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Sample records for hazard classification system

  1. A complete electrical hazard classification system and its application

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Lloyd B; Cartelli, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, NFPA 70E, and relevant OSHA electrical safety standards evolved to address the hazards of 60-Hz power that are faced primarily by electricians, linemen, and others performing facility and utility work. This leaves a substantial gap in the management of electrical hazards in Research and Development (R&D) and specialized high voltage and high power equipment. Examples include lasers, accelerators, capacitor banks, electroplating systems, induction and dielectric heating systems, etc. Although all such systems are fed by 50/60 Hz alternating current (ac) power, we find substantial use of direct current (dc) electrical energy, and the use of capacitors, inductors, batteries, and radiofrequency (RF) power. The electrical hazards of these forms of electricity and their systems are different than for 50160 Hz power. Over the past 10 years there has been an effort to develop a method of classifying all of the electrical hazards found in all types of R&D and utilization equipment. Examples of the variation of these hazards from NFPA 70E include (a) high voltage can be harmless, if the available current is sufficiently low, (b) low voltage can be harmful if the available current/power is high, (c) high voltage capacitor hazards are unique and include severe reflex action, affects on the heart, and tissue damage, and (d) arc flash hazard analysis for dc and capacitor systems are not provided in existing standards. This work has led to a comprehensive electrical hazard classification system that is based on various research conducted over the past 100 years, on analysis of such systems in R&D, and on decades of experience. Initially, national electrical safety codes required the qualified worker only to know the source voltage to determine the shock hazard. Later, as arc flash hazards were understood, the fault current and clearing time were needed. These items are still insufficient to fully characterize all types of

  2. Hazard Classification of Household Chemical Products in Korea according to the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and labeling of Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to review the validity of the need for the application of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) to household chemical products in Korea. The study also aimed to assess the severity of health and environmental hazards of household chemical products using the GHS. Methods 135 products were classified as ‘cleaning agents and polishing agents’ and 98 products were classified as ‘bleaches, disinfectants, and germicides.’ The current status of carcinogenic classification of GHS and carcinogenicity was examined for 272 chemical substances contained in household chemical products by selecting the top 11 products for each of the product categories. In addition, the degree of toxicity was assessed through analysis of whether the standard of the Republic of Korea’s regulations on household chemical products had been exceeded or not. Results According to GHS health and environmental hazards, “acute toxicity (oral)” was found to be the highest for two product groups, ‘cleaning agents and polishing agents’, and ‘bleaches, disinfectants, and germicides’ (result of classification of 233 household chemical products) at 37.8% and 52.0% respectively. In an analysis of carcinogenicity assuming a threshold of IARC 2B for the substances in household chemical products, we found ‘cleaning agents and polishing agents’ to contain 12 chemical substances and ‘bleaches, disinfectants, and germicides’ 11 chemical substances. Conclusion Some of the household chemical products were found to have a high hazard level including acute toxicity and germ cell mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity. Establishing a hazard information delivery system including the application of GHS to household chemical products in Korea is urgent as well. PMID:24472347

  3. Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability

  4. A hazard and risk classification system for catastrophic rock slope failures in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, R.; Oppikofer, T.; Anda, E.; Blikra, L. H.; Böhme, M.; Bunkholt, H.; Dahle, H.; Devoli, G.; Eikenæs, O.; Fischer, L.; Harbitz, C. B.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Loew, S.; Yugsi Molina, F. X.

    2012-04-01

    The Geological Survey of Norway carries out systematic geologic mapping of potentially unstable rock slopes in Norway that can cause a catastrophic failure. As catastrophic failure we describe failures that involve substantial fragmentation of the rock mass during run-out and that impact an area larger than that of a rock fall (shadow angle of ca. 28-32° for rock falls). This includes therefore rock slope failures that lead to secondary effects, such as a displacement wave when impacting a water body or damming of a narrow valley. Our systematic mapping revealed more than 280 rock slopes with significant postglacial deformation, which might represent localities of large future rock slope failures. This large number necessitates prioritization of follow-up activities, such as more detailed investigations, periodic monitoring and permanent monitoring and early-warning. In the past hazard and risk were assessed qualitatively for some sites, however, in order to compare sites so that political and financial decisions can be taken, it was necessary to develop a quantitative hazard and risk classification system. A preliminary classification system was presented and discussed with an expert group of Norwegian and international experts and afterwards adapted following their recommendations. This contribution presents the concept of this final hazard and risk classification that should be used in Norway in the upcoming years. Historical experience and possible future rockslide scenarios in Norway indicate that hazard assessment of large rock slope failures must be scenario-based, because intensity of deformation and present displacement rates, as well as the geological structures activated by the sliding rock mass can vary significantly on a given slope. In addition, for each scenario the run-out of the rock mass has to be evaluated. This includes the secondary effects such as generation of displacement waves or landslide damming of valleys with the potential of later

  5. A hazard and risk classification system for catastrophic rock slope failures in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, R.; Oppikofer, T.; Anda, E.; Blikra, L. H.; Böhme, M.; Bunkholt, H.; Dahle, H.; Devoli, G.; Eikenæs, O.; Fischer, L.; Harbitz, C. B.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Loew, S.; Yugsi Molina, F. X.

    2012-04-01

    The Geological Survey of Norway carries out systematic geologic mapping of potentially unstable rock slopes in Norway that can cause a catastrophic failure. As catastrophic failure we describe failures that involve substantial fragmentation of the rock mass during run-out and that impact an area larger than that of a rock fall (shadow angle of ca. 28-32° for rock falls). This includes therefore rock slope failures that lead to secondary effects, such as a displacement wave when impacting a water body or damming of a narrow valley. Our systematic mapping revealed more than 280 rock slopes with significant postglacial deformation, which might represent localities of large future rock slope failures. This large number necessitates prioritization of follow-up activities, such as more detailed investigations, periodic monitoring and permanent monitoring and early-warning. In the past hazard and risk were assessed qualitatively for some sites, however, in order to compare sites so that political and financial decisions can be taken, it was necessary to develop a quantitative hazard and risk classification system. A preliminary classification system was presented and discussed with an expert group of Norwegian and international experts and afterwards adapted following their recommendations. This contribution presents the concept of this final hazard and risk classification that should be used in Norway in the upcoming years. Historical experience and possible future rockslide scenarios in Norway indicate that hazard assessment of large rock slope failures must be scenario-based, because intensity of deformation and present displacement rates, as well as the geological structures activated by the sliding rock mass can vary significantly on a given slope. In addition, for each scenario the run-out of the rock mass has to be evaluated. This includes the secondary effects such as generation of displacement waves or landslide damming of valleys with the potential of later

  6. Children's misunderstandings of hazard warning signs in the new globally harmonized system for classification and labeling.

    PubMed

    Latham, Garry; Long, Tony; Devitt, Patric

    2013-12-01

    Accidental chemical poisoning causes more than 35 000 child deaths every year across the world, and it leads to disease, disability, and suffering for many more children. Children's ignorance of dangers and their failure to interpret hazard warning signs as intended contribute significantly to this problem. A new Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labeling is being implemented internationally with a view to unifying the current multiple and disparate national systems. This study was designed to establish a productive, effective means of teaching the new GHS warning signs to primary school children (aged 7-11 years). A pre-test, post-test, follow-up test design was employed, with a teaching intervention informed by a Delphi survey of expert opinion. Children from one school formed the experimental group (n = 49) and a second school provided a control group (n = 23). Both groups showed a gain in knowledge from pre-test to post-test, the experimental group with a larger gain but which was not statistically significant. However, longer-term retention of knowledge, as shown by the follow-up test, was statistically significantly greater in the experimental group (p = 0.001). The employment of teaching to match children's preferred learning styles, and the use of active learning were found to be related to improved retention of knowledge. Part of the study involved eliciting children's interpretation of standard hazard warning symbols, and this provoked considerable concern over the potential for dangerous misinterpretation with disastrous consequences. This article focuses on the reasons for such misconception and the action required to address this successfully in testing the intervention. PMID:23964825

  7. Towards a hazard classification system for large rock slope failures in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Reginald L.; Anda, Einar; Henderson, Iain; Dahle, Halgeir; Saintot, Aline; Harald Blikra, Lars; Bøhme, Martina; Dehls, John; Redfield, Thomas; Eiken, Trond

    2010-05-01

    Systematic rock slope analyses carried out in Norway in three different provinces in the past years has revealed more than 200 rock slopes with significant postglacial deformation, which might present localities of large future rock slope failures. This large number makes a prioritization of follow up activities necessary which was based in the past on a qualitative hazard and risk assessment. However, to compare sites so that political and financial decisions can be taken it might be useful to develop both a quantitative hazard and risk classification based on formulas. This contribution focuses on the hazard classification only. Historical experience and possible future rockslide scenarios in Norway indicate that hazard assessment of large rock slope failures is not only restricted to a magnitude, intensity and probability analyses of the rockslide event. The most critical part are the secondary effects resulting in generation of tsunamis or landslide damming of valleys with the potential of later outburst floods increasing significantly the size of the affected area. In addition, the probability analyses is not restricted to a frequency analyses as multiple rockslides have occurred within one century on a single slope while other slopes have frequencies below the recurrence of several thousand years or even higher than glacial cycles, however both frequency do not indicate necessarily which slope will fail next. Intensity estimation is in general the easiest estimate as complete destruction in the area of impact can be assessed for fast rockslides in general. The hazard assessment leading towards a hazard classification will therefore include the assessment of a potential for displacement wave and/or landslide dam formation within the magnitude analyses. The most difficult task is the probability analyses and the best approach seems to be a likelihood assessment of the occurrence of a future event for a given time period. This includes the frequency analyses of

  8. NEC Hazardous classification and compliance regarding the surface moisture monitor measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Bussell, J.H., WHC

    1996-06-12

    The National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, and National Fire Protection Association requirements for use of Surface Moisture Monitor Systems in classified locations are discussed. The design and configuration of the surface moisture monitor are analyzed with respect to how they comply with requirements of the National Electrical Code requirements, articles 500-504.

  9. Hazard Classification for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-07

    Final hazard classification for the 300 Area N Reactor fuel storage facility resulted in the assignment of Nuclear Facility Hazard Category 3 for the uranium metal fuel and feed material storage buildings (303-A, 303-B, 303-G, 3712, and 3716). Radiological for the residual uranium and thorium oxide storage building and an empty former fuel storage building that may be used for limited radioactive material storage in the future (303-K/3707-G, and 303-E), and Industrial for the remainder of the Fuel Supply Shutdown buildings (303-F/311 Tank Farm, 303-M, 313-S, 333, 334 and Tank Farm, 334-A, and MO-052).

  10. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Classification of Approved Respirators; Scope of Approval; Atmospheric Hazards; Service Time § 84.52...

  11. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Classification of Approved Respirators; Scope of Approval; Atmospheric Hazards; Service Time § 84.52...

  12. Hazard interaction analysis for multi-hazard risk assessment: a systematic classification based on hazard-forming environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Siu, Y. L.; Mitchell, G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper develops a systematic hazard interaction classification based on the geophysical environment that natural hazards arise from - the hazard-forming environment. According to their contribution to natural hazards, geophysical environmental factors in the hazard-forming environment were categorized into two types. The first are relatively stable factors which construct the precondition for the occurrence of natural hazards, whilst the second are trigger factors, which determine the frequency and magnitude of hazards. Different combinations of geophysical environmental factors induce different hazards. Based on these geophysical environmental factors for some major hazards, the stable factors are used to identify which kinds of natural hazards influence a given area, and trigger factors are used to classify the relationships between these hazards into four types: independent, mutex, parallel and series relationships. This classification helps to ensure all possible hazard interactions among different hazards are considered in multi-hazard risk assessment. This can effectively fill the gap in current multi-hazard risk assessment methods which to date only consider domino effects. In addition, based on this classification, the probability and magnitude of multiple interacting natural hazards occurring together can be calculated. Hence, the developed hazard interaction classification provides a useful tool to facilitate improved multi-hazard risk assessment.

  13. Hazard interaction analysis for multi-hazard risk assessment: a systematic classification based on hazard-forming environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baoyin; Siu, Yim Ling; Mitchell, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    This paper develops a systematic hazard interaction classification based on the geophysical environment that natural hazards arise from - the hazard-forming environment. According to their contribution to natural hazards, geophysical environmental factors in the hazard-forming environment were categorized into two types. The first are relatively stable factors which construct the precondition for the occurrence of natural hazards, whilst the second are trigger factors, which determine the frequency and magnitude of hazards. Different combinations of geophysical environmental factors induce different hazards. Based on these geophysical environmental factors for some major hazards, the stable factors are used to identify which kinds of natural hazards influence a given area, and trigger factors are used to classify the relationships between these hazards into four types: independent, mutex, parallel and series relationships. This classification helps to ensure all possible hazard interactions among different hazards are considered in multi-hazard risk assessment. This can effectively fill the gap in current multi-hazard risk assessment methods which to date only consider domino effects. In addition, based on this classification, the probability and magnitude of multiple interacting natural hazards occurring together can be calculated. Hence, the developed hazard interaction classification provides a useful tool to facilitate improved multi-hazard risk assessment.

  14. Hazard classification assessment for the High Voltage Initiator

    SciTech Connect

    Cogan, J.D.

    1994-04-19

    An investigation was conducted to determine whether the High Voltage Initiator (Sandia p number 395710; Navy NAVSEA No. 6237177) could be assigned a Department of Transportation (DOT) hazard classification of ``IGNITERS, 1.4G, UN0325`` under Code of Federal Regulations, 49 CFR 173.101, when packaged per Mound drawing NXB911442. A hazard classification test was performed, and the test data led to a recommended hazard classification of ``IGNITERS, 1.4G, UN0325,`` based on guidance outlined in DOE Order 1540.2 and 49 CFR 173.56.

  15. Hazard categorization and classification for the sodium storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1994-08-30

    The Sodium Storage Facility is planned to be constructed in the 400 area for long term storage of sodium from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). It will contain four large sodium storage tanks. Three of the tanks have a capacity of 80,000 gallons of sodium each, and the fourth will hold 52,500 gallons. The tanks will be connected by piping with each other and to the FFTF. Sodium from the FFTF primary and secondary Heat Transport Systems (HTS), Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and the Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to the facility, and stored there in a frozen state pending final disposition. A Hazard Classification has been performed in order to evaluate the potential toxic consequences of a sodium fire according to the provisions of DOE Order 5481.1B. The conclusion of these evaluations is that the Sodium Storage Facility meets the requirements of the lowest Hazard Category, i.e., radiological facility, and the Hazard Classification is recommended to be moderate.

  16. An Easy Classification System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    File folders can be used effectively to develop and retrieve information about animal classification systems. Animal characters are drawn separately on the front side of a file cover and holes are punched next to each character. (PS)

  17. Consensus of classification trees for skin sensitisation hazard prediction.

    PubMed

    Asturiol, D; Casati, S; Worth, A

    2016-10-01

    Since March 2013, it is no longer possible to market in the European Union (EU) cosmetics containing new ingredients tested on animals. Although several in silico alternatives are available and achievements have been made in the development and regulatory adoption of skin sensitisation non-animal tests, there is not yet a generally accepted approach for skin sensitisation assessment that would fully substitute the need for animal testing. The aim of this work was to build a defined approach (i.e. a predictive model based on readouts from various information sources that uses a fixed procedure for generating a prediction) for skin sensitisation hazard prediction (sensitiser/non-sensitiser) using Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) results as reference classifications. To derive the model, we built a dataset with high quality data from in chemico (DPRA) and in vitro (KeratinoSens™ and h-CLAT) methods, and it was complemented with predictions from several software packages. The modelling exercise showed that skin sensitisation hazard was better predicted by classification trees based on in silico predictions. The defined approach consists of a consensus of two classification trees that are based on descriptors that account for protein reactivity and structural features. The model showed an accuracy of 0.93, sensitivity of 0.98, and specificity of 0.85 for 269 chemicals. In addition, the defined approach provides a measure of confidence associated to the prediction. PMID:27458072

  18. Consensus of classification trees for skin sensitisation hazard prediction.

    PubMed

    Asturiol, D; Casati, S; Worth, A

    2016-10-01

    Since March 2013, it is no longer possible to market in the European Union (EU) cosmetics containing new ingredients tested on animals. Although several in silico alternatives are available and achievements have been made in the development and regulatory adoption of skin sensitisation non-animal tests, there is not yet a generally accepted approach for skin sensitisation assessment that would fully substitute the need for animal testing. The aim of this work was to build a defined approach (i.e. a predictive model based on readouts from various information sources that uses a fixed procedure for generating a prediction) for skin sensitisation hazard prediction (sensitiser/non-sensitiser) using Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) results as reference classifications. To derive the model, we built a dataset with high quality data from in chemico (DPRA) and in vitro (KeratinoSens™ and h-CLAT) methods, and it was complemented with predictions from several software packages. The modelling exercise showed that skin sensitisation hazard was better predicted by classification trees based on in silico predictions. The defined approach consists of a consensus of two classification trees that are based on descriptors that account for protein reactivity and structural features. The model showed an accuracy of 0.93, sensitivity of 0.98, and specificity of 0.85 for 269 chemicals. In addition, the defined approach provides a measure of confidence associated to the prediction.

  19. NFPA hazardous classifications and compliance regarding the electromagnetic induction probe

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.F.; Stokes, T.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-13

    This document discusses how the Electromagnetic Induction probe complies with the hazardous locations discussed for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS). The EMI probe head was designed to interchange with the neutron probe of the SMMS.

  20. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  1. Neuromuscular disease classification system.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns. PMID:23804164

  2. Pyrotechnic hazards classification and evaluation program. Phase 3, segments 1-4: Investigation of sensitivity test methods and procedures for pyrotechnic hazards evaluation and classification, part A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The findings, conclusions, and recommendations relative to the investigations conducted to evaluate tests for classifying pyrotechnic materials and end items as to their hazard potential are presented. Information required to establish an applicable means of determining the potential hazards of pyrotechnics is described. Hazard evaluations are based on the peak overpressure or impulse resulting from the explosion as a function of distance from the source. Other hazard classification tests include dust ignition sensitivity, impact ignition sensitivity, spark ignition sensitivity, and differential thermal analysis.

  3. Using fewer animals to identify chemical eye hazards: revised criteria necessary to maintain equivalent hazard classification.

    PubMed

    Haseman, Joseph K; Allen, David G; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A; Truax, James F; Stokes, William S

    2011-10-01

    U.S. Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA) regulations specify eye safety testing procedures and hazard classification criteria for substances regulated by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). Current regulations require up to three sequential 6-animal tests. Testing consistent with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline for eye irritation/corrosion, which specifies 3 animals, can also be submitted to US agencies. However, current FHSA regulations do not provide criteria to classify results from 3-animal tests. An analysis was conducted to determine criteria using results from 3-animal tests that would provide equivalent labeling to FHSA regulations. The frequency that FHSA requirements identify substances as ocular irritants was compared with the frequency that a criterion of either ≥ 1/3 or ≥ 2/3 positive animals would identify these substances. A database of rabbit eye tests was also used to estimate over- and underprediction rates for each criterion. In each instance, a criterion of ≥ 1/3 positive animals more closely matched the expected outcome based on FHSA requirements, while a criterion of ≥ 2/3 positive animals identified far fewer irritants. Using a classification criterion of ≥ 1/3 positive animals provided equivalent or greater eye hazard labeling as current FHSA requirements, while using 50-83% fewer animals. PMID:21745525

  4. A new approach to the hazard classification of alloys based on transformation/dissolution.

    PubMed

    Skeaff, James M; Hardy, David J; King, Pierrette

    2008-01-01

    Most of the metals produced for commercial application enter into service as alloys which, together with metals and all other chemicals in commerce, are subject to a hazard identification and classification initiative now being implemented in a number of jurisdictions worldwide, including the European Union Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) initiative, effective 1 June 2007. This initiative has considerable implications for environmental protection and market access. While a method for the hazard identification and classification of metals is available in the recently developed United Nations (UN) guidance document on the Globally Harmonized System of Hazard Classification and Labelling (GHS), an approach for alloys has yet to be formulated. Within the GHS, a transformation/dissolution protocol (T/ DP) for metals and sparingly soluble metal compounds is provided as a standard laboratory method for measuring the rate and extent of the release of metals into aqueous media from metal-bearing substances. By comparison with ecotoxicity reference data, T/D data can be used to derive UN GHS classification proposals. In this study we applied the T/DP for the 1st time to several economically important metals and alloys: iron powder, nickel powder, copper powder, and the alloys Fe-2Cu-0.6C (copper = 2%, carbon = 0.6%), Fe-2Ni-0.6C, Stainless Steel 304, Monel, brass, Inconel, and nickel-silver. The iron and copper powders and the iron and nickel powders had been sintered to produce the Fe-2Me-0.6C (Me = copper or nickel) alloys which made them essentially resistant to reaction with the aqueous media, so they would not classify under the GHS, although their component copper and nickel metal powders would. Forming a protective passivating film, chromium in the Stainless Steel 304 and Inconel alloys protected them from reaction with the aqueous media, so that their metal releases were minimal and would not result in GHS classification

  5. Rock slope instabilities in Norway: First systematic hazard and risk classification of 22 unstable rock slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Martina; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Oppikofer, Thierry; Penna, Ivanna

    2016-04-01

    Unstable rock slopes that can cause large failures of the rock-avalanche type have been mapped in Norway for almost two decades. Four sites have earlier been characterized as high-risk objects based on expertise of few researchers. This resulted in installing continuous monitoring systems and set-up of an early-warning system for those four sites. Other unstable rock slopes have not been ranked related to their hazard or risk. There are ca. 300 other sites known of which 70 sites were installed for periodic deformation measurements using multiple techniques (Global Navigation Satellite Systems, extensometers, measurement bolts, and others). In 2012 a systematic hazard and risk classification system for unstable rock slopes was established in Norway and the mapping approach adapted to that in 2013. Now, the first 22 sites were classified for hazard, consequences and risk using this classification system. The selection of the first group of sites to be classified was based on an assumed high hazard or risk and importance given to the sites by Norwegian media and the public. Nine of the classified 22 unstable rock slopes are large sites that deform inhomogeneously or are strongly broken up in individual blocks. This suggests that different failure scenarios are possible that need to be analyzed individually. A total of 35 failure scenarios for those nine unstable rock slopes were considered. The hazard analyses were based on 9 geological parameters defined in the classification system. The classification system will be presented based on the Gamanjunni unstable rock slope. This slope has a well developed back scarp that exposes 150 m preceding displacement. The lateral limits of the unstable slope are clearly visible in the morphology and InSAR displacement data. There have been no single structures observed that allow sliding kinematically. The lower extend of the displacing rock mass is clearly defined in InSAR data and by a zone of higher rock fall activity. Yearly

  6. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  7. New methodology for hazardous waste classification using fuzzy set theory Part I. Knowledge acquisition.

    PubMed

    Musee, N; Lorenzen, L; Aldrich, C

    2008-06-15

    In the literature on hazardous waste classification, the criteria used are mostly based on physical properties, such as quantity (weight), form (solids, liquid, aqueous or gaseous), the type of processes generating them, or a set of predefined lists. Such classification criteria are inherently inadequate to account for the influence of toxic and hazard characteristics of the constituent chemicals in the wastes, as well as their exposure potency in multimedia environments, terrestrial mammals and other biota. Second, none of these algorithms in the literature has explicitly presented waste classification by examining the contribution of individual constituent components of the composite wastes. In this two-part paper, we propose a new automated algorithm for waste classification that takes into account physicochemical and toxicity effects of the constituent chemicals to humans and ecosystems, in addition, to the exposure potency and waste quantity. In part I, available data on the physicochemical and toxicity properties of individual chemicals in humans and ecosystems, their exposure potency in environmental systems and the effect of waste quantity are described, because they fundamentally contribute to the final waste ranking. Knowledge acquisition in this study was accomplished through the extensive review of published and specialized literature to establish facts necessary for the development of fuzzy rule-bases. Owing to the uncertainty and imprecision of various forms of data (both quantitative and qualitative) essential for waste classification, and the complexity resulting from knowledge incompleteness, the use of fuzzy set theory for the aggregation and computation of waste classification ranking index is proposed. A computer-aided intelligent decision tool is described in part II of this paper and the functionality of the fuzzy waste classification algorithm is illustrated through nine worked examples. PMID:18082951

  8. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health hazard evaluation and recall classification. 7.41 Section 7.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and Industry Responsibilities § 7.41 Health hazard evaluation and recall classification. (a)...

  9. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES... Subpart E of Part 1724—Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects The source for...

  10. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health hazard evaluation and recall classification... SERVICES GENERAL ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.41 Health hazard evaluation and recall classification. (a)...

  11. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for Coastal Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...

  12. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  13. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  14. Final Hazard Classification for the FFTF Solid Waste Cask

    SciTech Connect

    HIMES, D.A.

    2002-07-03

    The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) (a major component of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) spent fuel offload system) is a shielded, bottom-loading cask containing an internal hoist system used to transfer irradiated fuel or non-fuel components from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell (IEM Cell) to the Cask Loading Station (CLS). The SWC is assumed to be loaded with 7 irradiated fuel assemblies in a Core Component Container (CCC) having maximum average burn-ups of 150,000 MWd/MTHM. Results show that the fuel handling activities with the SWC loaded with 7 irradiated fuel assemblies in a CCC should be classified as a Category 3 hazard. This conclusion is consistent with the relative simplicity of the system and passive nature of the barriers for purposes of determining the graded approach specified in DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE 1992).

  15. Rocket propulsion hazard summary: Safety classification, handling experience and application to space shuttle payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennington, D. F.; Man, T.; Persons, B.

    1977-01-01

    The DOT classification for transportation, the military classification for quantity distance, and hazard compatibility grouping used to regulate the transportation and storage of explosives are presented along with a discussion of tests used in determining sensitivity of propellants to an impact/shock environment in the absence of a large explosive donor. The safety procedures and requirements of a Scout launch vehicle, Western and Eastern Test Range, and the Minuteman, Delta, and Poseidon programs are reviewed and summarized. Requirements of the space transportation system safety program include safety reviews from the subsystem level to the completed payload. The Scout safety procedures will satisfy a portion of these requirements but additional procedures need to be implemented to comply with the safety requirements for Shuttle operation from the Eastern Test Range.

  16. Hazard ranking systems for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites. Hazardous waste ranking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Parker, F.L.; Crutcher, M.R.

    1991-12-31

    Hazardous materials and substances have always existed in the environment. Mankind has evolved to live with some degree of exposure to toxic materials. Until recently the risk has been from natural toxins or natural background radiation. While rapid technological advances over the past few decades have improved the lifestyle of our society, they have also dramatically increased the availability, volume and types of synthetic and natural hazardous materials. Many of their effects are as yet uncertain. Products and manufacturing by-products that no longer serve a useful purpose are deemed wastes. For some waste products land disposal will always be their ultimate fate. Hazardous substances are often included in the waste products. One needs to classify wastes by degree of hazard (risk). Risk (degree of probability of loss) is usually defined for risk assessment as probability of an occurrence times the consequences of the occurrence. Perhaps even more important than the definition of risk is the choice of a risk management strategy. The choice of strategy will be strongly influenced by the decision criteria used. Those decision criteria could be utility (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), rights or technology based or some combination of the three. It is necessary to make such choices about the definition of risks and criteria for management. It is clear that these are social (i.e., political) and value choices and science has little to say on this matter. This is another example of what Alvin Weinberg has named Transcience where the subject matter is scientific and technical but the choices are social, political and moral. This paper shall deal only with the scientific and technical aspects of the hazardous waste problem to create a hazardous substances classification system.

  17. Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Brenda; Lamb, Rynn M.

    2015-07-09

    When emergencies occur, first responders and disaster response teams often need rapid access to aerial photography and satellite imagery that is acquired before and after the event. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) provides quick and easy access to pre- and post-event imagery and geospatial datasets that support emergency response and recovery operations. The HDDS provides a single, consolidated point-of-entry and distribution system for USGS-hosted remotely sensed imagery and other geospatial datasets related to an event response. The data delivery services are provided through an interactive map-based interface that allows emergency response personnel to rapidly select and download pre-event ("baseline") and post-event emergency response imagery.

  18. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials - Selection of methods

    SciTech Connect

    Weltens, R.; Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K.; Robbens, J.; Deprez, K.; Michiels, L.

    2012-12-15

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1-15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or - if not all compounds are identified - from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different types of

  19. A GHS-consistent approach to health hazard classification of petroleum substances, a class of UVCB substances.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charles R; McKee, Richard H; Freeman, James J; Swick, Derek; Mahagaokar, Suneeta; Pigram, Glenda; Roberts, Linda G; Smulders, Chantal J; Beatty, Patrick W

    2013-12-01

    The process streams refined from petroleum crude oil for use in petroleum products are among those designated by USEPA as UVCB substances (unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products and biological materials). They are identified on global chemical inventories with unique Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers and names. The chemical complexity of most petroleum substances presents challenges when evaluating their hazards and can result in differing evaluations due to the varying level of hazardous constituents and differences in national chemical control regulations. Global efforts to harmonize the identification of chemical hazards are aimed at promoting the use of consistent hazard evaluation criteria. This paper discusses a systematic approach for the health hazard evaluation of petroleum substances using chemical categories and the United Nations (UN) Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labeling. Also described are historical efforts to characterize the hazard of these substances and how they led to the development of categories, the identification of potentially hazardous constituents which should be considered, and a summary of the toxicology of the major petroleum product groups. The use of these categories can increase the utility of existing data, provide better informed hazard evaluations, and reduce the amount of animal testing required.

  20. The Hazard Notification System (HANS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedigar, S. F.; Venezky, D. Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) has developed a Hazard Notification System (HANS) for distributing volcanic activity information collected by scientists to airlines, emergency services, and the general public. In the past year, data from HANS have been used by airlines to make decisions about diverting or canceling flights during the eruption of Mount Redoubt. HANS was developed to provide a single system that each of the five U.S. volcano observatories could use for communicating and storing volcanic information about the 160+ potentially active U.S. volcanoes. The data that cover ten tables and nearly 100 fields are now stored in similar formats, and the information can be released in styles requested by our agency partners, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Currently, HANS has about 4500 reports stored; on average, two - three reports are added daily. HANS (at its most basic form) consists of a user interface for entering data into one of many release types (Daily Status Reports, Weekly Updates, Volcano Activity Notifications, etc.); a database holding previous releases as well as observatory information such as email address lists and volcano boilerplates; and a transmission system for formatting releases and sending them out by email or other web related system. The user interface to HANS is completely web based, providing access to our observatory scientists from any online PC. The underlying database stores the observatory information and drives the observatory and program websites' dynamic updates and archived information releases. HANS also runs scripts for generating several different feeds including the program home page Volcano Status Map. Each observatory has the capability of running an instance of HANS. There are currently three instances of HANS and each instance is synchronized to all other instances using a master-slave environment. Information can be entered on any node; slave nodes transmit data to the master node

  1. Preliminary Considerations for Classifying Hazards of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Miner, Paul S.; Szatkowski, George N.; Ulrey, Michael L.; DeWalt, Michael P.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft in national airspace has been characterized as the next great step forward in the evolution of civil aviation. To make routine and safe operation of these aircraft a reality, a number of technological and regulatory challenges must be overcome. This report discusses some of the regulatory challenges with respect to deriving safety and reliability requirements for unmanned aircraft. In particular, definitions of hazards and their classification are discussed and applied to a preliminary functional hazard assessment of a generic unmanned system.

  2. Assessing the potential hazard of chemical substances for the terrestrial environment. Development of hazard classification criteria and quantitative environmental indicators.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, J V; Fresno, A; Aycard, S; Ramos, C; Vega, M M; Carbonell, G

    2000-03-20

    Hazard assessment constitutes an essential tool in order to evaluate the potential effects of chemical substances on organisms and ecosystems. It includes as a first step, hazard identification, which must detect the potential dangers of the substance (i.e. the kind of effects that the substance may produce), and a second step to quantify each danger and to set the expected dose/response relationships. Hazard assessment plays a key role in the regulation of chemical substances, including pollution control and sustainable development. However, the aquatic environment has largely received more attention than terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents the extrapolation of several basic concepts from the aquatic to the terrestrial compartment, and suggests possibilities for their regulatory use. Two specific proposals are discussed. The first focuses on the scientific basis of the hazard identification-classification criteria included in the EU regulations and their extrapolation to the terrestrial environment. The second focuses on the OECD programme for environmental indicators and the development of a soil pollution pressure indicator to quantify the potential hazards for the soil compartment and its associated terrestrial ecosystem related to the toxic chemicals applied deliberately (i.e. pesticides) or not (i.e. heavy metals in sludge-based fertilisers; industrial spills) to the soil. PMID:10803544

  3. [Petroleum substances--human health hazards. I. Classification of petroleum substances on the list of dangerous substances and assessment of existing hazards].

    PubMed

    Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    Complex products derived from petroleum are widely used as fuels, greases, solvents, and intermediates in many branches of industry. Petroleum exposure-related human health hazards, observed in occupationally exposed people and in the general population, are a serious sanitary problem. Complex and variable composition of individual petroleum products makes the actual assessment of human health hazards difficult. Potential hazards, and resulting classification of individual petroleum substance groups, are discussed in the presented work. This should prove to be helpful to work safety and hygiene services as well as to supervising institutions, mainly the sanitary inspection, in a proper assessment of the hazards, and consequently in taking appropriate preventive actions. In Part I., general issues concerning the hazard assessment and legal aspects of petroleum substances classification are presented. In Part. II., individual groups of petroleum substances are discussed with respect to health hazards, resulting from both physicochemical properties and toxicity, and their classification based on this analysis is suggested. PMID:17133920

  4. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-06-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today’s waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous longterm management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by externalintrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the longterm success of the prescribed system. In fact

  5. Space vehicle propulsion systems: Environmental space hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disimile, P. J.; Bahr, G. K.

    1990-01-01

    The hazards that exist in geolunar space which may degrade, disrupt, or terminate the performance of space-based LOX/LH2 rocket engines are evaluated. Accordingly, a summary of the open literature pertaining to the geolunar space hazards is provided. Approximately 350 citations and about 200 documents and abstracts were reviewed; the documents selected give current and quantitative detail. The methodology was to categorize the various space hazards in relation to their importance in specified regions of geolunar space. Additionally, the effect of the various space hazards in relation to spacecraft and their systems were investigated. It was found that further investigation of the literature would be required to assess the effects of these hazards on propulsion systems per se; in particular, possible degrading effects on exterior nozzle structure, directional gimbals, and internal combustion chamber integrity and geometry.

  6. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  7. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  8. Early identification systems for emerging foodborne hazards.

    PubMed

    Marvin, H J P; Kleter, G A; Prandini, A; Dekkers, S; Bolton, D J

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides a non-exhausting overview of early warning systems for emerging foodborne hazards that are operating in the various places in the world. Special attention is given to endpoint-focussed early warning systems (i.e. ECDC, ISIS and GPHIN) and hazard-focussed early warning systems (i.e. FVO, RASFF and OIE) and their merit to successfully identify a food safety problem in an early stage is discussed. Besides these early warning systems which are based on monitoring of either disease symptoms or hazards, also early warning systems and/or activities that intend to predict the occurrence of a food safety hazard in its very beginning of development or before that are described. Examples are trend analysis, horizon scanning, early warning systems for mycotoxins in maize and/or wheat and information exchange networks (e.g. OIE and GIEWS). Furthermore, recent initiatives that aim to develop predictive early warning systems based on the holistic principle are discussed. The assumption of the researchers applying this principle is that developments outside the food production chain that are either directly or indirectly related to the development of a particular food safety hazard may also provide valuable information to predict the development of this hazard.

  9. Early identification systems for emerging foodborne hazards.

    PubMed

    Marvin, H J P; Kleter, G A; Prandini, A; Dekkers, S; Bolton, D J

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides a non-exhausting overview of early warning systems for emerging foodborne hazards that are operating in the various places in the world. Special attention is given to endpoint-focussed early warning systems (i.e. ECDC, ISIS and GPHIN) and hazard-focussed early warning systems (i.e. FVO, RASFF and OIE) and their merit to successfully identify a food safety problem in an early stage is discussed. Besides these early warning systems which are based on monitoring of either disease symptoms or hazards, also early warning systems and/or activities that intend to predict the occurrence of a food safety hazard in its very beginning of development or before that are described. Examples are trend analysis, horizon scanning, early warning systems for mycotoxins in maize and/or wheat and information exchange networks (e.g. OIE and GIEWS). Furthermore, recent initiatives that aim to develop predictive early warning systems based on the holistic principle are discussed. The assumption of the researchers applying this principle is that developments outside the food production chain that are either directly or indirectly related to the development of a particular food safety hazard may also provide valuable information to predict the development of this hazard. PMID:18272277

  10. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  11. JANNAF 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 16 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 17th meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the 35th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include projectile and shaped charge jet impact vulnerability of munitions; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; damage and hot spot initiation mechanisms with energetic materials; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  12. Advancing Towards a Universal Soil Classification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Phillip R.; Hempel, Jon; Micheli, Erika; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Within the variability of soils across the globe, there are common soil attributes that pedologists have used to group soil within taxonomic classifications. Classification systems are necessary for the communication of information about soils. There are many national classification systems used within designated countries and two classification systems used globally, the US Soil Taxonomy and the World Reference Base. There is a great need for soil scientists to develop one common language or taxonomic system to communicate information within soil science as well as to other scientists in other disciplines. The International Union of Soil Sciences Working Group for Universal Soil Classification was officially established by an IUSS Council decision in August of 2010 at the World Congress of Soil Science in Brisbane, Australia. The charge for the Working Group includes development of common standards for methods and terminology in soil observations and investigations and the development of a universal soil classification system. The Universal Soil Classification Working Group was established and the initial meeting was held at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana USA. The Working Group has evaluated the current national systems and the two international systems to identify gaps in knowledge. Currently, it was determined that gaps in knowledge exists in cold soil, hydromorphic, salt affected, anthropengic, and tropical soil groups. Additionally, several members of the Working Group have utilized taxonomic distance calculations from large databases to determine the clusters of similar taxonomic groupings utilizing the classification. Additionally, the databases are being used to make allocations into logical groups to recognize "Great Soil Groups". The great soil groups will be equivalent to great groups level from Soil Taxonomy along with similar levels in the World Reference Base, Australian Soil Classification and other defined soil classification systems

  13. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  14. JANNAF 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Kuckels, Melanie C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 25 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 37th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS), and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meetings. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: impact and thermal vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction and detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact loading; and hazard classification, and insensitive munitions testing of propellants and propulsion systems.

  15. Volcanic hazard warning system: Persistence and transferability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, John H.; Gersmehl, Philip J.

    1980-03-01

    This study examines the normative functioning of the volcano warning system on the Island of Hawaii. The research seeks to identify the combination of factors, both environmental and social, which allows the system to operate with success. On the basis of the findings, several recommendations are offered for improving environmental hazard warning systems.

  16. Preliminary hazards analysis of thermal scrap stabilization system. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, W.S.

    1994-08-23

    This preliminary analysis examined the HA-21I glovebox and its supporting systems for potential process hazards. Upon further analysis, the thermal stabilization system has been installed in gloveboxes HC-21A and HC-21C. The use of HC-21C and HC-21A simplified the initial safety analysis. In addition, these gloveboxes were cleaner and required less modification for operation than glovebox HA-21I. While this document refers to glovebox HA-21I for the hazards analysis performed, glovebox HC-21C is sufficiently similar that the following analysis is also valid for HC-21C. This hazards analysis document is being re-released as revision 1 to include the updated flowsheet document (Appendix C) and the updated design basis (Appendix D). The revised Process Flow Schematic has also been included (Appendix E). This Current revision incorporates the recommendations provided from the original hazards analysis as well. The System Design Description (SDD) has also been appended (Appendix H) to document the bases for Safety Classification of thermal stabilization equipment.

  17. A hazard control system for robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Ruth Chiang; Rad, Adrian

    1991-01-01

    A robot for space applications will be required to complete a variety of tasks in an uncertain, harsh environment. This fact presents unusual and highly difficult challenges to ensuring the safety of astronauts and keeping the equipment they depend on from becoming damaged. The systematic approach being taken to control hazards that could result from introducing robotics technology in the space environment is described. First, system safety management and engineering principles, techniques, and requirements are discussed as they relate to Shuttle payload design and operation in general. The concepts of hazard, hazard category, and hazard control, as defined by the Shuttle payload safety requirements, is explained. Next, it is shown how these general safety management and engineering principles are being implemented on an actual project. An example is presented of a hazard control system for controlling one of the hazards identified for the Development Test Flight (DTF-1) of NASA's Flight Telerobotic Servicer, a teleoperated space robot. How these schemes can be applied to terrestrial robots is discussed as well. The same software monitoring and control approach will insure the safe operation of a slave manipulator under teleoperated or autonomous control in undersea, nuclear, or manufacturing applications where the manipulator is working in the vicinity of humans or critical hardware.

  18. Pyrotechnic hazards classification and evaluation program. Phase 2, segment 3: Test plan for determining hazards associated with pyrotechnic manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A comprehensive test plan for determining the hazards associated with pyrotechnic manufacturing processes is presented. The rationale for each test is based on a systematic analysis of historical accounts of accidents and a detailed study of the characteristics of each manufacturing process. The most hazardous manufacturing operations have been determined to be pressing, mixing, reaming, and filling. The hazard potential of a given situation is evaluated in terms of the probabilities of initiation, communication, and transition to detonation (ICT). The characteristics which affect the ICT probabilities include the ignition mechanisms which are present either in normal or abnormal operation, the condition and properties of the pyrotechnic material, and the configuration of the processing equipment. Analytic expressions are derived which describe the physical conditions of the system, thus permitting a variety of processes to be evaluated in terms of a small number of experiments.

  19. Preliminary Hazards Assessment: Iron disulfide purification system

    SciTech Connect

    1991-07-30

    A process for the purification (washing) of iron disulfide (FeS{sub 2}) powder is conducted in the Northeast corner (Area 353) of the main plant building (Building 100). This location is about 130 feet from the fenced boundary of the Partnership School/Child Development Center. In the first steps of the process, raw iron disulfide powder is ground and separated by particle size. The ground and sized powder is then purified in a three-step acid washing process using both hydrochloric acid (HCI) and hydrofluoric (HF) acid. The iron disulfide process is an intermittent batch process conducted four to eight times a year. This study is a Preliminary Hazards Assessment (PHA) to assess the hazards associated with the iron disulfide process. This is a preliminary study and will be used to determine if additional safety analysis is necessary. The scope of the PHA includes assessment of the process steps of grinding, size classification, and purification. The purpose is to identify major hazards and determine if the current and newly added safeguards are adequate for operation. The PHA also lists recommendations for additional safety features that should be added to reduce the risks of operation.

  20. Hazard property classification of waste according to the recent propositions of the EC using different methods.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Pierre; van der Sloot, Hans A; Rebischung, Flore; Weltens, Reinhilde; Geerts, Lieve; Hjelmar, Ole

    2014-10-01

    Hazard classification of waste is a necessity, but the hazard properties (named "H" and soon "HP") are still not all defined in a practical and operational manner at EU level. Following discussion of subsequent draft proposals from the Commission there is still no final decision. Methods to implement the proposals have recently been proposed: tests methods for physical risks, test batteries for aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity, an analytical package for exhaustive determination of organic substances and mineral elements, surrogate methods for the speciation of mineral elements in mineral substances in waste, and calculation methods for human toxicity and ecotoxicity with M factors. In this paper the different proposed methods have been applied to a large assortment of solid and liquid wastes (>100). Data for 45 wastes - documented with extensive chemical analysis and flammability test - were assessed in terms of the different HP criteria and results were compared to LoW for lack of an independent classification. For most waste streams the classification matches with the designation provided in the LoW. This indicates that the criteria used by LoW are similar to the HP limit values. This data set showed HP 14 'Ecotoxic chronic' is the most discriminating HP. All wastes classified as acute ecotoxic are also chronic ecotoxic and the assessment of acute ecotoxicity separately is therefore not needed. The high number of HP 14 classified wastes is due to the very low limit values when stringent M factors are applied to total concentrations (worst case method). With M factor set to 1 the classification method is not sufficiently discriminating between hazardous and non-hazardous materials. The second most frequent hazard is HP 7 'Carcinogenic'. The third most frequent hazard is HP 10 'Toxic for reproduction' and the fourth most frequent hazard is HP 4 "Irritant - skin irritation and eye damage". In a stepwise approach, it seems relevant to assess HP 14 first, then, if

  1. Hazard property classification of waste according to the recent propositions of the EC using different methods.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Pierre; van der Sloot, Hans A; Rebischung, Flore; Weltens, Reinhilde; Geerts, Lieve; Hjelmar, Ole

    2014-10-01

    Hazard classification of waste is a necessity, but the hazard properties (named "H" and soon "HP") are still not all defined in a practical and operational manner at EU level. Following discussion of subsequent draft proposals from the Commission there is still no final decision. Methods to implement the proposals have recently been proposed: tests methods for physical risks, test batteries for aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity, an analytical package for exhaustive determination of organic substances and mineral elements, surrogate methods for the speciation of mineral elements in mineral substances in waste, and calculation methods for human toxicity and ecotoxicity with M factors. In this paper the different proposed methods have been applied to a large assortment of solid and liquid wastes (>100). Data for 45 wastes - documented with extensive chemical analysis and flammability test - were assessed in terms of the different HP criteria and results were compared to LoW for lack of an independent classification. For most waste streams the classification matches with the designation provided in the LoW. This indicates that the criteria used by LoW are similar to the HP limit values. This data set showed HP 14 'Ecotoxic chronic' is the most discriminating HP. All wastes classified as acute ecotoxic are also chronic ecotoxic and the assessment of acute ecotoxicity separately is therefore not needed. The high number of HP 14 classified wastes is due to the very low limit values when stringent M factors are applied to total concentrations (worst case method). With M factor set to 1 the classification method is not sufficiently discriminating between hazardous and non-hazardous materials. The second most frequent hazard is HP 7 'Carcinogenic'. The third most frequent hazard is HP 10 'Toxic for reproduction' and the fourth most frequent hazard is HP 4 "Irritant - skin irritation and eye damage". In a stepwise approach, it seems relevant to assess HP 14 first, then, if

  2. Discriminant forest classification method and system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Barry Y.; Hanley, William G.; Lemmond, Tracy D.; Hiller, Lawrence J.; Knapp, David A.; Mugge, Marshall J.

    2012-11-06

    A hybrid machine learning methodology and system for classification that combines classical random forest (RF) methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique which uses feature measurements of an object to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Andersen-Bahadur linear discriminant technique (AB), is used to split the data at each node in each of its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

  3. Hazardous materials information hotline using System 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, J.E.; Fuchel, K.

    1984-04-30

    The Center for Assessment of Chemical and Physical Hazards (CACPH) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a computer hotline service for the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. This service provides access to health and safety information for over 800 chemicals and hazardous materials. The data base uses System 2000 on a CDC 6600 and provides information on the chemical name and its synonyms, 17 categories of health and safety information, composition of chemical mixtures, categories of chemicals, use and hazards, and physical, chemical and toxicity attributes. In order to make this information available to people unfamiliar with System 2000, a user-friendly interface was developed using a Fortran PLEX Program. 1 reference, 1 figure.

  4. 46 CFR 111.106-7 - Classification of adjacent spaces with access to hazardous locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations on OSVs § 111... by reference, see § 110.10-1). (b) A differential pressure-monitoring device or a...

  5. Hazard ranking systems for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Parker, F.L. ); Crutcher, M.R. and Associates, Inc., Columbia, IL )

    1991-01-01

    Hazardous materials and substances have always existed in the environment. Mankind has evolved to live with some degree of exposure to toxic materials. Until recently the risk has been from natural toxins or natural background radiation. While rapid technological advances over the past few decades have improved the lifestyle of our society, they have also dramatically increased the availability, volume and types of synthetic and natural hazardous materials. Many of their effects are as yet uncertain. Products and manufacturing by-products that no longer serve a useful purpose are deemed wastes. For some waste products land disposal will always be their ultimate fate. Hazardous substances are often included in the waste products. One needs to classify wastes by degree of hazard (risk). Risk (degree of probability of loss) is usually defined for risk assessment as probability of an occurrence times the consequences of the occurrence. Perhaps even more important than the definition of risk is the choice of a risk management strategy. The choice of strategy will be strongly influenced by the decision criteria used. Those decision criteria could be utility (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), rights or technology based or some combination of the three. It is necessary to make such choices about the definition of risks and criteria for management. It is clear that these are social (i.e., political) and value choices and science has little to say on this matter. This is another example of what Alvin Weinberg has named Transcience where the subject matter is scientific and technical but the choices are social, political and moral. This paper shall deal only with the scientific and technical aspects of the hazardous waste problem to create a hazardous substances classification system.

  6. Classification systems for natural resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    Resource managers employ various types of resource classification systems in their management activities such as inventory, mapping, and data analysis. Classification is the ordering or arranging of objects into groups or sets on the basis of their relationships, and as such, provide the resource managers with a structure for organizing their needed information. In addition of conforming to certain logical principles, resource classifications should be flexible, widely applicable to a variety of environmental conditions, and useable with minimal training. The process of classification may be approached from the bottom up (aggregation) or the top down (subdivision) or a combination of both, depending on the purpose of the classification. Most resource classification systems in use today focus on a single resource and are used for a single, limited purpose. However, resource managers now must employ the concept of multiple use in their management activities. What they need is an integrated, ecologically based approach to resource classification which would fulfill multiple-use mandates. In an effort to achieve resource-data compatibility and data sharing among Federal agencies, and interagency agreement has been signed by five Federal agencies to coordinate and cooperate in the area of resource classification and inventory.

  7. Advances in metals classification under the United Nations globally harmonized system of classification and labeling.

    PubMed

    Skeaff, James; Adams, William J; Rodriguez, Patricio; Brouwers, Tony; Waeterschoot, Hugo

    2011-10-01

    This article shows how regulatory obligations mandated for metal substances can be met with a laboratory-based transformation/dissolution (T/D) method for deriving relevant hazard classification outcomes, which can then be linked to attendant environmental protection management decisions. We report the results of a ring-test at 3 laboratories conducted to determine the interlaboratory precision of the United Nations T/D Protocol (T/DP) in generating data for classifying 4 metal-bearing substances for acute and chronic toxicity under the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling (GHS) criteria with respect to the aquatic environment. The test substances were Ni metal powder, cuprous oxide (Cu(2) O) powder, tricobalt tetroxide (Co(3) O(4) ) powder, and cuttings of a NILO K Ni-Co-Fe alloy. Following GHS Annex 10 guidelines, we tested 3 loadings (1, 10, and 100 mg/L) of each substance at pH 6 and 8 for 7 or 28 d to yield T/D data for acute and chronic classification, respectively. We compared the T/DP results (dissolved metal in aqueous media) against acute and chronic ecotoxicity reference values (ERVs) for each substance to assess GHS classification outcomes. For dissolved metal ions, the respective acute and chronic ERVs established at the time of the T/D testing were: 29 and 8 µg/L for Cu; 185 and 1.5 µg/L for Co; and 13.3 and 1.0 mg/L for Fe. The acute ERVs for Ni were pH-dependent: 120 and 68 µg/L at pH 6 and 8, respectively, whereas the chronic ERV for Ni was 2.4 µg/L. The acute classification outcomes were consistent among 3 laboratories: cuprous oxide, Acute 1; Ni metal powder, Acute 3; Co(3) O(4) and the NILO K alloy, no classification. We obtained similar consistent results in chronic classifications: Cu(2) O, Ni metal powder, and Co(3) O(4) , Chronic 4; and the NILO K alloy, no classification. However, we observed equivocal results only in 2 of a possible 48 cases where the coefficient of variation of final T

  8. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive--inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters.

    PubMed

    Sobek, A; Bejgarn, S; Rudén, C; Molander, L; Breitholtz, M

    2013-09-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market.

  9. QA CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS OF GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Gwyn

    1996-10-29

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine if the permanent function Ground Support Systems (CI: BABEEOOOO) are quality-affecting items and if so, to establish the appropriate Quality Assurance (QA) classification.

  10. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Pierre; Papin, Arnaud; Padox, Jean-Marie; Hasebrouck, Benoît

    2013-07-01

    The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of 'pools' of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved 'mass' during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved 'pools') should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter results. Despite discrepancies in some parameters, a satisfactory sum of estimated or measured concentrations (analytical balance) of 90% was reached for 20 samples (63% of the overall total) during this first test exercise, with identified reasons for most of the unsatisfactory results. Regular use of this protocol (which is now included in the French legislation) has enabled service laboratories to reach a 90% mass balance for nearly all the solid samples tested, and most of liquid samples (difficulties were caused in some samples from polymers in solution and

  11. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Pierre; Papin, Arnaud; Padox, Jean-Marie; Hasebrouck, Benoît

    2013-07-01

    The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of 'pools' of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved 'mass' during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved 'pools') should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter results. Despite discrepancies in some parameters, a satisfactory sum of estimated or measured concentrations (analytical balance) of 90% was reached for 20 samples (63% of the overall total) during this first test exercise, with identified reasons for most of the unsatisfactory results. Regular use of this protocol (which is now included in the French legislation) has enabled service laboratories to reach a 90% mass balance for nearly all the solid samples tested, and most of liquid samples (difficulties were caused in some samples from polymers in solution and

  12. 75 FR 73972 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of Direct Final Exclusion AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Removal of...

  13. Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  14. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification

    SciTech Connect

    Hennebert, Pierre; Papin, Arnaud; Padox, Jean-Marie; Hasebrouck, Benoît

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Knowledge of wastes in substances will be necessary to assess HP1–HP15 hazard properties. • A new analytical protocol is proposed for this and tested by two service laboratories on 32 samples. • Sixty-three percentage of the samples have a satisfactory analytical balance between 90% and 110%. • Eighty-four percentage of the samples were classified identically (Seveso Directive) for their hazardousness by the two laboratories. • The method, in progress, is being normalized in France and is be proposed to CEN. - Abstract: The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of ‘pools’ of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved ‘mass’ during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved ‘pools’) should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter

  15. Rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V; Tibrea, Steven L; Shull, Davis J; Coleman, Jerry T; Shuler, James M

    2015-04-28

    A rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system and associated methods of operation are provided. An exemplary system includes a central command, a wireless backhaul network, and a remote monitoring unit. The remote monitoring unit can include a positioning system configured to determine a position of the remote monitoring unit based on one or more signals received from one or more satellites located in Low Earth Orbit. The wireless backhaul network can provide bidirectional communication capability independent of cellular telecommunication networks and the Internet. An exemplary method includes instructing at least one of a plurality of remote monitoring units to provide an alert based at least in part on a location of a hazard and a plurality of positions respectively associated with the plurality of remote monitoring units.

  16. Hazard Classification of the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2012-05-01

    The Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is constructing a new facility to replace remote-handled low-level radioactive waste disposal capability for INL and Naval Reactors Facility operations. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) will continue until the facility is full or closed for remediation (estimated at approximately fiscal year 2015). Development of a new onsite disposal facility is the highest ranked alternative and will provide RH-LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate RH-LLW for the foreseeable future. As a part of establishing a safety basis for facility operations, the facility will be categorized according to DOE-STD-1027-92. This classification is important in determining the scope of analyses performed in the safety basis and will also dictate operational requirements of the completed facility. This paper discusses the issues affecting hazard classification in this nuclear facility and impacts of the final hazard categorization.

  17. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System tutorial

    SciTech Connect

    Twitchell, K.E.; Skinner, N.L.

    1993-07-01

    This manual is the tutorial for the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS), an online, comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects. The HSSDS data base contains product information, material safety data sheets, toxicity reports, usage reports, biodegradable data, product chemical element lists, and background information on solvents. HSSDS use TOPIC{reg_sign} to search for information based on a query defined by the user. TOPIC provides a full text retrieval of unstructured source documents. In this tutorial, a series of lessons is provided that guides the user through basic steps common to most queries performed with HSSDS. Instructions are provided for both window-based and character-based applications.

  18. 75 FR 58346 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...) certain solid wastes generated by its Longview, Texas, facility from the lists of hazardous wastes. EPA... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... petitioned waste on human health and the environment. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  19. 75 FR 60689 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Refinery (Beaumont Refinery) to exclude (or delist) a certain solid waste generated by its Beaumont, Texas, facility from the lists of hazardous wastes. EPA used the Delisting Risk Assessment Software (DRAS) Version... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous...

  20. 75 FR 11002 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste..., Tennessee from the lists of hazardous wastes. This final rule responds to a petition submitted by Valero to delist F037 waste. The F037 waste is sediment generated in the Storm Water Basin. After careful...

  1. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for "plant functional type" identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

  2. A statistical approach to root system classification

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for “plant functional type” identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential. PMID:23914200

  3. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Gernot; Leitner, Daniel; Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Sobotik, Monika; Moder, Karl; Kaul, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for "plant functional type" identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. The study demonstrates that principal component based rooting types provide efficient and meaningful multi-trait classifiers. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems) is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Rooting types emerging from measured data, mainly distinguished by diameter/weight and density dominated types. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement techniques are essential.

  4. Debris hazard for the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madler, Ronald A.; Maclay, Timothy D.; Mcnamara, Roger; Culp, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    The scientific mission of the Earth Observing System (EOS) is modeled to analyze the potential hazard of space debris and its impact on the effectiveness of the program. Specific attention is given to the hazard posed by untrackable debris and the velocities and impact rates of such debris. The NASA Debris Flux Model (DFM) is utilized, and the results are compared to those of the Frag model which predicts the background environment from known parameters and the Screen model for estimating collision probabilities. The probability of damaging impacts is shown to be significant and to increase over time; an EOS spacecraft has a 10 percent chance of being struck by a 1-cm object traveling at 14 km/s. The present analyses demonstrate the need to design the EOS spacecraft for a LEO environment in which collisions with debris are very likely.

  5. Modified Hazard Ranking System/Hazard Ranking System for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes: Software documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Peloquin, R.A.; Hawley, K.A.

    1986-11-01

    The mHRS/HRS software package was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a uniform method for DOE facilities to use in performing their Conservation Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Phase I Modified Hazard Ranking System or Hazard Ranking System evaluations. The program is designed to remove the tedium and potential for error associated with the performing of hand calculations and the interpreting of information on tables and in reference books when performing an evaluation. The software package is designed to operate on a microcomputer (IBM PC, PC/XT, or PC/AT, or a compatible system) using either a dual floppy disk drive or a hard disk storage system. It is written in the dBASE III language and operates using the dBASE III system. Although the mHRS/HRS software package was developed for use at DOE facilities, it has direct applicability to the performing of CERCLA Phase I evaluations for any facility contaminated by hazardous waste. The software can perform evaluations using either the modified hazard ranking system methodology developed by DOE/PNL, the hazard ranking system methodology developed by EPA/MITRE Corp., or a combination of the two. This document is a companion manual to the mHRS/HRS user manual. It is intended for the programmer who must maintain the software package and for those interested in the computer implementation. This manual documents the system logic, computer programs, and data files that comprise the package. Hardware and software implementation requirements are discussed. In addition, hand calculations of three sample situations (problems) with associated computer runs used for the verification of program calculations are included.

  6. Updated Classification System for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guix, José M. Mora; Pedrós, Juan Sala; Serrano, Alejandro Castaño

    2009-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures can restrict daily activities and, therefore, deserve efficient diagnoses that minimize complications and sequels. For good diagnosis and treatment, patient characteristics, variability in the forms of the fractures presented, and the technical difficulties in achieving fair results with surgical treatment should all be taken into account. Current classification systems for these fractures are based on anatomical and pathological principles, and not on systematic image reading. These fractures can appear in many different forms, with many characteristics that must be identified. However, many current classification systems lack good reliability, both inter-observer and intra-observer for different image types. A new approach to image reading, following a well-designed set and sequence of variables to check, is needed. We previously reported such an image reading system. In the present study, we report a classification system based on this image reading system. Here we define 21 fracture characteristics and apply them along with classical Codman approaches to classify fractures. We base this novel classification system for classifying proximal humeral fractures on a review of scientific literature and improvements to our image reading protocol. Patient status, fracture characteristics and surgeon circumstances have been important issues in developing this system. PMID:19574487

  7. 14 CFR 417.409 - System hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... following hazard controls to a pressurized flight or ground pressure vessel, component, or systems: (1... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false System hazard controls. 417.409 Section 417... OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.409 System hazard controls. (a)...

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR MUCK HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) muck handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) (DOE 1998). This QA classification incorporates the current MGR design and the results of the ''Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (CRWMS M and O 1998a).

  9. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE FACILITY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface facility system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998). This QA classification incorporates the current MGR design and the results of the ''Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository'' (CRWMS M&O 1998a).

  10. Hazard classification for the supercritical water oxidation test bed. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    A hazard classification of ``routinely accepted by the public`` has been determined for the operation of the supercritical water oxidation test bed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This determination is based on the fact that the design and proposed operation meet or exceed appropriate national standards so that the risks are equivalent to those present in similar activities conducted in private industry. Each of the 17 criteria for hazards ``routinely accepted by the public,`` identified in the EG and G Idaho, Inc., Safety Manual, were analyzed. The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) test bed will treat simulated mixed waste without the radioactive component. It will be designed to operate with eight test wastes. These test wastes have been chosen to represent a broad cross-section of candidate mixed wastes anticipated for storage or generation by DOE. In particular, the test bed will generate data to evaluate the ability of the technology to treat chlorinated waste and other wastes that have in the past caused severe corrosion and deposition in SCWO reactors.

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR EMPLACEMENT DRIFT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) emplacement drift system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Preclosure Safety and Systems Engineering Section. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 2000). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) (DOE 2000).

  12. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Prosthesis Design Classification System.

    PubMed

    Routman, Howard D; Flurin, Pierre-Henri; Wright, Thomas W; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Hamilton, Matthew A; Roche, Christopher P

    2015-12-01

    Multiple different reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) prosthesis designs are available in the global marketplace for surgeons to perform this growing procedure. Subtle differences in rTSA prosthesis design parameters have been shown to have significant biomechanical impact and clinical consequences. We propose an rTSA prosthesis design classification system to objectively identify and categorize different designs based upon their specific glenoid and humeral prosthetic characteristics for the purpose of standardizing nomenclature that will help the orthopaedic surgeon determine which combination of design configurations best suit a given clinical scenario. The impact of each prosthesis classification type on shoulder muscle length and deltoid wrapping are also described to illustrate how each prosthesis classification type impacts these biomechanical parameters. PMID:26631189

  13. Common occupational classification system - revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stahlman, E.J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    Workforce planning has become an increasing concern within the DOE community as the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM or EM) seeks to consolidate and refocus its activities and the Office of Defense Programs (DP) closes production sites. Attempts to manage the growth and skills mix of the EM workforce while retaining the critical skills of the DP workforce have been difficult due to the lack of a consistent set of occupational titles and definitions across the complex. Two reasons for this difficulty may be cited. First, classification systems commonly used in industry often fail to cover in sufficient depth the unique demands of DOE`s nuclear energy and research community. Second, the government practice of contracting the operation of government facilities to the private sector has introduced numerous contractor-specific classification schemes to the DOE complex. As a result, sites/contractors report their workforce needs using unique classification systems. It becomes difficult, therefore, to roll these data up to the national level necessary to support strategic planning and analysis. The Common Occupational Classification System (COCS) is designed to overcome these workforce planning barriers. The COCS is based on earlier workforce planning activities and the input of technical, workforce planning, and human resource managers from across the DOE complex. It provides a set of mutually-exclusive occupation titles and definitions that cover the broad range of activities present in the DOE complex. The COCS is not a required record-keeping or data management guide. Neither is it intended to replace contractor/DOE-specific classification systems. Instead, the system provides a consistent, high- level, functional structure of occupations to which contractors can crosswalk (map) their job titles.

  14. Robots, systems, and methods for hazard evaluation and visualization

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, Curtis W.; Bruemmer, David J.; Walton, Miles C.; Hartley, Robert S.; Gertman, David I.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Whetten, Jonathan

    2013-01-15

    A robot includes a hazard sensor, a locomotor, and a system controller. The robot senses a hazard intensity at a location of the robot, moves to a new location in response to the hazard intensity, and autonomously repeats the sensing and moving to determine multiple hazard levels at multiple locations. The robot may also include a communicator to communicate the multiple hazard levels to a remote controller. The remote controller includes a communicator for sending user commands to the robot and receiving the hazard levels from the robot. A graphical user interface displays an environment map of the environment proximate the robot and a scale for indicating a hazard intensity. A hazard indicator corresponds to a robot position in the environment map and graphically indicates the hazard intensity at the robot position relative to the scale.

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR HEALTH SAFETY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) health safety system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  16. Classification of the MGR Administration System

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) administration system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/9O-55Qy Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Zeigler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) emergency response system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF MGR GROUND CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) ground control system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR BACKFILL EMPLACEMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) backfill emplacement system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site communications system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EXCAVATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface excavation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE OPERATIONS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site operations system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  4. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE LAYOUT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site layout system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site water system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  7. 14 CFR 417.409 - System hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or release of energy or hazardous materials; (2) Ensure each hazard control used to provide fault... one inhibit. A launch operator must prevent inadvertent activation of hazard control devices such as... to electrical or mechanical systems that can release electrical or mechanical energy during...

  8. 14 CFR 417.409 - System hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or release of energy or hazardous materials; (2) Ensure each hazard control used to provide fault... one inhibit. A launch operator must prevent inadvertent activation of hazard control devices such as... to electrical or mechanical systems that can release electrical or mechanical energy during...

  9. Intelligent Computer Vision System for Automated Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanov, Ivan; Georgieva, Antoniya

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we investigate an Intelligent Computer Vision System applied for recognition and classification of commercially available cork tiles. The system is capable of acquiring and processing gray images using several feature generation and analysis techniques. Its functionality includes image acquisition, feature extraction and preprocessing, and feature classification with neural networks (NN). We also discuss system test and validation results from the recognition and classification tasks. The system investigation also includes statistical feature processing (features number and dimensionality reduction techniques) and classifier design (NN architecture, target coding, learning complexity and performance, and training with our own metaheuristic optimization method). The NNs trained with our genetic low-discrepancy search method (GLPτS) for global optimisation demonstrated very good generalisation abilities. In our view, the reported testing success rate of up to 95% is due to several factors: combination of feature generation techniques; application of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which appeared to be very efficient for preprocessing the data; and use of suitable NN design and learning method.

  10. Intelligent Computer Vision System for Automated Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Jordanov, Ivan; Georgieva, Antoniya

    2010-05-21

    In this paper we investigate an Intelligent Computer Vision System applied for recognition and classification of commercially available cork tiles. The system is capable of acquiring and processing gray images using several feature generation and analysis techniques. Its functionality includes image acquisition, feature extraction and preprocessing, and feature classification with neural networks (NN). We also discuss system test and validation results from the recognition and classification tasks. The system investigation also includes statistical feature processing (features number and dimensionality reduction techniques) and classifier design (NN architecture, target coding, learning complexity and performance, and training with our own metaheuristic optimization method). The NNs trained with our genetic low-discrepancy search method (GLPtauS) for global optimisation demonstrated very good generalisation abilities. In our view, the reported testing success rate of up to 95% is due to several factors: combination of feature generation techniques; application of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which appeared to be very efficient for preprocessing the data; and use of suitable NN design and learning method.

  11. The Hazards Data Distribution System update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Brenda K.; Lamb, Rynn M.

    2010-01-01

    After a major disaster, a satellite image or a collection of aerial photographs of the event is frequently the fastest, most effective way to determine its scope and severity. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Emergency Operations Portal provides emergency first responders and support personnel with easy access to imagery and geospatial data, geospatial Web services, and a digital library focused on emergency operations. Imagery and geospatial data are accessed through the Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS). HDDS historically provided data access and delivery services through nongraphical interfaces that allow emergency response personnel to select and obtain pre-event baseline data and (or) event/disaster response data. First responders are able to access full-resolution GeoTIFF images or JPEG images at medium- and low-quality compressions through ftp downloads. USGS HDDS home page: http://hdds.usgs.gov/hdds2/

  12. Hazardous chemical tracking system (HAZ-TRAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Bramlette, J D; Ewart, S M; Jones, C E

    1990-07-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) developed and implemented a computerized hazardous chemical tracking system, referred to as Haz-Trac, for use at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Haz-Trac is designed to provide a means to improve the accuracy and reliability of chemical information, which enhances the overall quality and safety of ICPP operations. The system tracks all chemicals and chemical components from the time they enter the ICPP until the chemical changes form, is used, or becomes a waste. The system runs on a Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3000 Series 70 computer. The system is written in COBOL and uses VIEW/3000, TurboIMAGE/DBMS 3000, OMNIDEX, and SPEEDWARE. The HP 3000 may be accessed throughout the ICPP, and from remote locations, using data communication lines. Haz-Trac went into production in October, 1989. Currently, over 1910 chemicals and chemical components are tracked on the system. More than 2500 personnel hours were saved during the first six months of operation. Cost savings have been realized by reducing the time needed to collect and compile reporting information, identifying and disposing of unneeded chemicals, and eliminating duplicate inventories. Haz-Trac maintains information required by the Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act (SARA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

  13. Proposed clinical internal carotid artery classification system

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrauf, Saleem I; Ashour, Ahmed M; Marvin, Eric; Coppens, Jeroen; Kang, Brian; Hsieh, Tze Yu Yeh; Nery, Breno; Penanes, Juan R; Alsahlawi, Aysha K; Moore, Shawn; Al-Shaar, Hussam Abou; Kemp, Joanna; Chawla, Kanika; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Najeeb, Alaa; Parkar, Nadeem; Shetty, Vilaas; Vafaie, Tina; Antisdel, Jastin; Mikulec, Tony A; Edgell, Randall; Lebovitz, Jonathan; Pierson, Matt; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Buchanan, Paula; Di Cosola, Angela; Stevens, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Numerical classification systems for the internal carotid artery (ICA) are available, but modifications have added confusion to the numerical systems. Furthermore, previous classifications may not be applicable uniformly to microsurgical and endoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful classification system. Materials and Methods: We performed cadaver dissections of the ICA in 5 heads (10 sides) and evaluated 648 internal carotid arteries with computed tomography angiography. We identified specific anatomic landmarks to define the beginning and end of each ICA segment. Results: The ICA was classified into eight segments based on the cadaver and imaging findings: (1) Cervical segment; (2) cochlear segment (ascending segment of the ICA in the temporal bone) (relation of the start of this segment to the base of the styloid process: Above, 425 sides [80%]; below, 2 sides [0.4%]; at same level, 107 sides [20%]; P < 0.0001) (relation of cochlea to ICA: Posterior, 501 sides [85%]; posteromedial, 84 sides [14%]; P < 0.0001); (3) petrous segment (horizontal segment of ICA in the temporal bone) starting at the crossing of the eustachian tube superolateral to the ICA turn in all 10 samples; (4) Gasserian-Clival segment (ascending segment of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the petrolingual ligament (PLL) (relation to vidian canal on imaging: At same level, 360 sides [63%]; below, 154 sides [27%]; above, 53 sides [9%]; P < 0.0001); in this segment, the ICA projected medially toward the clivus in 275 sides (52%) or parallel to the clivus with no deviation in 256 sides (48%; P < 0.0001); (5) sellar segment (medial loop of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the takeoff of the meningeal hypophyseal trunk (ICA was medial into the sella in 271 cases [46%], lateral without touching the sella in 127 cases [23%], and abutting the sella in 182 cases [31%]; P < 0.0001); (6) sphenoid segment (lateral loop of ICA within the

  14. Proposed clinical internal carotid artery classification system

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrauf, Saleem I; Ashour, Ahmed M; Marvin, Eric; Coppens, Jeroen; Kang, Brian; Hsieh, Tze Yu Yeh; Nery, Breno; Penanes, Juan R; Alsahlawi, Aysha K; Moore, Shawn; Al-Shaar, Hussam Abou; Kemp, Joanna; Chawla, Kanika; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Najeeb, Alaa; Parkar, Nadeem; Shetty, Vilaas; Vafaie, Tina; Antisdel, Jastin; Mikulec, Tony A; Edgell, Randall; Lebovitz, Jonathan; Pierson, Matt; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Buchanan, Paula; Di Cosola, Angela; Stevens, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Numerical classification systems for the internal carotid artery (ICA) are available, but modifications have added confusion to the numerical systems. Furthermore, previous classifications may not be applicable uniformly to microsurgical and endoscopic procedures. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically useful classification system. Materials and Methods: We performed cadaver dissections of the ICA in 5 heads (10 sides) and evaluated 648 internal carotid arteries with computed tomography angiography. We identified specific anatomic landmarks to define the beginning and end of each ICA segment. Results: The ICA was classified into eight segments based on the cadaver and imaging findings: (1) Cervical segment; (2) cochlear segment (ascending segment of the ICA in the temporal bone) (relation of the start of this segment to the base of the styloid process: Above, 425 sides [80%]; below, 2 sides [0.4%]; at same level, 107 sides [20%]; P < 0.0001) (relation of cochlea to ICA: Posterior, 501 sides [85%]; posteromedial, 84 sides [14%]; P < 0.0001); (3) petrous segment (horizontal segment of ICA in the temporal bone) starting at the crossing of the eustachian tube superolateral to the ICA turn in all 10 samples; (4) Gasserian-Clival segment (ascending segment of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the petrolingual ligament (PLL) (relation to vidian canal on imaging: At same level, 360 sides [63%]; below, 154 sides [27%]; above, 53 sides [9%]; P < 0.0001); in this segment, the ICA projected medially toward the clivus in 275 sides (52%) or parallel to the clivus with no deviation in 256 sides (48%; P < 0.0001); (5) sellar segment (medial loop of ICA in the cavernous sinus) starting at the takeoff of the meningeal hypophyseal trunk (ICA was medial into the sella in 271 cases [46%], lateral without touching the sella in 127 cases [23%], and abutting the sella in 182 cases [31%]; P < 0.0001); (6) sphenoid segment (lateral loop of ICA within the

  15. 76 FR 59960 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... notice removes the proposed rule published in 76 FR 5110 (January 28, 2011) for public review and comment... Landfill (Gulf West) located in Anahuac, TX, published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR 5110). EPA subsequently... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous...

  16. Desicion Support System For Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilov, E.

    2009-04-01

    recommendations should be reasonable. To resolve the above problems or to make them less significant it is necessary to develop decision support systems (DSS). DMs need not tables with initial data, analytical, forecasting and climatic information, but messages containing warnings on critical value accidence, information on probability of hazards, information on potential losses, and information on hazardous impacts and recommendations on decision making. DSS can do the following: take into account impacts on specific points and on the total area under consideration; allow for the effects of the environment on economic entities (objects) in any geographical region to be analyzed; distinguish impacts and changes caused both by different phenomena and by their combination; signal when objects are or can be in adverse environmental conditions, e.g. in the area affected by fog, storm, tropical cyclone or in the area where the probability of hazardous ice events is very high, etc. The main component of DSS is a knowledge base based on the following concept: if we know environmental conditions it is possible to predict potential impacts on the economy; if we know impacts it is possible to give a set of recommendations on how to prevent (reduce) losses or how to use natural resources most efficiently. Decision making criteria are safety of people and property, reduction of losses, increase of profit, materials saving, etc. Knowledge base is a set of rules formulated in a formalized way using if, that, else. If "Water level in S.-Petersburg >150 cm" that "To give out warning information "Hazards for building on coastal river Neva is possible" and recommendations "The valuable goods carry out in second floor" else "To switch another rule". To have a knowledge base in place it is necessary to: develop tools of identifying and getting knowledge from experts; arrange the information flow from available information systems (operational data, analyses, forecasts, climatic information) through

  17. Regional medical campuses: a new classification system.

    PubMed

    Cheifetz, Craig E; McOwen, Katherine S; Gagne, Pierre; Wong, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    There is burgeoning belief that regional medical campuses (RMCs) are a significant part of the narrative about medical education and the health care workforce in the United States and Canada. Although RMCs are not new, in the recent years of medical education enrollment expansion, they have seen their numbers increase. Class expansion explains the rapid growth of RMCs in the past 10 years, but it does not adequately describe their function. Often, RMCs have missions that differ from their main campus, especially in the areas of rural and community medicine. The absence of an easy-to-use classification system has led to a lack of current research about RMCs as evidenced by the small number of articles in the current literature. The authors describe the process of the Group on Regional Medical Campuses used to develop attributes of a campus separate from the main campus that constitute a "classification" of a campus as an RMC. The system is broken into four models-basic science, clinical, longitudinal, and combined-and is linked to Liaison Committee on Medical Education standards. It is applicable to all schools and can be applied by any medical school dean or medical education researcher. The classification system paves the way for stakeholders to agree on a denominator of RMCs and conduct future research about their impact on medical education.

  18. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  19. A new classification system for gingival and palatal recession.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Masamatti, Sujata Surendra

    2013-03-01

    Various classifications have been proposed to classify gingival recession. Miller's classification of gingival recession is most widely followed. With a wide array of cases in daily clinical practice, it is often difficult to classify numerous gingival recession cases according to defined criteria of the present classification systems. To propose a new classification system that gives a comprehensive depiction of recession defect that can be used to include cases that cannot be classified according to present classifications. A separate classification system for palatal recessions (PR) is also proposed. This article outlines the limitations of present classification systems and also the inability to classify PR. A new comprehensive classification system is proposed to classify recession on the basis of the position of interdental papilla and buccal/lingual/palatal recessions. PMID:23869122

  20. 14 CFR 417.409 - System hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... A launch operator must establish and maintain hazard controls for each system that presents a public... operator must: (1) Ensure a system be at least single fault tolerant to creating a public hazard unless..., conduct the inspections. (c) Pressure vessels and pressurized systems. A launch operator must apply...

  1. A system for heart sounds classification.

    PubMed

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Gradolewski, Dawid; Palkowski, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The future of quick and efficient disease diagnosis lays in the development of reliable non-invasive methods. As for the cardiac diseases - one of the major causes of death around the globe - a concept of an electronic stethoscope equipped with an automatic heart tone identification system appears to be the best solution. Thanks to the advancement in technology, the quality of phonocardiography signals is no longer an issue. However, appropriate algorithms for auto-diagnosis systems of heart diseases that could be capable of distinguishing most of known pathological states have not been yet developed. The main issue is non-stationary character of phonocardiography signals as well as a wide range of distinguishable pathological heart sounds. In this paper a new heart sound classification technique, which might find use in medical diagnostic systems, is presented. It is shown that by combining Linear Predictive Coding coefficients, used for future extraction, with a classifier built upon combining Support Vector Machine and Modified Cuckoo Search algorithm, an improvement in performance of the diagnostic system, in terms of accuracy, complexity and range of distinguishable heart sounds, can be made. The developed system achieved accuracy above 93% for all considered cases including simultaneous identification of twelve different heart sound classes. The respective system is compared with four different major classification methods, proving its reliability. PMID:25393113

  2. A System for Heart Sounds Classification

    PubMed Central

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Gradolewski, Dawid; Palkowski, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The future of quick and efficient disease diagnosis lays in the development of reliable non-invasive methods. As for the cardiac diseases – one of the major causes of death around the globe – a concept of an electronic stethoscope equipped with an automatic heart tone identification system appears to be the best solution. Thanks to the advancement in technology, the quality of phonocardiography signals is no longer an issue. However, appropriate algorithms for auto-diagnosis systems of heart diseases that could be capable of distinguishing most of known pathological states have not been yet developed. The main issue is non-stationary character of phonocardiography signals as well as a wide range of distinguishable pathological heart sounds. In this paper a new heart sound classification technique, which might find use in medical diagnostic systems, is presented. It is shown that by combining Linear Predictive Coding coefficients, used for future extraction, with a classifier built upon combining Support Vector Machine and Modified Cuckoo Search algorithm, an improvement in performance of the diagnostic system, in terms of accuracy, complexity and range of distinguishable heart sounds, can be made. The developed system achieved accuracy above 93% for all considered cases including simultaneous identification of twelve different heart sound classes. The respective system is compared with four different major classification methods, proving its reliability. PMID:25393113

  3. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders.…

  4. A program system for efficient multispectral classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åkersten, S. I.

    Pixelwise multispectral classification is an important tool for analyzing remotely sensed imagery data. The computing time for performing this analysis becomes significantly large when large, multilayer images are analyzed. In the classical implementation of the supervised multispectral classification assuming gaussian-shaped multidimensional class-clusters, the computing time is furthermore approximately proportional to the square of the number of image layers. This leads to very appreciable CPU-times when large numbers of multispectral channels are used and/or temporal classification is performed. In order to decrease computer time, a classification program system has been implemented which has the following characteristics: (1) a simple one-dimensional box classifier, (2) a multidimensional box classifier, (3) a class-pivotal "canonical" classifier utilizing full maximum likelihood and making full use of within-class and between-class statistical characteristics, (4) a hybrid classifier (2 and 3 combined), and (5) a local neighbourhood filtering algorithm producing generalized classification results. The heart of the classifier is the class-pivotal canonical classifier. This algorithm is based upon an idea of Dye suggesting the use of linear transformations making possible a simultaneous evaluation of a measure of the pixel being likely not to belong to the candidate class as well as computing its full maximum likelihood ratio. In case it is more likely to be misclassified the full maximum likelihood evaluation can be truncated almost immediately, i.e. the candidate class can often be rejected using only one or two of the available transformed spectral features. The result of this is a classifier with CPU-time which is empirically shown to be linearly dependent upon the number of image layers. The use of the hybrid classifier lowers the CPU-time with another factor of 3-4. Furthermore, for certain problems like classifying water-non water a single spectral band

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE-GENERATED HAZAROUS NONHAZARDOUS & SANITARY WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site generated hazardous, non-hazardous and sanitary waste disposal system system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  6. Explosives Classifications Tracking System User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Genoni, R.P.

    1993-10-01

    The Explosives Classification Tracking System (ECTS) presents information and data for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) explosives classifications of interest to EM-561, Transportation Management Division, other DOE facilities, and contractors. It is intended to be useful to the scientist, engineer, and transportation professional, who needs to classify or transport explosives. This release of the ECTS reflects upgrading of the software which provides the user with an environment that makes comprehensive retrieval of explosives related information quick and easy. Quarterly updates will be provided to the ECTS throughout its development in FY 1993 and thereafter. The ECTS is a stand alone, single user system that contains unclassified, publicly available information, and administrative information (contractor names, product descriptions, transmittal dates, EX-Numbers, etc.) information from many sources for non-decisional engineering and shipping activities. The data is the most up-to-date and accurate available to the knowledge of the system developer. The system is designed to permit easy revision and updating as new information and data become available. These, additions and corrections are welcomed by the developer. This user manual is intended to help the user install, understand, and operate the system so that the desired information may be readily obtained, reviewed, and reported.

  7. Hazard banding in compliance with the new Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for use in control banding tools.

    PubMed

    Arnone, Mario; Koppisch, Dorothea; Smola, Thomas; Gabriel, Stefan; Verbist, Koen; Visser, Remco

    2015-10-01

    Many control banding tools use hazard banding in risk assessments for the occupational handling of hazardous substances. The outcome of these assessments can be combined with advice for the required risk management measures (RMMs). The Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has resulted in a change in the hazard communication elements, i.e. Hazard (H) statements instead of Risk-phrases. Hazard banding schemes that depend on the old form of safety information have to be adapted to the new rules. The purpose of this publication is to outline the rationales for the assignment of hazard bands to H statements under the GHS. Based on this, this publication proposes a hazard banding scheme that uses the information from the safety data sheets as the basis for assignment. The assignment of hazard bands tiered according to the severity of the underlying hazards supports the important principle of substitution. Additionally, the set of assignment rules permits an exposure-route-specific assignment of hazard bands, which is necessary for the proposed route-specific RMMs. Ideally, all control banding tools should apply the same assignment rules. This GHS-compliant hazard banding scheme can hopefully help to establish a unified hazard banding strategy in the various control banding tools. PMID:26206396

  8. A confidence paradigm for classification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leap, Nathan J.; Bauer, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2008-04-01

    There is no universally accepted methodology to determine how much confidence one should have in a classifier output. This research proposes a framework to determine the level of confidence in an indication from a classifier system where the output is a measurement value. There are two types of confidence developed in this paper. The first is confidence in a classification system or classifier and is denoted classifier confidence. The second is the confidence in the output of a classification system or classifier. In this paradigm, we posit that the confidence in the output of a classifier should be, on average, equal to the confidence in the classifier as a whole (i.e., classifier confidence). The amount of confidence in a given classifier is estimated using multiattribute preference theory and forms the foundation for a quadratic confidence function that is applied to posterior probability estimates. Classifier confidence is currently determined based upon individual measurable value functions for classification accuracy, average entropy, and sample size, and the form of the overall measurable value function is multilinear based upon the assumption of weak difference independence. Using classifier confidence, a quadratic function is trained to be the confidence function which inputs a posterior probability and outputs the confidence in a given indication. In this paradigm, confidence is not equal to the posterior probability estimate but is related to it. This confidence measure is a direct link between traditional decision analysis techniques and traditional pattern recognition techniques. This methodology is applied to two real world data sets, and results show the sort of behavior that would be expected from a rational confidence measure.

  9. Gender classification system in uncontrolled environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Pingping; Zhang, Yu-Jin; Duan, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Most face analysis systems available today perform mainly on restricted databases of images in terms of size, age, illumination. In addition, it is frequently assumed that all images are frontal and unconcealed. Actually, in a non-guided real-time supervision, the face pictures taken may often be partially covered and with head rotation less or more. In this paper, a special system supposed to be used in real-time surveillance with un-calibrated camera and non-guided photography is described. It mainly consists of five parts: face detection, non-face filtering, best-angle face selection, texture normalization, and gender classification. Emphases are focused on non-face filtering and best-angle face selection parts as well as texture normalization. Best-angle faces are figured out by PCA reconstruction, which equals to an implicit face alignment and results in a huge increase of the accuracy for gender classification. Dynamic skin model and a masked PCA reconstruction algorithm are applied to filter out faces detected in error. In order to fully include facial-texture and shape-outline features, a hybrid feature that is a combination of Gabor wavelet and PHoG (pyramid histogram of gradients) was proposed to equitable inner texture and outer contour. Comparative study on the effects of different non-face filtering and texture masking methods in the context of gender classification by SVM is reported through experiments on a set of UT (a company name) face images, a large number of internet images and CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences) face database. Some encouraging results are obtained.

  10. [Globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS) and its implementation in Japan].

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Muneyuki

    2010-01-01

    The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is a set of recommendations by the United Nations, first issued in 2003 as a communication tool for the sound management of chemicals, comprising harmonized classification criteria for physical, health and environmental hazards, a unified format for material safety data sheets (MSDS), and labeling elements including pictograms and hazard statements preassigned to each classification category. The GHS has been introduced into Japan and implemented in the regulatory framework for chemical safety. The Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) adopted the GHS, and the GHS-based JIS rules have become the Japanese standards for labels and MSDS. The use of the JIS format for labels and MSDS is recommended by several competent authorities in Japan although mostly on a voluntary basis. In the workplace, however, GHS-based JIS labels and MSDS have become legal requirements by the Industrial Safety and Health Law since 2006; namely, issuing MSDS in such a format is mandatory for the 640 specified chemicals and also labeling for the 99 targeted chemicals*. Although the GHS provides definitions and classification criteria for 10 classes of health hazards (acute toxicity, skin and eye corrosion/irritation, sensitization, germ cell mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, specific target organ toxicity single/repeated exposures, and aspiration hazard), it does not provide actual classification of chemicals, so that competent authorities and industries need to classify a number of chemicals and/or mixtures. Weight-of-evidence judgment and/or expert judgment would be necessary in many cases. In this paper, the outline of the GHS classification is described and problems of the GHS and its implementation are discussed. PMID:20134103

  11. Modified hazard ranking system for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes. User manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, K.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Stenner, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    This document describes both the original Hazard Ranking System and the modified Hazard Ranking System as they are to be used in evaluating the relative potential for uncontrolled hazardous substance facilities to cause human health or safety problems or ecological or environmental damage. Detailed instructions for using the mHRS/HRS computer code are provided, along with instructions for performing the calculations by hand. Uniform application of the ranking system will permit the DOE to identify those releases of hazardous substances that pose the greatest hazard to humans or the environment. However, the mHRS/HRS by itself cannot establish priorities for the allocation of funds for remedial action. The mHRS/HRS is a means for applying uniform technical judgment regarding the potential hazards presented by a facility relative to other facilities. It does not address the feasibility, desirability, or degree of cleanup required. Neither does it deal with the readiness or ability of a state to carry out such remedial action, as may be indicated, or to meet other conditions prescribed in CERCLA. 13 refs., 13 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Functional classifications for cerebral palsy: correlations between the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS), the manual ability classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS).

    PubMed

    Compagnone, Eliana; Maniglio, Jlenia; Camposeo, Serena; Vespino, Teresa; Losito, Luciana; De Rinaldis, Marta; Gennaro, Leonarda; Trabacca, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate a possible correlation between the gross motor function classification system-expanded and revised (GMFCS-E&R), the manual abilities classification system (MACS) and the communication function classification system (CFCS) functional levels in children with cerebral palsy (CP) by CP subtype. It was also geared to verify whether there is a correlation between these classification systems and intellectual functioning (IF) and parental socio-economic status (SES). A total of 87 children (47 males and 40 females, age range 4-18 years, mean age 8.9±4.2) were included in the study. A strong correlation was found between the three classifications: Level V of the GMFCS-E&R corresponds to Level V of the MACS (rs=0.67, p=0.001); the same relationship was found for the CFCS and the MACS (rs=0.73, p<0.001) and for the GMFCS-E&R and the CFCS (rs=0.61, p=0.001). The correlations between the IQ and the global functional disability profile were strong or moderate (GMFCS and IQ: rs=0.66, p=0.001; MACS and IQ: rs=0.58, p=0.001; CFCS and MACS: rs=0.65, p=0.001). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine if there were differences between the GMFCS-E&R, the CFCS and the MACS by CP type. CP types showed different scores for the IQ level (Chi-square=8.59, df=2, p=0.014), the GMFCS-E&R (Chi-square=36.46, df=2, p<0.001), the CFCS (Chi-square=12.87, df=2, p=0.002), and the MACS Level (Chi-square=13.96, df=2, p<0.001) but no significant differences emerged for the SES (Chi-square=1.19, df=2, p=0.554). This study shows how the three functional classifications (GMFCS-E&R, CFCS and MACS) complement each other to provide a better description of the functional profile of CP. The systematic evaluation of the IQ can provide useful information about a possible future outcome for every functional level. The SES does not appear to affect functional profiles.

  13. Self-contained clothing system provides protection against hazardous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Self-contained clothing system protects personnel against hazardous environments. The clothing has an environmental control system and a complete protection envelope consisting of an outer garment, inner garment, underwear, boots, gloves, and helmet.

  14. System Safety Hazards Assessment in Conceptual Program Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eben, Dennis M.; Saemisch, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Providing a program in the concept development phase with a method of determining system safety benefits of potential concepts has always been a challenge. Lockheed Martin Space and Strategic Missiles has developed a methodology for developing a relative system safety ranking using the potential hazards of each concept. The resulting output supports program decisions with system safety as an evaluation criterion with supporting data for evaluation. This approach begins with a generic hazards list that has been tailored for the program being studied and augmented with an initial hazard analysis. Each proposed concept is assessed against the list of program hazards and ranked in three derived areas. The hazards can be weighted to show those that are of more concern to the program. Sensitivities can be also be determined to test the robustness of the conclusions

  15. 14 CFR 417.409 - System hazard controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or release of energy or hazardous materials; (2) Ensure each hazard control used to provide fault... to electrical or mechanical systems that can release electrical or mechanical energy during launch... or mechanical energy; (2) In areas where flammable material exists, a launch operator must...

  16. A comprehensive classification system for lipids.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Eoin; Subramaniam, Shankar; Brown, H Alex; Glass, Christopher K; Merrill, Alfred H; Murphy, Robert C; Raetz, Christian R H; Russell, David W; Seyama, Yousuke; Shaw, Walter; Shimizu, Takao; Spener, Friedrich; van Meer, Gerrit; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; White, Stephen H; Witztum, Joseph L; Dennis, Edward A

    2005-05-01

    Lipids are produced, transported, and recognized by the concerted actions of numerous enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors. A comprehensive analysis of lipid molecules, "lipidomics," in the context of genomics and proteomics is crucial to understanding cellular physiology and pathology; consequently, lipid biology has become a major research target of the postgenomic revolution and systems biology. To facilitate international communication about lipids, a comprehensive classification of lipids with a common platform that is compatible with informatics requirements has been developed to deal with the massive amounts of data that will be generated by our lipid community. As an initial step in this development, we divide lipids into eight categories (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterol lipids, prenol lipids, saccharolipids, and polyketides) containing distinct classes and subclasses of molecules, devise a common manner of representing the chemical structures of individual lipids and their derivatives, and provide a 12 digit identifier for each unique lipid molecule. The lipid classification scheme is chemically based and driven by the distinct hydrophobic and hydrophilic elements that compose the lipid. This structured vocabulary will facilitate the systematization of lipid biology and enable the cataloging of lipids and their properties in a way that is compatible with other macromolecular databases.

  17. Guide for Hydrogen Hazards Analysis on Components and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Harold; Woods, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The physical and combustion properties of hydrogen give rise to hazards that must be considered when designing and operating a hydrogen system. One of the major concerns in the use of hydrogen is that of fire or detonation because of hydrogen's wide flammability range, low ignition energy, and flame speed. Other concerns include the contact and interaction of hydrogen with materials, such as the hydrogen embrittlement of materials and the formation of hydrogen hydrides. The low temperature of liquid and slush hydrogen bring other concerns related to material compatibility and pressure control; this is especially important when dissimilar, adjoining materials are involved. The potential hazards arising from these properties and design features necessitate a proper hydrogen hazards analysis before introducing a material, component, or system into hydrogen service. The objective of this guide is to describe the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility hydrogen hazards analysis method that should be performed before hydrogen is used in components and/or systems. The method is consistent with standard practices for analyzing hazards. It is recommended that this analysis be made before implementing a hydrogen component qualification procedure. A hydrogen hazards analysis is a useful tool for hydrogen-system designers, system and safety engineers, and facility managers. A hydrogen hazards analysis can identify problem areas before hydrogen is introduced into a system-preventing damage to hardware, delay or loss of mission or objective, and possible injury or loss of life.

  18. 42 CFR 412.513 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of LTC-DRG assignment. (1) A hospital has 60 days after the date of the notice of the initial... MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.513 Patient classification system. (a) Classification methodology....

  19. 42 CFR 412.513 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of LTC-DRG assignment. (1) A hospital has 60 days after the date of the notice of the initial... MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.513 Patient classification system. (a) Classification methodology....

  20. An Alternate Classification System for Institutions. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niwa, Shelley; Brinkman, Paul

    The feasibility of developing a refined national reporting classification system for colleges and universities to complement the present classification system of the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) which categorizes institutions into five major classes was studied. For some types of national reporting the NCHEMS…

  1. A new system for groundwater contamination hazard rating of landfills.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Datta, Manoj; Nema, Arvind Kumar

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, several unregulated landfills exist adjacent to large cities, releasing harmful contaminants to the underlying aquifer. Normally, landfills are constructed to hold three types of waste, namely hazardous waste, municipal solid waste, and construction and demolition waste. Hazardous waste and municipal solid waste landfills are of greater importance as these pose greater hazard to groundwater, in comparison with landfills holding waste from construction and demolition. The polluting landfills need to be prioritized to undertake necessary control and remedial measures. This paper assesses existing site hazard rating systems and presents a new groundwater contamination hazard rating system for landfills, which can be used for site prioritization. The proposed system is based on source-pathway-receptor relationships and evaluates different sites relative to one another. The system parameters have been selected based on literature. The Delphi technique is used to derive the relative importance weights of the system parameters. The proposed system is compared with nine existing systems. The comparison shows that the site hazard scores produced by the existing systems for hazardous waste, municipal solid waste, and construction and demolition waste landfills are of the same order of magnitude and tend to overlap each other but the scores produced by the proposed system for the three types of landfills vary almost by an order of magnitude, which shows that the proposed system is more sensitive to the type of waste. The comparison further shows that the proposed system exhibits greater sensitivity also to varied site conditions. The application of different systems to six old municipal solid waste landfills shows that whereas the existing systems produce clustered scores, the proposed system produces significantly differing scores for all the six landfills, which improves decision making in site ranking. This demonstrates that the proposed system

  2. Classification and certification requirements for floating production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bowie, R.D.; Richardson, K.L.

    1995-12-31

    Floating Production Systems (FPSs) can be either, custom built or a converted semi-submersible, tanker or barge. The paper describes the necessary steps to be taken for the Classification and Certification of FPSs and FPSOS. The paper outlines the latest Classification and certification requirements for both semi-submersible and ship type FPSS. Classification and regulatory requirements for the Hull Structure, Stability, Station Keeping, Shipboard and Production Systems are discussed.

  3. Dust Hazard Management in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Most robotic missions to the outer solar system must grapple with the hazards posed by the dusty rings of the gas giants. Early assessments of these hazards led simply to ring avoidance due to insufficient data and high uncertainties on the dust population present in such rings. Recent approaches, principal among them the Cassini dust hazard management strategy, provide useful results from detailed modeling of spacecraft vulnerabilities and dust hazard regions, which along with the range of mission trajectories are used to to assess the risks posed by each passage through a zone of potential hazard. This paper shows the general approach used to implement the analysis for Cassini, with recommendations for future outer planet missions.

  4. Review of groundwater contamination hazard rating systems for old landfills.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raj Kumar; Datta, Manoj; Nema, Arvind Kumar

    2010-02-01

    A large number of old uncontrolled landfills exist in developing countries. These are potentially harmful to the environment, especially with respect to groundwater contamination, and therefore, are in need of appropriate control and remedial measures. However, due to resource constraints, such measures are to be undertaken in a phased manner. An appropriate landfill hazard rating system that can evaluate relative groundwater contamination hazard of different sites is a useful tool for site ranking in order to set priorities. This paper reviews 18 existing hazard rating systems that follow the index function approach. Nine systems that are best representative of the existing systems, have been applied to six hazardous waste landfills as well as six municipal solid waste landfills. When used for ranking hazardous waste landfills, some systems such as HRS-1990, ERPHRS, WARM and RSS respond well whereas others like DRASTIC, NCS, NPC system and JENV system show a clustering effect. However, these rating systems do not perform well when applied to old municipal solid waste landfills. Even the HRS-1990, which is observed to be the most sensitive among all rating systems, exhibits some shortcomings. Improvements have been suggested in the waste quantity factor values of HRS-1990 to make it suitable for old municipal solid waste landfills. The improved system is observed to provide superior results in comparison with the existing systems, making it appropriate for use as a tool for ranking of old landfills in need of remediation and control measures.

  5. Designing a Classification System for Internet Offenders: Doing Cognitive Distortions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundersmarck, Steven F.; Durkin, Keith F.; Delong, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    Televised features such as NBC's "To Catch a Predator" have highlighted the growing problem posed by Internet sexual predators. This paper reports on the authors' attempts in designing a classification system for Internet offenders. The classification system was designed based on existing theory, understanding the nature of Internet offenders and…

  6. The Geohazard Safety Classification: how resilience could play a role in the geo-hydrological hazards assessment of school buildings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Morelli, Stefano; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The impacts of adverse events related to geological hazards are unevenly distributed among communities and groups of individuals concentrated in restricted workplaces. Their consequent safety level is the result of differential exposures to these events and of diversified levels of preparation to them. Nowadays, the exposure and coping ability as co-determinants of people's safety are of particular interest for institutions managing the schools systems. According to the disaster risk reduction experts, the geo-hydrological processes can be mitigated with knowledge and planning, physical and environmental protection measures, and response preparedness. UNISDR is promoting a global culture of safety and resilience through the integration of disaster risk reduction in school curricula. The Comprehensive School Safety (CSS) framework is intended to advance the goals of the Worldwide Initiative for Safe Schools and the Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in the Education Sector, and to promote school safety as a priority area of post-2015 frameworks for sustainable development, risk reduction and resilience. In Italy, according the latest ministerial survey (June 2010), there are 41,902 school buildings. Their alarming condition in terms of safety for their daily occupants is reflected by 39 fatalities ascribable to structural failures in the last 21 years. In 95% of these cases victims are a sad tribute due to natural phenomena. A rigorous evaluation of the total risk of a school building, as defined by the well known risk equation (R=HxVxE), would require a complete probability density function describing the exposure to specific types of events of all the pupils and personnel in the school. In addition, the probability that the inhabitants are present in the school during an event should be estimated depending on the time of day, day of week, or month of the year, as well as on local holiday schedules. The inclusion of resilience as a component

  7. The Bellevue Classification System: nursing's voice upon the library shelves.

    PubMed

    Mages, Keith C

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the inspiration, construction, and meaning of the Bellevue Classification System (BCS), created during the 1930s for use in the Bellevue School of Nursing Library. Nursing instructor Ann Doyle, with assistance from librarian Mary Casamajor, designed the BCS after consulting with library leaders and examining leading contemporary classification systems, including the Dewey Decimal Classification and Library of Congress, Ballard, and National Health Library classification systems. A close textual reading of the classes, subclasses, and subdivisions of these classification systems against those of the resulting BCS, reveals Doyle's belief that the BCS was created not only to organize the literature, but also to promote the burgeoning intellectualism and professionalism of early twentieth-century American nursing.

  8. Landslide hazards and systems analysis: A Central European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo; Kreuzer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Part of the problem with assessing landslide hazards is to understand the variable settings in which they occur. There is growing consensus that hazard assessments require integrated approaches that take account of the coupled human-environment system. Here we provide a synthesis of societal exposure and vulnerability to landslide hazards, review innovative approaches to hazard identification, and lay a focus on hazard assessment, while presenting the results of historical case studies and a landslide time series for Germany. The findings add to a growing body of literature that recognizes societal exposure and vulnerability as a complex system of hazard interactions that evolves over time as a function of social change and development. We therefore propose to expand hazard assessments by the framework and concepts of systems analysis (e.g., Liu et al., 2007) Results so far have been promising in ways that illustrate the importance of feedbacks, thresholds, surprises, and time lags in the evolution of landslide hazard and risk. In densely populated areas of Central Europe, landslides often occur in urbanized landscapes or on engineered slopes that had been transformed or created intentionally by human activity, sometimes even centuries ago. The example of Germany enables to correlate the causes and effects of recent landslides with the historical transition of urbanization to urban sprawl, ongoing demographic change, and some chronic problems of industrialized countries today, including ageing infrastructures or rising government debts. In large parts of rural Germany, the combination of ageing infrastructures, population loss, and increasing budget deficits starts to erode historical resilience gains, which brings especially small communities to a tipping point in their efforts to risk reduction. While struggling with budget deficits and demographic change, these communities are required to maintain ageing infrastructures that are particularly vulnerable to

  9. 78 FR 58153 - Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ..., 2013, the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) issued a proposed rule (78 FR 18252) to update the... RIN 3206-AM78 Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal... Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes currently used in Federal Wage System wage survey...

  10. Pyrotechnic hazards classification and evaluation program test report. Heat flux study of deflagrating pyrotechnic munitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fassnacht, P. O.

    1971-01-01

    A heat flux study of deflagrating pyrotechnic munitions is presented. Three tests were authorized to investigate whether heat flux measurements may be used as effective hazards evaluation criteria to determine safe quantity distances for pyrotechnics. A passive sensor study was conducted simultaneously to investigate their usefulness in recording events and conditions. It was concluded that heat flux measurements can effectively be used to evaluate hazards criteria and that passive sensors are an inexpensive tool to record certain events in the vicinity of deflagrating pyrotechnic stacks.

  11. Towards a Collaborative Intelligent Tutoring System Classification Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsley, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel classification scheme for Collaborative Intelligent Tutoring Systems (CITS), an emergent research field. The three emergent classifications of CITS are unstructured, semi-structured, and fully structured. While all three types of CITS offer opportunities to improve student learning gains, the full extent to which these…

  12. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... situation that could expose humans or animals to a health hazard. Any conclusion shall be supported as... of the population, e.g., children, surgical patients, pets, livestock, etc., who are expected to be... the populations at risk would be exposed. (5) Assessment of the likelihood of occurrence of the...

  13. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... situation that could expose humans or animals to a health hazard. Any conclusion shall be supported as... of the population, e.g., children, surgical patients, pets, livestock, etc., who are expected to be... the populations at risk would be exposed. (5) Assessment of the likelihood of occurrence of the...

  14. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... situation that could expose humans or animals to a health hazard. Any conclusion shall be supported as... of the population, e.g., children, surgical patients, pets, livestock, etc., who are expected to be... the populations at risk would be exposed. (5) Assessment of the likelihood of occurrence of the...

  15. 16 CFR 1500.85 - Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... instructions for safe use; and (F) Comply with the requirements of 16 CFR 1500.83(a)(36)(ii and iii); and (ii... has no hazards other than being in a self-pressurized container. (8) Model rocket propellant devices designed for use in light-weight, recoverable, and reflyable model rockets, provided such devices: (i)...

  16. 16 CFR 1500.85 - Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... instructions for safe use; and (F) Comply with the requirements of 16 CFR 1500.83(a)(36)(ii and iii); and (ii... has no hazards other than being in a self-pressurized container. (8) Model rocket propellant devices designed for use in light-weight, recoverable, and reflyable model rockets, provided such devices: (i)...

  17. 16 CFR 1500.85 - Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... instructions for safe use; and (F) Comply with the requirements of 16 CFR 1500.83(a)(36)(ii and iii); and (ii... has no hazards other than being in a self-pressurized container. (8) Model rocket propellant devices designed for use in light-weight, recoverable, and reflyable model rockets, provided such devices: (i)...

  18. 16 CFR 1500.85 - Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... instructions for safe use; and (F) Comply with the requirements of 16 CFR 1500.83(a)(36)(ii and iii); and (ii... has no hazards other than being in a self-pressurized container. (8) Model rocket propellant devices designed for use in light-weight, recoverable, and reflyable model rockets, provided such devices: (i)...

  19. Immune System Toxicity and Immunotoxicity Hazard Identification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to chemicals may alter immune system health, increasing the risk of infections, allergy and autoimmune diseases. The chapter provides a concise overview of the immune system, host factors that affect immune system heal, and the effects that xenobiotic exposure may have ...

  20. Destructive Interactions Between Mitigation Strategies and the Causes of Unexpected Failures in Natural Hazard Mitigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fearnley, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Large investments in the mitigation of natural hazards, using a variety of technology-based mitigation strategies, have proven to be surprisingly ineffective in some recent natural disasters. These failures reveal a need for a systematic classification of mitigation strategies; an understanding of the scientific uncertainties that affect the effectiveness of such strategies; and an understanding of how the different types of strategy within an overall mitigation system interact destructively to reduce the effectiveness of the overall mitigation system. We classify mitigation strategies into permanent, responsive and anticipatory. Permanent mitigation strategies such as flood and tsunami defenses or land use restrictions, are both costly and 'brittle': when they malfunction they can increase mortality. Such strategies critically depend on the accuracy of the estimates of expected hazard intensity in the hazard assessments that underpin their design. Responsive mitigation strategies such as tsunami and lahar warning systems rely on capacities to detect and quantify the hazard source events and to transmit warnings fast enough to enable at risk populations to decide and act effectively. Self-warning and voluntary evacuation is also usually a responsive mitigation strategy. Uncertainty in the nature and magnitude of the detected hazard source event is often the key scientific obstacle to responsive mitigation; public understanding of both the hazard and the warnings, to enable decision making, can also be a critical obstacle. Anticipatory mitigation strategies use interpretation of precursors to hazard source events and are used widely in mitigation of volcanic hazards. Their critical limitations are due to uncertainties in time, space and magnitude relationships between precursors and hazard events. Examples of destructive interaction between different mitigation strategies are provided by the Tohoku 2011 earthquake and tsunami; recent earthquakes that have impacted

  1. Potential environmental impacts of light-emitting diodes (LEDs): metallic resources, toxicity, and hazardous waste classification.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are advertised as environmentally friendly because they are energy efficient and mercury-free. This study aimed to determine if LEDs engender other forms of environmental and human health impacts, and to characterize variation across different LEDs based on color and intensity. The objectives are as follows: (i) to use standardized leachability tests to examine whether LEDs are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing United States federal and California state regulations; and (ii) to use material life cycle impact and hazard assessment methods to evaluate resource depletion and toxicity potentials of LEDs based on their metallic constituents. According to federal standards, LEDs are not hazardous except for low-intensity red LEDs, which leached Pb at levels exceeding regulatory limits (186 mg/L; regulatory limit: 5). However, according to California regulations, excessive levels of copper (up to 3892 mg/kg; limit: 2500), Pb (up to 8103 mg/kg; limit: 1000), nickel (up to 4797 mg/kg; limit: 2000), or silver (up to 721 mg/kg; limit: 500) render all except low-intensity yellow LEDs hazardous. The environmental burden associated with resource depletion potentials derives primarily from gold and silver, whereas the burden from toxicity potentials is associated primarily with arsenic, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and silver. Establishing benchmark levels of these substances can help manufacturers implement design for environment through informed materials substitution, can motivate recyclers and waste management teams to recognize resource value and occupational hazards, and can inform policymakers who establish waste management policies for LEDs. PMID:21138290

  2. Compute Element and Interface Box for the Hazard Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villalpando, Carlos Y.; Khanoyan, Garen; Stern, Ryan A.; Some, Raphael R.; Bailey, Erik S.; Carson, John M.; Vaughan, Geoffrey M.; Werner, Robert A.; Salomon, Phil M.; Martin, Keith E.; Spaulding, Matthew D.; Luna, Michael E.; Motaghedi, Shui H.; Trawny, Nikolas; Johnson, Andrew E.; Ivanov, Tonislav I.; Huertas, Andres; Whitaker, William D.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) program is building a sensor that enables a spacecraft to evaluate autonomously a potential landing area to generate a list of hazardous and safe landing sites. It will also provide navigation inputs relative to those safe sites. The Hazard Detection System Compute Element (HDS-CE) box combines a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board for sensor integration and timing, with a multicore computer board for processing. The FPGA does system-level timing and data aggregation, and acts as a go-between, removing the real-time requirements from the processor and labeling events with a high resolution time. The processor manages the behavior of the system, controls the instruments connected to the HDS-CE, and services the "heavy lifting" computational requirements for analyzing the potential landing spots.

  3. Remote inspection system for hazardous sites

    SciTech Connect

    Redd, J.; Borst, C.; Volz, R.A.; Everett, L.J.

    1999-04-01

    Long term storage of special nuclear materials poses a number of problems. One of these is a need to inspect the items being stored from time to time. Yet the environment is hostile to man, with significant radiation exposure resulting from prolonged presence in the storage facility. This paper describes research to provide a remote inspection capability, which could lead to eliminating the need for humans to enter a nuclear storage facility. While there are many ways in which an RI system might be created, this paper describes the development of a prototype remote inspection system, which utilizes virtual reality technology along with robotics. The purpose of this system is to allow the operator to establish a safe and realistic telepresence in a remote environment. In addition, it was desired that the user interface for the system be as intuitive to use as possible, thus eliminating the need for extensive training. The goal of this system is to provide a robotic platform with two cameras, which are capable of providing accurate and reliable stereographic images of the remote environment. One application for the system is that it might be driven down the corridors of a nuclear storage facility and utilized to inspect the drums inside, all without the need for physical human presence. Thus, it is not a true virtual reality system providing simulated graphics, but rather an augmented reality system, which performs remote inspection of an existing, real environment.

  4. Heat wave hazard classification and risk assessment using artificial intelligence fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Kiranoudis, Chris T; Maiheu, Bino; De Ridder, Koen; Daglis, Ioannis A; Manunta, Paolo; Paganini, Marc

    2013-10-01

    The average summer temperatures as well as the frequency and intensity of hot days and heat waves are expected to increase due to climate change. Motivated by this consequence, we propose a methodology to evaluate the monthly heat wave hazard and risk and its spatial distribution within large cities. A simple urban climate model with assimilated satellite-derived land surface temperature images was used to generate a historic database of urban air temperature fields. Heat wave hazard was then estimated from the analysis of these hourly air temperatures distributed at a 1-km grid over Athens, Greece, by identifying the areas that are more likely to suffer higher temperatures in the case of a heat wave event. Innovation lies in the artificial intelligence fuzzy logic model that was used to classify the heat waves from mild to extreme by taking into consideration their duration, intensity and time of occurrence. The monthly hazard was subsequently estimated as the cumulative effect from the individual heat waves that occurred at each grid cell during a month. Finally, monthly heat wave risk maps were produced integrating geospatial information on the population vulnerability to heat waves calculated from socio-economic variables.

  5. Hazard analysis of Clostridium perfringens in the Skylab Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Kiser, P. R.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rowley, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab Food System presented unique microbiological problems because food was warmed in null-gravity and because the heat source was limited to 69.4 C (to prevent boiling in null-gravity). For these reasons, the foods were manufactured using critical control point techniques of quality control coupled with appropriate hazard analyses. One of these hazard analyses evaluated the threat from Clostridium perfringens. Samples of food were inoculated with C. perfringens and incubated for 2 h at temperatures ranging from 25 to 55 C. Generation times were determined for the foods at various temperatures. Results of these tests were evaluated taking into consideration: food-borne disease epidemiology, the Skylab food manufacturing procedures, and the performance requirements of the Skylab Food System. Based on this hazard analysis, a limit for C. perfringens of 100/g was established for Skylab foods.

  6. A system for analysis and classification of voice communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Older, H. J.; Jenney, L. L.; Garland, L.

    1973-01-01

    A method for analysis and classification of verbal communications typically associated with manned space missions or simulations was developed. The study was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 was devoted to identification of crew tasks and activities which require voice communication for accomplishment or reporting. Phase 2 entailed development of a message classification system and a preliminary test of its feasibility. The classification system permits voice communications to be analyzed to three progressively more specific levels of detail and to be described in terms of message content, purpose, and the participants in the information exchange. A coding technique was devised to allow messages to be recorded by an eight-digit number.

  7. A proposed ecosystem services classification system to support green accounting

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a multitude of actual or envisioned, complete or incomplete, ecosystem service classification systems being proposed to support Green Accounting. Green Accounting is generally thought to be the formal accounting attempt to factor environmental production into National ...

  8. System for detection of hazardous events

    DOEpatents

    Kulesz, James J.; Worley, Brian A.

    2006-05-23

    A system for detecting the occurrence of anomalies, includes a plurality of spaced apart nodes, with each node having adjacent nodes, each of the nodes having one or more sensors associated with the node and capable of detecting anomalies, and each of the nodes having a controller connected to the sensors associated with the node. The system also includes communication links between adjacent nodes, whereby the nodes form a network. Each controller is programmed to query its adjacent nodes to assess the status of the adjacent nodes and the communication links.

  9. System For Detection Of Hazardous Events

    DOEpatents

    Kulesz, James J [Oak Ridge, TN; Worley, Brian A [Knoxville, TN

    2005-08-16

    A system for detecting the occurrence of anomalies, includes a plurality of spaced apart nodes, with each node having adjacent nodes, each of the nodes having one or more sensors associated with the node and capable of detecting anomalies, and each of the nodes having a controller connected to the sensors associated with the node. The system also includes communication links between adjacent nodes, whereby the nodes form a network. Each controller is programmed to query its adjacent nodes to assess the status of the adjacent nodes and the communication links.

  10. Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.

    2001-09-01

    When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998 1, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (equal to or greater than) 304.8-millimeter (equal to or greater than 12-inch diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

  11. Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB 700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.; Butcher, A. Garn

    2002-04-01

    When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (less than or = 304.8-millimeter (less than or = 12-inch)) diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

  12. Current Efforts to Develop Alternate "TB 700-2" Test Protocols for the Hazard Classification of Large Rocket Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel F.; Bennett, Robert R.; Graham, Kenneth J.; Boggs, Thomas L.; Atwood, Alice I.

    1998-01-01

    When the Department of Defense (DoD) revised Technical Bulletin (TB) 700-2, NAVSEAINST 8020.8B, TO 11A-1-47, DLAR 8220.12 hazard classification guidelines in January 1998 1, it significantly changed the procedures used to determine the explosive classification of rocket motors, to be shipped or placed in DoD storage facilities. The revised test protocols outlined in this document, (hereafter referred to as TB 700-2) are far more conservative and costly to implement than the previous ones. These changes could have a profound impact on the solid rocket community and in particular those involved with the research and development and manufacture of large (greater than or equal 304.8-millimeter (greater than or equal l2-inch)) diameter solid rocket motors (SRMs). The ramifications may include higher development costs and limitations on performance improvements. This paper outlines current efforts of the solid rocket community to develop acceptable alternate test protocols for large rocket motors that could fulfill the intent of TB 700-2 and be considered by the Department of Defense Explosive Safety Board (DDESB) for incorporation into a future revision to TB 700-2.

  13. Acuity systems dialogue and patient classification system essentials.

    PubMed

    Harper, Kelle; McCully, Crystal

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining resources for quality patient care is a major responsibility of nurse leaders and requires accurate information in the political world of budgeting. Patient classification systems (PCS) assist nurse managers in controlling cost and improving patient care while appropriately using financial resources. This paper communicates acuity systems development, background, flaws, and components while discussing a few tools currently available. It also disseminates the development of a new acuity tool, the Patient Classification System. The PCS tool, developed in a small rural hospital, uses 5 broad concepts: (1) medications, (2) complicated procedures, (3) education, (4) psychosocial issues, and (5) complicated intravenous medications. These concepts embrace a 4-tiered scale that differentiates significant patient characteristics and assists in staffing measures for equality in patient staffing and improving quality of care and performance. Data obtained through use of the PCS can be used by nurse leaders to effectively and objectively lobby for appropriate patient care resources. Two questionnaires distributed to registered nurses on a medical-surgical unit evaluated the nurses' opinion of the 5 concepts and the importance for establishing patient acuity for in-patient care. Interrater reliability among nurses was 87% with the author's acuity tool. PMID:17909428

  14. A Classification System for Peri-implant Diseases and Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Hector L; Norton, Michael R; Fiorellini, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    Peri-implant bone levels are influenced by pathologic and nonpathologic conditions. The understanding of peri-implant disease has evolved over the past several decades, and the classification of peri-implantitis has been limited to descriptions of disease progression or those involving soft and/or hard tissues (peri-implant mucositis or peri-implantitis). However, no classification system has been established based on etiology. The objective of this study was to identify various etiologies for peri-implantitis and to establish a classification system based on the pathogenesis. The results indicate that the majority of bone loss was related to biofilm, followed by iatrogenic factors, exogenous irritants, absence of keratinized tissue, and extrinsic pathology. The proposed classification system will allow the clinician to properly diagnose peri-implant diseases in relation to etiology. These conditions may respond differently to applied therapies. PMID:27560674

  15. Mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1994-06-01

    This paper deals with mitigation of earthquake hazards using seismic base-isolation systems. A numerical algorithm is described for system response analysis of isolated structures with laminated elastomer bearings. The focus of this paper is on the adaptation of a nonlinear constitutive equation for the isolation bearing, and the treatment of foundation embedment for the soil-structure-interaction analysis. Sample problems are presented to illustrate the mitigating effect of using base-isolation systems.

  16. FIELD TEST OF THE PROPOSED REVISED HAZARD RANKING SYSTEM (HRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to revise the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) so that, to the maximum extent feasible, it accurately assesses the relative risks associated with actual or potent...

  17. Environmental Hazards and Systems Schools. Technical Report No. 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Arthur

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the feasibility of incorporating certain protective concepts into selected systems-constructed schools. These concepts were to be incorporated at a minimal cost increase, with minimal sacrifice of amenities, and with no detrimental effect on facility configuration. The environmental hazards taken into…

  18. Automatic systems and the low-level wind hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffer, Dwight R.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic flight control systems provide means for significantly enhancing survivability in severe wind hazards. The technology required to produce the necessary control algorithms is available and has been made technically feasible by the advent of digital flight control systems and accurate, low-noise sensors, especially strap-down inertial sensors. The application of this technology and these means has not generally been enabled except for automatic landing systems, and even then the potential has not been fully exploited. To fully exploit the potential of automatic systems for enhancing safety in wind hazards requires providing incentives, creating demand, inspiring competition, education, and eliminating prejudicial disincentitives to overcome the economic penalties associated with the extensive and riskly development and certification of these systems. If these changes will come about at all, it will likely be through changes in the regulations provided by the certifying agencies.

  19. The 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC): A Classification System Gets an Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmel, Alissa; Cosca, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    Making sense of occupational data isn't always easy. But the task is less daunting when the data are well organized. For Federal occupational statistics, the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system establishes that organization. And a recent revision to the SOC means that the data will be current, in addition to being well organized. The…

  20. Comparison of the clinical applicability of Miller's classification system to Kumar and Masamatti's classification system of gingival recession

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Geeti; Puri, Komal; Bansal, Mansi; Jain, Deept; Khatri, Manish; Masamatti, Sujata Surendra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of the present study were to (i) Find the percentage of recession cases that could be classified by application of Miller's and/or Kumar and Masamatti's classification of gingival recession, and (ii) compare the percentage of clinical applicability of Miller's criteria and Kumar and Masamatti's criteria to the total recessions present. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 patients (1089 recession cases) were included in the study wherein they were classified using both Miller's and Kumar and Masamatti's classification systems of gingival recession. Percentage comparison of the application of both classification systems was done. Results: Data analysis showed that though all the cases of the recession were classified by Kumar and Masamatti's classification, only 34.61% cases were classified by Miller's classification. 19.10% cases were completely (having only labial/buccal recession) classified. In 15.51% (out of 34.61%) cases, only buccal recession was classified according to Miller's criteria and included in this category, although these cases had both buccal and lingual/palatal recessions. Furthermore, 29.75% cases of recession with interdental loss and marginal tissue loss coronal to mucogingival junction (MGJ) remained uncategorized by Miller's classification; categorization of palatal/lingual recession was possible with Kumar and Masamatti's classification. Conclusion: The elaborative evaluation of both buccal and palatal/lingual recession by the Kumar and Masamatti's classification system can be used to overcome the limitations of Miller's classification system, especially the cases with interdental loss and having marginal tissue loss coronal to MGJ. PMID:26644724

  1. Particle classification, chemistry and mineralogy of bottom ash from a hazardous waste incinerator in Sauget, IL

    SciTech Connect

    Killeen, K.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    A study was conducted of a suite of hazardous waste bottom ash samples produced at a rotary kiln incinerator in Sauget, Illinois. The Incinerator burns hazardous waste in many forms, including paint products, solvents and contaminated soils. Thin sections of ash from the primary incineration process were studied. Techniques used were petrography with an optical microscope and chemical analysis with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) that is equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Ash particles were classified according to size, shape, mineralogy and texture. Thin sections consisted of two general particle sizes. The largest particles were between 0.4 cm and 1 cm in length; small particles were less than 0.4 cm. X-ray maps were produced of each particle type in order to determine their chemical content and to verify minerals identified by light microscopy. Twelve different types of large particles and over twenty-five smaller particle types have been classified. Large particles were classified by percent glass content, gas bubble content, mineralogy, mineral size and shape, and relative abundance. The most common of the large particle types has a glass content grater than 50%, trapped gas bubble content of less than 25%, rounded mineral inclusions of quartz and plagioclase feldspar of up to 10%, and 1 to 2% as yet identified minerals. X-ray maps of the glass show that it is composed primarily of Si and O, with trace amounts of Na, Mg, Al, Cl, P, Ca, Ti, Fe, and F. Metals appear both diffused in the glass itself and in various mineral clusters. Rutile was detected in several particles, and may be a residue from the burning of paint products. The quartz and plagioclase grains, as well as diatomaceous earth particles are most likely byproducts of contaminated soils burned in the incinerator. Various melt textures were also observed and are interpreted to have formed during incineration.

  2. Development of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (1997)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for a standardized system to classify the gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy, the authors developed a five-level classification system analogous to the staging and grading systems used in medicine. Nominal group process and Delphi survey consensus methods were used to examine content validity and revise the…

  3. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY...) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the definition of... Recovery Act (RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from...

  4. Multiphase Systems for Medical Image Region Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garamendi, J. F.; Malpica, N.; Schiavi, E.

    2009-05-01

    Variational methods for region classification have shown very promising results in medical image analysis. The Chan-Vese model is one of the most popular methods, but its numerical resolution is slow and it has serious drawbacks for most multiphase applications. In this work, we extend the link, stablished by Chambolle, between the two classes binary Chan-Vese model and the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) model to a multiphase four classes minimal partition problem. We solve the ROF image restoration model and then we threshold the image by means of a genetic algorithm. This strategy allows for a more efficient algorithm due to the fact that only one well posed elliptic problem is solved instead of solving the coupled parabolic equations arising in the original multiphase Chan-Vese model.

  5. Hazard analysis of a computer based medical diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Chudleigh, M F

    1994-07-01

    Medical screening of sectors of the population is now a routine and vital part of health care: an example is cervical smear testing. There is currently significant interest in the possible introduction of semi-automated microscopy systems for cervical cytology and one such experimental system is now undergoing laboratory trials. A collaborative project has been set up to demonstrate the benefits and constraints that arise from applying safety-critical methods developed in other domains to such a diagnostic system. We have carried out a system hazard analysis, successfully using the HAZOP technique adapted from the petrochemical industry. PMID:7988111

  6. U.S. Geological Survey library classification system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasscer, R. Scott

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Library classification system has been designed for earth science libraries. It is a tool for assigning call numbers to earth science and allied pure science materials in order to collect these materials into related subject groups on the library shelves and arrange them alphabetically by author and title. The classification can be used as a retrieval system to access materials through the subject and geographic numbers. The classification scheme has been developed over the years since 1904 to meet the ever-changing needs of increased specialization and the development of new areas of research in the earth sciences. The system contains seven schedules: * Subject schedule * Geological survey schedule * Earth science periodical schedule * Government document periodical schedule * General science periodical schedule * Earth science map schedule * Geographic schedule Introduction provides detailed instructions on the construction of call numbers for works falling into the framework of the classification schedules. The tables following the introduction can be quickly accessed through the use of the newly expanded subject index. The purpose of this publication is to provide the earth science community with a classification and retrieval system for earth science materials, to offer sufficient explanation of its structure and use, and to enable library staff and clientele to classify or access research materials in a library collection.

  7. Overview of Classification Systems in Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Rulon L.; Jazaeri, Omid; Yi, J.; Smith, M.; Gupta, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD), secondary to atherosclerotic disease, is currently the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. While PAD is common, it is estimated that the majority of patients with PAD are undiagnosed and undertreated. The challenge to the treatment of PAD is to accurately diagnose the symptoms and determine treatment for each patient. The varied presentations of peripheral vascular disease have led to numerous classification schemes throughout the literature. Consistent grading of patients leads to both objective criteria for treating patients and a baseline for clinical follow-up. Reproducible classification systems are also important in clinical trials and when comparing medical, surgical, and endovascular treatment paradigms. This article reviews the various classification systems for PAD and advantages to each system. PMID:25435665

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    2000-11-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Preclosure Safety and Systems Engineering Section. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 2000). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2000). This QA classification incorporates the current MGR design and the results of the ''Design Basis Event Frequency and Dose Calculation for Site Recommendation'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a) and ''Bounding Individual Category 1 Design Basis Event Dose Calculation to Support Quality Assurance Classification'' (Gwyn 2000).

  9. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... completion of the initial round of source water monitoring required under § 141.701(a), filtered systems must... water monitoring required under § 141.701(b), filtered systems must recalculate their Cryptosporidium... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bin classification for...

  10. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... completion of the initial round of source water monitoring required under § 141.701(a), filtered systems must... water monitoring required under § 141.701(b), filtered systems must recalculate their Cryptosporidium... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bin classification for...

  11. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... completion of the initial round of source water monitoring required under § 141.701(a), filtered systems must... water monitoring required under § 141.701(b), filtered systems must recalculate their Cryptosporidium... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bin classification for...

  12. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... completion of the initial round of source water monitoring required under § 141.701(a), filtered systems must... water monitoring required under § 141.701(b), filtered systems must recalculate their Cryptosporidium... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bin classification for...

  13. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.710 Bin classification for filtered systems. (a) Following completion of the initial round of source water monitoring required under § 141.701(a), filtered systems...

  14. What's behind the Biological Classification System in Use Today?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Whether students should memorize classification schemes (taxonomies) is a column in itself, but the author can address the role that this system plays in the study of biology. To that end, it will help to address how the system developed over time. And toward "that" end, you will do a simple activity to start. (Contains 3 figures.)

  15. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System reference manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Branham-Haar, K.A.; Twitchell, K.E.

    1993-07-01

    Concern for the environment, in addition to Federal regulation, mandate the replacement of hazardous solvents with safer cleaning agents. Manufacturers are working to produce these replacement solvents. As these products are developed, potential users need to be informed of their availability. To promote the use of these new products instead of traditional solvents, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has developed the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS). The HSSDS provides a comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects, and it makes that information available to solvent users, industrial hygienists, and process engineers. The HSSDS uses TOPIC{reg_sign}, a text retrieval system produced by Verity, Inc., to allow a user to search for information on a particular subject. TOPIC{reg_sign} produces a listing of the retrieved documents and allows the use to examine the documents individually and to use the information contained in them. This reference manual does not replace the comprehensive TOPIC{reg_sign} user documentation (available from Verity, Inc.), or the HSSDS Tutorial (available from the INEL). The purpose of this reference manual is to provide enough instruction on TOPIC{reg_sign} so the user may begin accessing the data contained in the HSSDS.

  16. Transmission tower classification based on landslide risk map generated by Geographical Information System (GIS) at Cameron Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Hazwani N.; O, Rohayu C.; U, Fathoni; Baharuddin, Inz

    2013-06-01

    Transmission tower is usually locates at remote area which is covered by hilly topography. Landslide is mainly occurring at hilly area and causing failure to the tower structure. This phenomenon subsequently will affect the national electricity supply. A landslide risk hazard map is generated using Geographical Information System (GIS). Risk classification is introduced to initiate the monitoring process along Jor-Bintang transmission line, Cameron Highland, Pahang. The classification has been divided into three categories, which are low, medium and high. This method can be applied in slope monitoring activities since all towers have been classified based on their risk level. Therefore, maintenance schedule can be planned smoothly and efficiently.

  17. Transmission tower classification based on landslide risk Map generated by Geographical Information System (GIS) at Cameron Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Hazwani N.; O, Rohayu C.; U, Fathoni; Baharuddin, I. N. Z.; A, Azwin Z.

    2013-06-01

    Transmission tower is usually locates at remote area which is covered by hilly topography. Landslide is mainly occurring at hilly area and causing failure to the tower structure. This phenomenon subsequently will affect the national electricity supply. A landslide risk hazard map is generated using Geographical Information System (GIS). Risk classification is introduced to initiate the monitoring process along Jor-Bintang transmission line, Cameron Highland, Pahang. The classification has been divided into three categories, which are low, medium and high. This method can be applied in slope monitoring activities since all towers have been classified based on their risk level. Therefore, maintenance schedule can be planned smoothly and efficiently.

  18. Water-washable ink system reduces printers' hazardous emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kratch, K.

    1994-08-01

    Printing industry solvents contain large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a major contributor to air pollution in that industry. Because most printing inks contain non-water-soluble petroleum, organic solvents have been necessary to clean presses using those inks. However, under proposed control technique guidelines for lithographic printers issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), printing-press wash solutions could contain no more than 30% VOCs. Deluxe Corp., a St. Paul, Minn.-based lithographic printer, recognized that stiffer emissions rules could mean harsh penalties for non-compliance and, in 1990, began developing a water-based press wash that would meet the guidelines. Deluxe last year introduced a 100% vegetable oil-based ink that becomes water-washable when exposed to the company's water-based press-wash solution. The solvent-free system eliminates VOCs and hazardous wastes associated with printing, contains no chemicals considered hazardous by EPA, uses no non-renewable resources, and works with existing printing equipment and processes. The system also eliminates water and soil contamination risks associated with laundering or landfilling solvent-saturated shop towels, saves money by eliminating the need to pay for hazardous waste disposal and provides relief to employees who complain about the strong odors of traditional press-wash solvents.

  19. Radiological Hazard of Spallation Products in Accelerator-Driven System

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, M.; Stankovskii, A.; Artisyuk, V.; Korovin, Yu.; Shmelev, A.; Titarenko, Yu.

    2002-09-15

    The central issue underlying this paper is related to elucidating the hazard of radioactive spallation products that might be an important factor affecting the design option of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs). Hazard analysis based on the concept of Annual Limit on Intake identifies alpha-emitting isotopes of rare earths (REs) (dysprosium, gadolinium, and samarium) as the dominant contributors to the overall toxicity of traditional (W, Pb, Pb-Bi) targets. The matter is addressed from several points of view: code validation to simulate their yields, choice of material for the neutron producing targets, and challenging the beam type. The paper quantitatively determines the domain in which the toxicity of REs exceeds that of polonium activation products broadly discussed now in connection with advertising lead-bismuth technology for the needs of ADSs.

  20. An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR-Cas systems.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Alkhnbashi, Omer S; Costa, Fabrizio; Shah, Shiraz A; Saunders, Sita J; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Brouns, Stan J J; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Haft, Daniel H; Horvath, Philippe; Moineau, Sylvain; Mojica, Francisco J M; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P; White, Malcolm F; Yakunin, Alexander F; Garrett, Roger A; van der Oost, John; Backofen, Rolf; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of CRISPR-cas loci, which encode adaptive immune systems in archaea and bacteria, involves rapid changes, in particular numerous rearrangements of the locus architecture and horizontal transfer of complete loci or individual modules. These dynamics complicate straightforward phylogenetic classification, but here we present an approach combining the analysis of signature protein families and features of the architecture of cas loci that unambiguously partitions most CRISPR-cas loci into distinct classes, types and subtypes. The new classification retains the overall structure of the previous version but is expanded to now encompass two classes, five types and 16 subtypes. The relative stability of the classification suggests that the most prevalent variants of CRISPR-Cas systems are already known. However, the existence of rare, currently unclassifiable variants implies that additional types and subtypes remain to be characterized. PMID:26411297

  1. Classifications of central solar domestic hot water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. Y.; Hao, B.; Peng, C.; Wang, S. S.

    2016-08-01

    Currently, there are many means by which to classify solar domestic hot water systems, which are often categorized according to their scope of supply, solar collector positions, and type of heat storage tank. However, the lack of systematic and scientific classification as well as the general disregard of the thermal performance of the auxiliary heat source is important to DHW systems. Thus, the primary focus of this paper is to determine a classification system for solar domestic hot water systems based on the positions of the solar collector and auxiliary heating device, both respectively and in combination. Field-testing data regarding many central solar DHW systems demonstrates that the position of the auxiliary heat source clearly reflects the operational energy consumption. The consumption of collective auxiliary heating hot water system is much higher than individual auxiliary heating hot water system. In addition, costs are significantly reduced by the separation of the heat storage tank and the auxiliary heating device.

  2. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: moving towards a new classification system.

    PubMed

    Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardiman, Orla; Kiernan, Matthew C; Chiò, Adriano; Rix-Brooks, Benjamin; van den Berg, Leonard H

    2016-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive adult-onset neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects upper and lower motor neurons, but also frontotemporal and other regions of the brain. The extent to which each neuronal population is affected varies between individuals. The subsequent patterns of disease progression form the basis of diagnostic criteria and phenotypic classification systems, with considerable overlap in the clinical terms used. This overlap can lead to confusion between diagnosis and phenotype. Formal classification systems such as the El Escorial criteria and the International Classification of Diseases are systematic approaches but they omit features that are important in clinical management, such as rate of progression, genetic basis, or functional effect. Therefore, many neurologists use informal classification approaches that might not be systematic, and could include, for example, anatomical descriptions such as flail-arm syndrome. A new strategy is needed to combine the benefits of a systematic approach to classification with the rich and varied phenotypic descriptions used in clinical practice. PMID:27647646

  3. A Ternary Phase Diagram for a Less Hazardous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udale, Barbara A.; Wells, John D.

    1995-12-01

    The ternary phase diagram for the partially miscible liquid system n-propanol-n-heptane-water can be determined readily in an undergraduate laboratory experiment. The coexistence curve is obtained from titration results. Tie lines are then estimated from the compositions of pairs of phases in equilibrium, the propanol concentrations being determined by gas chromatography. The reagents are less hazardous than those of the classic acetic acid-chloroform-water system, and the gas chromatographic analysis has more interest for students than the acid-base titrations of the older experiment.

  4. Laser beacon system for aircraft collision hazard determination.

    PubMed

    Miles, R B

    1980-07-01

    A laser beacon collision hazard determination system is capable of simultaneously determining range, bearing, and heading of threat aircraft. Calculations demonstrate that threat aircraft may be observed at > 10 km under good visibility conditions. When the visibility is limited to 5.6 km (3 nautical miles), the shortest possible warning time for aircraft below 3000 m (10,000 ft) can be > 15 sec. A wide variety of detection systems may be chosen based on cost, detection range, and sophistication. Traffic saturation is not a problem since closer aircraft produce easily distinguishable signals so traffic may be prioritized. Preliminary tests demonstrate that accurate range measurements are possible under daylight conditions.

  5. Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2011-01-01

    A supervised learning task involves constructing a mapping from input data (normally described by several features) to the appropriate outputs. Within supervised learning, one type of task is a classification learning task, in which each output is one or more classes to which the input belongs. In supervised learning, a set of training examples---examples with known output values---is used by a learning algorithm to generate a model. This model is intended to approximate the mapping between the inputs and outputs. This model can be used to generate predicted outputs for inputs that have not been seen before. For example, we may have data consisting of observations of sunspots. In a classification learning task, our goal may be to learn to classify sunspots into one of several types. Each example may correspond to one candidate sunspot with various measurements or just an image. A learning algorithm would use the supplied examples to generate a model that approximates the mapping between each supplied set of measurements and the type of sunspot. This model can then be used to classify previously unseen sunspots based on the candidate's measurements. This chapter discusses methods to perform machine learning, with examples involving astronomy.

  6. Surveillance of hazardous substances releases due to system interruptions, 2002.

    PubMed

    Orr, Maureen F; Ruckart, Perri Zeitz

    2007-04-11

    The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system collected information on 9014 acute hazardous substance releases in 15 participating states in 2002. There were 3749 fixed-facility manufacturing events, of which 2100 involved "interruptions" to normal processing and 1649 "comparisons" that did not involve interruption. Equipment failure (69%) or intentional acts (20%) were the main root factor. Many events occurred in October and November in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and New Jersey), in three manufacturing industries (industrial and miscellaneous chemicals; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resins). In interruption events, the substance categories most often released were mixtures, other inorganic substances, and volatile organic compounds and those most often causing injury were acids, chlorine, bases, and ammonia. Comparison events resulted in more acutely injured persons (408 versus 59) and more evacuees (11,318 versus 335) than interruption events and therefore may receive more public health attention. Because of the large number of interruption events, targeted prevention activities, including management of change procedures, lessons-learned implementation, process hazards analysis, and appropriate protection for workers could be economically advantageous and improve environmental quality. Efforts should focus on the identified areas of greater occurrence. The relationship of weather and equipment failure with interruption events needs further investigation.

  7. Image interpretation for a multilevel land use classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The potential use is discussed of three remote sensors for developing a four level land use classification system. Three types of imagery for photointerpretation are presented: ERTS-1 satellite imagery, high altitude photography, and medium altitude photography. Suggestions are given as to which remote sensors and imagery scales may be most effectively employed to provide data on specific types of land use.

  8. Nursing Classification System: Foundation for Personnel Planning and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Rosemary L.; Mable, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    This article demonstrates the usefulness of the Nursing Classification System (NCS) as an operational planning and control tool. Here the authors introduce and illustrate the concept of workload indexing, a means by which the NCS assists in defining staffing needs and monitoring workload and performance. (SSH)

  9. Revising the Standard Occupational Classification System. Report 929.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    In 1994, a committee was formed to revise the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system to meet the needs of the 21st century. The committee, which was chartered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Bureau of the Census, included representatives from eight public agencies using occupational information. The SOC revision process…

  10. The Nature of the Physical Microenvironment: An Expanded Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.

    1989-01-01

    Develops a classification system for the physical environment based on 3 dimensions of stimulation. Intercorrelations of physical and social environmental measures obtained for 88 infants of 12 months supported the validity of the decision rule that nonresponsive animate stimulation is primarily physical rather than social. (RJC)

  11. 42 CFR 412.513 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.513 Section 412.513 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., sex, principal diagnosis (that is, the diagnosis established after study to be chiefly responsible...

  12. Exercise-Associated Collapse in Endurance Events: A Classification System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, William O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classification system devised for exercise-associated collapse in endurance events based on casualties observed at six Twin Cities Marathons. Major diagnostic criteria are body temperature and mental status. Management protocol includes fluid and fuel replacement, temperature correction, and leg cramp treatment. (Author/SM)

  13. Educational Web Sites: A Classification System for Educators and Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Trey; Cates, Ward Mitchell; Qian, Yufeng

    2003-01-01

    Describes the creation of a classification system with a common vocabulary for discussing educational Web sites, both formal and informal education, and looking for trends in exemplary sites. Categories include instructional; learning activities; content collection; links; reference; teacher resources; vicarious participation; interpersonal…

  14. 42 CFR 412.620 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.620 Section 412.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... patient's impairment, age, comorbidities, functional capabilities, and other factors that may improve...

  15. 42 CFR 412.620 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.620 Section 412.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... patient's impairment, age, comorbidities, functional capabilities, and other factors that may improve...

  16. 42 CFR 412.620 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.620 Section 412.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... patient's impairment, age, comorbidities, functional capabilities, and other factors that may improve...

  17. 42 CFR 412.620 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.620 Section 412.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... patient's impairment, age, comorbidities, functional capabilities, and other factors that may improve...

  18. 42 CFR 412.620 - Patient classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patient classification system. 412.620 Section 412.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... patient's impairment, age, comorbidities, functional capabilities, and other factors that may improve...

  19. Classification system for conventional crown and fixed partial denture failures.

    PubMed

    Manappallil, John Joy

    2008-04-01

    The dental literature is replete with reports on the many aspects of failure encountered with traditional fixed prosthodontic treatment, including longitudinal survival studies of crowns and fixed partial dentures and reasons for failures. However, criteria for grading or classifying the type and severity of these failures are inadequate. A classification system for conventional fixed prosthodontic failures based on severity is presented.

  20. Toward an objective classification of cells in the immune system.

    PubMed Central

    Lefkovits, I; Kuhn, L; Valiron, O; Merle, A; Kettman, J

    1988-01-01

    The relative abundance of individual proteins shared among clones of lymphocytes provides a meaningful basis for cellular classification. Twelve clones of T cells (obtained by limiting dilution) were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for polypeptide content and then evaluated by the computational technique known as principal component analysis. As a result, relatedness of the clones was established and expressed in terms of taxonomic distances. The data show that a comprehensive and objective classification of the cells involved in the immune system can be approached. Images PMID:3259320

  1. 75 FR 51671 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... sludge from the list of hazardous wastes under 40 CFR 261.31 and 261.32 (see 70 FR 41358). EPA is... released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities... also eligible for exclusion and remain hazardous wastes until excluded. See 66 FR 27266 (May 16,...

  2. On a production system using default reasoning for pattern classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Lowe, Carlyle M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses an unconventional application of a production system to a problem involving belief specialization. The production system reduces a large quantity of low-level descriptions into just a few higher-level descriptions that encompass the problem space in a more tractable fashion. This classification process utilizes a set of descriptions generated by combining the component hierarchy of a physical system with the semantics of the terminology employed in its operation. The paper describes an application of this process in a program, constructed in C and CLIPS, that classifies signatures of electromechanical system configurations. The program compares two independent classifications, describing the actual and expected system configurations, in order to generate a set of contradictions between the two.

  3. Hazards Analysis Report Addendum Buildign 518/518A Industrial Gases & Chemtrack Receiving & Barcoding Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R D

    2000-02-04

    This report documents the Hazards Analysis Report (HAR) Addendum for Buildings 518 and 518A. In summary, the description of the facility and the operations given in the 1995 PHA are the same as the present in this year 2000. The hazards description also remains the same. The hazards analysis in this HAR Addendum is different in that it needs to be compared to operations routinely ''performed'' by the public. The HAR Addendum characterizes the level of intrinsic potential hazards associated with a facility and provides the basis for hazard classification. The hazard classification determines the level of safety documentation required and the DOE order governing the safety analysis. The hazard classification also determines the level of review and approval required for the safety analysis. This facility does not contain any safety class systems or systems important to safety as defined in Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-3009-94. The hazards of primary concern associated with B518 and B518A are chemical in nature. The hazard classification is determined by comparing facility inventories of chemicals with threshold values for the various hazard classification levels. In this way, the hazard level of the facility can be ascertained. The most significant hazards that could affect people in the local area of B518 and B518A, elsewhere on the LLNL site, and off site, are associated with hazardous and toxic materials. These hazards are the focus of this report and are the basis for the facility hazard classification.

  4. An early warning system for marine storm hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vousdoukas, M. I.; Almeida, L. P.; Pacheco, A.; Ferreira, O.

    2012-04-01

    The present contribution presents efforts towards the development of an operational Early Warning System for storm hazard prediction and mitigation. The system consists of a calibrated nested-model train which consists of specially calibrated Wave Watch III, SWAN and XBeach models. The numerical simulations provide daily forecasts of the hydrodynamic conditions, morphological change and overtopping risk at the area of interest. The model predictions are processed by a 'translation' module which is based on site-specific Storm Impact Indicators (SIIs) (Ciavola et al., 2011, Storm impacts along European coastlines. Part 2: lessons learned from the MICORE project, Environmental Science & Policy, Vol 14), and warnings are issued when pre-defined threshold values are exceeded. For the present site the selected SIIs were (i) the maximum wave run-up height during the simulations; and (ii) the dune-foot horizontal retreat at the end of the simulations. Both SIIs and pre-defined thresholds were carefully selected on the grounds of existing experience and field data. Four risk levels were considered, each associated with an intervention approach, recommended to the responsible coastal protection authority. Regular updating of the topography/bathymetry is critical for the performance of the storm impact forecasting, especially when there are significant morphological changes. The system can be extended to other critical problems, like implications of global warming and adaptive management strategies, while the approach presently followed, from model calibration to the early warning system for storm hazard mitigation, can be applied to other sites worldwide, with minor adaptations.

  5. Topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Gary A.; Dochat, G. R.

    1997-09-01

    During the summer of 1996, the topographical mapping system (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and its accompanying three-dimensional (3-D) visualization tool, the interactive computer-enhanced remote-viewing system (ICERVS), were delivered to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL and Mechanical Technology, Inc., performed final acceptance testing of the TMS during the next eight months. The TMS was calibrated and characterized during this period. This paper covers the calibration, characterization, and acceptance testing of the TMS. Development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of characterization and remediation of underground storage tanks (USTs) at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a 3-D, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is the mapping of the interior of USTs as part of DOE's waste characterization and remediation efforts and to obtain baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors as well as data on changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Washington site, the TMS is designed to be a self-contained, compact, reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid, variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention.

  6. 5 CFR 9701.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to the DHS classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the DHS classification system. 9701.231 Section 9701.231 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to the DHS classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the DHS classification system. 9701.231 Section 9701.231 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification...

  8. A classification system for hospital-based infection outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ganney, Paul S; Madeo, Maurice; Phillips, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Outbreaks of infection within semi-closed environments such as hospitals, whether inherent in the environment (such as Clostridium difficile (C.Diff) or Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or imported from the wider community (such as Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs)), are difficult to manage. As part of our work on modelling such outbreaks, we have developed a classification system to describe the impact of a particular outbreak upon an organization. This classification system may then be used in comparing appropriate computer models to real outbreaks, as well as in comparing different real outbreaks in, for example, the comparison of differing management and containment techniques and strategies. Data from NLV outbreaks in the Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust (the Trust) over several previous years are analysed and classified, both for infection within staff (where the end of infection date may not be known) and within patients (where it generally is known). A classification system consisting of seven elements is described, along with a goodness-of-fit method for comparing a new classification to previously known ones, for use in evaluating a simulation against history and thereby determining how 'realistic' (or otherwise) it is.

  9. Color image classification systems for poultry viscera inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Kevin; Chen, Yud-Ren; Early, Howard; Park, Bosoon

    1999-01-01

    A neuro-fuzzy based image classification system that utilizes color-imaging features of poultry viscera in the spectral and spatial domains was developed in this study. Poultry viscera of liver and heart were separated into four classes: normal, airsacculitis, cadaver, and septicemia. Color images for the classified poultry viscera were collected in the poultry process plant. These images in RGB color space were segmented and statistical analysis was performed for feature selection. The neuro-fuzzy system utilizes hybrid paradigms of fuzzy interference system and neural networks to enhance the robustness of the classification processes. The results showed that the accuracy for separation of normal from abnormal livers were 87.5 to 92.5% when two classes of validation data were used. For two-class classification of chicken hearts, the accuracies were 92.5 to 97.5%. When neuro-fuzzy models were employed to separate chicken livers into three classes (normal, airsacculitis, and cadaver), the accuracy was 88.3% for the training data and 83.3% for the validation data. Combining features of chicken liver and heart, a generalized neuro-fuzzy model was designed to classify poultry viscera into four classes (normal, airsacculitis, cadaver, and septicemia). The classification accuracy of 86.3% was achieved for the training data and 82.5% accuracy for the validation.

  10. PIRSF family classification system for protein functional and evolutionary analysis.

    PubMed

    Nikolskaya, Anastasia N; Arighi, Cecilia N; Huang, Hongzhan; Barker, Winona C; Wu, Cathy H

    2006-01-01

    The PIRSF protein classification system (http://pir.georgetown.edu/pirsf/) reflects evolutionary relationships of full-length proteins and domains. The primary PIRSF classification unit is the homeomorphic family, whose members are both homologous (evolved from a common ancestor) and homeomorphic (sharing full-length sequence similarity and a common domain architecture). PIRSF families are curated systematically based on literature review and integrative sequence and functional analysis, including sequence and structure similarity, domain architecture, functional association, genome context, and phyletic pattern. The results of classification and expert annotation are summarized in PIRSF family reports with graphical viewers for taxonomic distribution, domain architecture, family hierarchy, and multiple alignment and phylogenetic tree. The PIRSF system provides a comprehensive resource for bioinformatics analysis and comparative studies of protein function and evolution. Domain or fold-based searches allow identification of evolutionarily related protein families sharing domains or structural folds. Functional convergence and functional divergence are revealed by the relationships between protein classification and curated family functions. The taxonomic distribution allows the identification of lineage-specific or broadly conserved protein families and can reveal horizontal gene transfer. Here we demonstrate, with illustrative examples, how to use the web-based PIRSF system as a tool for functional and evolutionary studies of protein families.

  11. Creating a Canonical Scientific and Technical Information Classification System for NCSTRL+

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiffany, Melissa E.; Nelson, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the new subject classification system for the NCSTRL+ project. NCSTRL+ is a canonical digital library (DL) based on the Networked Computer Science Technical Report Library (NCSTRL). The current NCSTRL+ classification system uses the NASA Scientific and Technical (STI) subject classifications, which has a bias towards the aerospace, aeronautics, and engineering disciplines. Examination of other scientific and technical information classification systems showed similar discipline-centric weaknesses. Traditional, library-oriented classification systems represented all disciplines, but were too generalized to serve the needs of a scientific and technically oriented digital library. Lack of a suitable existing classification system led to the creation of a lightweight, balanced, general classification system that allows the mapping of more specialized classification schemes into the new framework. We have developed the following classification system to give equal weight to all STI disciplines, while being compact and lightweight.

  12. ISE-based sensor array system for classification of foodstuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciosek, Patrycja; Sobanski, Tomasz; Augustyniak, Ewa; Wróblewski, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    A system composed of an array of polymeric membrane ion-selective electrodes and a pattern recognition block—a so-called 'electronic tongue'—was used for the classification of liquid samples: milk, fruit juice and tonic. The task of this system was to automatically recognize a brand of the product. To analyze the measurement set-up responses various non-parametric classifiers such as k-nearest neighbours, a feedforward neural network and a probabilistic neural network were used. In order to enhance the classification ability of the system, standard model solutions of salts were measured (in order to take into account any variation in time of the working parameters of the sensors). This system was capable of recognizing the brand of the products with accuracy ranging from 68% to 100% (in the case of the best classifier).

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR GENERAL SITE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) general site transportation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SURFACE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface environmental monitoring system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE CLOSURE AND SEAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface closure and seal system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOERW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR CARRIER PREPARATION BUILDING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) carrier preparation building system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR MAINTENANCE AND SUPPLY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) maintenance and supply system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site radiological monitoring system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface water distribution system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR OFF-SITE UTILITIES SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) offsite utilities system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste treatment building system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR OPERATIONS MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  4. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  5. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste treatment building ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) pool water treatment and cooling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR CARRIER/CASK TRANSPORT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) carrier/cask transport system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building electrical system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  9. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) safeguards and security system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface electrical distribution system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface emplacement transportation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE WATER COLLECTION/REMOVAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface water collection/removal system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  14. Annotation and Classification of CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Kira S; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas (CRISPR-associated proteins) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that is represented in most archaea and many bacteria. Among the currently known prokaryotic defense systems, the CRISPR-Cas genomic loci show unprecedented complexity and diversity. Classification of CRISPR-Cas variants that would capture their evolutionary relationships to the maximum possible extent is essential for comparative genomic and functional characterization of this theoretically and practically important system of adaptive immunity. To this end, a multipronged approach has been developed that combines phylogenetic analysis of the conserved Cas proteins with comparison of gene repertoires and arrangements in CRISPR-Cas loci. This approach led to the current classification of CRISPR-Cas systems into three distinct types and ten subtypes for each of which signature genes have been identified. Comparative genomic analysis of the CRISPR-Cas systems in new archaeal and bacterial genomes performed over the 3 years elapsed since the development of this classification makes it clear that new types and subtypes of CRISPR-Cas need to be introduced. Moreover, this classification system captures only part of the complexity of CRISPR-Cas organization and evolution, due to the intrinsic modularity and evolutionary mobility of these immunity systems, resulting in numerous recombinant variants. Moreover, most of the cas genes evolve rapidly, complicating the family assignment for many Cas proteins and the use of family profiles for the recognition of CRISPR-Cas subtype signatures. Further progress in the comparative analysis of CRISPR-Cas systems requires integration of the most sensitive sequence comparison tools, protein structure comparison, and refined approaches for comparison of gene neighborhoods.

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DISPOSAL CONTAINER HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) disposal container handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-O333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site compressed air system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  17. A new classification system for lesbians: the Dyke Diagnostic Manual.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Michele J

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long-standing need for a diagnostic manual that documents the unique pathological behaviors of lesbians. The Dyke Diagnostic Manual (DDM) is meant to supplement mainstream classification systems used to identify problematic behaviors in heterosexuals. This article presents thirteen uniquely lesbian conditions that are nowhere to be found in heterosexist diagnostic systems. The DDM may help to reduce the pain and suffering found in many lesbian relationships where one or both partners are afflicted. PMID:20661801

  18. Proposed classification of auriculotemporal nerve, based on the root system.

    PubMed

    Komarnitki, Iulian; Tomczyk, Jacek; Ciszek, Bogdan; Zalewska, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The topography of the auriculotemporal nerve (ATN) root system is the main criterion of this nerve classification. Previous publications indicate that ATN may have between one and five roots. Most common is a one- or two-root variant of the nerve structure. The problem of many publications is the inconsistency of nomenclature which concerns the terms "roots", "connecting branches", or "branches" that are used to identify the same structures. This study was performed on 80 specimens (40 adults and 40 fetuses) to propose a classification based on: (i) the number of roots, (ii) way of root division, and (iii) configuration of interradicular fibers that form the ATN trunk. This new classification is a remedy for inconsistency of nomenclature of ATN in the infratemporal fossa. This classification system has proven beneficial when organizing all ATN variants described in previous studies and could become a helpful tool for surgeons and dentists. Examination of ATN from the infratemporal fossa of fetuses (the youngest was at 18 weeks gestational age) showed that, at that stage, the nerve is fully developed.

  19. Proposed Classification of Auriculotemporal Nerve, Based on the Root System

    PubMed Central

    Komarnitki, Iulian; Tomczyk, Jacek; Ciszek, Bogdan; Zalewska, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The topography of the auriculotemporal nerve (ATN) root system is the main criterion of this nerve classification. Previous publications indicate that ATN may have between one and five roots. Most common is a one- or two-root variant of the nerve structure. The problem of many publications is the inconsistency of nomenclature which concerns the terms “roots”, “connecting branches”, or “branches” that are used to identify the same structures. This study was performed on 80 specimens (40 adults and 40 fetuses) to propose a classification based on: (i) the number of roots, (ii) way of root division, and (iii) configuration of interradicular fibers that form the ATN trunk. This new classification is a remedy for inconsistency of nomenclature of ATN in the infratemporal fossa. This classification system has proven beneficial when organizing all ATN variants described in previous studies and could become a helpful tool for surgeons and dentists. Examination of ATN from the infratemporal fossa of fetuses (the youngest was at 18 weeks gestational age) showed that, at that stage, the nerve is fully developed. PMID:25856464

  20. 75 FR 57686 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Cord, Scottsburg (64 FR 3869, January 26, 1999). On April 22, 2010, the Agency was notified that...(d). ] List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 261 Environmental protection, Hazardous waste, Recycling,...

  1. Portable medical status system. [potential hazards in the use of the telecare system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, O. C.

    1976-01-01

    The hazards inherent in the Portable Medical Status System are identified, and the measures taken to reduce them to an acceptable level are described. Identification of these hazards is a prerequisite to use of the system on humans in the earth environment. One hazard which is insufficiently controlled and which is considered a constraint to use on humans is the level of current possible in the electrodes for the EEG (electroencephalograph) circuitry. It exceeds the maximum specified. A number of procedural and design recommendations for enhancement of safety are made.

  2. Multispectral data acquisition and classification - Statistical models for system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Park, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper we relate the statistical processes that are involved in multispectral data acquisition and classification to a simple radiometric model of the earth surface and atmosphere. If generalized, these formulations could provide an analytical link between the steadily improving models of our environment and the performance characteristics of rapidly advancing device technology. This link is needed to bring system analysis tools to the task of optimizing remote sensing and (real-time) signal processing systems as a function of target and atmospheric properties, remote sensor spectral bands and system topology (e.g., image-plane processing), radiometric sensitivity and calibration accuracy, compensation for imaging conditions (e.g., atmospheric effects), and classification rates and errors.

  3. Classification of residential areas according to physical vulnerability to natural hazards: a case study of Çanakkale, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Başaran-Uysal, Arzu; Sezen, Funda; Ozden, Süha; Karaca, Oznur

    2014-01-01

    The selection of new settlement areas and the construction of safe buildings, as well as rendering built-up areas safe, are of great importance in mitigating the damage caused by natural disasters. Most cities in Turkey are unprepared for natural hazards. In this paper, Çanakkale, located in a first-degree seismic zone and sprawled around the Sartçay Delta, is examined in terms of its physical vulnerability to natural hazards. Residential areas are analysed using GIS (geographic information system) and remote-sensing technologies in relation to selected indicators. Residential areas of the city are divided into zones according to an evaluation of geological characteristics, the built-up area's features, and urban infrastructure, and four risk zones are determined. The results of the analysis show that the areas of the city suitable for housing are very limited. In addition, the historical centre and the housing areas near Sartçay stream are shown to be most problematic in terms of natural disasters and sustainability.

  4. General classification handbook for floodplain vegetation in large river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieck, Jennifer J.; Ruhser, Janis; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    This handbook describes the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System developed as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program, Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) element. The UMRR is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the states of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin. The classification system consists of 31 general map classes and has been used to create systemic vegetation data layers throughout the diverse Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), which includes the commercially navigable reaches of the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the north to Cairo, Illinois, in the south, the Illinois River, and navigable portions of the Kaskaskia, Black, St. Croix, and Minnesota Rivers. In addition, this handbook describes the evolution of the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System, discusses the process of creating a vegetation data layer, and describes each of the 31 map classes in detail. The handbook also acts as a pictorial guide to each of the map classes as they may appear in the field, as well as on color-infrared imagery. This version is an update to the original handbook published in 2004.

  5. New Site Coefficients and Site Classification System Used in Recent Building Seismic Code Provisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dobry, R.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Crouse, C.B.; Idriss, I.M.; Joyner, W.B.; Martin, G.R.; Power, M.S.; Rinne, E.E.; Seed, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Recent code provisions for buildings and other structures (1994 and 1997 NEHRP Provisions, 1997 UBC) have adopted new site amplification factors and a new procedure for site classification. Two amplitude-dependent site amplification factors are specified: Fa for short periods and Fv for longer periods. Previous codes included only a long period factor S and did not provide for a short period amplification factor. The new site classification system is based on definitions of five site classes in terms of a representative average shear wave velocity to a depth of 30 m (V?? s). This definition permits sites to be classified unambiguously. When the shear wave velocity is not available, other soil properties such as standard penetration resistance or undrained shear strength can be used. The new site classes denoted by letters A - E, replace site classes in previous codes denoted by S1 - S4. Site classes A and B correspond to hard rock and rock, Site Class C corresponds to soft rock and very stiff / very dense soil, and Site Classes D and E correspond to stiff soil and soft soil. A sixth site class, F, is defined for soils requiring site-specific evaluations. Both Fa and Fv are functions of the site class, and also of the level of seismic hazard on rock, defined by parameters such as Aa and Av (1994 NEHRP Provisions), Ss and S1 (1997 NEHRP Provisions) or Z (1997 UBC). The values of Fa and Fv decrease as the seismic hazard on rock increases due to soil nonlinearity. The greatest impact of the new factors Fa and Fv as compared with the old S factors occurs in areas of low-to-medium seismic hazard. This paper summarizes the new site provisions, explains the basis for them, and discusses ongoing studies of site amplification in recent earthquakes that may influence future code developments.

  6. 78 FR 18252 - Prevailing Rate Systems; North American Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... survey industry regulations with the 2007 NAICS revisions published by the Office of Management and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0... Industry Classification System Based Federal Wage System Wage Surveys AGENCY: U. S. Office of...

  7. Managing hazardous material conditions in wastewater collections systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, C.

    1994-12-31

    As modern industrial processes make greater and greater use of an ever increasing array of chemical substances the risk of these materials entering public sewer systems increases commensurately. Compounding this problem is the additional issue of a large population of single walled underground storage tanks now reaching the end of their safe-use lifespan while continuing in service. Tanks first put into underground service twenty to thirty years ago are now beginning to fail in ever increasing numbers releasing hazardous substances into the Vadose zone and ultimately into waste-water collection infrastructures. This paper, through the examination of a case study involving diesel fuel in a large, municipal waste-water collection system, offers a prototypical methodology for the management of such incidents.

  8. Decision support systems for the prevention of slope related natural hazards: A personal view on the French situation

    SciTech Connect

    Buisson, L.

    1995-12-31

    Recent progress in computer science has allowed for the development of new decision support systems for the prevention of some slope-related natural hazards. This paper will give a survey of the present situation, the areas of development, and the research trends which can be observed in France. In order to be factual, several examples of operational tools or systems currently under development are quoted or described. Different natural hazards can occur on the slopes of high mountains or in hilly areas, i.e., snow avalanches, landslides or rock falls. The basic ideas for the prevention of these hazards will be presented. This paper will then focus on different solutions used in France to prevent these hazards. The emphasis will be on different kinds of mapping and the problems of building regulations and equipment protection will also be discussed. In this context, a decision support system can take advantage of different types of information and knowledge which the author will address. A classification of simulation models and analysis methods will also be proposed and the issue of available data will be discussed. Attention will be paid to the accurate topographical and field data which are presently collected in France. Finally, the new capabilities of software tools will be described. Their graphic interfaces are highly interactive and user-friendly while their architecture enables the different methods or models to be integrated.

  9. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T.; Camacho, Macario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research. PMID:26933510

  10. Genetic variety of sinkholes and their reconaissance and classification for the derivation of hazards and to forecast of collapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucke, D.

    2012-04-01

    Genetic variety of sinkholes and their reconnaissance and classification for the derivation of hazards and to forecast of collapses Dieter Mucke GEOMONTAN Gesellschaft für Geologie und Bergbau mbH&Co.KG, Muldentalstrasse 56, 09603 Rothenfurth, Saxony/Germany The term "sinkhole" covers a lot of depressions on the earth's surface, caused by very different geological processes and anthropogenic activities. The speed of the origin of the depressions is different and leads to different hazards. The forecast look for hazards and the introduction of preventive measures gets safer if type and cause of the depressions are known of. First aim of the lecture is the classification of sinkholes in different types. Geogenic depressions develope in karst landscapes as well as in plain areas of detrital sediments on soluble rocks. The depressions are in karst landscapes localized directly in the soluble rocks like limestone or sulphate rocks (anhydrite, gypsum). It results there for solution dolines and collapse dolines in these rocks themselves.. In other cases the soluble rocks often are in large depth under overlaying claystones, siltstones, sandstones or clays, silts, sands. A cave deeply is formed under the earth's surface and when a roof failure happens, the overburden sinks after. A depression of caldera shape with abrupt slopes suddenly forms in the non-karst rock at the surface. Such erdfall-collapses in Triassic claystones develop flatter walls in the course of the time. In German such depressions are called "Erdfall" to distinguish them of dolines. Because in English the term "earth fall" has an other meaning, I will further call such depressions "erdfall-collaps". The solution of limestones and sulphate rocks results with the formation of caves and following emergence of collapse dolines and erdfall-collapses. The underground dissolution (subrosion) of rock salt is as opposed to without formation of caves. It leads to a slow lowering of the earth's surface in flat

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE DEVELOPMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface development transportation structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR PERFORMANCE CONFIRMATION EMPLACEMENT DRIFT MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) performance confirmation emplacement drift monitoring structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOERW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  13. Classification of Transient Phenomena in Distribution System using wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    An efficient procedure for classification of transient phenomena in distribution systems is proposed in this paper. The proposed method has been applied to classify some transient phenomena such as inrush current, load switching, capacitor switching and single phase to ground fault. The new scheme is based on wavelet transform algorithm. All of the events for feature extraction and test are simulated using Electro Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP). Results show high accuracy of proposed method.

  14. Teaching Hazards Geography and Geographic Information Systems: A Middle School Level Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jerry T.; Borden, Kevin A.; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.

    2008-01-01

    Hazards are taught with the belief that knowing something about their occurrence might help us avoid their consequences. The integrative nature of hazards--physical and social systems bound together--is attractive to the student and the instructor alike. Answering why we teach hazards is fairly straightforward. A more pressing question at present…

  15. A Biochar Classification System and Associated Test Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Camps-Arbestain, Marta; Amonette, James E.; Singh, Balwant; Wang, Tao; Schmidt, Hans-Peter

    2015-02-18

    In this chapter, a biochar classification system related to its use as soil amendment is proposed. This document builds upon previous work and constrains its scope to materials with properties that satisfy the criteria for biochar as defined by either the International Biochar Initiative (IBI) Biochar Standards or the European Biochar Community (EBC) Standards, and it is intended to minimise the need for testing in addition to those required according to the above-mentioned standards. The classification system envisions enabling stakeholders and commercial entities to (i) identify the most suitable biochar to fulfil the requirements for a particular soil and/or land-use, and (ii) distinguish the application of biochar for specific niches (e.g., soilless agriculture). It is based on the best current knowledge and the intention is to periodically review and update the document based on new data and knowledge that become available in the scientific literature. The main thrust of this classification system is based on the direct or indirect beneficial effects that biochar provides from its application to soil. We have classified the potential beneficial effects of biochar application to soils into five categories with their corresponding classes, where applicable: (i) carbon (C) storage value, (ii) fertiliser value, (iii) liming value, (iv) particle-size, and (v) use in soil-less agriculture. A summary of recommended test methods is provided at the end of the chapter.

  16. Patient Classification Systems in Nursing: A Description and Analysis. Nurse Planning Information Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovannetti, Phyllis

    Patient classification systems in nursing, primarily limited to their application in hospitals, are the topic of this monograph. Following a brief introduction discussing their role and theoretical framework, the various uses of patient classification systems are discussed. Examples of patient classification systems in various settings are…

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR CARRIER PREPARATION BUILDING MATERIALS HANDLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    2001-02-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) carrier preparation building materials handling system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Preclosure Safety and Systems Engineering Section. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 2000). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2000).

  18. Classification of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. UAS Classification/Categorization for Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Category, class, and type designations are primary means to identify appropriate aircraft certification basis, operating rules/limitations, and pilot qualifications to operate in the National Airspace System (NAS). The question is whether UAS fit into existing aircraft categories or classes, or are unique enough to justify the creation of a new category/class. In addition, the characteristics or capabilities, which define when an UAS becomes a regulated aircraft, must also be decided. This issue focuses on UAS classification for certification purposes. Several approaches have been considered for classifying UAS. They basically group into either using a weight/mass basis, or a safety risk basis, factoring in the performance of the UAS, including where the UAS would operate. Under existing standards, aircraft must have a Type Certificate and Certificate of Airworthiness, in order to be used for "compensation or hire", a major difference from model aircraft. Newer technologies may make it possible for very small UAS to conduct commercial services, but that is left for a future discussion to extend the regulated aircraft to a lower level. The Access 5 position is that UAS are aircraft and should be regulated above the weight threshold differentiating them from model airplanes. The recommended classification grouping is summarized in a chart.

  19. On the Origins of the Quinarian System of Classification.

    PubMed

    Novick, Aaron

    2016-02-01

    William Sharp Macleay developed the quinarian system of classification in his Horæ Entomologicæ, published in two parts in 1819 and 1821. For two decades, the quinarian system was widely discussed in Britain and influenced such naturalists as Charles Darwin, Richard Owen, and Thomas Huxley. This paper offers the first detailed account of Macleay's development of the quinarian system. Macleay developed his system under the shaping influence of two pressures: (1) the insistence by followers of Linnaeus on developing artificial systems at the expense of the natural system and (2) the apparent tension between the continuity of organic nature and the failure of linear classification schemes (which continuity seemed to require). Against what he perceived as dogmatic indolence on the part of the Linnaeans, Macleay developed a philosophy of science in which hypotheses that exceeded the available evidence should be proposed and subjected to severe tests. He also developed a novel comparative anatomical methodology, the method of variation, to aid in his search for the natural system. Using this method, he developed an intricate system that showed how organic nature could be continuous without being linear. A failure to appreciate these facets of Macleay's thought has led to several misunderstandings of him and his work, most notably that he was an idealist. These misunderstandings are here rebutted. PMID:26238092

  20. On the Origins of the Quinarian System of Classification.

    PubMed

    Novick, Aaron

    2016-02-01

    William Sharp Macleay developed the quinarian system of classification in his Horæ Entomologicæ, published in two parts in 1819 and 1821. For two decades, the quinarian system was widely discussed in Britain and influenced such naturalists as Charles Darwin, Richard Owen, and Thomas Huxley. This paper offers the first detailed account of Macleay's development of the quinarian system. Macleay developed his system under the shaping influence of two pressures: (1) the insistence by followers of Linnaeus on developing artificial systems at the expense of the natural system and (2) the apparent tension between the continuity of organic nature and the failure of linear classification schemes (which continuity seemed to require). Against what he perceived as dogmatic indolence on the part of the Linnaeans, Macleay developed a philosophy of science in which hypotheses that exceeded the available evidence should be proposed and subjected to severe tests. He also developed a novel comparative anatomical methodology, the method of variation, to aid in his search for the natural system. Using this method, he developed an intricate system that showed how organic nature could be continuous without being linear. A failure to appreciate these facets of Macleay's thought has led to several misunderstandings of him and his work, most notably that he was an idealist. These misunderstandings are here rebutted.

  1. 76 FR 72311 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... FR at 58319. Response 1. The electronic docket for this rule only contained the proposed rule and... conditions in an active municipal landfill with decomposing organic wastes, and yet it appears that the... select a relatively short list of hazardous constituents for analysis and delisting levels. 75 FR...

  2. 76 FR 5110 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    .... See Reynolds Metals Company at 62 FR 37694 and 62 FR 63458 where the delisted waste leached at greater... (that is, ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity), (2) the wastes meet the criteria for... any of the hazardous waste characteristics (that is, ignitability, reactivity, corrosivity,...

  3. 66 FR 10059 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Paint...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-02-13

    ... Substance Designation and Reportable Quantities; Designation of n-Butyl Alcohol, Ethyl Benzene, Methyl... the Treatment Standards of F039; and Designation of Styrene as an Underlying Hazardous Constituent... exclusively in tanks or containers prior to discharge to a publicly owned treatment works or discharged...

  4. 75 FR 78918 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities if the rule..., and Liability Act (CERCLA) to remove saccharin and its salts from the list of hazardous substances... Register notice. If you have questions regarding the applicability of this action to a particular...

  5. The Comprehensive AOCMF Classification System: Midface Fractures - Level 3 Tutorial

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Audigé, Laurent; Kunz, Christoph; Buitrago-Téllez, Carlos H.; Rudderman, Randal; Prein, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial outlines the details of the AOCMF image-based classification system for fractures of the midface at the precision level 3. The topography of the different midface regions (central midface—upper central midface, intermediate central midface, lower central midface—incorporating the naso-orbito-ethmoid region; lateral midface—zygoma and zygomatic arch, palate) is subdivided in much greater detail than in level 2 going beyond the Le Fort fracture types and its analogs. The level 3 midface classification system is presented along with guidelines to precisely delineate the fracture patterns in these specific subregions. It is easy to plot common fracture entities, such as nasal and naso-orbito-ethmoid, and their variants due to the refined structural layout of the subregions. As a key attribute, this focused approach permits to document the occurrence of fragmentation (i.e., single vs. multiple fracture lines), displacement, and bone loss. Moreover, the preinjury dental state and the degree of alveolar atrophy in edentulous maxillary regions can be recorded. On the basis of these individual features, tooth injuries, periodontal trauma, and fracture involvement of the alveolar process can be assessed. Coding rules are given to set up a distinctive formula for typical midface fractures and their combinations. The instructions and illustrations are elucidated by a series of radiographic imaging examples. A critical appraisal of the design of this level 3 midface classification is made. PMID:25489392

  6. A classification system for conditions causing condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Wolford, Larry M; Movahed, Reza; Perez, Daniel E

    2014-03-01

    A classification system was developed to place patients with condylar hyperplasia (CH) into categories based on histology, clinical and imaging characteristics, effects on the jaws and facial structures, and rate of occurrence. Four major categories were defined. CH type 1 is an accelerated and prolonged growth aberration of the "normal" mandibular condylar growth mechanism, causing a predominantly horizontal growth vector, resulting in prognathism that can occur bilaterally (CH type 1A) or unilaterally (CH type 1B). CH type 2 refers to enlargement of the mandibular condyle caused by an osteochondroma, resulting in predominantly unilateral vertical overgrowth and elongation of the mandible and face. One of the forms has predominantly a vertical growth vector and condylar enlargement, but without exophytic tumor extensions (type 2A), whereas the other primary form grows vertically but develops horizontal exophytic tumor growth off of the condyle (CH type 2B). CH type 3 includes other rare, benign tumors and CH type 4 includes malignant conditions that originate in the mandibular condyle causing enlargement. The order of classification is based on occurrence rates and type of pathology, where CH type 1A is the most commonly occurring form and CH type 4 is the rarest. This classification system for CH pathology should help the clinician understand the nature of the pathology, progression if untreated, recommended ages for surgical intervention to minimize adverse effects on subsequent facial growth and development in younger patients, and the surgical protocols to comprehensively and predictably treat these conditions. PMID:24388179

  7. Extensions to the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS).

    PubMed

    Shriberg, Lawrence D; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D; Karlsson, Heather B; Lohmeier, Heather L; McSweeny, Jane L; Potter, Nancy L; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R; Strand, Edythe A; Tilkens, Christie M; Wilson, David L

    2010-10-01

    This report describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). Part I describes a classification extension to the SDCS to differentiate motor speech disorders from speech delay and to differentiate among three sub-types of motor speech disorders. Part II describes the Madison Speech Assessment Protocol (MSAP), an ∼ 2-hour battery of 25 measures that includes 15 speech tests and tasks. Part III describes the Competence, Precision, and Stability Analytics (CPSA) framework, a current set of ∼ 90 perceptual- and acoustic-based indices of speech, prosody, and voice used to quantify and classify sub-types of Speech Sound Disorders (SSD). A companion paper provides reliability estimates for the perceptual and acoustic data reduction methods used in the SDCS. The agreement estimates in the companion paper support the reliability of SDCS methods and illustrate the complementary roles of perceptual and acoustic methods in diagnostic analyses of SSD of unknown origin. Examples of research using the extensions to the SDCS described in the present report include diagnostic findings for a sample of youth with motor speech disorders associated with galactosemia, and a test of the hypothesis of apraxia of speech in a group of children with autism spectrum disorders. All SDCS methods and reference databases running in the PEPPER (Programs to Examine Phonetic and Phonologic Evaluation Records) environment will be disseminated without cost when complete.

  8. Toward a Cognitive-Behavioral Classification System for Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2014-01-01

    As is true for its predecessors, the recently published DSM-5 uses arbitrary criteria and cutoffs to define categories of mental disorders that are of questionable validity and that provide no guidance for treatment. Recently, the NIMH introduced an alternative classification system, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). Both the DSM-5 and the RDoC initiative make the strong assumption that psychological problems are expressions of specific latent disease entities. In contrast, the complex causal network approach conceptualizes psychological problems as mutually interacting, often reciprocally reinforcing, elements of a complex causal network. The cognitive behavioral model offers a classification framework that is compatible with the complex causal network approach and offers a treatment-relevant alternative to the latent disease model that is the basis for the DSM-5 and the RDoC initiative. PMID:24912469

  9. A model for anomaly classification in intrusion detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, V. O.; Galhardi, V. V.; Gonçalves, L. B. L.; Silva, R. C.; Cansian, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are traditionally divided into two types according to the detection methods they employ, namely (i) misuse detection and (ii) anomaly detection. Anomaly detection has been widely used and its main advantage is the ability to detect new attacks. However, the analysis of anomalies generated can become expensive, since they often have no clear information about the malicious events they represent. In this context, this paper presents a model for automated classification of alerts generated by an anomaly based IDS. The main goal is either the classification of the detected anomalies in well-defined taxonomies of attacks or to identify whether it is a false positive misclassified by the IDS. Some common attacks to computer networks were considered and we achieved important results that can equip security analysts with best resources for their analyses.

  10. A Functional-Phylogenetic Classification System for Transmembrane Solute Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive classification system for transmembrane molecular transporters has been developed and recently approved by the transport panel of the nomenclature committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This system is based on (i) transporter class and subclass (mode of transport and energy coupling mechanism), (ii) protein phylogenetic family and subfamily, and (iii) substrate specificity. Almost all of the more than 250 identified families of transporters include members that function exclusively in transport. Channels (115 families), secondary active transporters (uniporters, symporters, and antiporters) (78 families), primary active transporters (23 families), group translocators (6 families), and transport proteins of ill-defined function or of unknown mechanism (51 families) constitute distinct categories. Transport mode and energy coupling prove to be relatively immutable characteristics and therefore provide primary bases for classification. Phylogenetic grouping reflects structure, function, mechanism, and often substrate specificity and therefore provides a reliable secondary basis for classification. Substrate specificity and polarity of transport prove to be more readily altered during evolutionary history and therefore provide a tertiary basis for classification. With very few exceptions, a phylogenetic family of transporters includes members that function by a single transport mode and energy coupling mechanism, although a variety of substrates may be transported, sometimes with either inwardly or outwardly directed polarity. In this review, I provide cross-referencing of well-characterized constituent transporters according to (i) transport mode, (ii) energy coupling mechanism, (iii) phylogenetic grouping, and (iv) substrates transported. The structural features and distribution of recognized family members throughout the living world are also evaluated. The tabulations should facilitate familial and functional

  11. A functional-phylogenetic classification system for transmembrane solute transporters.

    PubMed

    Saier, M H

    2000-06-01

    A comprehensive classification system for transmembrane molecular transporters has been developed and recently approved by the transport panel of the nomenclature committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This system is based on (i) transporter class and subclass (mode of transport and energy coupling mechanism), (ii) protein phylogenetic family and subfamily, and (iii) substrate specificity. Almost all of the more than 250 identified families of transporters include members that function exclusively in transport. Channels (115 families), secondary active transporters (uniporters, symporters, and antiporters) (78 families), primary active transporters (23 families), group translocators (6 families), and transport proteins of ill-defined function or of unknown mechanism (51 families) constitute distinct categories. Transport mode and energy coupling prove to be relatively immutable characteristics and therefore provide primary bases for classification. Phylogenetic grouping reflects structure, function, mechanism, and often substrate specificity and therefore provides a reliable secondary basis for classification. Substrate specificity and polarity of transport prove to be more readily altered during evolutionary history and therefore provide a tertiary basis for classification. With very few exceptions, a phylogenetic family of transporters includes members that function by a single transport mode and energy coupling mechanism, although a variety of substrates may be transported, sometimes with either inwardly or outwardly directed polarity. In this review, I provide cross-referencing of well-characterized constituent transporters according to (i) transport mode, (ii) energy coupling mechanism, (iii) phylogenetic grouping, and (iv) substrates transported. The structural features and distribution of recognized family members throughout the living world are also evaluated. The tabulations should facilitate familial and functional

  12. Interobserver Agreement in the Classification of Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears Using the Snyder Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christopher S.; Davis, Shane M.; Doremus, Brittany; Kouk, Shalen; Stetson, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: At present, there is no widely accepted classification system for partial-thickness rotator cuff tears, and as a result, optimal treatment remains controversial. Purpose: To examine the interobserver reliability and accuracy of classifying partial rotator cuff tears using the Snyder classification system. We hypothesized that the Snyder classification would be reproducible with high reliability and accuracy. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Twenty-seven orthopaedic surgeons reviewed 10 video-recorded shoulder arthroscopies. Each surgeon was provided with a description of the Snyder classification system for partial-thickness rotator cuff tears and was then instructed to use this system to describe each tear. Interrater kappa statistics and percentage agreement between observers were calculated to measure the level of agreement. Surgeon experience as well as fellowship training was evaluated to determine possible correlations. Results: A kappa coefficient of 0.512 indicated moderate reliability between surgeons using the Snyder classification to describe partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. The mean correct score was 80%, which indicated “very good” agreement. There was no correlation between the number of shoulder arthroscopies performed per year and fellowship training and the number of correct scores. Conclusion: The Snyder classification system is reproducible and can be used in future research studies in analyzing the treatment options of partial rotator cuff tears. PMID:27738643

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality As.surance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998b).

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality As.surance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998b).

  15. Classification of healthcare systems: Can we go further?

    PubMed

    Toth, Federico

    2016-05-01

    This article addresses the issue of the classification of healthcare systems, with the intent to take a step further than the previously analysed models of healthcare organisation. As concerns the financing of healthcare services, the standard tripartite classification (according to which healthcare systems are divided into three groups: voluntary insurance, social health insurance and universal coverage) is enriched with two additional types: compulsory national health insurance and residual programs. With respect to the provision of services and the relationship between insurers and providers, it is important to distinguish between vertically integrated and separated systems. What differentiates this analysis from the majority of previous studies is its underlying logic. Assuming that all systems are hybrid, the article proposes to put aside the classic logic for classifying healthcare systems (according to which individual countries are pigeonholed into different classes depending on the prevailing system) in favour of the identikit logic. The concept of segmentation (of healthcare services or population) proves to be remarkably useful to this purpose. PMID:27041537

  16. An integrated spatial signature analysis and automatic defect classification system

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, S.S.; Tobin, K.W.; Karnowski, T.P.

    1997-08-01

    An integrated Spatial Signature Analysis (SSA) and automatic defect classification (ADC) system for improved automatic semiconductor wafer manufacturing characterization is presented. Both concepts of SSA and ADC methodologies are reviewed and then the benefits of an integrated system are described, namely, focused ADC and signature-level sampling. Focused ADC involves the use of SSA information on a defect signature to reduce the number of possible classes that an ADC system must consider, thus improving the ADC system performance. Signature-level sampling improved the ADC system throughput and accuracy by intelligently sampling defects within a given spatial signature for subsequent off-line, high-resolution ADC. A complete example of wafermap characterization via an integrated SSA/ADC system is presented where a wafer with 3274 defects is completely characterized by revisiting only 25 defects on an off-line ADC review station. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  17. An integrated knowledge system for the Space Shuttle hazardous gas detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Shi, George Z.; Bangasser, Carl; Fensky, Connie; Cegielski, Eric; Overbey, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    A computer-based integrated Knowledge-Based System, the Intelligent Hypertext Manual (IHM), was developed for the Space Shuttle Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The IHM stores HGDS related knowledge and presents it in an interactive and intuitive manner. This manual is a combination of hypertext and an expert system which store experts' knowledge and experience in hazardous gas detection and analysis. The IHM's purpose is to provide HGDS personnel with the capabilities of: locating applicable documentation related to procedures, constraints, and previous fault histories; assisting in the training of personnel; enhancing the interpretation of real time data; and recognizing and identifying possible faults in the Space Shuttle sub-systems related to hazardous gas detection.

  18. Stand-off detection and classification of CBRNe using a Lidar system based on a high power femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izawa, Jun; Yokozawa, Takeshi; Kurata, Takao; Yoshida, Akihiro; Mastunaga, Yasushi; Somekawa, Toshihiro; Eto, Shuzo; Manago, Naohiro; Horisawa, Hideyuki; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Fujii, Takashi; Kuze, Hiroaki

    2014-10-01

    We propose a stand-off system that enables detection and classification of CBRNe (Chemical, Biological, Radioactive, Nuclear aerosol and explosive solids). The system is an integrated lidar using a high-power (terawatt) femtosecond laser. The detection and classification of various hazardous targets with stand-off distances from several hundred meters to a few kilometers are achieved by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF) techniques. In this work, we report on the technical considerations on the system design of the present hybrid lidar system consisting of a nanosecond laser and a femtosecond laser. Also, we describe the current progress in our laboratory experiments that have demonstrated the stand-off detection and classification of various simulants. For the R and N detection scheme, cesium chloride aerosols have successfully been detected by LIBS using a high-power femtosecond laser. For the B detection scheme, TPF signals of organic aerosols such as riboflavin have clearly been recorded. In addition, a compact femtosecond laser has been employed for the LIBS classification of organic plastics employed as e-simulants.

  19. [Application of ecological classification system in China's digital forestry].

    PubMed

    Tang, Li-Na; Dai, Li-Min

    2008-02-01

    In China's conventional forest management system, there are two types of sub-compartment, i.e., the 2nd- and 3rd-level sub-compartments, which are concurrent but inconsistent in size and boundary locations. Even in the same type of sub-compartments, the inconsistency still existed at different time, which is unbeneficial to the long-term forest management planning by using digital technologies. With the mountainous region in eastern Liaoning Province as a case, this paper established an ecological classification system (ECS), which contained 5 ecological land types (ELTs) and 34 ecological land type phases (ELTPs). Based on the basic technical needs of China's digital forestry, the ELTPs could be used as a fixed sub-compartment system. A compatible forest inventory system was designed then. It was concluded that ecosystem management based on ECS and geospatial information technologies combined with computer models and decision-support systems would be the important component of digital forestry.

  20. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  1. A neuromorphic system for object detection and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam; Cheng, Shinko Y.; Honda, Alexander L.; Zhang, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Unattended object detection, recognition and tracking on unmanned reconnaissance platforms in battlefields and urban spaces are topics of emerging importance. In this paper, we present an unattended object recognition system that automatically detects objects of interest in videos and classifies them into various categories (e.g., person, car, truck, etc.). Our system is inspired by recent findings in visual neuroscience on feed-forward object detection and recognition pipeline and mirrors that via two main neuromorphic modules (1) A front-end detection module that combines form and motion based visual attention to search for and detect "integrated" object percepts as is hypothesized to occur in the human visual pathways; (2) A back-end recognition module that processes only the detected object percepts through a neuromorphic object classification algorithm based on multi-scale convolutional neural networks, which can be efficiently implemented in COTS hardware. Our neuromorphic system was evaluated using a variety of urban area video data collected from both stationary and moving platforms. The data are quite challenging as it includes targets at long ranges, occurring under variable conditions of illuminations and occlusion with high clutter. The experimental results of our system showed excellent detection and classification performance. In addition, the proposed bio-inspired approach is good for hardware implementation due to its low complexity and mapping to off-the-shelf conventional hardware.

  2. A proposed classification system for liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, N J; Bonnheim, D C; Herrera, L O; Mittelman, A

    1984-04-01

    A proposed classification system for liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma is presented. This proposed system utilizes the prognostic factors of the extent of hepatic involvement by metastasis at the time of laparotomy, performance status, preoperative serum alkaline phosphatase level, and the presence or absence of extrahepatic intraabdominal disease at the time of laparotomy. Because of the several different modes of treatment for liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma, it is necessary that a liver classification system be adopted so that different treatment groups will be comparable. The proposed system utilizes the extent of hepatic involvement by metastasis at laparotomy with a division into three subsets of patients described by a Roman numeral. Roman numeral I represents less than or equal to 25 per cent involvement of the liver by metastasis; Roman numeral II represents greater than 25 per cent but less than or equal to 50 per cent involvement by liver metastasis, and Roman numeral III represents greater than 50 per cent involvement by liver metastasis. An Arabic subscript number is used to describe the patients' performance status. Alkaline phosphatase levels are described by a subscript letter with a representing less than two times normal alkaline phosphatase, b representing greater than two times, but less than four times normal levels, and c representing greater than four times normal levels. At the time of laparotomy extrahepatic intra-abdominal disease is represented by the superscript letter E. PMID:6714032

  3. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  4. What's wrong with hazard-ranking systems? An expository note.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2009-07-01

    Two commonly recommended principles for allocating risk management resources to remediate uncertain hazards are: (1) select a subset to maximize risk-reduction benefits (e.g., maximize the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility of the selected risk-reducing activities), and (2) assign priorities to risk-reducing opportunities and then select activities from the top of the priority list down until no more can be afforded. When different activities create uncertain but correlated risk reductions, as is often the case in practice, then these principles are inconsistent: priority scoring and ranking fails to maximize risk-reduction benefits. Real-world risk priority scoring systems used in homeland security and terrorism risk assessment, environmental risk management, information system vulnerability rating, business risk matrices, and many other important applications do not exploit correlations among risk-reducing opportunities or optimally diversify risk-reducing investments. As a result, they generally make suboptimal risk management recommendations. Applying portfolio optimization methods instead of risk prioritization ranking, rating, or scoring methods can achieve greater risk-reduction value for resources spent.

  5. Classification of time series patterns from complex dynamic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schryver, J.C.; Rao, N.

    1998-07-01

    An increasing availability of high-performance computing and data storage media at decreasing cost is making possible the proliferation of large-scale numerical databases and data warehouses. Numeric warehousing enterprises on the order of hundreds of gigabytes to terabytes are a reality in many fields such as finance, retail sales, process systems monitoring, biomedical monitoring, surveillance and transportation. Large-scale databases are becoming more accessible to larger user communities through the internet, web-based applications and database connectivity. Consequently, most researchers now have access to a variety of massive datasets. This trend will probably only continue to grow over the next several years. Unfortunately, the availability of integrated tools to explore, analyze and understand the data warehoused in these archives is lagging far behind the ability to gain access to the same data. In particular, locating and identifying patterns of interest in numerical time series data is an increasingly important problem for which there are few available techniques. Temporal pattern recognition poses many interesting problems in classification, segmentation, prediction, diagnosis and anomaly detection. This research focuses on the problem of classification or characterization of numerical time series data. Highway vehicles and their drivers are examples of complex dynamic systems (CDS) which are being used by transportation agencies for field testing to generate large-scale time series datasets. Tools for effective analysis of numerical time series in databases generated by highway vehicle systems are not yet available, or have not been adapted to the target problem domain. However, analysis tools from similar domains may be adapted to the problem of classification of numerical time series data.

  6. 41 CFR 101-42.1101 - Federal supply classification (FSC) groups and classes which contain hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... earth's ozone layer. 5835 Sound recording and reproducing equipment Recording tape cleaners that contain... Metalworking machinery Equipment containing hazardous hydraulic fluids including PCBs. 3433 Gas welding, heat cutting, and metalizing equipment Compressed gases. 3439 Miscellaneous welding, soldering and...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to the DHS classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Classification...

  8. Tutorial on Actual Space Environmental Hazards For Space Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    It has become common in the space science community to conduct research on diverse physical phenomena because they are thought to contribute to space weather. However, satellites contend with only three primary environmental hazards: single event effects, vehicle charging, and total dose, and not every physical phenomenon that occurs in space contributes in substantial ways to create these hazards. One consequence of the mismatch between actual threats and all-encompassing research is the often-described gap between research and operations; another is the creation of forecasts that provide no actionable information for design engineers or spacecraft operators. An example of the latter is the physics of magnetic field emergence on the Sun; the phenomenon is relevant to the formation and launch of coronal mass ejections and is also causally related to the solar energetic particles that may get accelerated in the interplanetary shock. Unfortunately for the research community, the engineering community mitigates the space weather threat (single-event effects from heavy ions above ~50 MeV/nucleon) with a worst-case specification of the environment and not with a prediction. Worst-case definition requires data mining of past events, while predictions involve large-scale systems science from the Sun to the Earth that is compelling for scientists and their funding agencies but not actionable for design or for most operations. Differing priorities among different space-faring organizations only compounds the confusion over what science research is relevant. Solar particle impacts to human crew arise mainly from the total ionizing dose from the solar protons, so the priority for prediction in the human spaceflight community is therefore much different than in the unmanned satellite community, while both communities refer to the fundamental phenomenon as space weather. Our goal in this paper is the presentation of a brief tutorial on the primary space environmental phenomena

  9. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1

    SciTech Connect

    FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

    2011-07-18

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  10. Classification of boundary equilibrium bifurcations in planar Filippov systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glendinning, Paul

    2016-01-01

    If a family of piecewise smooth systems depending on a real parameter is defined on two different regions of the plane separated by a switching surface, then a boundary equilibrium bifurcation occurs if a stationary point of one of the systems intersects the switching surface at a critical value of the parameter. We derive the leading order terms of a normal form for boundary equilibrium bifurcations of planar systems. This makes it straightforward to derive a complete classification of the bifurcations that can occur. We are thus able to confirm classic results of Filippov [Differential Equations with Discontinuous Right Hand Sides (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1988)] using different and more transparent methods, and explain why the `missing' cases of Hogan et al. [Piecewise Smooth Dynamical Systems: The Case of the Missing Boundary Equilibrium Bifurcations (University of Bristol, 2015)] are the only cases omitted in more recent work.

  11. Classification of boundary equilibrium bifurcations in planar Filippov systems.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, Paul

    2016-01-01

    If a family of piecewise smooth systems depending on a real parameter is defined on two different regions of the plane separated by a switching surface, then a boundary equilibrium bifurcation occurs if a stationary point of one of the systems intersects the switching surface at a critical value of the parameter. We derive the leading order terms of a normal form for boundary equilibrium bifurcations of planar systems. This makes it straightforward to derive a complete classification of the bifurcations that can occur. We are thus able to confirm classic results of Filippov [Differential Equations with Discontinuous Right Hand Sides (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1988)] using different and more transparent methods, and explain why the 'missing' cases of Hogan et al. [Piecewise Smooth Dynamical Systems: The Case of the Missing Boundary Equilibrium Bifurcations (University of Bristol, 2015)] are the only cases omitted in more recent work.

  12. Identification and Classification of Mass Transport Complexes in Offshore Trinidad/Venezuela and Their Potential Anthropogenic Impact as Tsunamigenic Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscardelli, L.; Wood, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    Several late Pleistocene-age seafloor destabilization events have been identified in the continental margin of eastern offshore Trinidad, of sufficient scale to produce tsunamigenic forces. This area, situated along the obliquely-converging-boundary of the Caribbean/South American plates and proximal to the Orinoco Delta, is characterized by catastrophic shelf-margin processes, intrusive-extrusive mobile shales, and active tectonism. A mega-merged, 10,000km2, 3D seismic survey reveals several mass transport complexes that range in area from 11.3km2 to 2017km2. Historical records indicate that this region has experienced submarine landslide- generated tsunamigenic events, including tsunamis that affected Venezuela during the 1700's-1900's. This work concentrates on defining those ancient deep marine mass transport complexes whose occurrence could potentially triggered tsunamis. Three types of failures are identified; 1) source-attached failures that are fed by shelf edge deltas whose sediment input is controlled by sea-level fluctuations and sedimentation rates, 2) source-detached systems, which occur when upper slope sediments catastrophically fail due to gas hydrate disruptions and/or earthquakes, and 3) locally sourced failures, formed when local instabilities in the sea floor trigger relatively smaller collapses. Such classification of the relationship between slope mass failures and the sourcing regions enables a better understanding of the nature of initiation, length of development history and petrography of such mass transport deposits. Source-detached systems, generated due to sudden sediment remobilizations, are more likely to disrupt the overlying water column causing a rise in tsunamigenic risk. Unlike 2D seismic, 3D seismic enables scientists to calculate more accurate deposit volumes, improve deposit imaging and thus increase the accuracy of physical and computer simulations of mass failure processes.

  13. A Model Assessment and Classification System for Men and Women in Correctional Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellervik, Lowell W.; And Others

    The report describes a manpower assessment and classification system for criminal offenders directed towards making practical training and job classification decisions. The model is not concerned with custody classifications except as they affect occupational/training possibilities. The model combines traditional procedures of vocational…

  14. Gender and cultural issues in psychiatric nosological classification systems.

    PubMed

    van de Water, Tanya; Suliman, Sharain; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-08-01

    Much has changed since the two dominant mental health nosological systems, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), were first published in 1900 and 1952, respectively. Despite numerous modifications to stay up to date with scientific and cultural changes (eg, exclusion of homosexuality as a disorder) and to improve the cultural sensitivity of psychiatric diagnoses, the ICD and DSM have only recently renewed attempts at harmonization. Previous nosological iterations demonstrate the oscillation in the importance placed on the biological focus, highlighting the tension between a gender- and culture-free nosology (solely biological) and a contextually relevant understanding of mental illness. In light of the release of the DSM 5, future nosological systems, such as the ICD 11, scheduled for release in 2017, and the Research Development Criteria (RDoC), can learn from history and apply critiques. This article aims to critically consider gender and culture in previous editions of the ICD and DSM to inform forthcoming classifications.

  15. Gender and cultural issues in psychiatric nosological classification systems.

    PubMed

    van de Water, Tanya; Suliman, Sharain; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-08-01

    Much has changed since the two dominant mental health nosological systems, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), were first published in 1900 and 1952, respectively. Despite numerous modifications to stay up to date with scientific and cultural changes (eg, exclusion of homosexuality as a disorder) and to improve the cultural sensitivity of psychiatric diagnoses, the ICD and DSM have only recently renewed attempts at harmonization. Previous nosological iterations demonstrate the oscillation in the importance placed on the biological focus, highlighting the tension between a gender- and culture-free nosology (solely biological) and a contextually relevant understanding of mental illness. In light of the release of the DSM 5, future nosological systems, such as the ICD 11, scheduled for release in 2017, and the Research Development Criteria (RDoC), can learn from history and apply critiques. This article aims to critically consider gender and culture in previous editions of the ICD and DSM to inform forthcoming classifications. PMID:27133577

  16. A data-stream classification system for investigating terrorist threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Alexia; Dettman, Joshua; Gottschalk, Jeffrey; Kotson, Michael; Vuksani, Era; Yu, Tamara

    2016-05-01

    The role of cyber forensics in criminal investigations has greatly increased in recent years due to the wealth of data that is collected and available to investigators. Physical forensics has also experienced a data volume and fidelity revolution due to advances in methods for DNA and trace evidence analysis. Key to extracting insight is the ability to correlate across multi-modal data, which depends critically on identifying a touch-point connecting the separate data streams. Separate data sources may be connected because they refer to the same individual, entity or event. In this paper we present a data source classification system tailored to facilitate the investigation of potential terrorist activity. This taxonomy is structured to illuminate the defining characteristics of a particular terrorist effort and designed to guide reporting to decision makers that is complete, concise, and evidence-based. The classification system has been validated and empirically utilized in the forensic analysis of a simulated terrorist activity. Next-generation analysts can use this schema to label and correlate across existing data streams, assess which critical information may be missing from the data, and identify options for collecting additional data streams to fill information gaps.

  17. Classification of hospitals based on measured output: the VA system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J W; Berki, S E; Wyszewianski, L; Ashcraft, M L

    1983-07-01

    Evaluation of hospital performance and improvement of resource allocation in hospital systems require a method for classifying hospitals on the basis of their output. Previous approaches to hospital classification relied largely on input characteristics. The authors propose and apply a procedure for classifying hospitals into groups where within-group hospitals are similar with respect to output. Direct measures of case-mix-adjusted discharges and outpatient visits are the principal measures of patient care output; other measures capture training and research functions. The component measures were weighted, and a composite output measure was calculated for each of the 162 hospitals in the Veterans Administration health care system. The output score then was used as the dependent variable in an Automatic Interaction Detector analysis, which partitioned the 162 hospitals into 10 groups, accounting for 85 per cent of the variance in the dependent variable. An extension of the output classification method is presented for illustration of how the difference between hospitals' actual operating costs and costs predicted on the basis of output can be used in defining isoefficiency groups. PMID:6350744

  18. Databases applicable to quantitative hazard/risk assessment-Towards a predictive systems toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Michael Jackson, Marcus

    2008-11-15

    The Workshop on The Power of Aggregated Toxicity Data addressed the requirement for distributed databases to support quantitative hazard and risk assessment. The authors have conceived and constructed with federal support several databases that have been used in hazard identification and risk assessment. The first of these databases, the EPA Gene-Tox Database was developed for the EPA Office of Toxic Substances by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and is currently hosted by the National Library of Medicine. This public resource is based on the collaborative evaluation, by government, academia, and industry, of short-term tests for the detection of mutagens and presumptive carcinogens. The two-phased evaluation process resulted in more than 50 peer-reviewed publications on test system performance and a qualitative database on thousands of chemicals. Subsequently, the graphic and quantitative EPA/IARC Genetic Activity Profile (GAP) Database was developed in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). A chemical database driven by consideration of the lowest effective dose, GAP has served IARC for many years in support of hazard classification of potential human carcinogens. The Toxicological Activity Profile (TAP) prototype database was patterned after GAP and utilized acute, subchronic, and chronic data from the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. TAP demonstrated the flexibility of the GAP format for air toxics, water pollutants and other environmental agents. The GAP format was also applied to developmental toxicants and was modified to represent quantitative results from the rodent carcinogen bioassay. More recently, the authors have constructed: 1) the NIEHS Genetic Alterations in Cancer (GAC) Database which quantifies specific mutations found in cancers induced by environmental agents, and 2) the NIEHS Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) Knowledgebase that integrates genomic and other biological data including

  19. Review of Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Integrated Hazard Development Process. Appendices; Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smiles, Michael D.; Blythe, Michael P.; Bejmuk, Bohdan; Currie, Nancy J.; Doremus, Robert C.; Franzo, Jennifer C.; Gordon, Mark W.; Johnson, Tracy D.; Kowaleski, Mark M.; Laube, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    The Chief Engineer of the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Office requested that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent assessment of the ESD's integrated hazard development process. The focus of the assessment was to review the integrated hazard analysis (IHA) process and identify any gaps/improvements in the process (e.g. missed causes, cause tree completeness, missed hazards). This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  20. Review of Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Integrated Hazard Development Process. Volume 1; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smiles, Michael D.; Blythe, Michael P.; Bejmuk, Bohdan; Currie, Nancy J.; Doremus, Robert C.; Franzo, Jennifer C.; Gordon, Mark W.; Johnson, Tracy D.; Kowaleski, Mark M.; Laube, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    The Chief Engineer of the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Office requested that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent assessment of the ESD's integrated hazard development process. The focus of the assessment was to review the integrated hazard analysis (IHA) process and identify any gaps/improvements in the process (e.g., missed causes, cause tree completeness, missed hazards). This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  1. New ACR EULAR guidelines for systemic sclerosis classification.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sindhu R

    2015-05-01

    The American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism classification criteria for systemic sclerosis are a significant advancement in the field. This article describes the innovative, rigorous, criteria development strategy that was used. The new criteria build upon previous criteria by incorporating important elements (proximal scleroderma, sclerodactyly, digital pits, pulmonary fibrosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, and scleroderma specific autoantibodies). The new criteria add emphasis to the vasculopathic manifestations, and include the early manifestation of puffy fingers. Together, these enhancements have resulted in a shift in the conceptual framework of the disease for the next generation. The new criteria have improved sensitivity and specifically, particularly among cases with early disease, mild disease, or limited disease. The ability to classify more cases, at an earlier stage, may confer the opportunity to intervene and prevent disease progression. Undoubtedly, this will lead to a paradigm shift in the conduct of clinical trials in systemic sclerosis.

  2. Classification of attractors for systems of identical coupled Kuramoto oscillators.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Jan R; Mirollo, Renato

    2014-03-01

    We present a complete classification of attractors for networks of coupled identical Kuramoto oscillators. In such networks, each oscillator is driven by the same first-order trigonometric function, with coefficients given by symmetric functions of the entire oscillator ensemble. For [Formula: see text] oscillators, there are four possible types of attractors: completely synchronized fixed points or limit cycles, and fixed points or limit cycles where all but one of the oscillators are synchronized. The case N = 3 is exceptional; systems of three identical Kuramoto oscillators can also posses attracting fixed points or limit cycles with all three oscillators out of sync, as well as chaotic attractors. Our results rely heavily on the invariance of the flow for such systems under the action of the three-dimensional group of Möbius transformations, which preserve the unit disc, and the analysis of the possible limiting configurations for this group action.

  3. Classification of attractors for systems of identical coupled Kuramoto oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Engelbrecht, Jan R.; Mirollo, Renato

    2014-03-15

    We present a complete classification of attractors for networks of coupled identical Kuramoto oscillators. In such networks, each oscillator is driven by the same first-order trigonometric function, with coefficients given by symmetric functions of the entire oscillator ensemble. For N≠3 oscillators, there are four possible types of attractors: completely synchronized fixed points or limit cycles, and fixed points or limit cycles where all but one of the oscillators are synchronized. The case N = 3 is exceptional; systems of three identical Kuramoto oscillators can also posses attracting fixed points or limit cycles with all three oscillators out of sync, as well as chaotic attractors. Our results rely heavily on the invariance of the flow for such systems under the action of the three-dimensional group of Möbius transformations, which preserve the unit disc, and the analysis of the possible limiting configurations for this group action.

  4. USGS Emergency Response and the Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. K.; Lamb, R.

    2013-12-01

    Remotely sensed datasets such as satellite imagery and aerial photography can be an invaluable resource to support the response and recovery from many types of emergency events such as floods, earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, and other natural or human-induced disasters. When disaster strikes there is often an urgent need and high demand for rapid acquisition and coordinated distribution of pre- and post-event geospatial products and remotely sensed imagery. These products and images are necessary to record change, analyze impacts, and facilitate response to the rapidly changing conditions on the ground. The coordinated and timely provision of relevant imagery and other datasets is one important component of the USGS support for domestic and international emergency response activities. The USGS Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) serves as a single, consolidated point-of-access for relevant satellite and aerial image datasets during an emergency event response. The HDDS provides data visibility and immediate download services through a complementary pair of graphical map-based and traditional directory-based interfaces. This system allows emergency response personnel to rapidly select and obtain pre-event ('baseline') and post-event emergency response imagery from many different sources. These datasets will typically include images that are acquired directly by USGS, but may also include many other types of images that are collected and contributed by partner agencies and organizations during the course of an emergency event response. Over the past decade, USGS Emergency Response and HDDS have supported hundreds of domestic and international disaster events by providing critically needed pre- and post-event remotely sensed imagery and other related geospatial products as required by the emergency response community. Some of the larger national events supported by HDDS have included Hurricane Sandy (2012), the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (2010), and Hurricane

  5. Multiple classifier system for remote sensing image classification: a review.

    PubMed

    Du, Peijun; Xia, Junshi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Kun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Sicong

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple classifier system (MCS) or classifier ensemble has shown great potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing image classification. Although there are lots of literatures covering the MCS approaches, there is a lack of a comprehensive literature review which presents an overall architecture of the basic principles and trends behind the design of remote sensing classifier ensemble. Therefore, in order to give a reference point for MCS approaches, this paper attempts to explicitly review the remote sensing implementations of MCS and proposes some modified approaches. The effectiveness of existing and improved algorithms are analyzed and evaluated by multi-source remotely sensed images, including high spatial resolution image (QuickBird), hyperspectral image (OMISII) and multi-spectral image (Landsat ETM+). Experimental results demonstrate that MCS can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification, and diversity measures play an active role for the combination of multiple classifiers. Furthermore, this survey provides a roadmap to guide future research, algorithm enhancement and facilitate knowledge accumulation of MCS in remote sensing community.

  6. Multiple Classifier System for Remote Sensing Image Classification: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Du, Peijun; Xia, Junshi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Kun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Sicong

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple classifier system (MCS) or classifier ensemble has shown great potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing image classification. Although there are lots of literatures covering the MCS approaches, there is a lack of a comprehensive literature review which presents an overall architecture of the basic principles and trends behind the design of remote sensing classifier ensemble. Therefore, in order to give a reference point for MCS approaches, this paper attempts to explicitly review the remote sensing implementations of MCS and proposes some modified approaches. The effectiveness of existing and improved algorithms are analyzed and evaluated by multi-source remotely sensed images, including high spatial resolution image (QuickBird), hyperspectral image (OMISII) and multi-spectral image (Landsat ETM+). Experimental results demonstrate that MCS can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification, and diversity measures play an active role for the combination of multiple classifiers. Furthermore, this survey provides a roadmap to guide future research, algorithm enhancement and facilitate knowledge accumulation of MCS in remote sensing community. PMID:22666057

  7. A Classification System for 2-Year Postsecondary Institutions. Methodology Report. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Ronald A.; Shedd, Jessica M.; Merisotis, Jamie P.

    This methodology report by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) outlines the need and rationale for a two-year postsecondary classification system and the methodology used to produce this classification system. The system was created based on information from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) database that…

  8. 41 CFR 101-42.1101 - Federal supply classification (FSC) groups and classes which contain hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 6135 Batteries, primary Lead-acid, lithium and mercury batteries and alkaline (with electrolyte). 6140 Batteries, secondary Items that are wet or moist containing corrosive or other hazardous compounds. 6145... require warning labels and megnetron tubes which require special precautions when being prepared for...

  9. CHAWS (Chemical HAzard Warning System) user's guide: System description and standard operating procedures, Pine Bluff Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.; Novo, M.G.

    1988-03-01

    The Chemical HAzard Warning System (CHAWS) has been designed to collect meteorological data and to display, in real time, hazardous chemical dispersion as a result of an accidental release. Meteorological sensors are placed strategically around each installation and are used to calculate direction and hazard distance for the release. These data are then graphically displayed on a computer screen showing a site map and arrows depicting the release direction and distance traveled. The objectives of CHAWS are as follows: to determine the trajectory of the center of mass of released material from the measured wind field; to calculate the dispersion based on the measured lateral turbulence intensity (sigma theta); to determine the height of the mixing zone by measurement of the inversion height and wind profiles up to an altitude of about 1 km; to archive meteorological data for potential use in climatological descriptions for emergency planning; to archive air-quality data for preparation of compliance reports; and to provide access to the data for realtime hazard analysis purposes. The system is discussed.

  10. Exercise-Associated Collapse in Endurance Events: A Classification System.

    PubMed

    Roberts, W O

    1989-05-01

    In brief: Athletes who compete in endurance sports may sustain exercise-associated collapse (EAC) during or after an event. A classification system was devised for EAC that can be used by physicians who cover endurance events. Symptoms and signs of EAC include exhaustion, nausea, cramps, abnormally high or low core body temperature, muscle spasms, and inability to walk unassisted. The three classes of EAC are hyperthermic, normothermic, and hypothermic; each class is subclassified as mild, moderate, or severe. Treatment of warm runners includes applying ice bags wrapped with wet towels to the major areas of heat loss (neck, axilla, groin) to lower the core body temperature. Treatment of cool runners involves removing wet clothing, drying the skin, and insulating with wool blankets.

  11. Newer Classification System for Fissured Tongue: An Epidemiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sudarshan, Ramachandran; Sree Vijayabala, G.; Samata, Y.; Ravikiran, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Fissured tongue is a commonly encountered tongue disorder in dental practice. But there is a lack of data on different pattern, severity, and association of fissuring with various systemic disorders and other tongue anomalies. This study attempts to establish a classification system for fissured tongue and to know the correlation with the systemic health and other disorders of the tongue. Materials and Methods. A total of 1000 subjects between the age groups of 10 and 80 years were included in the study. Pattern of fissuring, allied systemic diseases, and related tongue anomalies were tabulated. Results. Out of 1000 subjects, 387 subjects presented with fissured tongue. Out of 387 subjects, hypertension was present in 57 cases, 18 subjects had diabetes, and 3 subjects had both hypertension and diabetes. Central longitudinal type was found to be the most common type of tongue fissuring. Conclusion. Fissured tongue has been found to be associated with certain systemic disease and further researches are required to know positive correlation. If a correlation exists, such disorders could be diagnosed earlier by identifying fissured tongue at an earlier age. PMID:26457087

  12. Test instrumentation evaluates electrostatic hazards in fluid system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, L. H.; Henry, R.; Krebs, D.

    1967-01-01

    RJ-1 fuel surface potential is measured with a probe to determine the degree of hazard originating from static electricity buildup in the hydraulic fluid. The probe is mounted in contact with the fluid surface and connected to an electrostatic voltmeter.

  13. HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF METALS AND METAL COMPOUNDS IN TERRESTRIAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal accumulation in soil can result in adverse effects on soil biota, and may concentrate metals in food chains to levels detrimental to humans and wildlife. A SETAC Pellston Workshop entitled " Hazard Identification Approach For Metals And Inorganic Metal Substances" examined...

  14. The Self-Directed Violence Classification System and the Columbia Classification Algorithm for Suicide Assessment: A Crosswalk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matarazzo, Bridget B.; Clemans, Tracy A.; Silverman, Morton M.; Brenner, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of a standardized nomenclature for suicide-related thoughts and behaviors prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with the Veterans Integrated Service Network 19 Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, to create the Self-Directed Violence Classification System (SDVCS). SDVCS has been adopted by the…

  15. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Programs 219.303 Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size...

  16. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Programs 219.303 Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size...

  17. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards....

  18. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards....

  19. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Using a Systems Analysis Approach to Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, M.; Eguchi, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    The earthquake hazard mitigation goal is to reduce losses due to severe natural events. The first step is to conduct a Seismic Risk Assessment consisting of 1) hazard estimation, 2) vulnerability analysis, 3) exposure compilation. Seismic hazards include ground deformation, shaking, and inundation. The hazard estimation may be probabilistic or deterministic. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) is generally applied to site-specific Risk assessments, but may involve large areas as in a National Seismic Hazard Mapping program. Deterministic hazard assessments are needed for geographically distributed exposure such as lifelines (infrastructure), but may be important for large communities. Vulnerability evaluation includes quantification of fragility for construction or components including personnel. Exposure represents the existing or planned construction, facilities, infrastructure, and population in the affected area. Risk (expected loss) is the product of the quantified hazard, vulnerability (damage algorithm), and exposure which may be used to prepare emergency response plans, retrofit existing construction, or use community planning to avoid hazards. The risk estimate provides data needed to acquire earthquake insurance to assist with effective recovery following a severe event. Earthquake Scenarios used in Deterministic Risk Assessments provide detailed information on where hazards may be most severe, what system components are most susceptible to failure, and to evaluate the combined effects of a severe earthquake to the whole system or community. Casualties (injuries and death) have been the primary factor in defining building codes for seismic-resistant construction. Economic losses may be equally significant factors that can influence proactive hazard mitigation. Large urban earthquakes may produce catastrophic losses due to a cascading of effects often missed in PSHA. Economic collapse may ensue if damaged workplaces, disruption of utilities, and

  20. A new classification system for bacterial Rieske non-heme iron aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Kweon, Ohgew; Kim, Seong-Jae; Baek, Songjoon; Chae, Jong-Chan; Adjei, Michael D; Baek, Dong-Heon; Kim, Young-Chang; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2008-01-01

    Background Rieske non-heme iron aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenases (RHOs) are multi-component enzyme systems that are remarkably diverse in bacteria isolated from diverse habitats. Since the first classification in 1990, there has been a need to devise a new classification scheme for these enzymes because many RHOs have been discovered, which do not belong to any group in the previous classification. Here, we present a scheme for classification of RHOs reflecting new sequence information and interactions between RHO enzyme components. Result We have analyzed a total of 130 RHO enzymes in which 25 well-characterized RHO enzymes were used as standards to test our hypothesis for the proposed classification system. From the sequence analysis of electron transport chain (ETC) components of the standard RHOs, we extracted classification keys that reflect not only the phylogenetic affiliation within each component but also relationship among components. Oxygenase components of standard RHOs were phylogenetically classified into 10 groups with the classification keys derived from ETC components. This phylogenetic classification scheme was converted to a new systematic classification consisting of 5 distinct types. The new classification system was statistically examined to justify its stability. Type I represents two-component RHO systems that consist of an oxygenase and an FNRC-type reductase. Type II contains other two-component RHO systems that consist of an oxygenase and an FNRN-type reductase. Type III represents a group of three-component RHO systems that consist of an oxygenase, a [2Fe-2S]-type ferredoxin and an FNRN-type reductase. Type IV represents another three-component systems that consist of oxygenase, [2Fe-2S]-type ferredoxin and GR-type reductase. Type V represents another different three-component systems that consist of an oxygenase, a [3Fe-4S]-type ferredoxin and a GR-type reductase. Conclusion The new classification system provides the following

  1. A Library Book Intelligence Classification System based on Multi-agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pengfei, Guo; Liangxian, Du; Junxia, Qi

    This paper introduces the concept of artificial intelligence into the administrative system of the library, and then gives the model of robot system in book classification based on multi-agent. The intelligent robot can recognize books' barcode automatically and here gives the classification algorithm according to the book classification of Chinese library. The algorithm can calculate the concrete position of the books, and relate with all similar books, thus the robot can put all congener books once without turning back.

  2. New Maximally Entangled States and Pattern Classification in Two-Qubit System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manu Pratap; Rajput, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    Pattern classifications have been performed by employing the method of Grover's iteration on Bell's MES and Singh-Rajput MES in two-qubit system and it has been demonstrated that for any pattern classification in a two-qubit system the maximally entangled states of Singh-Rajput eigen basis provide the most suitable choice of search states while in no case any of Bell's states is suitable for such pattern classifications.

  3. Validation of potential classification criteria for systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sindhu R.; Fransen, Jaap; Khanna, Dinesh; Baron, Murray; van den Hoogen, Frank; Medsger, Thomas A.; Peschken, Christine A.; Carreira, Patricia E.; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Tyndall, Alan; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Pope, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Classification criteria for systemic sclerosis (SSc) are being updated jointly by ACR and EULAR. Potential items for classification were reduced to 23 using Delphi and Nominal Group Techniques. We evaluated the face, discriminant and construct validity of the items to be further studied as potential criteria. Methods Face validity was evaluated using the frequency of items in patients sampled from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group, 1000 Faces of Lupus, the Pittsburgh, Toronto, Madrid and Berlin CTD databases. SSc (n=783) were compared to 1071 patients with diseases similar to SSc (mimickers): SLE (n=499), myositis (n=171), Sjögren’s syndrome (n=95), Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP) (n=228), MCTD (n=29), and idiopathic PAH (n=49). Discriminant validity was evaluated using odds ratios (OR). For construct validity, empiric ranking was compared to expert ranking. Results Compared to mimickers, SSc are more likely to have skin thickening (OR=427), telangiectasias (OR=91), anti-RNA polymerase III antibody (OR=75), puffy fingers (OR=35), finger flexion contractures (OR=29), tendon/bursal friction rubs (OR=27), anti-topoisomerase-I antibody (OR=25), RP (OR=24), finger tip ulcers/pitting scars (OR=19), anti-centromere antibody(OR=14), abnormal nailfold capillaries (OR=10), GERD symptoms (OR=8), and ANA, calcinosis, dysphagia, esophageal dilation (all OR=6), interstitial lung disease/pulmonary fibrosis (OR=5) and anti-PM-Scl antibody (OR=2). Reduced DLCO, PAH, and reduced FVC had OR<2. Renal crisis and digital pulp loss/acro-osteolysis did not occur in SSc mimickers (OR not estimated). Empiric and expert ranking were correlated (Spearman rho 0.53, p=0.01). Conclusion The candidate items have good face, discriminant and construct validity. Further item reduction will be evaluated in prospective SSc and mimicker cases. PMID:22052658

  4. Sparse representation-based classification scheme for motor imagery-based brain-computer interface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Younghak; Lee, Seungchan; Lee, Junho; Lee, Heung-No

    2012-10-01

    Motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interface systems (BCIs) normally use a powerful spatial filtering and classification method to maximize their performance. The common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm is a widely used spatial filtering method for MI-based BCIs. In this work, we propose a new sparse representation-based classification (SRC) scheme for MI-based BCI applications. Sensorimotor rhythms are extracted from electroencephalograms and used for classification. The proposed SRC method utilizes the frequency band power and CSP algorithm to extract features for classification. We analyzed the performance of the new method using experimental datasets. The results showed that the SRC scheme provides highly accurate classification results, which were better than those obtained using the well-known linear discriminant analysis classification method. The enhancement of the proposed method in terms of the classification accuracy was verified using cross-validation and a statistical paired t-test (p < 0.001).

  5. Superiority of Classification Tree versus Cluster, Fuzzy and Discriminant Models in a Heartbeat Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Krasteva, Vessela; Jekova, Irena; Leber, Remo; Schmid, Ramun; Abächerli, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a 2-stage heartbeat classifier of supraventricular (SVB) and ventricular (VB) beats. Stage 1 makes computationally-efficient classification of SVB-beats, using simple correlation threshold criterion for finding close match with a predominant normal (reference) beat template. The non-matched beats are next subjected to measurement of 20 basic features, tracking the beat and reference template morphology and RR-variability for subsequent refined classification in SVB or VB-class by Stage 2. Four linear classifiers are compared: cluster, fuzzy, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and classification tree (CT), all subjected to iterative training for selection of the optimal feature space among extended 210-sized set, embodying interactive second-order effects between 20 independent features. The optimization process minimizes at equal weight the false positives in SVB-class and false negatives in VB-class. The training with European ST-T, AHA, MIT-BIH Supraventricular Arrhythmia databases found the best performance settings of all classification models: Cluster (30 features), Fuzzy (72 features), LDA (142 coefficients), CT (221 decision nodes) with top-3 best scored features: normalized current RR-interval, higher/lower frequency content ratio, beat-to-template correlation. Unbiased test-validation with MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database rates the classifiers in descending order of their specificity for SVB-class: CT (99.9%), LDA (99.6%), Cluster (99.5%), Fuzzy (99.4%); sensitivity for ventricular ectopic beats as part from VB-class (commonly reported in published beat-classification studies): CT (96.7%), Fuzzy (94.4%), LDA (94.2%), Cluster (92.4%); positive predictivity: CT (99.2%), Cluster (93.6%), LDA (93.0%), Fuzzy (92.4%). CT has superior accuracy by 0.3–6.8% points, with the advantage for easy model complexity configuration by pruning the tree consisted of easy interpretable ‘if-then’ rules. PMID:26461492

  6. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, Jaques; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    1993-01-01

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system.

  7. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    DOEpatents

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1993-11-23

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system. 5 figures.

  8. Fire hazards evaluation for light duty utility arm system

    SciTech Connect

    HUCKFELDT, R.A.

    1999-02-24

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. LMHC Fire Protection has reviewed and approved the significant documentation leading up to the LDUA operation. This includes, but is not limited to, development criteria and drawings, Engineering Task Plan, Quality Assurance Program Plan, and Safety Program Plan. LMHC has provided an appropriate level of fire protection for this activity as documented.

  9. National information network and database system of hazardous waste management in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Hongchang

    1996-12-31

    Industries in China generate large volumes of hazardous waste, which makes it essential for the nation to pay more attention to hazardous waste management. National laws and regulations, waste surveys, and manifest tracking and permission systems have been initiated. Some centralized hazardous waste disposal facilities are under construction. China`s National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) has also obtained valuable information on hazardous waste management from developed countries. To effectively share this information with local environmental protection bureaus, NEPA developed a national information network and database system for hazardous waste management. This information network will have such functions as information collection, inquiry, and connection. The long-term objective is to establish and develop a national and local hazardous waste management information network. This network will significantly help decision makers and researchers because it will be easy to obtain information (e.g., experiences of developed countries in hazardous waste management) to enhance hazardous waste management in China. The information network consists of five parts: technology consulting, import-export management, regulation inquiry, waste survey, and literature inquiry.

  10. 76 FR 6551 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Contact Cooling System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use.'' The Agency is classifying the... Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use'' references previously approved... Devices; Classification of Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  11. 42 CFR 412.10 - Changes in the DRG classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... classification system published in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section. (e) Review by ProPAC. Changes...PAC upon publication. Interim changes to the DRG classification system that are made in accordance with paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section are subject to review by ProPAC before implementation....

  12. 42 CFR 412.10 - Changes in the DRG classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... classification system published in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section. (e) Review by ProPAC. Changes...PAC upon publication. Interim changes to the DRG classification system that are made in accordance with paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section are subject to review by ProPAC before implementation....

  13. Perceptual and Acoustic Reliability Estimates for the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Fourakis, Marios; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Potter, Nancy L.; Scheer-Cohen, Alison R.; Strand, Edythe A.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A companion paper describes three extensions to a classification system for paediatric speech sound disorders termed the Speech Disorders Classification System (SDCS). The SDCS uses perceptual and acoustic data reduction methods to obtain information on a speaker's speech, prosody, and voice. The present paper provides reliability estimates for…

  14. 40 CFR 280.42 - Requirements for hazardous substance UST systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UST systems. Owners and operators of hazardous substance UST systems must provide release detection that meets the following requirements: (a) Release detection at existing UST systems must meet the... systems must meet the release detection requirements for new systems in paragraph (b) of this section....

  15. Impact of Biopharmaceutics Classification System-based biowaivers.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jack A; Davit, Barbara M; Polli, James E

    2010-10-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) is employed to waive in vivo bioequivalence testing (i.e. provide "biowaivers") for new and generic drugs that are BCS class I. Granting biowaivers under systems such as the BCS eliminates unnecessary drug exposures to healthy subjects and provides economic relief, while maintaining the high public health standard for therapeutic equivalence. International scientific consensus suggests class III drugs are also eligible for biowaivers. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of class I BCS-based biowaivers, along with the economic impact of a potential expansion to BCS class III. Methods consider the distribution of drugs across the four BCS classes, numbers of in vivo bioequivalence studies performed from a five year period, and effects of highly variable drugs (HVDs). Results indicate that 26% of all drugs are class I non-HVDs, 7% are class I HVDs, 27% are class III non-HVDs, and 3% are class III HVDs. An estimated 66 to 76 million dollars can be saved each year in clinical study costs if all class I compounds were granted biowaivers. Between 21 and 24 million dollars of this savings is from HVDs. If BCS class III compounds were also granted waivers, an additional direct savings of 62 to 71 million dollars would be realized, with 9 to 10 million dollars coming from HVDs.

  16. Impact of Biopharmaceutics Classification System-based biowaivers.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jack A; Davit, Barbara M; Polli, James E

    2010-10-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) is employed to waive in vivo bioequivalence testing (i.e. provide "biowaivers") for new and generic drugs that are BCS class I. Granting biowaivers under systems such as the BCS eliminates unnecessary drug exposures to healthy subjects and provides economic relief, while maintaining the high public health standard for therapeutic equivalence. International scientific consensus suggests class III drugs are also eligible for biowaivers. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of class I BCS-based biowaivers, along with the economic impact of a potential expansion to BCS class III. Methods consider the distribution of drugs across the four BCS classes, numbers of in vivo bioequivalence studies performed from a five year period, and effects of highly variable drugs (HVDs). Results indicate that 26% of all drugs are class I non-HVDs, 7% are class I HVDs, 27% are class III non-HVDs, and 3% are class III HVDs. An estimated 66 to 76 million dollars can be saved each year in clinical study costs if all class I compounds were granted biowaivers. Between 21 and 24 million dollars of this savings is from HVDs. If BCS class III compounds were also granted waivers, an additional direct savings of 62 to 71 million dollars would be realized, with 9 to 10 million dollars coming from HVDs. PMID:20735084

  17. Comparison of wheat classification accuracy using different classifiers of the image-100 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Chen, S. C.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Classification results using single-cell and multi-cell signature acquisition options, a point-by-point Gaussian maximum-likelihood classifier, and K-means clustering of the Image-100 system are presented. Conclusions reached are that: a better indication of correct classification can be provided by using a test area which contains various cover types of the study area; classification accuracy should be evaluated considering both the percentages of correct classification and error of commission; supervised classification approaches are better than K-means clustering; Gaussian distribution maximum likelihood classifier is better than Single-cell and Multi-cell Signature Acquisition Options of the Image-100 system; and in order to obtain a high classification accuracy in a large and heterogeneous crop area, using Gaussian maximum-likelihood classifier, homogeneous spectral subclasses of the study crop should be created to derive training statistics.

  18. Decision-support systems for natural-hazards and land-management issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinitz, Laura; Forney, William; Byrd, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS Western Geographic Science Center are developing decision-support systems (DSSs) for natural-hazards and land-management issues. DSSs are interactive computer-based tools that use data and models to help identify and solve problems. These systems can provide crucial support to policymakers, planners, and communities for making better decisions about long-term natural hazards mitigation and land-use planning.

  19. Classification Systems in Renal Pathology: Promises and Problems.

    PubMed

    Stokes, M Barry

    2014-09-01

    Kidney diseases are morphologically heterogeneous. Pathologic classifications of renal disease permit standardization of diagnosis and may identify clinical-pathologic subgroups with different outcomes and/or responses to treatment. To date, classifications have been proposed for lupus nephritis, allograft rejection, IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody -related glomerulonephritis, and diabetic glomerulosclerosis. These classifications share several limitations related to lack of specificity, reproducibility, validation, and relevance to clinical practice. They offer a standardized approach to diagnosis, however, which should facilitate communication and clinical research.

  20. Quantifying the effect of early warning systems for mitigating risks from alpine hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Daniel; Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Early warning systems (EWS) are increasingly applied as flexible and non-intrusive measures for mitigating risks from alpine hazards. They are typically planed and installed in an ad-hoc manner and their effectiveness is not quantified, which is in contrast to structural risk mitigation measures. The effect of an EWS on the risk depends on human decision makers: experts interpret the signals from EWS, authorities decide on intervention measures and the public responds to the warnings. This interaction of the EWS with humans makes the quantification of their effectiveness challenging. Nevertheless, such a quantification is an important step in understanding, improving and justifying the use of EWS. We systematically discuss and demonstrate the factors that influence EWS effectiveness for alpine hazards, and present approaches and tools for analysing them. These include Bayesian network models, which are a powerful tool for an integral probabilistic assessment. The theory is illustrated through applications of warning systems for debris flow and rockfall hazards. References: Sättele M., Bründl M., Straub D. (in print). Quantifying the effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. Sättele M., Bründl M., Straub D. (2015). Reliability and Effectiveness of Warning Systems for Natural Hazards: Concepts and Application to Debris Flow Warning. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 142: 192-202

  1. Controlling Hazardous Releases while Protecting Passengers in Civil Infrastructure Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimer, Sara P.; Katopodes, Nikolaos D.

    2015-11-01

    The threat of accidental or deliberate toxic chemicals released into public spaces is a significant concern to public safety, and the real-time detection and mitigation of such hazardous contaminants has the potential to minimize harm and save lives. Furthermore, the safe evacuation of occupants during such a catastrophe is of utmost importance. This research develops a comprehensive means to address such scenarios, through both the sensing and control of contaminants, and the modeling of and potential communication to occupants as they evacuate. A computational fluid dynamics model is developed of a simplified public space characterized by a long conduit (e.g. airport terminal) with unidirectional ambient flow that is capable of detecting and mitigating the hazardous contaminant (via boundary ports) over several time horizons using model predictive control optimization. Additionally, a physical prototype is built to test the real-time feasibility of this computational flow control model. The prototype is a blower wind-tunnel with an elongated test section with the capability of sensing (via digital camera) an injected `contaminant' (propylene glycol smoke), and then mitigating that contaminant using actuators (compressed air operated vacuum nozzles) which are operated by a set of pressure regulators and a programmable controller. Finally, an agent-based model is developed to simulate ``agents'' (i.e. building occupants) as they evacuate a public space, and is coupled with the computational flow control model such that agents must interact with a dynamic, threatening environment. NSF-CMMI #0856438.

  2. Classification Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Children, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The interview presents opinions of Nicholas Hobbs on the classification of exceptional children, including topics such as ecologically oriented classification systems, the role of parents, and need for revision of teacher preparation programs. (IM)

  3. Automated cloud classification with a fuzzy logic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tovinkere, Vasanth; Baum, Bryan A.

    1993-01-01

    An unresolved problem in current cloud retrieval algorithms concerns the analysis of scenes containing overlapping cloud layers. Cloud parameterizations are very important both in global climate models and in studies of the Earth's radiation budget. Most cloud retrieval schemes, such as the bispectral method used by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), have no way of determining whether overlapping cloud layers exist in any group of satellite pixels. One promising method uses fuzzy logic to determine whether mixed cloud and/or surface types exist within a group of pixels, such as cirrus, land, and water, or cirrus and stratus. When two or more class types are present, fuzzy logic uses membership values to assign the group of pixels partially to the different class types. The strength of fuzzy logic lies in its ability to work with patterns that may include more than one class, facilitating greater information extraction from satellite radiometric data. The development of the fuzzy logic rule-based expert system involves training the fuzzy classifier with spectral and textural features calculated from accurately labeled 32x32 regions of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1.1-km data. The spectral data consists of AVHRR channels 1 (0.55-0.68 mu m), 2 (0.725-1.1 mu m), 3 (3.55-3.93 mu m), 4 (10.5-11.5 mu m), and 5 (11.5-12.5 mu m), which include visible, near-infrared, and infrared window regions. The textural features are based on the gray level difference vector (GLDV) method. A sophisticated new interactive visual image Classification System (IVICS) is used to label samples chosen from scenes collected during the FIRE IFO II. The training samples are chosen from predefined classes, chosen to be ocean, land, unbroken stratiform, broken stratiform, and cirrus. The November 28, 1991 NOAA overpasses contain complex multilevel cloud situations ideal for training and validating the fuzzy logic expert system.

  4. The Bellevue Classification System: nursing's voice upon the library shelves*†

    PubMed Central

    Mages, Keith C

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the inspiration, construction, and meaning of the Bellevue Classification System (BCS), created during the 1930s for use in the Bellevue School of Nursing Library. Nursing instructor Ann Doyle, with assistance from librarian Mary Casamajor, designed the BCS after consulting with library leaders and examining leading contemporary classification systems, including the Dewey Decimal Classification and Library of Congress, Ballard, and National Health Library classification systems. A close textual reading of the classes, subclasses, and subdivisions of these classification systems against those of the resulting BCS, reveals Doyle's belief that the BCS was created not only to organize the literature, but also to promote the burgeoning intellectualism and professionalism of early twentieth-century American nursing. PMID:21243054

  5. The postoperative COFAS end-stage ankle arthritis classification system: interobserver and intraobserver reliability.

    PubMed

    Krause, Fabian G; Di Silvestro, Matthew; Penner, Murray J; Wing, Kevin J; Glazebrook, Mark A; Daniels, Timothy R; Lau, Johnny T C; Younger, Alastair S E

    2012-02-01

    End-stage ankle arthritis is operatively treated with numerous designs of total ankle replacement and different techniques for ankle fusion. For superior comparison of these procedures, outcome research requires a classification system to stratify patients appropriately. A postoperative 4-type classification system was designed by 6 fellowship-trained foot and ankle surgeons. Four surgeons reviewed blinded patient profiles and radiographs on 2 occasions to determine the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the classification. Excellent interobserver reliability (κ = .89) and intraobserver reproducibility (κ = .87) were demonstrated for the postoperative classification system. In conclusion, the postoperative Canadian Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (COFAS) end-stage ankle arthritis classification system appears to be a valid tool to evaluate the outcome of patients operated for end-stage ankle arthritis.

  6. A novel classification system for evolutionary aging theories.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Lucas S; Aigaki, Toshiro; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Balduino, Alex; Mânica da Cruz, Ivana B; Heddle, Jonathan G

    2013-01-01

    Theories of lifespan evolution are a source of confusion amongst aging researchers. After a century of aging research the dispute over whether the aging process is active or passive persists and a comprehensive and universally accepted theoretical model remains elusive. Evolutionary aging theories primarily dispute whether the aging process is exclusively adapted to favor the kin or exclusively non-adapted to favor the individual. Interestingly, contradictory data and theories supporting both exclusively programmed and exclusively non-programmed theories continue to grow. However, this is a false dichotomy; natural selection favors traits resulting in efficient reproduction whether they benefit the individual or the kin. Thus, to understand the evolution of aging, first we must understand the environment-dependent balance between the advantages and disadvantages of extended lifespan in the process of spreading genes. As described by distinct theories, different niches and environmental conditions confer on extended lifespan a range of fitness values varying from highly beneficial to highly detrimental. Here, we considered the range of fitness values for extended lifespan and develop a fitness-based framework for categorizing existing theories. We show that all theories can be classified into four basic types: secondary (beneficial), maladaptive (neutral), assisted death (detrimental), and senemorphic aging (varying between beneficial to detrimental). We anticipate that this classification system will assist with understanding and interpreting aging/death by providing a way of considering theories as members of one of these classes rather than consideration of their individual details.

  7. Clinical usefulness of the Vaughan Williams classification system.

    PubMed

    Cobbe, S M

    1987-03-01

    The clinical usefulness of the Vaughan Williams classification scheme is limited by the complexity of the mechanisms of arrhythmia formation in man, which offer multiple potential sites for intervention. The properties of antiarrhythmic drugs may be considerably altered in abnormal myocardium. Despite these limitations, however, the classification provides a valuable conceptual framework for the understanding of the clinical electrophysiological properties of antiarrhythmic drugs and for their use.

  8. An Analysis of the Universal Decimal Classification as a Term System for Nuclear Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stueart, Robert D.

    1971-01-01

    The possibilities of merging the terminology of the Universal Decimal Classification System with that of a term system - Engineers Joint Council's Thesaurus - for nuclear science and technology are explored. (12 references) (Author/NH)

  9. Preliminary fire hazards analysis for W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Huckfeldt, R.A.

    1995-03-16

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for Project W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval System (ITRS), at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The objectives of this FHA was to determine (1) the fire hazards that expose the Initial Tank Retrieval System or are inherent in the process, (2) the adequacy of the fire-safety features planned, and (3) the degree of compliance of the project with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders and related engineering codes and standards. The scope included the construction, the process hazards, building fire protection, and site wide fire protection. The results are presented in terms of the fire hazards present, the potential extent of fire damage, and the impact on employees and public safety. This study evaluated the ITRS with respect to its use at Tank 241-SY-101 only.

  10. Review of Medical Image Classification using the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Monireh Sheikh; Zekri, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Image classification is an issue that utilizes image processing, pattern recognition and classification methods. Automatic medical image classification is a progressive area in image classification, and it is expected to be more developed in the future. Because of this fact, automatic diagnosis can assist pathologists by providing second opinions and reducing their workload. This paper reviews the application of the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) as a classifier in medical image classification during the past 16 years. ANFIS is a fuzzy inference system (FIS) implemented in the framework of an adaptive fuzzy neural network. It combines the explicit knowledge representation of an FIS with the learning power of artificial neural networks. The objective of ANFIS is to integrate the best features of fuzzy systems and neural networks. A brief comparison with other classifiers, main advantages and drawbacks of this classifier are investigated. PMID:23493054

  11. Using the Megargee MMPI-Based Classification System with MMPI-2s of Male Prison Inmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megargee, Edwin I.

    1994-01-01

    Results of two studies with 1,635 male offenders on the impact of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) on the Megargee offender classification system indicate that the original Megargee rules should not be used to classify MMPI-2s. A new set of classification rules is proposed. (SLD)

  12. A fast SCOP fold classification system using content-based E-Predict algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Pin-Hao; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Xu, Dong

    2006-01-01

    Background Domain experts manually construct the Structural Classification of Protein (SCOP) database to categorize and compare protein structures. Even though using the SCOP database is believed to be more reliable than classification results from other methods, it is labor intensive. To mimic human classification processes, we develop an automatic SCOP fold classification system to assign possible known SCOP folds and recognize novel folds for newly-discovered proteins. Results With a sufficient amount of ground truth data, our system is able to assign the known folds for newly-discovered proteins in the latest SCOP v1.69 release with 92.17% accuracy. Our system also recognizes the novel folds with 89.27% accuracy using 10 fold cross validation. The average response time for proteins with 500 and 1409 amino acids to complete the classification process is 4.1 and 17.4 seconds, respectively. By comparison with several structural alignment algorithms, our approach outperforms previous methods on both the classification accuracy and efficiency. Conclusion In this paper, we build an advanced, non-parametric classifier to accelerate the manual classification processes of SCOP. With satisfactory ground truth data from the SCOP database, our approach identifies relevant domain knowledge and yields reasonably accurate classifications. Our system is publicly accessible at . PMID:16872501

  13. Characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae reference strains used in development of serologic classification systems.

    PubMed Central

    Evins, G M; Knapp, J S

    1988-01-01

    Certain strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae have been used by numerous investigators to develop serologic classification systems. Some of these strains have been used by investigators to study gonococcal virulence. A reference consisting of strain classification by auxotype and serovar, a strain history, and a selected bibliography are provided cohesively. PMID:3125223

  14. Using hydrogeomorphic criteria to classify wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine - approach, classification system, and examples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Neckles, Hilary A.

    2005-01-01

    A wetland classification system was designed for Mt. Desert Island, Maine, to help categorize the large number of wetlands (over 1,200 mapped units) as an aid to understanding their hydrologic functions. The classification system, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, uses a modified hydrogeomorphic (HGM) approach, and assigns categories based on position in the landscape, soils and surficial geologic setting, and source of water. A dichotomous key was developed to determine a preliminary HGM classification of wetlands on the island. This key is designed for use with USGS topographic maps and 1:24,000 geographic information system (GIS) coverages as an aid to the classification, but may also be used with field data. Hydrologic data collected from a wetland monitoring study were used to determine whether the preliminary classification of individual wetlands using the HGM approach yielded classes that were consistent with actual hydroperiod data. Preliminary HGM classifications of the 20 wetlands in the monitoring study were consistent with the field hydroperiod data. The modified HGM classification approach appears robust, although the method apparently works somewhat better with undisturbed wetlands than with disturbed wetlands. This wetland classification system could be applied to other hydrogeologically similar areas of northern New England.

  15. Inert gas spraying device aids in repair of hazardous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teleha, S.

    1965-01-01

    Inert gas spraying device aids in safely making mechanical repairs to a cryogenic fluid system without prior emptying of the system. This method can be applied to any natural or bottled gas system and with modifications to gasoline transports.

  16. Chemical hazards in the organisation.

    PubMed

    Winder, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The use of hazardous chemicals in organisations represents a substantial risk to occupational health, safety and the environment (OHSE). Organisational directors and managers have a responsibility to provide and maintain organisational management systems that manage these risks. The risk management approach of establishing organisational considerations, identifying chemical hazards (health and environmental), assessing and controlling risks and evaluating management activities has become the de facto means of managing organisational hazards in general and may be satisfactorily applied to the management of chemicals in the organisation. The Globally Harmonized System for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is now at the forefront of major regulatory issues facing the chemicals manufacturing industry and downstream users of chemicals. The GHS offers one system for the classification of all dangerous, toxic and environmental (ecotoxic) effects of chemicals. Organisations should develop occupational health, safety and environment (OHSE) management systems which contain programs and procedures that contain systems for inventory control, hazard communication, competency training, risk assessment and control, transport and storage, monitoring and health surveillance, chemical emergencies (including accident investigation), waste minimisation and disposal, record keeping and management system review. PMID:22945564

  17. STANSORT - Stanford Remote Sensing Laboratory pattern recognition and classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honey, F. R.; Prelat, A.; Lyon, R. J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The principal barrier to routine use of the ERTS multispectral scanner computer compatible tapes, rather than photointerpretation examination of the images, has been the high computing costs involved due to the large quantity of information (4 Mbytes) contained in a scene. STANSORT, the interactive program package developed at Stanford Remote Sensing Laboratories alleviates this problem, providing an extremely rapid, flexible and low cost tool for data reduction, scene classification, species searches and edge detection. The primary classification procedure, utilizing a search with variable gate widths, for similarities in the normalized, digitized spectra is described along with associated procedures for data refinement and extraction of information. The more rigorous statistical classification procedures are also explained.

  18. [Classification of psychiatric disorders in children: a comparison of the most frequent systems].

    PubMed

    Pedreira Massa, J L; Rincón Palomino, F

    1989-01-01

    Six different systems of classification are compared in Child Psychiatry (ICD-9, ICD-10, DSM-III, DSM-III-R, RUTTER, Alfred Binet Centre). Some critical aspects they have exposed about the contents in each systems with practical examples. The classification systems is very different a psychopathological aspects. You emphasize the role of classificatory exercises for the training and the research, and the psychiatric case registers.

  19. Hazardous materials management using a Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldgaard, E.; Fish, J.; Campbell, D.; Freshour, N.; Hammond, B.; Bray, O.; Hollingsworth, M.

    1995-03-01

    Hazardous materials management includes interactions among materials, personnel, facilities, hazards, and processes of various groups within a DOE site`s environmental, safety & health (ES&H) and line organizations. Although each group is charged with addressing a particular aspect of these properties and interactions, the information it requires must be gathered into a coherent set of common data for accurate and consistent hazardous material management and regulatory reporting. It is these common data requirements which the Cradle-to-Grave Tracking and Information System (CGTIS) is designed to satisfy. CGTIS collects information at the point at which a process begins or a material enters a facility, and maintains that information, for hazards management and regulatory reporting, throughout the entire life-cycle by providing direct on-line links to a site`s multitude of data bases to bring information together into one common data model.

  20. Technology assessment of solar-energy systems. Materials resource and hazardous materials impacts of solar deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, Y. M.; Tahami, J. E.

    1982-04-01

    The materials-resource and hazardous-materials impacts were determined by examining the type and quantity of materials used in the manufacture, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of solar systems. The materials requirements were compared with US materials supply and demand data to determine if potential problems exist in terms of future availability of domestic supply and increased dependence on foreign sources of supply. Hazardous materials were evaluated in terms of public and occupational health hazards and explosive and fire hazards. It is concluded that: although large amounts of materials would be required, the US had sufficient industrial capacity to produce those materials; (2) postulated growth in solar technology deployment during the period 1995-2000 could cause some production shortfalls in the steel and copper industry; the U.S. could increase its import reliance for certain materials such as silver, iron ore, and copper; however, shifts to other materials such as aluminum and polyvinylchloride could alleviate some of these problems.

  1. Evaluating a system of systems approach for integrated global weather, climate, and hazard monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, Ronald; Baldauf, Brian; Ohlemacher, Rick; Andreoli, Leo

    2008-08-01

    Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) provides systems and technologies to ensure national security based on technologies - from undersea to outer space, and in cyberspace. With a heritage of developing and integrating science instruments on space platforms and airborne systems, NGC is conducting analysis of alternatives for a global observing system that integrates data collected from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites with Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) platforms. This enhanced acquisition of environmental data will feed decision support systems such as the TouchTable ® to deliver improved decision making capabilities. Rapidly fusing and displaying multiple types of weather and ocean observations, imagery, and environmental data with geospatial data to create an integrated source of information for end users such as emergency managers and planners will deliver innovative solutions to improve disaster warning, mitigate disaster impacts, and reduce the loss of life and property. We present analysis of alternatives of combinations of sensor platforms that integrate space and airborne systems with ground and ocean observing sensors and form the basis for vertically integrated global observing systems with the capacity to improve measurements associated with hazard and climate-related uncertainties. The analyses include candidate sensors deployed on various configurations of satellites that include NPOESS, GOES R, and future configurations, augmented by UAS vehicles including Global Hawk, configured to deliver innovative environmental data collection capabilities over a range of environmental conditions, including severe hazards, such as hurricanes and extreme wildland fires. Resulting approaches are evaluated based on metrics that include their technical feasibility, capacity to be integrated with evolving Earth science models and relevant decision support tools, and life cycle costs.

  2. On the Implementation of a Land Cover Classification System for SAR Images Using Khoros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina Revera, Edwin J.; Espinosa, Ramon Vasquez

    1997-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensor is widely used to record data about the ground under all atmospheric conditions. The SAR acquired images have very good resolution which necessitates the development of a classification system that process the SAR images to extract useful information for different applications. In this work, a complete system for the land cover classification was designed and programmed using the Khoros, a data flow visual language environment, taking full advantages of the polymorphic data services that it provides. Image analysis was applied to SAR images to improve and automate the processes of recognition and classification of the different regions like mountains and lakes. Both unsupervised and supervised classification utilities were used. The unsupervised classification routines included the use of several Classification/Clustering algorithms like the K-means, ISO2, Weighted Minimum Distance, and the Localized Receptive Field (LRF) training/classifier. Different texture analysis approaches such as Invariant Moments, Fractal Dimension and Second Order statistics were implemented for supervised classification of the images. The results and conclusions for SAR image classification using the various unsupervised and supervised procedures are presented based on their accuracy and performance.

  3. Application of Interactive Classification System in University Study Course Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birzniece, Ilze; Rudzajs, Peteris; Kalibatiene, Diana; Vasilecas, Olegas; Rencis, Edgars

    2015-01-01

    The growing amount of information in the world has increased the need for computerized classification of different objects. This situation is present in higher education as well where the possibility of effortless detection of similarity between different study courses would give the opportunity to organize student exchange programmes effectively…

  4. Near Earth Asteroids: A Classification System According to Their Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, R. D.; Rocca, M.; Rabassa, J.; Ponce, J. F.; Stinco, S.

    2012-09-01

    A new way to classify Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) according to their shapes is proposed. This classification is based on the asteroid roundness and sphericity in the same way that it is used in geological sciences to describe clasts in mechanical sedimentary rocks.

  5. Classification System for English Language Learners: Issues and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal

    2008-01-01

    High-stakes decisions for the instruction and assessment of English language learner (ELL) students are made based on the premise that ELL classification is a valid dichotomy that distinguishes between those who are proficient in the use of the English language and those who are not. However, recent research findings draw a vague picture of the…

  6. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and ... a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. During the ...

  7. Cork quality classification system using a unified image processing and fuzzy-neural network methodology.

    PubMed

    Chang, J; Han, G; Valverde, J M; Griswold, N C; Duque-Carrillo, J F; Sanchez-Sinencio, E

    1997-01-01

    Cork is a natural material produced in the Mediterranean countries. Cork stoppers are used to seal wine bottles, Cork stopper quality classification is a practical pattern classification problem. The cork stoppers are grouped into eight classes according to the degree of defects on the cork surface. These defects appear in the form of random-shaped holes, cracks, and others. As a result, the classification cork stopper is not a simple object recognition problem. This is because the pattern features are not specifically defined to a particular shape or size. Thus, a complex classification form is involved, Furthermore, there is a need to build a standard quality control system in order to reduce the classification problems in the cork stopper industry. The solution requires factory automation meeting low time and reduced cost requirements. This paper describes a cork stopper quality classification system using morphological filtering and contour extraction and following (CEF) as the feature extraction method, and a fuzzy-neural network as a classifier. This approach will be used on a daily basis. A new adaptive image thresholding method using iterative and localized scheme is also proposed, A fully functioning prototype of the system has been built and successfully tested. The test results showed a 6.7% rejection ratio, It is compared with the 40% counterpart provided by traditional systems. The human experts in the cork stopper industry rated this proposed classification approach as excellent.

  8. a Gsa-Svm Hybrid System for Classification of Binary Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarafrazi, Soroor; Nezamabadi-pour, Hossein; Barahman, Mojgan

    2011-06-01

    This paperhybridizesgravitational search algorithm (GSA) with support vector machine (SVM) and made a novel GSA-SVM hybrid system to improve the classification accuracy in binary problems. GSA is an optimization heuristic toolused to optimize the value of SVM kernel parameter (in this paper, radial basis function (RBF) is chosen as the kernel function). The experimental results show that this newapproach can achieve high classification accuracy and is comparable to or better than the particle swarm optimization (PSO)-SVM and genetic algorithm (GA)-SVM, which are two hybrid systems for classification.

  9. Utility of a Work Process Classification System for characterizing non-fatal injuries in the Alaskan commercial fishing industry

    PubMed Central

    Syron, Laura N.; Lucas, Devin L.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Bethel, Jeffrey W.; Kincl, Laurel D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The US commercial fishing industry is hazardous, as measured by mortality data. However, research on non-fatal injuries is limited. Non-fatal injuries constitute the majority of occupational injuries and can result in workers’ lowered productivity and wages, lost quality of life, and disability. In the United States, a Work Process Classification System (WPCS) has previously been applied in Alaskan freezer-trawl and freezer-longline fleets to identify causes of injuries and specific hazards, but not to other fishing fleets. Objectives This descriptive epidemiologic study aimed to explore the application and modification of the WPCS in multiple Alaskan fleets, characterize non-fatal occupational injuries in these fleets, and identify work processes that could be targeted for further investigation and future injury prevention efforts. Design Traumatic, non-fatal injuries on-board Alaskan commercial fishing vessels were identified through United States Coast Guard investigative reports. Characteristics of injuries, as well as worker characteristics, were analysed. Injuries were coded using the WPCS. Results We successfully utilized the WPCS to code non-fatal injury cases (n = 136). The most frequent main work processes associated with non-fatal injuries included: on-board trawlers, handling frozen fish and processing the catch; on-board vessels using pot/trap gear, handling the gear and shooting/setting the gear; on-board longliners, traffic on board and hauling the gear; and on-board processor vessels, processing the catch, other work with the catch, and handling frozen fish. Conclusions The study confirmed that a WPCS can be applied to multiple Alaskan fleets to identify hazardous tasks. Hazards were unique for each vessel gear type. Future injury prevention efforts should target work processes associated with the most frequent and most severe injuries. Future studies should establish time estimates for work processes in order to determine risk

  10. A systematic literature review of automated clinical coding and classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Margaret; Fenton, Susan H; Jenders, Robert A; Hersh, William R

    2010-01-01

    Clinical coding and classification processes transform natural language descriptions in clinical text into data that can subsequently be used for clinical care, research, and other purposes. This systematic literature review examined studies that evaluated all types of automated coding and classification systems to determine the performance of such systems. Studies indexed in Medline or other relevant databases prior to March 2009 were considered. The 113 studies included in this review show that automated tools exist for a variety of coding and classification purposes, focus on various healthcare specialties, and handle a wide variety of clinical document types. Automated coding and classification systems themselves are not generalizable, nor are the results of the studies evaluating them. Published research shows these systems hold promise, but these data must be considered in context, with performance relative to the complexity of the task and the desired outcome. PMID:20962126

  11. Proposal for a Unified Classification System of Shock Metamorphosed Planetary Silicate Rocks — Call for Comments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöffler, D.; Metzler, K.

    2016-08-01

    A new classification system for progressive shock metamorphism of planetary silicate rocks is proposed. It is based exclusively on rock types and the shock effects of their mineral constituents independently of their source planets or planetoids.

  12. 29 CFR 1915.506 - Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.506 Hazards of fixed... must retest the atmosphere in accordance with § 1915.12 to ensure that the oxygen levels are safe for... extinguishing systems for fire protection. If fixed manual extinguishing systems are used to provide...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.506 - Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.506 Hazards of fixed... must retest the atmosphere in accordance with § 1915.12 to ensure that the oxygen levels are safe for... extinguishing systems for fire protection. If fixed manual extinguishing systems are used to provide...

  14. Global early warning systems for natural hazards: systematic and people-centred.

    PubMed

    Basher, Reid

    2006-08-15

    To be effective, early warning systems for natural hazards need to have not only a sound scientific and technical basis, but also a strong focus on the people exposed to risk, and with a systems approach that incorporates all of the relevant factors in that risk, whether arising from the natural hazards or social vulnerabilities, and from short-term or long-term processes. Disasters are increasing in number and severity and international institutional frameworks to reduce disasters are being strengthened under United Nations oversight. Since the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, there has been a surge of interest in developing early warning systems to cater to the needs of all countries and all hazards. PMID:16844654

  15. Paramecium tetraurelia pre-screen for hazardous chemicals: a rapid detector system for health hazards. 1977-1983 report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose was to develop and validate a new eukaryotic bioassay system applicable to rapid identification of environmental toxins, mutagens, and carcinogens. The ability of Paramecium to detect potential health hazards, associated with complex environmental mixtures, was demonstrated in association with the finest coal fly ash particles and aqueous waste streams from both oil shale and coal gasification developing technologies. In Paramecium, the cytotoxicity of an agent was determined by altering the survival and/or growth rate of single cells in test agents. Genotoxicity was assayed by a two-tiered approach, utilizing both the Paramecium system and the more established Ames Salmonella assay for mutagen/carcinogen detection. An agent was considered genotoxic in Paramwecium if altered phenotypes were induced in the fertilization progeny of treated parent cells. Since others had shown a significant correlation between agents which were photodynamically active in Paramecium and carcinogenic in mammals, the photodynamic activity versus carcinogenicity of agents was reviewed. Photodynamically active compounds are defined by the immobilization of cells when exposed to both the test agent and black light; neither the agent alone nor light alone affects swimming activity.

  16. 5 CFR 9901.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to NSPS classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... initially are converted to a classification system established under this subpart. (See § 9901.371 for... functional units may convert from the GS system, the SL/ST system, the SES system, or such other DoD systems... terms “convert,” “converted,” “converting,” and “conversion” refer to positions and employees...

  17. A classification of large amplitude oscillations of a spring-pendulum system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R.

    1977-01-01

    We present a detailed classification of large amplitude oscillations of a non-integrable autonomous system with two degrees of freedom: the spring pendulum system. The classification is made with the method of invariant curves. The results show the importance of three types of motion: periodic, quasi-periodic and semi-ergodic. The numerical results are given for nine different values of the energy constant.

  18. HZI systems for EEG parametrization and classification of psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Shapiro, D M; Herrmann, W M; Schulz, W; Morgan, V

    1979-01-01

    The EEG effects of twenty, clinically most frequently used psychotropic drugs and five placebos were studied in 75 male volunteers in five simultaneously designed basic studies. In each of the five studies single oral dosages of five drugs (well known representatives of neuroleptics, antidepressants, anxiolytics and psychostimulants, as well as placebos) were investigated in 15 subjects in a double-blind latin-square research design using the methods of the Quantitative Pharmaco-EEG. The results demonstrated that the therapeutically equivalent effective compounds also have similar effects on human EEG. With a classification rule, based on discriminant function 20, and with a classification rule, based on correlation statistics 19 of 25 compounds could be reclassified into correct clinical-therapeutic psychotropic drug groups. It is suggested that CEEG is an important tool in predicting and describing psychotropic properties of compounds, and should routinely be used in psychotropic drug development. PMID:419164

  19. Worker hazards associated with the use of grain vacuum systems.

    PubMed

    Field, W E; Heber, D J; Riedel, S M; Wettschurack, S W; Roberts, M J; Grafft, L J

    2014-07-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been more widespread use of pneumatic handling of grain at commercial grain storage facilities and on farms as these operations have increased grain storage capacity and handle larger volumes of grain and feed In some cases, manufacturers have suggested that the use of these systems is a safer alternative to removing residual grain manually in conjunction with the use of sweep augers. The use of grain vacuum systems has also been increasingly documented as a strategy in responding to grain storage fires and human entrapment and engulfment in flowing grain. With greater utilization of these machines have come reports of entrapments and engulfments. This article summarizes 27 such documented incidents, including 21 fatalities, that resulted from the use of portable grain vacuum systems. It includes specific recommendations for engineering, educational, and regulatory strategies to reduce the risks associated with the use of these systems.

  20. Natural fracture systems on planetary surfaces: Genetic classification and pattern randomness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossbacher, Lisa A.

    1987-01-01

    One method for classifying natural fracture systems is by fracture genesis. This approach involves the physics of the formation process, and it has been used most frequently in attempts to predict subsurface fractures and petroleum reservoir productivity. This classification system can also be applied to larger fracture systems on any planetary surface. One problem in applying this classification system to planetary surfaces is that it was developed for ralatively small-scale fractures that would influence porosity, particularly as observed in a core sample. Planetary studies also require consideration of large-scale fractures. Nevertheless, this system offers some valuable perspectives on fracture systems of any size.

  1. Usability Evaluation of a Flight-Deck Airflow Hazard Visualization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    2004-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with unseen airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices, downdrafts, low level wind shear, microbursts, or turbulence from surrounding vegetation or structures near the landing site. These hazards can be dangerous even to airliners; there have been hundreds of fatalities in the United States in the last two decades attributable to airliner encounters with microbursts and low level wind shear alone. However, helicopters are especially vulnerable to airflow hazards because they often have to operate in confined spaces and under operationally stressful conditions (such as emergency search and rescue, military or shipboard operations). Providing helicopter pilots with an augmented-reality display visualizing local airflow hazards may be of significant benefit. However, the form such a visualization might take, and whether it does indeed provide a benefit, had not been studied before our experiment. We recruited experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots for a preliminary usability study to evaluate a prototype augmented-reality visualization system. The study had two goals: first, to assess the efficacy of presenting airflow data in flight; and second, to obtain expert feedback on sample presentations of hazard indicators to refine our design choices. The study addressed the optimal way to provide critical safety information to the pilot, what level of detail to provide, whether to display specific aerodynamic causes or potential effects only, and how to safely and effectively shift the locus of attention during a high-workload task. Three-dimensional visual cues, with varying shape, color, transparency, texture, depth cueing, and use of motion, depicting regions of hazardous airflow, were developed and presented to the pilots. The study results indicated that such a visualization system could be of significant value in improving safety during critical takeoff and landing operations, and also

  2. Information System Hazard Analysis: A Method for Identifying Technology-induced Latent Errors for Safety.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jens H; Mason-Blakley, Fieran; Price, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Many health information and communication technologies (ICT) are safety-critical; moreover, reports of technology-induced adverse events related to them are plentiful in the literature. Despite repeated criticism and calls to action, recent data collected by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and other organization do not indicate significant improvements with respect to the safety of health ICT systems. A large part of the industry still operates on a reactive "break & patch" model; the application of pro-active, systematic hazard analysis methods for engineering ICT that produce "safe by design" products is sparse. This paper applies one such method: Information System Hazard Analysis (ISHA). ISHA adapts and combines hazard analysis techniques from other safety-critical domains and customizes them for ICT. We provide an overview of the steps involved in ISHA and describe. PMID:25676999

  3. Rainfall Hazards Prevention based on a Local Model Forecasting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buendia, F.; Ojeda, B.; Buendia Moya, G.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.

    2009-04-01

    Rainfall is one of the most important events of human life and society. Some rainfall phenomena like floods or hailstone are a threat to the agriculture, business and even life. However in the meteorological observatories there are methods to detect and alarm about this kind of events, nowadays the prediction techniques based on synoptic measurements need to be improved to achieve medium term feasible forecasts. Any deviation in the measurements or in the model description makes the forecast to diverge in time from the real atmosphere evolution. In this paper the advances in a local rainfall forecasting system based on time series estimation with General Regression Neural Networks are presented. The system is introduced, explaining the measurements, methodology and the current state of the development. The aim of the work is to provide a complementary criteria to the current forecast systems, based on the daily atmosphere observation and tracking over a certain place.

  4. Accurate crop classification using hierarchical genetic fuzzy rule-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaloglou, Charalampos A.; Mylonas, Stelios K.; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris G.; Mastorocostas, Paris A.; Theocharis, John B.

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of an advanced classification system for accurate crop classification using very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery. Specifically, a recently proposed genetic fuzzy rule-based classification system (GFRBCS) is employed, namely, the Hierarchical Rule-based Linguistic Classifier (HiRLiC). HiRLiC's model comprises a small set of simple IF-THEN fuzzy rules, easily interpretable by humans. One of its most important attributes is that its learning algorithm requires minimum user interaction, since the most important learning parameters affecting the classification accuracy are determined by the learning algorithm automatically. HiRLiC is applied in a challenging crop classification task, using a SPOT5 satellite image over an intensively cultivated area in a lake-wetland ecosystem in northern Greece. A rich set of higher-order spectral and textural features is derived from the initial bands of the (pan-sharpened) image, resulting in an input space comprising 119 features. The experimental analysis proves that HiRLiC compares favorably to other interpretable classifiers of the literature, both in terms of structural complexity and classification accuracy. Its testing accuracy was very close to that obtained by complex state-of-the-art classification systems, such as the support vector machines (SVM) and random forest (RF) classifiers. Nevertheless, visual inspection of the derived classification maps shows that HiRLiC is characterized by higher generalization properties, providing more homogeneous classifications that the competitors. Moreover, the runtime requirements for producing the thematic map was orders of magnitude lower than the respective for the competitors.

  5. Application of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to ground subsidence hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Inhye; Choi, Jaewon; Jin Lee, Moung; Lee, Saro

    2012-11-01

    We constructed hazard maps of ground subsidence around abandoned underground coal mines (AUCMs) in Samcheok City, Korea, using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and a geographical information system (GIS). To evaluate the factors related to ground subsidence, a spatial database was constructed from topographic, geologic, mine tunnel, land use, and ground subsidence maps. An attribute database was also constructed from field investigations and reports on existing ground subsidence areas at the study site. Five major factors causing ground subsidence were extracted: (1) depth of drift; (2) distance from drift; (3) slope gradient; (4) geology; and (5) land use. The adaptive ANFIS model with different types of membership functions (MFs) was then applied for ground subsidence hazard mapping in the study area. Two ground subsidence hazard maps were prepared using the different MFs. Finally, the resulting ground subsidence hazard maps were validated using the ground subsidence test data which were not used for training the ANFIS. The validation results showed 95.12% accuracy using the generalized bell-shaped MF model and 94.94% accuracy using the Sigmoidal2 MF model. These accuracy results show that an ANFIS can be an effective tool in ground subsidence hazard mapping. Analysis of ground subsidence with the ANFIS model suggests that quantitative analysis of ground subsidence near AUCMs is possible.

  6. The RiskScape System - a tool for quantitative multi-risk analysis for natural hazards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J.; Reese, S.; Matcham, I.; King, A.; Bell, R.

    2009-04-01

    This paper introduces a generic framework for multi-risk modelling developed in the project ‘Regional RiskScape' at the Research Organization GNS Science and the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd. (NIWA) in New Zealand. Our goal was to develop a generic technology for modelling risks from multiple natural hazards and for multiple risk elements. The framework is independent on the specific nature of the individual hazard and individual risk element. A software prototype has been developed which is capable of ‘plugging in' various natural hazards and risk elements without reconfiguring / adapting the generic software framework. To achieve that goal we developed a set of standards for treating the fundamental components of a risk model: hazards, assets (risk elements), and vulnerability models (or fragility functions). Thus, the developed prototype system is able to understand any hazard, asset, or fragility model which is provided to the system according to that standard. We tested the software prototype for modelling earthquake, volcanic, flood, wind, and tsunami risks for urban centres in New Zealand.

  7. ESTUARINE HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN THE PENSACOLA BAY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    ersonnel from the Gulf Ecology Division have conducted a multiyear evaluation of the environmental condition of areas in the Pensacola Bay System affected by point and nonpoint contamination. Areas of study included coastal rivers, residential canals, bayous and bays impacted by ...

  8. Multiple Chaos Synchronization System for Power Quality Classification in a Power System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cong-Hui; Lin, Chia-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes multiple chaos synchronization (CS) systems for power quality (PQ) disturbances classification in a power system. Chen-Lee based CS systems use multiple detectors to track the dynamic errors between the normal signal and the disturbance signal, including power harmonics, voltage fluctuation phenomena, and voltage interruptions. Multiple detectors are used to monitor the dynamic errors between the master system and the slave system and are used to construct the feature patterns from time-domain signals. The maximum likelihood method (MLM), as a classifier, performs a comparison of the patterns of the features in the database. The proposed method can adapt itself without the need for adjustment of parameters or iterative computation. For a sample power system, the test results showed accurate discrimination, good robustness, and faster processing time for the detection of PQ disturbances. PMID:24764771

  9. A Hazardous Gas Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L. - Y.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Knight, D.

    1998-01-01

    The detection of explosive conditions in aerospace propulsion applications is important for safety and economic reasons. Microfabricated hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon sensors as well as the accompanying hardware and software are being developed for a range of aerospace safety applications. The development of these sensors is being done using MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) based technology and SiC-based semiconductor technology. The hardware and software allows control and interrogation of each sensor head and reduces accompanying cabling through multiplexing. These systems are being applied on the X-33 and on an upcoming STS-95 Shuttle mission. A number of commercial applications are also being pursued. It is concluded that this MEMS-based technology has significant potential to reduce costs and increase safety in a variety of aerospace applications.

  10. A Hazardous Gas Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Knight, D.

    1998-01-01

    The detection of explosive conditions in aerospace propulsion applications is important for safety and economic reasons. Microfabricated hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon sensors as well as the accompanying hardware and software are being, developed for a range of aerospace safety applications. The development of these sensors is being done using MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) based technology and SiC-based semiconductor technology. The hardware and software allows control and interrocation of each sensor head and reduces accompanying cabling through multiplexing. These systems are being, applied on the X-33 and on an upcoming STS-95 Shuttle mission. A number of commercial applications are also being pursued. It is concluded that this MEMS-based technology has significant potential to reduce costs and increase safety in a variety of aerospace applications.

  11. Are 1974-1975 automotive belt systems hazardous to children?

    PubMed

    Snyder, R G; O'Neill, B

    1975-08-01

    The 1974 and early-1975 model automobiles are equipped with belt interlock systems that require front outboard seat occupants who weigh more than 21.5 kg (47.3 lb) to wear threepoint lap and diagonal upper-torso belts (or wear the lap belt and position upper-torso belt behind them), assuming that the interlock has not been circumvented. Recent legislation has eliminated the interlock requirement, but new models are still likely to be fitted with three-point restraints for the front outboard seating positions. These restraint systems were designed and tested for adult use. Thus, based on the different structure of a younger child and the fact that there is a wide variation of belt orientation, child size, and seating environments, there is legitimate concern that the upper diagonal belt might contribute to injury of the child under certain impact conditions. PMID:1163506

  12. [Development of modern classification systems and their effects on forensic psychiatric expert assessment].

    PubMed

    Krupinski, M

    1994-12-01

    The world-wide use of modern classification systems such as DSM-III and ICD-10 forces forensic psychiatry to examine the basic concepts of these systems, if the gap already existing between clinical and forensic psychiatry is not to widen. On the one hand concentrating on the historical development of these systems this article shows their limited value in forensic psychiatry. On the other hand a possible way of arriving at more empirically based forensic expert opinions with the help of these classification systems is discussed. The concept of comorbidity of these new systems is given special attention in this connection.

  13. Addressing aquatic hazard classification for metals, metal compounds and alloys in marine systems.

    PubMed

    Huntsman-Mapila, P; Skeaff, J M; Pawlak, M; Beaudoin, R

    2016-08-15

    New International Maritime Organization regulations require shippers to classify all solid bulk cargo to indicate whether they are Harmful to the Marine Environment (HME). The objective of this work was to adapt the freshwater Transformation/Dissolution Protocol (T/DP) to marine water to provide a method to determine, when compared with marine Ecotoxicity Reference Values (ERVs), whether a metal-bearing substance is HME. The substances examined were: Cu2O powder; Ni metal powder; Co3O4 powder; and a Ni-Co-Fe alloy, as wire cuttings, which were the same substances examined in the freshwater T/D validation study and afforded comparisons of the reactivity, or measure of the rate and extent of metal release from the metal-bearing substances in freshwater versus marine conditions. The marine T/D method is suitable for conducting examinations of metal-bearing substances with a wide range of reactivities, from the relatively reactive Cu2O powder and the alloy to the Co3O4 powder, which was the least reactive.

  14. Exupery volcano fast response system - The event detection and waveform classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Conny; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions are often preceded by seismic activity which can be used to quantify the volcanic activity since the number and the size of certain types of seismic events usually increase before periods of volcanic crisis. The implementation of an automatic detection and classification system for seismic signals of volcanic origin allows not only for the processing of large amounts of data in short time, but also provides consistent and time-invariant results. Here, we have developed a system based upon a combination of different methods. To enable a first robust event detection in the continuous data stream different modules are implemented in the real time system Earthworm which is widely distributed in active volcano monitoring observatories worldwide. Among those software modules are classical trigger algorithm like STA/LTA and cross-correlation master event matching which is also used to detect different classes of signals. Furthermore an additional module is implemented in the real time system to compute continuous activity parameters which are also used to quantify the volcanic activity. Most automatic classification systems need a sufficiently large pre-classified data set for training the system. However in case of a volcanic crisis we are often confronted with a lack of training data due to insufficient prior observations because prior data acquisition might be carried out with different equipment at a low number of sites and due to the imminent crisis there might be no time for the time-consuming and tedious process of preparing a training data set. For this reason we have developed a novel seismic event spotting technique in order to be less dependent on the existence of previously acquired data bases of event classes. One main goal is therefore to provide observatory staff with a robust event classification based on a minimum number of reference waveforms. By using a "learning-while-recording" approach we are allowing for the fast build-up of a

  15. Comparing the health and environmental hazards of different energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Energy and environment can pose difficult challenges for policy makers and scientists. Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with quite different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Risk-assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Coal and nuclear fuel cycles are compared in respect to morbidity and mortality. Other cycles (oil, gas and renewables) are also examined. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing devices as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input-output methods. Input-output analysis allows comparisons of direct and system-wide impacts. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be explicitly recognized in the results, including uncertainty in validity of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. By use of several methods progress has been made in understanding the relative impact of energy technologies.

  16. 29 CFR 1915.506 - Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections. 1915.506 Section 1915.506 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.506 - Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.506 Hazards of fixed... operational. (d) Doors and hatches. The employer must: (1) Take protective measures to ensure that all doors... systems are activated; and (2) Ensure that all inward opening doors, hatches, scuttles, and...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.506 - Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.506 Hazards of fixed... operational. (d) Doors and hatches. The employer must: (1) Take protective measures to ensure that all doors... systems are activated; and (2) Ensure that all inward opening doors, hatches, scuttles, and...

  19. Computer-based neuro-vision system for color classification of french fries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Suranjan; Wiesenborn, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    French fries are one of the frozen foods with rising demands in domestic and international markets. Color is one of the critical attributes for quality evaluation of french fries. This study discusses the development of a color computer vision system and the integration of neural network technology for objective color evaluation and classification of french fries. The classification accuracy of a prototype back-propagation network developed for this purpose was found to be 96%.

  20. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR THE FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM - ESF PACKAGE 1E

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    1995-04-12

    The purpose of the fire hazards analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in accordance with US. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7h (Reference 4.4.7.4). This document will assess the fire hazard risk within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) fuel supply system, Package 1E, and evaluate whether the following objectives are met: (1) Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils do not exceed an acceptable level. (2) Provide input to the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR).

  1. Hazard baseline documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This DOE limited technical standard establishes uniform Office of Environmental Management (EM) guidance on hazards baseline documents that identify and control radiological and nonradiological hazards for all EM facilities. It provides a road map to the safety and health hazard identification and control requirements contained in the Department`s orders and provides EM guidance on the applicability and integration of these requirements. This includes a definition of four classes of facilities (nuclear, non-nuclear, radiological, and other industrial); the thresholds for facility hazard classification; and applicable safety and health hazard identification, controls, and documentation. The standard applies to the classification, development, review, and approval of hazard identification and control documentation for EM facilities.

  2. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  3. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification. PMID:27036822

  4. Biennial reporting system (BRS) data: Generation and management of hazardous waste, 1997 final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The product contains data compiled by the Biennial Reporting System (BRS) for the ``National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Report (Based on 1997 data).'' The data were collected by states using the ``1997 National Hazardous Waste Report Instructions and Forms'' (EPA Form 8700-13-A/B), or the state's equivalent information source. Data submitted by states prior to December 31, 1997 are included. Data for reports protected by RCRA Confidential Business Information (CBI) claims are not included. These data are preliminary and will be replaced by the final data. The data contain information describing the RCRA wastes generated and/or managed during 1997 by RCRA Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) and RCRA Large Quantity Generators (LQGs). Data are reported by sites meeting the LQG and/or TSDF definitions. Sites are identified by their EPA/RCRA identification number. Response codes match those of the ``1997 Hazardous Waste Report: Instructions and Forms'' (EPA Form 8700-13-A/B).

  5. Biennial Reporting System (BRS) data: Generation and management of hazardous waste, 1997 (preliminary)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-05-01

    The product contains data compiled by the Biennial Reporting System (BRS) for the National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Report (Based on 1997 data). The data were collected by states using the 1997 National Hazardous Waste Report Instructions and Forms (EPA Form 8700-13-A/B), or the state's equivalent information source. Data submitted by states prior to December 31, 1997 are included. Data for reports protected by RCRA Confidential Business Information (CBI) claims are not included. These data are preliminary and will be replaced by the final data. The data contain information describing the RCRA wastes generated and/or managed during 1997 by RCRA Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) and RCRA Large Quantity Generators (LQGs). Data are reported by sites meeting the LQG and/or TSDF definitions. Sites are identified by their EPA/RCRA identification number. Response codes match those of the 1997 Hazardous Waste Report: Instructions and Forms (EPA Form 8700-13-A/B).

  6. Comment: Toward a coordinated system for the surveillance of environmental health hazards.

    PubMed Central

    Hertz-Picciotto, I

    1996-01-01

    The rapid increases in the numbers and quantities of chemicals released into the environment have been accompanied by a lack of adequate prerelease testing for adverse health outcomes. Environmental health surveillance is used both to track changes in exposures that are known to have adverse health effects and to identify previously unrecognized hazards. Surveillance data can directly aid in the design of interventions to reduce the level of hazardous agents in the environment or the opportunities for human contact with them. Components of an ideal environmental health surveillance system are discussed. For well-recognized hazards, databases related to exposure alone are adequate. However, for uncovering previously unrecognized associations, linkage between exposure and outcome databases that are collected or aggregated at the same geographic scale and for regions of relatively homogeneous exposures are needed. PMID:8629713

  7. North Portal Fuel Storage System Fire Hazard Analysis-ESF Surface Design Package ID

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    1995-01-18

    The purpose of the fire hazard analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within the individual fire areas. This document will only assess the fire hazard analysis within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package ID, which includes the fuel storage system area of the North Portal facility, and evaluate whether the following objectives are met: 1.1.1--This analysis, performed in accordance with the requirements of this document, will satisfy the requirements for a fire hazard analysis in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A. 1.1.2--Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. 1.1.3--Provide input to the ESF Basis For Design (BFD) Document. 1.1.4 Provide input to the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (Paragraph 3.8).

  8. Phylogeny congruence analysis and isozyme classification: the pyruvate kinase system.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Fournier, P; Auclair, J C

    1989-09-22

    As the isozymes of pyruvate kinase (PK) are best known in rats, the characteristics of the rat isozymes are generally used to classify the PK isozymes in other species. Given the discrepancies generated by this classification by analogy, we evaluated a classification using a phylogeny congruence analysis of the compositional relatedness of vertebrate PK's. While our phylogenetic analysis confirmed the well established separation of the L and R isozymes from the K and M isozymes, its power became most evident in the identification of non-orthologous (or variant) forms of PK. Our analysis emphasized the uniqueness of chicken liver PK which cannot be classified either as a K or an L isozyme, confirmed that tumors express a variety of forms of PK, and indicated that lungs systematically express PK's which are not orthologous with PK's from other tissues. The determination of orthology by the phylogeny congruence analysis assumes that the structural data from different sources are subject to similar methodological error. However, we cannot reject the possibility that an apparent lack of orthology be due to artifacts during purification and analysis. PMID:2615396

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis system: a Bayesian hybrid classification method.

    PubMed

    Calle-Alonso, F; Pérez, C J; Arias-Nicolás, J P; Martín, J

    2013-10-01

    A novel method to classify multi-class biomedical objects is presented. The method is based on a hybrid approach which combines pairwise comparison, Bayesian regression and the k-nearest neighbor technique. It can be applied in a fully automatic way or in a relevance feedback framework. In the latter case, the information obtained from both an expert and the automatic classification is iteratively used to improve the results until a certain accuracy level is achieved, then, the learning process is finished and new classifications can be automatically performed. The method has been applied in two biomedical contexts by following the same cross-validation schemes as in the original studies. The first one refers to cancer diagnosis, leading to an accuracy of 77.35% versus 66.37%, originally obtained. The second one considers the diagnosis of pathologies of the vertebral column. The original method achieves accuracies ranging from 76.5% to 96.7%, and from 82.3% to 97.1% in two different cross-validation schemes. Even with no supervision, the proposed method reaches 96.71% and 97.32% in these two cases. By using a supervised framework the achieved accuracy is 97.74%. Furthermore, all abnormal cases were correctly classified.

  10. A Behavior Classification System for Counselors: A New Look at Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Charles J.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that counselors develop a classsification system of human behavior that is comprehensive, descriptive, developmental, and compatible with a variety of theoretical backgrounds rather than accept the negative classification system of psychiatry. The system recognizes the role of learning and development in maladaptive behavior. (JAC)

  11. A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, James R.; Hardy, Ernest E.; Roach, John T.; Witmer, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    The framework of a national land use and land cover classification system is presented for use with remote sensor data. The classification system has been developed to meet the needs of Federal and State agencies for an up-to-date overview of land use and land cover throughout the country on a basis that is uniform in categorization at the more generalized first and second levels and that will be receptive to data from satellite and aircraft remote sensors. The proposed system uses the features of existing widely used classification systems that are amenable to data derived from remote sensing sources. It is intentionally left open-ended so that Federal, regional, State, and local agencies can have flexibility in developing more detailed land use classifications at the third and fourth levels in order to meet their particular needs and at the same time remain compatible with each other and the national system. Revision of the land use classification system as presented in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 671 was undertaken in order to incorporate the results of extensive testing and review of the categorization and definitions.

  12. Laser Safety and Hazard Analysis for the Trailer (B70) Based AURA Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    AUGUSTONI, ARNOLD L.

    2003-01-01

    A laser safety and hazard analysis was performed for the AURA laser system based on the 2000 version of the American National Standards Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for ''Safe Use of Lasers'' and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for ''Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors''. The trailer based AURA laser system is a mobile platform, which is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The trailer (B70) based AURA laser system is generally operated on the United State Air Force Starfire Optical Range (SOR) at Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB), New Mexico. The laser is used to perform laser interaction testing inside the laser trailer as well as outside the trailer at target sites located at various distances from the exit telescope. In order to protect personnel, who work inside the Nominal Hazard Zone (NHZ), from hazardous laser emission exposures it was necessary to determine the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) for each laser wavelength (wavelength bands) and calculate the appropriate minimum Optical Density (OD{sub min}) of the laser safety eyewear used by authorized personnel and the Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD) to protect unauthorized personnel who may have violated the boundaries of the control area and enter into the laser's NHZ.

  13. Seismic Hazard Analysis of Aizawl, India with a Focus on Water System Fragilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belair, G. M.; Tran, A. J.; Dreger, D. S.; Rodgers, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    GeoHazards International (GHI) has partnered with the University of California, Berkeley in a joint Civil Engineering and Earth Science summer internship program to investigate geologic hazards. This year the focus was on Aizawl, the capital of India's Mizoram state, situated on a ridge in the Burma Ranges. Nearby sources have the potential for large (M > 7) earthquakes that would be devastating to the approximately 300,000 people living in the city. Earthquake induced landslides also threaten the population as well as the city's lifelines. Fieldwork conducted in June 2015 identified hazards to vital water system components. The focus of this abstract is a review of the seismic hazards that affect Aizawl, with special attention paid to water system locations. To motivate action to reduce risk, GHI created an earthquake scenario describing effects of a M7 right-lateral strike-slip intraplate earthquake occurring 30 km below the city. We extended this analysis by exploring additional mapped faults as well as hypothetical blind reverse faults in terms of PGA, PGV, and PSA. Ground motions with hanging wall and directivity effects were also examined. Several attenuation relationships were used in order to assess the uncertainty in the ground motion parameters. Results were used to determine the likely seismic performance of water system components, and will be applied in future PSHA studies.

  14. Toxin-antitoxin Systems: Classification, Biological Function and Application in Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Ghafourian, Sobhan; Raftari, Mohammad; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2014-01-01

    The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are systems in which an unstable antitoxin inhibits a stable toxin. This review aims to introduce the TA system and its biological application in bacteria. For this purpose, first we introduce a new classification for the TA systems based on how the antitoxin can neutralize the toxin, we then describe the functions of TA systems and finally review the application of these systems in biotechnology.

  15. It is time to bring borderline intellectual functioning back into the main fold of classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, Jannelien; Zitman, Frans G.

    2016-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning is an important and frequently unrecognised comorbid condition relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of any and all psychiatric disorders. In the DSM-IV-TR, it is defined by IQ in the 71–84 range. In DSM-5, IQ boundaries are no longer part of the classification, leaving the concept without a clear definition. This modification is one of the least highlighted changes in DSM-5. In this article we describe the history of the classification of borderline intellectual functioning. We provide information about it and on the importance of placing it in the right context and in the right place in future DSM editions and other classification systems such as the International Classification of Diseases. PMID:27512590

  16. Simulation of a Doppler lidar system for autonomous navigation and hazard avoidance during planetary landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budge, Scott E.; Chester, David B.

    2016-05-01

    The latest mission proposals for exploration of solar system bodies require accurate position and velocity data during the descent phase in order to ensure safe, soft landing at the pre-designated sites. During landing maneuvers, the accuracy of the on-board inertial measurement unit (IMU) may not be reliable due to drift over extended travel times to destinations. NASA has proposed an advanced Doppler lidar system with multiple beams that can be used to accurately determine attitude and position of the landing vehicle during descent, and to detect hazards that might exist in the landing area. In order to assess the effectiveness of such a Doppler lidar landing system, it is valuable to simulate the system with different beam numbers and configurations. In addition, the effectiveness of the system to detect and map potential landing hazards must be understood. This paper reports the simulated system performance for a proposed multi-beam Doppler lidar using the LadarSIM system simulation software. Details of the simulation methods are given, as well as lidar performance parameters such as range and velocity accuracy, detection and false alarm rates, and examples of the Doppler lidars ability to detect and characterize simulated hazards in the landing site. The simulation includes modulated pulse generation and coherent detection methods, beam footprint simulation, beam scanning, and interaction with terrain.

  17. Colorimetric detection of hazardous gases using a remotely operated capturing and processing system.

    PubMed

    Montes-Robles, Roberto; Moragues, María Esperanza; Vivancos, José-Luis; Ibáñez, Javier; Fraile, Rubén; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; García-Breijo, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an electronic system for the automatic detection of hazardous gases. The proposed system implements colorimetric sensing algorithms, thus providing a low-cost solution to the problem of gas sensing. It is remotely operated and it performs the tasks of image capturing and processing, hence obtaining colour measurements in RGB (Red-Green-Blue) space that are subsequently sent to a remote operator via the internet. A prototype of the system has been built to test its performance. Specifically, experiments have been carried out aimed at the detection of CO, CO2, NO, NO2, SO2 and formaldehyde at diverse concentrations by using a chromogenic array composed by 13 active and 2 inert compounds. Statistical analyses of the results reveal a good performance of the electronic system and the feasibility of remote hazardous gas detection using colorimetric sensor arrays.

  18. Development of an Intelligent Hypertext Manual for the Space Shuttle Hazardous Gas Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Shi, George Z.; Overbey, Glenn; Bangasser, Carl; Cegielski, Eric

    1992-01-01

    The Intelligent Hypertext Manual (IHM) for the Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) of the Space Shuttle is described as an example of an integrated knowledge system. The IHM is described in terms of its design as a system for facilitating the interpretation of real-time data regarding hazardous gases and their successful and timely detection. Hypermedia technology is employed that incorporates text, video, and sound, and the architecture of the IHM integrated knowledge system is based on knowledge elements, a basic user interface, and integrated application software. Knowledge organization enhances the retrieval of documents for launch commit criteria, operations and maintenance requirements, flight-measurement location, and hypermedia incorporation. The integration of computer and AI technologies for the HGDS IHM demonstrates the potential for enhancing efficiency in aerospace operations with aerospace data that are easy to retrieve.

  19. Colorimetric detection of hazardous gases using a remotely operated capturing and processing system.

    PubMed

    Montes-Robles, Roberto; Moragues, María Esperanza; Vivancos, José-Luis; Ibáñez, Javier; Fraile, Rubén; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; García-Breijo, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an electronic system for the automatic detection of hazardous gases. The proposed system implements colorimetric sensing algorithms, thus providing a low-cost solution to the problem of gas sensing. It is remotely operated and it performs the tasks of image capturing and processing, hence obtaining colour measurements in RGB (Red-Green-Blue) space that are subsequently sent to a remote operator via the internet. A prototype of the system has been built to test its performance. Specifically, experiments have been carried out aimed at the detection of CO, CO2, NO, NO2, SO2 and formaldehyde at diverse concentrations by using a chromogenic array composed by 13 active and 2 inert compounds. Statistical analyses of the results reveal a good performance of the electronic system and the feasibility of remote hazardous gas detection using colorimetric sensor arrays. PMID:26434416

  20. Extending and automating a Systems-Theoretic hazard analysis for requirements generation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John

    2012-05-01

    Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) is a powerful new hazard analysis method designed to go beyond traditional safety techniques - such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) - that overlook important causes of accidents like flawed requirements, dysfunctional component interactions, and software errors. While proving to be very effective on real systems, no formal structure has been defined for STPA and its application has been ad-hoc with no rigorous procedures or model-based design tools. This report defines a formal mathematical structure underlying STPA and describes a procedure for systematically performing an STPA analysis based on that structure. A method for using the results of the hazard analysis to generate formal safety-critical, model-based system and software requirements is also presented. Techniques to automate both the analysis and the requirements generation are introduced, as well as a method to detect conflicts between the safety and other functional model-based requirements during early development of the system.

  1. An approach for classification of hydrogeological systems at the regional scale based on groundwater hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaf, Ezra; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    When assessing hydrogeological conditions at the regional scale, the analyst is often confronted with uncertainty of structures, inputs and processes while having to base inference on scarce and patchy data. Haaf and Barthel (2015) proposed a concept for handling this predicament by developing a groundwater systems classification framework, where information is transferred from similar, but well-explored and better understood to poorly described systems. The concept is based on the central hypothesis that similar systems react similarly to the same inputs and vice versa. It is conceptually related to PUB (Prediction in ungauged basins) where organization of systems and processes by quantitative methods is intended and used to improve understanding and prediction. Furthermore, using the framework it is expected that regional conceptual and numerical models can be checked or enriched by ensemble generated data from neighborhood-based estimators. In a first step, groundwater hydrographs from a large dataset in Southern Germany are compared in an effort to identify structural similarity in groundwater dynamics. A number of approaches to group hydrographs, mostly based on a similarity measure - which have previously only been used in local-scale studies, can be found in the literature. These are tested alongside different global feature extraction techniques. The resulting classifications are then compared to a visual "expert assessment"-based classification which serves as a reference. A ranking of the classification methods is carried out and differences shown. Selected groups from the classifications are related to geological descriptors. Here we present the most promising results from a comparison of classifications based on series correlation, different series distances and series features, such as the coefficients of the discrete Fourier transform and the intrinsic mode functions of empirical mode decomposition. Additionally, we show examples of classes

  2. Cognitive-motivational deficits in ADHD: development of a classification system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rashmi; Kar, Bhoomika R; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2011-01-01

    The classification systems developed so far to detect attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not have high sensitivity and specificity. We have developed a classification system based on several neuropsychological tests that measure cognitive-motivational functions that are specifically impaired in ADHD children. A total of 240 (120 ADHD children and 120 healthy controls) children in the age range of 6-9 years and 32 Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) children (aged 9 years) participated in the study. Stop-Signal, Task-Switching, Attentional Network, and Choice Delay tests were administered to all the participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that percentage choice of long-delay reward best classified the ADHD children from healthy controls. Single parameters were not helpful in making a differential classification of ADHD with ODD. Multinominal logistic regression (MLR) was performed with multiple parameters (data fusion) that produced improved overall classification accuracy. A combination of stop-signal reaction time, posterror-slowing, mean delay, switch cost, and percentage choice of long-delay reward produced an overall classification accuracy of 97.8%; with internal validation, the overall accuracy was 92.2%. Combining parameters from different tests of control functions not only enabled us to accurately classify ADHD children from healthy controls but also in making a differential classification with ODD. These results have implications for the theories of ADHD.

  3. JANNAF 35th Combustion Subcommittee and 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting: Joint Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of 15 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 1998 meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1 998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include advanced ingredients and reaction kinetics in solid propellants and experimental diagnostic techniques.

  4. The health hazard assessment process in support of joint weapon system acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Kluchinsky, Timothy A; Jokel, Charles R; Cambre, John V; Goddard, Donald E; Batts, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Since 1981, the Army's HHA Program has provided an invaluable service to combat developers and materiel program managers by providing recommendations designed to eliminate or control health hazards associated with materiel and weapon systems. The program has consistently strived to improve its services by providing more meaningful and efficient assistance to the acquisition community. In the uncertain fiscal times ahead, the Army's HHA Program will continue to provide valuable and cost-effective solutions to mitigate the health risks of weapons systems.

  5. Application of SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) in Early Warning Systems for Tsunamis and other Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendholt, Matthias; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The DEWS (Distant Early Warning System) [1] project, funded under the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union, has the target to create a new generation of interoperable early warning systems. Two major objectives have steered the development process: usage of free and open source software (FOSS) and compliance to the principles of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The second objective was mainly driven by the superior ambition of the development of a generic early warning framework not only for tsunamis but also for other natural hazards. The development of a reference architecture enforced the clear separation between hazard-specific and generic functionality. Integration of sensor networks was realized with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) [2] Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) [3] services. Sensor types are relatively specific for different hazard types: while inundation sensors can be used both for tsunami and floodwater hazards, contamination meters requires a complete different semantic integration into the client application. Based on sensor measurements a simulation system supports the operator with forecasts to enable the dissemination of precise warning messages. The simulation integration was realized with the Web Processing Service (WPS) [4] but here again semantic integration is simulation specific and has to be realized inside the client application. In contrast the integration of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) via Web Mapping Service (WMS) [5] and Web Feature Service (WFS) [6] to complete the situation report is independent from any hazard type and depends on the data availability and requirements of each warning centre. The downstream component - the message dissemination from the operator via information logistics to the dissemination channel endpoints - has been realized independently from any specific hazard type. Using the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [7] and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) [8] enables the re-usage for all kind

  6. Astronomical aspects of building a system for detecting and monitoring hazardous space objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shustov, B. M.; Naroenkov, S. A.; Emel'yanenko, V. V.; Shugarov, A. S.

    2013-07-01

    In order to meet the practical priority of the mass detection of hazardous celestial bodies (HCBs) during the creation of a system to counteract space hazards (asteroids, comet hazards and space debris), we need clear technical requirements for the detection instruments designed (created). Specially targeted astronomical investigations into the basic properties of the HCB ensemble were conducted to specify such requirements (limitations). The paper presents these findings. As to asteroid and comet hazards, quantitative limitations on the HCB size (50 m) have been introduced and quantitative definitions of threatening and collisional HCB orbits have been proposed for the first time. It is shown that at a lead time of 30 days, it is necessary to detect HCBs at distances of about 1 AU, which corresponds to a telescope's resolving power of V ˜ 23 m . This entails the necessity to design wide-angle large-aperture telescopes. For detecting and monitoring space debris objects and meteoroids in the near-earth space at a time scale of about several days, faster instruments with smaller apertures but larger vision fields are efficient. An example is given of a basic design of a space-based system that takes into account the astronomical requirements discussed.

  7. Hazard Ranking System and toxicological risk assessment models yield different results

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghani, T.; Sells, G. . CER-CLA Site Assessment Div.)

    1993-09-01

    A major goal of the Superfund Site Assessment program is identifying hazardous waste sites that pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment. To accomplish this, EPA developed the Hazard Ranking System (HRS), a mathematical model used to assess the relative risks associated with actual or potential releases of hazardous wastes from a site. HRS is a scoring system based on factors grouped into three categories--likelihood of release, waste characteristics and targets. Values for the factor categories are multiplied, then normalized to 100 points to obtain a pathway score. Four pathways--groundwater, surface water, air migration and soil exposure--are evaluated and scored. The final HRS score is obtained by combining pathway scores using a root-mean-square method. HRS is intended to be a screening tool for measuring relative, rather than absolute, risk. The Superfund site assessment program usually requires at least two studies of a potential hazardous waste site before it is proposed for listing on the NPL. The initial study, or preliminary assessment (PA), is a limited-scope evaluation based on available historical information and data that can be gathered readily during a site reconnaissance.

  8. Hazardous waste management system; identification and listing of hazardous waste--EPA. Final rule and response to comments.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    On May 19, 1980, as part of its regulations implementing section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA promulgated a series of criteria for listing wastes as hazardous. On July 19, 1991, the Agency proposed to conform the language of the regulation to reflect the Agency's intent and consistent interpretation of that regulation. Today's rule finalizes the proposed rule.

  9. The hazard analysis and critical control point system in food safety.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is a preventive method of ensuring food safety. Its objectives are the identification of consumer safety hazards that can occur in the production line and the establishment of a control process to guarantee a safer product for the consumer; it is based on the identification of potential hazards to food safety and on measures aimed at preventing these hazards. HACCP is the system of choice in the management of food safety. The principles of HACCP are applicable to all phases of food production, including basic husbandry practices, food preparation and handling, food processing, food service, distribution systems, and consumer handling and use. The HACCP system is involved in every aspect of food safety production (according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO] and the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods [ICMSF]). The most basic concept underlying the HACCP system is that of prevention rather than inspection. The control of processes and conditions comprises the critical control point (CCP) element. HACCP is simply a methodical, flexible, and systematic application of the appropriate science and technology for planning, controlling, and documenting the safe production of foods. The successful application of HACCP requires the full commitment and involvement of management and the workforce, using a multidisciplinary approach that should include, as appropriate, expertise in agronomy, veterinary health, microbiology, public health, food technology, environmental health, chemistry, engineering, and so on according to the particular situation. Application of the HACCP system is compatible with the implementation of total quality management (TQM) systems such as the ISO 9000 series. PMID:15156035

  10. The hazard analysis and critical control point system in food safety.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is a preventive method of ensuring food safety. Its objectives are the identification of consumer safety hazards that can occur in the production line and the establishment of a control process to guarantee a safer product for the consumer; it is based on the identification of potential hazards to food safety and on measures aimed at preventing these hazards. HACCP is the system of choice in the management of food safety. The principles of HACCP are applicable to all phases of food production, including basic husbandry practices, food preparation and handling, food processing, food service, distribution systems, and consumer handling and use. The HACCP system is involved in every aspect of food safety production (according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO] and the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods [ICMSF]). The most basic concept underlying the HACCP system is that of prevention rather than inspection. The control of processes and conditions comprises the critical control point (CCP) element. HACCP is simply a methodical, flexible, and systematic application of the appropriate science and technology for planning, controlling, and documenting the safe production of foods. The successful application of HACCP requires the full commitment and involvement of management and the workforce, using a multidisciplinary approach that should include, as appropriate, expertise in agronomy, veterinary health, microbiology, public health, food technology, environmental health, chemistry, engineering, and so on according to the particular situation. Application of the HACCP system is compatible with the implementation of total quality management (TQM) systems such as the ISO 9000 series.

  11. Deposit-refund systems for managing hazardous wastes produced by small businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Cuckovich, W.P.; Schwartz, S.I. )

    1989-09-01

    This article examines the potential of an economic incentive device virtually unused in the United States for managing hazardous wastes-- deposit-refund systems. The emphasis is on reducing the high rate of illegal disposal of hazardous wastes by small firms. We give evidence that illegal disposal is a problem and identify its underlying causes, principally lack of enforcement. Theory and operation of deposit-refund systems are described, with illustrative situations showing the crucial role of the size of the refund relative to the cost of legal disposal. Economic effects, advantages, and problems of design and implementation are examined. We conclude that deposit-refund systems are potentially effective for reducing illegal disposal, and that they promote economic efficiency and equity. Pilot programs are recommended.

  12. Methods for assessing hydrogeological similarity and for classification of groundwater systems on the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaf, Ezra; Barthel, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Conducting groundwater modelling and resource analysis on the regional scale is often complicated by the scarcity and uneven distribution of observations over space and time, the uncertainty of structures, inputs and processes as well as the inherent heterogeneity and variability of hydrogeological conditions. In order to improve modelling and prediction of poorly-observed groundwater systems, information could be transferred from similar, but more well-explored and better understood systems analogous to PUB (Prediction in ungauged catchments). To achieve this, the overarching goal of this study is to develop an approach to statistically extract relevant information on structure and state from observed and well characterized locations in order to derive a classification scheme of functionally similar groups. At the core of the approach will be the classification of (i) static hydrogeological characteristics (such as aquifer geometry and hydraulic properties) (ii) dynamic changes of the boundary conditions (such as recharge) and (iii) dynamic groundwater system responses (groundwater head and chemical parameters) as well as the systematic use of the dependencies of system responses on explanatory factors. With a classification framework in place, insight can be gained into the behavior of less well-observed groundwater systems and underlying processes can be better understood. Furthermore, it is expected that regional conceptual models can be checked without the need of numerical groundwater models as well as that missing values in time series can be filled. Apart from illustrating the general approach and the main ideas of groundwater systems classification, we show a number of promising methods that can be used to establish a classification framework for groundwater systems assessment. The focus at the current stage is on finding relevant statistical methods that can be used for identifying and quantifying similarities/dissimilarities of groundwater hydrographs

  13. Hazard analysis of EUCLIDIAN: an image-guided robotic brachytherapy system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yida; Podder, Tarun; Buzurovic, Ivan; Yan, Kaiguo; Ng, Wan Sing; Yu, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Robotic assistance can help clinicians to improve the flexibility of needle insertion and accuracy of seed deposition. However, the robotic platform is a safety critical system for its automated operational mode. Thus, it is important to perform Hazard Identification & Safety Insurance Control (HISIC) for securing the safety of a medical robotic system. In this paper, we have performed HISIC for our robotic platform, called Endo-Uro Computer Lattice for Intratumoral Delivery, Implementation, and Ablation with Nanosensing (ECLIDIAN). The definition and requirements of the system are described by Unified Modeling Language (UML). Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) are executed for the principles of HISIC, such as hazard identification, safety insurance control, safety critical limit, monitoring and control. FMEA combined with UML can also be implemented to ensure reliability of the human operation. On the basis of safety control index and fuzzy mathematics, safety effective value is outlined to assess the validity of safety insurance control for robotic system. The above principles and methods are feasible and effective for hazard analysis during the development of the robotic system.

  14. Classification system of frontal sinus patterns by radiography. Its application to identification of unknown skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Miyasaka, S; Sato, H; Seta, S

    1987-08-01

    Frontal sinuses of Japanese skulls were radiographically examined from the view point of identifying individuals. The system of classification of sinus was proposed, basing on the area size, the bilateral asymmetry, the superiority of side, the outline of upper borders, the partial septa and the supraorbital cells. Frontal sinus patterns could be divided into above 20,000 possible combinations by combining the class numbers in each classification item described above. The frontal sinus pattern of a given person was formulated as a code number which was determined by arranging the class numbers in each classification item as serial numbers. This identification system by the frontal sinus pattern should allow one to characterize each person. The application of this identification system to an actual criminal case was also described.

  15. 5 CFR 9901.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to NSPS classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion of positions and employees to NSPS classification system. 9901.231 Section 9901.231 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.231 - Conversion of positions and employees to the DHS classification system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion of positions and employees to the DHS classification system. 9701.231 Section 9701.231 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  17. Comparison of rule-building expert systems with pattern recognition for the classification of analytical data

    SciTech Connect

    Derde, M.P.; Buydens, L.; Guns, C.; Massart, D.L.; Hopke, P.K.

    1987-07-15

    Two expert systems of the rule-building type, TIMM and EX-TRAN, are compared with pattern recognition methods for the classification of olive oils of different origins. Both expert systems are more user-friendly than the pattern recognition programs and TIMM yields slightly better results than nearest neighbors classifiers and linear discriminant analysis.

  18. 77 FR 8117 - Medical Devices; Cardiovascular Devices; Classification of the Endovascular Suturing System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 870 Medical Devices; Cardiovascular Devices; Classification of the Endovascular Suturing System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the endovascular suturing system into...

  19. Landslide hazard and risk assessment for Ambon city using landslide inventory and geographic information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souisa, Matheus; Hendrajaya, Lilik; Handayani, Gunawan

    2016-08-01

    Ambon Island is a volcanic islands arc and included in the territory of the archipelago of small islands are associated with subduction zones that have a degree of high vulnerability to natural disasters, such as erosion and landslides on the slopes of certain conditions. Landslides that occur various in the city of Ambon, usually occurs during the rainy season so that the impacts that occur not only occurs on site but also off site with amount of large sedimentation. This paper presents the application of digital image analysis techniques and tools Geographic Information Systems to describe the degree of landslide hazard and risk areas in locations Ambon City, Moluccas. The cause of the landslide is analyzed through various thematic layers attribute data for the study area. Landslide hazard zonation assessment is done by using historical data, while the landslide risk analysis is done by using the results of landslide hazard assessment and socioeconomic factors by using geospatial models. The risk assessment of landslides can be used to estimate the risk to the population, property and infrastructure. The study results in the form of a map of landslide hazard and the risk of landslides that act to support urban spatial planning based on disaster mitigation.

  20. An Integrated GIS-Expert System Framework for Live Hazard Monitoring and Detection

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, James D.; Graniero, Phil A.; Rozic, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of hazard monitoring, using sensor web technology to monitor and detect hazardous conditions in near-real-time can result in large amounts of spatial data that can be used to drive analysis at an instrumented site. These data can be used for decision making and problem solving, however as with any analysis problem the success of analyzing hazard potential is governed by many factors such as: the quality of the sensor data used as input; the meaning that can be derived from those data; the reliability of the model used to describe the problem; the strength of the analysis methods; and the ability to effectively communicate the end results of the analysis. For decision makers to make use of sensor web data these issues must be dealt with to some degree. The work described in this paper addresses all of these areas by showing how raw sensor data can be automatically transformed into a representation which matches a predefined model of the problem context. This model can be understood by analysis software that leverages rule-based logic and inference techniques to reason with, and draw conclusions about, spatial data. These tools are integrated with a well known Geographic Information System (GIS) and existing geospatial and sensor web infrastructure standards, providing expert users with the tools needed to thoroughly explore a problem site and investigate hazards in any domain.

  1. The Hazard Evaluation System and Information Service: A Physician's Resource in Toxicology and Occupational Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Kim

    1982-01-01

    Hazard evaluation is an emerging science. The Hazard Evaluation System and Information Service (HESIS), part of California's program in preventive occupational health, is a resource for clinicians who wish to stay abreast of the relationship between toxicology and occupational health. For example, advances in assays for cancer or reproductive effects in test animals enable us to identify with greater confidence significant cancer or reproductive hazards among the increasing variety of workplace exposures. Occupational experiences with dibromochloropropane (DBCP), Kepone, bis(chloromethyl) ether, benzidine and vinyl chloride demonstrate the shortcomings of relying on human data. The latency period of cancer, limited sensitivity of epidemiologic studies and severity of effects require us to use animal test data to evaluate the potential cancer and reproductive risks of workplace substances. HESIS gives appropriate weight to experimental data in hazard evaluations of chemicals such as ethylene oxide, ethylene dibromide, polychlorinated biphenyls and the glycol ethers. A similar approach is apparent in the California Department of Health Services' recently released Carcinogen Identification Policy. PMID:6819719

  2. J-SHIS - an integrated system for knowing seismic hazard information in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, H.; Fujiwara, H.; Kawai, S.; Hao, K. X.; Morikawa, N.

    2015-12-01

    An integrated system of Japan seismic hazard information station (J-SHIS) was established in 2005 for issuing and exchanging information of the National Seismic Hazard Maps for Japan that are based on seismic hazard assessment (SHA). A simplified app, also named J-SHIS, for smartphones is popularly used in Japan based on the integrated system of http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/map/?lang=en. "Smartphone tells hazard" is realized on a cellphone, a tablet and/or a PC. At a given spot, the comprehensive information of SHA map can be easily obtained as below: 1) A SHA probability at given intensity (JMA=5-, 5+, 6-, 6+) within 30 years. 2) A site amplification factor varies within 0.5 ~ 3.0 and expectation is 1 based on surface geology map information. 3) A depth of seismic basement down to ~3,000m based on deeper borehole and geological structure. 4) Scenario earthquake maps: By choosing an active fault, one got the average case for different parameters of the modeling. Then choose a case, you got the shaking map of intensity with color scale. "Seismic Hazard Karte tells more hazard" is another app based on website of http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/labs/karte/. (1) For every mesh of 250m x 250m, professional service SHA information is provided over national-world. (2) With five ranks for eight items, comprehensive SHA information could be delivered. (3) Site amplification factor with an average index is given. (4) Deeper geologic structure modeling is provided with borehole profiling. (5) A SHA probability is assessed within 30 and/or 50 years for the given site. (6) Seismic Hazard curves are given for earthquake sources from inland active fault, subduction zone, undetermined and their summarization. (7) The JMA seismic intensities are assessed in long-term averaged periods of 500-years to ~100,000 years. The app of J-SHIS can be downloaded freely from http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/app-jshis.

  3. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE): Aerospace Propulsion Hazard Mitigation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Corpening, Griffin P.; Ray, Ronald J.; Hass, Neal; Ennix, Kimberly A.; Lazaroff, Scott M.

    1998-01-01

    A major hazard posed by the propulsion system of hypersonic and space vehicles is the possibility of fire or explosion in the vehicle environment. The hazard is mitigated by minimizing or detecting, in the vehicle environment, the three ingredients essential to producing fire: fuel, oxidizer, and an ignition source. The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) consisted of a linear aerospike rocket engine integrated into one-half of an X-33-like lifting body shape, carried on top of an SR-71 aircraft. Gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen were used as propellants. Although LASRE is a one-of-a-kind experimental system, it must be rated for piloted flight, so this test presented a unique challenge. To help meet safety requirements, the following propulsion hazard mitigation systems were incorporated into the experiment: pod inert purge, oxygen sensors, a hydrogen leak detection algorithm, hydrogen sensors, fire detection and pod temperature thermocouples, water misting, and control room displays. These systems are described, and their development discussed. Analyses, ground test, and flight test results are presented, as are findings and lessons learned.

  4. Open Fractures of the Hand: Review of Pathogenesis and Introduction of a New Classification System.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, Jacob E; Ilyas, Asif M

    2016-01-01

    Open fractures of the hand are a common and varied group of injuries. Although at increased risk for infection, open fractures of the hand are more resistant to infection than other open fractures. Numerous unique factors in the hand may play a role in the altered risk of postinjury infection. Current systems for the classification of open fractures fail to address the unique qualities of the hand. This article proposes a novel classification system for open fractures of the hand, taking into account the factors unique to the hand that affect its risk for developing infection after an open fracture.

  5. Data Processing And Machine Learning Methods For Multi-Modal Operator State Classification Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, Tristan A.

    2015-01-01

    This document is intended as an introduction to a set of common signal processing learning methods that may be used in the software portion of a functional crew state monitoring system. This includes overviews of both the theory of the methods involved, as well as examples of implementation. Practical considerations are discussed for implementing modular, flexible, and scalable processing and classification software for a multi-modal, multi-channel monitoring system. Example source code is also given for all of the discussed processing and classification methods.

  6. Application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system to enteral tube feeding in hospital.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M R; Batista, C R; Aidoo, K E

    2001-10-01

    An HACCP system was implemented for the quality assurance of preparation, storage and delivery of enteral feeds to patients in hospital. Routine methods of feed preparation, storage and delivery to patients were studied and a flow chart was initially made. After identifying hazards, an HACCP team was assembled, a flow chart was modified and critical control points were defined using a decision tree. Control measures for each step of the process and its monitoring and corrective measures to be applied were also defined. In addition, feed samples were analysed for microbiological quality and feed storage temperatures were also recorded, before and after the implementation of the HACCP system. When the control measures were applied and monitored, the hazard was reduced. Bacterial counts in feed were reduced from 105 cfu mL-1 to < 101 cfu mL-1. The results show that contamination of enteral feed may be reduced or eliminated if a systematic approach such as HACCP is applied effectively.

  7. Laser safety and hazard analysis for the temperature stabilized BSLT ARES laser system.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2003-08-01

    A laser safety and hazard analysis was performed for the temperature stabilized Big Sky Laser Technology (BSLT) laser central to the ARES system based on the 2000 version of the American National Standards Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. As a result of temperature stabilization of the BSLT laser the operating parameters of the laser had changed requiring a hazard analysis based on the new operating conditions. The ARES laser system is a Van/Truck based mobile platform, which is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites.

  8. A New System for Classification of Chinese Characters: Initial Three-Stroke Index System (Tou San-Bi Jyandzfa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, C. K.; Wu, K. S.

    Since the 17th century, Chinese lexicography has been dominated by a character classification system divided into 214 radical groups. The proposed initial three-stroke system would eliminate the need to select (or guess) the proper radical and count strokes. The aim of the system is to facilitate the use of dictionaries and provide the student…

  9. Topological classification of integrable Hamiltonian systems in a potential field on surfaces of revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantonistova, E. O.

    2016-03-01

    A topological classification, up to Liouville (leafwise) equivalence of integrable Hamiltonian systems given by flows with a smooth potential on two-dimensional surfaces of revolution is presented. It is shown that the restrictions of such systems to three-dimensional isoenergy surfaces can be modelled by the geodesic flows (without potential) of certain surfaces of revolution. It is also shown that in many important cases the systems under consideration are equivalent to other well-known mechanical systems. Bibliography: 29 titles.

  10. DMCS: Dual-Model Classification System and Its Application in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qun; Weng, Ruihua; Weng, Fengyu

    The paper introduces a novel dual-model classification method - Dual-Model Classification System (DMCS). The DMCS is a personalized or transductive system which is created for every new input vector and trained on a small number of data. These data are selected from the whole training data set and they are closest to the new vector in the input space. In the proposed DMCS, two transductive fuzzy inference models are taken as the structure functions and trained with different sub-training data sets. In this paper, DMCS is illustrated on a case study: a real medical decision support problem of estimating the survival of hemodialysis patients. This personalized modeling method can also be applied to solve other classification problems.

  11. Stygoregions – a promising approach to a bioregional classification of groundwater systems

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Heide; Griebler, Christian; Berkhoff, Sven; Matzke, Dirk; Fuchs, Andreas; Hahn, Hans Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Linked to diverse biological processes, groundwater ecosystems deliver essential services to mankind, the most important of which is the provision of drinking water. In contrast to surface waters, ecological aspects of groundwater systems are ignored by the current European Union and national legislation. Groundwater management and protection measures refer exclusively to its good physicochemical and quantitative status. Current initiatives in developing ecologically sound integrative assessment schemes by taking groundwater fauna into account depend on the initial classification of subsurface bioregions. In a large scale survey, the regional and biogeographical distribution patterns of groundwater dwelling invertebrates were examined for many parts of Germany. Following an exploratory approach, our results underline that the distribution patterns of invertebrates in groundwater are not in accordance with any existing bioregional classification system established for surface habitats. In consequence, we propose to develope a new classification scheme for groundwater ecosystems based on stygoregions. PMID:22993698

  12. Stygoregions--a promising approach to a bioregional classification of groundwater systems.

    PubMed

    Stein, Heide; Griebler, Christian; Berkhoff, Sven; Matzke, Dirk; Fuchs, Andreas; Hahn, Hans Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Linked to diverse biological processes, groundwater ecosystems deliver essential services to mankind, the most important of which is the provision of drinking water. In contrast to surface waters, ecological aspects of groundwater systems are ignored by the current European Union and national legislation. Groundwater management and protection measures refer exclusively to its good physicochemical and quantitative status. Current initiatives in developing ecologically sound integrative assessment schemes by taking groundwater fauna into account depend on the initial classification of subsurface bioregions. In a large scale survey, the regional and biogeographical distribution patterns of groundwater dwelling invertebrates were examined for many parts of Germany. Following an exploratory approach, our results underline that the distribution patterns of invertebrates in groundwater are not in accordance with any existing bioregional classification system established for surface habitats. In consequence, we propose to develope a new classification scheme for groundwater ecosystems based on stygoregions.

  13. Guideline for assessing the performance of electric power systems in natural hazard and human threat events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, W.U.; Nishenko, S.P.; Honegger, D.G.; Kempner, L.

    2006-01-01

    Electric power utilities are familiar with and skilled in preparing for and responding to almost-routine natural hazard events such as strong wind and ice storms and seasonal floods, as well as intentional human acts such as vandalism. Recent extreme weather (hurricanes Katrina and Rita), extremely destructive international earthquakes (in Sumatra and Pakistan), and nation-wide concerns regarding future terrorist attacks have increased the pressure on utilities to take appropriate steps to avoid being overwhelmed by such infrequent and exceedingly severe events. Determining what constitutes the appropriate steps to take requires various levels of understanding of the specific hazards and the risks faced by the utility. The American Lifelines Alliance (www. americanlifelinesalliance.org) has prepared a Guideline that provides clear, concise, and nationally-applicable guidance on determining the scope and level of effort necessary to assess power system performance in the wide range of natural hazard or human threat events. Included in this Guideline are specific procedures to follow and information to consider in performing standardized assessments. With the results of such assessments, utility owners can effectively establish and carry out risk management programs that will lead to achieving appropriate levels of performance in future events. The Guideline incorporates an inquiry-driven process with a two-phase performance assessment that can be applied to power systems of any size. The screening phase enables systems or components that are clearly not at risk to be screened out early. The subsequent analysis phase uses results from the screening phase to prioritize and allocate resources for more detailed assessments of hazard, vulnerability, and system performance. This process helps assure that the scope of the assessment meets the specific performance objectives of the inquiry. A case history is presented to illustrate the type of experience with an inquiry

  14. History, design and performance of the space shuttle hazardous gas detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) is designed to detect leaks hich could result in pre-launch or in-flight fires or explosions resulting from the presence of cryogenic rocket propellants. The historical development, design, and performance of the HGDS is discussed. Data for response time, detection limits, accuracy, and drift are presented. Finally, present and future applications are discussed, and some general conclusions are drawn.

  15. Priming Effects Associated with the Hierarchical Levels of Classification Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loehrlein, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    The act of categorization produces conceptual representations in memory while knowledge organization (KO) systems provide conceptual representations that are used in information storage and retrieval systems. Previous research has explored how KO systems can be designed to resemble the user's internal conceptual structures. However, the more…

  16. Using a Geographic Information System to Assess the Risk of Hurricane Hazards on the Maya Civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Sever, T.

    2014-12-01

    The extent of the Maya civilization spanned across portions of modern day Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. Paleoclimatic studies suggest this region has been affected by strong hurricanes for the past six thousand years, reinforced by archeological evidence from Mayan records indicating they experienced strong storms. It is theorized hurricanes aided in the collapse of the Maya, damaging building structures, agriculture, and ceasing industry activities. Today, this region is known for its active tropical climatology, being hit by numerous strong storms including Hurricane Dean, Iris, Keith, and Mitch. This research uses a geographic information system (GIS) to model hurricane hazards, and assess the risk posed on the Maya civilization. GIS has the ability to handle various layer components making it optimal for combining parameters necessary for assessing the risk of experiencing hurricane related hazards. For this analysis, high winds, storm surge flooding, non-storm surge related flooding, and rainfall triggered landslides were selected as the primary hurricane hazards. Data sets used in this analysis include the National Climatic Data Center International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardships (IBTrACS) hurricane tracks, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model, WorldClim monthly accumulated precipitation, USGS HydroSHEDS river locations, Harmonized World Soil Database soil types, and known Maya site locations from the Electronic Atlas of Ancient Maya Sites. ArcGIS and ENVI software were utilized to process data and model hurricane hazards. To assess locations at risk of experiencing high winds, a model was created using ArcGIS Model Builder to map each storm's temporal wind profile, and adapted to simulate forward storm velocity, and storm frequency. Modeled results were then combined with physical land characteristics, meteorological, and hydrologic data to identify areas likely affected. Certain areas along the eastern

  17. Field-portable imaging remote sensing system for automatic identification and imaging of hazardous gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harig, R.; Rusch, P.; Peters, H.; Gerhard, J.; Braun, R.,; Sabbah, S.; Beecken, J.

    2009-09-01

    Hazardous compounds may be released into the atmosphere in the case of fires, chemical accidents, terrorist acts, or war. In these cases, information about the released compounds is required immediately in order to take appropriate measures to protect workers, residents, emergency response personnel at the site of the release, and the environment. Remote sensing by infrared spectroscopy allows detection and identification of hazardous clouds in the atmosphere from long distances. In addition, imaging spectroscopy allows an assessment of the location, the dimensions and the dispersion of a potentially hazardous cloud. This additional information may contribute significantly to a correct assessment of a situation by emergency response forces. Therefore an imaging remote sensing system based on a Fourier-transform spectrometer with a focal plane array detector for automatic identification and imaging of gases has been developed. Imaging systems allow the use of spatial information in addition to spectral information. Thus, in order to achieve low limits of detection, algorithms that combine algorithms for spectral analysis and image analysis have been developed. In this work, the system and first results of measurements are presented.

  18. Risk assessments for energy systems and role of preliminary degree-of-hazard evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Habegger, L.J.; Fingleton, D.J.

    1985-11-01

    The appropriate approach to risk or hazard assessment can vary considerably, depending on various factors, including the intended application of the results and the time other resources available to conduct the assessment. This paper illustrates three types of interrelated assessments. Although they can be mutually supportive, they have fundamentally different objectives, which require major differences in approach. The example of the overall risk assessment of alternative major energy technologies illustrates the compilation of a wide range of available risk data applicable to these systems. However, major uncertainties exist in the assessments, and public perception of their importance could play an important role in final system evaluations. A more narrowly defined risk assessment, often focusing on an individual component of a larger system, is the most commonly used approach in regulatory applications. The narrow scope allows in-depth analysis of risks and associated uncertainties, but it may also contribute to a loss of perspective on the magnitude of the assessed risk relative to that of the unassessed risks. In some applications, it is useful to conduct semiquantitative degree-of-hazard evaluations as a means of setting priorities for detailed risk assessment. The MAHAS procedure described in this paper provides a means of rapidly ranking relative hazards from various sources using easily accessible data. However, these rankings should not be used as definitive input for selecting technology alternatives or developing regulations. 25 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Electrical Equipment Hydrogen Hazard Protection

    SciTech Connect

    PHILIPP, B.L.

    2000-01-20

    This document explains that with the use of a helium purge and adequate control, the systems attached to the MCO in the CVDF are not in a flammable environment. Effective safeguards against ventilation failure are provided which reduces the flammability hazard classification within the protected enclosure to Unclassified. Intrinsically safe components are not required for this system.

  20. A Hitchhiker’s Guide to Myeloid Cell Subsets: Practical Implementation of a Novel Mononuclear Phagocyte Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Guilliams, Martin; van de Laar, Lianne

    2015-01-01

    The classification of mononuclear phagocytes as either dendritic cells or macrophages has been mainly based on morphology, the expression of surface markers, and assumed functional specialization. We have recently proposed a novel classification system of mononuclear phagocytes based on their ontogeny. Here, we discuss the practical application of such a classification system through a number of prototypical examples we have encountered while hitchhiking from one subset to another, across species and between steady-state and inflammatory settings. Finally, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of such a classification system and propose a number of improvements to move from theoretical concepts to concrete guidelines. PMID:26322042

  1. Data Model for Multi Hazard Risk Assessment Spatial Support Decision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrejchenko, Vera; Bakker, Wim; van Westen, Cees

    2014-05-01

    The goal of the CHANGES Spatial Decision Support System is to support end-users in making decisions related to risk reduction measures for areas at risk from multiple hydro-meteorological hazards. The crucial parts in the design of the system are the user requirements, the data model, the data storage and management, and the relationships between the objects in the system. The implementation of the data model is carried out entirely with an open source database management system with a spatial extension. The web application is implemented using open source geospatial technologies with PostGIS as the database, Python for scripting, and Geoserver and javascript libraries for visualization and the client-side user-interface. The model can handle information from different study areas (currently, study areas from France, Romania, Italia and Poland are considered). Furthermore, the data model handles information about administrative units, projects accessible by different types of users, user-defined hazard types (floods, snow avalanches, debris flows, etc.), hazard intensity maps of different return periods, spatial probability maps, elements at risk maps (buildings, land parcels, linear features etc.), economic and population vulnerability information dependent on the hazard type and the type of the element at risk, in the form of vulnerability curves. The system has an inbuilt database of vulnerability curves, but users can also add their own ones. Included in the model is the management of a combination of different scenarios (e.g. related to climate change, land use change or population change) and alternatives (possible risk-reduction measures), as well as data-structures for saving the calculated economic or population loss or exposure per element at risk, aggregation of the loss and exposure using the administrative unit maps, and finally, producing the risk maps. The risk data can be used for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE). The

  2. Classification of riparian forest species and health condition using multi-temporal and hyperspatial imagery from unmanned aerial system.

    PubMed

    Michez, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé; Lisein, Jonathan; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Riparian forests are critically endangered many anthropogenic pressures and natural hazards. The importance of riparian zones has been acknowledged by European Directives, involving multi-scale monitoring. The use of this very-high-resolution and hyperspatial imagery in a multi-temporal approach is an emerging topic. The trend is reinforced by the recent and rapid growth of the use of the unmanned aerial system (UAS), which has prompted the development of innovative methodology. Our study proposes a methodological framework to explore how a set of multi-temporal images acquired during a vegetative period can differentiate some of the deciduous riparian forest species and their health conditions. More specifically, the developed approach intends to identify, through a process of variable selection, which variables derived from UAS imagery and which scale of image analysis are the most relevant to our objectives.The methodological framework is applied to two study sites to describe the riparian forest through two fundamental characteristics: the species composition and the health condition. These characteristics were selected not only because of their use as proxies for the riparian zone ecological integrity but also because of their use for river management.The comparison of various scales of image analysis identified the smallest object-based image analysis (OBIA) objects (ca. 1 m(2)) as the most relevant scale. Variables derived from spectral information (bands ratios) were identified as the most appropriate, followed by variables related to the vertical structure of the forest. Classification results show good overall accuracies for the species composition of the riparian forest (five classes, 79.5 and 84.1% for site 1 and site 2). The classification scenario regarding the health condition of the black alders of the site 1 performed the best (90.6%).The quality of the classification models developed with a UAS-based, cost-effective, and semi-automatic approach

  3. Classification of riparian forest species and health condition using multi-temporal and hyperspatial imagery from unmanned aerial system.

    PubMed

    Michez, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé; Lisein, Jonathan; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Riparian forests are critically endangered many anthropogenic pressures and natural hazards. The importance of riparian zones has been acknowledged by European Directives, involving multi-scale monitoring. The use of this very-high-resolution and hyperspatial imagery in a multi-temporal approach is an emerging topic. The trend is reinforced by the recent and rapid growth of the use of the unmanned aerial system (UAS), which has prompted the development of innovative methodology. Our study proposes a methodological framework to explore how a set of multi-temporal images acquired during a vegetative period can differentiate some of the deciduous riparian forest species and their health conditions. More specifically, the developed approach intends to identify, through a process of variable selection, which variables derived from UAS imagery and which scale of image analysis are the most relevant to our objectives.The methodological framework is applied to two study sites to describe the riparian forest through two fundamental characteristics: the species composition and the health condition. These characteristics were selected not only because of their use as proxies for the riparian zone ecological integrity but also because of their use for river management.The comparison of various scales of image analysis identified the smallest object-based image analysis (OBIA) objects (ca. 1 m(2)) as the most relevant scale. Variables derived from spectral information (bands ratios) were identified as the most appropriate, followed by variables related to the vertical structure of the forest. Classification results show good overall accuracies for the species composition of the riparian forest (five classes, 79.5 and 84.1% for site 1 and site 2). The classification scenario regarding the health condition of the black alders of the site 1 performed the best (90.6%).The quality of the classification models developed with a UAS-based, cost-effective, and semi-automatic approach

  4. Implementing the Omaha classification system in a public health agency.

    PubMed

    Weidmann, J A; North, H

    1987-12-01

    Systemized nursing diagnosis based on standardized, coded terminology is in the early stages of evolution. The Waukesha Health Department has been a part of that evolutionary process. Introduction of the concept of nursing diagnosis led to the conclusion that for this agency a more systematic, community tested taxonomy was needed. The OCS was the system selected. The progress of the two systems, NANDA and OCS, appears to be evolving in parallel. No doubt, in the future one system will emerge as best for all fields of nursing. Meanwhile, the use of the OCS in practice settings serves the evolutionary process well by providing a foundation of trial and experience.

  5. Nutritional assessment of pregnant adolescents: comparison of two popular classification systems.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Janaina de Fátima Ávila; Vasconcelos, Guilherme Miranda; Torloni, Maria Regina; Fisberg, Mauro; Sampaio, Isa de Pádua Cintra; Guazzelli, Cristina Aparecida Falbo

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of concordance between two popular classification systems [the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-2000 and the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-2009] used to categorise the nutritional status of pregnant adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved 327 pregnant adolescents (10-19 years) booking for antenatal care at a single public maternity in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified into one of four categories, by both systems according to their pre-pregnancy body mass index and age. The CDC-2000 system classified significantly fewer pregnant adolescents as underweight (3.7% vs. 12.5%, P < 0.0001) and significantly more adolescents as normal-weight (86.8% vs. 75.6%, P = 0.0003) than the IOM-2009 system. The distribution of the adolescents in the two systems differed significantly. The global rate of discordance was 13.5%. The overall concordance between the two systems was marginally good (K = 0.63), being moderate for younger (<16 years) adolescents (K = 0.52). Approximately one in every seven pregnant adolescent would be classified in a non-corresponding category if the IOM-2009 classification was used instead of the CDC-2000 classification. The IOM-2009 nutritional classification, which does not take into account age and gender, tends to overestimate the proportion of underweight adolescents, especially in the younger-age group. The use of this classification system can lead to recommendations of higher gestational weight gain in a substantial proportion of pregnant adolescents, which could predispose to post-partum weight retention and future obesity.

  6. Application of LANDSAT system for improving methodology for inventory and classification of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmer, D. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A newly developed software system for generating statistics on surface water features was tested using LANDSAT data acquired previous to 1975. This software test provided a satisfactory evaluation of the system and also allowed expansion of data base on prairie water features. The software system recognizes water on the basis of a classification algorithm. This classification is accomplished by level thresholding a single near infrared data channel. After each pixel is classified as water or nonwater, the software system then recognizes ponds or lakes as sets of contiguous pixels or as single isolated pixels in the case of very small ponds. Pixels are considered to be contiguous if they are adjacent between successive scan lines. After delineating each water feature, the software system then assigns the feature a position based upon a geographic grid system and calculates the feature's planimetric area, its perimeter, and a parameter known as the shape factor.

  7. Method and System for Controlling a Dexterous Robot Execution Sequence Using State Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Quillin, Nathaniel (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Pfeiffer, Joseph (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a dexterous robot and a controller. The robot includes a plurality of robotic joints, actuators for moving the joints, and sensors for measuring a characteristic of the joints, and for transmitting the characteristics as sensor signals. The controller receives the sensor signals, and is configured for executing instructions from memory, classifying the sensor signals into distinct classes via the state classification module, monitoring a system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the system state. A method for controlling the robot in the above system includes receiving the signals via the controller, classifying the signals using the state classification module, monitoring the present system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the present system state.

  8. Campus Information Systems for Students: Classification in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobarsi, Josep; Bernardo, Merce; Coenders, Germa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: First, this article seeks to establish a conceptual model for campus information systems for students, in order to make their comparison possible for strategic management purposes. Second, it seeks to test this conceptual model in a fieldwork on Spanish higher education institutions, in order to relate information systems characteristics…

  9. An Alternative System of Subject Classification for Media Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivedi, Harish

    Since an alphabetically arranged newspaper clipping file often separates those items which should be together, a classified system would be more useful in a newspaper library. The system used at the "Dayton (Ohio) Journal Herald" is based on major categories numbered 1-100, with related items in proximity. Subdivisions are provided by adding…

  10. Utility of Automatic Classification Systems for Information Storage and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litofsky, Barry

    Large-scale, on-line information storage and retrieval systems pose numerous problems above those encountered by smaller systems. A step toward the solution of these problems is presented along with several demonstrations of feasibility and advantages. The methodology on which this solution is based is that of a posteriori automatic classification…

  11. Sensor network based vehicle classification and license plate identification system

    SciTech Connect

    Frigo, Janette Rose; Brennan, Sean M; Rosten, Edward J; Raby, Eric Y; Kulathumani, Vinod K

    2009-01-01

    Typically, for energy efficiency and scalability purposes, sensor networks have been used in the context of environmental and traffic monitoring applications in which operations at the sensor level are not computationally intensive. But increasingly, sensor network applications require data and compute intensive sensors such video cameras and microphones. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of two such systems: a vehicle classifier based on acoustic signals and a license plate identification system using a camera. The systems are implemented in an energy-efficient manner to the extent possible using commercially available hardware, the Mica motes and the Stargate platform. Our experience in designing these systems leads us to consider an alternate more flexible, modular, low-power mote architecture that uses a combination of FPGAs, specialized embedded processing units and sensor data acquisition systems.

  12. Development of a definition, classification system, and model for cultural geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Lloyd W., III

    The concept for this study is based upon a personal interest by the author, an American Indian, in promoting cultural perspectives in undergraduate college teaching and learning environments. Most academicians recognize that merged fields can enhance undergraduate curricula. However, conflict may occur when instructors attempt to merge social science fields such as history or philosophy with geoscience fields such as mining and geomorphology. For example, ideologies of Earth structures derived from scientific methodologies may conflict with historical and spiritual understandings of Earth structures held by American Indians. Specifically, this study addresses the problem of how to combine cultural studies with the geosciences into a new merged academic discipline called cultural geology. This study further attempts to develop the merged field of cultural geology using an approach consisting of three research foci: a definition, a classification system, and a model. Literature reviews were conducted for all three foci. Additionally, to better understand merged fields, a literature review was conducted specifically for academic fields that merged social and physical sciences. Methodologies concentrated on the three research foci: definition, classification system, and model. The definition was derived via a two-step process. The first step, developing keyword hierarchical ranking structures, was followed by creating and analyzing semantic word meaning lists. The classification system was developed by reviewing 102 classification systems and incorporating selected components into a system framework. The cultural geology model was created also utilizing a two-step process. A literature review of scientific models was conducted. Then, the definition and classification system were incorporated into a model felt to reflect the realm of cultural geology. A course syllabus was then developed that incorporated the resulting definition, classification system, and model. This

  13. Science and Systems in Support of Multi-hazard Early Warnings and Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The demand for improved climate knowledge and information is well documented. As noted in the IPCC (SREX, AR5), the UNISDR Global Assessment Reports and other assessments, this demand has increased pressure for information to support planning under changing rates and emergence of multiple hazards including climate extremes (drought, heat waves, floods). "Decision support" is now a popular term in the climate applications research community. While existing decision support activities can be identified in many disparate settings (e.g. federal, academic, private), the challenge of changing environments (coupled physical and social) is actually one of crafting implementation strategies for improving decision quality (not just meeting "user needs"). This includes overcoming weaknesses in co-production models, moving beyond DSSs as simply "software", coordinating innovation mapping and diffusion, and providing fora and gaming tools to identify common interests and differences in the way risks are perceived and managed among the affected groups. We outline the development and evolution of multi-hazard early warning systems in the United States and elsewhere, focusing on climate-related hazards. In particular, the presentation will focus on the climate science and information needed for (1) improved monitoring and modeling, (2) generating risk profiles, (3) developing information systems and scenarios for critical thresholds, (4) the net benefits of using new information (5) characterizing and bridging the "last mile" in the context of longer-term risk management.

  14. Using Monte Carlo techniques and parallel processing for debris hazard analysis of rocket systems

    SciTech Connect

    LaFarge, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been involved with rocket systems for many years. Some of these systems have carried high explosive onboard, while others have had FTS for destruction purposes whenever a potential hazard is detected. Recently, Sandia has also been involved with flight tests in which a target vehicle is intentionally destroyed by a projectile. Such endeavors always raise questions about the safety of personnel and the environment in the event of a premature detonation of the explosive or an activation of the FTS, as well as intentional vehicle destruction. Previous attempts to investigate fragmentation hazards for similar configurations have analyzed fragment size and shape in detail but have computed only a limited number of trajectories to determine the probabilities of impact and casualty expectations. A computer program SAFETIE has been written in support of various SNL flight experiments to compute better approximations of the hazards. SAFETIE uses the AMEER trajectory computer code and the Engineering Sciences Center LAN of Sun workstations to determine more realistically the probability of impact for an arbitrary number of exclusion areas. The various debris generation models are described.

  15. An Automated Patient Classification System for Staffing, Billing and Productivity Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Marjorie; Blaufuss, Judy; Propotnik, Toni; Maynard, Jan; Klingle, Connie; Pryor, Allan

    1988-01-01

    Nursing administrators across the country are developing methods to identify nursing department costs and revenue. A patient classification system driven by computerized nurses notes was developed at LDS Hospital as part of the hospital information system. This system is used to determine appropriates staffing on all nursing units and to bill patients directly for nursing care. The data is also used to measure nursing department productivity.

  16. T-Rex system for operation in TRU, LLW, and hazardous zones

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, H.M. ); Andreychek, T.P.; Beeson, B.K. . Aero and Naval Systems)

    1993-01-01

    There are a large number of sites around the world containing TRU (transuranic) waste, low level waste (LLW), and hazardous areas that require teleoperated, heavy lift manipulators with long reach and high precision to handle the materials stored there. Teleoperation of the equipment is required to reduce the risk to operating personnel to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels. The Transuranic Storage Area Remote Excavator system (T-Rex) is designed to fill this requirement at low cost through the integration of a production front shovel excavator with a control system, local and remote operator control stations, a closed-circuit television system (CCTV), multiple end effectors and a quick-change system. This paper describes the conversion of an off-the-shelf excavator with a hydraulic control system, the integration of an onboard remote control system, vision system, and the design of a remote control station.

  17. Chemical hazards database and detection system for Microgravity and Materials Processing Facility (MMPF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Jimmy; Smith, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The ability to identify contaminants associated with experiments and facilities is directly related to the safety of the Space Station. A means of identifying these contaminants has been developed through this contracting effort. The delivered system provides a listing of the materials and/or chemicals associated with each facility, information as to the contaminant's physical state, a list of the quantity and/or volume of each suspected contaminant, a database of the toxicological hazards associated with each contaminant, a recommended means of rapid identification of the contaminants under operational conditions, a method of identifying possible failure modes and effects analysis associated with each facility, and a fault tree-type analysis that will provide a means of identifying potential hazardous conditions related to future planned missions.

  18. Coproduction of flood hazard assessment with public participation geographic information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, W. H.; Houston, D.; Schubert, J.; Basolo, V.; Feldman, D.; Matthew, R.; Sanders, B. F.; Karlin, B.; Goodrich, K.; Contreras, S.; Reyes, A.; Serrano, K.; Luke, A.

    2015-12-01

    While advances in computing have enabled the development of more precise and accurate flood models, there is growing interest in the role of crowdsourced local knowledge in flood modeling and flood hazard assessment. In an effort to incorporate the "wisdom of the crowd" in the identification and mitigation of flood hazard, this public participation geographic information system (PPGIS) study leveraged tablet computers and cloud computing to collect mental maps of flooding from 166 households in Newport Beach, California. The mental maps were analyzed using GIS techniques and compared with professional hydrodynamic model of coastal flooding. The results revealed varying levels of agreement between residents' mental maps and professional model of flood risk in regions with different personal and contextual characteristics. The quantification of agreement using composite indices can help validate professional models, and can also alert planners and decisionmakers of the need to increase flood awareness among specific populations.

  19. System for enhanced destruction of hazardous wastes by in situ vitrification of soil

    DOEpatents

    Timmerman, Craig L.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention comprises a system for promoting the destruction of volatile and/or hazardous contaminants present in waste materials during in situ vitrification processes. In accordance with the present invention, a cold cap (46) comprising a cohesive layer of resolidified material is formed over the mass of liquefied soil and waste (40) present between and adjacent to the electrodes (10, 12, 14, 16) during the vitrification process. This layer acts as a barrier to the upward migration of any volatile type materials thereby increasing their residence time in proximity to the heated material. The degree of destruction of volatile and/or hazardous contaminants by pyrolysis is thereby improved during the course of the vitrification procedure.

  20. Teaching Sexual History-Taking Skills Using the Sexual Events Classification System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Donald C.; Petri, Justin Daniel; Chapman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors review the literature about educational programs for teaching sexual history-taking skills and describe novel techniques for teaching these skills. Methods: Psychiatric residents enrolled in a brief sexual history-taking course that included instruction on the Sexual Events Classification System, feedback on residents'…