodies, allowing us to locate current and former volcanic centers, major rift zones, and a previously suggested volcano on Ka‘ena Ridge. By inverting the residual gravity data, we generate a 3-D view of the dense, intrusive complexes and olivine-rich cumulate cores within individual volcanoes and rift zones. We find that the Hāna and Ka‘ena ridges are underlain by particularly high-density intrusive material (>2.85 g/cm3) not observed beneath other Hawaiian rift zones. Contrary to previous estimates, volcanoes along the chain are shown to be composed of a small proportion of intrusive material (<30% by volume), implying that the islands are predominately built extrusively.

  6. Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states

    PubMed Central

    Kirch, Patrick V.; Mills, Peter R.; Lundblad, Steven P.; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua‘a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai‘i Island as well as quarries on O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, and Lāna‘i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states. PMID:22203984

  7. Revised Calculated Volumes Of Individual Shield Volcanoes At The Young End Of The Hawaiian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J. E.; Eakins, B. W.

    2003-12-01

    Recent, high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands allow us to recalculate Bargar and Jackson's [1974] volumes of coalesced volcanic edifices (Hawaii, Maui-Nui, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau) and individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge, taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the volcanoes as modeled by Watts and ten Brink [1989]. Our volume for the Island of Hawaii (2.48 x105 km3) is twice the previous estimate (1.13 x105 km3), due primarily to crustal subsidence, which had not been accounted for in the earlier work. The volcanoes that make up the Hawaii edifice (Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea, and Loihi) are generally considered to have formed within the past million years and our revised volume for Hawaii indicates that either magma-supply rates are greater than previously estimated (0.25 km3/yr as opposed to 0.1 km3/yr) or that Hawaii's volcanoes have erupted over a longer period of time (>1 million years). Our results also indicate that magma supply rates have increased dramatically to build the Hawaiian edifices: the average rate of the past 5 million years (0.096 km3/yr) is substantially greater than the overall average of the Hawaiian Ridge (0.018km3/yr) or Emperor Seamounts (0.012 km3/yr) as calculated by Bargar and Jackson, and that rates within the past million years are greater still (0.25 km3/yr). References: Bargar, K. E., and Jackson, E. D., 1974, Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes along the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain, Jour. Research U.S. Geol. Survey, Vol. 2, No. 5, p. 545-550. Watts, A. B., and ten Brink, U. S., 1989, Crustal structure, flexure, and subsidence history of the Hawaiian Islands, Jour. Geophys. Res., Vol. 94, No. B8, p. 10,473-10,500.

  8. Biogeography of the deep-sea galatheid squat lobsters of the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, Enrique; Richer de Forges, Bertrand; Schnabel, Kareen; Samadi, Sarah; Boisselier, Marie-Catherine; Garcia-Rubies, Antoni

    2010-02-01

    We analyzed the distribution patterns of the galatheid squat lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda, Galatheidae) of the Pacific Ocean. We used the presence/absence data of 402 species along the continental slope and continental rise (200-2000 m) obtained from 54 cruises carried out in areas around the Philippines, Indonesia, Solomon, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna and French Polynesia. The total number of stations was ca. 3200. We also used published data from other expeditions carried out in the Pacific waters, and from an exhaustive search of ca. 600 papers on the taxonomy and biogeography of Pacific species. We studied the existence of biogeographic provinces using multivariate analyses, and present data on latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of species richness, rate of endemism and the relationship between body sizes with the size of the geographic ranges. Latitudinal species richness along the Western and Eastern Pacific exhibited an increase from higher latitudes towards the Equator. Longitudinal species richness decreased considerably from the Western to the Central Pacific. Size frequency distribution for body size was strongly shifted toward small sizes and endemic species were significantly smaller than non-endemics. This study concludes that a clear separation exists between the moderately poor galatheid fauna of the Eastern Pacific and the rich Western and Central Pacific faunas. Our results also show that the highest numbers of squat lobsters are found in the Coral Sea (Solomon-Vanuatu-New Caledonia islands) and Indo-Malay-Philippines archipelago (IMPA). The distribution of endemism along the Pacific Ocean indicates that there are several major centres of diversity, e.g. Coral Sea, IMPA, New Zealand and French Polynesia. The high proportion of endemism in these areas suggests that they have evolved independently.

  9. Incipient radiation within the dominant Hawaiian tree Metrosideros polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Stacy, E A; Johansen, J B; Sakishima, T; Price, D K; Pillon, Y

    2014-10-01

    Although trees comprise a primary component of terrestrial species richness, the drivers and temporal scale of divergence in trees remain poorly understood. We examined the landscape-dominant tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, for variation at nine microsatellite loci across 23 populations on young Hawai'i Island, sampling each of the island's five varieties throughout its full geographic range. For four varieties, principal coordinate analysis revealed strong clustering of populations by variety across the 10 430 km(2) island, indicating partitioning of the species into multiple evolutionarily significant units. The single island-endemic form, riparian var. newellii, showed especially strong differentiation from other varieties despite occurring in sympatry with other varieties and likely evolved from a bog form on the oldest volcano, Kohala, within the past 500 000 years. Along with comparable riparian forms on other Pacific Islands, var. newellii appears to represent parallel incipient ecological speciation within Metrosideros. Greater genetic distance among the more common varieties on the oldest volcano and an inverse relationship between allelic diversity and substrate age appear consistent with colonization of Hawai'i Island by older, partially diverged varieties followed by increased hybridization among varieties on younger volcanoes. This study demonstrates that broad population-level sampling is required to uncover patterns of diversification within a ubiquitous and long-lived tree species. Hawaiian Metrosideros appears to be a case of incipient radiation in trees and thus should be useful for studies of divergence and the evolution of reproductive isolating barriers at the early stages of speciation. PMID:24824285

  10. A new species of Brisingenes from the Hawaii undersea military munitions assessment area with an overview of Hawaiian brisingid in situ video observations and functional morphology of subambulacral spines (Forcipulatacea; Asteroidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mah, Christopher L.

    2016-06-01

    A new species of Brisingenes, Brisingenes margoae nov. sp. is described from the HUMMA Study Area (see overview (Edwards et al., 2016-a), Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands. This represents a range extension for Brisingenes to the North Pacific and is the fifth-known brisingid species in the Hawaiian region. An overview of other Hawaiian brisingid species based on HURL in situ video observations is presented. Submersible-collected B. margoae and Brisingenes panopla provides new insight into functional morphology of brisingid subambulacral spines. The high abundance of brisingids in the HUMMA Study Area is briefly reviewed. Identification keys for relevant taxa are provided.

  11. Organochlorines in the free-ranging Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) from French Frigate Shoals, North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Maia K; Woodward, Lee Ann; Ylitalo, Gina M; Buzitis, Jon; Atkinson, Shannon; Li, Qing X

    2004-04-25

    The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) is an endangered species found only in the Hawaiian Island chain. The largest subpopulation, at French Frigate Shoals, has been in decline since 1989. In order to assess organochlorine (OC) levels in the Hawaiian monk seals, whole blood and blubber samples were collected in 1999 from 46 free-ranging Hawaiian monk seals at French Frigate Shoals, and were analyzed for eight dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as six other PCB congeners, DDT and DDT metabolites. Average levels of the total PCBs in blood samples from adult male, juvenile and reproductive female groups were 4800, 4000 and 3000 ng/g lipid wt., respectively, whereas 3200, 1300 and 1200 ng/g, respectively, in blubber from the three corresponding groups. p,p'-DDE was the only DDT detected in blubber samples, and no DDTs were detected in blood samples. Concentrations of the total PCBs in adult males were significantly higher than the levels measured in either reproductive females or juveniles. There were significant correlations between age and blubber p,p'-DDE, estimated mass and total blood PCBs or blubber p,p'-DDE, and body condition and total blood PCBs. Although it is clear that the Hawaiian monk seal has been exposed to OCs, it is unclear what biological effects, if any, these xenobiotics may have on the animals. PMID:15081740

  12. Skin pathology in Hawaiian goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Aeby, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-eight goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett), manifesting skin lesions and originating from the north-western and main Hawaiian Islands were examined. Skin lesions were amorphous and ranged from simple dark or light discolouration to multicoloured tan to white sessile masses with an undulant surface. Skin lesions covered 2–66% of the fish surface, and there was no predilection for lesions affecting a particular part of the fish. Males appeared over-represented. Microscopy revealed the skin lesions to be hyperplasia, melanophoromas or iridophoromas. The presence of skin tumours in a relatively unspoiled area of Hawaii is intriguing. Explaining their distribution, cause and impact on survivorship of fish all merit further study because C. strigosus is an economically important fish in the region.

  13. Chasing lava: a geologist's adventures at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, Wendell A.

    2003-01-01

    A lively account of the three years (1969-1972) spent by geologist Wendell Duffield working at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory at Kilauea, one of the world's more active volcanoes. Abundantly illustrated in b&w and color, with line drawings and maps, as well. Volcanologists and general readers alike will enjoy author Wendell Duffield's report from Kilauea--home of Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes. Duffield's narrative encompasses everything from the scientific (his discovery that the movements of cooled lava on a lava lake mimic the movements of the earth's crust, providing an accessible model for understanding plate tectonics) to the humorous (his dog's discovery of a snake on the supposedly snake-free island) to the life-threatening (a colleague's plunge into molten lava). This charming account of living and working at Kilauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, is sure to be a delight.

  14. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  15. Nutritional value of spiny lobsters (Panulirus sp.) from Southern Coast of Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryono, F. Eko Dwi; Hutabarat, Sahala; Hutabarat, Johannes; Ambariyanto

    2015-12-01

    Five species of spiny lobsters are known to live in southern coast of Java. These lobsters are very popular seafood which was believed to have high nutritional value. However, nutrition content of these species from the area has not been investigated. This research was conducted to study nutrition content in these crustaceans. Five spiny lobsters i.e. Panulirus homarus, P. versicolor, P. ornatus, P. penicullatus, and P. longipes, were collected randomly from different locations at the southern coast of Java. Morphometric measurements were conducted prior to proximate analysis of these lobsters. All species of spiny lobsters investigated have similar carapace length. However, P. homarus and P. versicolor have the highest muscle weight. Proximate analysis shows that P. homarus also has high protein (24.18%) and carbohydrate content (55.68%) and lowest lipid content (6.18%) compare with other species. These results suggest that this lobster has best nutritional value for consumption.

  16. Pathogenicity, serological responses, and diagnosis of experimental and natural malarial infections in native Hawaiian thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Drake, B.M.; Shema, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Omao (Myadestes obscurus) from the Hawaiian Islands typically have very low prevalences of infection with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and it is not clear whether they share the same high susceptibility to this parasite that has been documented in native Hawaiian honeycreepers. We exposed four captive Omao to single infective mosquito bites and measured parasitemia, serological responses, and mortality over time. All four birds experienced transient infections with low parasitemias and were immune when rechallenged with multiple infective mosquito bites. By contrast, three of four honeycreepers (Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana) that were exposed to the same dose and parasite isolate succumbed to infection. All four Omao developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens that were detectable on immunoblots of a crude red blood cell extract of P. relictum. We used this technique to screen plasma samples from wild Omao and endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) that were captured at elevations between 900 and 1300 m on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai. We found that the true prevalence of infection at elevations where active malaria transmission occurs is much higher than estimates based on blood smears alone. Hawaiian thrushes appear to have a high tolerance for malaria, with most individuals developing chronic, low-level infections after exposure that cannot be diagnosed accurately by blood smears.

  17. Range-wide genetic connectivity of the Hawaiian monk seal and implications for translocation.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jennifer K; Baker, Jason D; Toonen, Robert J; Harting, Albert L; Bowen, Brian W

    2011-02-01

    The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) is one of the most critically endangered marine mammals. Less than 1200 individuals remain, and the species is declining at a rate of approximately 4% per year as a result of juvenile starvation, shark predation, and entanglement in marine debris. Some of these problems may be alleviated by translocation; however, if island breeding aggregates are effectively isolated subpopulations, moving individuals may disrupt local adaptations. In these circumstances, managers must balance the pragmatic need of increasing survival with theoretical concerns about genetic viability. To assess range-wide population structure of the Hawaiian monk seal, we examined an unprecedented, near-complete genetic inventory of the species (n =1897 seals, sampled over 14 years) at 18 microsatellite loci. Genetic variation was not spatially partitioned ((w) =-0.03, p = 1.0), and a Bayesian clustering method provided evidence of one panmictic population (K =1). Pairwise F(ST) comparisons (among 7 island aggregates over 14 annual cohorts) did not reveal temporally stable, spatial reproductive isolation. Our results coupled with long-term tag-resight data confirm seal movement and gene flow throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. Thus, human-mediated translocation of seals among locations is not likely to result in genetic incompatibilities. PMID:21166713

  18. Diversity, origins and virulence of Avipoxviruses in Hawaiian Forest Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, S.I.; Triglia, D.; Giannoulis, A.; Farias, M.; Bianchi, K.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    We cultured avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) from lesions collected on Hawai'i, Maui, Moloka'i, and 'Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands from 15 native or non-native birds representing three avian orders. Phylogenetic analysis of a 538 bp fragment of the gene encoding the virus 4b core polypeptide revealed two distinct variant clusters, with sequences from chickens (fowlpox) forming a third distinct basal cluster. Pox isolates from one of these two clusters appear closely related to canarypox and other passerine pox viruses, while the second appears more specific to Hawai'i. There was no evidence that birds were infected simultaneously with multiple pox virus variants based on evaluation of multiples clones from four individuals. No obvious temporal or geographic associations were observed and strict host specificity was not apparent among the 4b-defined field isolates. We amplified a 116 bp 4b core protein gene fragment from an 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis) collected in 1900 on Hawai'i Island that clustered closely with the second of the two variants, suggesting that this variant has been in Hawai'i for at least 100 years. The high variation detected between the three 4b clusters provides evidence for multiple, likely independent introductions, and does not support the hypothesis of infection of native species through introduction of infected fowl. Preliminary experimental infections in native Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) suggest that the 4b-defined variants may be biologically distinct, with one variant appearing more virulent. These pox viruses may interact with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum), another introduced pathogen in Hawaiian forest bird populations, through modulation of host immune responses. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. Kahua A'o—A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Earth Science Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    Kahua A'o, an NSF OEDG project, utilizes Hawaiian language newspaper articles written between 1843 and 1948 as a foundation for culturally responsive geoscience curriculum and professional development. In Hawaii, a lack of qualified teachers limits students' awareness of Earth Science in their lives, as careers and a way to understand past, present, and future. This particularly impacts Native Hawaiians, 28% of students in Hawaii''s public schools but underrepresented in STEM majors and careers. Guided by sociocultural theories that view learning as experiential and culturally situated, geoscientists, Hawaiian translators, and science educators utilize articles to develop meteorology and geology modules for middle school teachers. Articles provide insights about living sustainably on islands exposed to volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami, drought, and storms. Hawaii's remoteness and diverse topography supported the development of mountain-to-sea, sustainable, social ecosystems called ahupuaa. Hawaiians recognized each ahupuaa's unique winds, rains, fauna, flora, cultivars, and geologic features. The story of Pele chanting the winds of Kauai to prove she was not a stranger grounds identity and status in environmental knowledge. The story is culturally congruent with science explanations of how the Hawaiian Islands' diverse shapes and topography interact with heating, cooling, and large scale wind systems to create hundreds of local winds and rains. This presentation reports on "Local Winds and Rains of Hawaii, I Kamaāina i Na Makani a Me Nā Ua and "Weather Maps and Hazardous Storms in Hawaii, Nā 'Ino Ma Hawaii Nei." Highly detailed observations of an 1871 severe wind event enable students to estimate winds speeds using the Beaufort Scale, determine the storm's path and decide if it was the first recorded hurricane on the island of Hawaii. A visit to NOAA's National Weather Service triggered discussions about Hawaiian language weather reports. A Hawaiian

  20. Animal Behavior Frozen in Time: Gregarious Behavior of Early Jurassic Lobsters within an Ammonoid Body Chamber

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Fraaije, René H. B.

    2012-01-01

    Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells. PMID:22412846

  1. Occupational asthma caused by exposure to cooking lobster in the work environment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Patel, P C; Cockcroft, D W

    1992-04-01

    A 25-year-old male chef developed symptoms of cough, wheezing, and dyspnea following repeated exposure to cooking lobster in his work environment. Skin prick tests to lobster, mixed shellfish, haddock, cod, oysters, and clams were strongly positive. Skin prick tests to other routine antigens were negative except for Alternaria fungal spores. Bronchial inhalation of aqueous lobster extract resulted in an isolated early asthmatic response.

  2. Leg 197 synthesis: Southward motion and geochemical variability of the Hawaiian hotspot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, R.A.; Tarduno, J.A.; Scholl, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain is an often-cited example of a change in plate motion with respect to a stationary hotspot. Growing evidence, however, suggests that the bend might instead record variable drift of the Hawaiian hotspot within a convecting mantle. Paleomagnetic and radiometric age data from samples recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 197 define an age-progressive paleolatitude history, indicating that the Emperor Seamounts volcanic trend was formed principally by rapid (4-5 cm/yr) southward motion of the Hawaiian hotspot during Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time (81-47 Ma). Paleointensity data derived from Leg 197 suggest an inverse relationship between field strength and reversal frequency, consistent with an active lower mantle that controls the efficiency of the geodynamo. Petrochemical data and observations of volcanic products (lava flows and volcaniclastic sediments) from Detroit, Nintoku, and Koko Seamounts provide records of the evolution of these volcanic systems for comparison with recent activity in the Hawaiian Islands. We find that the Emperor Seamounts formed from similar mantle sources for melting (plume components and lithosphere) and in much the same stages of volcanic activity and time span as the Hawaiian volcanoes. Changes in major and trace element and Sr isotopic compositions of shield lavas along the lineament can be related to variations in thickness of the lithosphere overlying the hotspot that control the depth and extent of partial melting. Other geochemical tracers, such as He, Pb, and Hf isotopic compositions, indicate persistent contributions to melting from the plume throughout the volcanic chain.

  3. Ancient DNA reveals genetic stability despite demographic decline: 3,000 years of population history in the endemic Hawaiian petrel.

    PubMed

    Welch, Andreanna J; Wiley, Anne E; James, Helen F; Ostrom, Peggy H; Stafford, Thomas W; Fleischer, Robert C

    2012-12-01

    In the Hawaiian Islands, human colonization, which began approximately 1,200 to 800 years ago, marks the beginning of a period in which nearly 75% of the endemic avifauna became extinct and the population size and range of many additional species declined. It remains unclear why some species persisted whereas others did not. The endemic Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) has escaped extinction, but colonies on two islands have been extirpated and populations on remaining islands have contracted. We obtained mitochondrial DNA sequences from 100 subfossil bones, 28 museum specimens, and 289 modern samples to investigate patterns of gene flow and temporal changes in the genetic diversity of this endangered species over the last 3,000 years, as Polynesians and then Europeans colonized the Hawaiian Islands. Genetic differentiation was found to be high between both modern and ancient petrel populations. However, gene flow was substantial between the extirpated colonies on Oahu and Molokai and modern birds from the island of Lanai. No significant reductions in genetic diversity occurred over this period, despite fears in the mid-1900s that this species may have been extinct. Simulations show that even a decline to a stable effective population size of 100 individuals would result in the loss of only 5% of the expected heterozygosity. Simulations also show that high levels of genetic diversity may be retained due to the long generation time of this species. Such decoupling between population size and genetic diversity in long-lived species can have important conservation implications. It appears that a pattern of dispersal from declining colonies, in addition to long generation time, may have allowed the Hawaiian petrel to escape a severe genetic bottleneck, and the associated extinction vortex, and persist despite a large population decline after human colonization. PMID:22844071

  4. Ancient DNA reveals genetic stability despite demographic decline: 3,000 years of population history in the endemic Hawaiian petrel.

    PubMed

    Welch, Andreanna J; Wiley, Anne E; James, Helen F; Ostrom, Peggy H; Stafford, Thomas W; Fleischer, Robert C

    2012-12-01

    In the Hawaiian Islands, human colonization, which began approximately 1,200 to 800 years ago, marks the beginning of a period in which nearly 75% of the endemic avifauna became extinct and the population size and range of many additional species declined. It remains unclear why some species persisted whereas others did not. The endemic Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) has escaped extinction, but colonies on two islands have been extirpated and populations on remaining islands have contracted. We obtained mitochondrial DNA sequences from 100 subfossil bones, 28 museum specimens, and 289 modern samples to investigate patterns of gene flow and temporal changes in the genetic diversity of this endangered species over the last 3,000 years, as Polynesians and then Europeans colonized the Hawaiian Islands. Genetic differentiation was found to be high between both modern and ancient petrel populations. However, gene flow was substantial between the extirpated colonies on Oahu and Molokai and modern birds from the island of Lanai. No significant reductions in genetic diversity occurred over this period, despite fears in the mid-1900s that this species may have been extinct. Simulations show that even a decline to a stable effective population size of 100 individuals would result in the loss of only 5% of the expected heterozygosity. Simulations also show that high levels of genetic diversity may be retained due to the long generation time of this species. Such decoupling between population size and genetic diversity in long-lived species can have important conservation implications. It appears that a pattern of dispersal from declining colonies, in addition to long generation time, may have allowed the Hawaiian petrel to escape a severe genetic bottleneck, and the associated extinction vortex, and persist despite a large population decline after human colonization.

  5. Temperature and acid-base balance in the American lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Syed Aman; Camacho, Joseph; Wang, Hongkun; Taylor, Josi R; Grosell, Martin; Worden, Mary Kate

    2007-04-01

    Lobsters (Homarus americanus) in the wild inhabit ocean waters where temperature can vary over a broad range (0-25 degrees C). To examine how environmental thermal variability might affect lobster physiology, we examine the effects of temperature and thermal change on the acid-base status of the lobster hemolymph. Total CO(2), pH, P(CO)2 and HCO(-)(3) were measured in hemolymph sampled from lobsters acclimated to temperature in the laboratory as well as from lobsters acclimated to seasonal temperatures in the wild. Our results demonstrate that the change in hemolymph pH as a function of temperature follows the rule of constant relative alkalinity in lobsters acclimated to temperature over a period of weeks. However, thermal change can alter lobster acid-base status over a time course of minutes. Acute increases in temperature trigger a respiratory compensated metabolic acidosis of the hemolymph. Both the strength and frequency of the lobster heartbeat in vitro are modulated by changes in pH within the physiological range measured in vivo. These observations suggest that changes in acid-base status triggered by thermal variations in the environment might modulate lobster cardiac performance in vivo.

  6. Deep under the sea: unraveling the evolutionary history of the deep-sea squat lobster Paramunida (Decapoda, Munididae).

    PubMed

    Cabezas, Patricia; Sanmartín, Isabel; Paulay, Gustav; Macpherson, Enrique; Machordom, Annie

    2012-06-01

    The diversification of Indo-Pacific marine fauna has long captivated the attention of evolutionary biologists. Previous studies have mainly focused on coral reef or shallow water-associated taxa. Here, we present the first attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history--phylogeny, diversification, and biogeography--of a deep-water lineage. We sequenced the molecular markers 16S, COI, ND1, 18S, and 28S for nearly 80% of the nominal species of the squat lobster genus Paramunida. Analyses of the molecular phylogeny revealed an accelerated diversification in the late Oligocene-Miocene followed by a slowdown in the rate of lineage accumulation over time. A parametric biogeographical reconstruction showed the importance of the southwest Pacific area, specifically the island arc of Fiji, Tonga, Vanuatu, Wallis, and Futuna, for diversification of squat lobsters, probably associated with the global warming, high tectonic activity, and changes in oceanic currents that took place in this region during the Oligocene-Miocene period. These results add strong evidence to the hypothesis that the Neogene was a period of major diversification for marine organisms in both shallow and deep waters.

  7. "I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug-Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the use of explanations for refusal as a drug-resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youths. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug-resistance strategies in response to 15…

  8. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 3. Hawaiian ecosystem and its environmental determinants with particular emphasis on promising areas for geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    A brief geobiological history of the Hawaiian Islands is presented. Climatology, physiography, and environmental degradation are discussed. Soil types and associations, land use patterns and ratings, and vegetation ecology are covered. The fauna discussed include: ancient and recent vertebrate life, land mollusca, marine fauma, and insect fauna. (MHR)

  9. Nutrient, fatty acid, amino acid and mineral analysis of natural prey of the Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi.

    PubMed

    Goodman-Lowe, G D; Carpenter, J R; Atkinson, S; Ako, H

    1999-06-01

    Proximate nutrients, gross energy content, mineral, amino acid and fatty acid composition were determined for teleost, cephalopod and crustacean prey of the Hawaiian monk seal. Crude protein was highest in the octopus, Octopus cyanea (80.0%), crude fat was highest in the Muraenid teleost, Gymnothorax eurostus (14.1%), whereas crude ash was highest in the lobster, Panulirus marginatus (11.6%). Gross energies ranged from 4.0 +/- 0.01 kcal g-1 in the Labrid teleost Bodianus bilulunatus to 6.0 +/- 0.12 kcal g-1 in the moray eel, Gymnothorax undulatus. Essential amino acids occurred in lower concentrations as a percentage of the total amino acids (35.8 +/- 2.6%) than non-essential amino acids (64.2 +/- 2.6%), but the ratio of individual amino acids to total amino acid concentrations were similar to those required by some monogastric terrestrial species and fingerling salmon. The fatty acid concentrations varied widely among species (range = 1.2-16.5 mg 100 mg-1); however, the teleosts had higher total fatty acids than the non-teleosts. This study indicates that, from a nutritional standpoint, some prey may be more beneficial to the Hawaiian monk seal; however, these prey are not necessarily the most abundant or available to some populations of the monk seal. PMID:10425733

  10. New constraints on the Hawaiian swell origin using wavelet analysis of the geoid to topography ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadio, C.; Ballmer, M.; Panet, I.; Ribe, N.; Diament, M.

    2012-04-01

    Analyzing the formation of hotspot swells, including the shallowness around the Hawaiian Islands, is critical for understanding the origin of intraplate volcanism and the underlying geodynamical processes. Two main hypotheses for the origin of this swell are generally considered: thermal lithospheric thinning, and dynamical support by a convective ascending plume. A major goal of these models is to quantitatively explain the two important characteristics of the Hawaiian swell: its topography and the corresponding geoid anomaly. In simple models of isostatic compensation, the geoid-to-topography ratio (GTR) is linearly related to the depth of the compensating mass; therefore it is often considered as a fundamental parameter to assess swell support mechanisms. According to previous work, the observed GTR has been reported to range from 4 to 5 m/km. The corresponding apparent compensation depth is about 45 km, which is shallower than predicted by the dynamic support model. However, analysis of the data processing methods shows that the applied bandpass filters to retain only characteristic wavelengths of the swell topography and geoid, cannot completely remove the signal due to loading of the volcanic edifices and related lithospheric flexure. In order to resolve these issues, we apply a continuous wavelet transform, which allows us to retrieve lateral variations of the GTR at each spatial scale. A series of synthetic tests based on different geodynamic models clearly indicates that by efficiently filtering the unwanted contributions, our approach is able to estimate the proper GTR of the Hawaiian swell. A high GTR of 8 m/km is recovered on the current hotspot location. Therefore, for the first time, the recovered GTR agrees with realistic geodynamic models of the Hawaiian plume. Accordingly, the thermal rejuvenation model can be ruled out by our analysis. Instead, the swell as a whole is shown to be mainly supported dynamically by the uprising Hawaiian plume

  11. Nā Inoa Hōkū: Hawaiian and Polynesian star names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.; Kaipo Mahelona, John; Kawena Johnson, Rubellite

    2015-08-01

    important new light on beliefs and practices brought to the Hawaiian Islands by the earliest Polynesian settlers.

  12. Demographic patterns in the peacock grouper (Cephalopholis argus), an introduced Hawaiian reef fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, Mary K.; Friedlander, Alan M.; DeMartini, Edward E.; Donahue, Megan J.; Williams, Ivor D.

    2013-01-01

    This study took advantage of a unique opportunity to collect large sample sizes of a coral reef fish species across a range of physical and biological features of the Hawaiian Archipelago to investigate variability in the demography of an invasive predatory coral reef fish, Cephalopholis argus (Family: Epinephelidae). Age-based demographic analyses were conducted at 10 locations in the main Hawaiian Islands and estimates of weight-at-length, size-at-age, and longevity were compared among locations. Each metric differed among locations, although patterns were not consistent across metrics. Length-weight relationships for C. argus differed among locations and individuals weighed less at a given length at Hilo, the southernmost location studied. Longevity differed among and within islands and was greater at locations on Maui and Hawaii compared to the more northern locations on Oahu and Kauai. Within-island growth patterns differed at Kauai, Oahu, and Hawaii. This work provides a case study of fundamental life history information from distant and/or spatially limited locations that are critical for developing robust fishery models. The differences observed both among and within islands indicate that variability may be driven by cross-scale mechanisms that need to be considered in fisheries stock assessments and ecosystem-based management.

  13. GRBs and Lobster Eye X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2013-07-01

    A large majority of GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. We show that the wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs.

  14. Hawaiian Language Immersion Adoption of an Innovation: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong, D. Lilinoe

    2012-01-01

    This is a story about some Native Hawaiian people written by Native Hawaiian people of the Papahana Kaiapuni, or the Hawaiian Language Immersion Program (HLIP) of the Hawai`i public schools. Together they "talk story" and become the voice for the HLIP by painting a picture of their past, present, and future experiences with technology.…

  15. Navigating Rough Waters: Hawaiian Science Teachers Discuss Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaire, Franklin S.

    2013-01-01

    Research with Native Hawaiian science teachers is contributing to a better understanding of issues relating to equity in science education, and toward improving science curriculum to support Native Hawaiian students as well as support systems for Native Hawaiian students interested in pursuing higher education and science-based careers.…

  16. Adversity and Resiliency in the Lives of Native Hawaiian Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Colette V.; Mokuau, Noreen; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2009-01-01

    Native Hawaiians constitute 401,000 or 0.1 percent of the total U.S. population, with approximately 60 percent residing in the state of Hawai'i. In Hawai'i, Native Hawaiian elders ("na kupuna") face a number of social and health disparities when compared with their non-Native Hawaiian counterparts: higher rates of poverty, greater disability…

  17. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  18. The gamma-ray burst monitor for Lobster-ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amati, L.; Frontera, F.; Auricchio, N.; Caroli, E.; Basili, A.; Bogliolo, A.; di Domenico, G.; Franceschini, T.; Guidorzi, C.; Landini, G.; Masetti, N.; Montanari, E.; Orlandini, M.; Palazzi, E.; Silvestri, S.; Stephen, J. B.; Ventura, G.

    2006-01-01

    Lobster-ISS is an X-ray all-sky monitor experiment selected by ESA two years ago for a Phase A study (now almost completed) for a future flight (2009) aboard the Columbus Exposed Payload Facility of the International Space Station. The main instrument, based on MCP optics with Lobster-eye geometry, has an energy passband from 0.1 to 3.5 keV, an unprecedented daily sensitivity of 2 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1, and it is capable to scan, during each orbit, the entire sky with an angular resolution of 4 6‧. This X-ray telescope is flanked by a Gamma Ray Burst Monitor, with the minimum requirement of recognizing true GRBs from other transient events. In this paper we describe the GRBM. In addition to the minimum requirement, the instrument proposed is capable to roughly localize GRBs which occur in the Lobster FOV (162 × 22.5°) and to significantly extend the scientific capabilities of the main instrument for the study of GRBs and X-ray transients. The combination of the two instruments will allow an unprecedented spectral coverage (from 0.1 up to 300/700 keV) for a sensitive study of the GRB prompt emission in the passband where GRBs and X-Ray Flashes emit most of their energy. The low-energy spectral band (0.1 10 keV) is of key importance for the study of the GRB environment and the search of transient absorption and emission features from GRBs, both goals being crucial for unveiling the GRB phenomenon. The entire energy band of Lobster-ISS is not covered by either the Swift satellite or other GRB missions foreseen in the next decade.

  19. Transcriptional responses to teflubenzuron exposure in European lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Samuelsen, Ole B; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth; Lunestad, Bjørn T

    2015-10-01

    Increasing use of pharmaceutical drugs to delouse farmed salmon raises environmental concerns. This study describes an experiment carried out to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the antiparasitic drug teflubenzuron on a non-target species, the European lobster. Juvenile lobsters (10.3±0.9 mm carapace length) were fed two environmentally relevant doses of teflubenzuron, corresponding to 5 and 20% of a standard salmon medication (10 mg/kg day), termed low and high dose in this study. After 114 days of dietary exposure, whole-animal accumulation of teflubenzuron was determined. One claw from each animal was collected for transcriptional analysis. Overall, exposed animals showed low cumulative mortality. Six animals, two from the low dose treatment and four from the high dose, showed exoskeletal abnormalities (claw deformities or stiff walking legs). Residual levels of teflubenzuron in juvenile lobster were 2.7-fold higher in the high dose (282 ng/g) compared to the low dose treatment (103 ng/g). The transcriptional examination showed significant effects of teflubenzuron on 21 out of 39 studied genes. At the transcriptional level, environmentally relevant levels of the anti-salmon lice drug impacted genes linked to drug detoxification (cyp3a, cyp6a2, cyp302a, sult1b1, abcc4), cellular stress (hsp70, hsp90, chh), oxidative stress (cat, gpx3) and DNA damage (p53), as well as molting and exoskeleton regulation (chi3l1, ecr, jhl1, chs1, ctbs, gap65, jhel-ces1) in claw tissue (muscle and exoskeleton). In conclusion, teflubenzuron at sub-lethal levels can affect many molecular mechanisms in European lobster claws.

  20. Transcriptional responses to teflubenzuron exposure in European lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Samuelsen, Ole B; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth; Lunestad, Bjørn T

    2015-10-01

    Increasing use of pharmaceutical drugs to delouse farmed salmon raises environmental concerns. This study describes an experiment carried out to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the antiparasitic drug teflubenzuron on a non-target species, the European lobster. Juvenile lobsters (10.3±0.9 mm carapace length) were fed two environmentally relevant doses of teflubenzuron, corresponding to 5 and 20% of a standard salmon medication (10 mg/kg day), termed low and high dose in this study. After 114 days of dietary exposure, whole-animal accumulation of teflubenzuron was determined. One claw from each animal was collected for transcriptional analysis. Overall, exposed animals showed low cumulative mortality. Six animals, two from the low dose treatment and four from the high dose, showed exoskeletal abnormalities (claw deformities or stiff walking legs). Residual levels of teflubenzuron in juvenile lobster were 2.7-fold higher in the high dose (282 ng/g) compared to the low dose treatment (103 ng/g). The transcriptional examination showed significant effects of teflubenzuron on 21 out of 39 studied genes. At the transcriptional level, environmentally relevant levels of the anti-salmon lice drug impacted genes linked to drug detoxification (cyp3a, cyp6a2, cyp302a, sult1b1, abcc4), cellular stress (hsp70, hsp90, chh), oxidative stress (cat, gpx3) and DNA damage (p53), as well as molting and exoskeleton regulation (chi3l1, ecr, jhl1, chs1, ctbs, gap65, jhel-ces1) in claw tissue (muscle and exoskeleton). In conclusion, teflubenzuron at sub-lethal levels can affect many molecular mechanisms in European lobster claws. PMID:26318677

  1. The Spectral Sensitivity of Crayfish and Lobster Vision

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Donald; Bruno, Merle S.

    1961-01-01

    (1) The spectral sensitivity function for the compound eye of the crayfish has been determined by recording the retinal action potentials elicited by monochromatic stimuli. Its peak lies at approximately 570 mµ. (2) Similar measurements made on lobster eyes yield functions with maxima in the region of 520 to 525 mµ, which agree well with the absorption spectrum of lobster rhodopsin if minor allowances are made for distortion by known screening pigments. (3) The crayfish sensitivity function, since it is unaffected by selective monochromatic light adaptation, must be determined by a single photosensitive pigment. The absorption maximum of this pigment may be inferred with reasonable accuracy from the sensitivity data. (4) The visual pigment of the crayfish thus has its maximum absorption displaced by 50 to 60 mµ towards the red end of the spectrum from that of the lobster and other marine crustacea. This shift parallels that found in both rod and cone pigments between fresh water and marine vertebrates. In the crayfish, however, an altered protein is responsible for the shift and not a new carotenoid chromophore as in the vertebrates. (5) The existence of this situation in a new group of animals (with photoreceptors which have been evolved independently from those of vertebrates) strengthens the view that there may be strong selection for long wavelength visual sensitivity in fresh water. PMID:13752502

  2. The spectral sensitivity of crayfish and lobster vision.

    PubMed

    KENNEDY, D; BRUNO, M S

    1961-07-01

    (1) The spectral sensitivity function for the compound eye of the crayfish has been determined by recording the retinal action potentials elicited by monochromatic stimuli. Its peak lies at approximately 570 mmicro. (2) Similar measurements made on lobster eyes yield functions with maxima in the region of 520 to 525 mmicro, which agree well with the absorption spectrum of lobster rhodopsin if minor allowances are made for distortion by known screening pigments. (3) The crayfish sensitivity function, since it is unaffected by selective monochromatic light adaptation, must be determined by a single photosensitive pigment. The absorption maximum of this pigment may be inferred with reasonable accuracy from the sensitivity data. (4) The visual pigment of the crayfish thus has its maximum absorption displaced by 50 to 60 mmicro towards the red end of the spectrum from that of the lobster and other marine crustacea. This shift parallels that found in both rod and cone pigments between fresh water and marine vertebrates. In the crayfish, however, an altered protein is responsible for the shift and not a new carotenoid chromophore as in the vertebrates. (5) The existence of this situation in a new group of animals (with photoreceptors which have been evolved independently from those of vertebrates) strengthens the view that there may be strong selection for long wavelength visual sensitivity in fresh water.

  3. Bitentaculate Cirratulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the northwestern Pacific Islands with description of nine new species.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Wagner F; Bailey-Brock, Julie H

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen cirratulid species from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall Islands are described. Nine species are new to science: Aphelochaeta arizonae sp. nov., Aphelochaeta honouliuli sp. nov., Caulleriella cordiformia sp. nov., Chaetozone michellae sp. nov., Chaetozone ronaldi sp. nov., Monticellina anterobranchiata sp. nov., Monticellina hanaumaensis sp. nov., and Tharyx tumulosa sp. nov., from Oahu, Hawaii and Aphelochaeta saipanensis sp. nov., from Saipan in the Mariana Islands. Dodecaceria fewkesi and Monticellina nr. cryptica are newly recorded from the Hawaiian Islands. Dodecaceria laddi is widely distributed in the western Pacific and material collected from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall islands is described. We provide SEM photographs for all species in addition to line drawings and methyl green staining pattern photographs for the new species.

  4. High genetic diversity in a remote island population system: sans sex.

    PubMed

    Karlin, Eric F; Hotchkiss, Sara C; Boles, Sandra B; Stenøien, Hans K; Hassel, Kristian; Flatberg, Kjell I; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    It has been proposed that long-distance dispersal of mosses to the Hawaiian Islands rarely occurs and that the Hawaiian population of the allopolyploid peat moss Sphagnum palustre probably resulted from a single dispersal event. Here, we used microsatellites to investigate whether the Hawaiian population of the dioicous S. palustre had a single founder and to compare its genetic diversity to that found in populations of S. palustre in other regions. The genetic diversity of the Hawaiian population is comparable to that of larger population systems. Several lines of evidence, including a lack of sporophytes and an apparently restricted natural distribution, suggest that sexual reproduction is absent in the Hawaiian plants. In addition, all samples of Hawaiian S. palustre share a genetic trait rare in other populations. Time to most recent ancestor (TMRCA) analysis indicates that the Hawaiian population was probably founded 49-51 kyr ago. It appears that all Hawaiian plants of S. palustre descend from a single founder via vegetative propagation. The long-term viability of this clonal population coupled with the development of significant genetic diversity suggests that vegetative propagation in a moss does not necessarily preclude evolutionary success in the long term.

  5. Stable Isotopic Insights into the Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Marine Predator, the Hawaiian Petrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, A. E.; Ostrom, P. H.; James, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    Seabirds play vital roles in their ecosystems, both as predators in their oceanic foraging grounds and conduits of marine nutrients to island nesting sites. Despite growing evidence that food availability limits seabird populations, characterization of the diet and even foraging locations of some seabird species remains elusive. Here, we use stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes to study the foraging ecology of an endangered and poorly known seabird, the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis). This species nests solely on the main Hawaiian Islands but forages widely across the NE Pacific, sometimes traveling over 10,000km on single foraging trips. δ13C and δ15N values vary with trophic level and at the base of food webs throughout the marine range of the Hawaiian petrel. Thus, we are able to use isotope signatures in modern and ancient petrel tissues to track spatial and temporal variation in foraging location and diet. We find strong evidence of foraging segregation between populations, with hatch-year birds from the island of Hawaii exhibiting feather δ15N and δ13C values over 3‰ and 1 ‰ higher, respectively, than those found in Maui and Kauai hatch-year birds. There is also significant variation in δ15N values between feathers from Kauai, Hawaii, and Maui adults, indicating additional foraging segregation during the winter molt. To distinguish between the effects of trophic level and foraging location, we relate our data to those from seabirds with known diet and foraging location, as well as to previous characterizations of isoscapes in the NE Pacific and at-sea observations of our study species. Finally, we track Hawaiian petrel foraging ecology back in time through examination of stable isotope values in historical feathers and ancient bone collagen. We find that, despite a species-wide decline in δ15N values (consistent with trophic level decline), populations have maintained divergent isotopic niches through at least the past 1

  6. Which Fishers Are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Caribbean Lobster Fishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster "Panulirus argus") is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a way to…

  7. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one...

  8. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one...

  9. 77 FR 50642 - Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 11; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ...: Correction On July 27, 2012 (77 FR 44168, July 27, 2012), incorrect latitudinal coordinates for Lobster Trap... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 640 RIN 0648-BB44 Spiny Lobster Fishery of the... Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Regions that...

  10. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Area 1 trap limits. The Area 1 trap limit is 800 traps. Federally permitted lobster fishing vessels shall not fish with, deploy in, possess in, or haul back...

  11. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one...

  12. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one...

  13. 76 FR 75488 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... (spiny lobster) in the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico off the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico... Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South... 10 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and...

  14. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  15. Large-scale range collapse of Hawaiian forest birds under climate change and the need 21st century conservation options

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fortini, Lucas; Vorsino, Adam E.; Amidon, Fred A.; Paxton, Eben; Jacobi, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria's life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations.

  16. Large-Scale Range Collapse of Hawaiian Forest Birds under Climate Change and the Need 21st Century Conservation Options

    PubMed Central

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Vorsino, Adam E.; Amidon, Fred A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Jacobi, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria’s life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations. PMID:26509270

  17. Habitat surrounding patch reefs influences the diet and nutrition of the western rock lobster

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study the influence of habitat on the diet and nutrition of a common reef-associated generalist consumer, the western rock lobster Panulirus cygnus, was tested. Stable isotopes (13C/12C and 15N/14N) and gut contents were used to assess the diet of lobsters collected from ...

  18. Cuticles of European and American lobsters harbor diverse bacterial species and differ in disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Davies, Charlotte E; Kim, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Wootton, Emma C; Chistoserdov, Andrei; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-06-01

    Diseases of lobster shells have a significant impact on fishing industries but the risk of disease transmission between different lobster species has yet to be properly investigated. This study compared bacterial biofilm communities from American (Homarus americanus) and European lobsters (H. gammarus), to assess both healthy cuticle and diseased cuticle during lesion formation. Culture-independent molecular techniques revealed diversity in the bacterial communities of cuticle biofilms both within and between the two lobster species, and identified three bacterial genera associated with shell lesions plus two putative beneficial bacterial species (detected exclusively in healthy cuticle or healing damaged cuticle). In an experimental aquarium shared between American and European lobsters, heterospecific transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria appeared to be very limited; however, the claws of European lobsters were more likely to develop lesions when reared in the presence of American lobsters. Aquarium biofilms were also examined but revealed no candidate pathogens for environmental transmission. Aquimarina sp. 'homaria' (a potential pathogen associated with a severe epizootic form of shell disease) was detected at a much higher prevalence among American than European lobsters, but its presence correlated more with exacerbation of existing lesions rather than with lesion initiation. PMID:24817518

  19. Cuticles of European and American lobsters harbor diverse bacterial species and differ in disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Davies, Charlotte E; Kim, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Wootton, Emma C; Chistoserdov, Andrei; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of lobster shells have a significant impact on fishing industries but the risk of disease transmission between different lobster species has yet to be properly investigated. This study compared bacterial biofilm communities from American (Homarus americanus) and European lobsters (H. gammarus), to assess both healthy cuticle and diseased cuticle during lesion formation. Culture-independent molecular techniques revealed diversity in the bacterial communities of cuticle biofilms both within and between the two lobster species, and identified three bacterial genera associated with shell lesions plus two putative beneficial bacterial species (detected exclusively in healthy cuticle or healing damaged cuticle). In an experimental aquarium shared between American and European lobsters, heterospecific transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria appeared to be very limited; however, the claws of European lobsters were more likely to develop lesions when reared in the presence of American lobsters. Aquarium biofilms were also examined but revealed no candidate pathogens for environmental transmission. Aquimarina sp. ‘homaria’ (a potential pathogen associated with a severe epizootic form of shell disease) was detected at a much higher prevalence among American than European lobsters, but its presence correlated more with exacerbation of existing lesions rather than with lesion initiation. PMID:24817518

  20. 78 FR 35217 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... fishery could potentially involve limiting access to Federal Lobster Conservation Management Areas (64 FR... comment on the issue on September 5, 2002 (67 FR 56800). When the Commission added effort control as a... separate the effort control rulemakings from lobster brood stock protection rulemakings (70 FR 24495,...

  1. 76 FR 71501 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) in the Federal Register (74 FR 67) to notify the... Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes new Federal American lobster regulations that would limit...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665—Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126...

  3. 33 CFR 100.111 - Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME. 100.111 Section 100.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.111 Stonington Lobster...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665—Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665—Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126...

  6. Host behavior alters spiny lobster-viral disease dynamics: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Thomas W; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    Social behavior confers numerous benefits to animals but also risks, among them an increase in the spread of pathogenic diseases. We examined the trade-off between risk of predation and disease transmission under different scenarios of host spatial structure and disease avoidance behavior using a spatially explicit, individual-based model of the host pathogen interaction between juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) and Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Spiny lobsters are normally social but modify their behavior to avoid diseased conspecifics, a potentially effective means of reducing transmission but one rarely observed in the wild. We found that without lobster avoidance of diseased conspecifics, viral outbreaks grew in intensity and duration in simulations until the virus was maintained continuously at unrealistically high levels. However, when we invoked disease avoidance at empirically observed levels, the intensity and duration of outbreaks was reduced and the disease extirpated within five years. Increased lobster (host) spatial aggregation mimicking that which occurs when sponge shelters for lobsters are diminished by harmful algal blooms, did not significantly increase PaV1 transmission or persistence in lobster populations. On the contrary, behavioral aversion of diseased conspecifics effectively reduced viral prevalence, even when shelters were limited, which reduced shelter availability for all lobsters but increased predation, especially of infected lobsters. Therefore, avoidance of diseased conspecifics selects against transmission by contact, promotes alternative modes of transmission, and results in a more resilient host-pathogen system.

  7. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665—Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665—Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126...

  9. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of...

  10. Host behavior alters spiny lobster-viral disease dynamics: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Thomas W; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    Social behavior confers numerous benefits to animals but also risks, among them an increase in the spread of pathogenic diseases. We examined the trade-off between risk of predation and disease transmission under different scenarios of host spatial structure and disease avoidance behavior using a spatially explicit, individual-based model of the host pathogen interaction between juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) and Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Spiny lobsters are normally social but modify their behavior to avoid diseased conspecifics, a potentially effective means of reducing transmission but one rarely observed in the wild. We found that without lobster avoidance of diseased conspecifics, viral outbreaks grew in intensity and duration in simulations until the virus was maintained continuously at unrealistically high levels. However, when we invoked disease avoidance at empirically observed levels, the intensity and duration of outbreaks was reduced and the disease extirpated within five years. Increased lobster (host) spatial aggregation mimicking that which occurs when sponge shelters for lobsters are diminished by harmful algal blooms, did not significantly increase PaV1 transmission or persistence in lobster populations. On the contrary, behavioral aversion of diseased conspecifics effectively reduced viral prevalence, even when shelters were limited, which reduced shelter availability for all lobsters but increased predation, especially of infected lobsters. Therefore, avoidance of diseased conspecifics selects against transmission by contact, promotes alternative modes of transmission, and results in a more resilient host-pathogen system. PMID:25230484

  11. Surface Structures of Hawaiian Lavas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, S. K.; Walker, G. P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Surface and internal lava structures can be valid indicators of lava viscosity and rheology, provided that care is taken to identify and eliminate structures which are strain-rate-dependent. Here, a spectrum of types among Hawaiian basaltic flows is found ranging from pahoehoe to a'a, that are interpreted as marking a progression in lava viscosity and a change in rheology. The most fluid type in this spectrum is normal pahoehoe that has a smooth but commonly wrinkled or folded (ropy) surface. The next type, distinctly more viscous and probably non-Newtonian in rheology, is spiny pahoehoe which is characterized by a spinose surface and an absence of ropy structures. Preliminary studies on the long lavas of Mauna Loa indicated, perhaps surprisingly, that there is no clear-cut correlation of lava length with type in this spectrum of lavas, indicating that viscosity/yield strength of the basaltic lavas per se are not the primary controls determining flow length. Flowage of the lava through lava tubes, while it may help to account for the long flow distance of some lavas, is not a generally applicable explanation for long flow length.

  12. Osmometrically determined characteristics of the cell membrane of squid and lobster giant axons.

    PubMed

    Freeman, A R; Reuben, J P; Brandt, P W; Grundfest, H

    1966-11-01

    Lobster and squid giant nerve fibers respond differently when subjected to osmotic challenges. The axons proper, as distinct from the total (fiber) complex formed by the axon and connective sheath, both behave as "fast" osmometers for changes in the concentration of NaCl, but the maximum degree of swelling in hyposmotic media is by about 60% in lobster and only by 20% in squid. The relative volume intercepts of the van't Hoff relation are about 0.2 for lobster and 0.4 for squid. The sheaths of both axons undergo only small, apparently passive changes in volume. Lobster axons are permeable to Cl, but squid axons are impermeable to this anion. Lobster axons are also permeable to glycerol. The implications of the data as to the nature of volume regulation of cells are discussed.

  13. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  14. Surveys on the distribution and abundance of the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) in the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the District of Puna, Hawaii. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Dwyer, J.; Viggiano, A.; Nielsen, B.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1994-08-01

    In 1993 the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) entered into an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct wildlife surveys relative to identifying potential impacts of geothermal resource development on the native biota of the east rift zone of Kilauea volcano in the Puna district on the island of Hawaii. This report presents data on the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat (Hawaiian bat), or opeapea (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), within the proposed Hawaii geothermal subzones. Potential effects of geothermal development on Hawaiian bat populations are also discussed. Surveys were conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of bats throughout the District of Puna. Baseline information was collected to evaluate the status of bats within the study area and to identify important foraging habitats. Little specific data exists in the published literature on the population status and potential limiting factors affecting the Hawaiian bat. A USFWS recovery plan does not exist for this endangered species.

  15. A Holistic View of Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization in Lobster: Digestion, Postprandial Nutrient Flux, and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A.; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2–6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6–12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID

  16. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients.

  17. Using molecular prey detection to quantify rock lobster predation on barrens-forming sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Redd, K S; Ling, S D; Frusher, S D; Jarman, S; Johnson, C R

    2014-08-01

    We apply qPCR molecular techniques to detect in situ rates of consumption of sea urchins (Centrostephanus rodgersii and Heliocidaris erythrogramma) by rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii). A non-lethal method was used to source faecal samples from trap-caught lobsters over 2 years within two no-take research reserves. There was high variability in the proportion of lobsters with faeces positive for sea urchin DNA across years and seasons dependent on lobster size. Independent estimates of lobster predation rate on sea urchins (determined from observed declines in urchin abundances in the reserves relative to control sites) suggest that rates of molecular prey detection generally overestimated predation rates. Also, small lobsters known to be incapable of directly predating emergent sea urchins showed relatively high rates of positive tests. These results indicate that some lobsters ingest non-predatory sources of sea urchin DNA, which may include (i) ingestion of C. rodgersii DNA from the benthos (urchin DNA is detectable in sediments and some lobsters yield urchin DNA in faeces when fed urchin faeces or sediment); (ii) scavenging; and/or predation by rock lobsters on small pre-emergent urchins that live cryptically within the reef matrix (although this possibility could not be assessed). While the DNA-based approach and direct monitoring of urchin populations both indicate high predation rates of large lobsters on emergent urchins, the study shows that in some cases absolute predation rates and inferences of predator-prey interactions cannot be reliably estimated from molecular signals obtained from the faeces of benthic predators. At a broad semi-quantitative level, the approach is useful to identify relative magnitudes of predation and temporal and spatial variability in predation.

  18. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

  19. Effect of magnetic pulses on Caribbean spiny lobsters: implications for magnetoreception.

    PubMed

    Ernst, David A; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2016-06-15

    The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, is a migratory crustacean that uses Earth's magnetic field as a navigational cue, but how these lobsters detect magnetic fields is not known. Magnetic material thought to be magnetite has previously been detected in spiny lobsters, but its role in magnetoreception, if any, remains unclear. As a first step toward investigating whether lobsters might have magnetite-based magnetoreceptors, we subjected lobsters to strong, pulsed magnetic fields capable of reversing the magnetic dipole moment of biogenic magnetite crystals. Lobsters were subjected to a single pulse directed from posterior to anterior and either: (1) parallel to the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field (i.e. toward magnetic north); or (2) antiparallel to the horizontal field (i.e. toward magnetic south). An additional control group was handled but not subjected to a magnetic pulse. After treatment, each lobster was tethered in a water-filled arena located within 200 m of the capture location and allowed to walk in any direction. Control lobsters walked in seemingly random directions and were not significantly oriented as a group. In contrast, the two groups exposed to pulsed fields were significantly oriented in approximately opposite directions. Lobsters subjected to a magnetic pulse applied parallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component walked westward; those subjected to a pulse directed antiparallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component oriented approximately northeast. The finding that a magnetic pulse alters subsequent orientation behavior is consistent with the hypothesis that magnetoreception in spiny lobsters is based at least partly on magnetite-based magnetoreceptors. PMID:27045095

  20. Origin, adaptive radiation and diversification of the Hawaiian lobeliads (Asterales: Campanulaceae).

    PubMed

    Givnish, Thomas J; Millam, Kendra C; Mast, Austin R; Paterson, Thomas B; Theim, Terra J; Hipp, Andrew L; Henss, Jillian M; Smith, James F; Wood, Kenneth R; Sytsma, Kenneth J

    2009-02-01

    The endemic Hawaiian lobeliads are exceptionally species rich and exhibit striking diversity in habitat, growth form, pollination biology and seed dispersal, but their origins and pattern of diversification remain shrouded in mystery. Up to five independent colonizations have been proposed based on morphological differences among extant taxa. We present a molecular phylogeny showing that the Hawaiian lobeliads are the product of one immigration event; that they are the largest plant clade on any single oceanic island or archipelago; that their ancestor arrived roughly 13 Myr ago; and that this ancestor was most likely woody, wind-dispersed, bird-pollinated, and adapted to open habitats at mid-elevations. Invasion of closed tropical forests is associated with evolution of fleshy fruits. Limited dispersal of such fruits in wet-forest understoreys appears to have accelerated speciation and led to a series of parallel adaptive radiations in Cyanea, with most species restricted to single islands. Consistency of Cyanea diversity across all tall islands except Hawai ;i suggests that diversification of Cyanea saturates in less than 1.5 Myr. Lobeliad diversity appears to reflect a hierarchical adaptive radiation in habitat, then elevation and flower-tube length, and provides important insights into the pattern and tempo of diversification in a species-rich clade of tropical plants.