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Sample records for hazard potential beitrag

  1. California's potential volcanic hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, P. )

    1989-01-01

    Although volcanic eruptions have occurred infrequently in California during the last few thousand years, the potential danger to life and property from volcanoes in the state is great enough to be of concern, according to a recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publication. The 17-page bulletin, Potential Hazards from Future Volcanic Eruptions in California, gives a brief history of volcanic activity in California during the past 100,000 years, descriptions of the types of volcanoes in the state, the types of potentially hazardous volcanic events that could occur, and hazard-zonation maps and tables depicting six areas of the state where volcanic eruptions might occur. The six areas and brief descriptions of their past volcanic history and potential for future volcanic hazards are briefly summarized here.

  2. California's potential volcanic hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, P.

    1989-01-01

    This is a summary of "Potential Hazards from Future Volcanic Eruptions in California' (USGS Bulletin No. 1847: price $4.75). The chief areas of danger are Lassen Peak, Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake Highland in the north; Clear Lake, Mono Lake and Long Valley in the centre; and Owen's River-Death Valley, Amboy Crater and the Saltan Butter in the south of the State. -A.Scarth

  3. Radon-hazard potential of Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Black, B.D.; Solomon, B.J. )

    1993-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas formed by decay of uranium, and occurs in nearly all geologic materials. Although radon has been shown to be a significant cause of lung cancer in miners, the health hazard from accumulation of radon gas in buildings has only recently been recognized. Indoor-radon hazards depend on both geologic and non-geologic factors. Although non-geologic factors such as construction type, weather, and lifestyles are difficult to measure, geologic factors such as uranium concentration, soil permeability, and depth to ground water can be quantified. Uranium-enriched geologic materials, such as black shales, marine sandstones, and certain granitic, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks, are generally associated with a high radon-hazard potential. Impermeable soil or shallow ground water impedes radon movement and is generally associated with a low radon-hazard potential. A numerical rating system based on these geologic factors has been developed to map radon-hazard potential in Utah. A statewide map shows that the radon-hazard potential of Utah is generally moderate. Assessments of hazard potential from detailed field investigations correlate well with areas of this map. Central Utah has the highest radon-hazard potential, primarily due to uranium-enriched Tertiary volcanic rocks. The radon-hazard potential of eastern Utah is moderate to high, but is generally restricted by low uranium levels. Western Utah, where valley basins with impermeable soils and shallow ground water are common, has the lowest radon-hazard potential.

  4. Potential Hazards of Plastics Used in Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siedlecke, Jerome T.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the thermoplastic and thermosetting resins presently being used by the artist, and the potential for exposure to the toxic chemicals and other hazards during the development of his creative work. (Author)

  5. Cardiovascular effects of potential occupational hazards.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber, S Z

    1983-12-01

    Cardiovascular effects of potential occupational hazards have received relatively little attention. The major inhalant occupational exposures of concern are carbon disulfide, nitrates, halogenated hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide. Occupational exposure to certain trace metals may also be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. Of concern is potential toxicity from cobalt, antimony, lead, cadmium and arsenic. Potential physical hazards exist in association with noise, heat and radiofrequency radiation. In most instances, the data are suggestive rather than conclusive. Further epidemiologic studies with careful control for potentially complicating factors, such as baseline differences in blood pressure, cigarette smoking habits and age, are needed. In some areas where epidemiologic studies have provided clues, the mechanisms of action of potential occupational hazards require further basic scientific investigation.

  6. Potential hazards of fumigant residues.

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, L

    1976-01-01

    A spectrum of fumigants (primarily ethylene dibromide, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, ethylene oxide, symdibromotetetrachloroethane, 1,3-dichloropropene, dichlorovos, carbon tetrachloride, methyl bromide) as well as their degradation products in foodstuffs and soil have been examined mainly in regard to the potential mutagenicity of their residues. PMID:789068

  7. California’s potential volcanic hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, P.

    1989-01-01

    Although volcanic eruptions have occurred infrequently in California during the last few thousand years, the potential danger to life and property from volcanoes in the state is great enough to be of concern, according to a recent U.S Geological Survey (USGS) publication. the 17-page bulletin, "Potential Hazards from Future Volcanic Eruptions in California," gives a brief history of volcanic activity in California during the past 100,000 years, descriptions of the types of volcanoes in the state, the types of potentially hazardous volcanic events that could occur, and hazard-zonation maps and tables depicting six areas of the state where volcanic eruptions might occur. Although no quantitative probabilities are attached to any of the potential volcanic hazards, the USGS bulletin warns that "sooner or later a volcano in California will erupt again and the ever-expanding use of area near volcnoes increases the potential impact of an eruption on the state's economy and on the health and safety of its citizens. 

  8. [Potential radiation hazard in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Guilabert, Nadine; Ricard, Marcel; Chamoulaud, Karen; Mazelier, Carole; Schlumberger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear medicine uses unsealed radioisotopes. The potential radiation hazards depend on the amount of radioactivity administered and the type of radionucleide. Thus, radiation safety instructions will minimize radiation exposure and contamination as low as reasonably achievable. National nuclear safety authority requires rules, regulations and exposure limits for both patients and workers. Good practices and training staff contribute to optimize the radioprotection. PMID:25842441

  9. Potential Health Hazards of Video Display Terminals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William E.; And Others

    In response to a request from three California unions to evaluate potential health hazards from the use of video display terminals (VDT's) in information processing applications, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a limited field investigation of three companies in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. A…

  10. Public Remote Observing of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammergren, M.

    2003-05-01

    Since the mid-1990.s, the Adler Planetarium has engaged in a program of public remote observing using the ARC 3.5-meter telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. The impact on regular science programs is minimized by scheduling the public observing during evening twilight on the first Friday of every month, when the Planetarium is open for extended hours. We have recently begun to observe faint, potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroids for which further astrometry is desired. The observations and initial analyses are performed and displayed in real-time in our CyberSpace electronic gallery before a live audience. Audience participation is useful and is actively encouraged. In particular, the asteroids often are first spotted in sequences of images by a member of the audience. Young children have recovered potentially hazardous asteroids. Further data reduction is accomplished with commercially available software. The program is straightforward in concept and execution, and is accessible to audiences of all ages. Since it unambiguously involves real science, it directly addresses the public understanding of research. We believe this program may be copied easily by other institutions that have remote observing assets.

  11. Potentially hazardous waste produced at home

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify the sources of waste generation household consisting of biological material and to investigate the knowledge presented by those responsible for the generation of waste in the home environment on the potential health risk human and environmental. Method It is a quantitative survey performed in Parque Capuava, Santo André (SP). The questionnaire was administered by the community employers and nursing students during the consultation with nursing supervision through interview question/answer. The exclusion criteria were patients who were not in the area served by the Basic Health Unit which covers the area of Pq Capuava. The sample was consisted of 99 persons and the data collection a questionnaire was used. Results We observed that 63.3% of people said to use disposables, with the majority (58.7%) of these use the public collection as the final destination of these materials. It was reported that 73.7% of those surveyed reported having knowledge about the risk of disease transmission. Public awareness of the importance of proper packaging and disposal of potentially hazardous household waste may contribute significantly to the preservation of human and environmental health and this procedure can be performed and supervised by professional nurses. Conclusion We suggest implementation of workshops for community health workers and the general population in order to enhance their knowledge about the storage and disposal of potentially infectious waste generated at home, thereby reducing the potential risk of disease transmission by improper management. PMID:23806043

  12. Grasping the Nature of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, D.; Dotto, E.; Ieva, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Bernardi, F.; Fornasier, S.; De Luise, F.; Perozzi, E.; Rossi, A.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Micheli, M.; Deshapriya, J. D. P.

    2016-01-01

    Through their delivery of water and organics, near-Earth objects (NEOs) played an important role in the emergence of life on our planet. However, they also pose a hazard to the Earth, as asteroid impacts could significantly affect our civilization. Potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) are those that, in principle, could possibly impact the Earth within the next century, producing major damage. About 1600 PHAs are currently known, from an estimated population of 4700 ± 1450. However, a comprehensive characterization of the PHA physical properties is still missing. Here we present spectroscopic observations of 14 PHAs, which we have used to derive their taxonomy, meteorite analogs, and mineralogy. Combining our results with the literature, we investigated how PHAs are distributed as a function of their dynamical and physical properties. In general, the “carbonaceous” PHAs seem to be particularly threatening, because of their high porosity (limiting the effectiveness of the main deflection techniques that could be used in space) and low inclination and minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) with the Earth (favoring more frequent close approaches). V-type PHAs also present low MOID values, which can produce frequent close approaches (as confirmed by the recent discovery of a limited space weathering on their surfaces). We also identified those specific objects that deserve particular attention because of their extreme rotational properties, internal strength, or possible cometary nature. For PHAs and NEOs in general, we identified a possible anti-correlation between the elongation and the rotational period, in the range of Prot ≈ 5-80 hr. This would be compatible with the behavior of gravity-dominated aggregates in rotational equilibrium. For periods ≳80-90 hr, such a trend stops, possibly under the influence of the YORP effect and collisions. However, the statistics is very low, and further observational and theoretical work is required to characterize

  13. Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; Jiang, Jie; Li, Donghua

    2008-08-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alternative to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[ a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are discussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  14. Waste explosives and other hazardous materials--hazard potential and remedial measures: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pandey, R K; Asthana, S N; Bhattacharya, B; Tiwari, Ila; Ghole, V S

    2007-07-01

    A large amount of energetic materials including propellants, high explosives, pyrotechnics are subjected to disposal either due to expiry of their useful life or rejection in the manufacturing process. The environmental regulations do not allow the hazardous materials for open burning / detonation in view of the health hazard involved in these operations. The present paper describes the hazard potential of energetic materials and associated hazardous chemicals. It also deals with global technological status for remedial measures of hazardous chemicals along with their merits and demerits.

  15. Potentially Hazardous Objects (PHO) Mitigation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Walter

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and its partner, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are prepared to develop, implement, and expand procedures to avert collisions of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) with Earth as recommended by NASA in its White Paper "Near- Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives" requested by the US Congress and submitted to it in March 2007. In addition to developing the general mitigation program as outlined in the NASA White Paper, the program will be expanded to include aggressive mitigation procedures for small (e.g., Tunguska-sized) PHOs and other short warning-time PHOs such as some long-period comet nuclei. As a first step the program will concentrate on the most likely and critical cases, namely small objects and long-period comet nuclei with short warning-times, but without losing sight of objects with longer warning-times. Objects smaller than a few hundred meters are of interest because they are about 1000 times more abundant than kilometer-sized objects and are fainter and more difficult to detect, which may lead to short warning times and hence short reaction times. Yet, even these small PHOs can have devastating effects as the 30 June 1908, Tungaska event has shown. In addition, long-period comets, although relatively rare but large (sometimes tens of kilometers in size), cannot be predicted because of their long orbital periods. Comet C/1983 H1 (IRAS-Araki-Alcock), for example, has an orbital period of 963.22 years, was discovered 27 April 1983, and passed Earth only two weeks later, on 11 May 1983, at a distance of 0.0312 AU. Aggressive methods and continuous alertness will be needed to defend against objects with such short warning times. While intact deflection of a PHO remains a key objective, destruction of a PHO and dispersion of the pieces must also be considered. The effectiveness of several alternative methods including nuclear demolition munitions, conventional explosives, and hyper

  16. Potential health hazards of radiation. Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-19

    During World War II and the Cold War, the federal government developed and operated industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over 100 sites. Some of these sites processed uranium and vanadium, and upon closure, left behind millions of cubic yards of mill tailings on the sites and throughout the nearby communities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the cleanup of these areas to minimize the risks to the public and environment from exposure to the tailings and the radon gas they produce.

  17. Hazard potential ranking of hazardous waste landfill sites and risk of congenital anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Vrijheid, M; Dolk, H; Armstrong, B; Boschi, G; Busby, A; Jorgensen, T; Pointer, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: A 33% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies has been found among residents near hazardous waste landfill sites in a European collaborative study (EUROHAZCON). Aims: To develop and evaluate an expert panel scoring method of the hazard potential of EUROHAZCON landfill sites, and to investigate whether sites classified as posing a greater potential hazard are those with a greater risk of congenital anomaly among nearby residents relative to more distant residents. Methods: A total of 1270 cases of congenital anomaly and 2308 non-malformed control births were selected in 14 study areas around 20 landfill sites. An expert panel of four landfill specialists scored each site in three categories—overall, water, and air hazard—based on readily available, documented data on site characteristics. Tertiles of the average ranking scores defined low, medium, and high hazard sites. Calculation of odds ratios was based on distance of residence from the sites, comparing a 0–3 km "proximate" with a 3–7 km "distant" zone. Results: Agreement between experts measured by intraclass correlation coefficients was 0.50, 0.44, and 0.20 for overall, water, and air hazard before a consensus meeting and 0.60, 0.56, and 0.53 respectively after this meeting. There was no evidence for a trend of increasing odds ratios with increasing overall hazard or air hazard. For non-chromosomal anomalies, odds ratios by water hazard category showed an increasing trend of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.06) from 0.79 in the low hazard category, 1.43 in the medium, to 1.60 in the high water hazard category. Conclusions: There is little evidence for a relation between risk of congenital anomaly in proximate relative to distant zones and hazard potential of landfill sites as classified by the expert panel, but without external validation of the hazard potential scoring method interpretation is difficult. Potential misclassification of sites may have reduced our ability to

  18. [Online-gambling - new hazard potential?].

    PubMed

    Yazdi, Kurosch; Yazdi, Karin

    2014-12-01

    Since the new American psychiatric classification, DSM V, was released, bringing together substance-related disorders and gambling disorder into one chapter, the addictive potential of gambling and sports wagering is beyond all question. Even the neurobiological processes of the brain show similarities in all addictive disorders. Gambling is more and more shifted into the cyberspace owing to the global expansion of the internet. The addictive potential of online-gambling seems to be higher than offline, though, which is also reflected by the patient population of the outpatient clinic for gambling addiction in Linz. This fact poses a challenge for the persons affected, therapists, gambling providers, legislator the society as a whole.

  19. [Online-gambling - new hazard potential?].

    PubMed

    Yazdi, Kurosch; Yazdi, Karin

    2014-12-01

    Since the new American psychiatric classification, DSM V, was released, bringing together substance-related disorders and gambling disorder into one chapter, the addictive potential of gambling and sports wagering is beyond all question. Even the neurobiological processes of the brain show similarities in all addictive disorders. Gambling is more and more shifted into the cyberspace owing to the global expansion of the internet. The addictive potential of online-gambling seems to be higher than offline, though, which is also reflected by the patient population of the outpatient clinic for gambling addiction in Linz. This fact poses a challenge for the persons affected, therapists, gambling providers, legislator the society as a whole. PMID:25377378

  20. The potentially hazardous asteroid 2000 SG344

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, I.

    We computed impact solutions for the potentially dangerous asteroid 2000 SG344, based on 31 optical observations from 1999 May 15.20482 UTC to 2010 October 29 03.60723 UTC. Using the freely available OrbFit Software Package, we can follow its orbit forward in time searching for close approaches to the Earth, which can lead to possible impacts up to 2113. The asteroid 2000 SG344 belongs to the class of the so-called possible recovery Near Earth Asteroids and can be recovered in 2028. Its ephemerides for observational window in 2028 are presented.

  1. Toxicology and hazard potential of trifluralin.

    PubMed

    Ebert, E; Leist, K H; Hack, R; Ehling, G

    1992-12-01

    This paper reviews the results of toxicity studies conducted in laboratory animals to evaluate the safety of the herbicide trifluralin (TFL). The data show that TFL is slightly toxic following single oral exposure. Testing for embryotoxicity in rats and rabbits indicated no teratogenic potential, and many different mutagenicity tests showed that TFL was non-genotoxic. Subchronic and chronic toxicity testing in rats, mice and dogs indicated that TFL was haematotoxic (anaemia and methaemoglobinaemia), particularly in the dog, and slightly hepatotoxic. No-observed-effect levels of 4.8 and 41 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, were determined in dogs and rats exposed chronically to TFL. Oncogenicity studies in rats and mice revealed no carcinogenic potential. Since the data for TFL indicated no mutagenic or other special toxicological risks, it is suggested that a safety factor of 100 could be used for the determination of the acceptable daily intake of TFL, which would be 0.05 mg/kg body weight/day.

  2. The Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (410777) 2009 FD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, I.

    2015-06-01

    The asteroid (410777) 2009 FD is placed at the top of the JPL NASA Sentry Risk Table. We show that the predicted probability of the potential impact of the asteroid (410777) 2009 FD in fact depends on (i): used methods of selection and weighing of observational data, (ii): adopted dynamical model with included non-gravitational effects in the motion of asteroid based on cometary approach, and considerably weaker depends on (iii): the used model of the Solar System with different number of massive asteroids as potential perturbers. We computed impact solutions of the asteroid (410777) 2009 FD based on its 296 optical observations from February 24, 2009 to April 02, 2014 and one radar observation from April 07, 2014. We used the freely available ORBFIT Software Package and studied the future evolution of the orbit of (410777) 2009 FD searching for close approaches with the Earth and for the possible impacts up to the year 2200. According to our study the impacts are possible in the years: 2185, 2186, 2190, 2191, 2192, 2194, 2196, and 2198, provided the non-gravitational parameter A2 in the range of (-46.0,+3.0)×10-15 a.u./d2, with the gap between (-25.0,-11.0)×10-15 a.u./d2.

  3. The potentially hazardous asteroid 2009 FD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, Ireneusz

    2015-01-01

    Third of the most interesting potentially dangerous asteroids, after (99942) Apophis and (101955) Bennu, is 2009 FD. We computed impact solutions of the asteroid 2009 FD based on its 296 optical observations from 2009 February 24.36493 UTC to 2014 April 02.15110 UTC, and 1 radar observation from 2014 April 07 20:21:00 UTC. We used the freely available OrbFit Software Package and studied the orbit of 2009 FD forward in the future searching for close approaches with the Earth and for possible impacts up to 2201. Possible impact solutions were computed using the JPL DE405 planetary and lunar ephemerides taking into account the different A2 non-gravitational parameter in the motion of the asteroid 2009 FD. We computed possible impacts in 2185, 2186, 2191, 2192, 2194, 2196 and 2198. They are possible only with the non-gravitational parameter, A2 in the range (-46.0, 0)× 10^{-15} au/d^{2}, with the gap between (-25.0, -11.0)× 10^{-15} au/d^{2}. It denotes that if A2 is greater than +0.0× 10^{-15} au/d^{2}, or smaller than -46.0× 10^{-15} au/d^{2} than impacts with the Earth, are excluded. They are possible with the non-gravitational parameter, A2<=0. It implies that impacts are possible if 2009 FD rotates in retrograde direction.

  4. Cut flowers: a potential pesticide hazard.

    PubMed

    Morse, D L; Baker, E L; Landrigan, P J

    1979-01-01

    Following reports of ten cases of possible organophosphate pesticide poisoning in florists exposed to pesticide residues on cut flowers, we conducted a prospective random-sample survey to determine residual pesticide levels on flowers imported into the United States via Miami, Florida. A sample of all flowers imported into Miami on three days in January 1977 showed that 18 (17.7 per cent) of 105 lots contained pesticide residue levels greater than 5 ppm, and that three lots had levels greater than 400 ppm. Azodrin (monocrotophos) was the most important contaminant with levels of 7.7--4,750 ppm detected in nine lots. We examined 20 quarantine workers in Miami and 12 commercial florists exposed to contaminated flowers. Occasional nonspecific symptoms compatible with possible organophosphate exposure were noted, but we found no abnormalities in plasma or red blood cell cholinesterase levels. This study documents a previously unrecognized potential source of occupational pesticide exposure and suggests that safety standards should be set for residue levels on cut flowers.

  5. Radium dial watches, a potentially hazardous legacy?

    PubMed

    Gillmore, Gavin K; Crockett, Robin; Denman, Tony; Flowers, Alan; Harris, Richard

    2012-09-15

    from 0.013 to 0.875 μCi (0.46 to 32.38 kBq) for wrist watches. The risk from old watches containing radium appears to have been largely forgotten today. This paper indicates a health risk, particular to collectors, but with knowledge and appropriate precautions the potential risks can be reduced.

  6. Database for potential hazards from future volcanic eruptions in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Melissa N.; Ramsey, David W.; Miller, C. Dan

    2011-01-01

    More than 500 volcanic vents have been identified in the State of California. At least 76 of these vents have erupted, some repeatedly, during the past 10,000 yr. Past volcanic activity has ranged in scale and type from small rhyolitic and basaltic eruptions through large catastrophic rhyolitic eruptions. Sooner or later, volcanoes in California will erupt again, and they could have serious impacts on the health and safety of the State's citizens as well as on its economy. This report describes the nature and probable distribution of potentially hazardous volcanic phenomena and their threat to people and property. It includes hazard-zonation maps that show areas relatively likely to be affected by future eruptions in California. This digital release contains information from maps of potential hazards from future volcanic eruptions in the state of California, published as Plate 1 in U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1847. The main component of this digital release is a spatial database prepared using geographic information systems (GIS) applications. This release also contains links to files to view or print the map plate, main report text, and accompanying hazard tables from Bulletin 1847. It should be noted that much has been learned about the ages of eruptive events in the State of California since the publication of Bulletin 1847 in 1989. For the most up to date information on the status of California volcanoes, please refer to the U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program website.

  7. Engineered Nanomaterials, Sexy New Technology and Potential Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-05-04

    Engineered nanomaterials enhance exciting new applications that can greatly benefit society in areas of cancer treatments, solar energy, energy storage, and water purification. While nanotechnology shows incredible promise in these and other areas by exploiting nanomaterials unique properties, these same properties can potentially cause adverse health effects to workers who may be exposed during work. Dispersed nanoparticles in air can cause adverse health effects to animals not merely due to their chemical properties but due to their size, structure, shape, surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, dermal toxicity, and parent material toxicity. Nanoparticles have a greater likelihood of lung deposition and blood absorption than larger particles due to their size. Nanomaterials can also pose physical hazards due to their unusually high reactivity, which makes them useful as catalysts, but has the potential to cause fires and explosions. Characterization of the hazards (and potential for exposures) associated with nanomaterial development and incorporation in other products is an essential step in the development of nanotechnologies. Developing controls for these hazards are equally important. Engineered controls should be integrated into nanomaterial manufacturing process design according to 10CFR851, DOE Policy 456.1, and DOE Notice 456.1 as safety-related hardware or administrative controls for worker safety. Nanomaterial hazards in a nuclear facility must also meet control requirements per DOE standards 3009, 1189, and 1186. Integration of safe designs into manufacturing processes for new applications concurrent with the developing technology is essential for worker safety. This paper presents a discussion of nanotechnology, nanomaterial properties/hazards and controls.

  8. Determining the a priori seismic hazard of potential geothermal sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, K.; van der Burgt, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The induced seismicity at geothermal sites gives insight into fluid pathways induced by hydraulic fracturing. Another (unwanted) effect is the triggering of sometimes larger seismic events. The European research program GEISER covers all aspects of induced/triggered seismicity during Enhanced Geothermal System operations (EGS). This study deals with the seismic hazard associated with geothermal sites, also covered in the GEISER program. Inherently, traditional probabilistic seismic hazard approaches cannot give an indication of the seismic hazard of an EGS site before production. We aim to develop a method that determines an a priori seismic hazard before commencing EGS operations, which may be updated during production using the more traditional probabilistic seismic hazard approaches. Such a general insight in the expected seismicity of a potential site will assist decision makers in selecting the sites that are not likely to develop larger ('felt') seismicity. The approach we follow is based on a statistical method which uses the induced seismicity occurring at existing EGS sites as input as well as parameters related to production properties and subsurface characteristics. A similar study based on induced seismicity due to gas depletion in the Netherlands found several critical parameters for induced seismicity correlated with gas depletion such as pressure depletion, Young's modulus contrast and fault density. In this research, we focus on finding physical parameters which have predictive properties for induced seismicity on geothermal sites. First information was gathered on several geothermal sites, such as Soultz-Sous-Forêts, Basel, Berlin (El Salvador), Bouillante (French Antilles), Gross Schönebeck and KTB. The gathered information was used to test the predictive properties of parameters for larger ('felt') induced seismicity such as injection pressure, duration of injection, pore pressure changes, natural/induced fracture network, tectonic potential

  9. Liquefaction hazard potential in north eastern united arab emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Homoud, A.

    2003-04-01

    The United Arab Emirates is adjacent to the Iranian plateau characterized by very high density of active and recent faults. The Iranian plateau is one of the seismically active areas of the world and frequently suffers destructive and catastrophic earthquakes that cause heavy loss of human life and widespread damage. Therefore seismic risk in the North Eastern UAE (Sharjah and Dubai) is due to the neighboring very active Iranian seismotectonic province. As almost all foundation soils in the UAE are cohesionless material, which is clearly identified as recent fill deposits in major industrial and residential areas, and given the rapid on-shore infrastructure developments in the North Eastern UAE, and due to the lack of geo-hazards maps, it is considered vital to develop liquefaction hazard maps for these areas. The earthquake risk was brought to the attention of the public and the government upon the recent March 11, 2002 earthquake of magnitude 5.1 on Richter Scale that struck the northern emirates and caused slight damages. Initial seismic hazard assessment studies showed that Design Horizontal Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) in Sharjah and Dubai with 90% probabilities of non-exceedence in 50 years is around 200 cm/sec^2. This study is concerned with the development of liquefaction hazard maps in North Eastern Emirates UAE Cities of Sharjah and Dubai. Liquefaction hazard potential for various soil deposits in these cities is evaluated for different Peak Ground Acceleation Values. Data from thorough geotechnical studies were evaluated. This include boreholes drilling (with SPT tests) and shear strength for representative sand samples taken from several boreholes and at different depths. Liquefaction hazard potential is evaluated at representative sites in the city of Dubai and Sharjah using the state of the art liquefaction potential evaluation methods (e.g. Seed's cyclic stress ratio approach). Results indicate clearly that the coastal areas have a high potential

  10. Hazardous potential of manufactured nanoparticles identified by in vivo assay.

    PubMed

    Valant, Janez; Drobne, Damjana; Sepcić, Kristina; Jemec, Anita; Kogej, Ksenija; Kostanjsek, Rok

    2009-11-15

    New products of nanotechnologies, including nanoparticles, need to be assessed according to their biological reactivity and toxic potential. Given the large number of diverse nanomaterials, a tiered approach is favoured. The aim of our work presented here is to elaborate an in vivo assay with terrestrial invertebrates (Porcellio scaber), which could serve as a first step of hazard identification of nanoparticles. We adapted the widely used acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) assay to be applicable for cell membrane stability assessment of entire organ where the animal was exposed in vivo. The digestive glands (hepatopancreas) of terrestrial isopods were taken as a model test system. The assay was validated with Cu(NO(3))(2) and surfactants. The results showed that all tested nanoparticles, i.e. nanosized TiO(2), nanosized ZnO and fullerenes (C(60)) have cell membrane destabilization potential. As expected, C(60) is the most biologically potent. The AO/EB in vivo assay proved to be fast because response is recorded after 30 min of exposure, relatively simple because digestive glands are inspected immediately after isolation from exposed animals and promising approach because different types of nanoparticles could be tested for their biological potential. This assay provides data for the identification of hazardous potential of nanoparticles before subsequent steps in a tiered approach are decided.

  11. Potential hazards from future volcanic eruptions in California

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    More than 500 volcanic vents have been identified in the State of California. At least 76 of these vents have erupted, some repeatedly, during the last 10,000 yr. Past volcanic activity has ranged in scale and type from small rhyolitic and basaltic eruptions through large catastrophic rhyolitic eruptions. Volcanoes in California will erupt again, and they could have serious impacts on the health, safety, and economy of the State's citizens as well as that of neighboring states. The nature and probable distribution of potentially hazardous volcanic phenomena and their threat to people and property is described in this bulletin.

  12. Potential hazards from future volcanic eruptions in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C. Dan

    1989-01-01

    More than 500 volcanic vents have been identified in the State of California. At least 76 of these vents have erupted, some repeatedly, during the last 10,000 years. Past volcanic activity has ranged in scale and type from small rhyolitic and basaltic eruptions through large catastrophic rhyolitic eruptions. Sooner or later, volcanoes in California will erupt again, and they could have serious impacts on the health and safety of the State\\'s citizens as well as on its economy. This report describes the nature and probable distribution of potentially hazardous volcanic phenomena and their threat to people and property. It includes hazard-zonation maps that show areas relatively likely to be affected by future eruptions in California. The potentially more hazardous eruptions in the State are those that involve explosive eruption of large volumes of silicic magma. Such eruptions could occur at vents in as many as four areas in California. They could eject pumice high into the atmosphere above the volcano, produce destructive blasts, avalanches, or pyroclastic flows that reach distances of tens of kilometers from a vent, and produce mudflows and floods that reach to distances of hundreds of kilometers. Smaller eruptions produce similar, but less severe and less extensive, phenomena. Hazards are greatest close to a volcanic vent; the slopes on or near a volcano, and valleys leading away from it, are affected most often and most severely by such eruptions. In general, risk from volcanic phenomena decreases with increasing distance from a vent and, for most flowage processes, with increasing height above valley floors or fan surfaces. Tephra (ash) from explosive eruptions can affect wide areas downwind from a vent. In California, prevailing winds cause the 180-degree sector east of the volcano to be affected most often and most severely. Risk to life from ashfall decreases rapidly with increasing distance from a vent, but thin deposits of ash could disrupt communication

  13. Potential occupational health hazards in the microelectronics industry.

    PubMed

    LaDou, J

    1983-02-01

    The microelectronics industry is a major user of a wide variety of chemicals and other toxic materials. In the recent past semiconductor manufacturers have located in many countries and brought a new set of challenging clinical problems to occupational physicians. California, an area with a significant history in the statistical study of health and safety in the microelectronics industry, presents some evidence of potential health hazards in the semiconductor manufacturing process. The Semiconductor Industry Study done in California in 1981 explains the application of many toxic materials in the semiconductor manufacturing process, including a variety of solvents, acids, and metals such as arsenic. The Study documents the extensive use of dopant gases, primarily arsine, phosphine and diborane. Further study is necessary to assure the health and safety of microelectronics workers, particularly in the application of dopant gases.

  14. Polymer degradation and ultrafine particles - Potential inhalation hazards for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferin, J.; Oberdoerster, G.

    1992-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that exposure to ultrafine particles results in an increased interstiatilization of the particles which is accompanied by an acute pathological inflammation, rats were exposed to titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles by intratracheal instillation and by inhalation. Both acute intratracheal instillation and subchronic inhalation studies on rats show that ultrafine TiO2 particles access the pulmonary interstitium to a larger extent than fine particles and that they elicit an inflammatory response as indicated by PMN increase in lavaged cells. The release of ultrafine particles into the air of an enclosed environment from a thermodegradation event or from other sources is a potential hazard for astronauts. Knowing the mechanisms of action is a prerequisite for technical or medical countermeasures.

  15. Radon-hazard potential the Beaver basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    Indoor-radon levels in the Beaver basin of southwestern Utah are the highest recorded to date in Utah, ranging from 17.5 to 495 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Because the U.S. Environment Protection Agency considers indoor-radon levels above 4 pCi/L to represent a risk of lung cancer from long-term exposure, the Utah Geological Survey is preparing a radon-hazard-potential map for the area to help prioritize indoor testing and evaluate the need for radon-resistant construction. Radon is a chemically inert radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium-238, which is commonly found in rocks and soils. Soil permeability, depth to ground water, and uranium/thorium content of source materials control the mobility and concentration of radon in the soil. Once formed, radon diffuses into the pore space of the soil and then to the atmosphere or into buildings by pressure-driven flow of air or additional diffusion. The Beaver basin has been a topographic and structural depression since late Miocene time. Paleocene to Miocene volcanic and igneous rocks border the basin. Uraniferous alluvial-fan, piedmont-slope, flood-plain, and lacustrine sediments derived from the surrounding volcanic rocks fill the basin. A soil-gas radon and ground radioactivity survey in the Beaver basin shows that soils have high levels of radon gas. In this survey, uranium concentrations range from 3 to 13 parts per million (ppm) and thorium concentrations range from 10 to 48 ppm. Radon concentrations in the soil gas ranged from 85 to 3,500 pCi/L. The highest concentrations of uranium, thorium, and radon gas and the highest radon-hazard-potential are in the well-drained permeable soils in the lower flood- plain deposits that underlie the city of Beaver.

  16. Arctic Methane Hydrates: A Potential Greenhouse Gas Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, M. P. R.; Solana, C.

    Methane is one of the most important greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere, having 20 times more warming potential than CO2 over a 100 yr period and 56 times more over a 20 yr period. The submarine arctic ice contains abundant methane trapped as hydrates below the continental shelf and its edge. The reserves in this area are estimated at more than 140 times the volume of methane in the atmosphere and, if released relatively quickly, the effects could be catastrophic. Although some authors have established that submarine hydrates will remain stable for the next 1000 yr, this estimation could change if other phenomena are taken into account. Hydrates within the continental shelf in the Arctic are more unstable because of the increase in oceanic temperatures over the last 10,000 yr. A warm (2C maximum) intermediate depth (5- 500 m) current recently detected in the Arctic basin flowing along the shelf edge will further destabilize the methane hydrates exposed there. In addition, the presence of seismic activity along the Arctic mid-ocean ridge and in the northern Alaska region, with magnitudes greater than 3.5 Richter and epicentres less than 30 km deep, could trigger slope failures where the methane hydrate is unstable, releasing huge volumes of methane into the atmosphere. Therefore, identifying those areas that are potentially unstable under these new conditions and the possibilities of reducing the hazard are a priority in our research.

  17. Oligopyrrole Macrocycles: Receptors and Chemosensors for Potentially Hazardous Materials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Oligopyrroles represent a diverse class of molecular receptors that have been utilized in a growing number of applications. Recently, these systems have attracted interest as receptors and chemosensors for hazardous materials, including harmful anionic species, high-valent actinide cations, and nitroaromatic explosives. These versatile molecular receptors have been used to develop rudimentary colorimetric and fluorimetric assays for hazardous materials. PMID:21465591

  18. Evaluation of Equipment Vulnerability and Potential Shock Hazards. [carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taback, I.

    1980-01-01

    The vulnerability of electric equipment to carbon fibers released from aircraft accidents is investigated and the parameters affecting vulnerability are discussed. The shock hazard for a hypothetical set of accidents is computed.

  19. High organic containing tanks: Assessing the hazard potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.C.P.; Babad, H.

    1991-09-01

    Eight Hanford Site tanks contain organic chemicals at concentrations believed to be greater than 10 mole percent sodium acetate equivalent mixed with the oxidizing salts sodium nitrate/sodium nitrite. Also, three of the hydrogen and ferrocyanide tanks appear on the organic tank list. Concentrations of organics that may be present in some tanks could cause an exothermic reaction given a sufficient driving force, such as high temperatures. However, the difference between ignition temperatures and actual tank temperatures measured is so large that the probability of such a reaction is considered very low. The consequences of the postulated reaction are about the same as the scenarios for an explosion in a burping'' hydrogen tank. Although work on this issue is just beginning, consideration of hazards associated with heating nitrate-nitrite mixtures containing organic materials is an integral part of both the hydrogen and ferrocyanide tank efforts. High concentrations of organic compounds have been inferred (from tank transfer, flow sheet records, and limited analytical data) in eight single-shell tanks. Many organic chemicals, if present in concentrations above 10 dry weight percent (sodium acetate equivalent), have the potential to react with nitrate-nitrites constituents at temperatures above 200{degree}C (392{degree}F) in an exothermic manner. The concentrations of organic materials in the listed single-shell tanks, and their chemical identity, is not accurately known at present. A tank sampling program has been planned to provide more information on the contents of these tanks and to serve as a basis for laboratory testing and safety evaluations. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, Walter; Giguere, P T; Bradley, P; Guzik, J A; Plesko, C; Wohletz, K; Johnson, L N; Boice, D C; Chocron, S; Ghosh, A; Goldstein, R; Mukerherjee, J; Patrick, W; Walker, J D

    2008-01-01

    At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

  1. Assessing the potential hazard of chemical substances for the terrestrial environment. Development of hazard classification criteria and quantitative environmental indicators.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, J V; Fresno, A; Aycard, S; Ramos, C; Vega, M M; Carbonell, G

    2000-03-20

    Hazard assessment constitutes an essential tool in order to evaluate the potential effects of chemical substances on organisms and ecosystems. It includes as a first step, hazard identification, which must detect the potential dangers of the substance (i.e. the kind of effects that the substance may produce), and a second step to quantify each danger and to set the expected dose/response relationships. Hazard assessment plays a key role in the regulation of chemical substances, including pollution control and sustainable development. However, the aquatic environment has largely received more attention than terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents the extrapolation of several basic concepts from the aquatic to the terrestrial compartment, and suggests possibilities for their regulatory use. Two specific proposals are discussed. The first focuses on the scientific basis of the hazard identification-classification criteria included in the EU regulations and their extrapolation to the terrestrial environment. The second focuses on the OECD programme for environmental indicators and the development of a soil pollution pressure indicator to quantify the potential hazards for the soil compartment and its associated terrestrial ecosystem related to the toxic chemicals applied deliberately (i.e. pesticides) or not (i.e. heavy metals in sludge-based fertilisers; industrial spills) to the soil. PMID:10803544

  2. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES... Subpart E of Part 1724—Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects The source for...

  3. 14 CFR 135.67 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 135.67 Section 135.67... navigation aids. Whenever a pilot encounters a potentially hazardous meteorological condition or...

  4. 14 CFR 135.67 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 135.67 Section 135.67... navigation aids. Whenever a pilot encounters a potentially hazardous meteorological condition or...

  5. 14 CFR 135.67 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 135.67 Section 135.67... navigation aids. Whenever a pilot encounters a potentially hazardous meteorological condition or...

  6. 14 CFR 135.67 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 135.67 Section 135.67... navigation aids. Whenever a pilot encounters a potentially hazardous meteorological condition or...

  7. 14 CFR 135.67 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 135.67 Section 135.67... navigation aids. Whenever a pilot encounters a potentially hazardous meteorological condition or...

  8. Modern tornado design of nuclear and other potentially hazardous facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.D.; Zhao, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Tornado wind loads and other tornado phenomena, including tornado missiles and differential pressure effects, have not usually been considered in the design of conventional industrial, commercial, or residential facilities in the United States; however, tornado resistance has often become a design requirement for certain hazardous facilities, such as large nuclear power plants and nuclear materials and waste storage facilities, as well as large liquefied natural gas storage facilities. This article provides a review of current procedures for the design of hazardous industrial facilities to resist tornado effects. 23 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Tsunami Hazards Along the Chinese Coast from Potential Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Santos, A.; Shi, Y.; Wang, M.; Yuen, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    The recent Indonesian earthquake has awakened great concerns about destructive hazards along the Chinese coast. Scientists have provided a clear record of past tsunamis along East China that clearly indicate the potential for future tsunami damage to China. In this work we will assess from analyzing the probability for tsunami waves to hit the Chinese coast in the next century from large earthquakes coming from the neighboring subducting plate boundaries. This analysis is important because of the sharp increase in coastal population density in China, the intense development of harbors and the exploitation of mineral resources in coastal areas, ranging from Xiamen in the north to Hainan in the south. The probability seismic studies for the South China Sea and adjacent field were based on the relationship of Gutenberg- Richter (G-R) relationship between the number of local earthquake and magnitude. We studied the earthquakes of the global subduction belt. We found the earthquakes of the global subduction belt follow the G-R relationship. The plate boundary model came from P. Bird (2002). According to the historical earthquakes of South China Sea and adjacent field (From NEIC), and the tectonic and focal mechanism (HCMT), the studied field is divided two partitions. The latitude of the first partition is N (12-19 deg.); the second is N(19-23 deg.). There are twelve large earthquakes in the two partitions. Their magnitudes are bigger than 6. The probabilities of earthquakes in the South China Sea are computed by the local G-R relationship. They would determine the seismically-induced tsunami probability. In our study the linear shallow water equation is used for integrating the twelve earthquake induced tsunamis. The numerical scheme for the linear equations is the staggered leap-frog method. The code has been provided by Dr. Fumihiko Imamura, Tokohu University, Japan. We combined the probability of three segments of wave height, 2.0 to 1.0 meter, 1.0 to 0.5 meters

  10. Assessing the Seismic Potential Hazard of the Makran Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohling, E.; Szeliga, W. M.; Melbourne, T. I.; Abolghasem, A.; Lodi, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    Long quiescent subduction zones like the Makran, Sunda, and Cascadia, which have long recurrence intervals for large (> Mw 8) earthquakes, often have poorly known seismic histories and are particularly vulnerable and often ill-prepared. The Makran subduction zone has not been studied extensively, but the 1945 Mw 8.1 earthquake and subsequent tsunami, as well as more recent mid magnitude, intermediate depth (50-100 km) seismicity, demonstrates the active seismic nature of the region. Recent increases in regional GPS and seismic monitoring now permit the modeling of strain accumulations and seismic potential of the Makran subduction zone. Subduction zone seismicity indicates that the eastern half of the Makran is presently more active than the western half. It has been hypothesized that the relative quiescence of the western half is due to aseismic behavior. However, based on GPS evidence, the entire subduction zone generally appears to be coupled and has been accumulating stress that could be released in another > 8.0 Mw earthquake. To assess the degree of coupling, we utilize existing GPS data to create a fault coupling model for the Makran using a preliminary 2-D fault geometry derived from ISC hypocenters. Our 2-D modeling is done using the backslip approach and defines the parameters in our coupling model; we forego the generation of a 3-D model due to the low spatial density of available GPS data. We compare the use of both NUVEL-1A plate motions and modern Arabian plate motions derived from GPS station velocities in Oman to drive subduction for our fault coupling model. To avoid non-physical inversion results, we impose second order smoothing to eliminate steep strain gradients. The fit of the modeled inter-seismic deformation vectors are assessed against the observed strain from the GPS data. Initial observations indicate that the entire subduction zone is currently locked and accumulating strain, with no identifiable gaps in the interseismic locking

  11. Characterization of the Potential Hazards Associated with Potential RCRA Treatment Noncompliances

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, David Lewis

    2015-08-20

    The purpose of this document is to provide a hazard evaluation of the noncompliances and whether any new actions are required to mitigate potential risk to the worker or the public. In short, we have reviewed the noncompliances and have concluded that the possibility of exothermic reactions leading to radioactive release is not credible, and in one case, inconceivable, stemming from the fact that the majority fraction of the waste is compatible with organic absorbents and neutralizers. It is not expected that the noncompliances would generate or produce uncontrolled flammable fumes, gases, extreme heat, pressure, fire, explosions, or violent reactions.

  12. TREATABILITY POTENTIAL FOR EPA LISTED HAZARDOUS WASTES IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study developed comprehensive screening data on the treatability in soil of: (a) specific listed hazardous organic chemicals, and (b) waste sludge from explosives production (K044) and related chemicals. Laboratory experiments were conducted using two soil types, an acidic s...

  13. Chaparral vegetation reflectance and its potential utility for assessment of fire hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Warren B.

    1991-01-01

    Current methods for assessment of ignition potential often fail to alert wildland managers to the severity of drought-induced fire hazard at remote locations and over large geographic areas. After the severe fires of 1988 in the western United States, the need was heightened for improved fire hazard assessment techniques. Chaparral vegetation is particularly receptive to recurring drought-related episodes of extreme fire hazard and was thus chosen for study here. Demonstrated herein is that chaparral vegetation has considerably different reflecting properties at different levels of drought stress. As such, remote sensing may have utility for fire hazard assessment in this vegetation type.

  14. The potential inhalation hazard posed by dioxin contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Paustenbach, D.J.; Sarlos, T.T.; Lau, V.; Finley, B.L.; Jeffrey, D.A.; Ungs, M.J. )

    1991-10-01

    Mathematical models and field data were used to estimate the airborne concentrations of 2,3,7,8 tetratchlorodibenxo-p-dioxin (TCDD) vapor and particulates which could originate from soil containing 100 ppb TCDD. The model of Jury et al. (1983) and the box approach were used to predict the concentration of TCDD vapor from soil. These results indicate that the concentration predicted by the Jury et al. model are about 1,000 fold greater than which actually occur. The inability of the Jury model to accurately estimate the rate of violation of TCDD from soil is probably because the TCDD was applied to the sol in a formulated state where it could easily migrate below the surface. A recent modification of the Jury model (1990) suggests that a 5-50 mm layer of clean soil will significantly retard (or eliminate) the vapor hazard posed by TCDD contaminated soil. The risks due to fugitive dust will always be greater than the vapor hazard, but for soil concentrations of 100 ppb the cancer risk should be less than 10{sup {minus}6}. Since few sites have average soil concentrations as high as 100 ppb, this nearly worst case analysis indicates that inhalation will rarely, if ever, be a significant route of exposure to TCDD-contaminated soil.

  15. Potential Explosion Hazard of Carbonaceous Nanoparticles: Screening of Allotropes

    PubMed Central

    Turkevich, Leonid A.; Fernback, Joseph; Dastidar, Ashok G.; Osterberg, Paul

    2016-01-01

    There is a concern that engineered carbon nanoparticles, when manufactured on an industrial scale, will pose an explosion hazard. Explosion testing has been performed on 20 codes of carbonaceous powders. These include several different codes of SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes), MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes) and CNFs (carbon nanofibers), graphene, diamond, fullerene, as well as several different control carbon blacks and graphites. Explosion screening was performed in a 20 L explosion chamber (ASTM E1226 protocol), at a concentration of 500 g/m3, using a 5 kJ ignition source. Time traces of overpressure were recorded. Samples typically exhibited overpressures of 5–7 bar, and deflagration index KSt = V1/3 (dP/dt)max ~ 10 – 80 bar-m/s, which places these materials in European Dust Explosion Class St-1. There is minimal variation between these different materials. The explosive characteristics of these carbonaceous powders are uncorrelated with primary particle size (BET specific surface area). PMID:27468178

  16. A tracking and learning method for on-road potential safety hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jian-wen; Zhang, Sheng-chao; Yao, Bo

    2011-11-01

    Avoiding potential safety hazard is the primary task of vision-based assistant driving system(ADS). Potential safety hazard exists in driving individual vehicles. Although these hazards are unexpected, obvious characteristics exist for vehicles that make them happen, such as: relatively fast speed, changing lanes frequently and being occluded as shuttling in the busy traffic. All these characteristics go against on-road tracking for the unsafe vehicle. At present, the assistant driving system is only permitted in the field of obstracle detection and location. However, those systems are not involved in tracking of vehicles with potential safety hazard. The paper presents an approach to tracking and online learning of on-road vehicles with potential safety hazard. Further, we improve the method of online learning to the unsafe hazard. The performance of our tracking algorithm is evaluated on a public benchmark with test data from various challenging videos on different conditions. The experiment results demonstrate that, in the same condition, our method can obtain samples more efficiently and lead the classifier to converge more quickly.

  17. Ceiling (attic) dust: a "museum" of contamination and potential hazard.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jeffrey J; Gulson, Brian L

    2005-10-01

    . Significant correlations (P0.03) were observed between most of the metals As-Cd-Cu-Pb-Sb-Zn, especially from the industrial settings. Pathways of dust exposure in this study are classified as being passive or active based upon the probable route of dust infiltration. Ceiling dusts pose a probable health hazard if the dust is disturbed and allowed to plume within the living areas of a dwelling, thereby exposing the occupants, especially children, to elevated levels of metals and fine particulates. Modeling shows that exposure to the elevated levels of Pb in dust could give rise to blood lead concentrations exceeding current guidelines for the industrial and semi-industrial areas.

  18. Potential chlordane mobilization and transport at a hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson-Logan, L.R.; Klaine, S.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Elevated levels of the insecticide, chlordane, have been found in soils and sediments in the vicinity of the superfund site, North Hollywood Dump in Memphis, Tennessee. The site is a closed municipal/industrial landfill located on the alluvial plain and abandoned channels of the Wolf River. The general direction of the ground water flow is radically away from the dump but towards the river. In the following study, batch solubility and sorption experiments in combination with leaching studies using DOC were used to determine the potential for chlordane mobilization and transport at the site.

  19. Alcohol hand gel--a potential fire hazard.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Fionnuala M; Price, Gareth J

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol hand gel and wipes are the common method of disinfecting the hands of healthcare workers and working surfaces in clinical settings. We present a case of a 40-year-old health care support worker who was referred acutely to our burns unit following flame burns in association with alcohol gel use. Fortunately she was able to extinguish the flames without sustaining a significant thermal injury however this case highlights the potential danger associated with alcohol gel use, especially with smokers. With the ever increasing use of alcohol hand gel, not only in healthcare settings but also in the general population there needs to be clearer warnings regarding the potential for ignition after use. Alcohol hand gel and wipes are the common method of disinfecting the hands of healthcare workers and working surfaces in clinical settings. Most trusts have strict policies regarding mandatory sanitisation of hands before and after patient contact. This is most easily achieved by the use of alcohol gel due to its ease of use and quick drying properties. As a result alcohol hand disinfectant is available is a variety of formats including foam, gel and wipes. It is also now widely available for use to the general public.

  20. A potential MRI hazard: forces on dental magnet keepers.

    PubMed

    Gegauff, A G; Laurell, K A; Thavendrarajah, A; Rosenstiel, S F

    1990-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the forces on dental prosthetic magnet keepers, with a view to assessing the potential for patient injury during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Four pre-formed keepers and one castable keeper alloy were tested. Magnetizations and high field susceptibilities were determined for each of the five specimens using data from a vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic field intensity with respect to distance from the main magnet coil was obtained from the manufacturer (1-5 tesla General Electric Signa Imaging System). A plot of force versus distance from the main coil and the maximum force at the magnet portal was determined for each specimen. The maximum forces ranged from 0.12-0.24 N for the pre-formed keepers and 3.67 MNm-3 for the castable alloy. It was concluded that the risk of patient injury by displacement is minimal, if the keepers are properly attached to supporting structures. PMID:2231158

  1. Comments on potential geologic and seismic hazards affecting coastal Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Boore, David M.; Fisher, Michael A.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Geist, Eric L.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Kayen, Robert E.; Lee, Homa J.; Normark, William R.; Wong, Florence L.

    2004-01-01

    This report examines the regional seismic and geologic hazards that could affect proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in coastal Ventura County, California. Faults throughout this area are thought to be capable of producing earthquakes of magnitude 6.5 to 7.5, which could produce surface fault offsets of as much as 15 feet. Many of these faults are sufficiently well understood to be included in the current generation of the National Seismic Hazard Maps; others may become candidates for inclusion in future revisions as research proceeds. Strong shaking is the primary hazard that causes damage from earthquakes and this area is zoned with a high level of shaking hazard. The estimated probability of a magnitude 6.5 or larger earthquake (comparable in size to the 2003 San Simeon quake) occurring in the next 30 years within 30 miles of Platform Grace is 50-60%; for Cabrillo Port, the estimate is a 35% likelihood. Combining these probabilities of earthquake occurrence with relationships that give expected ground motions yields the estimated seismic-shaking hazard. In parts of the project area, the estimated shaking hazard is as high as along the San Andreas Fault. The combination of long-period basin waves and LNG installations with large long-period resonances potentially increases this hazard.

  2. Considering potential seismic sources in earthquake hazard assessment for Northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahzadeh, Gholamreza; Sazjini, Mohammad; Shahaky, Mohsen; Tajrishi, Fatemeh Zahedi; Khanmohammadi, Leila

    2014-07-01

    Located on the Alpine-Himalayan earthquake belt, Iran is one of the seismically active regions of the world. Northern Iran, south of Caspian Basin, a hazardous subduction zone, is a densely populated and developing area of the country. Historical and instrumental documented seismicity indicates the occurrence of severe earthquakes leading to many deaths and large losses in the region. With growth of seismological and tectonic data, updated seismic hazard assessment is a worthwhile issue in emergency management programs and long-term developing plans in urban and rural areas of this region. In the present study, being armed with up-to-date information required for seismic hazard assessment including geological data and active tectonic setting for thorough investigation of the active and potential seismogenic sources, and historical and instrumental events for compiling the earthquake catalogue, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment is carried out for the region using three recent ground motion prediction equations. The logic tree method is utilized to capture epistemic uncertainty of the seismic hazard assessment in delineation of the seismic sources and selection of attenuation relations. The results are compared to a recent practice in code-prescribed seismic hazard of the region and are discussed in detail to explore their variation in each branch of logic tree approach. Also, seismic hazard maps of peak ground acceleration in rock site for 475- and 2,475-year return periods are provided for the region.

  3. Listeria Species in Broiler Poultry Farms: Potential Public Health Hazards.

    PubMed

    Dahshan, Hesham; Merwad, Abdallah Mohamed Amin; Mohamed, Taisir Saber

    2016-09-28

    Broiler meat production worldwide has been plagued by lethal food-poisoning bacteria diseases, including listeriosis. A fatality rate of 15.6% was recorded in human beings in the EU in 2015. During 2013, a total of 200 poultry farm samples, including litter, chicken breast, farm feed, and drinking water, were collected to generate baseline data for the characterization of the genus Listeria in broiler poultry farms. Listeria spp. were detected in a total of 95 (47.5%) poultry farm samples. The isolates of Listeria spp. included L. innocua (28.5%), L. ivanovii (12.5%), L. welshimeri (4.5%), and L. monocytogenes and L. seeligeri (1% each). Listeria spp. contamination rates were higher in farm feed (70%), followed by litter (52.5%), chicken breasts (42.2%), and drinking water (10%). Almost all Listeria spp. isolates were resistant to more than three classes of antibiotics (multidrug resistant). Besides this, we observed a significant resistance level to penicillin and fluoroquinolone drugs. However, lower resistance levels were recorded for broad-spectrum cephalosporins. The inlA, inlC, and inlJ virulence genes were detected in almost all of the L. monocytogenes isolates. Thus, food safety management approaches and interventions at all stages of the broiler rearing cycle were needed to control cross-contamination and the zoonotic potential of listeriosis.

  4. Listeria Species in Broiler Poultry Farms: Potential Public Health Hazards.

    PubMed

    Dahshan, Hesham; Merwad, Abdallah Mohamed Amin; Mohamed, Taisir Saber

    2016-09-28

    Broiler meat production worldwide has been plagued by lethal food-poisoning bacteria diseases, including listeriosis. A fatality rate of 15.6% was recorded in human beings in the EU in 2015. During 2013, a total of 200 poultry farm samples, including litter, chicken breast, farm feed, and drinking water, were collected to generate baseline data for the characterization of the genus Listeria in broiler poultry farms. Listeria spp. were detected in a total of 95 (47.5%) poultry farm samples. The isolates of Listeria spp. included L. innocua (28.5%), L. ivanovii (12.5%), L. welshimeri (4.5%), and L. monocytogenes and L. seeligeri (1% each). Listeria spp. contamination rates were higher in farm feed (70%), followed by litter (52.5%), chicken breasts (42.2%), and drinking water (10%). Almost all Listeria spp. isolates were resistant to more than three classes of antibiotics (multidrug resistant). Besides this, we observed a significant resistance level to penicillin and fluoroquinolone drugs. However, lower resistance levels were recorded for broad-spectrum cephalosporins. The inlA, inlC, and inlJ virulence genes were detected in almost all of the L. monocytogenes isolates. Thus, food safety management approaches and interventions at all stages of the broiler rearing cycle were needed to control cross-contamination and the zoonotic potential of listeriosis. PMID:27291674

  5. Accidental burials in sand: a potentially fatal summertime hazard.

    PubMed

    Zarroug, Abdalla E; Stavlo, Penny L; Kays, Greg A; Rodeberg, David A; Moir, Christopher R

    2004-06-01

    Accidental burial in sand is a tragically unrecognized risk associated with a popular childhood recreational activity. We describe 4 boys, aged 10 to 13 years, who were accidentally buried by sand. One boy died after his self-made tunnel in a sandbox collapsed. In a separate incident at a construction site, 1 boy died, and 2 were injured after a 30-foot sandpile collapsed as they ran down the embankment; all 3 were buried by the sand. In both incidents, play was unsupervised, and burial was sudden and complete. The calculated weight of the sand exceeded the expected maximal muscle effort of the chest, leading to traumatic asphyxiation secondary to restrictive compression of the chest. Only 15 accidental burials have been reported in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing children who died of respiratory asphyxia due to overwhelming thoracic compression after sand burial. Greater awareness by public health and safety officials at beaches, sandboxes, sandpiles, and natural play areas may prevent potentially lethal accidents.

  6. MR of ballistic materials: imaging artifacts and potential hazards.

    PubMed

    Smith, A S; Hurst, G C; Duerk, J L; Diaz, P J

    1991-01-01

    The most common ballistic materials available in the urban setting were studied for their MR effects on deflection force, rotation, heating, and imaging artifacts at 1.5 T to determine the potential efficacy and safety for imaging patients with ballistic injuries. The 28 missiles tested covered the range of bullet types and materials suggested by the Cleveland Police Department. The deflection force was measured by the New method. Rotation was evaluated 30 min after bullets had been placed in a 10% (weight per weight) ballistic gelatin designed to simulate brain tissue, with the long axis of the bullet placed parallel and perpendicular to the Z axis of the magnet. Heating was measured with alcohol thermometers by imaging for 1 hr alternatively with gradient-echo and spin-echo sequences (RF absorption = 0.033 and 0.326 w/kg respectively). Image artifacts on routine sequences were evaluated. All the steel-containing bullets except for the Winchester armor-piercing 38 caliber exhibited deflection. A nonsteel 7.38-mm Mauser also deflected. Deflection range was 514 to 15,504 dynes. Rotation occurred when the bullets were not parallel to the Z axis. Temperature changes were not significant. Deflecting projectiles resulted in obliteration of the image. The artifacts from other projectiles were small but varied by content. The artifact of the Winchester armor-piercing 38-caliber bullet was similar to those without steel. Bullets that contain steel or ferromagnetic contaminates such as nickel can be rotated within the MR unit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2058521

  7. Continuous injection of an inert gas through a drill rig for drilling into potentially hazardous areas

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, S.H.; Pigott, W.R.

    1998-04-01

    A drill rig for drilling in potentially hazardous areas includes a drill having conventional features such as a frame, a gear motor, gear box, and a drive. A hollow rotating shaft projects through the drive and frame. An auger, connected to the shaft is provided with a multiplicity of holes. An inert gas is supplied to the hollow shaft and directed from the rotating shaft to the holes in the auger. The inert gas flows down the hollow shaft, and then down the hollow auger, and out through the holes in the bottom of the auger into the potentially hazardous area.

  8. Continuous injection of an inert gas through a drill rig for drilling into potentially hazardous areas

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, Steve H.; Pigott, William R.

    1997-01-01

    A drill rig for drilling in potentially hazardous areas includes a drill having conventional features such as a frame, a gear motor, gear box, and a drive. A hollow rotating shaft projects through the drive and frame. An auger, connected to the shaft is provided with a multiplicity of holes. An inert gas is supplied to the hollow shaft and directed from the rotating shaft to the holes in the auger. The inert gas flows down the hollow shaft, and then down the hollow auger and out through the holes in the bottom of the auger into the potentially hazardous area.

  9. Continuous injection of an inert gas through a drill rig for drilling into potentially hazardous areas

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, S.H.; Pigott, W.R.

    1997-12-30

    A drill rig for drilling in potentially hazardous areas includes a drill having conventional features such as a frame, a gear motor, gear box, and a drive. A hollow rotating shaft projects through the drive and frame. An auger, connected to the shaft is provided with a multiplicity of holes. An inert gas is supplied to the hollow shaft and directed from the rotating shaft to the holes in the auger. The inert gas flows down the hollow shaft, and then down the hollow auger and out through the holes in the bottom of the auger into the potentially hazardous area. 3 figs.

  10. Potential for a hazardous geospheric response to projected future climate changes.

    PubMed

    McGuire, B

    2010-05-28

    Periods of exceptional climate change in Earth history are associated with a dynamic response from the geosphere, involving enhanced levels of potentially hazardous geological and geomorphological activity. The response is expressed through the adjustment, modulation or triggering of a broad range of surface and crustal phenomena, including volcanic and seismic activity, submarine and subaerial landslides, tsunamis and landslide 'splash' waves, glacial outburst and rock-dam failure floods, debris flows and gas-hydrate destabilization. In relation to anthropogenic climate change, modelling studies and projection of current trends point towards increased risk in relation to a spectrum of geological and geomorphological hazards in a warmer world, while observations suggest that the ongoing rise in global average temperatures may already be eliciting a hazardous response from the geosphere. Here, the potential influences of anthropogenic warming are reviewed in relation to an array of geological and geomorphological hazards across a range of environmental settings. A programme of focused research is advocated in order to: (i) understand better those mechanisms by which contemporary climate change may drive hazardous geological and geomorphological activity; (ii) delineate those parts of the world that are most susceptible; and (iii) provide a more robust appreciation of potential impacts for society and infrastructure. PMID:20403831

  11. Potential for a hazardous geospheric response to projected future climate changes.

    PubMed

    McGuire, B

    2010-05-28

    Periods of exceptional climate change in Earth history are associated with a dynamic response from the geosphere, involving enhanced levels of potentially hazardous geological and geomorphological activity. The response is expressed through the adjustment, modulation or triggering of a broad range of surface and crustal phenomena, including volcanic and seismic activity, submarine and subaerial landslides, tsunamis and landslide 'splash' waves, glacial outburst and rock-dam failure floods, debris flows and gas-hydrate destabilization. In relation to anthropogenic climate change, modelling studies and projection of current trends point towards increased risk in relation to a spectrum of geological and geomorphological hazards in a warmer world, while observations suggest that the ongoing rise in global average temperatures may already be eliciting a hazardous response from the geosphere. Here, the potential influences of anthropogenic warming are reviewed in relation to an array of geological and geomorphological hazards across a range of environmental settings. A programme of focused research is advocated in order to: (i) understand better those mechanisms by which contemporary climate change may drive hazardous geological and geomorphological activity; (ii) delineate those parts of the world that are most susceptible; and (iii) provide a more robust appreciation of potential impacts for society and infrastructure.

  12. Potential of weight of evidence modelling for gully erosion hazard assessment in Mbire District - Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, F.; Nhapi, I.; Murwira, A.; Gumindoga, W.; Goldin, J.; Mashauri, D. A.

    Gully erosion is an environmental concern particularly in areas where landcover has been modified by human activities. This study assessed the extent to which the potential of gully erosion could be successfully modelled as a function of seven environmental factors (landcover, soil type, distance from river, distance from road, Sediment Transport Index (STI), Stream Power Index (SPI) and Wetness Index (WI) using a GIS-based Weight of Evidence Modelling (WEM) in the Mbire District of Zimbabwe. Results show that out of the studied seven factors affecting gully erosion, five were significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to gully occurrence, namely; landcover, soil type, distance from river, STI and SPI. Two factors; WI and distance from road were not significantly correlated to gully occurrence (p > 0.05). A gully erosion hazard map showed that 78% of the very high hazard class area is within a distance of 250 m from rivers. Model validation indicated that 70% of the validation set of gullies were in the high hazard and very high hazard class. The resulting map of areas susceptible to gully erosion has a prediction accuracy of 67.8%. The predictive capability of the weight of evidence model in this study suggests that landcover, soil type, distance from river, STI and SPI are useful in creating a gully erosion hazard map but may not be sufficient to produce a valid map of gully erosion hazard.

  13. A computational study of explosive hazard potential for reuseable launch vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, Leo J.; Freitas, Christopher J.; Langley, Patrick; Palmer, Donald; Saul, W. Venner; Chocron, Sidney; Kipp, Marlin E.

    2004-09-01

    Catastrophic failure of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) during launch poses a significant engineering problem in the context of crew escape. The explosive hazard potential of the RLV changes during the various phases of the launch. The hazard potential in the on-pad environment is characterized by release and formation of a gas phase mixture in an oxidizer rich environment, while the hazard during the in-flight phase is dominated by the boundary layer and wake flow formed around the vehicle and the interaction with the exhaust gas plume. In order to address more effectively crew escape in these explosive environments a computational analysis program was undertaken by Lockheed Martin, funded by NASA JSC, with simulations and analyses completed by Southwest Research Institute and Sandia National Laboratories. This paper presents then the details of the methodology used in this analysis, results of the study, and important conclusions that came out of the study.

  14. Identification of potentially hazardous human gene products in GMO risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bergmans, Hans; Logie, Colin; Van Maanen, Kees; Hermsen, Harm; Meredyth, Michelle; Van Der Vlugt, Cécile

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), e.g. viral vectors, could threaten the environment if by their release they spread hazardous gene products. Even in contained use, to prevent adverse consequences, viral vectors carrying genes from mammals or humans should be especially scrutinized as to whether gene products that they synthesize could be hazardous in their new context. Examples of such potentially hazardous gene products (PHGPs) are: protein toxins, products of dominant alleles that have a role in hereditary diseases, gene products and sequences involved in genome rearrangements, gene products involved in immunomodulation or with an endocrine function, gene products involved in apoptosis, activated proto-oncogenes. For contained use of a GMO that carries a construct encoding a PHGP, the precautionary principle dictates that safety measures should be applied on a "worst case" basis, until the risks of the specific case have been assessed. The potential hazard of cloned genes can be estimated before empirical data on the actual GMO become available. Preliminary data may be used to focus hazard identification and risk assessment. Both predictive and empirical data may also help to identify what further information is needed to assess the risk of the GMO. A two-step approach, whereby a PHGP is evaluated for its conceptual dangers, then checked by data bank searches, is delineated here.

  15. Information specificity and hazard risk potential as moderators of trust asymmetry.

    PubMed

    White, Mathew P; Richard Eiser, J

    2005-10-01

    Trust in risk managers appears to be an important antecedent of public acceptance for many hazards. However, such trust may be fragile since research suggests that negative performance information has a greater impact than positive performance information (Slovic, 1993). Closer examination of these findings suggests two potential moderators of this valence-related asymmetry-information specificity and hazard risk potential. First, we predicted that the asymmetry would be less evident for low versus high specificity information (risk management policies vs. concrete events). Second, we predicted that it would also be less evident for a low- versus high-risk hazard (pharmaceutical vs. nuclear industry). Study 1 reanalyzed Slovic's original trust asymmetry data for the nuclear industry. In line with Prediction 1, trust asymmetry was less evident for policy than event-related information. Using a new set of items with more clearly defined levels of specificity, Study 2 replicated and extended these findings for the high-risk hazard (nuclear power). In line with Prediction 2, trust asymmetry was even less evident for the low-risk hazard (pharmaceuticals). Positive policies in this industry actually had a greater impact on trust than negative ones, in contrast to previous findings. Results support an information diagnosticity account of earlier findings and suggest that trust in risk managers may be more robust than previously believed.

  16. Identification of potentially hazardous human gene products in GMO risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bergmans, Hans; Logie, Colin; Van Maanen, Kees; Hermsen, Harm; Meredyth, Michelle; Van Der Vlugt, Cécile

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), e.g. viral vectors, could threaten the environment if by their release they spread hazardous gene products. Even in contained use, to prevent adverse consequences, viral vectors carrying genes from mammals or humans should be especially scrutinized as to whether gene products that they synthesize could be hazardous in their new context. Examples of such potentially hazardous gene products (PHGPs) are: protein toxins, products of dominant alleles that have a role in hereditary diseases, gene products and sequences involved in genome rearrangements, gene products involved in immunomodulation or with an endocrine function, gene products involved in apoptosis, activated proto-oncogenes. For contained use of a GMO that carries a construct encoding a PHGP, the precautionary principle dictates that safety measures should be applied on a "worst case" basis, until the risks of the specific case have been assessed. The potential hazard of cloned genes can be estimated before empirical data on the actual GMO become available. Preliminary data may be used to focus hazard identification and risk assessment. Both predictive and empirical data may also help to identify what further information is needed to assess the risk of the GMO. A two-step approach, whereby a PHGP is evaluated for its conceptual dangers, then checked by data bank searches, is delineated here. PMID:18384725

  17. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  18. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  19. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  20. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  1. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  2. 14 CFR 121.561 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 121.561 Section 121.561... meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. (a) Whenever he...

  3. 14 CFR 121.561 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 121.561 Section 121.561... meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. (a) Whenever he...

  4. 14 CFR 121.561 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 121.561 Section 121.561... meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. (a) Whenever he...

  5. 14 CFR 121.561 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 121.561 Section 121.561... meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. (a) Whenever he...

  6. 14 CFR 121.561 - Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reporting potentially hazardous meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. 121.561 Section 121.561... meteorological conditions and irregularities of ground facilities or navigation aids. (a) Whenever he...

  7. Tank Waste Remediation System Resolution of Potentially Hazardous Tank Vapor Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, E.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-10

    This report documents the resolution of industrial health and safety issues regarding potentially hazardous tank vapors in the Hanford 200 Area Tank Farms. It also summarizes the tasks and controls which have been implemented and demonstrates that with the present work controls in place, an unacceptable inhalation risk to workers from tank farm vapors does not exist.

  8. THE POTENTIAL OF AN EARTHWORM AVOIDANCE TEST FOR EVALUATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An earthworm avoidance test has potential advantages for use in evaluation of hazardous wastes sites. Because organisms often exhibit behavioral responses at lower levels of stress than those that acute toxicity tests are able to detect, avoidance tests could provide increased se...

  9. Comments on potential geologic and seismic hazards affecting Mare Island, Solano County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Wentworth, C.M.; Bakun, W.H.; Boatwright, J.; Brocher, T.E.; Çelebi, M.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Fletcher, J.P.B.; Geist, E.L.; Graymer, R.W.; Kayen, R.E.; Keefer, D.K.; Oppenheimer, D.H.; Savage, W.U.; Schwartz, D.P.; Simpson, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    This report was prepared in response to a written request from the City of Vallejo, California, to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). By letter of October 4, 2002, the City requested that the USGS "provide advice to the City’s LNG Health and Safety Committee on its review of a potential liquid natural gas project" on the southern portion of Mare Island. The City specifically requested that the USGS advise the committee on potential hazards including fault rupture, earthquake ground motion, soil failure during earthquakes, tsunami and seiche, and landslides. The City requested that the USGS: (1) comment on these hazards, (2) describe its degree of confidence in its opinions, and (3) describe the scope of additional studies that will be needed if the City enters into an agreement with project sponsors. Advice was also requested on the selection of the safe shutdown and operating basis earthquakes as specified in the NFPA 59A standard (NFPA, 2001). This review of published reports and other publicly available information indicates that all of the hazards on which the USGS was asked to comment should be considered for the proposed project on the southern portion of Mare Island. Available information differs greatly for each of these potential hazards, and adequate understanding for design will require detailed site-specific investigations.

  10. Potential hazards from floodflows in Wildrose Canyon, Death Valley National Monument, California-Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crippen, John R.

    1981-01-01

    Wildrose Canyon, in the western slopes of the Panamint Mountains , is a well-traveled route in Death Valley National Monument and is a scenic area often visited for its own sake. It is an arid region that is subject to flash flooding. Although such flooding is infrequent, when it occurs in the steep, narrow canyon within which the road lies, the flow of water and accompanying debris may be hazardous to life and to any obstacle in its path. Historical records of amounts of rainfall and floodflow in the area are sparse, but data from the basin and from similar areas in the desert mountains of southern California are sufficient to provide a basis for estimates of the degree of hazard. Potential hazards from floodflows are defined for Wildrose Canyon and its nearby approach routes. (USGS)

  11. A study on the use of planarity for quick identification of potential landslide hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, M. H.; Kim, T. H.

    2015-05-01

    In this study we focused on identifying a geomorphological feature that controls the location of landslides. The representation of the feature is based on a high-resolution digital elevation model derived from the airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) and evaluated by the statistical analysis of axial orientation data. The main principle of this analysis is generating eigenvalues from axial orientation data and comparing them. The planarity, a ratio of eigenvalues, would tell the degree of irregularity on the ground surface based on their ratios. Results are compared to the recent landslide case in Korea in order to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology in identifying the potential landslide hazard. The preliminary landslide hazard assessment based on the planarity analysis discriminates features between stable and unstable domain in the study area well, especially in the landslide initiation zones. Results also show it is beneficial to build the landslide hazard inventory mapping, especially where no information on historical records of landslides exists. By combining other physical procedures such as geotechnical monitoring, the landslide hazard assessment using geomorphological features promises a better understanding of landslides and their mechanisms and provides an enhanced methodology to evaluate their hazards and appropriate actions.

  12. Potential environmental impacts of light-emitting diodes (LEDs): metallic resources, toxicity, and hazardous waste classification.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are advertised as environmentally friendly because they are energy efficient and mercury-free. This study aimed to determine if LEDs engender other forms of environmental and human health impacts, and to characterize variation across different LEDs based on color and intensity. The objectives are as follows: (i) to use standardized leachability tests to examine whether LEDs are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing United States federal and California state regulations; and (ii) to use material life cycle impact and hazard assessment methods to evaluate resource depletion and toxicity potentials of LEDs based on their metallic constituents. According to federal standards, LEDs are not hazardous except for low-intensity red LEDs, which leached Pb at levels exceeding regulatory limits (186 mg/L; regulatory limit: 5). However, according to California regulations, excessive levels of copper (up to 3892 mg/kg; limit: 2500), Pb (up to 8103 mg/kg; limit: 1000), nickel (up to 4797 mg/kg; limit: 2000), or silver (up to 721 mg/kg; limit: 500) render all except low-intensity yellow LEDs hazardous. The environmental burden associated with resource depletion potentials derives primarily from gold and silver, whereas the burden from toxicity potentials is associated primarily with arsenic, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and silver. Establishing benchmark levels of these substances can help manufacturers implement design for environment through informed materials substitution, can motivate recyclers and waste management teams to recognize resource value and occupational hazards, and can inform policymakers who establish waste management policies for LEDs. PMID:21138290

  13. The reduction of a ""safety catastrophic'' potential hazard: A case history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    A worst case analysis is reported on the safety of time watch movements for triggering explosive packages on the lunar surface in an experiment to investigate physical lunar structural characteristics through induced seismic energy waves. Considered are the combined effects of low pressure, low temperature, lunar gravity, gear train error, and position. Control measures constitute a seal control cavity and design requirements to prevent overbanking in the mainspring torque curve. Thus, the potential hazard is reduced to safety negligible.

  14. Experimental investigation to evaluate the potential environmental hazards of photovoltaic panels.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, Marco; Salluzzo, Antonio; Rimauro, Juri; Schiavo, Simona; Manzo, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Recently the potential environmental hazard of photovoltaic modules together with their management as waste has attracted the attention of scientists. Particular concern is aroused by the several metals contained in photovoltaic panels whose potential release in the environment were scarcely investigated. Here, for the first time, the potential environmental hazard of panels produced in the last 30 years was investigated through the assessment of up to 18 releasable metals. Besides, the corresponding ecotoxicological effects were also evaluated. Experimental data were compared with the current European and Italian law limits for drinking water, discharge on soil and landfill inert disposal in order to understand the actual pollution load. Results showed that less than 3% of the samples respected all law limits and around 21% was not ecotoxic. By considering the technological evolutions in manufacturing, we have shown that during the years crystalline silicon panels have lower tendency to release hazardous metals with respect to thin film panels. In addition, a prediction of the amounts of lead, chromium, cadmium and nickel releasable from next photovoltaic waste was performed. The prevision up to 2050 showed high amounts of lead (30t) and cadmium (2.9t) releasable from crystalline and thin film panels respectively. PMID:26829098

  15. Experimental investigation to evaluate the potential environmental hazards of photovoltaic panels.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, Marco; Salluzzo, Antonio; Rimauro, Juri; Schiavo, Simona; Manzo, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Recently the potential environmental hazard of photovoltaic modules together with their management as waste has attracted the attention of scientists. Particular concern is aroused by the several metals contained in photovoltaic panels whose potential release in the environment were scarcely investigated. Here, for the first time, the potential environmental hazard of panels produced in the last 30 years was investigated through the assessment of up to 18 releasable metals. Besides, the corresponding ecotoxicological effects were also evaluated. Experimental data were compared with the current European and Italian law limits for drinking water, discharge on soil and landfill inert disposal in order to understand the actual pollution load. Results showed that less than 3% of the samples respected all law limits and around 21% was not ecotoxic. By considering the technological evolutions in manufacturing, we have shown that during the years crystalline silicon panels have lower tendency to release hazardous metals with respect to thin film panels. In addition, a prediction of the amounts of lead, chromium, cadmium and nickel releasable from next photovoltaic waste was performed. The prevision up to 2050 showed high amounts of lead (30t) and cadmium (2.9t) releasable from crystalline and thin film panels respectively.

  16. The potential of an earthworm avoidance test for evaluation of hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yeardley, R.B. Jr.; Gast, L.C.; Lazorchak, J.M.

    1996-09-01

    An earthworm avoidance test has potential advantages for use in evaluation of hazardous wastes sites. Because organisms often exhibit behavioral responses at lower levels of stress than those that acute toxicity tests are able to detect, avoidance tests could provide increased sensitivity to hazardous chemicals. Avoidance is an ecologically relevant endpoint that neither acute nor sublethal tests measure. Avoidance can potentially indicate sublethal stress in a short period of time, testing is easily done in a soil matrix, and an avoidance test has the potential for specialized applications for soil testing. Dual-control test data established that, in absence of a toxicant, worms did not congregate, but instead distributed themselves fairly randomly with respect to the two sides of the test chambers, that is, they did not display behavior that might be mistaken for avoidance. In tests with artificial soil spiked with reference toxicants and hazardous site soils, worms avoided soils containing various toxic chemicals. Avoidance behavior proved in most cases be a more sensitive indicator of chemical contamination than acute tests. Determination of avoidance was possible in 1 to 2 d, much less than the current duration of acute and sublethal earthworm tests.

  17. A feasibility study on the influence of the geomorphological feature in identifying the potential landslide hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, M. H.; Kim, T. H.

    2014-11-01

    In this study we focused on identifying geomorphological features that control the location of landslides. The representation of these features is based on a high resolution DEM (Digital Elevation Model) derived from airborne laser altimetry (LiDAR) and evaluated by statistical analysis of axial orientation data. The main principle of this analysis is generating eigenvalues from axial orientation data and comparing them. The Planarity, a ratio of eigenvalues, would tell the degree of roughness on ground surface based on their ratios. Results are compared to the recent landslide case in Korea in order to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology in identifying the potential landslide hazard. The preliminary landslide assessment based on the Planarity analysis well discriminates features between stable and unstable domain in the study area especially in the landslide initiation zones. Results also show it is beneficial to build the preliminary landslide hazard especially inventory mapping where none of information on historical records of landslides is existed. By combining other physical procedures such as geotechnical monitoring, the landslide hazard assessment using geomorphological features will promise a better understanding of landslides and their mechanisms, and provide an enhanced methodology to evaluate their hazards and appropriate actions.

  18. The Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst: geographic information systems software for modeling hazard evacuation potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Ng, Peter; Wood, Nathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and tsunami; the 2013 Colorado floods; and the 2014 Oso, Washington, mudslide have raised awareness of catastrophic, sudden-onset hazards that arrive within minutes of the events that trigger them, such as local earthquakes or landslides. Due to the limited amount of time between generation and arrival of sudden-onset hazards, evacuations are typically self-initiated, on foot, and across the landscape (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012). Although evacuation to naturally occurring high ground may be feasible in some vulnerable communities, evacuation modeling has demonstrated that other communities may require vertical-evacuation structures within a hazard zone, such as berms or buildings, if at-risk individuals are to survive some types of sudden-onset hazards (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2013). Researchers use both static least-cost-distance (LCD) and dynamic agent-based models to assess the pedestrian evacuation potential of vulnerable communities. Although both types of models help to understand the evacuation landscape, LCD models provide a more general overview that is independent of population distributions, which may be difficult to quantify given the dynamic spatial and temporal nature of populations (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012). Recent LCD efforts related to local tsunami threats have focused on an anisotropic (directionally dependent) path distance modeling approach that incorporates travel directionality, multiple travel speed assumptions, and cost surfaces that reflect variations in slope and land cover (Wood and Schmidtlein, 2012, 2013). The Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst software implements this anisotropic path-distance approach for pedestrian evacuation from sudden-onset hazards, with a particular focus at this time on local tsunami threats. The model estimates evacuation potential based on elevation, direction of movement, land cover, and travel speed and creates a map showing travel times to safety (a

  19. Persistence in earthworms and potential hazards to birds of soil applied DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Gish, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    (1) DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor were each applied to separate replicate plots in a hay field at 0.6, 2.2, or 9.0 kg/ha. For 11 yr thereafter, soil and earthworms were analysed for residues. (2) The average ratios of residues in earthworms (dry weight) to residues in soil (dry weight) were: total DDT, 5; dieldrin, 8; and heptachlor epoxide, 10. The average time for the initial residues in soil to be reduced by 50% were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 5.1 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.2 yr. The corresponding times for residues in earthworms were: total DDT, 3.2 yr; dieldrin, 2.6 yr; and heptachlor epoxide, 3.0 yr. (3) DDE was most persistent, and in plots treated at 9.0 kg/ha its concentration remained constant at about 0.4 ppm in soil and about 7 ppm in earthworms. (4) When applied at 9.0 kg/ha, DDT accumulated in earthworms to concentrations (32 ppm) which laboratory studies have shown to be hazardous to some sensitive bird species. When heptachlor was applied at 2.2 or 9.0 kg/ha, heptachlor epoxide in earthworms reached concentrations (8 ppm) potentially hazardous to woodcock. Dieldrin remained at potentially hazardous concentrations (8 ppm) for 3 yr in plots treated with 2.2 kg/ha and for 11 yr in plots treated with 9.0 kg/ha.

  20. Hazard Potential of Volcanic Flank Collapses Raised by New Megatsunami Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalho, R. S.; Winckler, G.; Madeira, J.; Helffrich, G. R.; Hipólito, A.; Quartau, R.; Adena, K.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale gravitational flank collapses of steep volcanic islands are hypothetically capable of triggering megatsunamis with highly catastrophic effects. Yet evidence for the existence and impact of collapsed-triggered megatsunamis and their run-up heights remains scarce and/or is highly contentious. Therefore a considerable debate still exists over the potential magnitude of collapse-triggered tsunamis and their inherent hazard. In particular, doubts still remain whether or not large-scale flank failures typically generate enough volume flux to result in megatsunamis, or alternatively operate by slow-moving or multiple smaller episodic failures with much lower tsunamigenic potential. Here we show that one of the tallest and most active oceanic volcanoes on Earth - Fogo, in the Cape Verde Islands - collapsed catastrophically and triggered a megatsunami with devastating near-field effects ~73,000 years ago. Our deductions are based on the recent discovery and cosmogenic 3He dating of tsunamigenic deposits - comprising fields of stranded megaclasts, chaotic conglomerates, and sand sheets - found on the adjacent Santiago Island, which attest to the impact of this megatsunami and document wave run-up heights exceeding 270 m. The evidence reported here implies that Fogo's flank failure involved at least one sudden and voluminous event that resulted in a megatsunami, in contrast to what has been suggested before. Our work thus provides another line of evidence that large-scale flank failures at steep volcanic islands may indeed happen catastrophically and are capable of triggering tsunamis of enormous height and energy. This new line of evidence therefore reinforces the hazard potential of volcanic island collapses and stands as a warning that such hazard should not be underestimated, particularly in areas where volcanic island edifices are close to other islands or to highly populated continental margins.

  1. Orbit of potentially hazardous asteroids using Gaia and ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, D.; Hestroffer, D.; Thuillot, W.

    2011-12-01

    Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are Near Earth Asteroids characterized by a Minimum Orbital Intersection Distance (MOID) with Earth less to 0,05 A.U and an absolute magnitude H<22. Those objects have sometimes a so significant close approach with Earth that they can be put on a chaotic orbit. This kind of orbit is very sensitive for exemple to the initial conditions, to the planetary theory used (for instance JPL's model versus IMCCE's model) or even to the numerical integrator used (Lie Series, Bulirsch-Stoer or Radau). New observations (optical, radar, flyby or satellite mission) can improve those orbits and reduce the uncertainties on the Keplerian elements.

  2. Investigating the composition of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids with the NEO-SURFACE survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ieva, S.; Dotto, E.; Perna, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Bernardi, F.; Perozzi, E.; Micheli, M.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Brucato, J. R.; Fornasier, S.; De Luise, F.; Rossi, A.

    2015-10-01

    There is a high degree of diversity among the physical properties of the Potentially Hazardous asteroids (PHAs). For these objects, the physical characterization is essential to define a successful mitigation mission, therefore ground-based surveys like NEO-SURFACE could provide a fundamental contribution. Our analysis suggest a prevalence of silicate S-types in the PHA population, which could be due in principle to the high efficiency of the transport mechanisms in the inner main belt, or to an observational bias due to the fact that S-types are brighter.

  3. Dynamics of data change on potentially hazardous asteroids, observed at one opposition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syusina, O. M.; Chernitsov, A. M.; Tamarov, V. A.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of creation of confidence region of the movement of an asteroid can be solved either in the linear or nonlinear way depending on degree of its nonlinearity. To make a right choice between us-ages of linear or nonlinear approach earlier we proposed to calculate the factor characterizing degree of nonlinearity of the solved problem [1]. Creation of confidence region of the movement of an asteroid means definition of initial region and its subsequent one-parametrical display in time. Wherein the correct approach to creation of initial region is determines the accuracy of the description of the probabilistic movement of an asteroid in general. In case of asteroids observed more than in one opposition, the prob-lem of definition of initial region, typically, is weakly nonlinear, and for its solution it is acceptable to use linear methods. In case of the asteroids observed only in one opposition, preliminary calculation of non-linearity factor plays an important role in a choice between linear or nonlinear methods. In our previous work [2] values of nonlinearity factor for all potentially hazardous asteroids, observed in one opposition, were determined according to the data published by the Minor Planet Center for March, 2014 [3]. The studied asteroids were broken into groups: with a factor of nonlinearity less than 0.01, in the range from 0.01 to 0.1, and more than 0.1. With this work we began to create constantly updating database "Poten-tially Hazardous Asteroids Observed in One Opposition" hosted on the site of department of astronomy and space geodesy of Tomsk state university (http://astro.tsu.ru). The database will contain factors of non-linearity and accuracy of models of the movement, and also an assessment of probability of collisions with Earth of all potentially hazardous asteroids observed in one opposition. The purpose of the given work is to track dynamics of change of the published by MPC data about such asteroids during the period from 2010

  4. Reactions of plutonium and uranium with water: Kinetics and potential hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Haschke, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    The chemistry and kinetics of reactions between water and the metals and hydrides of plutonium and uranium are described in an effort to consolidate information for assessing potential hazards associated with handling and storage. New experimental results and data from literature sources are presented. Kinetic dependencies on pH, salt concentration, temperature and other parameters are reviewed. Corrosion reactions of the metals in near-neutral solutions produce a fine hydridic powder plus hydrogen. The corrosion rate for plutonium in sea water is a thousand-fold faster than for the metal in distilled water and more than a thousand-fold faster than for uranium in sea water. Reaction rates for immersed hydrides of plutonium and uranium are comparable and slower than the corrosion rates for the respective metals. However, uranium trihydride is reported to react violently if a quantity greater than twenty-five grams is rapidly immersed in water. The possibility of a similar autothermic reaction for large quantities of plutonium hydride cannot be excluded. In addition to producing hydrogen, corrosion reactions convert the massive metals into material forms that are readily suspended in water and that are aerosolizable and potentially pyrophoric when dry. Potential hazards associated with criticality, environmental dispersal, spontaneous ignition and explosive gas mixtures are outlined.

  5. Coal seam gas water: potential hazards and exposure pathways in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Navi, Maryam; Skelly, Chris; Taulis, Mauricio; Nasiri, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of coal seam gas (CSG) produces large volumes of potentially contaminated water. It has raised concerns about the environmental health impacts of the co-produced CSG water. In this paper, we review CSG water contaminants and their potential health effects in the context of exposure pathways in Queensland's CSG basins. The hazardous substances associated with CSG water in Queensland include fluoride, boron, lead and benzene. The exposure pathways for CSG water are (1) water used for municipal purposes; (2) recreational water activities in rivers; (3) occupational exposures; (4) water extracted from contaminated aquifers; and (5) indirect exposure through the food chain. We recommend mapping of exposure pathways into communities in CSG regions to determine the potentially exposed populations in Queensland. Future efforts to monitor chemicals of concern and consolidate them into a central database will build the necessary capability to undertake a much needed environmental health impact assessment.

  6. Coal seam gas water: potential hazards and exposure pathways in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Navi, Maryam; Skelly, Chris; Taulis, Mauricio; Nasiri, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of coal seam gas (CSG) produces large volumes of potentially contaminated water. It has raised concerns about the environmental health impacts of the co-produced CSG water. In this paper, we review CSG water contaminants and their potential health effects in the context of exposure pathways in Queensland's CSG basins. The hazardous substances associated with CSG water in Queensland include fluoride, boron, lead and benzene. The exposure pathways for CSG water are (1) water used for municipal purposes; (2) recreational water activities in rivers; (3) occupational exposures; (4) water extracted from contaminated aquifers; and (5) indirect exposure through the food chain. We recommend mapping of exposure pathways into communities in CSG regions to determine the potentially exposed populations in Queensland. Future efforts to monitor chemicals of concern and consolidate them into a central database will build the necessary capability to undertake a much needed environmental health impact assessment. PMID:24853090

  7. Hazard potential of volcanic flank collapses raised by new megatsunami evidence.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Ricardo S; Winckler, Gisela; Madeira, José; Helffrich, George R; Hipólito, Ana; Quartau, Rui; Adena, Katherine; Schaefer, Joerg M

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale gravitational flank collapses of steep volcanic islands are hypothetically capable of triggering megatsunamis with highly catastrophic effects. Yet, evidence for the generation and impact of collapse-triggered megatsunamis and their high run-ups remains scarce or is highly controversial. Therefore, doubts remain on whether island flank failures truly generate enough volume flux to trigger giant tsunamis, leading to diverging opinions concerning the real hazard potential of such collapses. We show that one of the most prominent oceanic volcanoes on Earth-Fogo, in the Cape Verde Islands-catastrophically collapsed and triggered a megatsunami with devastating effects ~73,000 years ago. Our deductions are based on the recent discovery and cosmogenic (3)He dating of tsunamigenic deposits found on nearby Santiago Island, which attest to the impact of this giant tsunami and document wave run-up heights exceeding 270 m. The evidence reported here implies that Fogo's flank failure involved at least one fast and voluminous event that led to a giant tsunami, in contrast to what has been suggested before. Our observations therefore further demonstrate that flank collapses may indeed catastrophically happen and are capable of triggering tsunamis of enormous height and energy, adding to their hazard potential.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Taxonomy of potentially hazardous asteroids (Perna+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, D.; Dotto, E.; Ieva, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Bernardi, F.; Fornasier, S.; de Luise, F.; Perozzi, E.; Rossi, A.; Epifani, E. M.; Micheli, M.; Deshapriya, J. D. P.

    2016-07-01

    Observations of 14 Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) were carried out at the 3.6-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG, La Palma, Spain), the ESO 3.6-m New Technology Telescope (NTT, La Silla, Chile), and the NASA 3.0-m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF, Mauna Kea, USA). The observational circumstances, as well as the instrumentation used are given in Table1. According to the population model by Mainzer et al. (2012ApJ...752..110M), ~4700+/-1450 PHAs are expected to exist. To further investigate the PHA population as a whole, and in particular to verify how the different taxonomic types are distributed with respect to other physical and dynamical properties, we combined our results with the available literature. We started retrieving the European Asteroid Research Node (EARN; http://earn.dlr.de/; retrieved on 2015 April 28) database of Near-Earth Object (NEO) physical properties, selecting those 255 Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) with published taxonomic classifications. Of our 14 targets, 7 are classified in the present work for the first time, for a total sample of 262 targets to be considered in our analysis (see Table4). The results for our remaining seven targets are in agreement with the literature. (2 data files).

  9. Hazard potential of volcanic flank collapses raised by new megatsunami evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Winckler, Gisela; Madeira, José; Helffrich, George R.; Hipólito, Ana; Quartau, Rui; Adena, Katherine; Schaefer, Joerg M.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale gravitational flank collapses of steep volcanic islands are hypothetically capable of triggering megatsunamis with highly catastrophic effects. Yet, evidence for the generation and impact of collapse-triggered megatsunamis and their high run-ups remains scarce or is highly controversial. Therefore, doubts remain on whether island flank failures truly generate enough volume flux to trigger giant tsunamis, leading to diverging opinions concerning the real hazard potential of such collapses. We show that one of the most prominent oceanic volcanoes on Earth—Fogo, in the Cape Verde Islands—catastrophically collapsed and triggered a megatsunami with devastating effects ~73,000 years ago. Our deductions are based on the recent discovery and cosmogenic 3He dating of tsunamigenic deposits found on nearby Santiago Island, which attest to the impact of this giant tsunami and document wave run-up heights exceeding 270 m. The evidence reported here implies that Fogo’s flank failure involved at least one fast and voluminous event that led to a giant tsunami, in contrast to what has been suggested before. Our observations therefore further demonstrate that flank collapses may indeed catastrophically happen and are capable of triggering tsunamis of enormous height and energy, adding to their hazard potential. PMID:26601287

  10. Hazard potential of volcanic flank collapses raised by new megatsunami evidence.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Ricardo S; Winckler, Gisela; Madeira, José; Helffrich, George R; Hipólito, Ana; Quartau, Rui; Adena, Katherine; Schaefer, Joerg M

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale gravitational flank collapses of steep volcanic islands are hypothetically capable of triggering megatsunamis with highly catastrophic effects. Yet, evidence for the generation and impact of collapse-triggered megatsunamis and their high run-ups remains scarce or is highly controversial. Therefore, doubts remain on whether island flank failures truly generate enough volume flux to trigger giant tsunamis, leading to diverging opinions concerning the real hazard potential of such collapses. We show that one of the most prominent oceanic volcanoes on Earth-Fogo, in the Cape Verde Islands-catastrophically collapsed and triggered a megatsunami with devastating effects ~73,000 years ago. Our deductions are based on the recent discovery and cosmogenic (3)He dating of tsunamigenic deposits found on nearby Santiago Island, which attest to the impact of this giant tsunami and document wave run-up heights exceeding 270 m. The evidence reported here implies that Fogo's flank failure involved at least one fast and voluminous event that led to a giant tsunami, in contrast to what has been suggested before. Our observations therefore further demonstrate that flank collapses may indeed catastrophically happen and are capable of triggering tsunamis of enormous height and energy, adding to their hazard potential. PMID:26601287

  11. Evaluation of the Potential of NASA Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis in Global Landslide Hazard Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Landslides are one of the most widespread natural hazards on Earth, responsible for thousands of deaths and billions of dollars in property damage every year. In the U.S. alone landslides occur in every state, causing an estimated $2 billion in damage and 25- 50 deaths each year. Annual average loss of life from landslide hazards in Japan is 170. The situation is much worse in developing countries and remote mountainous regions due to lack of financial resources and inadequate disaster management ability. Recently, a landslide buried an entire village on the Philippines Island of Leyte on Feb 17,2006, with at least 1800 reported deaths and only 3 houses left standing of the original 300. Intense storms with high-intensity , long-duration rainfall have great potential to trigger rapidly moving landslides, resulting in casualties and property damage across the world. In recent years, through the availability of remotely sensed datasets, it has become possible to conduct global-scale landslide hazard assessment. This paper evaluates the potential of the real-time NASA TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) system to advance our understanding of and predictive ability for rainfall-triggered landslides. Early results show that the landslide occurrences are closely associated with the spatial patterns and temporal distribution of rainfall characteristics. Particularly, the number of landslide occurrences and the relative importance of rainfall in triggering landslides rely on the influence of rainfall attributes [e.g. rainfall climatology, antecedent rainfall accumulation, and intensity-duration of rainstorms). TMPA precipitation data are available in both real-time and post-real-time versions, which are useful to assess the location and timing of rainfall-triggered landslide hazards by monitoring landslide-prone areas while receiving heavy rainfall. For the purpose of identifying rainfall-triggered landslides, an empirical global rainfall intensity

  12. Influence of potential sea level rise on societal vulnerability to hurricane storm-surge hazards, Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, T.G.; Wood, N.; Yarnal, B.; Bauer, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the potential for hurricanes under current climatic conditions continue to threaten coastal communities, there is concern that climate change, specifically potential increases in sea level, could influence the impacts of future hurricanes. To examine the potential effect of sea level rise on community vulnerability to future hurricanes, we assess variations in socioeconomic exposure in Sarasota County, FL, to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to storm-surge hazards enhanced by sea level rise scenarios. Analysis indicates that significant portions of the population, economic activity, and critical facilities are in contemporary and future hurricane storm-surge hazard zones. The addition of sea level rise to contemporary storm-surge hazard zones effectively causes population and asset (infrastructure, natural resources, etc) exposure to be equal to or greater than what is in the hazard zone of the next higher contemporary Saffir-Simpson hurricane category. There is variability among communities for this increased exposure, with greater increases in socioeconomic exposure due to the addition of sea level rise to storm-surge hazard zones as one progresses south along the shoreline. Analysis of the 2050 comprehensive land use plan suggests efforts to manage future growth in residential, economic and infrastructure development in Sarasota County may increase societal exposure to hurricane storm-surge hazards. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Influence of potential sea level rise on societal vulnerability to hurricane storm-surge hazards, Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent; Bauer, Denise H.

    2010-01-01

    Although the potential for hurricanes under current climatic conditions continue to threaten coastal communities, there is concern that climate change, specifically potential increases in sea level, could influence the impacts of future hurricanes. To examine the potential effect of sea level rise on community vulnerability to future hurricanes, we assess variations in socioeconomic exposure in Sarasota County, FL, to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to storm-surge hazards enhanced by sea level rise scenarios. Analysis indicates that significant portions of the population, economic activity, and critical facilities are in contemporary and future hurricane storm-surge hazard zones. The addition of sea level rise to contemporary storm-surge hazard zones effectively causes population and asset (infrastructure, natural resources, etc) exposure to be equal to or greater than what is in the hazard zone of the next higher contemporary Saffir–Simpson hurricane category. There is variability among communities for this increased exposure, with greater increases in socioeconomic exposure due to the addition of sea level rise to storm-surge hazard zones as one progresses south along the shoreline. Analysis of the 2050 comprehensive land use plan suggests efforts to manage future growth in residential, economic and infrastructure development in Sarasota County may increase societal exposure to hurricane storm-surge hazards.

  14. Distribution of potentially hazardous phases in the subsurface at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    Drilling, trenching, excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility, and other surface and underground-distributing activities have the potential to release minerals into the environment from tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Some of these minerals may be potential respiratory health hazards. Therefore, an understanding of the distribution of the minerals that may potentially be liberated during site-characterization and operation of the potential repository is crucial to ensuring worker and public safety. Analysis of previously reported mineralogy of Yucca Mountain tuffs using data and criteria from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) suggests that the following minerals are of potential concern: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, opal-CT, erionite, mordenite, and palygorskite. The authors have re-evaluated the three-dimensional mineral distribution at Yucca Mountain above the static water level both in bulk-rock samples and in fractures, using quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Erionite, mordenite, and palygorskite occur primarily in fractures; the crystalline-silica minerals, quartz, cristobalite, and tridymite are major bulk-rock phases. Erionite occurs in the altered zone just above the lower Topopah Spring Member vitrophyre, and an occurrence below the vitrophyre but above the Calico Hills has recently been identified. In this latter occurrence, erionite is present in the matrix at levels up to 35 wt%. Mordenite and palygorskite occur throughout the vadose zone nearly to the surface. Opal-CT is limited to zeolitic horizons.

  15. Investigation of the behavior of potentially hazardous trace elements in Kentucky coals and combustion byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.D.; Blanchard, L.J.; Srikantapura, S.; Parekh, B.K.; Lafferty, C.J.

    1996-12-31

    The minor- and trace-element content of coal is of great interest because of the potentially hazardous impact on human health and the environment resulting from their release during coal combustion. Of the one billion tons of coal mined annually in the United States, 85-90% is consumed by coal-fired power plants. Potentially toxic elements present at concentrations as low as a few egg can be released in large quantities from combustion of this magnitude. Of special concern are those trace elements that occur naturally in coal which have been designated as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. The principle objective of this work was to investigate a combination of physical and chemical coal cleaning techniques to remove 90 percent of HAP trace elements at 90 percent combustibles recovery from Kentucky No. 9 coal. Samples of this coal were first subjected to physical separation by flotation in a Denver cell. The float fraction from the Denver cell was then used as feed material for hydrothermal leaching tests in which the efficacy of dilute alkali (NaOH) and acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions at various temperatures and pressures was investigated. The combined column flotation and mild chemical cleaning strategy removed 60-80% of trace elements with greater than 85, recovery of combustibles from very finely ground (-325 mesh) coal. The elemental composition of the samples generated at each stage was determined using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. PIXE is a rapid, instrumental technique that, in principle, is capable of analyzing all elements from sodium through uranium with sensitivities as low as 1 {mu}g/g.

  16. Evaluation of radiation hazard potential of TENORM waste from oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    Hilal, M A; Attallah, M F; Mohamed, Gehan Y; Fayez-Hassan, M

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a potential radiation hazard from TENORM sludge wastes generated during exploration and extraction processes of oil and gas was evaluated. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides (238)U, (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined in TENORM sludge waste. It was found that sludge waste from oil and gas industry is one of the major sources of (226)Ra in the environment. Therefore, some preliminary chemical treatment of sludge waste using Triton X-100 was also investigated to reduce the radioactivity content as well as the risk of radiation hazard from TENORM wastes. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra in petroleum sludge materials before and after chemical treatment were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average values of the activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra measured in the original samples were found as 8908 Bq kg(-1) and 933 Bq kg(-1), respectively. After chemical treatment of TENORM samples, the average values of the activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra measured in the samples were found as 7835 Bq kg(-1) and 574 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Activity concentration index, internal index, absorbed gamma dose rate and the corresponding effective dose rate were estimated for untreated and treated samples. PMID:24949581

  17. Evaluation of radiation hazard potential of TENORM waste from oil and natural gas production.

    PubMed

    Hilal, M A; Attallah, M F; Mohamed, Gehan Y; Fayez-Hassan, M

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a potential radiation hazard from TENORM sludge wastes generated during exploration and extraction processes of oil and gas was evaluated. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides (238)U, (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined in TENORM sludge waste. It was found that sludge waste from oil and gas industry is one of the major sources of (226)Ra in the environment. Therefore, some preliminary chemical treatment of sludge waste using Triton X-100 was also investigated to reduce the radioactivity content as well as the risk of radiation hazard from TENORM wastes. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra in petroleum sludge materials before and after chemical treatment were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average values of the activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra measured in the original samples were found as 8908 Bq kg(-1) and 933 Bq kg(-1), respectively. After chemical treatment of TENORM samples, the average values of the activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra measured in the samples were found as 7835 Bq kg(-1) and 574 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Activity concentration index, internal index, absorbed gamma dose rate and the corresponding effective dose rate were estimated for untreated and treated samples.

  18. Relationship between the start times of flares and CMEs to the time of potential radiation hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, G.; Zheng, Y.; Kuznetsova, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    Solar flares, short-term outbursts of energy of the Sun, and coronal mass ejections (CME), massive bursts of solar matter, are two solar phenomena that are known to increase solar energetic particles in space. Increased solar energetic particles cause immense radiation that poses a serious threat to astronauts in space, radio communication signals, and passengers on high-latitude flights on the Earth. The relationship between the start times of flares and CMEs to the time of potential radiation hazards was investigated to determine how much warning time is available. Additionally, this project compared the difference between these relationships for four energy levels of solar energetic particles: proton flux exceeding 10 MeV, 30 MeV, 50 MeV and 100 MeV. This project gathered data of 22 recent SEP events between 2010 and 2012 and the parameters of associated CMEs and flares. Through the use of IDL (Interactive Data Language) programming, thorough analysis was conducted, including 2-sample t-tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests for 2 or more samples. The average lead time to warn humans of possible radiation hazard from the detection of a flare and a CME occurrence was found to be around 12 to 20 hours. The lead time was the greatest for the lowest energy level, though the differences in energy levels and that between the lead times for CME and flares were found to be statistically insignificant with p-values exceeding the alpha value of 0.20.

  19. The use of total detriment in radiation protection and its potential extension to other hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    Before publication of the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation protection standards were based on dose limits to single organs. These dose limits were only loosely linked to the expected effects in the first two generations from gonadal doses and to the risk of fatal cancer from doses to specific organs. In 1977, the ICRP recommended the use of the effective dose equivalent (EDE),'' which is a method of summing the doses (weighted with relative risk coefficients) to all organs and tissues, and recommended an annual limit for EDE. Since the 1977 recommendations were published, a total risk'' or total detriment approach has been extended to include nonfatal cancers and genetic effects for all subsequent generations, i.e., the total health detriment from low doses of ionizing radiation. This paper discusses the development of this total health detriment from ionizing radiation exposures, and explores potential methods for using it with other hazards (such as exposures to other physical agents, hazardous chemicals, and fatal and nonfatal accidents) in calculating the total detriment to a worker.

  20. The use of total detriment in radiation protection and its potential extension to other hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    Before publication of the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation protection standards were based on dose limits to single organs. These dose limits were only loosely linked to the expected effects in the first two generations from gonadal doses and to the risk of fatal cancer from doses to specific organs. In 1977, the ICRP recommended the use of the ``effective dose equivalent (EDE),`` which is a method of summing the doses (weighted with relative risk coefficients) to all organs and tissues, and recommended an annual limit for EDE. Since the 1977 recommendations were published, a ``total risk`` or total detriment approach has been extended to include nonfatal cancers and genetic effects for all subsequent generations, i.e., the total health detriment from low doses of ionizing radiation. This paper discusses the development of this total health detriment from ionizing radiation exposures, and explores potential methods for using it with other hazards (such as exposures to other physical agents, hazardous chemicals, and fatal and nonfatal accidents) in calculating the total detriment to a worker.

  1. Predicting the potential of engulfment using an on-farm grain storage hazard assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Kingman, D M; Spaulding, A D; Field, W E

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this research was to address the problem of engulfment in flowing grain in on-farm metal grain storage bins. This was accomplished using a systems approach to identify contributing factors to engulfment, which were then used to develop a 28-question Farm Grain Hazard Assessment Tool (FGHAT). A numerically weighted high- and low-risk response accompanied each question, the sum of which resulted in a potential-risk-of-engulfment score for a given on-farm grain handling and storage system. The assessment tool was pilot tested on a sample of 47 farms. The difference between the mean scores of farms with a history of engulfment (n = 14) and the mean scores of farms with no prior reported engulfment incident (n = 33) was significant (p < or = 0.001). This finding suggests that it is possible, using the hazard assessment tool, to predict the increased likelihood of an engulfment in a specific on-farm grain storage and handling system. It was also found that the management of grain during storage and an individual's perception of risk and willingness to avoid flowing grain hazards had the most significant impact on reducing the potential for an engulfment. In contrast, a history of grain plugging problems was not found to make a considerable difference in scores between the two groups of farms. The presence of stirring devices in bins, accommodation for lockout devices on electrical controls, and using grain storage bins smaller than 20, 000 bu capacity also had little impact on the difference in scores. Based upon the level of significance of each of the 28 questions'ability to predict an increased risk of engulfment, it was concluded that a valid response could be obtained with as few as eight questions. Recommendations concerning continued study and application of the tool were formulated, including the effectiveness of the tool in changing the farmers' behavior, and the findings also contributed to the revision of a potential engineering standard for on

  2. Kinematics, mechanics, and potential earthquake hazards for faults in Pottawatomie County, Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlmacher, G.C.; Berendsen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Many stable continental regions have subregions with poorly defined earthquake hazards. Analysis of minor structures (folds and faults) in these subregions can improve our understanding of the tectonics and earthquake hazards. Detailed structural mapping in Pottawatomie County has revealed a suite consisting of two uplifted blocks aligned along a northeast trend and surrounded by faults. The first uplift is located southwest of the second. The northwest and southeast sides of these uplifts are bounded by northeast-trending right-lateral faults. To the east, both uplifts are bounded by north-trending reverse faults, and the first uplift is bounded by a north-trending high-angle fault to the west. The structural suite occurs above a basement fault that is part of a series of north-northeast-trending faults that delineate the Humboldt Fault Zone of eastern Kansas, an integral part of the Midcontinent Rift System. The favored kinematic model is a contractional stepover (push-up) between echelon strike-slip faults. Mechanical modeling using the boundary element method supports the interpretation of the uplifts as contractional stepovers and indicates that an approximately east-northeast maximum compressive stress trajectory is responsible for the formation of the structural suite. This stress trajectory suggests potential activity during the Laramide Orogeny, which agrees with the age of kimberlite emplacement in adjacent Riley County. The current stress field in Kansas has a N85??W maximum compressive stress trajectory that could potentially produce earthquakes along the basement faults. Several epicenters of seismic events (

  3. Evaluation of high-level nuclear waste tanks having a potential flammable gas hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.; Barton, W.B.; Hill, R.C.; et al, Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-14

    In 1990 the U.S. Department of Energy declared an unreviewed safety question as a result of the behavior of tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gases that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-101 and the other tanks associated with a potential flammable gas hazard. This paper presents an overview of the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release and covers the results of direct sampling of the tanks to determine the gas composition and the amount of stored gas.

  4. Potential large wood-related hazards at bridges: the Czarny Dunajec River (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Mikuś, Paweł; Hajdukiewicz, Maciej; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Besides high water levels in the drainage network and important channel changes, the transport of large quantities of wood material must be considered an additional factor of flood hazard in forested areas. At critical sections such as bridges, the effect of the transport and deposition of large quantities of wood during floods is mainly a reduction of the cross-sectional area, triggering a quick succession of backwater effects with inundation of the adjacent valley floor, bed aggradation, channel avulsion and local scouring processes that ultimately may cause embankment/bridge collapse and bank erosion. Therefore, the aim of this work is to analyse potential hazards related to wood transport and deposition in the reach of the Czarny Dunajec (Tatra Mountains foreland, Polish Carpathians) where the river flows through the village of Długopole. Buildings in the village are located very close to the river and the bridge has a very narrow cross-section and is thus threatened by wood-related phenomena. The approach is based on the combination of numerical modelling and field observations. A numerical model which simulates the transport of large wood together with flow dynamics is applied and inlet and boundary conditions are designed based on field observations. We established several scenarios for flow conditions and the wood transport. Results provided data to compute bridge clogging probability under the designed scenarios and the potential impacts of the clogging on hydrodynamics, flooded area and effects on the bridge. This information will be very useful for flood risk assessment and management of the river. This work was supported by the Polish-Swiss FLORIST project (Flood risk on the northern foothills of the Tatra Mountains; PSPB no. 153/2010).

  5. Has land subsidence changed the flood hazard potential? A case example from the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. L.; Ito, Y.; Sawamukai, M.; Su, T.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal areas are subject to flood hazards because of their topographic features, social development and related human activities. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is located nearby the Tokyo metropolitan area and it faces to the Pacific Ocean. In the Kujukuri Plain, widespread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by exploitation of groundwater, extraction of natural gas dissolved in brine, and natural consolidation of the Holocene and landfill deposits. The locations of land subsidence include areas near the coast, and it may increase the flood hazard potential. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard potential by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to prepare hazard maps for protecting the surface environment and for developing an appropriate land-use plan. In this study, flood hazard assessments at three different times, i.e., 1970, 2004, and 2013 are implemented by using a flood hazard model based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis with Geographical Information System techniques. The model incorporates six factors: elevation, depression area, river system, ratio of impermeable area, detention ponds, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 m resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30 000 scale river watershed maps, and precipitation data from observation stations around the study area and Radar data. The hazard assessment maps for each time are obtained by using an algorithm that combines factors with weighted linear combinations. The assignment of the weight/rank values and their analysis are realized by the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. This study is a preliminary work to investigate flood hazards on the Kujukuri Plain. A flood model will be developed to simulate more detailed change of the flood hazard influenced by land subsidence.

  6. Quantifying potential tsunami hazard in the Puysegur subduction zone, south of New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, G.P.; Furlong, K.P.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of subduction zone seismogenesis and tsunami potential, particularly of large subduction zones, have recently seen a resurgence after the great 2004 earthquake and tsunami offshore of Sumatra, yet these global studies have generally neglected the tsunami potential of small subduction zones such as the Puysegur subduction zone, south of New Zealand. Here, we study one such relatively small subduction zone by analysing the historical seismicity over the entire plate boundary region south of New Zealand, using these data to determine the seismic moment deficit of the subduction zone over the past ~100 yr. Our calculations indicate unreleased moment equivalent to a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake, suggesting this subduction zone has the potential to host a great, tsunamigenic event. We model this tsunami hazard and find that a tsunami caused by a great earthquake on the Puysegur subduction zone would pose threats to the coasts of southern and western South Island, New Zealand, Tasmania and southeastern Australia, nearly 2000 km distant. No claim to original US government works Geophysical Journal International ?? 2010 RAS.

  7. Influence of soil texture on nutrients and potentially hazardous elements in Eremanthus erythropappus.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Maurilio Assis; Leite, Mariangela Garcia Praça; Kozovits, Alessandra Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors that control uptake rates and allocation of chemical elements among plant organs is a fundamental prerequisite to improve phytostabilization techniques of hazardous elements in contaminated areas. The present study shows evidence that different substrate textures (coarse and fine laterite) do not significantly change the partitioning of root and shoot dry biomass and with few exceptions, do not significantly affect the final average concentration of elements in Eremanthus erythropappus, but change the root:shoot allocation of both essential nutrients and elements potentially toxic to biota. Growth on coarse laterite resulted in significant higher K (30%), Mg (34%), P (25%), S (32%), Cu (58%), and Na (43%) concentrations in roots and lower Cd concentration (29%). In shoots, coarse laterite led to reduction in K, Fe, Al, and Cr and increase in Na and Sr concentrations. Changes in element allocation could be, in part, a result of differences in the water availability of substrates. Matric potential in coarse laterite was significantly lower in at least 47% of the days analyzed throughout the year. Changes in element phytoextraction or phytostabilization potential could influence the efficiency of rehabilitation projects in areas degraded by mining activities. PMID:26588605

  8. Influence of soil texture on nutrients and potentially hazardous elements in Eremanthus erythropappus.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Maurilio Assis; Leite, Mariangela Garcia Praça; Kozovits, Alessandra Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors that control uptake rates and allocation of chemical elements among plant organs is a fundamental prerequisite to improve phytostabilization techniques of hazardous elements in contaminated areas. The present study shows evidence that different substrate textures (coarse and fine laterite) do not significantly change the partitioning of root and shoot dry biomass and with few exceptions, do not significantly affect the final average concentration of elements in Eremanthus erythropappus, but change the root:shoot allocation of both essential nutrients and elements potentially toxic to biota. Growth on coarse laterite resulted in significant higher K (30%), Mg (34%), P (25%), S (32%), Cu (58%), and Na (43%) concentrations in roots and lower Cd concentration (29%). In shoots, coarse laterite led to reduction in K, Fe, Al, and Cr and increase in Na and Sr concentrations. Changes in element allocation could be, in part, a result of differences in the water availability of substrates. Matric potential in coarse laterite was significantly lower in at least 47% of the days analyzed throughout the year. Changes in element phytoextraction or phytostabilization potential could influence the efficiency of rehabilitation projects in areas degraded by mining activities.

  9. Evaluating and Addressing Potential Hazards of Fuel Tanks Surviving Atmospheric Reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Robert L.; Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to ensure reentering spacecraft do not pose an undue risk to the Earth's population it is important to design satellites and rocket bodies with end of life considerations in mind. In addition to considering the possible consequences of deorbiting a vehicle, consideration must also be given to the possible risks associated with a vehicle failing to become operational or reach its intended orbit. Based on recovered space debris and numerous reentry survivability analyses, fuel tanks are of particular concern in both of these considerations. Most spacecraft utilize some type of fuel tank as part of their propulsion system. These fuel tanks are most often constructed using stainless steel or titanium and are filled with potentially hazardous substances such as hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. For a vehicle which has reached its scheduled end of mission the contents of the tanks are typically depleted. In this scenario the use of stainless steel and titanium results in the tanks posing a risk to people and property do to the high melting point and large heat of ablation of these materials leading to likely survival of the tank during reentry. If a large portion of the fuel is not depleted prior to reentry, there is the added risk of hazardous substance being released when the tank impact the ground. This paper presents a discussion of proactive methods which have been utilized by NASA satellite projects to address the risks associated with fuel tanks reentering the atmosphere. In particular it will address the design of a demiseable fuel tank as well as the evaluation of off the shelf designs which are selected to burst during reentry.

  10. Biocides in hydraulic fracturing: hazard and vulnerability with respect to potential groundwater pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, Fred; Wilson, Miles; Davies, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Biocides are one possible chemical additive to frack fluids and their role is to control bacterial growth. Bacterial growth might lead to biofilm build up; and acid sulfide species and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production: biofilm build up may reduce formation permeability and hinder gas extraction. Kahrilas et al. (2014) published a review of common biocides used in fracking in the USA. The biocides assessed in the review were the sixteen most commonly used in the USA, based on the hydraulic fracturing chemical registry Frac Focus (Frac Focus, 2015). However, the review of Kahrilas et al. (2014) contained no data or observations and so the objective of this study was to consider whether biocides proposed for use in hydrofacturing could be a threat to English groundwater. The study considered all groundwater samples analysed for biocides in English groundwater between 2005 and 2014. The monitoring records were compared to: records of application (both amount and area); and chemical and molecular data for the biocides. The study did not use traditional adsorption and degradation data as these parameters are to prone to variability and are not pure molecular parameters. The study then used the approach of Worrall and Thomsen (2004) to consider the hazard represented by proposed frack biocides and the approach of Worrall and Kolpin (2003) to consider the vulnerability of the areas of potential shale gas exploitation. The study showed that of the 113 biocides tested for in English groundwaters in the decade 2005 - 2014 that 95 were detected above 0.1 g/l . Of these 95, 41 were compounds that were not recorded as being applied during the period of record and the detection of these 41 compounds did not decline over the 10 year period which implies very long residence times and that once compounds do pollute an aquifer then they will be a persistent problem. Furthermore, the solubility of the range of biocides used in frack fluids would imply a potentially higher hazard

  11. Tsunami hazard potential for the equatorial southwestern Pacific atolls of Tokelau from scenario-based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orpin, Alan R.; Rickard, Graham J.; Gerring, Peter K.; Lamarche, Geoffroy

    2016-05-01

    Devastating tsunami over the last decade have significantly heightened awareness of the potential consequences and vulnerability of low-lying Pacific islands and coastal regions. Our appraisal of the potential tsunami hazard for the atolls of the Tokelau Islands is based on a tsunami source-propagation-inundation model using Gerris Flow Solver, adapted from the companion study by Lamarche et al. (2015) for the islands of Wallis and Futuna. We assess whether there is potential for tsunami flooding on any of the village islets from a selection of 14 earthquake-source experiments. These earthquake sources are primarily based on the largest Pacific earthquakes of Mw ≥ 8.1 since 1950 and other large credible sources of tsunami that may impact Tokelau. Earthquake-source location and moment magnitude are related to tsunami-wave amplitudes and tsunami flood depths simulated for each of the three atolls of Tokelau. This approach yields instructive results for a community advisory but is not intended to be fully deterministic. Rather, the underlying aim is to identify credible sources that present the greatest potential to trigger an emergency response. Results from our modelling show that wave fields are channelled by the bathymetry of the Pacific basin in such a way that the swathes of the highest waves sweep immediately northeast of the Tokelau Islands. Our limited simulations suggest that trans-Pacific tsunami from distant earthquake sources to the north of Tokelau pose the most significant inundation threat. In particular, our assumed worst-case scenario for the Kuril Trench generated maximum modelled-wave amplitudes in excess of 1 m, which may last a few hours and include several wave trains. Other sources can impact specific sectors of the atolls, particularly distant earthquakes from Chile and Peru, and regional earthquake sources to the south. Flooding is dependent on the wave orientation and direct alignment to the incoming tsunami. Our "worst-case" tsunami

  12. Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, H; DE VRIES, W R; VANBERGE-HENEGOUW..., G; AKKERMANS, L

    2001-01-01

    G P VANBERGE-HENEGOUWEN, L M A AKKERMANS Gastrointestinal Research Unit
Departments of Surgery and Gastroenterology
University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
 This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20-50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms which may deter them from participation in training and competitive events. Nevertheless, these acute symptoms are transient and do not hamper the athlete's health in the long term. The only exception is repeated gastrointestinal bleeding during training and competition, which in the long term may occasionally lead to iron deficiency and anaemia. In contrast, repetitive exercise periods at a relatively low intensity may have protective effects on the gastrointestinal tract. There is strong evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer by up to 50%. Less convincing evidence exists for cholelithiasis and constipation. Physical activity may reduce the risk of diverticulosis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and inflammatory bowel disease although this cannot be substantiated firmly. Up to now, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood although decreased gastrointestinal blood flow, neuro-immuno-endocrine alterations, increased gastrointestinal motility, and mechanical bouncing during exercise are postulated. Future research on exercise associated digestive processes should give more insight into the relationship between physical activity and the function of the gastrointestinal tract.

 PMID:11171839

  13. Assessment of DSN Communication Coverage for Space Missions to Potentially Hazardous Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegege, Obadiah; Bittner, David; Gati, Frank; Bhasin, Kul

    2012-01-01

    A communication coverage gap exists for Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas. This communication coverage gap is on the southern hemisphere, centered at approximate latitude of -47deg and longitude of -45deg. The area of this communication gap varies depending on the altitude from the Earth s surface. There are no current planetary space missions that fall within the DSN communication gap because planetary bodies in the Solar system lie near the ecliptic plane. However, some asteroids orbits are not confined to the ecliptic plane. In recent years, Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) have passed within 100,000 km of the Earth. NASA s future space exploration goals include a manned mission to asteroids. It is important to ensure reliable and redundant communication coverage/capabilities for manned space missions to dangerous asteroids that make a sequence of close Earth encounters. In this paper, we will describe simulations performed to determine whether near-Earth objects (NEO) that have been classified as PHAs fall within the DSN communication coverage gap. In the study, we reviewed literature for a number of PHAs, generated binary ephemeris for selected PHAs using JPL s HORIZONS tool, and created their trajectories using Satellite Took Kit (STK). The results show that some of the PHAs fall within DSN communication coverage gap. This paper presents the simulation results and our analyses

  14. Main-Belt Source Regions for Potentially Hazardous Near-Earth Asteroids and Sample Return Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binzel, Richard P.; DeMeo, F. E.; Burt, B. J.; Polishook, D.; Burbine, T. H.; Moskovitz, N.; Bus, S. J.; Tokunaga, A.; Birlan, M.

    2015-11-01

    Spectroscopic and taxonomic information is now available for more than 1000 near-Earth objects (NEOs), thanks in large measure to the NASA IRTF long-term NEO spectral reconnaissance program we call the MIT-Hawaii Near-Earth Object Spectroscopic Survey (MITHNEOS) [1]. This sample comprises about 10% of the total NEO population, including Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs), and finds that all defined main-belt asteroid classes are also present within the near-Earth population. Using this largest available NEO dataset and dynamic source region models (such as [2]) we will present new results on the provenance of PHAs, source regions for each of the asteroid taxonomic classes, and pinpoint sources for major meteorite classes such as H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites. In finding these correlations, we find that source region signatures for B-, C-, and Cg-type NEOs include Jupiter family comets, further adding interest to the sampling of these classes by impending missions [3, 4]. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation Grant 0907766 and NASA Grant NNX10AG27G.[1] Tokunaga, A. et al. (2006) BAAS 38, 59.07. [2] Bottke, W.F. et al. (2002), Icarus 156, 399. [3] Lauretta, D. S. et al. (2015), MAPS 50, 834. [4] Abe, M. et al. (2012) 39th COSPAR, Abstract H0.2-7-12.

  15. Potentially hazardous elements in coal: Modes of occurrence and summary of concentration data for coal components

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Mode-of-occurrence data are summarized for 13 potentially hazardous elements (Be, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Hg, Pb, Th, U) in coal. Recent work has refined mode-of-occurrence data for Ni, Cr, and As, as compared to previous summaries. For Cr, dominant modes of occurrence include the clay mineral illite, an amorphous CrO(OH) phase, and Cr-bearing spinels. Nickel is present in Fe-sulfides (pyrite and marcasite) and is also organically bound. Arsenic-bearing pyrite may be the dominant host of As in bituminous coals. Concentration data for the 13 HAPs, obtained primarily by quantitative microanalysis techniques, are compiled for mineral and organic portions of coal. HAPs element concentrations are greatest in Fe-sulfides, and include maxima of 2,300 ppm (Co), 4,500 ppm (Ni), 4.9wt.% (As), 2,000 ppm (Se), 171 ppm (Hg), and 5,500 ppm (Pb). Trace-element microanalysis is a significant refinement over bulk methods, and shows that there is considerable trace-element variation on a fine scale for a given coal, and from one coal to another. ?? 1998 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) N.V. Published by license under the Gordon and Breach Science Publishers imprint.

  16. Household hazardous wastes as a potential source of pollution: a generation study.

    PubMed

    Ojeda-Benítez, Sara; Aguilar-Virgen, Quetzalli; Taboada-González, Paul; Cruz-Sotelo, Samantha E

    2013-12-01

    Certain domestic wastes exhibit characteristics that render them dangerous, such as explosiveness, flammability, spontaneous combustion, reactivity, toxicity and corrosiveness. The lack of information about their generation and composition hinders the creation of special programs for their collection and treatment, making these wastes a potential threat to human health and the environment. We attempted to quantify the levels of hazardous household waste (HHW) generated in Mexicali, Mexico. The analysis considered three socioeconomic strata and eight categories. The sampling was undertaken on a house-by-house basis, and hypothesis testing was based on differences between two proportions for each of the eight categories. In this study, HHW comprised 3.49% of the total generated waste, which exceeded that reported in previous studies in Mexico. The greatest quantity of HHW was generated by the middle stratum; in the upper stratum, most packages were discarded with their contents remaining. Cleaning products represent 45.86% of the HHW generated. Statistical differences were not observed for only two categories among the three social strata. The scarcity of studies on HHW generation limits direct comparisons. Any decrease in waste generation within the middle social stratum will have a large effect on the total amount of waste generated, and decrease their impact on environmental and human health. PMID:24293231

  17. Modes of occurrence of potentially hazardous elements in coal: levels of confidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The modes of occurrence of the potentially hazardous elements in coal will be of significance in any attempt to reduce their mobilization due to coal combustion. Antimony and selenium may be present in solid solution in pyrite, as minute accessory sulfides dispersed throughout the organic matrix, or in organic association. Because of these modes of occurrence it is anticipated that less than 50% of these elements will be routinely removed by conventional coal cleaning procedures. Arsenic and mercury occur primarily in late-stage coarse-grained pyrite therefore physical coal cleaning procedures should be successful in removing substantial proportions of these elements. Cadmium occurs in sphalerite and lead in galena. Both of these minerals exhibit a wide range of particle sizes and textural relations. Depending on the particle size and textural relations, physical coal cleaning may remove as little as 25% of these elements or as much as 75%. Manganese in bituminous coal occurs in carbonates, especially siderite. Physical coal cleaning should remove a substantial proportion of this element. More information is needed to elucidate the modes of occurrence of beryllium, chromium, cobalt, and nickel. ?? 1994.

  18. The potential role of earthworms in toxicity assessment of terrestrial hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Venables, B.J.

    1994-12-31

    Understanding the toxic potential and mechanisms of action of environmental xenobiotics is fundamental for assessing risk to public and environmental health. Current established protocols with earthworms focus primarily on defining the lethal effects of chemicals associated with soil contamination. Development of sublethal assays, until recently, has been largely ignored. Here the authors develop rationale for use of earthworms as a model organism for comprehensive assessment of risks to higher wildlife from contaminated soils and hazardous waste sites. They present a panel of lethal (LC/LD50`s) and sublethal measurement endpoint biomarkers, developed within the framework of the National Toxicology Program`s tiered immunotoxicity protocol for mice and according to published criteria for good measurement endpoints, that represent sensitive phylogenetically-conserved processes. Specifically the authors discuss immunosuppressive effects of terrestrial heavy metal and organic contamination on the innate, nonspecific and specific immune responses of earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, coelomocytes in terms of total and differential cell counts, lysozyme activity, nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, phagocytic activity and secretary rosette formation. Findings indicate that sensitive phylogenetically conserved immune responses present in invertebrates can be used to assess or predict risk to wildlife from contaminated soils.

  19. Quantifying potential earthquake and tsunami hazard in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone of the Caribbean region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Seidman, Lily; Roger, Jean

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we quantify the seismic and tsunami hazard in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, focusing on the plate interface offshore of Guadeloupe. We compare potential strain accumulated via GPS-derived plate motions to strain release due to earthquakes that have occurred over the past 110 yr, and compute the resulting moment deficit. Our results suggest that enough strain is currently stored in the seismogenic zone of the Lesser Antilles subduction arc in the region of Guadeloupe to cause a large and damaging earthquake of magnitude Mw ∼ 8.2 ± 0.4. We model several scenario earthquakes over this magnitude range, using a variety of earthquake magnitudes and rupture areas, and utilizing the USGS ShakeMap and PAGER software packages. Strong ground shaking during the earthquake will likely cause loss of life and damage estimated to be in the range of several tens to several hundreds of fatalities and hundreds of millions to potentially billions of U.S. dollars of damage. In addition, such an event could produce a significant tsunami. Modelled tsunamis resulting from these scenario earthquakes predict meter-scale wave amplitudes even for events at the lower end of our magnitude range (M 7.8), and heights of over 3 m in several locations with our favoured scenario (M 8.0, partially locked interface from 15–45 km depth). In all scenarios, only short lead-times (on the order of tens of minutes) would be possible in the Caribbean before the arrival of damaging waves.

  20. Portable medical status system. [potential hazards in the use of the telecare system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, O. C.

    1976-01-01

    The hazards inherent in the Portable Medical Status System are identified, and the measures taken to reduce them to an acceptable level are described. Identification of these hazards is a prerequisite to use of the system on humans in the earth environment. One hazard which is insufficiently controlled and which is considered a constraint to use on humans is the level of current possible in the electrodes for the EEG (electroencephalograph) circuitry. It exceeds the maximum specified. A number of procedural and design recommendations for enhancement of safety are made.

  1. Burnout in Counseling Practice: Some Potential Professional and Personal Hazards of Becoming a Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Defines the syndrome of burnout and discusses some of the professional and personal hazards that confront the practicing counselor. Examines intrapersonal and interpersonal difficulties which result from burnout. Provides suggestions for dealing with burnout. (Author/RC)

  2. EU alerting and reporting systems for potential chemical public health threats and hazards.

    PubMed

    Orford, R; Crabbe, H; Hague, C; Schaper, A; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    A number of European and international IT platforms are used to notify competent authorities of new potential chemical exposures. Recently the European Parliament and the Council of European Union adopted new legislation that aims to improve the co-ordinated response to cross border health threats (Decision 1082/2013/EU). The Decision, inter alia, sets provisions on notification, ad hoc monitoring and coordination of public health measures following serious cross border threats to health from biological, chemical and environmental events as well as events that have an unknown origin. The legal instrument applies to all European Union Member States and is comparable to the International Health Regulations in its content, requirements and adoption of a multiple hazards approach. An inter-sectoral and multidisciplinary response to events with potentially dangerous cross border exposure pathways is often required. For example, European Poisons Centres may be aware of cases of toxic exposure to a product and, in parallel, trading standards may be aware of the same product due to a breach of consumer product standards. Whilst both cases would have been recorded for separate purposes in different alerting systems, they relate to the same exposure pathway; therefore a process for linking these records would allow a more robust approach to risk assessment and risk mitigation. The Decision seeks to reconcile this issue for serious threats by linking relevant platforms into one overarching higher level risk management IT platform called the Early Warning Response System (EWRS). This system will serve to link other sectors within the European Commission (EC) to public health (e.g. medicines), as well as other EU agencies and international bodies via co-notification features. Other European alert systems will be linked to EWRS to facilitate information sharing at both the assessment and management levels. This paper provides a timely overview of the main systems run by the EC

  3. The preservation potential of onshore tsunami sediments - implications for hazard assessment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiske, M.; Piepenbreier, J.; Benavente, C. L.; Bahlburg, H.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decades, numerous post-tsunami surveys documented the characteristics of sedimentary and erosional features caused by onshore tsunami inundation. Even though unique sedimentological characteristics have not been recognized, the available data help to identify ancient tsunami deposits and to extend the tsunami record of a given coastal area back in time. Consequently recurrence intervals of tsunami and related hazards can be better constrained. However, the style of preservation and the extent of post-depositional and diagenetic changes of such deposits have not yet been thoroughly assessed. Here we present results of a survey of Holocene siliciclastic onshore tsunami sediments found in Peru and Chile. We explore how coastal topography, depositional environment, climate, syn- and post-seismic tectonic movements, and the mineralogical composition influence the style and extent of preservation of tsunami deposits. We report that sediments deposited in areas affected by seasonal rainfalls, such as hurricane seasons, wet winter months, or infrequent climate phenomena like El Niño events, will be altered and potentially removed shortly after an event. The rapid burial with post-tsunami sediments helps to protect the event deposits from surface modifications. Tsunami deposits, especially of the last or the greatest wave can possess an increased preservation potential, because they will not be affected by successive waves. This holds especially for sediments deposited on flat coastal plains where the backwash is either weak or channelized. A larger distance to the shoreline places deposits out of reach of normal wave and tide action. Eolian processes can erode sediments quickly, or smoothen and infill scoured surfaces. Coarser deposits may have a higher preservation potential compared to muddy deposits because they are less likely to be reworked by run-off or wind. By contrast, muddy tsunami deposits may escape erosion by wind in some areas because of the

  4. EU alerting and reporting systems for potential chemical public health threats and hazards.

    PubMed

    Orford, R; Crabbe, H; Hague, C; Schaper, A; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    A number of European and international IT platforms are used to notify competent authorities of new potential chemical exposures. Recently the European Parliament and the Council of European Union adopted new legislation that aims to improve the co-ordinated response to cross border health threats (Decision 1082/2013/EU). The Decision, inter alia, sets provisions on notification, ad hoc monitoring and coordination of public health measures following serious cross border threats to health from biological, chemical and environmental events as well as events that have an unknown origin. The legal instrument applies to all European Union Member States and is comparable to the International Health Regulations in its content, requirements and adoption of a multiple hazards approach. An inter-sectoral and multidisciplinary response to events with potentially dangerous cross border exposure pathways is often required. For example, European Poisons Centres may be aware of cases of toxic exposure to a product and, in parallel, trading standards may be aware of the same product due to a breach of consumer product standards. Whilst both cases would have been recorded for separate purposes in different alerting systems, they relate to the same exposure pathway; therefore a process for linking these records would allow a more robust approach to risk assessment and risk mitigation. The Decision seeks to reconcile this issue for serious threats by linking relevant platforms into one overarching higher level risk management IT platform called the Early Warning Response System (EWRS). This system will serve to link other sectors within the European Commission (EC) to public health (e.g. medicines), as well as other EU agencies and international bodies via co-notification features. Other European alert systems will be linked to EWRS to facilitate information sharing at both the assessment and management levels. This paper provides a timely overview of the main systems run by the EC

  5. Assessment of existing and potential landslide hazards resulting from the April 25, 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Jibson, Randall W.

    2015-07-28

    This report provides a detailed account of assessments performed in May and June 2015 and focuses on valley-blocking landslides because they have the potential to pose considerable hazard to many villages in Nepal. First, we provide a seismological background of Nepal and then detail the methods used for both external and in-country data collection and interpretation. Our results consist of an overview of landsliding extent, a characterization of all valley-blocking landslides identified during our work, and a description of video resources that provide high resolution coverage of approximately 1,000 kilometers (km) of river valleys and surrounding terrain affected by the Gorkha earthquake sequence. This is followed by a description of site-specific landslide-hazard assessments conducted while in Nepal and includes detailed descriptions of five noteworthy case studies. Finally, we assess the expectation for additional landslide hazards during the 2015 summer monsoon season.

  6. Potential hazards from floodflows and debris movement in the Furnace Creek area, Death Valley National Monument, California-Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crippen, John R.

    1979-01-01

    Death Valley is known as the driest and hottest region in the United States. Despite the aridity of the valley itself, however , very heavy rainfall sometimes occurs in the nearby mountains. Such violent rainstorms are likely to be of relatively short duration and to occur over rather small areas; nevertheless, they sometimes produce large floodflows that in turn cause severe erosion and flows of debris. The debris-laden flows may be hazardous to life and property. Given sufficient knowledge of the hydrologic and hydraulic environment, the degree of hazard can be estimated. Potential hazards are defined for areas in the vicinity of the Furnace Creek fan and the Park Service residential area. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Assessment of existing and potential landslide hazards resulting from the April 25, 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Jibson, Randall W.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a detailed account of assessments performed in May and June 2015 and focuses on valley-blocking landslides because they have the potential to pose considerable hazard to many villages in Nepal. First, we provide a seismological background of Nepal and then detail the methods used for both external and in-country data collection and interpretation. Our results consist of an overview of landsliding extent, a characterization of all valley-blocking landslides identified during our work, and a description of video resources that provide high resolution coverage of approximately 1,000 kilometers (km) of river valleys and surrounding terrain affected by the Gorkha earthquake sequence. This is followed by a description of site-specific landslide-hazard assessments conducted while in Nepal and includes detailed descriptions of five noteworthy case studies. Finally, we assess the expectation for additional landslide hazards during the 2015 summer monsoon season.

  8. Distribution of potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Shanxi province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, J.Y.; Zheng, C.G.; Ren, D.Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.; Zeng, R.-S.; Wang, Z.P.; Zhao, F.H.; Ge, Y.T.

    2004-01-01

    Shanxi province, located in the center of China, is the biggest coal base of China. There are five coal-forming periods in Shanxi province: Late Carboniferous (Taiyuan Formation), Early Permian (Shanxi Formation), Middle Jurassic (Datong Formation), Tertiary (Taxigou Formation), and Quaternary. Hundred and ten coal samples and a peat sample from Shanxi province were collected and the contents of 20 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) (As, B, Ba, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography spectrometry, and wet chemical analysis. The result shows that the brown coals are enriched in As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, F and Zn compared with the bituminous coals and anthracite, whereas the bituminous coals are enriched in B, Cl, Hg, and the anthracite is enriched in Cl, Hg, U and V. A comparison with world averages and crustal abundances (Clarke values) shows that the Quaternary peat is highly enriched in As and Mo, Tertiary brown coals are highly enriched in Cd, Middle Jurassic coals, Early Permian coals and Late Carboniferous coals are enriched in Hg. According to the coal ranks, the bituminous coals are highly enriched in Hg, whereas Cd, F and Th show low enrichments, and the anthracite is also highly enriched in Hg and low enrichment in Th. The concentrations of Cd, F, Hg and Th in Shanxi coals are more than world arithmetic means of concentrations for the corresponding elements. Comparing with the United States coals, Shanxi coals show higher concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, Se and Th. Most of Shanxi coals contain lower concentrations of PHTEs. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Meteorite Associations and Source Regions for Potentially Hazardous Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binzel, Richard P.; Vernazza, P.; Thomas, C. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Bus, S. J.; Rivkin, A. S.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    2008-09-01

    We report results from Vernazza et al. (2008; Nature, August 14 issue) showing that 2/3 of all large near-Earth objects (NEOs), including the potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) subset, have spectral characteristics consistent with laboratory measurements of LL-chondrite meteorites. Our NEO data (38 S- and Q-types) were obtained through a joint observational program (MIT, Hawaii, IRTF). Comparison meteorite data were obtained from the Brown University RELAB database. Our asteroid-meteorite comparative analysis was performed using quantitative measurements of spectral band centers and band area ratios and using a radiative transfer model for olivine (olv) and orthopyroxene (opx) (Shkuratov 1999; Icarus 137, 235). Most large NEOs (and the PHA subset) show relatively high olv/(olv+opx) ratios in the 70-85% range typical for LL-chondrites. Interestingly, relatively high olivine abundances are found among S-type asteroids in the inner main-belt Flora region (Gaffey 1984; Icarus 60, 38: Chapman 1996; MPS 31, 699) adjacent to the nu6 secular resonance. An LL chondrite association for most large (km-sized) NEOs and PHAs is surprising since LL chondrites are somewhat rare ( 8% of all meteorite falls). One possible explanation is Yarkovsky drift. Large objects (such as km-sized NEOs in our sample) experience relatively little Yarkovsky drift. In contrast, meter-sized objects (which dominate meteorite fall statistics) experience substantial Yarkovsky drift. Limited Yarkovsky drift therefore restricts the delivery of the largest NEOs to the most favorable source region(s), such as the nu6 resonance bordering the Flora region. Substantial Yarkovsky drift of meter-sized objects throughout the main belt allows meteorite fall statistics to sample from numerous main-belt resonances. Thus, meteorite falls sample throughout_the_asteroid_belt (not just the inner belt). Such a size-dependent efficiency therefore enhances the inner main belt as the source for large NEOs and PHAs

  10. Constraining Composition of Potentially-Hazardous Asteroid 2006 WH1 via Near-IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Gaffey, M. J.; Binzel, R. P.; Hardersen, P. S.; Kumar, S.

    2007-10-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of potentially-hazardous asteroid (PHA) 2006 WH1 were obtained remotely on December 22, 2006 UT, using the SpeX instrument at NASA IRTF on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i. Near-IR spectrum of 2006 WH1 displays a deep band I feature (band depth 25%) and a weaker band II (band depth 10%) suggesting the presence of the mineral pyroxene in the surface assemblage. The estimated band I and II centers are 0.96±0.005 µm and 2.00±0.01 µm respectively, with a BAR of 0.6±0.1. Weak inflection at 1.30-µm could be due to olivine, plagioclase feldspar or high-Fe pyroxene. 2006 WH1 plots above the pyroxene trend line on the band-band plot (Adams, 1974, Cloutis & Gaffey, 1991) indicating the presence of olivine along with pyroxene. Upon applying the band I displacement correction of 0.032 µm for olivine (Gaffey et al., 2002), the object's band I drops on to the pyroxene trend line strengthening the case of the presence of olivine. Using methods developed by Cloutis et al., (1986), the estimated amount of pyroxene in a pyroxene + olivine mixture is 0.30±0.05%. The estimated pyroxene chemistry suggests either a eucrite-like pyroxene or the presence of three pyroxenes (low Fe, Ca orthopyroxene; low Fe augite and Eucrite-like pigeonite). Such chemistry supports the presence of a possible non-chondritic surface assemblage on 2006 WH1, while not excluding the remote plausibility of an LL-chondrite-type assemblage. The authors would like to thank NASA IRTF for providing Target of Opportunity observing time for observing 2006 WH1 flyby. This research was supported by NASA Near-Earth Objects Observations Program grant NNG04GI17G and GSA PGD Eugene M. Shoemaker Impact Cratering Award.

  11. Potential geologic hazards and constraints for blocks in proposed Mid-Atlantic OCS oil and gas lease sale 49

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R. W., (Edited By); Ensminger, H. Robert

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of side-scan sonar, subbottom profiler, processed sparker, and fathometer data (approximately 5060 km) from the 136 blocks in the proposed Outer Continental Shelf Lease Sale 49 disclosed features that are potential geologic hazards to oil and gas exploration and development operations. These potential hazards are past mass sediment movement (slumping or sliding) in parts or all of 57 proposed lease sale blocks (27 of which are virtually covered by slumped materials), shallow gas deposits in three proposed lease sale blocks, and recent shallow faulting in one proposed lease sale block. Other features considered merely to be developmental constraints can be accommodated by existing standard design and engineering technology: erosion and scour, sand waves, filled channels, acoustically turbid zones (gassy sediments), lagoonal sediments, potentially unstable slopes (due to gradient), unidentified bottom objects, and a shipwreck.

  12. The potentially hazardous asteroid 1996 JG and the North omega-Scorpiid meteoroid stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiedo, J.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J.

    2014-07-01

    During the end of May and mid June, meteor and fireball activity from the Scorpiid-Sagitariid complex can be noticed. One of the streams belonging to this complex is the North ω-Scorpiids (NSC), which was previously designated by some authors as the ω-Scorpiids [1]. This is included in the IAU Working list of meteor showers with the code 66 NSC (REF). The activity period of this minor shower goes from May 23 to June 15 with a maximum around June 1st. The Apollo-type orbit of NSC meteoroids let Drummond to propose 1862 Apollo as the parent asteroid of this meteor shower [2]. Nowadays, however, the potentially-hazardous asteroid (PHA) 1996 JG is included among the potential parent bodies of this stream [1]. We report here a magnitude -10 fireball recorded on June 6, 2010, at 23h18m38 ± 1s UTC from two video stations working in the framework of the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN). High-sensitivity CCD video cameras recorded the event and allowed the reconstruction of the atmospheric trajectory, velocity, and radiant determination. From such data the orbital elements of the meteoroid were obtained, finding a clear association with the North ω-Scorpiids meteoroid stream. The emission spectrum produced by this event, which received the code SPMN060610, is also analyzed. From the deduced orbital elements, by using the ORAS software (ORbital Association Software) we confirm that asteroid 1996 JG is the likely parent body of the North ω-Scorpiid stream. Thus, for example, by using the Southworth and Hawkins dissimilarity criterion, we obtain a value of D_{SH} of about 0.09 [3]. In addition, we have performed an orbital integration by using the Mercury 6 software [4]. The gravitational fields of Venus, the Earth-Moon system, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were considered. The orbits of 1996 JG and the SPMN060610 meteoroid were integrated back for 20,000 years. As shown in the figure, the DSH criterion reveals a link between both bodies, with the values of DSH being less than 0

  13. Potential flood hazards and hydraulic characteristics of distributary-flow areas in Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hjalmarson, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Flood hazards of distributary-flow areas in Maricopa County, Arizona, can be distinguished on the basis of morphological features. Five distributary-flow areas represent the range of flood-hazard degree in the study area. Descriptive factors, including the presence of desert varnish and the absence of saguaro cactus, are more useful than traditional hydraulic-based methods in defining hazards. The width, depth, and velocity exponents of the hydraulic-geometry relations at the primary diffluences of the sites are similar to theoretical exponents for streams with cohesive bank material and the average exponents of stream channels in other areas in the United States. Because of the unexplained scatter of the values of the exponent of channel width, however, the use of average hydraulic-geometry relations is con- sidered inappropriate for characterizing flood hazards for specific distributary-flow in Maricopa County. No evidence has been found that supports the use of stochastic modeling of flows or flood hazards of many distributary-flow areas. The surface of many distributary-flow areas is stable with many distributary channels eroded in the calcreted surface material. Many distributary- flow areas do not appear to be actively aggrading today, and the paths of flow are not changing.

  14. Permafrost in the Himalayas: specific characteristics, evolution vs. climate change and impacts on potential natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Monique

    2015-04-01

    Mountain environments are very sensitive to climate change, yet assessing the potential impacts of these changes is not easy because of the complexity and diversity of mountain systems. The Himalayan permafrost belt presents three main specificities: (1) it develops in a geodynamically active mountain, which means that the controlling factors are not only temperature but also seismo-tectonic activity; (2) due to the steepness of the southern flank of the Greater Himalaya and potential large scale rock failures, permafrost evidence manifests itself best in the inner valleys and on the northern, arid side of the Himalayas (elevations >4000m); (3) the east-west strike of the mountain range creates large spatial discontinuity in the "cold" belt, mostly related to precipitation nature and availability. Only limited studies have been carried to date, and there is no permanent "field laboratory", nor continuous records but a few local studies. Based on preliminary observations in the Nepal Himalayas (mostly in Mustang and Dolpo districts), and Indian Ladakh, we present the main features indicating the existence of permafrost (either continuous or discontinuous). Rock-glaciers are quite well represented, though their presence may be interpreted as a combined result from both ground ice and large rock collapse. The precise altitudinal zonation of permafrost belt (specifying potential permafrost, probable permafrost, observed permafrost belts) still requires careful investigations in selected areas. Several questions arise when considering the evolution of permafrost in a context of climate change, with its impacts on the development of potential natural hazards that may affect the mountain population. Firstly, permafrost degradation (ground ice melting) is a cause of mountain slope destabilization. When the steep catchments are developed in frost/water sensitive bedrock (shales and marls) and extend to high elevations (as observed in Mustang or Dolpo), it would supply more

  15. Comments on Potential Geologic and Seismic Hazards Affecting Proposed Liquefied Natural Gas Site in Santa Monica Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Lee, Homa J.; Parsons, Tom E.; Beyer, Larry A.; Boore, David M.; Conrad, James E.; Edwards, Brian D.; Fisher, Michael A.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Geist, Eric L.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Hough, Susan E.; Kayen, Robert E.; Lorenson, T.D.; Luco, Nicolas; McCrory, Patricia A.; McGann, Mary; Nathenson, Manuel; Nolan, Michael; Petersen, Mark D.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Powell, Charles L.; Ryan, Holly F.; Tinsley, John C.; Wills, Chris J.; Wong, Florence L.; Xu, Jingping

    2008-01-01

    In a letter to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dated March 25, 2008, Representative Jane Harman (California 36th district) requested advice on geologic hazards that should be considered in the review of a proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility off the California coast in Santa Monica Bay. In 2004, the USGS responded to a similar request from Representative Lois Capps, regarding two proposed LNG facilities offshore Ventura County, Calif., with a report summarizing potential geologic and seismic hazards (Ross and others, 2004). The proposed LNG Deepwater Port (DWP) facility includes single point moorings (SPMs) and 35 miles of underwater pipelines. The DWP submersible buoys, manifolds, and risers would be situated on the floor of the southern Santa Monica Basin, in 3,000 feet of water, about 23 miles offshore of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Twin 24-inch diameter pipelines would extend northeastward from the buoys across the basin floor, up the basin slope and across the continental shelf, skirting north around the Santa Monica submarine canyon. Figure 1 provides locations of the project and geologic features. Acronyms are defined in table 1. This facility is being proposed in a region of known geologic hazards that arise from both the potential for strong earthquakes and geologic processes related to sediment transport and accumulation in the offshore environment. The probability of a damaging earthquake (considered here as magnitude 6.5 or greater) in the next 30 years within about 30 miles (50 km) of the proposed pipeline ranges from 16% at the pipeline's offshore end to 48% where it nears land (Petersen, 2008). Earthquakes of this magnitude are capable of producing strong shaking, surface fault offsets, liquefaction phenomena, landslides, underwater turbidity currents and debris flow avalanches, and tsunamis. As part of the DWP license application for the Woodside Natural Gas proposal in Santa Monica Bay (known as the OceanWay Secure Energy Project), Fugro

  16. Communicating Potential Ash-Fall Hazards With Scenario Maps at Mount St. Helens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, J. W.; Griswold, J.; Wardwell, R. S.; Bohlander, A.

    2006-12-01

    Shortly after the reawakening of Mount St. Helens in September 2004, the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) began producing twice-daily ash-fall-scenario maps to aid in eruption response on the part of scientists and emergency managers. We use the advection-diffusion-sedimentation program ASHFALL of Hurst (1994) and numerical forecast winds from the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory to produce the maps for 00 and 12 hours UTC. The ASHFALL program produces a gridded output of potential uncompacted tephra thicknesses. We produce scenario maps using bulk tephra volumes of 1 and 10 million cubic meters (MCM), with column heights of 7 and 12 km, respectively. These volumes are judged to cover the range of possible tephra volumes that the ongoing dome-building eruption is capable of producing. Thus far, none of the few tephra-producing eruptive events since 2004 has ejected more than several hundred thousand MCM of tephra. Georeferenced gridded output from the ASHFALL program is imported to GIS software so that it can be visualized on a regional map. These maps are distributed to personnel at CVO to aid in communicating hazards information in daily updates of the volcanoe's activity, and to emergency management officials and the public in the event of a tephra producing event. In late 2004, at the start of the current eruption period, the ashfall scenario maps were used to support contingency planning in the Joint Operations Center in Vancouver, Washington and in the Washington State Emergency Operations Center. At the present time, gridded output is sent directly to the State of Washington's Emergency Management Division where they are incorporated into their GIS-based emergency information system, ready to be distributed to local emergency management entities in case of an ash-producing event. Having daily scenario maps in hand facilitates rapid communication of where ashfall is likely to occur. Once an event is underway, the ASHFALL program is run using observed

  17. Methodology to assess potential glint and glare hazards from concentrating solar power plants : analytical models and experimental validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Ghanbari, Cheryl M.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-04-01

    With growing numbers of concentrating solar power systems being designed and developed, glint and glare from concentrating solar collectors and receivers is receiving increased attention as a potential hazard or distraction for motorists, pilots, and pedestrians. This paper provides analytical methods to evaluate the irradiance originating from specularly and diffusely reflecting sources as a function of distance and characteristics of the source. Sample problems are provided for both specular and diffuse sources, and validation of the models is performed via testing. In addition, a summary of safety metrics is compiled from the literature to evaluate the potential hazards of calculated irradiances from glint and glare. Previous safety metrics have focused on prevention of permanent eye damage (e.g., retinal burn). New metrics used in this paper account for temporary flash blindness, which can occur at irradiance values several orders of magnitude lower than the irradiance values required for irreversible eye damage.

  18. Property values and potentially hazardous production facilities: a case study of the Kanawha Valley, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Multiple regression analysis was applied to a new cross section data set for the Kanawha Valley, West Virginia single-family residential housing market to test the hypotheses that (1) individuals are willing to pay for freedom from exposure to hazardous materials released in an acute pollution event at a chemical plant and (2) there is an announcement effect on local property values following an actual catastrophic hazardous-materials incident elsewhere. Property-value models were constructed to test the first hypothesis. Each model is a hedonic equation that relates residential property values (measured by sale prices) to a measure of the risk of exposure to hazardous materials as well as other factors that influence the value of housing. Results of OLS estimation of the models provided support for the hypothesis that individuals are willing to pay for reductions in their exposure to hazardous materials and that the market capitalizes this value into residential property values. In tests of the second hypothesis property-value models were estimated to determine if Kanawha Valley property values fell following the announcement of the December 3, 1984 catastrophic leak of methyl isocyanate from a Union Carbide plant in Bhopal, India. Results of these tests provide empirical evidence that the announcement of this event did have a depressing effect on area property values.

  19. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  20. Hazard Assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood and Potential of ICTs for Coping: A Case of Eastern Himalaya of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Retreat of glaciers and formation of glacial lakes in Nepal Himalaya have been reported to be related with the temperature rise in the region. Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) are the growing climate induced hazards in the Himalaya. GLOF has increased the vulnerability of community and fragile ecosystem in the mountain valleys. This study has analyzed the potential impacts from GLOF in the highland of eastern Nepal and the potential role of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) to cope with such impacts. I analyzed the trend of climatic pattern (temperature and precipitation) of the Eastern Himalaya Region of Nepal available from the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Government of Nepal, and prepared the latest location map of the glacial lakes using google earth and ArcGIS applications in the highland of the Kanchanjungha Conservation Area of the region. Tiptala glacial lake, located at an elevation of 4950 m, within the conservation area, was selected for the GLOF hazard assessment. I used semi-structured questionnaire survey and key informants' interviews in the community in order to assess the potential hazard of GLOF. With the varying sizes, 46 glacial lakes were located in the region, which covers over 2.57 sq. km in total. Though the larger portion of the downstream area of the Tiptala glacial lake fall in the remote location away from major residential area, few villages, major pasture lands for Yaks, foot trails, and several bridges across the Tamor River below the lake are in risk of GLOF. Poor access due to extreme geographical remoteness and capacity to afford the modern technologies in the community are the major limiting factor to the knowledge and information about the climate change and related impacts. Modern ICTs has high potential to reduce the risk of climate related hazards in the remote area by information dissemination and awareness.

  1. A 3600-year fan delta record of alpine floods: Potentialities of flood hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, L.; Peña, J. C.; Burjachs, F.; Pernas, J.; Carvalho, F.; Schmidt, Th.; Baró, M.; Oliva, M.; Barriendos, M.; Veit, H.

    2009-04-01

    During the last decade the significance of flood magnitude, frequency and triggering forces in mountain regions is discussed in the context of Global Change. In the Swiss Alps these variables have also been even more investigated and modeled on a local scale due to the outstanding magnitude of discharges and economic losses (211 million CHF) of the 2005 flood event on August 23rd. With regard to the discussion about future extreme events as a consequence of present day global warming, the key question arises if floods occurred in the past during warmer or cooler climate conditions. The variability of fluvial environments of the Lütschine and Lombach catchments in the Swiss Alps during Late Holocene is traced from a composed 3600-year fan delta record using a multi-proxy approach integrating methods of various disciplines as sedimentology, geochronology, pedology, geomorphology, hydrology, palynology, history and archaeology. Furthermore, the paper examines the potential of fluvial archives with regard to flood hazard assessment. The lithology and geochemical data of the Lütschine and Lombach fan delta records studied in several key sections and cores show several aggradation phases from 3600 cal yr BP to present. The major aggradational pulses of the Lütschine fan delta recorded by coarse grained flood layers occur at intervals from 580 to 200 years, whereas in the Lombach catchment intervals range from 350 to 120 years. At least nineteen minor aggradational pulses indicated by the Ca/Ti ratios and organic carbon content are reported in the Lütschine catchment at a medium recurrence interval around 116 years at least from 3300 yr cal BP until 1100 yr cal BP and in the Lombach basin 10 pulses at an average interval of 105 years from 2800 yr cal BP until 1150 yr cal BP. Despite the different fluvial regimes, glacio-nival regime of the Lütschine river and pluvio-nival of the Lombach river, the following correlation can be pointed out: a) synchronous trends of the

  2. Parasites of wild animals as a potential source of hazard to humans.

    PubMed

    Gałęcki, Remigiusz; Sokół, Rajmund; Koziatek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The decline in wild animal habitats and the uncontrolled growth of their population make these animals come closer to human settlements. The aim of the study was to identify parasitic infections in wild animals in the selected area, and to specify the hazards they create for humans. In more than 66% of the analysed faecal samples from wild boar, hares, roe deer, deer and fallow deer various developmental forms of parasites were found. These included parasites dangerous for humans: Toxocara canis, Capillaria hepatica, Capillaria bovis, Trichuris suis, Trichuris ovis, Trichuris globulosus, Eimeria spp., and Trichostongylus spp. It is necessary to monitor parasitic diseases in wild animals as they can lead to the spread of parasites creating a hazard to humans, pets and livestock. PMID:26342506

  3. Parasites of wild animals as a potential source of hazard to humans.

    PubMed

    Gałęcki, Remigiusz; Sokół, Rajmund; Koziatek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The decline in wild animal habitats and the uncontrolled growth of their population make these animals come closer to human settlements. The aim of the study was to identify parasitic infections in wild animals in the selected area, and to specify the hazards they create for humans. In more than 66% of the analysed faecal samples from wild boar, hares, roe deer, deer and fallow deer various developmental forms of parasites were found. These included parasites dangerous for humans: Toxocara canis, Capillaria hepatica, Capillaria bovis, Trichuris suis, Trichuris ovis, Trichuris globulosus, Eimeria spp., and Trichostongylus spp. It is necessary to monitor parasitic diseases in wild animals as they can lead to the spread of parasites creating a hazard to humans, pets and livestock.

  4. Process chemicals in the oil and gas industry: potential occupational hazards.

    PubMed

    Cottle, M K; Guidotti, T L

    1990-01-01

    Numerous chemicals are used in various processes of the oil and gas industry: drilling, cementing, completion, stimulation, and production. The number and the complexity of composition of process chemicals has increased greatly over the last three decades. The occupational hazards of exposure to these agents has received little attention. We reviewed the various processes in the industry, the type of chemicals used in each process, and some of their characteristics. We placed emphasis on those for which significant toxicity has been established or is suspected, and those for which there is incomplete information on their chemistry and health hazards. This report is intended to form a basis for a more complete survey of the process chemicals, and to draw attention to the possibilities for toxic exposure resulting from use of these agents in the oil and gas industry. The ultimate objective is to promote the safe use of these agents in the industry. PMID:2190356

  5. Potential geologic hazards on the eastern Gulf of Cadiz slope (SW Spain)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baraza, J.; Ercilla, G.; Nelson, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    Geologic hazards resulting from sedimentary, oceanographic and tectonic processes affect more than one third of the offshore Gulf of Cadiz, and are identified by interpreting high-resolution seismic profiles and sonographs. Hazards of sedimentary origin include the occurrence of slope instability processes in the form of single or multiple slumps occupying up to 147 km2 mainly concentrated in the steeper, upper slope area. Besides the presence of steep slopes, the triggering of submarine landslides is probably due to seismic activity and favoured by the presence of biogenic gas within the sediment. Gassy sediments and associated seafloor pockmarks cover more than 240 km2 in the upper slope. Hazards from oceanographic processes result from the complex system of bottom currents created by the interaction of the strong Mediterranean Undercurrent and the rough seafloor physiography. The local intensification of bottom currents is responsible for erosive processes along more than 1900 km2 in the upper slope and in the canyons eroded in the central area of the slope, undermining slopes and causing instability. The strong bottom currents also create a mobile seafloor containing bedforms in an area of the Gulf that extends more than 2500 km2, mostly in the continental slope terraces. Hazards of tectonic origin are important because the Gulf of Cadiz straddles two major tectonic regions, the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone and the Betic range, which results in diapir uplift over an area of more than 1000 km2, and in active seismicity with earthquakes of moderate magnitude. Also, tsunamis produced by strong earthquakes occur in the Gulf of Cadiz, and are related to the tectonic activity along the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone.

  6. Recent eruptive history of Mount Hood, Oregon, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1980-01-01

    Each of three major eruptive periods at Mount Hood (12,000-15,000(?), 1,500-1,800, and 200-300 years ago) produced dacite domes, pyroclastic flows, and mudflows, but virtually no pumice. Most of the fine lithic ash that mantles the slopes of the volcano and the adjacent mountains fell from ash clouds that accompanied the pyroclastic flows. Widely scattered pumice lapilli that are present at the ground surface on the south, east, and north sides of Mount Hood may have been erupted during the mid-1800's, when the last known activity of the volcano occurred. The geologically recent history of Mount Hood suggests that the most likely eruptive event in the future will be the formation of another dome, probably within the present south-facing crater. The principal hazards that could accompany dome formation include pyroclastic flows and mudflows moving from the upper slopes of the volcano down the floors of valleys. Ash clouds which accompany pyroclastic flows may deposit as much as a meter of fine ash close to their source, and as much as 20 centimeters at a distance of 11 kilometers downwind from the pyroclastic flows. Other hazards that could result from such eruptions include laterally directed explosive blasts that could propel rock fragments outward from the sides of a dome at high speed, and toxic volcanic gases. The scarcity of pumiceous ash erupted during the last 15,000 years suggests that explosive pumice eruptions are not a major hazard at Mount Hood; thus, there seems to be little danger that such an eruption will significantly affect the Portland (Oregon) metropolitan area in the near future.

  7. Potential hazards from floodflows in Grapevine Canyon, Death Valley National Monument, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Grapevine Canyon is on the western slope of the Grapevine Mountains in the northern part of Death Valley National Monument , California and Nevada. Grapevine Canyon Road covers the entire width of the canyon floor in places and is a frequently traveled route to Scotty 's Castle in the canyon. The region is arid and subject to flash flooding because of infrequent but intense convective storms. When these storms occur, normally in the summer, the resulting floods may create a hazard to visitor safety and property. Historical data on rainfall and floodflow in Grapevine Canyon are sparse. Data from studies made for similar areas in the desert mountains of southern California provide the basis for estimating discharges and the corresponding frequency of floods in the study area. Results of this study indicate that high-velocity flows of water and debris , even at shallow depths, may scour and damage Grapevine Canyon Road. When discharge exceeds 4,900 cu ft/sec, expected at a recurrence interval of between 25 and 50 years, the Scotty 's Castle access road and bridge may be damaged and the parking lot partly inundated. A flood having a 100-year or greater recurrence interval probably would wash out the bridge and present a hazard to the stable and garage buildings but not to the castle buildings, whose foundations are higher than the predicted maximum flood level. (USGS)

  8. Ferns and lycopods--a potential treasury of anticancer agents but also a carcinogenic hazard.

    PubMed

    Tomšík, Pavel

    2014-06-01

    Many species of seedless vascular plants-ferns and lycopods-have been used as food and folk medicine since ancient times. Some of them have become the focus of intensive research concerning their anticancer properties. Studies on the anticancer effect of crude extracts are being increasingly replaced by bioactivity-guided fractionation, as well as detailed assessment of the mechanism of action. Numerous compounds-especially flavonoids such as amentoflavone and protoapigenone, and also simpler phenolic compounds, steroids, alkaloids and terpenoids-were isolated and found to be cytotoxic, particularly pro-apoptotic, or to induce cell cycle arrest in cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo experiments, some fern-derived compounds inhibited tumour growth with little toxicity. On the other hand, many ferns-not only the well-known Bracken (Pteridium)-may pose a significant hazard to human health due to the fact that they contain carcinogenic sesquiterpenoids and their analogues. The objective of this review is to summarise the recent state of research on the anticancer properties of ferns and lycopods, with a focus on their characteristic bioactive constituents. The carcinogenic hazard posed by ferns is also mentioned.

  9. Potential submarine geologic hazards at the entrance of the Pearl River Estuary in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wei, Zhiqiang; He, Huizhong; Wei, Wei; Qian, Libing; Li, Tuanjie

    2016-08-01

    The potential submarine geologic hazards were distinguished and categorized at the entrance of the Pearl River Estuary in the northern South China Sea, based upon the analysis of side scan sonar and sub-bottom profiler surveying data of about 2500 km long, in an area about 2000 km2 around the Wanshan Archipelago. The data obtained in the survey has the highest spatial resolution by far, which could reveal more detailed distributions and characteristics of the geologic hazards than before. In the study region, three paleo-channels that were buried about 10-30 m below the seabed were found; more than 10 shallow gas areas were discovered. The sand waves found in the region were generally small and located near the islands, and twenty pockmarks found on the seabed were mostly concentrated to north of Zhuzhou island. There are also many man-made obstacles in the region, such as wreckages, pipeline, etc. In this paper we provide a detailed distribution map of the submarine geologic hazards in this region for the first time, and discuss their formation and harmfulness, which will provide a scientific basis for marine engineering construction, marine geologic disaster prevention and mitigation.

  10. Hazard Assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood and Potential of ICTs for Coping: A Case of Eastern Himalaya of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, D. R.; Pradhananga, D.

    2014-12-01

    Alarming rate of retreat of glaciers and formation of glacial lakes in higher elevation of Nepal Himalaya has been reported to be related with the pronounced atmospheric temperature rise in the region. Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) are the growing climate induced hazards in the Himalaya increasing the vulnerability of community living in the mountain valley, and the fragile ecosystem. This study tried to come up with the potential impacts from glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in highland of eastern region of Nepal and potential role of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in coping. I analyzed the trend of climatic pattern (temperature and precipitation) of the Eastern Himalaya Region of Nepal available from Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM), Government of Nepal, and also prepared the latest location map of the glacial lakes using google earth and ArcGIS application in the highland of the Kanchanjungha Conservation Area of the region. Tiptala glacial lake, located at an elevation of 4950 masl, within the conservation area, was selected for the GLOF hazard assessment. I used semi-structured questioner survey and key informants interviews in the community living below the lake in the highland of the study area in order to assess the potential hazard of GLOF. Analysis shows the increasing trend of atmospheric temperature in the region. With the varying sizes, 46 glacial lakes were located in the region, which covers over 2.57 sq. km in total. Though the larger portion of the downstream area of the Tiptala glacial lake fall in the remote location away from major residential area, few villages, major pasture lands for Yaks, foot trails, and several bridges across the Tamor River below the lake are in risk of GLOF. Poor access due to extreme geographical remoteness and capacity to afford the modern technologies in the community is seen as the major limiting factor to the knowledge and information about the climate change and related impacts

  11. Broadband Photometry of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid 1999 MN: Suggestive of YORP and/or Tidal Spin-Up?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, M.; Mayes, D.; McAuley, A.; Foster, J.

    2010-06-01

    1999 MN was discovered by Carl Hergenrother on behalf of the Catalina Sky Survey on June 22 1999 (MPEC 1999-M27) and identified as a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) by the Minor Planet Center. The object's low inclination and perihelion distance allows for frequent gravitational encounters with Mercury, Venus, and Earth. 1999 MN passed within 0.033 AU of the Earth on June 4.5 2010. Our Bessel BVRI observations at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory 0.6-m telescope, summarized in Table 1, were scheduled to support Arecibo radar observations obtained in 2004 and 2005.

  12. Solutions Network Formulation Report. NASA's Potential Contributions using ASTER Data in Marine Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Rose

    2010-01-01

    The 28-foot storm surge from Hurricane Katrina pushed inland along bays and rivers for a distance of 12 miles in some areas, contributing to the damage or destruction of about half of the fleet of boats in coastal Mississippi. Most of those boats had sought refuge in back bays and along rivers. Some boats were spared damage because the owners chose their mooring site well. Gulf mariners need a spatial analysis tool that provides guidance on the safest places to anchor their boats during future hurricanes. This product would support NOAA s mission to minimize the effects of coastal hazards through awareness, education, and mitigation strategies and could be incorporated in the Coastal Risk Atlas decision support tool.

  13. Potential hazard of hearing damage to students in undergraduate popular music courses.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Christopher

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in university courses related to popular and commercial music, with a commensurate increase in the number of students studying these courses. Students of popular music subjects are frequently involved in the use of electronically amplified sound for rehearsal and recording, in addition to the "normal" noise exposure commonly associated with young people. The combination of these two elements suggests a higher than average noise exposure hazard for these students. To date, the majority of noise studies on students have focused on exposure from personal music players and on classical, orchestral, and marching band musicians. One hundred students across a range of university popular music courses were surveyed using a 30-point questionnaire regarding their musical habits both within and external to their university courses. This was followed by noise dosimetry of studios/recording spaces and music venues popular with students. Questionnaire responses showed 76% of subjects reported having experienced symptoms associated with hearing loss, while only 18% reported using hearing protection devices. Rehearsals averaged 11.5 hrs/wk, with a mean duration 2 hrs 13 mins and mean level of 98 dB LAEQ. Ninety-four percent of subjects reported attending concerts or nightclubs at least once per week, and measured exposure in two of these venues ranged from 98 to 112 dB LAEQ with a mean of 98.9 dB LAEQ over a 4.5-hr period. Results suggested an extremely high hazard of excessive noise exposure among this group from both their social and study-based music activities.

  14. Evaluation of potential surface rupture and review of current seismic hazards program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-09

    This report summarizes the authors review and evaluation of the existing seismic hazards program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The report recommends that the original program be augmented with a probabilistic analysis of seismic hazards involving assignment of weighted probabilities of occurrence to all potential sources. This approach yields a more realistic evaluation of the likelihood of large earthquake occurrence particularly in regions where seismic sources may have recurrent intervals of several thousand years or more. The report reviews the locations and geomorphic expressions of identified fault lines along with the known displacements of these faults and last know occurrence of seismic activity. Faults are mapped and categorized into by their potential for actual movement. Based on geologic site characterization, recommendations are made for increased seismic monitoring; age-dating studies of faults and geomorphic features; increased use of remote sensing and aerial photography for surface mapping of faults; the development of a landslide susceptibility map; and to develop seismic design standards for all existing and proposed facilities at LANL.

  15. Potential geologic hazards and constraints for blocks in proposed North Atlantic OCS Oil and gas lease sale 52

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, G.B.; Cardinell, A.P.; Francois, D.K.; Good, L.K.; Lewis, R.L.; Stiles, N.T.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of high-resolution geophysical data collected over 540 blocks tentatively selected for leasing in proposed OCS Oil and Gas Lease Sale 52 (Georges Bank) revealed a number of potential geologic hazards to oil and gas exploration and development activities: evidence of mass movements and shallow gas deposits on the continental slope. No potential hazards were observed on the continental shelf or rise. Other geology-related problems, termed constraints because they pose a relatively low degree of risk and can be routinely dealt with by the use of existing technology have been observed on the continental shelf. Constraints identified in the proposed sale area are erosion, sand waves, filled channels and deep faults. Piston cores were collected for geotechnical analysis at selected locations on the continental slope in the proposed lease sale area. The core locations were selected to provide information on slope stability and to establish the general geotechnical properties of the sediments. Preliminary results of a testing program suggest that the surficial sediment cover is stable with respect to mass movement.

  16. Live bacterial vaccines – a review and identification of potential hazards

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, Ann; Glenting, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    The use of live bacteria to induce an immune response to itself or to a carried vaccine component is an attractive vaccine strategy. Advantages of live bacterial vaccines include their mimicry of a natural infection, intrinsic adjuvant properties and their possibility to be administered orally. Derivatives of pathogenic and non-pathogenic food related bacteria are currently being evaluated as live vaccines. However, pathogenic bacteria demands for attenuation to weaken its virulence. The use of bacteria as vaccine delivery vehicles implies construction of recombinant strains that contain the gene cassette encoding the antigen. With the increased knowledge of mucosal immunity and the availability of genetic tools for heterologous gene expression the concept of live vaccine vehicles gains renewed interest. However, administration of live bacterial vaccines poses some risks. In addition, vaccination using recombinant bacteria results in the release of live recombinant organisms into nature. This places these vaccines in the debate on application of genetically modified organisms. In this review we give an overview of live bacterial vaccines on the market and describe the development of new live vaccines with a focus on attenuated bacteria and food-related lactic acid bacteria. Furthermore, we outline the safety concerns and identify the hazards associated with live bacterial vaccines and try to give some suggestions of what to consider during their development. PMID:16796731

  17. Potential microbiological hazards in the production of refined paper products for food applications.

    PubMed

    Raaska, L; Sillanpää, J; Sjöberg, A-M; Suihko, M-L

    2002-04-01

    This study sought to investigate the significance of raw materials (starch-based glues, raw material papers) at different microbiologically critical stages in the manufacturing process of refined paper products. The study examined the occurrence of microorganisms in the process and in end-product samples. Microbiological surveys verified that the production and use of pasteurized starch-based glue was the most important factor threatening the process hygiene and product safety. Subsequently, the production and use of starch-based glue was changed, and a follow-up programme targeting the microbiological quality of glue was developed as part of a hygiene and safety management system. A total of 33 spore-forming bacterial and 15 enterobacterial isolates were ribotyped, and 22 and 10 different ribogroups (ribotypes), respectively, were generated. These isolates from starch-based glue, raw material paper and end products were atypical and, thus, in many cases physiological, chemotaxonomic (FAME) and molecular (partial 16S rDNA) results did not correspond. The most common spore-forming bacteria (55% of the isolates) were Paenibacillus sp. and within this genus several new species were also proposed. The most common enterobacteria (87%) were Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii belonging to bacteria in hazard group 2, or species closely related to them. It was demonstrated that the same spore-forming bacteria (ribotypes) were present in both the glue samples and the end products (45% of isolates). All RiboPrint patterns were saved at the VTT identification library for future use.

  18. Potential hazard of volatile organic compounds contained in household spray products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    To assess the exposure levels of hazardous volatile pollutants released from common household spray products, a total of 10 spray products consisting of six body spray and four air spray products have been investigated. The body spray products included insect repellents (two different products), medicated patch, deodorant, hair spray, and humectant, whereas the air spray products included two different insecticides (mosquito and/or cockroach), antibacterial spray, and air freshener. The main objective of this study was to measure concentrations of 15 model volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using GC/MS coupled with a thermal desorber. In addition, up to 34 ‘compounds lacking authentic standards or surrogates (CLASS)' were also quantified based on the effective carbon number (ECN) theory. According to our analysis, the most common indoor pollutants like benzene, toluene, styrene, methyl ethyl ketone, and butyl acetate have been detected frequently in the majority of spray products with the concentration range of 5.3-125 mg L-1. If one assumes that the amount of spray products released into air reaches the 0.3 mL level for a given space size of 5 m3, the risk factor is expected to exceed the carcinogenic risk level set for benzene (10-5) by the U.S. EPA.

  19. Aftereffects of Subduction-Zone Earthquakes: Potential Tsunami Hazards along the Japan Sea Coast.

    PubMed

    Minoura, Koji; Sugawara, Daisuke; Yamanoi, Tohru; Yamada, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake is a typical subduction-zone earthquake and is the 4th largest earthquake after the beginning of instrumental observation of earthquakes in the 19th century. In fact, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake displaced the northeast Japan island arc horizontally and vertically. The displacement largely changed the tectonic situation of the arc from compressive to tensile. The 9th century in Japan was a period of natural hazards caused by frequent large-scale earthquakes. The aseismic tsunamis that inflicted damage on the Japan Sea coast in the 11th century were related to the occurrence of massive earthquakes that represented the final stage of a period of high seismic activity. Anti-compressive tectonics triggered by the subduction-zone earthquakes induced gravitational instability, which resulted in the generation of tsunamis caused by slope failing at the arc-back-arc boundary. The crustal displacement after the 2011 earthquake infers an increased risk of unexpected local tsunami flooding in the Japan Sea coastal areas.

  20. Aftereffects of Subduction-Zone Earthquakes: Potential Tsunami Hazards along the Japan Sea Coast.

    PubMed

    Minoura, Koji; Sugawara, Daisuke; Yamanoi, Tohru; Yamada, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake is a typical subduction-zone earthquake and is the 4th largest earthquake after the beginning of instrumental observation of earthquakes in the 19th century. In fact, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake displaced the northeast Japan island arc horizontally and vertically. The displacement largely changed the tectonic situation of the arc from compressive to tensile. The 9th century in Japan was a period of natural hazards caused by frequent large-scale earthquakes. The aseismic tsunamis that inflicted damage on the Japan Sea coast in the 11th century were related to the occurrence of massive earthquakes that represented the final stage of a period of high seismic activity. Anti-compressive tectonics triggered by the subduction-zone earthquakes induced gravitational instability, which resulted in the generation of tsunamis caused by slope failing at the arc-back-arc boundary. The crustal displacement after the 2011 earthquake infers an increased risk of unexpected local tsunami flooding in the Japan Sea coastal areas. PMID:26399180

  1. Potential hazards from structural and gravitational anomalies within sedimentary basins of northwest Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. P.; Wolf, L. W.; Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents preliminary models based on new and existing gravity and magnetic data for two regions in the Puget Sound, Washington, area: the Bellingham basin and the Muckleshoot basin. The principle goals of the project are to determine whether and how faults mapped outside of these basins continue beneath their thick sedimentary cover. In the Bellingham basin, cross-sectional models focus on the Drayton-Harbor magnetic lineament and the Birch Bay fault. Late Holocene displacements have been observed along these structures along the western Washington coast, and analyses of magnetic data and Lidar data suggest that these faults extend eastward into the basin. Preliminary models are consistent with the inland continuation of the Birch Bay fault towards Bellingham. The new gravity data also suggest that the Bellingham basin may consist of smaller subbasins, rather than one large basin, as previously mapped. In the Muckleshoot basin, cross-sectional models focus on the possible connection of the east-trending Tacoma fault (west of the basin) and the northwest-trending White River fault, mapped to the east of the Muckleshoot basin. A connection between these two fault systems would have significant implications for hazard estimates in terms of the length and size of these seismogenic structures.

  2. Live bacterial vaccines--a review and identification of potential hazards.

    PubMed

    Detmer, Ann; Glenting, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    The use of live bacteria to induce an immune response to itself or to a carried vaccine component is an attractive vaccine strategy. Advantages of live bacterial vaccines include their mimicry of a natural infection, intrinsic adjuvant properties and their possibility to be administered orally. Derivatives of pathogenic and non-pathogenic food related bacteria are currently being evaluated as live vaccines. However, pathogenic bacteria demands for attenuation to weaken its virulence. The use of bacteria as vaccine delivery vehicles implies construction of recombinant strains that contain the gene cassette encoding the antigen. With the increased knowledge of mucosal immunity and the availability of genetic tools for heterologous gene expression the concept of live vaccine vehicles gains renewed interest. However, administration of live bacterial vaccines poses some risks. In addition, vaccination using recombinant bacteria results in the release of live recombinant organisms into nature. This places these vaccines in the debate on application of genetically modified organisms. In this review we give an overview of live bacterial vaccines on the market and describe the development of new live vaccines with a focus on attenuated bacteria and food-related lactic acid bacteria. Furthermore, we outline the safety concerns and identify the hazards associated with live bacterial vaccines and try to give some suggestions of what to consider during their development.

  3. NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS (NESHAP) SUBPART H RADIONUCLIDES POTENTIAL TO EMIT CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    EARLEY JN

    2008-07-23

    This document provides an update of the status of stacks on the Hanford Site and the potential radionuclide emissions, i.e., emissions that could occur with no control devices in place. This review shows the calculations that determined whether the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) received by the maximum public receptor as a result of potential emissions from any one of these stacks would exceed 0.1 millirem/year. Such stacks require continuous monitoring of the effluent, or other monitoring, to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative code (WAC) 246-247-035(1)(a)(ii) and WAC 246-247-075(1), -(2), and -(6). This revised update reviews the potential-to-emit (PTE) calculations of 31 stacks for Fluor Hanford, Inc. Of those 31 stacks, 11 have the potential to cause a TEDE greater than 0.1 mrem/year.

  4. Leveraging a large scale mammalian pharmacological dataset to prioritize potential environmental hazard of pharmaceuticals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential for pharmaceuticals in the environment to cause adverse ecological effects is of increasing concern. Given the thousands of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) which can enter the aquatic environment through various means, a current challenge in aquatic toxicol...

  5. Prioritization of pharmaceuticals for potential environmental hazard through leveraging a large scale mammalian pharmacological dataset

    EPA Science Inventory

    To proceed in the investigation of potential effects of thousands of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) which may enter the aquatic environment, a cohesive research strategy, specifically a prioritization is paramount. API are biologically active, with specific physiologica...

  6. Potential hazards associated with combustion of bio-derived versus petroleum-derived diesel fuel

    PubMed Central

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Schröder, Olaf; Schmidt, Lasse; Westphal, Götz A.

    2012-01-01

    Fuels from renewable resources have gained worldwide interest due to limited fossil oil sources and the possible reduction of atmospheric greenhouse gas. One of these fuels is so called biodiesel produced from vegetable oil by transesterification into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). To get a first insight into changes of health hazards from diesel engine emissions (DEE) by use of biodiesel scientific studies were reviewed which compared the combustion of FAME with common diesel fuel (DF) for legally regulated and non-regulated emissions as well as for toxic effects. A total number of 62 publications on chemical analyses of DEE and 18 toxicological in vitro studies were identified meeting the criteria. In addition, a very small number of human studies and animal experiments were available. In most studies, combustion of biodiesel reduces legally regulated emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides are regularly increased. Among the non-regulated emissions aldehydes are increased, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are lowered. Most biological in vitro assays show a stronger cytotoxicity of biodiesel exhaust and the animal experiments reveal stronger irritant effects. Both findings are possibly caused by the higher content of nitrogen oxides and aldehydes in biodiesel exhaust. The lower content of PAH is reflected by a weaker mutagenicity compared to DF exhaust. However, recent studies show a very low mutagenicity of DF exhaust as well, probably caused by elimination of sulfur in present DF qualities and the use of new technology diesel engines. Combustion of vegetable oil (VO) in common diesel engines causes a strongly enhanced mutagenicity of the exhaust despite nearly unchanged regulated emissions. The newly developed fuel “hydrotreated vegetable oil” (HVO) seems to be promising. HVO has physical and chemical advantages compared to FAME. Preliminary results show lower regulated and non-regulated emissions and a

  7. Potential hazards associated with combustion of bio-derived versus petroleum-derived diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Schröder, Olaf; Schmidt, Lasse; Westphal, Götz A

    2012-10-01

    Fuels from renewable resources have gained worldwide interest due to limited fossil oil sources and the possible reduction of atmospheric greenhouse gas. One of these fuels is so called biodiesel produced from vegetable oil by transesterification into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). To get a first insight into changes of health hazards from diesel engine emissions (DEE) by use of biodiesel scientific studies were reviewed which compared the combustion of FAME with common diesel fuel (DF) for legally regulated and non-regulated emissions as well as for toxic effects. A total number of 62 publications on chemical analyses of DEE and 18 toxicological in vitro studies were identified meeting the criteria. In addition, a very small number of human studies and animal experiments were available. In most studies, combustion of biodiesel reduces legally regulated emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides are regularly increased. Among the non-regulated emissions aldehydes are increased, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are lowered. Most biological in vitro assays show a stronger cytotoxicity of biodiesel exhaust and the animal experiments reveal stronger irritant effects. Both findings are possibly caused by the higher content of nitrogen oxides and aldehydes in biodiesel exhaust. The lower content of PAH is reflected by a weaker mutagenicity compared to DF exhaust. However, recent studies show a very low mutagenicity of DF exhaust as well, probably caused by elimination of sulfur in present DF qualities and the use of new technology diesel engines. Combustion of vegetable oil (VO) in common diesel engines causes a strongly enhanced mutagenicity of the exhaust despite nearly unchanged regulated emissions. The newly developed fuel "hydrotreated vegetable oil" (HVO) seems to be promising. HVO has physical and chemical advantages compared to FAME. Preliminary results show lower regulated and non-regulated emissions and a

  8. A brief overview of the potential environmental hazards of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Bubalo, Marina Cvjetko; Radošević, Kristina; Redovniković, Ivana Radojčić; Halambek, Jasna; Srček, Višnja Gaurina

    2014-01-01

    Over past decades ionic liquids, a promising alternative to traditional organic solvents, have been dramatically expanding in popularity as a new generation of chemicals with potential uses in various areas in industry. In the literature these compounds have often been referred to as environmentally friendly; however, in recent years the perception of their greenness dramatically changed as the scientific community began to proactively assess the risk of their application based on the entire life-cycle. This review gives a brief overview of the current knowledge regarding the potential risks linked to the application of ionic liquids - from preparation to their disposal, with special emphasis on their potential environmental impacts and future directions in designing inherently safer ionic liquids.

  9. A brief overview of the potential environmental hazards of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Bubalo, Marina Cvjetko; Radošević, Kristina; Redovniković, Ivana Radojčić; Halambek, Jasna; Srček, Višnja Gaurina

    2014-01-01

    Over past decades ionic liquids, a promising alternative to traditional organic solvents, have been dramatically expanding in popularity as a new generation of chemicals with potential uses in various areas in industry. In the literature these compounds have often been referred to as environmentally friendly; however, in recent years the perception of their greenness dramatically changed as the scientific community began to proactively assess the risk of their application based on the entire life-cycle. This review gives a brief overview of the current knowledge regarding the potential risks linked to the application of ionic liquids - from preparation to their disposal, with special emphasis on their potential environmental impacts and future directions in designing inherently safer ionic liquids. PMID:24210364

  10. Health hazards and disaster potential of ground gas emissions at Furnas volcano, São Miguel, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Peter J.; Baubron, Jean-Claude; Coutinho, Rui

    1999-09-01

    A health hazard assessment of exposure to soil gases (carbon dioxide and radon) was undertaken in the village of Furnas, located in the caldera of an active volcano. A soil survey to map the area of soil gas flow was undertaken, gas emissions were monitored at fumaroles and in eight houses, and a preliminary radon survey of 23 houses in the main anomaly area was performed. Potential volcanic sources of toxic contamination of air, food, and water were also investigated, and ambient air quality was evaluated. About one-third (41 ha) of the houses were located in areas of elevated carbon dioxide soil degassing. Unventilated, confined spaces in some houses contained levels of carbon dioxide which could cause asphyxiation. Mean indoor radon levels exceeded UK and US action levels in the winter months. A tenfold increase in radon levels in one house over 2 h indicated that large and potentially lethal surges of carbon dioxide could occur without warning. Toxic exposures from the gaseous emissions and from contamination of soil and water were minimal, but sulphur dioxide levels were mildly elevated close to fumaroles. In contrast, evidence of dental fluorosis was manifested in the population of the nearby fishing village of Ribeira Quente where drinking water in the past had contained elevated levels of fluoride. The disaster potential of volcanic carbon dioxide in the area could also be associated with the hydrothermal system storing dissolved carbon dioxide beneath the village. Felt, or unfelt, seismic activity, or magma unrest, especially with a reawakening of explosive volcanic activity (30% probability in the next 100 years) could result in an increase in gas flow or even a gas burst from the hydrothermal system. A survey of all houses in Furnas is advised as structural measures to prevent the ingress of soil gases, including radon, were needed in some of the study houses. Evaluations of the human hazards of volcanic gases should be undertaken in all settlements in

  11. Organophosphorus insecticides in honey, pollen and bees (Apis mellifera L.) and their potential hazard to bee colonies in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al Naggar, Yahya; Codling, Garry; Vogt, Anja; Naiem, Elsaied; Mona, Mohamed; Seif, Amal; Giesy, John P

    2015-04-01

    There is no clear single factor to date that explains colony loss in bees, but one factor proposed is the wide-spread application of agrochemicals. Concentrations of 14 organophosphorous insecticides (OPs) in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and hive matrices (honey and pollen) were measured to assess their hazard to honey bees. Samples were collected during spring and summer of 2013, from 5 provinces in the middle delta of Egypt. LC/MS-MS was used to identify and quantify individual OPs by use of a modified Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) method. Pesticides were detected more frequently in samples collected during summer. Pollen contained the greatest concentrations of OPs. Profenofos, chlorpyrifos, malation and diazinon were the most frequently detected OPs. In contrast, ethoprop, phorate, coumaphos and chlorpyrifos-oxon were not detected. A toxic units approach, with lethality as the endpoint was used in an additive model to assess the cumulative potential for adverse effects posed by OPs. Hazard quotients (HQs) in honey and pollen ranged from 0.01-0.05 during spring and from 0.02-0.08 during summer, respectively. HQs based on lethality due to direct exposure of adult worker bees to OPs during spring and summer ranged from 0.04 to 0.1 for best and worst case respectively. It is concluded that direct exposure and/or dietary exposure to OPs in honey and pollen pose little threat due to lethality of bees in Egypt.

  12. Acute toxicity of Daphnia pulex to six classes of chemical compounds potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stephen B.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Blouin, Marc A.

    1988-01-01

    Of the six classes of chemicals potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota, derivatives of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most acutely toxic (48-h EC 50) to Daphnia pulex. The other classes, listed in order of decreasing toxicity were alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, silicon-containing compounds. O f the 41 compounds representing the six chemical classes, 6 were extremely toxic (> 0.01 - 0.1 mg/L), 11 highly toxic (> 01. - 1.0 mg/L), 20 moderately toxic (> 1.0 - 10.0 mg/L), and 4 slightly toxic (>10 - 100 mg/L). The reference compound, p, p'DDT, was super toxic (< 0.01 mg/L). Based on toxicity and relative abundance (hazard ranking) of the 21 compounds that were detected in tissue of Great Lakes fishes, the classes of compounds that present the greatest threat to Great Lakes aquatic biota are PAH derivatives, alkyl halides, and cyclic aklanes.

  13. Organophosphorus insecticides in honey, pollen and bees (Apis mellifera L.) and their potential hazard to bee colonies in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al Naggar, Yahya; Codling, Garry; Vogt, Anja; Naiem, Elsaied; Mona, Mohamed; Seif, Amal; Giesy, John P

    2015-04-01

    There is no clear single factor to date that explains colony loss in bees, but one factor proposed is the wide-spread application of agrochemicals. Concentrations of 14 organophosphorous insecticides (OPs) in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and hive matrices (honey and pollen) were measured to assess their hazard to honey bees. Samples were collected during spring and summer of 2013, from 5 provinces in the middle delta of Egypt. LC/MS-MS was used to identify and quantify individual OPs by use of a modified Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) method. Pesticides were detected more frequently in samples collected during summer. Pollen contained the greatest concentrations of OPs. Profenofos, chlorpyrifos, malation and diazinon were the most frequently detected OPs. In contrast, ethoprop, phorate, coumaphos and chlorpyrifos-oxon were not detected. A toxic units approach, with lethality as the endpoint was used in an additive model to assess the cumulative potential for adverse effects posed by OPs. Hazard quotients (HQs) in honey and pollen ranged from 0.01-0.05 during spring and from 0.02-0.08 during summer, respectively. HQs based on lethality due to direct exposure of adult worker bees to OPs during spring and summer ranged from 0.04 to 0.1 for best and worst case respectively. It is concluded that direct exposure and/or dietary exposure to OPs in honey and pollen pose little threat due to lethality of bees in Egypt. PMID:25574845

  14. The potential of Sentinel-2 for investigating glaciers and related natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsvold, Solveig H.; Altena, Bas; Kääb, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Sentinel-2 (S2) features a number of characteristics that will improve mapping and monitoring of glaciers and related hazards, meaning the large swath width of 290km, the spatial resolution of 10-20m, and the repeat cycle of at least 10 days (higher towards the poles). In this study we perform a number of general tests on image radiometry and geometry as relevant to the glaciological image analysis. Based on commissioning-phase and ramp-up phase data, we find a geolocation accuracy of one pixel (at 10m) or better and co-registration accuracy between repeat scenes of around 1/3 pixel. Both error magnitudes are well acceptable for most glaciological applications. We also found patterns related to the mosaicking of the 12 detector sub-systems that form the full S2 swath. Also their magnitude will only matter in science-grade high-precision applications. Cross-track offsets in orthoprojected L1C data due to vertical errors in the DEM used have, however, to be observed. In particular at glacier tongues, DEMs will typically be outdated due to glacier shrinkage. For some examples in the Swiss Alps we found lateral offsets in S2 images of 30-40 m over such areas. For latitudes larger than 60 degree North (i.e. north of the SRTM coverage) we found geolocation bias patterns of the same order of magnitude all over the scenes, not only over glaciers. Geolocation biases in S2-derived products would for instance affect glacier outlines, especially when compared to other data such as Landsat, because of different orbit settings and use of other DEMs in the orthorectification process. This can be avoided to a large extent for glacier velocity measurements by relying on repeat data from the relative same orbit. Through a number of case studies, we demonstrate and evaluate the capability of S2 for glaciological applications: Automatic multispectral glacier mapping based on S2 bands 4 (red) and 11 (SWIR) turns out to be very successful, among others due to the improved resolution

  15. Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Devices, Potential Navigational Hazards and Mitigation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

    2009-12-01

    On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies. A technical report addressing our findings is available on this Science and Technology Information site under the Product Title, "Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures". This product is a brochure, primarily for project developers, that summarizes important issues in that more comprehensive report, identifies locations where that report can be downloaded, and identifies points of contact for more information.

  16. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  17. Volcanology and volcanic activity with a primary focus on potential hazard impacts for the Hawaii geothermal project

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B.; Delaney, P.T.; Kauahikaua, J.P.

    1993-10-01

    This annotated bibliography reviews published references about potential volcanic hazards on the Island of Hawaii that are pertinent to drilling and operating geothermal wells. The first two sections of this annotated bibliography list the most important publications that describe eruptions of Kilauea volcano, with special emphasis on activity in and near the designated geothermal subzones. References about historic eruptions from Mauna Loa`s northeast rift zone, as well as the most recent activity on the southern flank of dormant Mauna Kea, adjacent to the Humu`ula Saddle are described. The last section of this annotated bibliography lists the most important publications that describe and analyze deformations of the surface of Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes.

  18. Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A. M.; Kent, G.; Driscoll, N. W.; Karlin, R. E.; Baskin, R. L.; Louie, J. N.; Smith, K. D.; Pullammanappallil, S.

    2011-12-01

    Preliminary slip rates measured across the East Pyramid Lake fault, or the Lake Range fault, help provide new estimates of extension across the Pyramid Lake basin. Multiple stratigraphic horizons spanning 48 ka were tracked throughout the lake, with layer offsets measured across all significant faults in the basin. A chronstratigraphic framework acquired from four sediment cores allows slip rates of the Lake Range and other faults to be calculated accurately. This region of the northern Walker Lake, strategically placed between the right-lateral strike-slip faults of Honey and Eagle Lakes to the north, and the normal fault bounded basins to the southwest (e.g., Tahoe, Carson), is critical in understanding the underlying structural complexity that is not only necessary for geothermal exploration, but also earthquake hazard assessment due to the proximity of the Reno-Sparks metropolitan area. In addition, our seismic CHIRP imaging with submeter resolution allows the construction of the first fault map of Pyramid Lake. The Lake Range fault can be obviously traced west of Anahoe Island extending north along the east end of the lake in numerous CHIRP lines. Initial drafts of the fault map reveal active transtension through a series of numerous, small, northwest striking, oblique-slip faults in the north end of the lake. A previously field mapped northwest striking fault near Sutcliff can be extended into the west end of Pyramid Lake. This fault map, along with the calculated slip rate of the Lake Range, and potentially multiple other faults, gives a clearer picture into understanding the geothermal potential, tectonic regime and earthquake hazards in the Pyramid Lake basin and the northern Walker Lane. These new results have also been merged with seismicity maps, along with focal mechanisms for the larger events to begin to extend our fault map in depth.

  19. Hazard assessment of the Tidal Inlet landslide and potential subsequent tsunami, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Geist, E.L.; Motyka, R.J.; Jakob, M.

    2007-01-01

    An unstable rock slump, estimated at 5 to 10????????10 6 m3, lies perched above the northern shore of Tidal Inlet in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. This landslide mass has the potential to rapidly move into Tidal Inlet and generate large, long-period-impulse tsunami waves. Field and photographic examination revealed that the landslide moved between 1892 and 1919 after the retreat of the Little Ice Age glaciers from Tidal Inlet in 1890. Global positioning system measurements over a 2-year period show that the perched mass is presently moving at 3-4 cm annually indicating the landslide remains unstable. Numerical simulations of landslide-generated waves suggest that in the western arm of Glacier Bay, wave amplitudes would be greatest near the mouth of Tidal Inlet and slightly decrease with water depth according to Green's law. As a function of time, wave amplitude would be greatest within approximately 40 min of the landslide entering water, with significant wave activity continuing for potentially several hours. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Tsunami hazard potential for the equatorial southwestern Pacific atolls of Tokelau from scenario-based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orpin, A. R.; Rickard, G. J.; Gerring, P. K.; Lamarche, G.

    2015-07-01

    Devastating tsunami over the last decade have significantly heightened awareness of the potential consequences and vulnerability to tsunami for low-lying Pacific islands and coastal regions. Our tsunami risk assessment for the atolls of the Tokelau Islands was based on a tsunami source-propagation-inundation model using Gerris Flow Solver, adapted from the companion study by Lamarche et al. (2015) for the islands of Wallis and Futuna. We assess whether there is potential for tsunami flooding on any of the village islets from a series of fourteen earthquake-source experiments that apply a combination of well-established fault parameters to represent plausible "high-risk scenarios" for each of the tsunamigenic sources. Earthquake source location and moment magnitude were related to tsunami wave heights and tsunami flood depths simulated for each of the three atolls of Tokelau. This approach was adopted to yield indicative and instructive results for a community advisory, rather than being fully deterministic. Results from our modelling show that wave fields are channelled by the bathymetry of the Pacific basin in such a way that the swathes of the highest waves sweep immediately northeast of the Tokelau Islands. From our series of limited simulations a great earthquake from the Kuril Trench poses the most significant inundation threat to Tokelau, with maximum modelled-wave heights in excess of 1 m, which may last a few hours and include several wave trains. Other sources can impact specific sectors of the atolls, particularly from regional sources to the south, and northern and eastern distant sources that generate trans-Pacific tsunami. In many cases impacts are dependent on the wave orientation and direct exposure to the oncoming tsunami. This study shows that dry areas remain around the villages in nearly all our "worst-case" tsunami simulations of the Tokelau Islands. Consistent with the oral history of little or no perceived tsunami threat, simulations from the

  1. Earthquake damage potential and critical scour depth of bridges exposed to flood and seismic hazards under lateral seismic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shin-Tai; Wang, Chun-Yao; Huang, Wen-Hsiu

    2015-12-01

    Many bridges located in seismic hazard regions suffer from serious foundation exposure caused by riverbed scour. Loss of surrounding soil significantly reduces the lateral strength of pile foundations. When the scour depth exceeds a critical level, the strength of the foundation is insufficient to withstand the imposed seismic demand, which induces the potential for unacceptable damage to the piles during an earthquake. This paper presents an analytical approach to assess the earthquake damage potential of bridges with foundation exposure and identify the critical scour depth that causes the seismic performance of a bridge to differ from the original design. The approach employs the well-accepted response spectrum analysis method to determine the maximum seismic response of a bridge. The damage potential of a bridge is assessed by comparing the imposed seismic demand with the strengths of the column and the foundation. The versatility of the analytical approach is illustrated with a numerical example and verified by the nonlinear finite element analysis. The analytical approach is also demonstrated to successfully determine the critical scour depth. Results highlight that relatively shallow scour depths can cause foundation damage during an earthquake, even for bridges designed to provide satisfactory seismic performance.

  2. Potential of Hazardous Waste Encapsulation in Concrete Compound Combination with Coal Ash and Quarry Fine Additives.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Roy Nir; Anker, Yaakov; Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier; Mastai, Yitzhak; Knop, Yaniv; Cohen, Haim

    2015-12-15

    Coal power plants are producing huge amounts of coal ash that may be applied to a variety of secondary uses. Class F fly ash may act as an excellent scrubber and fixation reagent for highly acidic wastes, which might also contain several toxic trace elements. This paper evaluates the potential of using Class F fly ashes (<20% CaO), in combination with excessive fines from the limestone quarry industry as a fixation reagent. The analysis included leaching experiments (EN12457-2) and several analytical techniques (ICP, SEM, XRD, etc.), which were used in order to investigate the fixation procedure. The fine sludge is used as a partial substitute in concrete that can be used in civil engineering projects, as it an environmentally safe product. PMID:26510011

  3. Potential of Hazardous Waste Encapsulation in Concrete Compound Combination with Coal Ash and Quarry Fine Additives.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Roy Nir; Anker, Yaakov; Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier; Mastai, Yitzhak; Knop, Yaniv; Cohen, Haim

    2015-12-15

    Coal power plants are producing huge amounts of coal ash that may be applied to a variety of secondary uses. Class F fly ash may act as an excellent scrubber and fixation reagent for highly acidic wastes, which might also contain several toxic trace elements. This paper evaluates the potential of using Class F fly ashes (<20% CaO), in combination with excessive fines from the limestone quarry industry as a fixation reagent. The analysis included leaching experiments (EN12457-2) and several analytical techniques (ICP, SEM, XRD, etc.), which were used in order to investigate the fixation procedure. The fine sludge is used as a partial substitute in concrete that can be used in civil engineering projects, as it an environmentally safe product.

  4. Production of potentially hazardous respirable silica airborne particulate from the burning of sugarcane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Blond, Jennifer S.; Williamson, Ben J.; Horwell, Claire J.; Monro, Alex K.; Kirk, Caroline A.; Oppenheimer, Clive

    In some areas of the world where agricultural burning is practised, the airborne particles produced have been linked to respiratory disease in humans. Here, we investigate the abundance and form of silica (SiO 2) minerals found within ash and aerosol produced by the experimental burning of sugarcane. Samples of sugarcane leaf were incinerated over a range of temperatures, time scales and airflow conditions, the latter to investigate the effects of wind and updrafts during natural fires. The silica content of the residual ash (from still air simulations) was measured using an improved wet chemical methodology, described here. This indicated that the release of silica from the plant material into the atmosphere increases with increasing temperature of combustion. Airborne particulate, sampled using air-pump-filter apparatus, was characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with automated image and elemental analysis. For airborne particulate formed at 1100 °C (with airflow), 17% of the particles are in the respirable size fraction (<4 μm in diameter) and contain silica. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, a component of this silica is present as the potentially toxic polymorph cristobalite. For the residual ash, samples produced with no additional airflow were found to contain cristobalite, however none could be identified in ash formed with an airflow. It is considered likely that this is due to release of cristobalite to the atmosphere (as sampled on filters). This pilot study shows that potentially toxic particles could be released during sugarcane burning and reinforces the need for further study into the emissions and re-suspension of ash from the burning of biomass.

  5. Sedentary Behavior in the Workplace: A Potential Occupational Hazard for Radiologists.

    PubMed

    Lamar, David L; Chou, Shinn-Huey S; Medverd, Jonathan R; Swanson, Jonathan O

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to quantify the sedentary worklife of the radiologist, a potential health risk. Radiologists of all training levels at our academic institution were surveyed to estimate the levels of at-work and out-of-work sitting. Fitbit One activity monitors were used to measure the at-work activity levels of radiology, pediatric, and internal medicine (IM) residents. Correlation between awareness and utilization of dynamic (sitting or standing, walking, or biking) picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstations among radiology residents was assessed. Among surveyed radiologists (n = 89), 78% estimated sitting for at least 6 hours per workday. Estimated workplace sitting accounted for most of the total sitting for 81% of respondents. As measured by activity monitors, radiology residents (n = 27) took fewer steps per day (2683 vs 4602 vs 4967) and per hour (294 vs 419 vs 444) and experienced more sedentary time per hour (40.3 vs 36.2 vs 34.9min/h) than IM (n = 15) and pediatric (n = 9) residents. Activity experienced during reading room-based work and interventional work was compared by studying 4 additional radiology residents during both types of rotations. Reading-room activity was low, whereas activity on interventional rotations surpassed average levels for the pediatric and IM residents in our study. Radiology residents' (n = 28) awareness and utilization of dynamic PACS workstations varied among reading rooms, but were generally low-75% reported never or rarely using them. Resident utilization correlated with awareness of dynamic workstations available at our institution (R(2) = 0.64; P = 0.013). In conclusion, radiology residents in our study led more sedentary worklives compared with residents from other specialties and took minimal advantage of available tools to mitigate this. Potential health risks of inactivity justify individual and departmental efforts to limit workplace inactivity among radiologists. PMID:26675263

  6. Household Hazards to Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... health by becoming aware of the most common health hazards found in many pet-owning households. Hazards in the Kitchen Foods Many foods are perfectly safe for humans, but could be harmful or potentially deadly to ...

  7. Food animal transport: a potential source of community exposures to health hazards from industrial farming (CAFOs).

    PubMed

    Rule, Ana M; Evans, Sean L; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2008-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of transporting food animals from farms to slaughterhouses may result in pathogen releases and potential exposures of persons in vehicles traveling on the same road. Air and surface samples were taken from cars driving behind poultry trucks for 17 miles. Air conditioners and fans were turned off and windows fully opened. Background and blank samples were used for quality control. Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. These findings support the need for further exposure characterization, and attention to improving methods of food animal transport, especially in highly trafficked regions of high density farming such as the Delmarva Peninsula.

  8. Potential health hazards from thermal degradation events - Particulate vs. gas phase effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberdorster, Gunter; Ferin, Juraj; Finkelstein, Jacob; Baggs, Raymond; Stavert, D. M.; Lehnert, Bruce E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of instillation of ultrafine TiO2 particles (10-nm anatase-TiO2 and 12-nm rutile-TiO2 (administered in doses from 60 to 1000 microg/rat and 500 microg/rat, respectively) on the respiratory tract of exposed rats was compared to the effects of larger (250 nm anatase-TiO2 and 220-nm rutile-TiO2 particles (given in doses 500 or 1000 microg/rat and 500 microg/rat, respectively). These effects were also compared to the effects of inhalation of 20-nm and 250-nm anatase-TiO2 particles and inhalation with surrogate gas phase components (HF and HCl). It was found that ultrafine TiO2 particles induced greater inflammatory reaction in the lung, had greater adverse effect on alveolar macrophage-mediated clearance function, and had a greater potential to induce mediators which can adversely affect other lung cells than did larger-sized particles. Inhalation of surrogate gas phase components caused injury only to the upper respiratory tract, in contrast to the ultrafine particles, which affected the deep lung.

  9. Using Helicopter Electromagnetic Surveys to Identify Potential Hazards at Mine Waste Impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Hammack, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    In July 2003, helicopter electromagnetic surveys were conducted at 14 coal waste impoundments in southern West Virginia. The purpose of the surveys was to detect conditions that could lead to impoundment failure either by structural failure of the embankment or by the flooding of adjacent or underlying mine works. Specifically, the surveys attempted to: 1) identify saturated zones within the mine waste, 2) delineate filtrate flow paths through the embankment or into adjacent strata and receiving streams, and 3) identify flooded mine workings underlying or adjacent to the waste impoundment. Data from the helicopter surveys were processed to generate conductivity/depth images. Conductivity/depth images were then spatially linked to georeferenced air photos or topographic maps for interpretation. Conductivity/depth images were found to provide a snapshot of the hydrologic conditions that exist within the impoundment. This information can be used to predict potential areas of failure within the embankment because of its ability to image the phreatic zone. Also, the electromagnetic survey can identify areas of unconsolidated slurry in the decant basin and beneath the embankment. Although shallow, flooded mineworks beneath the impoundment were identified by this survey, it cannot be assumed that electromagnetic surveys can detect all underlying mines. A preliminary evaluation of the data implies that helicopter electromagnetic surveys can provide a better understanding of the phreatic zone than the piezometer arrays that are typically used.

  10. Eruptive history of the Dieng mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.D.; Sukhyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location. 6 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Geologic implications and potential hazards of scour depressions on bering shelf, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, M.C.; Nelson, H.; Thor, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Flat-bottomed depression 50-150 m in diameter and 60-80 cm deep occur in the floor of Norton Sound, Bering Sea. These large erosional bedforms and associated current ripples are found in areas where sediment grain size is 0.063-0.044 mm (4-4.5 ??), speeds of bottom currents are greatest (20-30 cm/s mean speeds under nonstorm conditions, 70 cm/s during typical storms), circulation of water is constricted by major topographic shoals (kilometers in scale), and small-scale topographic disruptions, such as ice gouges, occur locally on slopes of shoals. These local obstructions on shoals appear to disrupt currents, causing separation of flow and generating eddies that produce large-scale scour. Offshore artificial structures also may disrupt bottom currents in these same areas and have the potential to generate turbulence and induce extensive scour in the area of disrupted flow. The size and character of natural scour depressions in areas of ice gouging suggest that large-scale regions of scour may develop from enlargement of local scour sites around pilings, platforms, or pipelines. Consequently, loss of substrate support for pipelines and gravity structures is possible during frequent autumn storms. ?? 1979 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  12. Eruptive history of the Dieng Mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C. Dan; Sushyar, R.; ,; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location.

  13. Identifying Potentially Hazardous Co-orbiting Material of Known NEOs Using Magnetic Signatures Produced in Destructive Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hairong; Russell, Christopher; Jia, Yingdong; Wei, Hanying; Connors, Martin

    2015-04-01

    It is estimated that over 99% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) with diameters of about tens of meters are undiscovered. However, simulations show that they result in the most damage per year. Many of these bodies, produced in non-destructive collisions with larger well-characterized NEOs, are co-orbiting with their parent objects. Thereafter, scattering will occur due to gravitational perturbations when the co-orbiters have close encounters to any planets. Such gravitational scattering may not affect the orbits of the parent body. Therefore "safe" NEOs which have negligible impact probability with the Earth may be accompanied by potentially hazardous co-orbiting material. Those co-orbitals do reveal their existence in collisions with meteoroids, which are numerous and can be as small as tens of centimeters in diameter. Clouds of fine dust/gas particles released in such collisions become charged after generation and interact coherently with the solar wind electromagnetically. The interplanetary magnetic field is then perturbed. The resultant structures have been called interplanetary field enhancements (IFEs). They are readily identified when they pass spacecraft equipped with magnetometers. Although the co-orbitals responsible for the IFEs were disrupted in collisions, they are valid samples of the remaining co-orbiting material. Therefore, we can use IFEs to identify the spatial and mass distribution of such co-orbitals. With statistical studies of IFE occurrence, we identified asteroid 2201 Oljato and asteroid 138175 to have such co-orbiting material. The mass of the co-orbitals can be inferred by combining the results from observations and MHD simulations. Multi-spacecraft simultaneous observations measure the dimensions of the magnetic perturbations and the forces lifting them away from the Sun, while multi-fluid simulations give the accelerations of the perturbations. In summary, our technique not only helps us to identify which NEOs are accompanied by hazardous

  14. State of the art of national landslide databases in Europe and their potential for assessing landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet; Hervás, Javier

    2012-02-01

    A landslide inventory is the most important information source for quantitative zoning of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk. It should give insight into the location, date, type, size, activity and causal factors of landslides as well as resultant damage. In Europe, many countries have created or are creating national and/or regional landslide databases (LDBs). Yet little is known on their contents, completeness, format, structure, language use and accessibility, and hence on their ability to perform national or transnational landslide zoning. Therefore, this study presents a detailed analysis of existing national LDBs in the EU member states, EU official candidate and potential candidate countries, and EFTA countries, and their possible use for landslide zoning. These national LDBs were compared with a subset of 22 regional databases. Twenty-two out of 37 contacted European countries currently have national LDBs, and six other countries have only regional LDBs. In total, the national LDBs contain 633,696 landslides, of which 485,004 are located in Italy, while Austria, the Czech Republic, France, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, and the UK also have > 10,000 landslides in their LDBs. National LDBs are generally created in the official language of each country and 58% of them contain other natural hazards (e.g. floods and sinkholes). About 68% of the LDBs contain less than 50% of all landslides in each country, but a positive observation is that 60% of the LDBs are updated at least once a year or after a major event. Most landslide locations are collected with traditional methods such as field surveys, aerial photo interpretation and analysis of historical records. Currently, integration of landslide information from different national LDBs is hampered because of differences in language and classification systems for landslide type and activity. Other problems are that currently only half of the national LDBs have a direct link between spatial and alphanumeric

  15. Geological Deformations and Potential Hazards Triggered by the 01-12-2010 Haiti Earthquake: Insights from Google Earth Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doblas, M.; Benito, B.; Torres, Y.; Belizaire, D.; Dorfeuille, J.; Aretxabala, A.

    2013-05-01

    In this study we compare the different Google Earth imagery (GEI) available before and after the 01-12-2010 earthquake of Haiti and carry out a detailed analysis of the superficial seismic-related geological deformations in the following sites: 1) the capital Port-Au-Prince and other cities (Carrefour and Gresslier); 2) the mountainous area of the Massif de la Selle which is transected by the "Enriquillo-Plaintain-Garden" (EPG) interplate boundary-fault (that supposedly triggered the seism); 3) some of the most important river channels and their corresponding deltas (Momanche, Grise and Frorse). The initial results of our researches were published in March 2010 in a special web page created by the scientific community to try to mitigate the devastating effects of this catastrophe (http://supersites.earthobservations.org/haiti.php). Six types of superficial geological deformations triggered by the seismic event have been identified with the GEI: liquefaction structures, chaotic rupture zones, coastal and domal uplifts, river-delta turnovers, faults/ruptures and landslides. Potential geological hazards triggered by the Haiti earthquake include landslides, inundations, reactivation of active tectonic elements (e.g., fractures), river-delta turnovers, etc. We analyzed again the GEI after the rain period and, as expected, most of the geological deformations that we initially identified had been erased and/or modified by the water washout or buried by the sediments. In this sense the GEI constitutes an invaluable instrument in the analysis of seismic geological hazards: we still have the possibility to compare all the images before and after the seism that are recorded in its useful "time tool". These are in fact the only witnesses of most of the geological deformations triggered by the Haiti earthquake that remain stored in the virtual archives of the GEI. In fact a field trip to the area today would be useless as most of these structures have disappeared. We will show

  16. Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abasiubong, Festus; Bassey, Emem Abasi; Udobang, John Akpan; Akinbami, Oluyinka Samuel; Udoh, Sunday Bassey; Idung, Alphonsus Udo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is increasing evidence that self-medications among pregnant women are common in many developing countries. Despite the adverse impact on pregnancy, there are few programs available for their control. The objective of this study was to assess the level of self-medication amongst Nigerian pregnant women in order to determine possible harmful effects on fetus. Methods Five hundred and eighteen 518 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 40 years, drawn from three General hospitals in Akwa Ibom State were assessed for self-medication and substance abuse using an instrument, adapted from a modified form of 117-item self-report questionnaire based on the WHO guidelines for students’ substance use survey. Results Of the 518 pregnant women assessed, 375 (72.4%) indulged in one form of self-medication or the other; 143 (27.6%) used only drugs prescribed from the antenatal clinic. A total of 157 (41.9%) pregnant women self-medicate fever/pain relievers; 47 (9.1%) mixture of herbs and other drugs; 15 (4.0%) sedatives; 13 (3.5%) alcohol; while 5 (1.3%) used kolanuts. Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and witchcrafts, preventing pregnancy from coming out, for blood; poor sleep, fever and vomiting and infections. There was a significant difference in the rate of using analgesics (X2=9.43, p=0.001); and antibiotic (X2=4.43, p=0.001) among pregnant women who were highly educated compared to those with little or no education. However, the level of education has no impact in the usage of native herbs. Conclusion This study shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment. There is need for adequate education of pregnant women during antenatal clinics on the potential danger of self-medication so as to prevent child and maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23308320

  17. Potential hazards of environmental contaminants to avifauna residing in the Chesapeake Bay estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; McGowan, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    A search of the Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates (CEE-TV) database revealed that 70% of the 839 Chesapeake Bay records deal with avian species. Studies conducted on waterbirds in the past 15 years indicate that organochlorine contaminants have declined in eggs and tissues, although p,p'-DDE, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and coplanar PCB congeners may still exert sublethal and reproductive effects in some locations. There have been numerous reports of avian die-off events related to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. More contemporary contaminants (e.g., alkylphenols, ethoxylates, perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers) are detectable in bird eggs in the most industrialized portions of the Bay, but interpretation of these data is difficult because adverse effect levels are incompletely known for birds. Two moderaterized oil spills resulted in the death of several hundred birds, and about 500 smaller spill events occur annually in the watershed. With the exception of lead, concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and selenium in eggs and tissues appear to be below toxic thresholds for waterbirds. Fishing tackle and discarded plastics, that can entangle and kill young and adults, are prevalent in nests in some Bay tributaries. It is apparent that exposure and potential effects of several classes of contaminants (e.g., dioxins, dibenzofurans, rodenticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, lead shot, and some metals) have not been systematically examined in the past 15 years, highlighting the need for toxicological evaluation of birds found dead, and perhaps an avian ecotoxicological monitoring program. Although oil spills, spent lead shot, some pesticides, and industrial pollutants occasionally harm Chesapeake avifauna, contaminants no longer evoke the population level effects that were observed in Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) through the 1970s.

  18. Arsenic contamination: a potential hazard to the affected areas of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Sefaur; Sinha, A C; Pati, R; Mukhopadhyay, D

    2013-02-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater is becoming more and more a worldwide problem. Nearing 50 million of people are at health risk from arsenic contamination at Ganga-Meghna-Bramhaputra basin. The experimental results of the five blocks under Malda district of West Bengal, India, showed that the arsenic concentration in groundwater (0.41-1.01 mg/l) was higher than the permissible limit for drinking water (0.01 mg/l) (WHO) and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) permissible limit for irrigation water (0.10 mg/l). The soil arsenic level (13.12 mg/kg) crossed the global average (10.0 mg/kg), but within the maximum acceptable limit for agricultural soil (20.0 mg/kg) recommended by the European Union. The total arsenic concentration on food crops varied from 0.000 to 1.464 mg/kg of dry weight. The highest mean arsenic concentration was found in potato (0.456 mg/kg), followed by rice grain (0.429 mg/kg). The total mean arsenic content (milligrams per kg dry weight) in cereals ranged from 0.121 to 0.429 mg/kg, in pulses and oilseeds ranged from 0.076 to 0.168 mg/kg, in tuber crops ranged from 0.243 to 0.456 mg/kg, in spices ranged from 0.031 to 0.175 mg/kg, in fruits ranged from 0.021 to 0.145 mg/kg and in vegetables ranged from 0.032 to 0.411 mg/kg, respectively. Hence, arsenic accumulation in cereals, pulses, oilseed, vegetables, spices, cole crop and fruits crop might not be safe in future without any sustainable mitigation strategies to avert the potential arsenic toxicity on the human health in the contaminated areas.

  19. Concentrations and potential health hazards of organochlorine pesticides in (shallow) groundwater of Taihu Lake region, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Gui, Tong; Huang, Yujuan

    2014-02-01

    A total of 27 shallow groundwater samples were collected from the Taihu Lake region (TLR), to determine the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) species, identify their possible sources, and estimate health risk of drinking the shallow groundwater. All OCP species occurred in the shallow groundwater of TLR with high detection frequency except p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichlorothane (p, p'-DDD) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT). DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the dominant OCP contaminants in the shallow groundwater of TLR, and they account for 44.2% total OCPs. The low α-HCH/γ-HCH ratio, high β-HCH/(α+γ)-HCH ratio and β-HCH being the dominant HCH isomers for the majority of samples suggest that the HCHs were mainly from the historical use of lindane after a period of degradation. p, p'-DDE being the dominant DDT metabolite for all the samples indicated that the DDTs were mainly from the historical residues. Compositional analysis also suggested that there were fresh input sources of heptachlors, aldrins and endrins in addition to the historical residues. Correlation analysis indicated the hexachlorobenzene (HCB) impurity in the shallow groundwater of TLR was likely from the historical application of lindane and technical HCH (a mixture of HCH isomers that is produced by photochlorination of benzene). Carcinogenic risk values for α-HCH, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrins and dieldrin in the shallow groundwater in majority area of TLR were found to be >10(-6), posing a potentially serious cancer risk to those dependant on shallow groundwater for drinking water.

  20. Arsenic contamination: a potential hazard to the affected areas of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Sefaur; Sinha, A C; Pati, R; Mukhopadhyay, D

    2013-02-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater is becoming more and more a worldwide problem. Nearing 50 million of people are at health risk from arsenic contamination at Ganga-Meghna-Bramhaputra basin. The experimental results of the five blocks under Malda district of West Bengal, India, showed that the arsenic concentration in groundwater (0.41-1.01 mg/l) was higher than the permissible limit for drinking water (0.01 mg/l) (WHO) and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) permissible limit for irrigation water (0.10 mg/l). The soil arsenic level (13.12 mg/kg) crossed the global average (10.0 mg/kg), but within the maximum acceptable limit for agricultural soil (20.0 mg/kg) recommended by the European Union. The total arsenic concentration on food crops varied from 0.000 to 1.464 mg/kg of dry weight. The highest mean arsenic concentration was found in potato (0.456 mg/kg), followed by rice grain (0.429 mg/kg). The total mean arsenic content (milligrams per kg dry weight) in cereals ranged from 0.121 to 0.429 mg/kg, in pulses and oilseeds ranged from 0.076 to 0.168 mg/kg, in tuber crops ranged from 0.243 to 0.456 mg/kg, in spices ranged from 0.031 to 0.175 mg/kg, in fruits ranged from 0.021 to 0.145 mg/kg and in vegetables ranged from 0.032 to 0.411 mg/kg, respectively. Hence, arsenic accumulation in cereals, pulses, oilseed, vegetables, spices, cole crop and fruits crop might not be safe in future without any sustainable mitigation strategies to avert the potential arsenic toxicity on the human health in the contaminated areas. PMID:22618763

  1. Internal structure and volcanic hazard potential of Mt Tongariro, New Zealand, from 3D gravity and magnetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Craig A.; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-06-01

    A new 3D geophysical model of the Mt Tongariro Volcanic Massif (TgVM), New Zealand, provides a high resolution view of the volcano's internal structure and hydrothermal system, from which we derive implications for volcanic hazards. Geologically constrained 3D inversions of potential field data provides a greater level of insight into the volcanic structure than is possible from unconstrained models. A complex region of gravity highs and lows (± 6 mGal) is set within a broader, ~ 20 mGal gravity low. A magnetic high (1300 nT) is associated with Mt Ngauruhoe, while a substantial, thick, demagnetised area occurs to the north, coincident with a gravity low and interpreted as representing the hydrothermal system. The hydrothermal system is constrained to the west by major faults, interpreted as an impermeable barrier to fluid migration and extends to basement depth. These faults are considered low probability areas for future eruption sites, as there is little to indicate they have acted as magmatic pathways. Where the hydrothermal system coincides with steep topographic slopes, an increased likelihood of landslides is present and the newly delineated hydrothermal system maps the area most likely to have phreatic eruptions. Such eruptions, while small on a global scale, are important hazards at the TgVM as it is a popular hiking area with hundreds of visitors per day in close proximity to eruption sites. The model shows that the volume of volcanic material erupted over the lifespan of the TgVM is five to six times greater than previous estimates, suggesting a higher rate of magma supply, in line with global rates of andesite production. We suggest that our model of physical property distribution can be used to provide constraints for other models of dynamic geophysical processes occurring at the TgVM.

  2. Postglacial volcanic deposits at Mount Baker, Washington, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyde, Jack H.; Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1978-01-01

    Eruptions and other geologic events at Mount Baker during the last 10,000 years have repeatedly affected adjacent areas, especially the valleys that head on the south and east sides of the volcano. Small volumes of tephra were erupted at least four times during the past 10,000 years. Future eruptions like these could cause as much as 35 centimeters of tephra to be deposited at sites 17 kilometers from the volcano, 15 centimeters of tephra to be deposited 29 kilometers from the volcano, and 5 centimeters, 44 kilometers from the volcano. Lava flows were erupted at least twice during the last 10,000 years and moved down two valleys. Future lava flows will not directly endanger people because lava typically moves so slowly that escape is possible. Hot pyroclastic flows evidently occurred during only one period and were confined to the Boulder Creek valley. Such flows can move at speeds of as much as 150 kilometers per hour and can bury valley floors under tens of meters of hot rock debris for at least 15 kilometers from the volcano. large mudflows, most of which contain hydrothermally altered rock debris, originated at Mount Baker at least eight times during the last 10,000 years. The largest mudflow reached 29 kilometers or more down the valley of the Middle Fork Nooksack River, west of the volcano, about 6,000 years ago. Extensive masses of hydrothermally altered rock that are potentially unstable exist today near the summit of the volcano, especially in the Sherman Crater - Sherman Peak area. Avalanches of this material could be triggered by steam explosions, earthquakes, or eruptions, or may occur because of slow-acting forces of processes that gradually decrease stability. large avalanches could move downslope at high speed and could grade downvalley into mudflows. Floods caused by rapid melting of snow and ice by lava or by hot rock debris could affect valley floors many tens of kilometers from the volcano and could have especially severe effects if they were to

  3. Hazard Analysis for Post-Fire Debris-Flow Potential in Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youberg, A.; Koestner, K. A.; Schiefer, E.; Neary, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    Several large, devastating wildfires occurred in Arizona during the past 2 years, after a 4-year period without any large wildfires. In June, 2010, the human-caused Schultz Fire near Flagstaff burned 6,100 ha of mostly steep terrain. Subsequent rains from the 4th wettest monsoon on record produced numerous debris flows, significant erosion, and substantial flooding of the downslope residential areas. In May and June of 2011, 3 very large human-caused wildfires (Wallow, Horseshoe 2, and Monument Fires) burned over 320,000 ha, posing serious threats to communities below burned slopes. The Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams, in need of a rapid method to assess the potential for post-fire debris flows, turned to models developed by the USGS for this purpose [Cannon and others, 2010, GSA Bull, 122(1-2), 127-144]. These models, while providing quick results, have not been evaluated for use in Arizona's varied physiographic provinces. Here we use data from the Schultz Fire to compare basin responses with those predicted by the USGS post-fire debris-flow models. Data from the Schultz Fire includes detailed field documentation of debris-flow occurrence and runout distances, 1:12,000 stereo aerial photographs, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and tipping-bucket rainfall data. These data document debris-flow producing storms, basin response, and the extent of debris-flow runout, and provide estimates of debris-flow volumes. The hydrologic responses from 30 small, steep, upper basins burned by the Schultz Fire were assessed for debris or flood flow occurrences. Nineteen basins produced debris flows during a July 20th storm that had a peak 10-minute intensity of 24 mm. A second storm on August 16th, with a peak 10-minute intensity of 15 mm, produced additional debris flows in several of the same basins. Of the 30 basins assessed, 19 were completely burned; four at high severity and 12 at moderate to high severity. The basin with the smallest burned area

  4. Rapid ice-rock avalanches versus gradual glacial processes? Implications for the natural hazard potential in the Karakoram Mountains (Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing concern about extreme mass movements from combined ice-rock avalanches in glaciated environments areas in the light of increasing settlement activities in mountains and their forelands. Recent devastating events, such as those from Huascaran (Peru) in 1970 or Kolka (Caucasus) in 2002, have been an eye-opener in terms of the large run-out-distances and their hazard potential. At the same time there is a variety of topographic settings and distinct triggers of ice and rock failures, which leads in turn to a broad spectrum of multi-phase processes, such as the possible propagation of rock-ice-masses onto glacial surfaces with subsequent debris flows. These events are often not directly observable, and a sound interpretation of the sedimentary record is needed. However, the origin and process dynamics of giant debris accumulations in different mountain regions of the world is discussed increasingly controversially. In the last decade a lot of debris accumulations, which were classified formerly as moraines, were reinterpreted as products of mass movements. In this context, the study presented here, focuses on a case example from the upper Chapursan Valley at the Afghan-Pakistan border (Karakoram Range, Pakistan). The Chapursan Valley floor and the adjacent sediment cones are covered with an outstanding hummocky debris landscape over a length of about 10 km and a width of up to 1 km with individual hummocks reaching about 10 m in height. These landforms overlap with the zone of permanent settlement. According to local legends and reports of early travelers in this region, one of the largest settlement concentrations formerly occurred in the upper Chapursan Valley and was destroyed by a natural disaster. Geomorphological field investigations, sedimentological studies, a comparison of satellite images, an analysis of historical data and interviews with the local inhabitants were carried out to unravel the origin of the hummocky terrain. The results show

  5. Prediction of the developmental toxicity hazard potential of halogenated drinking water disinfection by-products tested by the in vitro hydra assay

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Johnson, E.M.; Newman, L.M. )

    1990-06-01

    A series of seven randomly selected potential halogenated water disinfection by-products were evaluated in vitro by the hydra assay to determine their developmental toxicity hazard potential. For six of the chemicals tested by this assay (dibromoacetonitrile; trichloroacetonitrile; 2-chlorophenol; 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; trichloroacetic acid; dichloroacetone) it was predicted that they would be generally equally toxic to both adult and embryonic mammals when studied by means of standard developmental toxicity teratology tests. However, the potential water disinfection by-product chloroacetic acid (CA) was determined to be over eight times more toxic to the embryonic developmental portion of the assay than it was to the adults. Because of this potential selectivity, CA is a high-priority item for developmental toxicity tests in pregnant mammals to confirm or refute its apparent unique developmental hazard potential and/or to establish a NOAEL by the route of most likely human exposure.

  6. COMPOSITION OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS ASTEROID (214869) 2007 PA8: AN H CHONDRITE FROM THE OUTER ASTEROID BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Juan A.; Reddy, Vishnu; Corre, Lucille Le; Dykhuis, Melissa; Lindsay, Sean

    2015-07-20

    Potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) represent a unique opportunity for physical characterization during their close approaches to Earth. The proximity of these asteroids makes them accessible for sample-return and manned missions, but could also represent a risk for life on Earth in the event of collision. Therefore, a detailed mineralogical analysis is a key component in planning future exploration missions and developing appropriate mitigation strategies. In this study we present near-infrared spectra (∼0.7–2.55 μm) of PHA (214869) 2007 PA8 obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility during its close approach to Earth on 2012 November. The mineralogical analysis of this asteroid revealed a surface composition consistent with H ordinary chondrites. In particular, we found that the olivine and pyroxene chemistries of 2007 PA8 are Fa{sub 18}(Fo{sub 82}) and Fs{sub 16}, respectively. The olivine–pyroxene abundance ratio was estimated to be 47%. This low olivine abundance and the measured band parameters, close to the H4 and H5 chondrites, suggest that the parent body of 2007 PA8 experienced thermal metamorphism before being catastrophically disrupted. Based on the compositional affinity, proximity to the J5:2 resonance, and estimated flux of resonant objects we determined that the Koronis family is the most likely source region for 2007 PA8.

  7. Formation of carcinogens indoors by surface-mediated reactions of nicotine with nitrous acid, leading to potential thirdhand smoke hazards

    PubMed Central

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Gundel, Lara A.; Pankow, James F.; Jacob, Peyton; Singer, Brett C.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that residual nicotine from tobacco smoke sorbed to indoor surfaces reacts with ambient nitrous acid (HONO) to form carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Substantial levels of TSNAs were measured on surfaces inside a smoker’s vehicle. Laboratory experiments using cellulose as a model indoor material yielded a > 10-fold increase of surface-bound TSNAs when sorbed secondhand smoke was exposed to 60 ppbv HONO for 3 hours. In both cases we identified 1-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridinyl)-4-butanal, a TSNA absent in freshly emitted tobacco smoke, as the major product. The potent carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1-butanone and N-nitroso nornicotine were also detected. Time-course measurements revealed fast TSNA formation, with up to 0.4% conversion of nicotine. Given the rapid sorption and persistence of high levels of nicotine on indoor surfaces—including clothing and human skin—this recently identified process represents an unappreciated health hazard through dermal exposure, dust inhalation, and ingestion. These findings raise concerns about exposures to the tobacco smoke residue that has been recently dubbed “thirdhand smoke.” Our work highlights the importance of reactions at indoor interfaces, particularly those involving amines and NOx/HONO cycling, with potential health impacts. PMID:20142504

  8. Changes in population evacuation potential for tsunami hazards in Seward, Alaska, since the 1964 Good Friday earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan J.; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.; Peters, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pedestrian evacuation modeling for tsunami hazards typically focuses on current land-cover conditions and population distributions. To examine how post-disaster redevelopment may influence the evacuation potential of at-risk populations to future threats, we modeled pedestrian travel times to safety in Seward, Alaska, based on conditions before the 1964 Good Friday earthquake and tsunami disaster and on modern conditions. Anisotropic, path distance modeling is conducted to estimate travel times to safety during the 1964 event and in modern Seward, and results are merged with various population data, including the location and number of residents, employees, public venues, and dependent care facilities. Results suggest that modeled travel time estimates conform well to the fatality patterns of the 1964 event and that evacuation travel times have increased in modern Seward due to the relocation and expansion of port and harbor facilities after the disaster. The majority of individuals threatened by tsunamis today in Seward are employee, customer, and tourist populations, rather than residents in their homes. Modern evacuation travel times to safety for the majority of the region are less than wave arrival times for future tectonic tsunamis but greater than arrival times for landslide-related tsunamis. Evacuation travel times will likely be higher in the winter time, when the presence of snow may constrain evacuations to roads.

  9. The potentially hazardous asteroid 2007CA19 as the parent of the η-Virginids meteoroid stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babadzhanov, P. B.; Kokhirova, G. I.; Obrubov, Yu. V.

    2015-07-01

    The orbit of the potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid 2007CA19 is classified as comet-like according to the Tisserand parameter with a value of Tj = 2.8, therefore the object can be empirically considered as an extinct or dormant Jupiter-family comet. If 2007CA19 is really a former comet, it could have formed a meteoroid stream in the past in the period of its cometary activity. Investigation of the asteroid's orbital evolution shows that 2007CA19 is a quadruple-crosser of the Earth's orbit. Consequently, the meteoroid stream that is supposedly associated with the object can produce four meteor showers if, as expected, the perihelia arguments of the meteoroids are very distributed over the orbit. Theoretical radiants of the predicted showers were calculated using elements of the 2007CA19 osculating orbit that correspond to the positions of intersections with the Earth's orbit. A search for the predicted night-time showers has shown that the Northern and Southern η-Virginids can be associated to 2007CA19. Using the MOID IAU database, we identify two other daytime showers that can be associated with this asteroid. Thus, we confirm that 2007CA19 has an associated meteoroid stream that produces four active meteor showers in the Earth's atmosphere. This relationship supports the dynamical classification of the object and also points to the possibility of its cometary origin.

  10. Rapid on-site detection of airborne asbestos fibers and potentially hazardous nanomaterials using fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Akio; Alexandrov, Maxym; Nishimura, Tomoki; Ishida, Takenori

    2016-06-01

    A large number of peptides with binding affinity to various inorganic materials have been identified and used as linkers, catalysts, and building blocks in nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology. However, there have been few applications of material-binding peptides in the fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing (FM method) of environmental pollutants. A notable exception is the application of the FM method for the detection of asbestos, a dangerous industrial toxin that is still widely used in many developing countries. This review details the selection and isolation of asbestos-binding proteins and peptides with sufficient specificity to distinguish asbestos from a large variety of safer fibrous materials used as asbestos substitutes. High sensitivity to nanoscale asbestos fibers (30-35 nm in diameter) invisible under conventional phase contrast microscopy can be achieved. The FM method is the basis for developing an automated system for asbestos biosensing that can be used for on-site testing with a portable fluorescence microscope. In the future, the FM method could also become a useful tool for detecting other potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the environment.

  11. Rapid on-site detection of airborne asbestos fibers and potentially hazardous nanomaterials using fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Akio; Alexandrov, Maxym; Nishimura, Tomoki; Ishida, Takenori

    2016-06-01

    A large number of peptides with binding affinity to various inorganic materials have been identified and used as linkers, catalysts, and building blocks in nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology. However, there have been few applications of material-binding peptides in the fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing (FM method) of environmental pollutants. A notable exception is the application of the FM method for the detection of asbestos, a dangerous industrial toxin that is still widely used in many developing countries. This review details the selection and isolation of asbestos-binding proteins and peptides with sufficient specificity to distinguish asbestos from a large variety of safer fibrous materials used as asbestos substitutes. High sensitivity to nanoscale asbestos fibers (30-35 nm in diameter) invisible under conventional phase contrast microscopy can be achieved. The FM method is the basis for developing an automated system for asbestos biosensing that can be used for on-site testing with a portable fluorescence microscope. In the future, the FM method could also become a useful tool for detecting other potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the environment. PMID:27220109

  12. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

    2009-04-01

    of these toxic dumps are vulnerable to seismically induced landsliding, release of reservoir water and breaching of very large (up to several km3) landslide-dammed lakes within the deep mountain valleys typical of the fault zone. The May 2008 earthquake in neighboring Sichuan, in which some 30 landslide-dammed lakes were created, may be useful in refining hazard scenarios developed from the multi-pronged analysis employed in our study. This analysis involves compiling all relevant existing data, such as seismic archives held in paper format, within the project GIS. Spatial and temporal patterns exhibited by these compiled data, together with focal mechanism determinations where possible, are combined with data on the distribution and nature of geological units to provide estimates of peak ground acceleration and the likely incidence of seismically-triggered slope instability. This compilation also identifies data deficiencies to be targeted using a portable seismometer network, geophysical and geodetic surveys, InSAR and other remote sensing data; all combined with geotechnical and palaeoseismological fieldwork. Initial results from this approach confirm the ground-shaking potential of Talas-Fergana rupture events, suggest a long-term slip rate as high as 15 mm a-1, and the occurrence of the last ground-rupturing event some 4-500 years BP. The lack of significant activity since that event suggests the Talas-Fergana structure may comprise a seismic gap within the Tien-Shan, highlighting the importance of hazard scenarios in proposing mitigation measures against potentially catastrophic threats, such as extensive pollution of irrigated lands in the Fergana Valley downstream from Toktogul on which some 10 million people depend.

  13. Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R.; Pfeifer, D.; Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M.; Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P.; Schaefer, W.R.

    2012-05-01

    Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17β-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ► We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ► 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak

  14. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone, a potential human cancer hazard in diesel exhaust and urban air pollution: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Volker M

    2005-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to diesel exhaust and urban air pollution is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone [3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one (3-NBA)] is an extremely potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust and ambient air particulate matter. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA), was found in the urine of salt mine workers occupationally exposed to diesel emissions, indicating that human exposure to 3-NBA due to diesel emissions can be significant and is detectable. There is clear evidence that 3-NBA is a genotoxic mutagen forming DNA adducts after metabolic activation through simple reduction of the nitro group. Several human enzymes have been shown to activate 3-NBA and its metabolites in vitro and in cells to form electrophilic arylnitrenium and rearranged carbenium ions, leading to the formation of purine adducts at the C8 and N2 position of guanine and at the C8 and N6 position of adenine. The predominant DNA adducts in vivo, 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone and N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone are also the most persistent adducts in target tissue in rodents, and are most probably responsible for the induction of GC-->TA transversion mutations observed in vivo. It is concluded that these adducts not only represent premutagenic lesions in DNA but are of primary importance for the initiation of the carcinogenic process and subsequent tumour formation in target tissue. Indeed, 3-NBA is carcinogenic in rats after intratracheal instillation, inducing mainly squamous cell carcinoma in lung. The intention of this article is to provide a critical review on the potential genotoxic effects of 3-NBA on human health. However, in general, there is a need for more mechanistic studies that relate 3-NBA to all processes that are considered to orchestrate tumour development and of studies on the ability of particles to promote 3-NBA

  15. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  16. Seismic Adequacy Review of PC012 SCEs that are Potential Seismic Hazards with PC3 SCEs at Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    OCOMA, E.C.

    1999-08-12

    This document provides seismic adequacy review of PCO12 Systems, Components L Equipment anchorage that are potential seismic interaction hazards with PC3 SCEs during a Design Basis Earthquake. The PCO12 items are identified in the Safety Equipment List as 3/1 SCEs.

  17. Discovery of the February Eta Draconids (FED, IAU#427): the dust trail of a potentially hazardous long-period comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Gural, P. S.

    2011-08-01

    A previously unknown shower was detected on 2011 February 4, during routine low-light-level video triangulations with NASA's Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) project in California between 02h20m and 14h20m UT. During that time interval, six meteors radiated from a compact geocentric radiant at R.A.= 239.92 +- 0.50 deg, Decl.= 62.49 +- 0.22 deg, with speed V_g = 35.58 +- 0.34 km/s. The times of arrival for the meteors were 06h25m, 07h59m, 10h49m, 11h18m, 12h14m and 13h33m UT, suggesting that the outburst peaked around 11h UT (solar longitude = 315.1 deg) and had a duration of at least 7 hours. The shower was not detected on the days prior to or after February 4. The meteors were in a narrow magnitude range, with peak visual magnitude of +2.1, +1.9, +2.6, +2.1, +2.3 and +2.4, respectively, moving from 103.6+-1.4 to 95.7+-1.5 km altitude. The mean meteoroid orbital elements derived from the radiant and speed are: q = (0.971+-0.001) AU, 1/a = (-0.004 +-0.025) AU^{-1}, i = 55.20+-0.34 deg, omega = 194.09+-0.35 deg, Omega = 315.07+-0.10 deg (one standard deviation). The orbital period of this shower is P > 53 y (three standard deviations), so that the meteoroids are likely the dust trail of a potentially hazardous long-period comet, which remains to be discovered.

  18. Adequate and anticipatory research on the potential hazards of emerging technologies: a case of myopia and inertia?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Gee, David

    2014-01-01

    History confirms that while technological innovations can bring many benefits, they can also cause much human suffering, environmental degradation and economic costs. But are we repeating history with new and emerging chemical and technological products? In preparation for volume 2 of ‘Late Lessons from Early Warnings’ (European Environment Agency, 2013), two analyses were carried out to help answer this question. A bibliometric analysis of research articles in 78 environmental, health and safety (EHS) journals revealed that most focused on well-known rather than on newly emerging chemicals. We suggest that this ‘scientific inertia’ is due to the scientific requirement for high levels of proof via well replicated studies; the need to publish quickly; the use of existing intellectual and technological resources; and the conservative approach of many reviewers and research funders. The second analysis found that since 1996 the funding of EHS research represented just 0.6% of the overall funding of research and technological development (RTD). Compared with RTD funding, EHS research funding for information and communication technologies, nanotechnology and biotechnology was 0.09%, 2.3% and 4% of total research, respectively. The low EHS research ratio seems to be an unintended consequence of disparate funding decisions; technological optimism; a priori assertions of safety; collective hubris; and myopia. In light of the history of past technological risks, where EHS research was too little and too late, we suggest that it would be prudent to devote some 5–15% of RTD on EHS research to anticipate and minimise potential hazards while maximising the commercial longevity of emerging technologies. PMID:24913017

  19. Adequate and anticipatory research on the potential hazards of emerging technologies: a case of myopia and inertia?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Gee, David

    2014-09-01

    History confirms that while technological innovations can bring many benefits, they can also cause much human suffering, environmental degradation and economic costs. But are we repeating history with new and emerging chemical and technological products? In preparation for volume 2 of 'Late Lessons from Early Warnings' (European Environment Agency, 2013), two analyses were carried out to help answer this question. A bibliometric analysis of research articles in 78 environmental, health and safety (EHS) journals revealed that most focused on well-known rather than on newly emerging chemicals. We suggest that this 'scientific inertia' is due to the scientific requirement for high levels of proof via well replicated studies; the need to publish quickly; the use of existing intellectual and technological resources; and the conservative approach of many reviewers and research funders. The second analysis found that since 1996 the funding of EHS research represented just 0.6% of the overall funding of research and technological development (RTD). Compared with RTD funding, EHS research funding for information and communication technologies, nanotechnology and biotechnology was 0.09%, 2.3% and 4% of total research, respectively. The low EHS research ratio seems to be an unintended consequence of disparate funding decisions; technological optimism; a priori assertions of safety; collective hubris; and myopia. In light of the history of past technological risks, where EHS research was too little and too late, we suggest that it would be prudent to devote some 5-15% of RTD on EHS research to anticipate and minimise potential hazards while maximising the commercial longevity of emerging technologies.

  20. Assessing potential human health hazards and benefits from subtherapeutic antibiotics in the United States: tetracyclines as a case study.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A

    2010-03-01

    Many scientists, activists, regulators, and politicians have expressed urgent concern that using antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant strains of bacteria that harm human health and bring nearer a "postantibiotic era" of multidrug resistant "super-bugs." Proposed political solutions, such as the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA), would ban entire classes of subtherapeutic antibiotics (STAs) now used for disease prevention and growth promotion in food animals. The proposed bans are not driven by formal quantitative risk assessment (QRA), but by a perceived need for immediate action to prevent potential catastrophe. Similar fears led to STA phase-outs in Europe a decade ago. However, QRA and empirical data indicate that continued use of STAs in the United States has not harmed human health, and bans in Europe have not helped human health. The fears motivating PAMTA contrast with QRA estimates of vanishingly small risks. As a case study, examining specific tetracycline uses and resistance patterns suggests that there is no significant human health hazard from continued use of tetracycline in food animals. Simple hypothetical calculations suggest an unobservably small risk (between 0 and 1.75E-11 excess lifetime risk of a tetracycline-resistant infection), based on the long history of tetracycline use in the United States without resistance-related treatment failures. QRAs for other STA uses in food animals also find that human health risks are vanishingly small. Whether such QRA calculations will guide risk management policy for animal antibiotics in the United States remains to be seen. PMID:20136749

  1. A computed tomography phantom study of foam earplugs: Uncommon but potentially hazardous foreign body ingestion in children.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Bei; Wang, Shie-Shan; Liao, Chien-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Ingestion of a foreign body is common among children. However, ingestion of foam earplugs (FEPs) has not been reported previously. A 7-month-old female infant presented with small bowel obstruction, which was finally proved to be a case of FEP ingestion.Computed tomography (CT) phantom study was performed to examine the imaging features of FEPs. We studied the following dry and fully wet FEPs, FEPs squeezed in pure water to varying degrees, and FEPs with different degrees of compression in the dry and wet states from day 0 to 6 and all scanned with a CT scanner.The density of a dry FEP is -843.5 ± 4.5 Hounsfield units (HU) and it increases to 0.76 ± 9.3 HU when fully wet. The densities of FEPs ranged from -844.2 to 1.0 HU with different water/air ratios, and some showed a heterogeneous geographic pattern. The densities of FEPs increase due to compression and gradual water absorption.FEPs can be potentially hazardous objects to children. Owing to the special foam structure of the FEP, it can mimic a fatty lesion if the density ranges from -100 to -50 HU; moreover, it can hide in the water if fully wet. However, it should not be mistaken as air, as the density of a dry FEP is -843.5 HU, and the contour can be observed if the window level is set appropriately. Because of its soft texture, the surgeon should be careful not to miss an FEP during the operation. Moreover, radiologists should be familiar with the CT features of FEPs so that they can be identified before surgery. PMID:27583901

  2. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    PubMed Central

    Pain, Deborah J.; Cromie, Ruth L.; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J.; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A.; Moran, Annette C.; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing ≥5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg−1 w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. Conclusions/Significance The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game. PMID:20436670

  3. Geology and potential hazards of the continental slope between Lindenkohl and South Toms canyons, offshore Mid-Atlantic United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robb, James M.; Hampson, John C.; Kirby, John R.; Twichell, David C.

    1981-01-01

    Because sediment instability, or slumping, has been identified as a potential hazard to petroleum development of the east-coast Continental Slope, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, began a detailed study of a segment of the Continental Slope between Lindenkohl and South Toms Canyons off New Jersey. This 40-km x 35-km area was chosen for study because it lies within the area of high interest for petroleum development (Lease sales 49 and 59), and because it includes several wells which provide stratigraphic control. This report discusses the results of geologic mapping, using seismic-reflection data acquired in 1978 and 1979. Some initial results from more recently acquired data are included. The Continental Slope in the study area has a complex surface with ridges, canyons, and valleys. Three slump or slide features were observed in the heads and on the walls of canyons and valleys, and two slides were identified on an intercanyon area. The identified slumps or slides are found in Quaternary sediments and total about 1.3 percent of the Continental Slope area mapped. The slope is generally mantled by less than 2 m of Holocene sediments. Pleistocene sediment (primarily silty clay) is about 450 m thick at the top of the slope and thins to nearly zero or is absent on much of the mid and lower slope, where sediments of Miocene to Eocene age are exposed. Ridges on the midslope (water depths of 800-1,500 m) and parts of the lowr slope (1,500-2,150 m) result primarily from Pleistocene and older deposition. The intervening valleys show evidence of erosion along the deepest parts of their courses. Mid-range sidescan-sonar data show evidence that processes of bottom-current erosion and downcanyon transport of material may be active in the present day. However, major features of the sea floor appear to be unchanged since late-Pleistocene time.

  4. Mineral matter and potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Qianxi Fault Depression Area in southwestern Guizhou, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; Ren, D.; Zhu, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Zeng, R.; Zheng, B.

    2004-01-01

    Mineralogy, coal chemistry and 21 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) of 44 coal samples from the Qianxi Fault Depression Area (QFDA) in southwestern Guizhou province, China have been systematically studied. The major minerals in coals studied are quartz, kaolinite, illite, pyrite, calcite, smectite, marcasite and accessory minerals, including rutile, dolomite, siderite, gypsum, chlorite, melanterite, apatite, collophane and florencite. The SiO2 content shows a broad variation (0.8-30.7%). A high SiO2 content in Late Permian coals reflects their enrichment in quartz. The Al2O3 content varies from 0.8% to 13.4%, Fe2O3 from 0.2% to 14.6%, CaO from Al>K>Ti>Na>Mg>Ca>Fe>S. A comparison with World coal averages shows that the Late Permian coals in QFDA are highly enriched in As, Hg, F and U, and are slightly enriched in Mo, Se, Th, V and Zn. The Late Triassic coals in QFDA are highly enriched in As and Hg, and are slightly enriched in Mo, Th and U. The concentrations of As, Hg, Mo, Se, Tl and Zn in the QFDA coal are higher than other Guizhou coal and Liupanshui coal nearby. The QFDA is an area strongly affected by the low-temperature hydrothermal activity during its geologic history (Yanshanian Age, about 189 Ma). The coals in QFDA are enriched in volatile PHTEs, including As, Hg, Se, Sb, Mo, among others. The regions where the coals are enriched in As, Hg and F have been mapped. The regions of coals enriched in volatile PHTEs overlap with the regions of noble metal ore deposits. These coals are located in the cores of anticline and anticlinorium, which are connected with the profound faults through the normal faults. Coals are enriched in volatile PHTEs as a result of the low-temperature hydrothermal activity associated with tectonic faulting. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (85989) 1999 JD6: Radar, Infrared, and Lightcurve Observations and a Preliminary Shape Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Sean E.; Howell, Ellen S.; Brozović, Marina; Taylor, Patrick A.; Campbell, Donald B.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Naidu, Shantanu P.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Jao, Joseph S.; Lee, Clement G.; Richardson, James E.; Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Ghigo, Frank; Kobelski, Adam; Busch, Michael W.; Pravec, Petr; Warner, Brian D.; Reddy, Vishnu; Hicks, Michael D.; Crowell, Jenna L.; Fernandez, Yanga R.; Vervack, Ronald J.; Nolan, Michael C.; Magri, Christopher; Sharkey, Benjamin; Bozek, Brandon

    2015-11-01

    We report observations of potentially hazardous asteroid (85989) 1999 JD6, which passed 0.048 AU from Earth (19 lunar distances) during its close approach on July 25, 2015. During eleven days between July 15 and August 4, 2015, we observed 1999 JD6 with the Goldstone Solar System Radar and with Arecibo Observatory's planetary radar, including bistatic reception of some Goldstone echoes at Green Bank. We obtained delay-Doppler radar images at a wide range of latitudes, with range resolutions varying from 7.5 to 150 meters per pixel, depending on the observing conditions. We acquired near-infrared spectra from the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) on two nights in July 2015, at wavelengths from 0.75 to 5.0 microns, showing JD6's thermal emission. We also obtained optical lightcurves from Ondrejov Observatory (in 1999), Table Mountain Observatory (in 2000), and Palmer Divide Station (in 2015). Previous observers had suggested that 1999 JD6 was most likely an elongated object, based on its large lightcurve amplitude of 1.2 magnitudes (Szabo et al. 2001; Polishook and Brosch 2008; Warner 2014). The radar images reveal an elongated peanut-shaped object, with two lobes separated by a sharp concavity. JD6's maximum diameter is about two kilometers, and its larger lobe is approximately 50% longer than its smaller lobe. The larger lobe has a concavity on its end. We will present more details on the shape and rotation state of 1999 JD6, as well as its surface properties from optical and infrared data and thermal modeling.

  6. Potential hazards from flood in part of the Chalone Creek and Bear Valley drainage basins, Pinnacles National Monument, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Robert W.

    1995-01-01

    Areas of Chalone Creek and Bear Valley drainage basins in Pinnacles National Monument, California, are subject to frontal storms that can cause major flooding from November to April in areas designated for public use. To enhance visitor safety and to protect cultural and natural resources, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service studied flood-hazard potentials within the boundaries of the Pinnacles National Monument. This study area extends from about a quarter of a mile north of Chalone Creek Campground to the mouth of Bear Valley and from the east monument entrance to Chalone Creek. Historical data of precipitation and floodflow within the monument area are sparse to nonexistent, therefore, U.S. Soil Conservation Service unit-hydrograph procedures were used to determine the magnitude of a 100-year flood. Because of a lack of specific storm-rainfall data, a simulated storm was applied to the basins using a digital-computer model developed by the Soil Conservation Service. A graphical relation was used to define the regionally based maximum flood for Chalone Creek and Bear Valley. Water-surface elevations and inundation areas were determined using a conventional step-backwater program. Flood-zone boundaries were derived from the computed water-surface elevations. The 100-year flood plain for both streams would be inundated at all points by the regional maximum flood. Most of the buildings and proposed building sites in the monument area are above the elevation of the 100-year flood, except the proposed building sites near the horse corral and the east monument entrance. The 100-year flood may cause reverse flow through a 12-inch culvert embedded in the embankment of Old Pinnacles Campground Road in the center of Chalone Creek Campground. The likelihood of this occurring is dependant upon the amount of aggradation that occurs upstream; therefore, the campground area also is considered to be within the 100-year flood zone.

  7. Optical Characterization Of Planetary Radar Targets, Low-ΔV, And Potentially Hazardous Asteroids: Results From 2009-2010.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, James M.; Hicks, M.; Lawrence, K.; Rhoades, H.; Mayes, D.; Barajas, T.; McAuley, A.; Foster, J.; Shitanishi, J.; Truong, T.; Garcia, K.

    2010-10-01

    In July 2007 we began a intensive program of physical characterization of planetary radar targets at the Palomar Mountain 200-inch Hale Telescope (P200) and the JPL Table Mountain Observatory 0.6-m telescope (TMO), collecting CCD spectra, BVRI colors and R-band lightcurves of essentially all radar targets observable from the northern hemisphere. Radar observations benefit greatly from optical observations, especially rotational lightcurves and taxonomic classification. We also seek to characterize Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHA: MOID ≤ 0.05 AU, H ≤ 22.0 mag) and low-ΔV (LDV: ΔV ≤ 6.29 km/s) near-Earth asteroids as they become available from our latitude. Between January 2009 and July 2010 we acquired data on 38 objects over 107 nights at TMO and 28 objects over 8 nights at P200. We will report our spectra, colors, and light-curve photometry for the following minor planets, with the taxonomic classification (Bus Taxonomy) derived from our data listed in parenthesis: 1991 AQ10 (Sq), 1991 DB (C), 1994 CC (Sq), 1996 EN (V), 1996 FG3 (C), 1998 CS1 (Sa), 1998 FW4 (Xc), 1998 OR2 (Xk), 1999 AP10 (Sa), 1999 AQ10 (S), 1999 LF6 (L), 1999 MN (Sq), 2000 TO64 (S), 2000 UJ1 (S), 2000 XK44 (S), 2001 CV26 (S), 2001 FE90 (A), 2001 FM129 (Sq), 2002 VY95 (C), 2003 EF54 (V), 2003 QO104 (S), 2003 YT1 (R), 2004 FG11 (V), 2005 CW25 (T), 2005 EK70 (Sq), 2005 YU55 (C), 2006 AS2 (C), 2007 MK13 (C), 2008 EE5 (Sl), 2008 EV5 (C), 2008 SV11 (CX), 2009 KC3 (CX), 2009 KD5 (L), 2009 OG (S), 2009 UD2 (S), 2009 UN3 (S), 2009 UV18 (Ld), 2010 GU21 (X), 3554 Amun (X), 4486 Mithra (S).

  8. Assessing potential human health hazards and benefits from subtherapeutic antibiotics in the United States: tetracyclines as a case study.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A

    2010-03-01

    Many scientists, activists, regulators, and politicians have expressed urgent concern that using antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant strains of bacteria that harm human health and bring nearer a "postantibiotic era" of multidrug resistant "super-bugs." Proposed political solutions, such as the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA), would ban entire classes of subtherapeutic antibiotics (STAs) now used for disease prevention and growth promotion in food animals. The proposed bans are not driven by formal quantitative risk assessment (QRA), but by a perceived need for immediate action to prevent potential catastrophe. Similar fears led to STA phase-outs in Europe a decade ago. However, QRA and empirical data indicate that continued use of STAs in the United States has not harmed human health, and bans in Europe have not helped human health. The fears motivating PAMTA contrast with QRA estimates of vanishingly small risks. As a case study, examining specific tetracycline uses and resistance patterns suggests that there is no significant human health hazard from continued use of tetracycline in food animals. Simple hypothetical calculations suggest an unobservably small risk (between 0 and 1.75E-11 excess lifetime risk of a tetracycline-resistant infection), based on the long history of tetracycline use in the United States without resistance-related treatment failures. QRAs for other STA uses in food animals also find that human health risks are vanishingly small. Whether such QRA calculations will guide risk management policy for animal antibiotics in the United States remains to be seen.

  9. The Physical Characterization of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid 2004 BL86: A Fragment of a Differentiated Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Gary, Bruce L.; Sanchez, Juan A.; Takir, Driss; Thomas, Cristina A.; Hardersen, Paul S.; Ogmen, Yenal; Benni, Paul; Kaye, Thomas G.; Gregorio, Joao; Garlitz, Joe; Polishook, David; Le Corre, Lucille; Nathues, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The physical characterization of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) is important for impact hazard assessment and evaluating mitigation options. Close flybys of PHAs provide an opportunity to study their surface photometric and spectral properties that enable the identification of their source regions in the main asteroid belt. We observed PHA (357439) 2004 BL86 during a close flyby of the Earth at a distance of 1.2 million km (0.0080 AU) on 2015 January 26, with an array of ground-based telescopes to constrain its photometric and spectral properties. Lightcurve observations showed that the asteroid was a binary and subsequent radar observations confirmed the binary nature and gave a primary diameter of 300 m and a secondary diameter of 50-100 m. Our photometric observations were used to derive the phase curve of 2004 BL86 in the V-band. Two different photometric functions were fitted to this phase curve, the IAU H-G model and the Shevchenko model. From the fit of the H-G function we obtained an absolute magnitude of H = 19.51 ± 0.02 and a slope parameter of G = 0.34 ± 0.02. The Shevchenko function yielded an absolute magnitude of H = 19.03 ± 0.07 and a phase coefficient b = 0.0225 ± 0.0006. The phase coefficient was used to calculate the geometric albedo (Ag) using the relationship found by Belskaya & Schevchenko, obtaining a value of Ag = 40% ± 8% in the V-band. With the geometric albedo and the absolute magnitudes derived from the H-G and the Shevchenko functions we calculated the diameter (D) of 2004 BL86, obtaining D = 263 ± 26 and D = 328 ± 35 m, respectively. 2004 BL86 spectral band parameters and pyroxene chemistry are consistent with non-cumulate eucrite meteorites. A majority of these meteorites are derived from Vesta and are analogous with surface lava flows on a differentiated parent body. A non-diagnostic spectral curve match using the Modeling for Asteroids tool yielded a best-match with non-cumulate eucrite Bereba. Three other near

  10. THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS ASTEROID 2004 BL86: A FRAGMENT OF A DIFFERENTIATED ASTEROID

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Takir, Driss; Corre, Lucille Le; Gary, Bruce L.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Hardersen, Paul S.; Ogmen, Yenal; Benni, Paul; Kaye, Thomas G.; Gregorio, Joao; Garlitz, Joe; Polishook, David; Nathues, Andreas

    2015-09-20

    The physical characterization of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) is important for impact hazard assessment and evaluating mitigation options. Close flybys of PHAs provide an opportunity to study their surface photometric and spectral properties that enable the identification of their source regions in the main asteroid belt. We observed PHA (357439) 2004 BL86 during a close flyby of the Earth at a distance of 1.2 million km (0.0080 AU) on 2015 January 26, with an array of ground-based telescopes to constrain its photometric and spectral properties. Lightcurve observations showed that the asteroid was a binary and subsequent radar observations confirmed the binary nature and gave a primary diameter of 300 m and a secondary diameter of 50–100 m. Our photometric observations were used to derive the phase curve of 2004 BL86 in the V-band. Two different photometric functions were fitted to this phase curve, the IAU H–G model and the Shevchenko model. From the fit of the H–G function we obtained an absolute magnitude of H = 19.51 ± 0.02 and a slope parameter of G = 0.34 ± 0.02. The Shevchenko function yielded an absolute magnitude of H = 19.03 ± 0.07 and a phase coefficient b = 0.0225 ± 0.0006. The phase coefficient was used to calculate the geometric albedo (Ag) using the relationship found by Belskaya and Schevchenko, obtaining a value of Ag = 40% ± 8% in the V-band. With the geometric albedo and the absolute magnitudes derived from the H–G and the Shevchenko functions we calculated the diameter (D) of 2004 BL86, obtaining D = 263 ± 26 and D = 328 ± 35 m, respectively. 2004 BL86 spectral band parameters and pyroxene chemistry are consistent with non-cumulate eucrite meteorites. A majority of these meteorites are derived from Vesta and are analogous with surface lava flows on a differentiated parent body. A non-diagnostic spectral curve match using the Modeling for Asteroids tool yielded a best-match with non-cumulate eucrite Bereba. Three other

  11. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  12. Multicenter study to assess potential hazards from exposure to lipid peroxidation products in soya bean oil from Trilucent breast implants.

    PubMed

    Williams, G M; Caldwell, J; Armstrong, D; Bartsch, H; Bevan, R; Browne, R W; Chipman, J K; Iatropoulos, M J; Jeffrey, A M; Lunec, J; Nair, J; Page, D L; Reeves, B C; Richardson, A; Silverstein, B; Williams, D F

    2009-03-01

    In response to a Hazard Notice by the Medical Devices Agency of the UK in 2000 regarding the Trilucent breast implant (TBI), an expert panel was convened to implement a research program to determine whether genotoxic compounds were formed in the soybean oil filler (SOF) of TBIs and whether these could be released to produce local or systemic genotoxicity. The panel established a research program involving six laboratories. The program recruited 47 patients who had received TBIs (9 patients had received silicone implants previously). A reference group (REBI) of 34 patients who had exchanged either silicone (17 patients) implants (REBI-E) or patients (17) who were to receive primary implantation augmentation with silicone (REBI-PIA), and who were included as needed to increase either the pre- or post-explantation sample number. Of the 17 REBI-E patients, 5 had silicone implants and 12 had saline implants previously (prior to the last exchange). Investigation was undertaken before and after replacement surgery in the TBI patients and before and after replacement or augmentation surgery in the REBI patients. The pre- to post-operative sample interval was 8-12 weeks. Pre-operative samples were collected within 7 days prior to the operation. Information on a variety of demographic and behavioral features was collected. Biochemical and biological endpoints relating to genotoxic lipid peroxidation (LPO) products potentially formed in the SOF, and released locally or distributed systemically, were measured. The SOF of explanted TBIs was found to have substantial levels of LPO products, particularly malondialdehyde (MDA), and low levels of trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) not found in unused implants. Mutagenicity of the SOF was related to the levels of MDA. Capsules that formed around TBIs were microscopically similar to those of reference implants, but MDA-DNA adducts were observed in capsular macrophages and fibroblasts of only TBI capsules. These cell types are not

  13. The properties of the nano-minerals and hazardous elements: Potential environmental impacts of Brazilian coal waste fire.

    PubMed

    Civeira, Matheus S; Pinheiro, Rafael N; Gredilla, Ainara; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez Ortiz; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Ramos, Claudete G; Taffarel, Silvio R; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-02-15

    Brazilian coal area (South Brazil) impacted the environment by means of a large number of coal waste piles emplaced over the old mine sites and the adjacent areas of the Criciúma, Urussanga, and Siderópolis cities. The area studied here was abandoned and after almost 30 years (smokeless visual) some companies use the actual minerals derived from burning coal cleaning rejects (BCCRs) complied in the mentioned area for industry tiles or refractory bricks. Mineralogical and geochemical similarities between the BCCRs and non-anthropogenic geological environments are outlined here. Although no visible flames were observed, this study revealed that auto-combustion existed in the studied area for many years. The presence of amorphous phases, mullite, hematite and other Fe-minerals formed by high temperature was found. There is also pyrite, Fe-sulphates (eg. jarosite) and unburnt coal present, which are useful for comparison purposes. Bad disposal of coal-dump wastes represents significant environmental concerns due to their potential influence on atmosphere, river sediments, soils and as well as on the surface and groundwater in the surroundings of these areas. The present study using advanced analytical techniques were performed to provide an improved understanding of the complex processes related with sulphide-rich coal waste oxidation, spontaneous combustion and mineral formation. It is reporting huge numbers of rare minerals with alunite, montmorillonite, szomolnokite, halotrichite, coquimbite and copiapite at the BCCRs. The data showed the presence of abundant amorphous Si-Al-Fe-Ti as (oxy-)hydroxides and Fe-hydro/oxides with goethite and hematite with various degrees of crystallinity, containing hazardous elements, such as Cu, Cr, Hf, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Th, U, Zr, and others. By Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the mineralogical composition was related with the range of elemental concentration of each sample. Most of the nano-minerals and ultra-fine particles

  14. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

  15. The potential for LiDAR technology to map fire fuel hazard over large areas of Australian forest.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Gordon, Christopher E

    2016-10-01

    Fuel load is a primary determinant of fire spread in Australian forests. In east Australian forests, litter and canopy fuel loads and hence fire hazard are thought to be highest at and beyond steady-state fuel loads 15-20 years post-fire. Current methods used to predict fuel loads often rely on course-scale vegetation maps and simple time-since-fire relationships which mask fine-scale processes influencing fuel loads. Here we use Light Detecting and Remote Sensing technology (LiDAR) and field surveys to quantify post-fire mid-story and crown canopy fuel accumulation and fire hazard in Dry Sclerophyll Forests of the Sydney Basin (Australia) at fine spatial-scales (20 × 20 m cell resolution). Fuel cover was quantified in three strata important for crown fire propagation (0.5-4 m, 4-15 m, >15 m) over a 144 km(2) area subject to varying fire fuel ages. Our results show that 1) LiDAR provided a precise measurement of fuel cover in each strata and a less precise but still useful predictor of surface fuels, 2) cover varied greatly within a mapped vegetation class of the same fuel age, particularly for elevated fuel, 3) time-since-fire was a poor predictor of fuel cover and crown fire hazard because fuel loads important for crown fire propagation were variable over a range of fire fuel ages between 2 and 38 years post-fire, and 4) fuel loads and fire hazard can be high in the years immediately following fire. Our results show the benefits of spatially and temporally specific in situ fuel sampling methods such as LiDAR, and are widely applicable for fire management actions which aim to decrease human and environmental losses due to wildfire.

  16. The potential for LiDAR technology to map fire fuel hazard over large areas of Australian forest.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Gordon, Christopher E

    2016-10-01

    Fuel load is a primary determinant of fire spread in Australian forests. In east Australian forests, litter and canopy fuel loads and hence fire hazard are thought to be highest at and beyond steady-state fuel loads 15-20 years post-fire. Current methods used to predict fuel loads often rely on course-scale vegetation maps and simple time-since-fire relationships which mask fine-scale processes influencing fuel loads. Here we use Light Detecting and Remote Sensing technology (LiDAR) and field surveys to quantify post-fire mid-story and crown canopy fuel accumulation and fire hazard in Dry Sclerophyll Forests of the Sydney Basin (Australia) at fine spatial-scales (20 × 20 m cell resolution). Fuel cover was quantified in three strata important for crown fire propagation (0.5-4 m, 4-15 m, >15 m) over a 144 km(2) area subject to varying fire fuel ages. Our results show that 1) LiDAR provided a precise measurement of fuel cover in each strata and a less precise but still useful predictor of surface fuels, 2) cover varied greatly within a mapped vegetation class of the same fuel age, particularly for elevated fuel, 3) time-since-fire was a poor predictor of fuel cover and crown fire hazard because fuel loads important for crown fire propagation were variable over a range of fire fuel ages between 2 and 38 years post-fire, and 4) fuel loads and fire hazard can be high in the years immediately following fire. Our results show the benefits of spatially and temporally specific in situ fuel sampling methods such as LiDAR, and are widely applicable for fire management actions which aim to decrease human and environmental losses due to wildfire. PMID:27558828

  17. Using the New Two-Phase-Titan to Evaluate Potential Lahar Hazard at Villa la Angostura, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, M. F.; Cordoba, G. A.; Viramonte, J. G.; Folch, A.; Villarosa, G.; Delgado, H.

    2013-05-01

    The 2011 eruption of Puyehue Volcano, located in the Cordon del Caulle volcanic complex, Chile, produced an ash plume that mainly affected downwind areas in Argentina. This plume forced air transport in the region to be closed for several weeks. Tephra fall deposits from this eruption affected many locations and pumice deposits on lakes killed most of the fish. As the ash emission occurred during the southern hemisphere winter (June), ash horizons were inter layered with layers of snow. This situation posed a potential threat for human settlements located downslope of the mountains. This was the case at Villa la Angostura, Neuquen province, Argentina, which sits on a series of fluvial deposits that originate in three major basins: Piedritas, Colorado, and Florencia. The Institute of Geological Survey of Argentina (SEGEMAR) estimated that the total accumulated deposit in each basin contains a ratio of approximately 30% ash and 70% snow. The CyTED-Ceniza Iberoamerican network worked together with Argentinean, Colombian and USA institutions in this hazard assessment. We used the program Two-Phase-Titan to model two scenarios in each of the basins. This computer code was developed at SUNY University at Buffalo supported by NSF Grant EAR 711497. Two-Phase-Titan is a new depth-averaged model for two phase flows that uses balance equations for multiphase mixtures. We evaluate the stresses using a Coulomb law for the solid phase and the typical hydraulic shallow water approach for the fluid phase. The linkage for compositions in the range between the pure end-member phases is accommodated by the inclusion of a phenomenological-based drag coefficient. The model is capable of simulating the whole range of particle volumetric fractions, from pure fluid flows to pure solid avalanches. The initial conditions, volume and solid concentration, required by Two-Phase-Titan were imposed using the SEGEMAR estimation of total deposited volume, assuming that the maximum volume that can

  18. Development of methodologies for the identification of flood hazard zones along potential rail access corridors to the Yucca Mountain Site: Annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.H.; Preator, L.; Nicholson, R.

    1991-02-01

    The overall goal of this project is the development and application of methodologies for the identification of flood hazard zones along potential rail access corridors through Nevada to the Yucca Mountain Site and to provide information that will assist the railroad drainage structure design engineers. An initial objective of this project was the development of an annotated bibliography that defines the state-of-the-art in the identification of flood hazard zones and the design of flood protection facilities in the arid and semi-arid environment. The types of documents reviewed in the preparation of this bibliography included standard hydrologic and hydraulic engineering design manuals, engineering reports, and the peer-reviewed literature. Given the current interest in this general subject area by the US Department of Energy, the US Department of Transportation, state and local government, and the private sector this bibliography should be viewed as a dynamic document to which additional references will be added as they are identified and reviewed. Although the list of references included in this bibliography is extensive, from the viewpoint of providing specific guidance for the identification of flood hazard zones and the design of drainage protection for a potential rail line across an alluvial fan there is very little information. Numerous publications of the Federal Highway Administration and the transportation departments of the southwestern states were reviewed. Alluvial fan crossings receive only minimal attention in these publications. 171 refs.

  19. Studies on potential emission of hazardous gases due to uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres and their possible impacts on the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Pawan R.; Shrestha, Pratima; Tamrakar, Chirika S.; Bhattarai, Pradeep K.

    Uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres causing environmental pollution has become a popular practice in Nepal despite official ban considering the environment and public health hazards. In this study, an experimental model was set up in a laboratory scale in an attempt to understand the potential emission of hazardous gases such as CO, SO 2 and NO 2 due to such activities in Kathmandu Valley and their possible impacts on the environment. For this purpose, four types of tyre were collected representing two from passenger car and two from motorbike category. The emission level of CO in the tyre smoke was measured with a CO gas detector tube while SO 2 and NO 2 were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Among the three types of the gases analyzed, SO 2 was emitted in significantly high levels by all the representative tyre samples. The emission levels of CO, SO 2 and NO 2 ranged from 21to 49, 102to 820 and 3to 9 μg g -1, respectively. Results revealed that the emission levels also varied with the tyre types and qualities. The potential emission of the hazardous gases per representative scrap tyre mass was also estimated. Results indicate that the gaseous pollutants due to the tyre fires could make a significant contribution for deterioration of the environmental condition of the Valley or elsewhere.

  20. Volcano Hazards Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Myers, Bobbie; Driedger, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Diagram of common volcano hazards. The U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) monitors unrest and eruptions at U.S. volcanoes, assesses potential hazards, responds to volcanic crises, and conducts research on how volcanoes work. When conditions change at a monitored volcano, the VHP issues public advisories and warnings to alert emergency-management authorities and the public. See http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/ to learn more about volcanoes and find out what's happening now.

  1. Potential postwildfire debris-flow hazards: a prewildfire evaluation for the Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Haas, Jessica R.; Miller, Lara W.; Scott, Joe H.; Thompson, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire can drastically increase the probability of debris flows, a potentially hazardous and destructive form of mass wasting, in landscapes that have otherwise been stable throughout recent history. Although there is no way to know the exact location, extent, and severity of wildfire, or the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration before it happens, probabilities of fire and debris-flow occurrence for different locations can be estimated with geospatial analysis and modeling efforts. The purpose of this report is to provide information on which watersheds might constitute the most serious, potential, debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall in the Sandia and Manzano Mountains. Potential probabilities and estimated volumes of postwildfire debris flows in the unburned Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas were estimated using empirical debris-flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in combination with fire behavior and burn probability models developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. The locations of the greatest debris-flow hazards correlate with the areas of steepest slopes and simulated crown-fire behavior. The four subbasins with the highest computed debris-flow probabilities (greater than 98 percent) were all in the Manzano Mountains, two flowing east and two flowing west. Volumes in sixteen subbasins were greater than 50,000 square meters and most of these were in the central Manzanos and the western facing slopes of the Sandias. Five subbasins on the west-facing slopes of the Sandia Mountains, four of which have downstream reaches that lead into the outskirts of the City of Albuquerque, are among subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings. The bulk of the remaining subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings are located along the highest and steepest slopes of the Manzano Mountains. One

  2. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  3. Assessing Landslide Characteristics and Developing a Landslide Potential Hazard Map in Rwanda and Uganda Using NASA Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, L.; Conner, P.; le Roux, J.; Finley, T.

    2015-12-01

    The International Emergency Disasters Database indicates that a total of 482 people have been killed and another 27,530 have been affected by landslides in Rwanda and Uganda, although the actual numbers are thought to be much higher. Data for individual countries are poorly tracked, but hotspots for devastating landslides occur throughout Rwanda and Uganda due to the local topography and soil type, intense rainfall events, and deforestation. In spite of this, there has been little research in this region that utilizes satellite imagery to estimate areas susceptible to landslides. This project utilized Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data and Google Earth to identify landslides that occurred within the study area. These landslides were then added to SERVIR's Global Landslide Catalog (GLC). Next, Landsat 8 OLI, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Version 2 (SRTM V2) data were used to create a Landslide Susceptibility Map. This was combined with population data from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) to create a Landslide Hazard map. A preliminary assessment of the relative performance of GPM and TRMM in identifying landslide conditions was also performed. The additions to the GLC, the Landslide Susceptibility Map, the Landslide Hazard Map, and the preliminary assessment of satellite rainfall performance will be used by SERVIR and the Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) for disaster risk management, land use planning, and determining landslide conditions and moisture thresholds.

  4. Ground deformation in the Rio-Antirio area, Corinth Gulf, Greece, based on PS images interferometry and potential related geo-hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diakogianni, G.; Foumelis, M.; Papadopoulos, G. A.; Parcharidis, I.

    2009-04-01

    Ground deformation is the surface expression of various physical processes such as landslides, ground subsidence and earthquakes. Construction and operation of engineering structures in urban or in rural areas can be affected seriously by ground conditions leading to casualties and economic losses. We focus at the example of the new bridge Rio-Antirrio, an important infrastructure which is the longest cable stayed bridge all over the world. Being of a length of 2,250 m it is located in the strait at the northwest edge of Peloponnese, connecting the Gulf of Corinth and the Gulf of Patras, in central Greece. This important bridge facilitates the transportation between Greece and the Western Europe through the Patra's harbor. The area of the strait is characterized by a variety of natural hazards like the absence of stiff seabed, strong seismic activity, tectonic movements, which make the area highly susceptible to ground deformation and the bridge an element at risk. The aim of this paper is to study the observed ground deformation in the area of Rio-Antirrio and interpret the potential causes of the deformation. We combine results of the PS interferometry (IPTA method) covering the period from 1992 to the present using ERS1 & 2 scenes and ENVISAT with seismicity data, active tectonics, slope failure, coastal sediment compaction, hydrology and seabed stability. Hazard assessment, prevention and mitigation are discussed under the light of the results in a scheme which includes the exposure item (bridge), hazard (multi-source induced ground stability) and risk (possible impact).

  5. Software safety hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

  6. Evaluation of the hazard potentials of river suspended particulate matter and floodplain soils in the Rhine basin using chemical analysis and in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Tobias; Ulrich, Markus; Maier, Dieter; Maier, Matthias; Terytze, Konstantin; Braunbeck, Thomas; Hollert, Henner

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the hazard potentials of contaminated suspended particulate matter (SPM) sampled during a flood event for floodplain soils using in vitro bioassays and chemical analysis. Sediment-contact tests were performed to evaluate the direct exposure of organisms to native soils and SPM at two different trophic levels. For comparison, acetonic extracts were tested using both contact tests and additionally two cell-based biotests for cytotoxicity and Ah receptor-mediated activity (EROD-Assay). The sediment-contact tests were carried out with the dehydrogenase assay with Arthrobacter globiformis and the fish embryo assay with Danio rerio. The results of this study clearly document that native samples may well be significantly more effective than corresponding extracts in the bacteria contact assay or the fish embryo test. These results question the commonly accepted concept that acetonic extracts are likely to overestimate the toxicity of soil and SPM samples. Likewise, the priority organic compounds analyzed failed to fully explain the toxic potential of the samples. The outcomes of this study revealed the insufficient knowledge regarding the relationship between the different exposure pathways. Finally, there is concern about adverse effects by settling suspended particulate matter and remobilized sediments in frequently inundated floodplain soils due to an increase of the hazard potential, if compared with infrequently inundated floodplain soils. We showed that the settling of SPM and sediments revealed a significant impact on the dioxin-like potencies of riparian soils.

  7. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Ottmar, Roger, D.; Blake, John, I.; Crolly, William, T.

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuelbeds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for building fuelbeds and mapping fire behavior potential, evaluating fuel treatment options for effectiveness, and providing a comparative analysis of landscape modeled fire behavior using three different data sources including the Fuel Characteristic Classification System, LANDFIRE, and the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. The research demonstrates that fine scale fuel measurements associated with fuel inventories repeated over time can be used to assess broad scale wildland fire potential and hazard mitigation treatment effectiveness in the southeastern USA and similar fire prone regions. Additional investigations will be needed to modify and improve these processes and capture the true potential of these fine scale data sets for fire and fuel management planning.

  8. Screening for transfusion transmissible infections using rapid diagnostic tests in Africa: a potential hazard to blood safety?

    PubMed

    Prugger, C; Laperche, S; Murphy, E L; Bloch, E M; Kaidarova, Z; Tafflet, M; Lefrère, J-J; Jouven, X

    2016-02-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are routinely used in African blood centres. We analysed data from two cross-sectional studies representing 95 blood centres in 29 African countries. Standardized panels of sera containing varying concentrations of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies (Ab), hepatitis B virus antigen (HBsAg) and antihepatitis C virus (HCV) Ab were screened using routine operational testing procedures at the centres. Sensitivity of detection using RDTs was high for HIV Ab-positive samples, but low for intermediately HBsAg (51·5%) and HCV Ab (40·6%)-positive samples. These findings suggest that current RDT use in Africa could pose a hazard to blood safety. PMID:26646317

  9. The PERC{trademark} process: Existing and potential applications for induction coupled plasma technology in hazardous and radioactive waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Blutke, A.S.; Vavruska, J.S.; Serino, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    Plasma Technology, Inc. (PTI), a Santa Fe, New Mexico corporation has developed the Plasma Energy Recycle and Conversion (PERC){trademark} treatment process as a safe and environmentally clean alternative to conventional thermal destruction technologies. The PERC{trademark} treatment process uses as its heat source an advanced Induction Coupled Plasma (ICP) torch connected to a reaction chamber system with an additional emission control system. For example, organic-based gas, liquid, slurry, and/or solid waste streams can be converted into usable or even salable products while residual emissions are reduced to an absolute minimum. In applications for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste streams, the PERC system could be used for destruction of the hazardous organic constituents and/or significant waste volume reduction while capturing the radioactive fraction in a non-leachable form. Like Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC) arc plasma systems, ICP torches offer sufficient energy to decompose, melt and/or vitrify any waste stream. The decision for an arc plasma or an IC plasma system has to be made on a case by case evaluation and is highly dependent on the specific waste stream`s form and composition. Induction coupled plasma technology offers one simple, but significant difference compared to DC or AC arc plasma systems: the ICP torch is electrodeless. To date, enormous research effort has been spent to improve the lifetime of electrodes and the effectiveness of related cooling systems. Arc plasma systems are established in research laboratories worldwide and are approaching a broad use in commercial applications. ICP technology has been improved relatively recently, but nowadays offers complete new and beneficial approaches in the field of waste conversion and treatment.

  10. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  11. CHEMICAL HAZARD EVALUATION FOR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: A METHOD FOR RANKING AND SCORING CHEMICALS BY POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Between 60,000 and 100,000 of the over than 8,000,000 chemicals listed by the Chemical Abstracts Services Registry are commercially produced and are potential environmental pollutants. Risk-based evaluation for these chemicals is often required to evaluate the potential impacts...

  12. The potential and realistic hazards after a solar-driven chemical treatment of benzene using a health risk assessment at a gas station site in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il-Hyoung; Chang, Soon-Woong

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential use for ex situ remediation, a solar-driven, photocatalyzed reactor system was constructed and applied for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with benzene using selected advanced oxidation processes (AOP) processes, such as H(2)O(2)/solar light, TiO(2) slurry/solar light and immobilized TiO(2)/solar light. However; to date, there have been few attempts to characterize the potential impact of residual levels of benzene on human health after treatment. Some papers have focused on the application of treatment methods of benzene, but most have not considered the effects of realistic hazards and human health. Therefore, potential and realistic hazards of benzene to human health were investigated at a gas station site using a risk-based assessment approach. Among the different remediation actions, the solar light/TiO(2) slurry/H(2)O(2) system (Action 5) showed higher removal efficiency than the solar light/TiO(2) slurry (Action 3) and the solar light/immobilized TiO(2) (Action 2) systems for the treatment of benzene. The Action 5 remediation method achieved 98% degradation, and lead to a substantial increase in the removal of benzene due to the synergetic effect of TiO(2) with the oxidant, H(2)O(2). Also, using the realistic and potential hazard assessment instead of the point estimation of concentration after benzene treatment, the total health risk exceeded the target risk value (1 x 10(-6)). However, the 95th percentile target cancer risk, found using a probabilistic analysis (Monte Carlo method), was around 1 x 10(-6), indicating a low potential carcinogenic risk. Therefore, it was concluded that no adverse health risk was unlikely to be posed if the Action 5 system, which included the addition of TiO(2) and H(2)O(2), or if an increased reaction time was applied. In addition, continuous efforts and proper actions must be taken on the "Soil and Groundwater Remediation Action" based on the risk assessment in Korea.

  13. Potential hazards and artifacts of ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic surgical and dental materials and devices in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    New, P.F.J.; Rosen, B.R.; Brady, T.J.; Buonanno, F.S.; Kistler, J.P.; Burt, C.T.; Hinshaw, W.S.; Newhouse, J.H.; Pohost, G.M.; Taveras, J.M.

    1983-04-01

    The risks to patients with metal surgical implants who are undergoing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and the artifacts caused by such implants were studied. Twenty-one aneurysm and other hemostatic clips and a variety of other materials (e.g., dental amalgam, 14 karat gold) were used. Longitudinal forces and torques were found to be exerted upon 16 of the 21 clips. With five aneurysm clips, forces and torques sufficient to produce risk of hemorrhage from dislocation of the clip from the vessel or aneurysm, or cerebral injury by clip displacement without dislodgement were identified. The induced ferromagnetism was shown to be related to the composition of the alloys from which the clips were manufactured. Clips with 10-14% nickel are evidently without sufficient induced ferromagnetism to cause hazard. The extent of NMR imaging artifacts was greater for materials with measurable ferromagnetic properties, but metals without measurable ferromagnetism in our tests also resulted in significant artifacts. Dental amalgam and 14 karat gold produced no imaging artifacts, but stainless steels in dentures and orthodontic braces produced extensive artifacts in the facial region.

  14. Geology, geochronology, and potential volcanic hazards in the Lava Ridge-Hells Half Acre area, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of volcanic hazards for the proposed Safety Test Reactor Facility (STF) at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANLW) site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho, involves an analysis of the geology of the Lava Ridge-Hells Half Acre area and of K-At age determinations on lava flows in cored drill holes. The ANLW site at INEL lies in a shallow topographic depression bounded on the east and south by volcanic rift zones that are the locus of past shield-type basalt volcanism and by rhyolite domes erupted along the ring fracture of an inferred rhyolite caldera. The K-At age data indicate that the ANLW site has been flooded by basalt lava flows at irregular intervals from perhaps a few thousand years to as much as 300,000-400,000 years, with an average recurrence interval between flows of approximately 80,000-100,000 years. At least five major lava flows have covered the ANLW site within the past 500,000 years.

  15. Potential flood and debris hazards at Katherine Landing and Telephone Cove, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moosburner, Otto

    1988-01-01

    Katherine Landing is a recreation site on the east shore of Lake Mohave, an impoundment on the Colorado River southeast of Las Vegas, Nevada. With proper inspection and maintenance, the present (1979) channel and diking system at Katherine Landing is judged adequate to confine and restrain floods up to and including the 100-yr flood. In contrast, the 500-yr flood probably would not be confined by some parts of the diking system. The Telephone Cove area, traversed by North and South Telephone Cove Washes, is hazardous for all floods, especially for the 100-yr and more severe floods. Determinations of peak discharge are based on streamflow regression analyses, and channel capacities are based on field surveys of channel-flow capacities. The extreme flood - a flood meteorologically and hydrologically possible but so rare as to preclude a frequency estimate - could cause great damage and possible loss of life at both the Katherine Landing and the Telephone Cove sites. The present dikes would be topped or breached by extreme flooding. (USGS)

  16. Mesopause temperature perturbations caused by infrasonic waves as a potential indicator for the detection of tsunamis and other geo-hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, M.; Höppner, K.; Pilger, C.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-07-01

    Many geo-hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe weather, etc., produce acoustic waves with sub-audible frequency, so called infrasound. This sound propagates from the surface to the middle and upper atmosphere causing pressure and temperature perturbations. Temperature fluctuations connected with the above mentioned events usually are very weak at the surface, but the amplitude increases with height because of the exponential decrease of atmospheric pressure with increasing altitude. At the mesopause region (80-100 km height) signal amplitudes are about two to three orders of magnitude larger than on the ground. The GRIPS (GRound-based Infrared P-branch Spectrometer) measurement system operated by the German Remote Sensing Data Center of the German Aerospace Center (DLR-DFD) derives temperatures of the mesopause region by observing hydroxyl (OH) airglow emissions in the near infrared atmospheric emission spectrum originating from a thin layer at approximately 87 km height. The GRIPS instrument is in principle suited for the detection of infrasonic signals generated by e.g. tsunamis and other geo-hazards. This is due to the fact that the infrasound caused by such events should induce observable short-period fluctuations in the OH airglow temperatures. First results obtained during a field campaign performed at the Environmental Research Station "Schneefernerhaus", Zugspitze (47.4° N, 11.0° E) from October to December 2008 are presented regarding potential sources of meteorological and orographical origin. An adequate distinction of the overlapping infrasonic signatures caused by different infrasound sources in the OH temperature record is needed for the ascription to the proper source. The approach presented here could form a contribution to a hazard monitoring and early warning system.

  17. Synergies between geomorphic hazard and risk and sediment cascade research fields: exploiting geomorphic processes' susceptibility analyses to derive potential sediment sources in the Oltet, river catchment, southern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurchescu, Marta-Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Identifying sediment sources and sediment availability represents a major problem and one of the first concerns in the field of sediment cascade. This paper addresses the on-site effects associated with sediment transfer, investigating the degree to which studies pertaining to the field of geomorphic hazard and risk research could be exploited in sediment budget estimations. More precisely, the paper investigates whether results obtained in assessing susceptibility to various geomorphic processes (landslides, soil erosion, gully erosion) could be transferred to the study of sediment sources within a basin. The study area is a medium-sized catchment (> 2400 km2) in southern Romania encompassing four different geomorphic units (mountains, hills, piedmont and plain). The region is highly affected by a wide range of geomorphic processes which supply sediments to the drainage network. The presence of a reservoir at the river outlet emphasizes the importance of estimating sediment budgets. The susceptibility analyses are conducted separately for each type of the considered processes in a top-down framework, i.e. at two different scales, using scale-adapted methods and validation techniques in each case, as widely-recognized in the hazard and risk research literature. The analyses start at a regional scale, which has in view the entire catchment, using readily available data on conditioning factors. In a second step, the suceptibility analyses are carried out at a medium scale for selected hotspot-compartments of the catchment. In order to appraise the extent to which susceptibility results are relevant in interpreting sediment sources at catchment scale, scale-induced differences are analysed in the case of each process. Based on the amount of uncertainty revealed by each regional-scale analysis in comparison to the medium-scale ones, decisions are made on whether the first are acceptable to the aim of identifying potential sediment source areas or if they should be

  18. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-09-07

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation).

  19. [Distribution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Hazards Assessment of Soil Heavy Metals in Typical Soil Profiles in Southeast Suburb of Beijing].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Ma, Lin; Liu, Yi-fei; He, Jiang-tao; Li, Guang-he

    2016-05-15

    To investigate the distribution characteristics and the potential ecology risk of different types of heavy metals, soil samples were collected from various stratigraphic sections in the southeastern suburb of Beijing, where soil heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cr, As) contents were measured and analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis and the potential ecological risk index method. The results showed that the concentrations of the four heavy metals followed the order of Cr > Cu > As > Pb with variable coefficients ranging from 59.60% to 159.33% at 3-6 m stratum, which all displayed a high degree of variability. The concentrations of Cu and Pb were positively correlated with soil organic matter (SOM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), etc, with higher eigenvalues in Factor 1 and 2, demonstrating the impact of organic colloid on the occurrence of heavy metals. The risk level of the specific heavy metal followed the order of As > Cu > Pb > Cr, where As already showed a medium potential ecological risk in the studied area. PMID:27506050

  20. Radiation Dose and Hazard Assessment of Potential Contamination Events During Use of 223Ra Dichloride in Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Stabin, Michael G; Siegel, Jeffry A

    2015-09-01

    An analysis is presented of the possible dosimetric consequences of various potential contamination events involving 223Ra dichloride (Xofigo), the FDA-approved therapeutic agent used in the treatment of bone metastases in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Three exposure scenarios are considered: inhalation dose to an individual due to the hypothetical inhalation of 219Rn and its progeny assumed to be released into the air from a liquid spill on the floor, external dose from direct photon exposure of an individual assigned to clean up a spill, and skin dose to an individual should the liquid material come into contact with their skin. Doses from the first two scenarios were very small; 2.8 × 10(-3) mSv and 8.1 × 10(-4) mSv, respectively. Using extremely conservative assumptions, the skin dose was estimated to be 72 mSv; in a realistic scenario, this dose would likely be an order of magnitude or more lower. These doses are very small compared to regulatory limits, and good health physics practices likely to be employed in such incidents would lower them still further. The authors conclude that the medical use of Xofigo does not pose any significant radiation safety issue with respect to potential contamination events, even if multiple incidents might occur during the course of a year, since all worst-case potential contamination events considered in this study will not result in significant radiation exposures to workers.

  1. [Distribution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Hazards Assessment of Soil Heavy Metals in Typical Soil Profiles in Southeast Suburb of Beijing].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Ma, Lin; Liu, Yi-fei; He, Jiang-tao; Li, Guang-he

    2016-05-15

    To investigate the distribution characteristics and the potential ecology risk of different types of heavy metals, soil samples were collected from various stratigraphic sections in the southeastern suburb of Beijing, where soil heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cr, As) contents were measured and analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis and the potential ecological risk index method. The results showed that the concentrations of the four heavy metals followed the order of Cr > Cu > As > Pb with variable coefficients ranging from 59.60% to 159.33% at 3-6 m stratum, which all displayed a high degree of variability. The concentrations of Cu and Pb were positively correlated with soil organic matter (SOM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), etc, with higher eigenvalues in Factor 1 and 2, demonstrating the impact of organic colloid on the occurrence of heavy metals. The risk level of the specific heavy metal followed the order of As > Cu > Pb > Cr, where As already showed a medium potential ecological risk in the studied area.

  2. Landslides: Geomorphology and Sea Cliff Hazard Potential, Santa Barbara - Isla Vista, California J.F. Klath and E.A. Keller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klath, J. F.; Keller, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal areas are often characterized by high population densities in an ever changing, dynamic environment. The world's coasts are often dominated by steeply sloping sea cliffs, the morphology of which reflects rock type, wave erosion, and surface erosion, as well as human activities such changing vegetation, urban runoff, and construction of coastal defenses. The Santa Barbara and Goleta area, with over 17 km of sea cliffs and beaches, extends from Santa Barbara Point west to the hamlet of Isla Vista. A deeper understanding of the local geology and the physical processes generating slope failure and, thus, landward cliff retreat is important for general public safety, as well as future development and planning. Our research objective includes assessment of landslide hazard potential through investigation of previous landslides and how these events relate to various physical variables and characteristics within the surrounding bedrock. How does landslide frequency, volume, and type relate to varying local bedrock and structure? Two geologic formations dominate the sea cliffs of the Santa Barbara area: Monterey shale (upper, middle, and lower) and Monterey Sisquoc shale. Geology varies from hard cemented shale and diatomaceous, low specific gravity shale to compaction shale. Variations in landslide characteristics are linked closely to the geology of a specific site that affects how easily rock units are weathered and eroded by wave erosion, naturally occurring oil and water seeps, burnt shale events, and landslide type and frequency on steeply dipped bedding planes/daylighting beds. Naturally occurring features linked to human processes often weaken bedrock and, thus, increase the likelihood of landslides. We categorize landslide frequency, type, and triggers; location of beach access, drainage pipes, and water; and oil and tar seeps in order to develop suggestions to minimize landslide potential. Lastly, using previously published erosion cliff retreat rates and

  3. Aspect Ratio Plays a Role in the Hazard Potential of CeO2 Nanoparticles in Mouse Lung and Zebrafish Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sijie; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Dong, Yuan; Meng, Huan; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Song, Tze-Bin; Kohan, Sirus; Xia, Tian; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Lin, Shuo; Nel, André E.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that there is a relationship between the aspect ratio (AR) of CeO2 nanoparticles and in vitro hazard potential. CeO2 nanorods with AR ≥ 22 induced lysosomal damage and progressive effects on IL-1β production and cytotoxicity in the human myeloid cell line, THP-1. In order to determine whether this toxicological paradigm for long aspect ratio (LAR) CeO2 is also relevant in vivo, we performed comparative studies in the mouse lung and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of zebrafish larvae. Although oropharyngeal aspiration could induce acute lung inflammation for CeO2 nanospheres and nanorods, only the nanorods with the highest AR (C5) induced significant IL-1β and TGF-β1 production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) at 21 days but not inducing pulmonary fibrosis. However, after a longer duration (44 days) exposure to 4 mg/kg of the C5 nanorods, more collagen production was seen with CeO2 nanorods vs. nanospheres after correcting for Ce lung burden. Using an oral-exposure model in zebrafish larvae, we demonstrated that C5 nanorods also induced significant growth inhibition, a decrease in body weight, and delayed vertebral calcification. In contrast, CeO2 nanospheres and shorter nanorods had no effect. Histological and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses showed that the key injury mechanism of C5 was in the epithelial lining of the GIT, which demonstrated blunted microvilli and compromised digestive function. All considered, these data demonstrate that, similar to cellular studies, LAR CeO2 nanorods exhibit more toxicity in the lung and GIT, which could be relevant to inhalation and environmental hazard potential. PMID:24720650

  4. [Study on the emission characteristics and potential environment hazards of the heat-setting machine of the typical dyeing and finishing enterprise].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Rong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Xu, Ming-Zhu; Wu, Jian-Bo; Li, Yan

    2014-03-01

    To explore the emission characteristics and potential environment hazards of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from the heat-setting machine of the textile dyeing and finishing process, this paper selected five typical printing and dyeing enterprises in Zhejiang province as the monitoring subjects, and analyzed the actual emissions of 12 kinds of VOCs from the heat-setting machine (such as benzene methanol, formaldehyde, etc.), and then preliminarily estimated the emissions of VOCs from heat-setting machines of the whole province. Through analysis of the ozone generating potential, this paper preliminarily evaluated its harm to the environment. The results showed that although the concentration of VOCs was low, it contained benzene and formaldehyde, and the highest detection concentration could reach 1.53 mg x m(-3) and 15.4 mg x m(-3), which might cause serious environmental and human health hazards, Moreover, the VOCs emission from heat-setting machines in Zhejiang province was between 200. 9 t x a(-1) and 2 239.3 t x a(-1), which was dominated by formaldehyde, accounting for about 50%. The O3 yield generated from VOCs was between 860.4 t and 16 715. 5 t, with the average of 7 729.6 t. The main contribution of VOCs was xylene, toluene and formaldehyde, which could account for more than 90%. Furthermore, the VOCs emission from heat-setting machines in Shaoxing industry agglomeration area could have great influence on the ambient air quality, especially for the O3 concentration and the minimum contribution rate was 3.1%.

  5. Hazardous materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... people how to work with hazardous materials and waste. There are many different kinds of hazardous materials, including: Chemicals, like some that are used for cleaning Drugs, like chemotherapy to treat cancer Radioactive material that is used for x-rays or ...

  6. Concentrations and potential health hazards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in shallow groundwater of a metal smelting area in Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfa; Zhu, Hao; Luo, Yongming; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    A total of 20 shallow groundwater samples were collected from a metal smelting area in southeastern China to determine the concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), calculate their toxic equivalents (TEQs) to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and estimate the carcinogenic risk of drinking the shallow groundwater. The total concentrations of the 16PAHs (∑PAHs) in the shallow groundwater ranged from 9.62 to 1663.93ngL(-1), with a mean value of 312.63ngL(-1), and the total concentrations of the 7 potentially carcinogenic PAHs (∑PAHC7) ranged from 3.11 to 33.60ngL(-1), with a mean value of 9.61ngL(-1). Naphthalene and BaP, were the dominant PAH species and potentially carcinogenic PAH species in the shallow groundwater of the study area, and they account for 89.97% of ∑PAHs and 82.62% of ∑PAHC7, respectively. High molecular weight-PAHs (HM-PAHs) accounted for a relatively high proportion in the majority of shallow groundwater samples with lower concentrations of ΣPAHs, indicated that HM-PAHs were mainly from historical residues. The TEQs to BaP of the 16PAHs in the 20 shallow groundwater samples varied greatly from 2.55 to 32.73ngL(-1), with a mean value of 8.61ngL(-1), and BaP was the dominant contributor. The total carcinogenic risk levels caused by the 16PAHs in the shallow groundwater in majority of the area were found to be higher than the limit set by the US EPA, posing a potentially serious health risk to those who depend on shallow groundwater for drinking water. PMID:27396317

  7. Concentrations and potential health hazards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in shallow groundwater of a metal smelting area in Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfa; Zhu, Hao; Luo, Yongming; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    A total of 20 shallow groundwater samples were collected from a metal smelting area in southeastern China to determine the concentrations of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), calculate their toxic equivalents (TEQs) to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and estimate the carcinogenic risk of drinking the shallow groundwater. The total concentrations of the 16PAHs (∑PAHs) in the shallow groundwater ranged from 9.62 to 1663.93ngL(-1), with a mean value of 312.63ngL(-1), and the total concentrations of the 7 potentially carcinogenic PAHs (∑PAHC7) ranged from 3.11 to 33.60ngL(-1), with a mean value of 9.61ngL(-1). Naphthalene and BaP, were the dominant PAH species and potentially carcinogenic PAH species in the shallow groundwater of the study area, and they account for 89.97% of ∑PAHs and 82.62% of ∑PAHC7, respectively. High molecular weight-PAHs (HM-PAHs) accounted for a relatively high proportion in the majority of shallow groundwater samples with lower concentrations of ΣPAHs, indicated that HM-PAHs were mainly from historical residues. The TEQs to BaP of the 16PAHs in the 20 shallow groundwater samples varied greatly from 2.55 to 32.73ngL(-1), with a mean value of 8.61ngL(-1), and BaP was the dominant contributor. The total carcinogenic risk levels caused by the 16PAHs in the shallow groundwater in majority of the area were found to be higher than the limit set by the US EPA, posing a potentially serious health risk to those who depend on shallow groundwater for drinking water.

  8. Assessment of potential hazards of fluoride contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Manik Chandra; Mandal, Biswapati

    2009-05-01

    We assessed the potential of fluoride (F) contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in India as a function of its lithology and agricultural activities. Three hundred and eight groundwater samples were collected at different depths from various types of wells and analyzed for pH, EC, NO(3)-N load and F content. A typical litholog was constructed and database on fertilizer and pesticide uses were also recorded for the district. The water samples were almost neutral in reaction and non-saline in nature with low NO(3)-N content (0.02 to 4.56 microg mL(-1)). Fluoride content in water was also low (0.01 to 1.18 microg mL(-1)) with only 2.27% of them exceeding 1.0 microg mL(-1) posing a potential threat of fluorosis. On average, its content varied little spatially and along depth of sampling aquifers because of homogeneity in lithology of the district. The F content in these samples showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.12, P < or = 0.05) with the amount of phosphatic fertilizer (single super phosphate) used for agriculture but no such relation either with the anthropogenic activities of pesticide use or NO(3)-N content, pH and EC values of the samples was found. The results suggest that the use of phosphatic fertilizer may have some role to play in F enrichment of groundwater.

  9. An assessment of the public health hazard potential of wastewater reuse for crop production. A case of Bulawayo city, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutengu, Sherman; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Makoni, Fungai. S.

    Wastewater reuse is one possible way in which food production can be improved especially in developing countries where food is often scarce. However, the potential public health risks associated with wastewater use is of major concern. Health concerns are centered on pathogens and other health related pollutants that normally occur in the effluent. This research was conducted in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe during the period December 2005-May 2006. Bulawayo is a semi-arid area, with an average rainfall of 460 mm/annum and experiences frequent droughts. The study aimed at assessing the potential health impacts of effluent reuse for irrigating crops. Some 110 farmers are using wastewater for irrigation of vegetable crops on plots of about 500 m 2 each. Samples were collected from the effluent, the fields and vegetables and analyzed for selected quality parameters of health significance. Results were compared to national and international guidelines for effluent use in irrigation. Farmers’ knowledge on potential risks and practices were investigated through interviews. The results show that 70% of the respondents were aware of related health risks of using wastewater for irrigation. Respondents reported no major disease outbreaks. Mean values of pH were 8.1 and 7.3 for effluent and field soil and were within the FAO range of 6.5-8.5 for irrigation. Average temperature was 22.6 °C, while electrical conductivity ranged from 784 to 957 μS/cm and was less than the guideline value of 2000 μS/cm. Total coliforms in the effluent were found to be 7291 cfu/100 ml, while faecal coliforms were 5836 cfu/100 ml compared to the WHO limit of 1000 cfu/100 ml for irrigation. For effluent, cadmium were 0.04 mg/l and exceeded the long-term threshold limit of 0.01 mg/l, while lead was within the limit of 20 mg/l, with an average of 7.2 mg/l. No cadmium and lead were detected in the vegetables. It can be concluded that there is some health risks related to use of the effluent in the field

  10. The potential hazards of Aspergillus sp. in foods and feeds, and the role of biological treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Ali, Sheikh Imranudin; Ahmad, Akil; Mohd-Setapar, Siti-Hamidah; Zakaria, Zainul Akmal; Abdul-Talib, Norfahana; Khamis, Aidee Kamal; Hoque, Md Enamul

    2014-10-01

    The contamination of food and feed by Aspergillus has become a global issue with a significant worldwide economic impact. The growth of Aspergillus is unfavourable to the development of food and feed industries, where the problems happen mostly due to the presence of mycotoxins, which is a toxic metabolite secreted by most Aspergillus groups. Moreover, fungi can produce spores that cause diseases, such as allergies and asthma, especially to human beings. High temperature, high moisture, retarded crops, and poor food storage conditions encourage the growth of mold, as well as the development of mycotoxins. A variety of chemical, biological, and physical strategies have been developed to control the production of mycotoxins. A biological approach, using a mixed culture comprised of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus rhamnosus resulted in the inhibition of the growth of fungi when inoculated into fermented food. The results reveal that the mixed culture has a higher potential (37.08%) to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus (producer of Aflatoxin) compared to either single culture, L. rhamnosus NRRL B-442 and S. cerevisiae, which inhibit the growth by 63.07% and 64.24%, respectively.

  11. On The Potential Of A Robust, Satellite Data Analysis Strategy For Monitoring And Mitigation Of The Volcanic Hazard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pergola, N.; Marchese, F.; Scaffidi, I.; Lisi, M.; Tramutoli, V.

    2004-12-01

    In recent years, satellite remote sensing has been increasingly used as an useful tool for volcanic features monitoring. Several techniques have been proposed for quite a large set of applications devoted to the study of active volcanic systems. Recently, a robust approach (RAT - Robust AVHRR Techniques) has been proposed, in order to try to improve our observational capabilities, both in terms of volcanic features detection sensitivity and of false alarms avoidance. The aim of this work is to try to emphasize the capabilities of such an approach, especially from the point of view of a possible operational implementation at global scale and in whatever observational/environmental conditions. The potential of RAT in identifying, in a timely manner, possible pre-eruptive anomalous signs which might announce impending events, is discussed as well. The method robustness as well as its intrinsic exportability to different satellite/sensor systems, will permit its implementation on the present Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI), aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) platform, which is going to guarantee improved spectral (12 observation bands) and temporal (15 minutes of observational frequency) resolutions, particularly required if an operational scenario is aimed at.

  12. Nano titanium dioxide photocatalytic protein tyrosine nitration: A potential hazard of TiO{sub 2} on skin

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Naihao; Zhu Zhening; Zhao Xuqi; Tao Ran; Yang Xiangliang Gao Zhonghong

    2008-06-13

    Protein tyrosine nitration is a prevalent post-translational modification which occurs as a result of oxidative and nitrative stress, it may be directly involved in the onset and/or progression of diseases. Considering the existence of nano titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in environment and sunscreen products along with the high content of nitrite in sweat, the UV-exposed skin may be a significant target for the photosensitized damage. In this paper, tyrosine nitration of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was initiated in the UV-irradiated reaction mixture containing 0.2-3.0 mg/ml of three commercially nano TiO{sub 2} products and 0.25-1.0 mM NO{sub 2}{sup -}. It was found that anatase TiO{sub 2} and Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} showed prominent photocatalytic activity on promoting the formation of protein tyrosine nitration, and the optimum condition for the reaction was around physiological pH. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic effect of rutile on protein tyrosine nitration was subtle. The potential physiological significance of nano TiO{sub 2}-photocatalytic protein nitration was also demonstrated in mouse skin homogenate. Although the relationship between photocatalytic protein tyrosine nitration and chronic cutaneous diseases needs further study, the toxicity of nano TiO{sub 2} to the skin disease should be paid more attention in the production and utilization process.

  13. The potential hazards of Aspergillus sp. in foods and feeds, and the role of biological treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Ali, Sheikh Imranudin; Ahmad, Akil; Mohd-Setapar, Siti-Hamidah; Zakaria, Zainul Akmal; Abdul-Talib, Norfahana; Khamis, Aidee Kamal; Hoque, Md Enamul

    2014-10-01

    The contamination of food and feed by Aspergillus has become a global issue with a significant worldwide economic impact. The growth of Aspergillus is unfavourable to the development of food and feed industries, where the problems happen mostly due to the presence of mycotoxins, which is a toxic metabolite secreted by most Aspergillus groups. Moreover, fungi can produce spores that cause diseases, such as allergies and asthma, especially to human beings. High temperature, high moisture, retarded crops, and poor food storage conditions encourage the growth of mold, as well as the development of mycotoxins. A variety of chemical, biological, and physical strategies have been developed to control the production of mycotoxins. A biological approach, using a mixed culture comprised of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus rhamnosus resulted in the inhibition of the growth of fungi when inoculated into fermented food. The results reveal that the mixed culture has a higher potential (37.08%) to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus (producer of Aflatoxin) compared to either single culture, L. rhamnosus NRRL B-442 and S. cerevisiae, which inhibit the growth by 63.07% and 64.24%, respectively. PMID:25269603

  14. Identification and Classification of Mass Transport Complexes in Offshore Trinidad/Venezuela and Their Potential Anthropogenic Impact as Tsunamigenic Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscardelli, L.; Wood, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    Several late Pleistocene-age seafloor destabilization events have been identified in the continental margin of eastern offshore Trinidad, of sufficient scale to produce tsunamigenic forces. This area, situated along the obliquely-converging-boundary of the Caribbean/South American plates and proximal to the Orinoco Delta, is characterized by catastrophic shelf-margin processes, intrusive-extrusive mobile shales, and active tectonism. A mega-merged, 10,000km2, 3D seismic survey reveals several mass transport complexes that range in area from 11.3km2 to 2017km2. Historical records indicate that this region has experienced submarine landslide- generated tsunamigenic events, including tsunamis that affected Venezuela during the 1700's-1900's. This work concentrates on defining those ancient deep marine mass transport complexes whose occurrence could potentially triggered tsunamis. Three types of failures are identified; 1) source-attached failures that are fed by shelf edge deltas whose sediment input is controlled by sea-level fluctuations and sedimentation rates, 2) source-detached systems, which occur when upper slope sediments catastrophically fail due to gas hydrate disruptions and/or earthquakes, and 3) locally sourced failures, formed when local instabilities in the sea floor trigger relatively smaller collapses. Such classification of the relationship between slope mass failures and the sourcing regions enables a better understanding of the nature of initiation, length of development history and petrography of such mass transport deposits. Source-detached systems, generated due to sudden sediment remobilizations, are more likely to disrupt the overlying water column causing a rise in tsunamigenic risk. Unlike 2D seismic, 3D seismic enables scientists to calculate more accurate deposit volumes, improve deposit imaging and thus increase the accuracy of physical and computer simulations of mass failure processes.

  15. Phthalate-Induced Liver Protection against Deleterious Effects of the Th1 Response: A Potentially Serious Health Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Mostafa Z.; Shnyra, Alexander; Zoubine, Mikhail; Norkin, Maxim; Herndon, Betty; Quinn, Tim; Miranda, Roberto N.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Molteni, Agostino

    2007-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) induces pulmonary immunopathology mediated by classical Th1 type of acquired immunity with hepatic involvement in up to 80% of disseminated cases. Since PPAR agonists cause immune responses characterized by a decrease in the secretion of Th1 cytokines, we investigated the impact of activating these receptors on hepatic pathology associated with a well-characterized model of Th1-type pulmonary response. Male Fischer 344 rats were either maintained on a drug-free diet (groups I and II), or a diet containing diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), a compound transformed in vivo to metabolites known to activate PPARs, for 21 days (groups III and IV). Subsequently, animals were primed with Mycobacterium bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) in a Complete Freund's Adjuvant. Fifteen days later, animals in groups II and IV were challenged with Sepharose 4B beads covalently coupled with PPD, while animals in groups I and III received blank Sepharose beads. Animals with Th1 response (group II) showed a marked structural disruption in the hepatic lobule. Remarkably, these alterations were conspicuously absent in animals which received DEHP (group IV), despite noticeable accumulation of T cells in the periportal triads. Immunostaining and confocal microscopy revealed hepatic accumulation of IFNγ+ Th1 and IL-4+ Th2 cells in animals from groups II and IV, respectively. Our data suggest a PPARα-mediated suppression of the development of a Th1 immune response in the liver, resulting in hepatoprotective effect. However, potentially negative consequences of PPAR activation, such as decreased ability of the immune system to fight infection and interference with the efficacy of vaccines designed to evoke Th1 immune responses, remain to be investigated. PMID:18566640

  16. Phthalate-Induced Liver Protection against Deleterious Effects of the Th1 Response: A Potentially Serious Health Hazard.

    PubMed

    Badr, Mostafa Z; Shnyra, Alexander; Zoubine, Mikhail; Norkin, Maxim; Herndon, Betty; Quinn, Tim; Miranda, Roberto N; Cunningham, Michael L; Molteni, Agostino

    2007-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) induces pulmonary immunopathology mediated by classical Th1 type of acquired immunity with hepatic involvement in up to 80% of disseminated cases. Since PPAR agonists cause immune responses characterized by a decrease in the secretion of Th1 cytokines, we investigated the impact of activating these receptors on hepatic pathology associated with a well-characterized model of Th1-type pulmonary response. Male Fischer 344 rats were either maintained on a drug-free diet (groups I and II), or a diet containing diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), a compound transformed in vivo to metabolites known to activate PPARs, for 21 days (groups III and IV). Subsequently, animals were primed with Mycobacterium bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) in a Complete Freund's Adjuvant. Fifteen days later, animals in groups II and IV were challenged with Sepharose 4B beads covalently coupled with PPD, while animals in groups I and III received blank Sepharose beads. Animals with Th1 response (group II) showed a marked structural disruption in the hepatic lobule. Remarkably, these alterations were conspicuously absent in animals which received DEHP (group IV), despite noticeable accumulation of T cells in the periportal triads. Immunostaining and confocal microscopy revealed hepatic accumulation of IFNgamma+ Th1 and IL-4+ Th2 cells in animals from groups II and IV, respectively. Our data suggest a PPARalpha-mediated suppression of the development of a Th1 immune response in the liver, resulting in hepatoprotective effect. However, potentially negative consequences of PPAR activation, such as decreased ability of the immune system to fight infection and interference with the efficacy of vaccines designed to evoke Th1 immune responses, remain to be investigated.

  17. Lahar Hazard Mapping of Mount Shasta, California: A GIS-based Delineation of Potential Inundation Zones in Mud and Whitney Creek Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClung, S. C.; Roberts, M.

    2005-12-01

    Mount Shasta, the southernmost stratovolcano in the Cascade Range (41.4°N) has frequently produced lahars of various magnitudes during the last 10,000 years. These include large flows of eruptive origin, reaching more than 40 km from the summit, and studies have shown that at least 70 debris flows of noneruptive origin have occurred during the last 1,000 years in various stream channels. The Mud and Whitney Creek drainages have historically produced more debris flows than any other glacier-headed channel on the volcano. Periods of accelerated glacial melt have produced lahars in Whitney Creek with a volume of 4 x 106 m3 and a runout distance of about 27 km from the summit. Mud Creek flows from 1924 to 1931 covered an area of more than 6 km2 near the community of McCloud with an estimated 23 x 106 m3 of mud. A much older lahar in Big Canyon Creek may have deposited a volume of 70 x 106 m3 over present day Mount Shasta City and beyond. The LAHARZ inundation modeling tool was used to objectively delineate lahar inundation zones in Whitney and Mud Creek basins based on a 30 m digital elevation model and a range of potential volumes extrapolated from local events. The predicted inundation areas for the largest volume modeled are between 31 and 34 km2, reaching distances of about 32 km from the summit, well within reach of populated areas and significant bodies of water on the NW and SE flanks of the volcano. The resulting lahar inundation hazard zones are discussed with a focus on model limitations, cartographic implications, and the advantages of using 3D hazard maps.

  18. Frozen debris lobes, permafrost slope instability, and a potential infrastructure hazard in the south-central Brooks Range of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daanen, R. P.; Darrow, M.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Here we report on investigations carried out at unusual debris mass-movement features (frozen debris lobes) on permafrost slopes in the south central portion of the Brooks Range of northern Alaska. The features under investigation are located in mountainous terrain near the southern border of continuous permafrost. The frozen debris lobes consist mainly of boulders, cobles, platy gravel sand and silt frozen debris derived from weathering mountain tops. The general dimensions of these lobes are either lobate or tongue shaped with widths up to 500 m and lengths up to 1200 m. In accumulation zones where slopes converge, the debris slowly moves as solifluction lobes, mud flows and potentially sliding toward the valley. These features were previously referred to as stable rock glaciers in the past, as evidenced by a dense cover of vegetation, and exhibiting no known downslope movement. Our investigations however, have shown that these features are indeed moving downslope as a result of creep, slumping, viscous flow, blockfall and leaching of fines in the summer; and in cold seasons by creep and sliding of frozen sediment slabs. Movement indicators observed in the field include toppling trees, slumps and scarps, detachment slides, striation marks on frozen sediment slabs, recently buried trees and other vegetation, mudflows, and large cracks in the lobe surface. Ground-based measurements on one frozen debris-lobe over three years (2008-2010) revealed average movement rates of approximately 1 cm day-1, which is substantially larger than rates measured in historic aerial photography from the 1950s to 1980s. Current observations , through lidar, ifsar, insar and ground based measurements using boreholes, geophysics and repeat photography of these features show an increase in movement activity that could be the result of rising summer temperatures in the region. Warming of ice rich permafrost slopes and frozen debris lobes in the Brooks Range pose a direct threat to the

  19. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and ... a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. During the ...

  20. Coastal Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on hurricanes and tsunamis and uses these topics to address other parts of the science curriculum. In addition to a discussion on beach erosion, a poster is provided that depicts these natural hazards that threaten coastlines. (DDR)

  1. Detection of potential genetic hazards in complex environmental mixtures using plant cytogenetics and microbial mutagenesis assays. [Arsenic-contaminated groundwater and power plant fly ash extract

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, M J; Lowe, K; Rao, T K; Larimer, F W; Epler, J L

    1980-01-01

    Solid wastes have been characterized to determine their potential hazards to humans and the environment. An arsenic-contaminated ground water sample increased the frequency of histidine revertants in Salmonella typhimurium (TA-98) at 0.025 to 5.000 ..mu..l per plate with Aroclor-induced S-9 liver microsomes. When 2.5 to 75 ..mu..l of the XAD-2 concentrate (12.5-fold, v:v) were used, the mutant frequency was increased in strains TA-98, TA-100, and TA-1537; metabolic activation was not required. Only the XAD-2 concentrate was mutagenic in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae haploid strain XL-7-10B; metabolic activation was not required. The mutagenic principal, which is not known, appears to be at the limit of resolution; hence, the XAD-2 concentration is necessary to demonstrate mutagenic activity. The arsenic-contaminated ground water (0.0625 and 0.125 dilutions) and the power plant fly ash extract (undiluted) increased the frequency of bridges and fragements at anaphase in root tip cells of Hordeum. The fly ash sample was negative in the microbial assays. Results emphasize (1) the need for a battery of assays with different organisms and (2) the potential of a simple assay using plant root tip cells to detect mutagenic activity in complex environmental mixtures.

  2. Potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on Mediterranean top predators: State of art, gender differences and methodological tools

    SciTech Connect

    Fossi, M.C. . E-mail: fossi@unisi.it; Casini, S.; Marsili, L.

    2007-05-15

    Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs was investigated. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in large pelagic fish top predators (Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus)) and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Striped Dolphin, (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus))exposed to EDCs. Differential gender susceptibility to EDCs is also explored both in large pelagic fish and in cetaceans. In cetaceans, male specimens showed higher cytochrome P450 induction (BPMO in skyn biopsies, CYP2B in fibroblasts cell cultures) by xenobiotics with respect to females.

  3. A statistical approach for optimizing parameters for electrodeposition of indium (III) sulfide (In2S3) films, potential low-hazard buffer layers for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mughal, Maqsood Ali

    Clean and environmentally friendly technologies are centralizing industry focus towards obtaining long term solutions to many large-scale problems such as energy demand, pollution, and environmental safety. Thin film solar cell (TFSC) technology has emerged as an impressive photovoltaic (PV) technology to create clean energy from fast production lines with capabilities to reduce material usage and energy required to manufacture large area panels, hence, lowering the costs. Today, cost ($/kWh) and toxicity are the primary challenges for all PV technologies. In that respect, electrodeposited indium sulfide (In2S3) films are proposed as an alternate to hazardous cadmium sulfide (CdS) films, commonly used as buffer layers in solar cells. This dissertation focuses upon the optimization of electrodeposition parameters to synthesize In2S3 films of PV quality. The work describe herein has the potential to reduce the hazardous impact of cadmium (Cd) upon the environment, while reducing the manufacturing cost of TFSCs through efficient utilization of materials. Optimization was performed through use of a statistical approach to study the effect of varying electrodeposition parameters upon the properties of the films. A robust design method referred-to as the "Taguchi Method" helped in engineering the properties of the films, and improved the PV characteristics including optical bandgap, absorption coefficient, stoichiometry, morphology, crystalline structure, thickness, etc. Current density (also a function of deposition voltage) had the most significant impact upon the stoichiometry and morphology of In2S3 films, whereas, deposition temperature and composition of the solution had the least significant impact. The dissertation discusses the film growth mechanism and provides understanding of the regions of low quality (for example, cracks) in films. In2S3 films were systematically and quantitatively investigated by varying electrodeposition parameters including bath

  4. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23

    Conventional coal-burning power plants are major contributors of excess CO2 to the atmospheric inventory. Because such plants are stationary, they are particularly amenable to CO2 capture and disposal by deep injection into confined geologic formations. However, the energy penalty for CO2 separation and compression is steep, and could lead to a 30-40 percent reduction in useable power output. Integrated gas combined cycle (IGCC) plants are thermodynamically more efficient, i.e.,produce less CO2 for a given power output, and are more suitable for CO2 capture. Therefore, if CO2 capture and deep subsurface disposal were to be considered seriously, the preferred approach would be to build replacement IGCC plants with integrated CO2 capture, rather than retrofit existing conventional plants. Coal contains minor quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are of concern, as their release into the atmosphere leads to the formation of urban ozone and acid rain, the destruction of stratospheric ozone, and global warming. Coal also contains many trace elements that are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. During CO2 separation and capture, these constituents could inadvertently contaminate the separated CO2 and be co-injected. The concentrations and speciation of the co-injected contaminants would differ markedly, depending on whether CO2 is captured during the operation of a conventional or an IGCC plant, and the specific nature of the plant design and CO2 separation technology. However, regardless of plant design or separation procedures, most of the hazardous constituents effectively partition into the solid waste residue. This would lead to an approximately two order of magnitude reduction in contaminant concentration compared with that present in the coal. Potential exceptions are Hg in conventional plants, and Hg and possibly Cd, Mo and Pb in IGCC plants. CO2 capture and injection disposal could afford an opportunity to deliberately capture

  5. Analysis of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.; Burkhard, C. D.; Dotson, J. L.; Prabhu, D. K.; Mathias, D. L.; Aftosmis, M. J.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Morrison, D. D.; Sears, D. W. G.; Berger, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration initiated a new project focused on Planetary Defense on October 1, 2014. The new project is funded by NASAs Near Earth Object Program (Lindley Johnson, Program Executive). This presentation describes the objectives, functions and plans of four tasks encompassed in the new project and their inter-relations. Additionally, this project provides for outreach to facilitate partnerships with other organizations to help meet the objectives of the planetary defense community. The four tasks are (1) Characterization of Near Earth Asteroids, (2) Physics-Based Modeling of Meteor Entry and Breakup (3) Surface Impact Modeling and (4) Physics-Based Impact Risk Assessment.

  6. Indices of potential lead hazard.

    PubMed Central

    Posner, H S

    1977-01-01

    This review is concerned with the concentrations of lead in human whole blood, erythrocytes, plasma, serum, soft tissues, bone, and urine. The extent to which redistribution of some of the bound lead occurs is outlines. The effects of lead on enzyme activities and on the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in the blood and urine are described. A brief section deals with the range of signs and symptoms that can occur and differences seen between symptomatic children and adults. PMID:332498

  7. A logistics and potential hazard study of propellant systems for a Saturn 5 derived heavy lift (three-stage core) launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, E. Dow

    1992-01-01

    The Bush Administration has directed NASA to prepare for a return to the Moon and on to Mars - the Space Exploration Initiative. To meet this directive, powerful rocket boosters will be required in order to lift payloads that may reach the half-million pound range into low earth orbit. In this report an analysis is presented on logistics and potential hazards of the propellant systems envisioned for future Saturn 5 derived heavy lift launch vehicles. In discussing propellant logistics, particular attention has been given to possible problems associated with procurement, transportation, and storage of RP-1, HL2, and LOX, the heavy lift launch vehicle propellants. Current LOX producing facilities will need to be expanded and propellant storage and some support facilities will require relocation if current Launch Pads 39A and/or 39B are to be used for future heavy noise-abatement measures. Included in the report is a discussion of suggested additional studies, primarily economic and environmental, which should be undertaken in support of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative.

  8. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency.

  9. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  10. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  11. Understanding the Transformation, Speciation, and Hazard Potential of Copper Particles in a Model Septic Tank System using Zebrafish to Monitor the Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sijie; Taylor, Alicia A.; Zhaoxia, Ji; Chang, Chong Hyun; Kinsinger, Nichola M.; Ueng, William; Walker, Sharon L.; Nel, André E.

    2015-01-01

    Although copper-containing nanoparticles are used in commercial products such as fungicides and bactericides, we presently do not understand the environmental impact on other organisms that may be inadvertently exposed. In this study, we used the zebrafish embryo as a screening tool to study the potential impact of two nano Cu-based materials, CuPRO and Kocide, in comparison to nano-sized and micron-sized Cu and CuO particles in their pristine form (0 – 10 ppm) as well as following their transformation in an experimental wastewater treatment system. This was accomplished by construction of a modeled domestic septic tank system from which effluents could be retrieved at different stages following particle introduction (10 ppm). The Cu speciation in the effluent was identified as non-dissolvable inorganic Cu(H2PO2)2 and non-diffusible organic Cu by X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT), and Visual MINTEQ software. While the nanoscale materials, including the commercial particles, were clearly more potent (showing 50% hatching interference above 0.5 ppm) than the micron-scale particulates with no effect on hatching up to 10 ppm, the Cu released from the particles in the septic tank underwent transformation into non-bioavailable species that failed to interfere with the function of the zebrafish embryo hatching enzyme. Moreover, we demonstrate that the addition of humic acid, as an organic carbon component, could lead to a dose-dependent decrease in Cu toxicity in our high content zebrafish embryo screening assay. Thus, the use of zebrafish embryo screening, in combination with the effluents obtained from a modeled exposure environment, enables a bioassay approach to follow the change in the speciation, and hazard potential of Cu particles instead of difficult-to-perform direct particle tracking. PMID:25625504

  12. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  14. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  15. Inheritance of earthquake hazard from suturing: the Himalayas as an analogue for the structural architecture and seismic potential of the Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trexler, C.; Cowgill, E.; Forte, A. M.; Mumladze, T.; Sokhadze, G.; Elashvili, M.; Niemi, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    regional geology of the range, we hypothesize that this geometry results from the Cenozoic closure of a relict Mesozoic ocean basin within the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, broadly similar to the eastern Black Sea and South Caspian Basins to which it was connected. A new compilation of earthquake records from local seismic networks shows that the central and eastern Greater Caucasus Mountains are underlain by a northeast-dipping subducted slab, likely resulting from closure of this relict back-arc basin. Himalayan-style tectonism along the northern edge of the Arabia-Eurasia collision could potentially dictate the location, magnitude, and recurrence of seismicity in the Caucasus region, and as such has significant potential for seismic hazard assessment here. Rather than solely occurring on the main thrust within the range, this model suggests that significant earthquakes may occur within the fold-thrust belt and on a basal decollement that connects them to structures within the main range. Much of the region's population, including the Georgian capital city of Tbilisi, is found within or near the foreland fold-thrust belt.

  16. Hazard Communication Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab.

  17. Geothermal hazards - Mercury emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1975-01-01

    Enthusiasm for intensified geothermal exploration may induce many participants to overlook a long-term potential toxicity hazard possibly associated with the tapping of magmatic steam. The association of high atmospheric Hg levels with geothermal activity has been established both in Hawaii and Iceland, and it has been shown that mercury can be introduced into the atmosphere from fumaroles, hot springs, and magmatic sources. These arguments, extended to thallium, selenium, and other hazardous elements, underscore the need for environmental monitoring in conjunction with the delivery of magmatic steam to the surface.

  18. Assessing the Potential Impact of the 2015-2016 El Niño on the California Rim Fire Burn Scar Through Debris Flow Hazard Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larcom, S.; Grigsby, S.; Ustin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires are a perennial issue for California, and the current record-breaking drought is exacerbating the potential problems for the state. Fires leave behind burn scars characterized by diminished vegetative cover and abundant bare soil, and these areas are especially susceptible to storm events that pose an elevated risk of debris flows and sediment-rich sheet wash. This study focused on the 2013 Rim Fire that devastated significant portions of Stanislaus National Forest and Yosemite National Park, and utilized readily available NASA JPL SRTM elevation data and AVIRIS spectral imaging data to construct a debris flow hazard map that assesses mass wasting risk for the Rim Fire burn scar. This study consisted entirely of remotely sensed data, which was processed in software programs such as ENVI, GRASS GIS, ArcMap, and Google Earth. Parameters that were taken into consideration when constructing this map include hill slope (greater than 30 percent rise), burn severity (assessed by calculating NDVI), and erodibility of the soil (by comparing spectral reflectance of AVIRIS images with the reference spectra of illite). By calculating percent of total burn area, 6% was classified as low risk, 55% as medium risk, and 39% as high risk. In addition, this study assessed the importance of the 2015-2016 El Niño, which is projected to be one of the strongest on record, by studying historic rainfall records and storm events of past El Niño's. Hydrological and infrastructural problems that could be caused by short-term convective or long-term synoptic storms and subsequent debris flows were explored as well.

  19. Analysis of the potential radiation hazard of the 23 July 2012 SEP event observed by STEREO A using the EMMREM model and LRO/CRaTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, C. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Rosenvinge, T. T.; Case, A. W.; Spence, H. E.; Wilson, J. K.; Gorby, M.; Quinn, M.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2015-09-01

    We present a study of the potential radiation hazard of the powerful, superfast interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) observed by STEREO A on 23 July 2012. Using energetic proton flux data from the High Energy Telescope and Low Energy Telescope instruments aboard STEREO A together with the Earth-Moon-Mars Radiation Environment Module, we compute dose rates and accumulated doses during the event for both skin/eye and blood forming organs using four physically relevant levels of shielding. For spacesuit equivalent shielding, we compute a peak skin/eye dose rate of 1970 cGy-Eq/d, a value far greater than those of the 2003 Halloween storms or the January and March solar energetic particle events of 2012. However, due to the relative brevity of the event, the resulting accumulated dose was just 383 cGy-Eq, which is more aligned with the total doses of the 2003 Halloween and 2012 January/March events. Additionally, we use dose rates at STEREO B and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (LRO/CRaTER) during the event to show how the radiation impact is affected by the position of the ICME relative to the observer. Specifically, we find that the energetic particle event associated with the local shock and ICME passage at STEREO A caused greatly enhanced dose rates when compared to STEREO B and LRO/CRaTER, which were longitudinally distant from the ICME. The STEREO A/B dose rates used here will soon be made available to the community as a tool for studying the energetic particle radiation of solar events from different longitudes as a part of NASA's Heliophysics Virtual Observatories and on the Predictions of radiation from REleASE, EMMREM, and Data Incorporating CRaTER, COSTEP, and other SEP measurements (PREDICCS) and CRaTER websites.

  20. A combined field and numerical approach to understanding dilute pyroclastic density current dynamics and hazard potential: Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Gravley, Darren M.; Clarke, Amanda B.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Bloomberg, Simon H.; Agustin-Flores, Javier; Németh, Károly

    2014-04-01

    The most dangerous and deadly hazards associated with phreatomagmatic eruptions in the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF; Auckland, New Zealand) are those related to volcanic base surges - dilute, ground-hugging, particle laden currents with dynamic pressures capable of severe to complete structural damage. We use the well-exposed base surge deposits of the Maungataketake tuff ring (Manukau coast, Auckland), to reconstruct flow dynamics and destructive potential of base surges produced during the eruption. The initial base surge(s) snapped trees up to 0.5 m in diameter near their base as far as 0.7-0.9 km from the vent. Beyond this distance the trees were encapsulated and buried by the surge in growth position. Using the tree diameter and yield strength of the wood we calculate that dynamic pressures (Pdyn) in excess of 12-35 kPa are necessary to cause the observed damage. Next we develop a quantitative model for flow of and sedimentation from a radially-spreading, dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) to determine the damage potential of the base surges produced during the early phases of the eruption and explore the implications of this potential on future eruptions in the region. We find that initial conditions with velocities on the order of 65 m s- 1, bulk density of 38 kg m- 3 and initial, near-vent current thicknesses of 60 m reproduce the field-based Pdyn estimates and runout distances. A sensitivity analysis revealed that lower initial bulk densities result in shorter run-out distances, more rapid deceleration of the current and lower dynamic pressures. Initial velocity does not have a strong influence on run-out distance, although higher initial velocity and slope slightly decrease runout distance due to higher rates of atmospheric entrainment. Using this model we determine that for base surges with runout distances of up to 4 km, complete destruction can be expected within 0.5 km from the vent, moderate destruction can be expected up to 2 km, but much

  1. Elimination of the hazards from hazardous wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Gloyna, E F; Taylor, R D

    1978-01-01

    The "hazard" associated with a waste essentially controls the overall engineering approach to finding suitable alternatives for solving potential disposal problems. It should be recognized that all factors affecting environmental equilibrium must be considered, including product sales, process design, financing, pre- and end-of-pipe treatment, residuals management, and ultimate bioaccumulation of residuals. To meet this challenge, a systems approach to waste treatment and residuals disposal provides a logical approach, but this management concept requires a thorough understanding of the important physical and chemical aspects of the problem, as well as many social implications of the resulting decisions. Thus waste management within a plant necessarily involves process control, pretreatment and end-of-pipe treatment. Further, it follows that residuals management from a disposal point-of-view must ultimately embrace what is called the "multi-barrier concept." In essence, hazard elimination occurs in varying degrees during each phase of a properly engineered system. PMID:738249

  2. The California Hazards Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  3. Potential hazard due to induced radioactivity secondary to radiotherapy: the report of task group 136 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thomadsen, Bruce; Nath, Ravinder; Bateman, Fred B; Farr, Jonathan; Glisson, Cal; Islam, Mohammad K; LaFrance, Terry; Moore, Mary E; George Xu, X; Yudelev, Mark

    2014-11-01

    External-beam radiation therapy mostly uses high-energy photons (x-rays) produced by medical accelerators, but many facilities now use proton beams, and a few use fast-neutron beams. High-energy photons offer several advantages over lower-energy photons in terms of better dose distributions for deep-seated tumors, lower skin dose, less sensitivity to tissue heterogeneities, etc. However, for beams operating at or above 10 MV, some of the materials in the accelerator room and the radiotherapy patient become radioactive due primarily to photonuclear reactions and neutron capture, exposing therapy staff and patients to unwanted radiation dose. Some recent advances in radiotherapy technology require treatments using a higher number of monitor units and monitor-unit rates for the same delivered dose, and compared to the conventional treatment techniques and fractionation schemes, the activation dose to personnel can be substantially higher. Radiotherapy treatments with proton and neutron beams all result in activated materials in the treatment room. In this report, the authors review critically the published literature on radiation exposures from induced radioactivity in radiotherapy. They conclude that the additional exposure to the patient due to induced radioactivity is negligible compared to the overall radiation exposure as a part of the treatment. The additional exposure to the staff due to induced activity from photon beams is small at an estimated level of about 1 to 2 mSv y. This is well below the allowed occupational exposure limits. Therefore, the potential hazard to staff from induced radioactivity in the use of high-energy x-rays is considered to be low, and no specific actions are considered necessary or mandatory. However, in the spirit of the "As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)" program, some reasonable steps are recommended that can be taken to reduce this small exposure to an even lower level. The dose reduction strategies suggested should be

  4. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  5. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  6. Tank farms hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-30

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ``Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001`` as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process.

  7. The Impact Hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David

    1994-01-01

    The Earth has been subject to hypervelocity impacts from comets and asteroids since its formation, and such impacts have played an important role in the evolution of life on our planet. We now recognize not only the historical role of impacts, but the contemporary hazard posed by such events. In the absence of a complete census of potentially threatening Earth-crossing asteroids or comets (called collectively Near Earth Objects, or NEOs), or even of a comprehensive cur-rent search program to identify NEOs, we can consider the hazard only from a probabilistic perspective. We know the steep power-law relationship between NEO numbers and size, with many more small bodies than large ones. We also know that few objects less than about 50 m in diameter (with kinetic energy near 10 megatons) penetrate the atmosphere and are capable of doing surface damage. But there is a spectrum of possible impact hazards associated with objects from this 10-megaton threshold all the way up to NEOs 5 km or larger in diameter, which are capable of inflicting severe damage on the environment, leading to mass extinction's of species. Detailed analysis has shown that, in general, the larger the object the greater the hazard, even when allowance is made for the infrequency of large impacts. Most of the danger to human life is associated with impacts by objects roughly 2 km or larger (energy greater than 1 million megatons), which can inject sufficient submicrometer dust into the atmosphere to produce a severe short-term global cooling with subsequent loss of crops, leading to starvation. Hazard estimates suggest that the chance of such an event occurring during a human lifetime is about 1:5000, and the global probability of death from such impacts is of the order of 1:20000, values that can be compared with risks associated with other natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe storms. However, the impact hazard differs from the others in that it can be largely

  8. Health Hazard Evaluations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Programs Contact NIOSH HHE Media Health Hazard Evaluations (HHEs) Language: English en Español Recommend on Facebook ... or employers can ask the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Program to help learn whether health hazards ...

  9. PUREX facility hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-09-23

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities.

  10. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  11. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    SciTech Connect

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  12. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using Random Forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers was 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR Toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the Scorecard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin sensitization dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin sensitization. • Developed models have higher prediction accuracy than OECD QSAR Toolbox. • Putative

  13. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and

  14. Occupational Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    White, Gill; Cessna, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A number of occupational hazards exist for the farmer and farm worker. They include the hazards of farm machinery, biologic and chemical hazards, and social and environmental stresses. Recognizing of these hazards will help the family physician care for farmers and their families. PMID:21248929

  15. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  16. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, L.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Studies from the natural hazards literature indicate that many natural processes, including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow and earthquakes, show evidence of nonstationary behavior such as trends in magnitudes through time. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on partial duration series (PDS) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance is constant through time. Given evidence of trends and the consequent expected growth in devastating impacts from natural hazards across the world, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (x) with its failure time series (t), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose PDS magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Poisson-GP model. We derive a 2-parameter Generalized Pareto hazard model and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series x, with corresponding failure time series t, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards.

  17. Hazard interactions and interaction networks (cascades) within multi-hazard methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2016-08-01

    This paper combines research and commentary to reinforce the importance of integrating hazard interactions and interaction networks (cascades) into multi-hazard methodologies. We present a synthesis of the differences between multi-layer single-hazard approaches and multi-hazard approaches that integrate such interactions. This synthesis suggests that ignoring interactions between important environmental and anthropogenic processes could distort management priorities, increase vulnerability to other spatially relevant hazards or underestimate disaster risk. In this paper we proceed to present an enhanced multi-hazard framework through the following steps: (i) description and definition of three groups (natural hazards, anthropogenic processes and technological hazards/disasters) as relevant components of a multi-hazard environment, (ii) outlining of three types of interaction relationship (triggering, increased probability, and catalysis/impedance), and (iii) assessment of the importance of networks of interactions (cascades) through case study examples (based on the literature, field observations and semi-structured interviews). We further propose two visualisation frameworks to represent these networks of interactions: hazard interaction matrices and hazard/process flow diagrams. Our approach reinforces the importance of integrating interactions between different aspects of the Earth system, together with human activity, into enhanced multi-hazard methodologies. Multi-hazard approaches support the holistic assessment of hazard potential and consequently disaster risk. We conclude by describing three ways by which understanding networks of interactions contributes to the theoretical and practical understanding of hazards, disaster risk reduction and Earth system management. Understanding interactions and interaction networks helps us to better (i) model the observed reality of disaster events, (ii) constrain potential changes in physical and social vulnerability

  18. Hazard Interactions and Interaction Networks (Cascades) within Multi-Hazard Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Joel; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2016-04-01

    Here we combine research and commentary to reinforce the importance of integrating hazard interactions and interaction networks (cascades) into multi-hazard methodologies. We present a synthesis of the differences between 'multi-layer single hazard' approaches and 'multi-hazard' approaches that integrate such interactions. This synthesis suggests that ignoring interactions could distort management priorities, increase vulnerability to other spatially relevant hazards or underestimate disaster risk. We proceed to present an enhanced multi-hazard framework, through the following steps: (i) describe and define three groups (natural hazards, anthropogenic processes and technological hazards/disasters) as relevant components of a multi-hazard environment; (ii) outline three types of interaction relationship (triggering, increased probability, and catalysis/impedance); and (iii) assess the importance of networks of interactions (cascades) through case-study examples (based on literature, field observations and semi-structured interviews). We further propose visualisation frameworks to represent these networks of interactions. Our approach reinforces the importance of integrating interactions between natural hazards, anthropogenic processes and technological hazards/disasters into enhanced multi-hazard methodologies. Multi-hazard approaches support the holistic assessment of hazard potential, and consequently disaster risk. We conclude by describing three ways by which understanding networks of interactions contributes to the theoretical and practical understanding of hazards, disaster risk reduction and Earth system management. Understanding interactions and interaction networks helps us to better (i) model the observed reality of disaster events, (ii) constrain potential changes in physical and social vulnerability between successive hazards, and (iii) prioritise resource allocation for mitigation and disaster risk reduction.

  19. A regional assessment of potential environmental hazards to and limitations on petroleum development of the Southeastern United States Atlantic continental shelf, slope, and rise, offshore North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popenoe, Peter; Coward, E.L.; Cashman, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    have taken place in two large areas of the Continental Slope. Seismic-reflection profiles of the southern area, centered on the lower slope at 1at. 33?N., long. 76?W., show a 80-m-hlgh scarp in which bedding has been truncated. Rotational slump faults are present in this area on the middle and upper slope. Sidescan images show that large blocks have slid downslope from the scarp face, furrowing the bottom. High-resolution (3.5-kHz) records show that the rotational slump faults upslope are active. The association of these slumps and the scarps with salt diapirs suggests subsidence accompanying salt tectonism as the cause. Seismic-reflection records over the northern area, at about fat. 36?20'N., long. 74?40'W., show two steep scarps, each about 225 m high on the upper and middle-slope. These slump scars and an absence of Pleistocene sediments indicate that large blocks of the slope have been removed by slumping. The slope north of fat. 35?N. is highly dissected by canyons. Mid-range sidescan-sonar records suggest that the canyons are the product of mass wasting and have probably formed largely by slumping. Sediments in a wide zone on the upper rise are highly disturbed and faulted owing to salt tectonism. Twenty-six salt diapirs are mapped, as is a zone of disturbed bottom related to salt tectonism. An area of frozen bottom (clathrate) under which shallow free gas is trapped underlies the outer Blake Plateau, the slope, and the upper rise. Although the hazards of drilling into or through clathrates have not been tested, the release of gas from beneath this frozen layer may prove to be a primary hazard to exploration.

  20. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using random forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers were 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the ScoreCard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. PMID:25560674

  1. Mercury as a health hazard.

    PubMed

    Curtis, H A; Ferguson, S D; Kell, R L; Samuel, A H

    1987-03-01

    Pink disease has virtually disappeared since teething powders were withdrawn. We describe a case in a boy who was exposed to metallic mercury vapour. We discuss the potential health hazard of spilled elemental mercury in the house and the difficulties of removing it from the environment.

  2. 77 FR 17573 - Hazard Communication

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... 1983 and covered the manufacturing sector of industry (48 FR 53280, Nov. 25, 1983). (Please note: The... where employees are potentially exposed to hazardous chemicals (52 FR 31852, Aug. 24, 1987). Although... actions, the rule has been fully enforced in all industries regulated by OSHA since March 17, 1989 (54...

  3. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  4. Evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated wastewater and groundwater. Volume 2. Aberdeen Proving Ground Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report, November 1988-December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Herriott, R.S.

    1992-07-01

    An evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated effluent was conducted at the Aberdeen Proving Ground Wastewater Treatment Plant (APG-WWTP), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, from early May 1990 to February 13, 1991. An array of biomonitoring tests structured in a tiered hazard assessment framework was used in the evaluation of the effluent. Several levels of biological organization were included in the array of tests. Acute toxicity was evaluated on daily 24-h composite samples using a 5- and 15-min Microtox assay which employs microbial (Photobacterium phosphoreum) bioluminescent activity. Three 24-h LC50 rotifer (Brachionus rubens) toxicity tests were conducted using 24-h composite samples. The following chronic tests were all performed three times using 24-h composite samples: 96-h EC50 algal (Selenastrum capricornutum) growth test, 7-d daphnid (Ceriodaphnia dubia) survival and reproduction test, and 7-d fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) survival and growth test. The acute rotifer tests and all chronic tests were conducted during the same periods in order to compare toxicological responses between biomonitoring systems.... Wastewater, Aquatic, Acute toxicity, Chronic toxicity, Mutagenicity, Ames, Teratogencity, FETAX, Carcinogenicity, Ventilatory biomonitoring system, Microtox, Photobacterium.

  5. Evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated wastewater and groundwater. Volume 1. Aberdeen proving ground-edgewood area wastewater treatment plant. Final report, November 1988-December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Graves, W.C.

    1992-07-01

    An evaluation of several biological monitoring techniques for hazard assessment of potentially contaminated effluent was conducted at the Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area Wastewater Treatment Plant (APG-EA WWTP), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, from January 1989 to December 13, 1989. An array of biomonitoring tests structured in a tiered hazard assessment framework was used in the evaluation of the effluent. Several levels of biological organization were included in the array of tests. Acute toxicity was evaluated on 24-h composite samples using a 15-min Microtox R assay which employs microbial (Photobacterium phosphoreum) bioluminescent activity. Two 24-h LC50 rotifer (Brachionus rubens) toxicity tests were conducted using 24-h composite samples The following chronic tests were all performed two times using 24-h composite samples: 96-h EC50 algal (Selenastrum capricornutum) growth test, 7-d daphnid (Ceriodaphnia dubia) survival and reproduction test, and 7-d fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) survival and growth test. Generally, the acute rotifer tests and all chronic tests were conducted during the same periods in order to compare toxicological responses between biomonitoring systems.... Wastewater, Aquatic, Acute toxicity, Chronic toxicity, Mutagenicity, Ames, Teratogenicity, FETAX, Carcinogenicity, Ventilatory biomonitoring system, Microtox R, Photobacterium.

  6. Increased mercury release from dental amalgam restorations after exposure to electromagnetic fields as a potential hazard for hypersensitive people and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Ghazal; Mortazavi, S M J

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the use of common sources of electromagnetic fields such as Wi-Fi routers and mobile phones has been increased enormously all over the world. There is ongoing concern that exposure to electromagnetic fields can lead to adverse health effects. It has recently been shown that even low doses of mercury are capable of causing toxicity. Therefore, efforts are initiated to phase down or eliminate the use of mercury amalgam in dental restorations. Increased release of mercury from dental amalgam restorations after exposure to electromagnetic fields such as those generated by MRI and mobile phones has been reported by our team and other researchers. We have recently shown that some of the papers which reported no increased release of mercury after MRI, may have some methodological errors. Although it was previously believed that the amount of mercury released from dental amalgam cannot be hazardous, new findings indicate that mercury, even at low doses, may cause toxicity. Based on recent epidemiological findings, it can be claimed that the safety of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings is questionable. Therefore, as some individuals tend to be hypersensitive to the toxic effects of mercury, regulatory authorities should re-assess the safety of exposure to electromagnetic fields in individuals with amalgam restorations. On the other hand, we have reported that increased mercury release after exposure to electromagnetic fields may be risky for the pregnant women. It is worth mentioning that as a strong positive correlation between maternal and cord blood mercury levels has been found in some studies, our findings regarding the effect of exposure to electromagnetic fields on the release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings lead us to this conclusion that pregnant women with dental amalgam fillings should limit their exposure to electromagnetic fields to prevent toxic effects of mercury in their fetuses. Based on these findings, as infants

  7. Radiation Hazard Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA technology has made commercially available a new, inexpensive, conveniently-carried device for protection, of people exposed to potentially dangerous levels of microwave radiation. Microwaves are radio emissions of extremely high frequency. They can be hazardous but the degree of hazard is not yet well understood. Generally, it is believed that low intensity radiation of short duration is not harmful but that exposure to high levels can induce deep internal burns, affecting the circulatory and nervous systems, and particularly the eyes. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established an allowable safe threshold of exposure. However, people working near high intensity sources of microwave energy-for example, radar antennas and television transmitters-may be unknowingly exposed to radiation levels beyond the safe limit. This poses not only a personal safety problem but also a problem for employers in terms of productivity loss, workman's compensation claims and possible liability litigation. Earlier-developed monitoring devices which warn personnel of dangerous radiation levels have their shortcomings. They can be cumbersome and awkward to use while working. They also require continual visual monitoring to determine if a person is in a dangerous area of radiation, and they are relatively expensive, another deterrent to their widespread adoption. In response to the need for a cheaper and more effective warning system, Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed, under NASA auspices, a new, battery-powered Microwave Radiation Hazard Detector. To bring the product to the commercial market, California Institute Research Foundation, the patent holder, granted an exclusive license to Cicoil Corporation, Chatsworth, California, an electronic components manufacturer.

  8. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  9. Optical radiation hazards analysis of ultraviolet headlamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliney, David H.; Fast, Peder; Ricksand, Anders

    1995-08-01

    The potential hazards to the eye and skin associated with the use of UV-emitting automotive headlamps are considered. Wide-scale use of high-beam, near-UV headlamps to permit viewing of fluorescence in clothes and fluorescent road markers at great distances can increase automotive safety; however, the potential hazards from exposure of persons to UV radiation must be evaluated. From the study we conclude that such headlamps can be safely designed to preclude human exposure to potentially hazardous levels of UV radiation.

  10. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment.

  11. Hazard Communication Project: reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This reference manual covers the following course objectives: to inform employees of their employer's requirements under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200); to instruct employees on the procedures for obtaining and using information on hazardous materials, including understanding labeling systems and the material safety data sheet (MSDS) information; to provide information on 11 classes of chemicals, including their common uses, potential physical and health hazards, detection methods, and safety measures to follow. There are 14 lessons, ranging in length from 30 minutes to 1 (one) hour. The lessons are contained on 6 disks that are programmed to run on an IBM-compatible PC with an EGA graphics card and monitor. The program will not run on monochrome or CGA systems.

  12. Hazard evaluation for 244-AR vault facility

    SciTech Connect

    BRAUN, D.J.

    1999-08-25

    This document presents the results of a hazard identification and evaluation performed on the 244-AR Vault Facility to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities. A hazard evaluation for the Hanford Site 244-AR Vault Facility was performed. The process and results of the hazard evaluation are provided in this document. A previous hazard evaluation was performed for the 244-AR Vault Facility in 1996 in support of the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The results of that evaluation are provided in the BIO. Upon review of those results it was determined that hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the 244-AR vaults due to flooding was not addressed in the original hazards evaluation. This supplemental hazard evaluation addresses this oversight of the original hazard evaluation. The results of the hazard evaluation were compared to the current TWRS BIO to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting changes to the AB. It is only intended to provide information about hazardous conditions associated with the condition and configuration of the 244-AR vault facility. The AB Control Decision process could be used to determine the applicability and adequacy of existing AB controls as well as any new controls that may be needed for the identified hazardous conditions associated with 244-AR vault flooding. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  13. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, L. K.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Generalized Pareto (GP) model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series X, with corresponding failure time series T, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with rich opportunities for future extensions.

  14. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  15. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-11

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field ofmore » hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. As a result, our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.« less

  16. Hazardous Waste Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Americans generate approximately 1.6 million tons of hazardous household waste every year. When most people think of hazardous waste, they generally think of materials used in construction, the defense industry, mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Few people think of hazardous substances…

  17. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS IN THE OFFSHORE ENVIRONMENT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Robert A.; Basham, Peter W.

    1985-01-01

    This report discusses earthquake effects and potential hazards in the marine environment, describes and illustrates methods for the evaluation of earthquake hazards, and briefly reviews strategies for mitigating hazards. The report is broadly directed toward engineers, scientists, and others engaged in developing offshore resources. The continental shelves have become a major frontier in the search for new petroleum resources. Much of the current exploration is in areas of moderate to high earthquake activity. If the resources in these areas are to be developed economically and safely, potential earthquake hazards must be identified and mitigated both in planning and regulating activities and in designing, constructing, and operating facilities. Geologic earthquake effects that can be hazardous to marine facilities and operations include surface faulting, tectonic uplift and subsidence, seismic shaking, sea-floor failures, turbidity currents, and tsunamis.

  18. Seismic hazard assessment - a holistic microzonation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, S. K.; Thingbaijam, K. K. S.

    2009-08-01

    The probable mitigation and management issues of seismic hazard necessitate seismic microzonation for hazard and risk assessment at the local level. Such studies are preceded with those at a regional level. A comprehensive framework, therefore, encompasses several phases from information compilations and data recording to analyses and interpretations. The state-of-the-art methodologies involve multi-disciplinary approaches namely geological, seismological, and geotechnical methods delivering multiple perspectives on the prevailing hazard in terms of geology and geomorphology, strong ground motion, site amplification, site classifications, soil liquefaction potential, landslide susceptibility, and predominant frequency. The composite hazard is assessed accounting for all the potential hazard attributing features with relative rankings in a logic tree, fuzzy set or hierarchical concept.

  19. Automated Hazard Analysis

    2003-06-26

    The Automated Hazard Analysis (AHA) application is a software tool used to conduct job hazard screening and analysis of tasks to be performed in Savannah River Site facilities. The AHA application provides a systematic approach to the assessment of safety and environmental hazards associated with specific tasks, and the identification of controls regulations, and other requirements needed to perform those tasks safely. AHA is to be integrated into existing Savannah River site work control andmore » job hazard analysis processes. Utilization of AHA will improve the consistency and completeness of hazard screening and analysis, and increase the effectiveness of the work planning process.« less

  20. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-12-28

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  1. Potential hazards of air pollutant emissions from unconventional oil and natural gas operations on the respiratory health of children and infants.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ellen; Hays, Jake; Dyrszka, Larysa; Rodriguez, Brian; Cox, Caroline; Huffling, Katie; Bushkin-Bedient, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    Research on air pollutant emissions associated with unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development has grown significantly in recent years. Empirical investigations have focused on the identification and measurement of oil and gas air pollutants [e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), methane] and the influence of UOG on local and regional ambient air quality (e.g. tropospheric ozone). While more studies to better characterize spatial and temporal trends in exposure among children and newborns near UOG sites are needed, existing research suggests that exposure to air pollutants emitted during lifecycle operations can potentially lead to adverse respiratory outcomes in this population. Children are known to be at a greater risk from exposure to air pollutants, which can impair lung function and neurodevelopment, or exacerbate existing conditions, such as asthma, because the respiratory system is particularly vulnerable during development in-utero, the postnatal period, and early childhood. In this article, we review the literature relevant to respiratory risks of UOG on infants and children. Existing epidemiology studies document the impact of air pollutant exposure on children in other contexts and suggest impacts near UOG. Research is sparse on long-term health risks associated with frequent acute exposures - especially in children - hence our interpretation of these findings may be conservative. Many data gaps remain, but existing data support precautionary measures to protect the health of infants and children. PMID:27171386

  2. REASSESSMENT OF TSUNAMI HAZARD IN THE CITY OF IQUIQUE, CHILE, AFTER THE PISAGUA EARTHQUAKE OF APRIL 2014 In the present contribution, we will reassess the tsunami hazard for the North of Chile taking into account the occurrence of the recent events, focusing on the potential tsunami impact that a worse case scenario could produce in the city of Iquique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cienfuegos, R.; Suarez, L.; Aránguiz, R.; Gonzalez, G.; González-Carrasco, J. F.; Catalan, P. A.; Dominguez, J. C.; Tomita, T.

    2014-12-01

    On April 1st2014 a 8.1 Mw Earthquake occurred at 23:46:50 UTC (20:46:50 local time) with its epicenter located off the coast of Pisagua, 68 km north of the city of Iquique (An et al., 2014). The potential risk of earthquake and tsunami in this area was widely recognized by the scientific community (Chlieh et al., 2004). Nevertheless, the energy released by this earthquake and the associated slip distribution was much less than expected. In the present contribution, we will reassess the tsunami hazard for the North of Chile taking into account the occurrence of the recent events, focusing on the potential impact that a worse case scenario could produce in the city of Iquique. For that purpose, an updated tsunami source will be derived using updated information on the seismic and co-seismic tectonic displacements that is available from historical, geological information, and the dense GPS and seismometer networks available in the North of Chile. The updated tsunami source will be used to generate initial conditions for a tsunami and analyze the following aspects: i) large scale hydrodynamics, ii) arrival times, maximum flow depths, and inundation area, iii) potential impact on the port of Iquique, and more specifically on the container's drift that the tsunami could produce. This analysis is essential to reassess tsunami hazard in Iquique, evaluate evacuation plans and mitigation options regarding the port operation. Tsunami propagation and inundation will be conducted using the STOC model (Tomita and Honda, 2010), and a high resolution Lidar topographic database. ReferencesAn, C. et al. (2014). Tsunami source and its validation of the 2014 Iquique, Chile Earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL060567. Chlieh, et al. (2004). Crustal deformation and fault slip during the seismic cycle in the north Chile subduction zone, from GPS and INSAR observations, Geophys J. Int., 158(2), 695-711, 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02326.x. Tomita, T., & Honda, K. (2010

  3. Volcanic hazard management in dispersed volcanism areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Jose Manuel; Garcia, Alicia; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Traditional volcanic hazard methodologies were developed mainly to deal with the big stratovolcanoes. In such type of volcanoes, the hazard map is an important tool for decision-makers not only during a volcanic crisis but also for territorial planning. According to the past and recent eruptions of a volcano, all possible volcanic hazards are modelled and included in the hazard map. Combining the hazard map with the Event Tree the impact area can be zoned and defining the likely eruptive scenarios that will be used during a real volcanic crisis. But in areas of disperse volcanism is very complex to apply the same volcanic hazard methodologies. The event tree do not take into account unknown vents, because the spatial concepts included in it are only related with the distance reached by volcanic hazards. The volcanic hazard simulation is also difficult because the vent scatter modifies the results. The volcanic susceptibility try to solve this problem, calculating the most likely areas to have an eruption, but the differences between low and large values obtained are often very small. In these conditions the traditional hazard map effectiveness could be questioned, making necessary a change in the concept of hazard map. Instead to delimit the potential impact areas, the hazard map should show the expected behaviour of the volcanic activity and how the differences in the landscape and internal geo-structures could condition such behaviour. This approach has been carried out in La Palma (Canary Islands), combining the concept of long-term hazard map with the short-term volcanic scenario to show the expected volcanic activity behaviour. The objective is the decision-makers understand how a volcanic crisis could be and what kind of mitigation measurement and strategy could be used.

  4. Geoethical Issues in Landslides Hazard Zonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkash Gupta, Surya

    2016-04-01

    Landslide hazard zonation is a common geoscientific practice for assessing potential from slope instability problems. Several different approaches and techniques have been applied by various researchers to classify hilly terrains into different degrees or probabilities of landslide hazards. But the study of landslide hazard zonation practices in India reveals that most of these approaches use same factors and approaches for landslide processes. However, the causative and controlling factors for different types of landslides have been found to be different depending on the material (rock, debris or soil) involved in the movement as well as the failure process (fall, topple, slide (rotational, wedge, planar), flow and spread. Each of these landslide process is governed by different factors but during the landslide hazard or susceptibility zonation by many of the geoscientists, same set of factors have been used. Such approaches not only enhance the errors in landslide hazard assessment but also increase the uncertainties in terms of landslide processes. These kind of landslide hazard or susceptibility zonation maps can not be used reliably by the planners, administrators, development agencies, communities and other stakeholders. The approach is likely to affect the credibility of geoscientists among the society. Hence, it is proposed that landslide process specific zonation maps should be generated to classify the hilly terrains into different degrees of hazards. It will also help in establishing responsible factor for each landslide process more accurately and estimating potential landslide hazards with greater reliability.

  5. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    COVEY, L.I.

    2000-11-28

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for WESF. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification.

  6. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  7. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  8. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  9. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  10. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  11. Tephra transport, sedimentation and hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volentik, Alain C. M.

    Tephra deposits are one of the possible outcomes of explosive volcanic eruptions and are the result of vertical settling of volcanic particles that have been expelled from the volcanic vent into the atmosphere, following magma fragmentation within the volcanic conduit. Tephra fallout represents the main volcanic hazard to populated areas and critical facilities. Therefore, it is crucial to better understand processes that lead to tephra transport, sedimentation and hazards. In this study, and based on detailed mapping and sampling of the tephra deposit of the 2450BP Plinian eruption of Pululagua volcano (Ecuador), I investigate tephra deposits through a variety of approaches, including empirical and analytical modeling of tephra thickness and grain size data to infer important eruption source parameters (e.g. column height, total mass ejected, total grain size distribution of the deposit). I also use a statistical approach (smoothed bootstrap with replacement method) to assess the uncertainty in the eruptive parameters. The 2450BP Pululagua volcanic plume dynamics were also explored through detailed grain size analysis and 1D modeling of tephra accumulation. Finally, I investigate the influence of particle shape on tephra accumulation on the ground through a quantitative and comprehensive study of the shape of volcanic ash. As the global need for energy is expected to grow in the future, many future natural hazard studies will likely involve the assessment of volcanic hazards at critical facilities, including nuclear power plants. I address the potential hazards from tephra fallout, pyroclastic flows and lahars for the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (Philippines) posed by three nearby volcanoes capable of impacting the site during an explosive eruption. I stress the need for good constraints (stratigraphic analysis and events dating) on past eruptive events to better quantify the probability of future events at potentially active volcanoes, the need for probabilistic

  12. Robust Decision Making and Scenario Based Engineering Hazard Analysis Regarding the Potential Abrupt Sea-Level Rise from a Collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet: An Overview Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Recently scientific researchers have made significant advances in better understanding the risks of abrupt sea-level rise, SLR, but they have not adequately conveyed this understanding to decision makers who need to have sufficient information to decide what actions to take. The state-of-the-art in SLR projection is currently not sufficient to provide fully probabilistic risk functions to decision makers. Nevertheless, using the tools of Robust Decision Making, RDM, and Scenario Based Engineering Hazard Analysis, SBEHA, this article will present sufficient information to characterize a Maximum Credible Event, MCE, for abrupt SLR this century to allow decision makers to better understand the risks and timing that they are facing from the potential collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, WAIS, coupled together with other concurrent dynamic ice mass loss events. The article presents an overview of published research related topics including: paleo-evidence regarding abrupt SLR; radiative forcing scenarios; both RDM and SBEHA methodologies; and direct cause and effect evidence of an MCE scenario for the potential partial, or full, collapse of the WAIS the century. Findings of the article are presented in the form of summary graphs of projected relative sea-level rise, RSLR, and probability density functions, PDFs, for California.

  13. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  14. Transportation of RCRA hazardous wastes. RCRA Information Brief

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA) regulate the transport of hazardous wastes. Under these statutes, specific pretransport regulatory requirements must be met by DOE before the shipment of hazardous wastes, including radioactive mixed wastes. The pretransport requirements are designed to help reduce the risk of loss, leakage, or exposure during shipment of hazardous materials and to communicate information on potential hazards posed by the hazardous material in transport. These goals are accomplished through the tracking of shipments, correctly packaging and labeling containers, and communicating potential hazards. Specific requirements include manifesting, packaging, marking and labeling waste packages; placarding transport vehicles; choosing appropriate waste transporters and shipment destinations; and record keeping and reporting. This information Brief focuses primarily on the transporter requirements both for transportation within a DOE facility and using a commercial transporter to transport RCRA hazardous wastes off-site.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamics and its hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, W.-T.

    1981-11-01

    Potential occupational and environmental hazards of a typical combined open-cycle MHD/steam cycle power plant are critically assessed on the basis of direct/indirect research information. Among the potential occupational hazards, explosion at the coal feed system or at the superconducting magnet; combustor rupture in a confined pit; high intensity dc magnetic field exposure at the channel; and combustion products leakage from the pressurized systems are of primary concern. While environmental emissions of SO(x), NO(x) and fine particulates are considered under control in experimental scale, control effectiveness at high capacity operation remains uncertain. Gaseous emission of some highly toxic trace elements including radioactive species may be of concern without gas cleaning device in the MHD design.

  16. Migration and Environmental Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations. PMID:21886366

  17. Hazard baseline documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This DOE limited technical standard establishes uniform Office of Environmental Management (EM) guidance on hazards baseline documents that identify and control radiological and nonradiological hazards for all EM facilities. It provides a road map to the safety and health hazard identification and control requirements contained in the Department`s orders and provides EM guidance on the applicability and integration of these requirements. This includes a definition of four classes of facilities (nuclear, non-nuclear, radiological, and other industrial); the thresholds for facility hazard classification; and applicable safety and health hazard identification, controls, and documentation. The standard applies to the classification, development, review, and approval of hazard identification and control documentation for EM facilities.

  18. Migration and Environmental Hazards.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lori M

    2005-03-01

    Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations.

  19. Submarine landslides hazard offshore Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Oded

    2016-04-01

    Submarine landslides pose significant natural hazards. They can damage seafloor infrastructure, such as that used to recover oil and gas or seafloor telecommunication cables, and even generate tsunamis. We recently mapped 447 submarine landslides across the east Mediterranean continental slope, offshore Israel (hereafter the studied area). The mapped landslides are found at water depths of 130 m to 1,000 m and their volume ranges 10-5 - 100 km3. Landslide scars are typically related to a critical slope angle of >4° . Landslides at the northern part of the studied area are spatially associated with fault scarps and are smaller than the ones on the southern part. In this work we evaluate the potential hazard to population and to on- and off- shore facilities posed by submarine landslides across the studied area. We integrate three independent probabilities: (1) the probability for a landslide event of a given volume, based on the size distribution of the mapped landslides; (2) the probability for a landslide event in a given time, based on the reoccurrence time of triggering earthquakes with M >7, and on a 50,000 years general time frame derived from submarine landslides identified across the Mediterranean Sea; (3) the probability for a landslide event in a given area, based on the distribution of slopes exceeding the critical angle. Overall, the fraction of potentially destructive landslides (size > 0.1 km3) is small, 0.05. Thus, considering typical planning time scales of less than 100 years, the calculated hazard is only moderate. The small fraction of landslides with tsunamogenic potential (size > 1 km3), suggests that the hazard for landslide-induced tsunamis along the open slope part of the studied area is small. Landslides in the southern part of the studied area are larger and thus present a somewhat bigger potential source of tsunami waves.

  20. Magnetic storms and induction hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua; Pulkkinen, Antti; Balch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic storms are potentially hazardous to the activities and technological infrastructure of modern civilization. This reality was dramatically demonstrated during the great magnetic storm of March 1989, when surface geoelectric fields, produced by the interaction of the time-varying geomagnetic field with the Earth's electrically conducting interior, coupled onto the overlying Hydro-Québec electric power grid in Canada. Protective relays were tripped, the grid collapsed, and about 9 million people were temporarily left without electricity [Bolduc, 2002].

  1. Hazardous waste tracking issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, R. )

    1993-08-01

    The concept of cradle-to-grave oversight of hazardous waste was established in 1976 under RCRA. Since then, the multicopy Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest has been a key component in the federal tracking system. The manifests ensure that generators, transporters and TSDFs maintain documentation of hazardous waste shipments. To a large extent, the tracking system has served its intended purpose; nevertheless, certain shortcomings exist. Anyone involved in shipping hazardous waste should be aware of the system's weaknesses and take appropriate measures to compensate for them.

  2. Medical waste: a minimal hazard.

    PubMed

    Keene, J H

    1991-11-01

    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Remote-sensing-based analysis of landscape change in the desiccated seabed of the Aral Sea--a potential tool for assessing the hazard degree of dust and salt storms.

    PubMed

    Löw, F; Navratil, P; Kotte, K; Schöler, H F; Bubenzer, O

    2013-10-01

    With the recession of the Aral Sea in Central Asia, once the world's fourth largest lake, a huge new saline desert emerged which is nowadays called the Aralkum. Saline soils in the Aralkum are a major source for dust and salt storms in the region. The aim of this study was to analyze the spatio-temporal land cover change dynamics in the Aralkum and discuss potential implications for the recent and future dust and salt storm activity in the region. MODIS satellite time series were classified from 2000-2008 and change of land cover was quantified. The Aral Sea desiccation accelerated between 2004 and 2008. The area of sandy surfaces and salt soils, which bear the greatest dust and salt storm generation potential increased by more than 36 %. In parts of the Aralkum desalinization of soils was found to take place within 4-8 years. The implication of the ongoing regression of the Aral Sea is that the expansion of saline surfaces will continue. Knowing the spatio-temporal dynamics of both the location and the surface characteristics of the source areas for dust and salt storms allows drawing conclusions about the potential hazard degree of the dust load. The remote-sensing-based land cover assessment presented in this study could be coupled with existing knowledge on the location of source areas for an early estimation of trends in shifting dust composition. Opportunities, limits, and requirements of satellite-based land cover classification and change detection in the Aralkum are discussed.

  4. Remote-sensing-based analysis of landscape change in the desiccated seabed of the Aral Sea--a potential tool for assessing the hazard degree of dust and salt storms.

    PubMed

    Löw, F; Navratil, P; Kotte, K; Schöler, H F; Bubenzer, O

    2013-10-01

    With the recession of the Aral Sea in Central Asia, once the world's fourth largest lake, a huge new saline desert emerged which is nowadays called the Aralkum. Saline soils in the Aralkum are a major source for dust and salt storms in the region. The aim of this study was to analyze the spatio-temporal land cover change dynamics in the Aralkum and discuss potential implications for the recent and future dust and salt storm activity in the region. MODIS satellite time series were classified from 2000-2008 and change of land cover was quantified. The Aral Sea desiccation accelerated between 2004 and 2008. The area of sandy surfaces and salt soils, which bear the greatest dust and salt storm generation potential increased by more than 36 %. In parts of the Aralkum desalinization of soils was found to take place within 4-8 years. The implication of the ongoing regression of the Aral Sea is that the expansion of saline surfaces will continue. Knowing the spatio-temporal dynamics of both the location and the surface characteristics of the source areas for dust and salt storms allows drawing conclusions about the potential hazard degree of the dust load. The remote-sensing-based land cover assessment presented in this study could be coupled with existing knowledge on the location of source areas for an early estimation of trends in shifting dust composition. Opportunities, limits, and requirements of satellite-based land cover classification and change detection in the Aralkum are discussed. PMID:23564411

  5. Resilience to Interacting multi-natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    Conventional analyses of hazard assessment tend to focus on individual hazards in isolation. However, many parts of the world are usually affected by multiple natural hazards with the potential for interacting relationships. The understanding of such interactions, their impacts and the related uncertainties, are an important and topical area of research. Interacting multi-hazards may appear in different forms, including 1) CASCADING HAZARDS (a primary hazard triggering one or more secondary hazards such as an earthquake triggering landslides which may block river channels with dammed lakes and ensued floods), 2) CONCURRING HAZARDS (two or more primary hazards coinciding to trigger or exacerbate secondary hazards such as an earthquake and a rainfall event simultaneously creating landslides), and 3) ALTERING HAZARDS (a primary hazard increasing the probability of a secondary hazard occurring such as major earthquakes disturbing soil/rock materials by violent ground shaking which alter the regional patterns of landslides and debris flows in the subsequent years to come). All three types of interacting multi-hazards may occur in natural hazard prone regions, so it is important that research on hazard resilience should cover all of them. In the past decades, great progresses have been made in tackling disaster risk around the world. However, there are still many challenging issues to be solved, and the disasters over recent years have clearly demonstrated the inadequate resilience in our highly interconnected and interdependent systems. We have identified the following weaknesses and knowledge gaps in the current disaster risk management: 1) although our understanding in individual hazards has been greatly improved, there is a lack of sound knowledge about mechanisms and processes of interacting multi-hazards. Therefore, the resultant multi-hazard risk is often significantly underestimated with severe consequences. It is also poorly understood about the spatial and

  6. Potentially hazardous air contaminants in the home

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.L.

    1982-10-19

    The health concerns of several substances likely to be encountered in the non-industrial indoor environment are discussed. Monitoring data and information on the health effects of CO, NO/sub 2/, formaldehyde, and radon are included. (JGB)

  7. Identifying hazard parameter to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suminar, Wulan; Saepuloh, Asep; Meilano, Irwan

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of hazard assessment to active volcanoes is crucial for risk management. The hazard map of volcano provides information to decision makers and communities before, during, and after volcanic crisis. The rapid and accurate hazard assessment, especially to an active volcano is necessary to be developed for better mitigation on the time of volcanic crises in Indonesia. In this paper, we identified the hazard parameters to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano. The Guntur volcano in Garut Region, West Java, Indonesia was selected as study area due population are resided adjacent to active volcanoes. The development of infrastructures, especially related to tourism at the eastern flank from the Summit, are growing rapidly. The remote sensing and field investigation approaches were used to obtain hazard parameters spatially. We developed a quantitative and dynamic algorithm to map spatially hazard potential of volcano based on index overlay technique. There were identified five volcano hazard parameters based on Landsat 8 and ASTER imageries: volcanic products including pyroclastic fallout, pyroclastic flows, lava and lahar, slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and vegetation density. Following this proposed technique, the hazard parameters were extracted, indexed, and calculated to produce spatial hazard values at and around Guntur Volcano. Based on this method, the hazard potential of low vegetation density is higher than high vegetation density. Furthermore, the slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and fragmental volcanic product such as pyroclastics influenced to the spatial hazard value significantly. Further study to this proposed approach will be aimed for effective and efficient analyses of volcano risk assessment.

  8. Prevalence of hazardous exposures in veterinary practice

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, P.; Schenker, M.B.; Green, R.; Samuels, S.

    1989-01-01

    All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects.

  9. Spatial earthquake hazard assessment of Evansville, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockaway, T.D.; Frost, J.D.; Eggert, D.L.; Luna, R.

    1997-01-01

    The earthquake hazard has been evaluated for a 150-square-kilometer area around Evansville, Indiana. GIS-QUAKE, a system that combines liquefaction and ground motion analysis routines with site-specific geological, geotechnical, and seismological information, was used for the analysis. The hazard potential was determined by using 586 SPT borings, 27 CPT sounding, 39 shear-wave velocity profiles and synthesized acceleration records for body-wave magnitude 6.5 and 7.3 mid-continental earthquakes, occurring at distances of 50 km and 250 km, respectively. The results of the GIS-QUAKE hazard analyses for Evansville identify areas with a high hazard potential that had not previously been identified in earthquake zonation studies. The Pigeon Creek area specifically is identified as having significant potential for liquefaction-induced damage. Damage as a result of ground motion amplification is determined to be a moderate concern throughout the area. Differences in the findings of this zonation study and previous work are attributed to the size and range of the database, the hazard evaluation methodologies, and the geostatistical interpolation techniques used to estimate the hazard potential. Further, assumptions regarding the groundwater elevations made in previous studies are also considered to have had a significant effect on the results.

  10. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  11. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOEpatents

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  12. 283-E and 283-W hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-09-26

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the 200 area water treatment plants 283-E and 283-W located on the US DOE Hanford Site. Operation of the water treatment plants is the responsibility of ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide emergency planning technical basis for the water treatment plants. This document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A which requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification.

  13. Managing risks and hazardous in industrial operations

    SciTech Connect

    Almaula, S.C.

    1996-12-31

    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that it makes good business sense to identify risks and hazards of an operation and take appropriate steps to manage them effectively. Developing and implementing an effective risk and hazard management plan also contibutes to other industry requirements and standards. Development of a risk management system, key elements of a risk management plan, and hazards and risk analysis methods are outlined. Comparing potential risk to the cost of prevention is also discussed. It is estimated that the cost of developing and preparing the first risk management plan varies between $50,000 to $200,000. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A Windshear Hazard Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hinton, David A.; Bowles, Roland L.

    2000-01-01

    An aircraft exposed to hazardous low-level windshear may suffer a critical loss of airspeed and altitude, thus endangering its ability to remain airborne. In order to characterize this hazard, a nondimensional index was developed based oil aerodynamic principals and understanding of windshear phenomena, 'This paper reviews the development and application of the Bowles F-tactor. which is now used by onboard sensors for the detection of hazardous windshear. It was developed and tested during NASA/I:AA's airborne windshear program and is now required for FAA certification of onboard radar windshear detection systems. Reviewed in this paper are: 1) definition of windshear and description of atmospheric phenomena that may cause hazardous windshear. 2) derivation and discussion of the F-factor. 3) development of the F-factor hazard threshold, 4) its testing during field deployments, and 5) its use in accident reconstructions,

  15. Chemical hazards in aeromedical aircraft.

    PubMed

    Tupper, C R

    1989-01-01

    Several potentially hazardous chemicals are required to make modern military aircraft fly. With each airevac mission, the possibility exists for structural failure of a fluid system, resulting in contamination to flight/medical crews, patients, and passengers. Aeromedical Evacuation Crewmembers (AECMs) need to be aware of the hazardous chemicals used in aircraft and areas where there is an increased risk to those in and around the aircraft. This study identified potential areas for chemical leakage, such as refuel receptacles, hydraulic reservoirs, hydraulic motors, doors, ramps, engines, and more. Further, it identified the basic first aid procedures to perform on people contaminated with jet fuel, hydraulic fluid, engine oil, fire extinguisher agents, LOX and other fluids. First aid procedures are basic and can be performed with supplies and equipment on a routine aeromedical evacuation mission, AECMs trained in a basic awareness of hazardous aircraft chemicals will result in crews better prepared to cope with the unique risks of transporting patients in a complicated military aircraft.

  16. Chemical hazards in aeromedical aircraft.

    PubMed

    Tupper, C R

    1989-01-01

    Several potentially hazardous chemicals are required to make modern military aircraft fly. With each airevac mission, the possibility exists for structural failure of a fluid system, resulting in contamination to flight/medical crews, patients, and passengers. Aeromedical Evacuation Crewmembers (AECMs) need to be aware of the hazardous chemicals used in aircraft and areas where there is an increased risk to those in and around the aircraft. This study identified potential areas for chemical leakage, such as refuel receptacles, hydraulic reservoirs, hydraulic motors, doors, ramps, engines, and more. Further, it identified the basic first aid procedures to perform on people contaminated with jet fuel, hydraulic fluid, engine oil, fire extinguisher agents, LOX and other fluids. First aid procedures are basic and can be performed with supplies and equipment on a routine aeromedical evacuation mission, AECMs trained in a basic awareness of hazardous aircraft chemicals will result in crews better prepared to cope with the unique risks of transporting patients in a complicated military aircraft. PMID:2923600

  17. Health hazards of welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan A; Al-Khlaiwi, Thamir

    2003-11-01

    Even in the twenty-first century, welding is still a common and a highly skilled occupation. The hazardous agents associated with welding processes are acetylene, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, phosgene, tungsten, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, silver, tin, and zinc. All welding processes involve the potential hazards for inhalation exposures that may lead to acute or chronic respiratory diseases. According to literature described earlier it has been suggested that welding fumes cause the lung function impairment, obstructive and restrictive lung disease, cough, dyspnea, rhinitis, asthma, pneumonitis, pneumoconiosis, carcinoma of the lungs. In addition, welding workers suffer from eye irritation, photokeratitis, cataract, skin irritation, erythema, pterygium, non-melanocytic skin cancer, malignant melanoma, reduced sperm count, motility and infertility. Most of the studies have been attempted previously to evaluate the effects of welding fumes. However, no collectively effort illuminating the general effects of welding fumes on different organs or systems or both in human has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of welding fumes documented by individual efforts and provide informations to community on hazards of welding.

  18. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  19. Hazardous solid waste from agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, R C

    1978-01-01

    Large quantities of food processing, crop, forestry, and animal solid wastes are generated in the United States each year. The major components of these wastes are biodegradable. However, they also contain components such as nitrogen, human and animal pathogens, medicinals, feed additives, salts, and certain metals, that under uncontrolled conditions can be detrimental to aquatic, plant, animal, or human life. The most common method of disposal of these wastes is application to the land. Thus the major pathways for transmission of hazards are from and through the soil. Use of these wastes as animal feed also can be a pathway. While at this time there are no crises associated with hazardous materials in agricultural solid wastes, the potential for problems should not be underestimated. Manpower and financial support should be provided to obtain more detailed information in this area, esepcially to better delineate transport and dispersal and to determine and evaluate risks. PMID:367770

  20. Natural hazards science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research - founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes - can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events. To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science. In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H-SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  1. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-06-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today’s waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous longterm management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by externalintrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the longterm success of the prescribed system. In fact

  2. Hazard Analysis for Building 34 Vacuum Glove Box Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meginnis, Ian

    2014-01-01

    One of the characteristics of an effective safety program is the recognition and control of hazards before mishaps or failures occur. Conducting potentially hazardous tests necessitates a thorough hazard analysis in order to prevent injury to personnel, and to prevent damage to facilities and equipment. The primary purpose of this hazard analysis is to define and address the potential hazards and controls associated with the Building 34 Vacuum Glove Box Assembly, and to provide the applicable team of personnel with the documented results. It is imperative that each member of the team be familiar with the hazards and controls associated with his/her particular tasks, assignments and activities while interfacing with facility test systems, equipment and hardware. In fulfillment of the stated purposes, the goal of this hazard analysis is to identify all hazards that have the potential to harm personnel, damage the facility or its test systems or equipment, test articles, Government or personal property, or the environment. This analysis may also assess the significance and risk, when applicable, of lost test objectives when substantial monetary value is involved. The hazards, causes, controls, verifications, and risk assessment codes have been documented on the hazard analysis work sheets in Appendix A of this document. The preparation and development of this report is in accordance with JPR 1700.1, "JSC Safety and Health Handbook" and JSC 17773 Rev D "Instructions for Preparation of Hazard Analysis for JSC Ground Operations".

  3. HAZARDOUS WASTE DECONTAMINATION WITH PLASMA REACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of electrical energy in the form of plasma has been considered as a potentially efficient means of decontaminating hazardous waste, although to date only a few attempts have been made to do so. There are a number of relative advantages and some potential disadvantages to...

  4. Xylene: An overview of its health hazards and preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    Kandyala, Reena; Raghavendra, Sumanth Phani C; Rajasekharan, Saraswathi T

    2010-01-01

    Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon known for its wide usage in tissue processing, staining and cover slipping in the histology laboratory. The hazards of xylene are well documented, making it a potential occupational hazard for the histopathological technicians. As every other profession became cautious of the occupational hazards, the very speciality that identifies the illnesses became one of the last to become aware and remedy its own hazards. This review article aims to discuss the toxicity of xylene and safety measures to counteract the hazards and enlists the pros and cons of using various substitutes that claim to be much safer, better and faster. PMID:21180450

  5. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) is to evaluate the hazard of seismic ground motion at a site by considering all possible earthquakes in the area, estimating the associated shaking at the site, and calculating the probabilities of these occurrences. The Panel on Seismic Hazard Analysis is charged with assessment of the capabilities, limitations, and future trends of PSHA in the context of alternatives. The report identifies and discusses key issues of PSHA and is addressed to decision makers with a modest scientific and technical background and to the scientific and technical community. 37 refs., 19 figs.

  6. Hazardous substance liability insurance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The study was carried out to meet requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980. It considers the adequacy and feasibility of private insurance to protect owners and operators of ships covered by the Act and for post-closure financial responsibility for hazardous waste disposal facilities. The report is in three parts: Pt. 1 is an introduction to the hazardous substance insurance problem; Pt. 2 considers the adequacy of private insurance for owners and operators of vessels and facilities; Pt. 3 focuses on the problem of a private insurance alternative to the Post-Closure Liability Fund for 'inactive' hazardous waste disposal facilities.

  7. Parametric Hazard Function Estimation.

    1999-09-13

    Version 00 Phaze performs statistical inference calculations on a hazard function (also called a failure rate or intensity function) based on reported failure times of components that are repaired and restored to service. Three parametric models are allowed: the exponential, linear, and Weibull hazard models. The inference includes estimation (maximum likelihood estimators and confidence regions) of the parameters and of the hazard function itself, testing of hypotheses such as increasing failure rate, and checking ofmore » the model assumptions.« less

  8. Space Debris Hazard Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Elmer H.; Winslow, Paul C., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    The hazard to space vehicles from natural space debris has been explored. A survey of the available information pertinent to this problem is presented. The hope is that this presentation gives a coherent picture of the knowledge to date in terms of the topic covered. The conclusion reached is that a definite hazard exists but that it can only be poorly assessed on the basis of present information. The need for direct measurement of this hazard is obvious, and some of the problems involved in making these direct measurements have been explored.

  9. Tsunami hazard map in eastern Bali

    SciTech Connect

    Afif, Haunan; Cipta, Athanasius

    2015-04-24

    Bali is a popular tourist destination both for Indonesian and foreign visitors. However, Bali is located close to the collision zone between the Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate in the south and back-arc thrust off the northern coast of Bali resulted Bali prone to earthquake and tsunami. Tsunami hazard map is needed for better understanding of hazard level in a particular area and tsunami modeling is one of the most reliable techniques to produce hazard map. Tsunami modeling conducted using TUNAMI N2 and set for two tsunami sources scenarios which are subduction zone in the south of Bali and back thrust in the north of Bali. Tsunami hazard zone is divided into 3 zones, the first is a high hazard zones with inundation height of more than 3m. The second is a moderate hazard zone with inundation height 1 to 3m and the third is a low tsunami hazard zones with tsunami inundation heights less than 1m. Those 2 scenarios showed southern region has a greater potential of tsunami impact than the northern areas. This is obviously shown in the distribution of the inundated area in the south of Bali including the island of Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan is wider than in the northern coast of Bali although the northern region of the Nusa Penida Island more inundated due to the coastal topography.

  10. NGNP SITE 2 HAZARDS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Moe

    2011-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project initiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the U.S. Department of Energy pursuant to the 2005 Energy Policy Act, is based on research and development activities supported by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. The principal objective of the NGNP Project is to support commercialization of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology. The HTGR is a helium-cooled and graphite-moderated reactor that can operate at temperatures much higher than those of conventional light water reactor (LWR) technologies. Accordingly, it can be applied in many industrial applications as a substitute for burning fossil fuels, such as natural gas, to generate process heat in addition to producing electricity, which is the principal application of current LWRs. Nuclear energy in the form of LWRs has been used in the U.S. and internationally principally for the generation of electricity. However, because the HTGR operates at higher temperatures than LWRs, it can be used to displace the use of fossil fuels in many industrial applications. It also provides a carbon emission-free energy supply. For example, the energy needs for the recovery and refining of petroleum, for the petrochemical industry and for production of transportation fuels and feedstocks using coal conversion processes require process heat provided at temperatures approaching 800 C. This temperature range is readily achieved by the HTGR technology. This report summarizes a site assessment authorized by INL under the NGNP Project to determine hazards and potential challenges that site owners and HTGR designers need to be aware of when developing the HTGR design for co-location at industrial facilities, and to evaluate the site for suitability considering certain site characteristics. The objectives of the NGNP site hazard assessments are to do an initial screening of representative sites in order to identify potential challenges and restraints

  11. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  12. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  13. Hazardous material control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following topics. Waste exchange and recycling, the New York State experience. Department of defense hazardous waste minimazation, Recovery of heavy metals from electric arc furnace steelmaking dusts, Small generator cooperative effects economical recycling.

  14. Health Care Wide Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... Employee Downloads Additional Information Latex Allergy Legionnaires' Disease Mercury Needlesticks Noise Other Hazards (Lack of) PPE Slips/ ... Staphylococcus aureus Latex Allergy Legionnaires' Disease Needlesticks Noise Mercury Inappropriate PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Lack ...

  15. Developing hazardous waste programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  16. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.

    2006-12-01

    The recent tsunami disaster caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake has focused our attention to the hazard posed by large earthquakes that occur under water, in particular subduction zone earthquakes, and the tsunamis that they generate. Even though these kinds of events are rare, the very large loss of life and material destruction caused by this earthquake warrant a significant effort towards the mitigation of the tsunami hazard. For ground motion hazard, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard to populations in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense the complexities and variability of seismic activity into a manageable set of parameters greatly facilitates the design of effective seismic resistant buildings but also the planning of infrastructure projects. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) achieves the same goal for hazards posed by tsunami. There are great advantages of implementing such a method to evaluate the total risk (seismic and tsunami) to coastal communities. The method that we have developed is based on the traditional PSHA and therefore completely consistent with standard seismic practice. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can efficiently synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual subfault tsunami waveforms (weighted by their slip). This efficiency make it feasible to use Green's function summation in lieu of attenuation relations to provide very accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically computes

  17. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  18. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  19. Geomorphology and natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gares, Paul A.; Sherman, Douglas J.; Nordstrom, Karl F.

    1994-08-01

    Natural hazards research was initiated in the 1960's by Gilbert White and his students who promulgated a research paradigm that involved assessing risk from a natural event, identifying adjustments to cope with the hazard, determining people's perception of the event, defining the process by which people choose adjustments, and estimating the effects of public policy on the choice process. Studies of the physical system played an important role in early research, but criticismsof the paradigm resulted in a shift to a prominence of social science. Geomorphologists are working to fill gaps in knowledge of the physical aspects of individual hazards, but use of the information by social scientists will only occur if information is presented in a format that is useful to them. One format involves identifying the hazard according to seven physical parameters established by White and his colleagues: magnitude, frequency, duration, areal extent, speed of onset, spatial dispersion, and temporal spacing. Geomorphic hazards are regarded as related to landscape changes that affect human systems. The processes that produce the changes are rarely geomorphic in nature, but are better regarded as atmospheric or hydrologic. An examination of geomorphic hazards in four fields — soil erosion, mass movement, coastal erosion and fluvial erosion — demonstrates that advances in those fields may be evaluated in terms of the seven parameters. Geomorphologists have contributed to hazard research by focusing on the dynamics of the landforms. The prediction of occurence, the determination of spatial and temporal characteristics, the impact of physical characteristics on people's perception, and the impact of physical characteristics on adjustment formulation. Opportunities for geomorphologists to improve our understanding of geomorphic hazards include research into the characteristics of the events particularly with respect to predicting the occurence, and increased evaluation of the

  20. Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Talhout, Reinskje; Schulz, Thomas; Florek, Ewa; van Benthem, Jan; Wester, Piet; Opperhuizen, Antoon

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components with potential carcinogenic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects have been included, the three major smoke-related causes of death are all covered by the list. Given that the currently used Hoffmann list of hazardous smoke components is based on data from the 1990s and only includes carcinogens, it is recommended that the current list of 98 hazardous components is used for regulatory purposes instead. To enable risk assessment of components not covered by this list, thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC) have been established from the inhalation risk values found: 0.0018 μg day−1 for all risks, and 1.2 μg day−1 for all risks excluding carcinogenicity, the latter being similar to previously reported inhalation TTCs. PMID:21556207

  1. Supplemental Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment - Hydrotreater

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-04-01

    A supplemental hazard analysis was conducted and quantitative risk assessment performed in response to an independent review comment received by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from the U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Northwest Field Office (PNSO) against the Hydrotreater/Distillation Column Hazard Analysis Report issued in April 2013. The supplemental analysis used the hazardous conditions documented by the previous April 2013 report as a basis. The conditions were screened and grouped for the purpose of identifying whether additional prudent, practical hazard controls could be identified, using a quantitative risk evaluation to assess the adequacy of the controls and establish a lower level of concern for the likelihood of potential serious accidents. Calculations were performed to support conclusions where necessary.

  2. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  3. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Kubicek

    2001-09-07

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  4. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Logan

    2002-03-28

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  5. Building Better Volcanic Hazard Maps Through Scientific and Stakeholder Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. A.; Lindsay, J. M.; Calder, E.

    2015-12-01

    All across the world information about natural hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunami is shared and communicated using maps that show which locations are potentially exposed to hazards of varying intensities. Unlike earthquakes and tsunami, which typically produce one dominant hazardous phenomenon (ground shaking and inundation, respectively) volcanic eruptions can produce a wide variety of phenomena that range from near-vent (e.g. pyroclastic flows, ground shaking) to distal (e.g. volcanic ash, inundation via tsunami), and that vary in intensity depending on the type and location of the volcano. This complexity poses challenges in depicting volcanic hazard on a map, and to date there has been no consistent approach, with a wide range of hazard maps produced and little evaluation of their relative efficacy. Moreover, in traditional hazard mapping practice, scientists analyse data about a hazard, and then display the results on a map that is then presented to stakeholders. This one-way, top-down approach to hazard communication does not necessarily translate into effective hazard education, or, as tragically demonstrated by Nevado del Ruiz, Columbia in 1985, its use in risk mitigation by civil authorities. Furthermore, messages taken away from a hazard map can be strongly influenced by its visual design. Thus, hazard maps are more likely to be useful, usable and used if relevant stakeholders are engaged during the hazard map process to ensure a) the map is designed in a relevant way and b) the map takes into account how users interpret and read different map features and designs. The IAVCEI Commission on Volcanic Hazards and Risk has recently launched a Hazard Mapping Working Group to collate some of these experiences in graphically depicting volcanic hazard from around the world, including Latin America and the Caribbean, with the aim of preparing some Considerations for Producing Volcanic Hazard Maps that may help map makers in the future.

  6. Wake-Vortex Hazards During Cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; James, Kevin D.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Even though the hazard posed by lift-generated wakes of subsonic transport aircraft has been studied extensively for approach and departure at airports, only a small amount of effort has gone into the potential hazard at cruise altitude. This paper reports on a studio of the wake-vortex hazard during cruise because encounters may become more prevalent when free-flight becomes available and each aircraft, is free to choose its own route between destinations. In order to address the problem, the various fluid-dynamic stages that vortex wakes usually go through as they age will be described along with estimates of the potential hazard that each stage poses. It appears that a rolling-moment hazard can be just as severe at cruise as for approach at airports, but it only persists for several minutes. However, the hazard posed by the downwash in the wake due to the lift on the generator aircraft persists for tens of minutes in a long narrow region behind the generating aircraft. The hazard consists of severe vertical loads when an encountering aircraft crosses the wake. A technique for avoiding vortex wakes at cruise altitude will be described. To date the hazard posed by lift-generated vortex wakes and their persistence at cruise altitudes has been identified and subdivided into several tasks. Analyses of the loads to be encounter and are underway and should be completed shortly. A review of published literature on the subject has been nearly completed (see text) and photographs of vortex wakes at cruise altitudes have been taken and the various stages of decay have been identified. It remains to study and sort the photographs for those that best illustrate the various stages of decay after they are shed by subsonic transport aircraft at cruise altitudes. The present status of the analysis and the paper are described.

  7. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  8. Physical hazards of animal handlers.

    PubMed

    Langley, R

    1999-01-01

    Animal handlers may be harmed on the job due to injuries inflicted by animals; dangers related to the facility, work activities, and equipment; and weather extremes. Traumatic or venomous attacks by animals can result in fatality. Potentially hazardous features of the work environment include fumigation chambers, cage washers, slippery walking surfaces, needles and scalpels, food preparation equipment, noise, radiation, and motor vehicles. Heat- and cold-related injuries are not uncommon. Attention to safety measures is of critical importance in the field of animal handling.

  9. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  10. Pyrotechnic hazards classification and evaluation program. Phase 3, segments 1-4: Investigation of sensitivity test methods and procedures for pyrotechnic hazards evaluation and classification, part A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The findings, conclusions, and recommendations relative to the investigations conducted to evaluate tests for classifying pyrotechnic materials and end items as to their hazard potential are presented. Information required to establish an applicable means of determining the potential hazards of pyrotechnics is described. Hazard evaluations are based on the peak overpressure or impulse resulting from the explosion as a function of distance from the source. Other hazard classification tests include dust ignition sensitivity, impact ignition sensitivity, spark ignition sensitivity, and differential thermal analysis.

  11. EVA Hazards due to TPS Inspection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2007-01-01

    Tile inspection and repair activities have implicit hazards associated with them. When an Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) crewmember and associated hardware are added into the equation, additional hazards are introduced. Potential hazards to the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Orbiter or the crew member themselves are created. In order to accurately assess the risk of performing a TPS inspection or repair, an accurate evaluation of potential hazards and how adequately these hazards are controlled is essential. The EMU could become damaged due to sharp edges, protrusions, thermal extremes, molten metal or impact with the Orbiter. Tools, tethers and the presence of a crew member in the vicinity of the Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) pose hazards to the Orbiter. Hazards such as additional tile or Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) damage from a loose tool, safety tethers, crewmember or arm impact are introduced. Additionally, there are hazards to the crew which should be addressed. Crew hazards include laser injury, electrical shock, inability to return to the airlock for EMU failures or Orbiter rapid safing scenarios, as well as the potential inadvertent release of a crew member from the arm/boom. The aforementioned hazards are controlled in various ways. Generally, these controls are addressed operationally versus by design, as the majority of the interfaces are to the Orbiter and the Orbiter design did not originally account for tile repair. The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), for instance, was originally designed to deploy experiments, and therefore has insufficient design controls for retention of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS). Although multiple methods to repair the Orbiter TPS exist, the majority of the hazards are applicable no matter which specific repair method is being performed. TPS Inspection performed via EVA also presents some of the same hazards. Therefore, the hazards common to all TPS inspection or repair methods will

  12. Ultraviolet to near-infrared spectroscopy of the potentially hazardous, low delta-V asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3. Backup target of the sample return mission MarcoPolo-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, D.; Dotto, E.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Alvarez-Candal, A.; Gourgeot, F.; Brucato, J. R.; Rossi, A.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Primitive near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are important subjects of study for current planetary research. Their investigation can provide crucial information on topics such as the formation of the solar system, the emergence of life, and the mitigation of the risk of asteroid impact. Sample return missions from primitive asteroids have been scheduled or are being studied by space agencies, including the MarcoPolo-R mission selected for the assessment study phase of ESA M3 missions. Aims: We want to improve our knowledge of the surface composition and physical nature of the potentially hazardous, low delta-V asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3, backup target of MarcoPolo-R. This intriguing object shows an as-yet unexplained spectral variability. Methods: We performed spectroscopic observations of 1996 FG3 using the visible spectrograph DOLORES at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), and the UV-to-NIR X-Shooter instrument at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Results: We find featureless spectra and we classify 1996 FG3 as a primitive Xc-type in the Bus-DeMeo taxonomy. Based on literature comparison, we confirm the spectral variability of this object at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, and find that spectral variations exist also for the visible spectral region. Phase reddening cannot explain such variations. Obtained with the same observational conditions for the whole 0.3-2.2 μm range, our X-Shooter spectrum allowed a proper comparison with the RELAB meteorite database. A very good fit is obtained with the very primitive C2 Tagish Lake carbonaceous chondrite (pressed powder), confirming 1996 FG3 as a suitable target for a sample return mission from primitive NEAs. Conclusions: We hypothesize a compacted/cemented surface for 1996 FG3, like that observed by the Hayabusa mission on (25143) Itokawa, with the possible presence of regions showing different degrees of surface roughness. This variegation could be related to the binary nature of 1996 FG3, but to check this

  13. Hazardous materials dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Parallel growth of the chemical industry of emergency response capabilities in the public and private sectors has created a new need for improved communications. A new vocabulary of important terms is emerging in each of the industries that transport, store and handle hazardous materials. This dictionary, representing a compilation of words and phrases from many relevant sources, will help document and standardize the nomenclature of hazardous materials. The authors have screened the technical discourse of the chemical, transportation, petroleum and medical fields, both governmental and private, to determine the most current expressions and their uses. The lexicographic goal has been to identify key terms, ambiguous and multiple meaning words, acronyms, symbols and even slang referring to hazardous materials reactions, storing and handling procedures.

  14. Moral Hazard in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Brunnquell, Donald; Michaelson, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    "Moral hazard" is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general concern for the patient's seemingly excessive burden. This article brings the language and logic of moral hazard to pediatrics. The concept reminds us that decision makers in this context are often not the primary party affected by their decisions. It appraises the full scope of risk at issue when decision makers decide on behalf of others and leads us to separate, respect, and prioritize the interests of affected parties. PMID:27292845

  15. Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Myers, Melvin L

    2010-10-01

    Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections . PMID:20954037

  16. Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Myers, Melvin L

    2010-10-01

    Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections .

  17. Integrating waste management with Job Hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The web-based Automated Job Hazard Analysis (AJHA) system is a tool designed to help capture and communicate the results of the hazard review and mitigation process for specific work activities. In Fluor Hanford's day-to-day work planning and execution process, AJHA has become the focal point for integrating Integrated Safety Management (ISM) through industrial health and safety principles; environmental safety measures; and involvement by workers, subject-matter experts and management. This paper illustrates how AJHA has become a key element in involving waste-management and environmental-control professionals in planning and executing work. To support implementing requirements for waste management and environmental compliance within the core function and guiding principles of an integrated safety management system (ISMS), Fluor Hanford has developed the a computer-based application called the 'Automated Job Hazard Analysis' (AJHA), into the work management process. This web-based software tool helps integrate the knowledge of site workers, subject-matter experts, and safety principles and requirements established in standards, and regulations. AJHA facilitates a process of work site review, hazard identification, analysis, and the determination of specific work controls. The AJHA application provides a well-organized job hazard analysis report including training and staffing requirements, prerequisite actions, notifications, and specific work controls listed for each sub-task determined for the job. AJHA lists common hazards addressed in the U.S. Occupational, Safety, and Health Administration (OSHA) federal codes; and State regulations such as the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Administration (WISHA). AJHA also lists extraordinary hazards that are unique to a particular industry sector, such as radiological hazards and waste management. The work-planning team evaluates the scope of work and reviews the work site to identify potential hazards. Hazards

  18. Hazardous-Materials Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Henry W.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1995-01-01

    Remotely controlled mobile robot used to locate, characterize, identify, and eventually mitigate incidents involving hazardous-materials spills/releases. Possesses number of innovative features, allowing it to perform mission-critical functions such as opening and unlocking doors and sensing for hazardous materials. Provides safe means for locating and identifying spills and eliminates risks of injury associated with use of manned entry teams. Current version of vehicle, called HAZBOT III, also features unique mechanical and electrical design enabling vehicle to operate safely within combustible atmosphere.

  19. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  20. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  1. Leaching behaviour of hazardous demolition waste.

    PubMed

    Roussat, Nicolas; Méhu, Jacques; Abdelghafour, Mohamed; Brula, Pascal

    2008-11-01

    Demolition wastes are generally disposed of in unlined landfills for inert waste. However, demolition wastes are not just inert wastes. Indeed, a small fraction of demolition waste contains components that are hazardous to human health and the environment, e.g., lead-based paint, mercury-contained in fluorescent lamps, treated wood, and asbestos. The objective of this study is to evaluate the release potential of pollutants contained in these hazardous components when they are mixed with inert wastes in unlined landfills. After identification of the different building products which can contain hazardous elements and which can be potentially pollutant in landfill scenario, we performed leaching tests using three different lysimeters: one lysimeter containing only inert wastes and two lysimeters containing inert wastes mixed with hazardous demolition wastes. The leachates from these lysimeters were analysed (heavy metals, chlorides, sulphates fluoride, DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon), phenol index, and PAH). Finally, we compared concentrations and cumulative releases of elements in leachates with the limits values of European regulation for the acceptance of inert wastes at landfill. Results indicate that limit values are exceeded for some elements. We also performed a percolation column test with only demolition hazardous wastes to evaluate the specific contribution of these wastes in the observed releases. PMID:18160273

  2. Cables and fire hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanelli, C.; Philbrick, S.; Beretta, G.

    1986-01-01

    Besides describing the experiments conducted to develop a nonflammable cable, this article discusses several considerations regarding other hazards which might result from cable fires, particularly the toxicity and opacity of the fumes emitted by the burning cable. In addition, this article examines the effects of using the Oxygen Index as a gauge of quality control during manufacture.

  3. Earthquake hazard hunt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCabe, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The Earthquake Hazard Hunt should begin at home, with all family members participating. Foresight, imagination, and commonsense are all that are needed as you go from room to room and imagine what would happen when the Earth and house started to shake. 

  4. Hazardous solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-11-01

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is `What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?`You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product`s constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace.

  5. Hazardous Wastes from Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, John

    The management of waste materials has become more complex with the increase in human population and the development of new substances. This illustrated booklet traces the history of waste management and provides guidelines for individuals and communities in disposing of certain hazardous wastes safely. It addresses such topics as: (1) how people…

  6. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  7. Managing Academe's Hazardous Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Fay

    1991-01-01

    Those responsible for planning and management of colleges and universities must plan comprehensively for hazardous waste disposal. Federal and state regulations are increasing, landfill area is becoming scarce, and incineration costs are rising fast. High-level institutional commitment to a sound campus environment policy is essential. (MSE)

  8. Hazards of Mercury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Research, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Common concern for the protection and improvement of the environment and the enhancement of human health and welfare underscore the purpose of this special report on the hazards of mercury directed to the Secretary's Pesticide Advisory Committee, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The report summarizes the findings of a ten-member study…

  9. Are Computers Hazardous to Your Child's Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Personal Computing, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Two potential health hazards have been suggested in relation to long-term use of computer video monitors: radiation and vision problems (fatigue, eyestrain, eye damage). This article examines some available evidence on these issues. Journal availability: Hayden Publishing Company, 50 Essex Street, Rochelle Park, NJ 07662. (SJL)

  10. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    1999-08-19

    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities.

  11. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  12. The Video Display Terminal Health Hazard Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Carolyn A.

    A study was conducted to identify the potential health hazards of visual display terminals for employees and then to develop a list of recommendations for improving the physical conditions of the workplace. Data were collected by questionnaires from 55 employees in 10 word processing departments in Topeka, Kansas. A majority of the employees…

  13. Identifying and Dealing with Hazardous Materials and Procedures in the General Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, David A.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of freshman chemistry laboratory manuals identified 15 questionable laboratory procedures, including the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. Alternatives are suggested for each hazard discussed (such as using a substitute solvent for benzene). (SK)

  14. Natural Phenomena Hazards Modeling Project: Flood hazard models for Department of Energy sites

    SciTech Connect

    Savy, J.B.; Murray, R.C.

    1988-05-01

    For eight sites, the evaluation of flood hazards was considered in two steps. First, a screening assessment was performed to determine whether flood hazards may impact DOE operations. The screening analysis consisted of a preliminary flood hazard assessment that provides an initial estimate of the site design basis. The second step involves a review of the vulnerability of on-site facilities by the site manager; based on the results of the preliminary flood hazard assessment and a review of site operations, the manager can decide whether flood hazards should be considered a part of the design basis. The scope of the preliminary flood hazard analysis was restricted to evaluating the flood hazards that may exist in proximity to a site. The analysis does not involve an assessment of the potential of encroachment of flooding at specific on-site locations. Furthermore, the screening analysis does not consider localized flooding at a site due to precipitation (i.e., local run-off, storm sewer capacity, roof drainage). These issues were reserved for consideration by the DOE site manager. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  15. Household Hazardous Materials and Their Labels: A Reference for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Lillian F.

    Household hazardous materials are products or wastes which are toxic, corrosive, reactive, and/or ignitable. Although common products such as pesticides, oils, gasoline, solvents, cleaners, and polishes are hazardous, students and adults are not always aware of potential dangers. This sourcebook contains definitions and examples of household…

  16. 10 CFR 851.21 - Hazard identification and assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... existing and potential workplace hazards and assess the risk of associated workers injury and illness. Procedures must include methods to: (1) Assess worker exposure to chemical, physical, biological, or safety workplace hazards through appropriate workplace monitoring; (2) Document assessment for chemical,...

  17. 40 CFR 68.67 - Process hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.67 Process hazard analysis. (a... completed to comply with 29 CFR 1910.119(e) are acceptable as initial process hazards analyses. These... potential for catastrophic consequences. (3) Engineering and administrative controls applicable to...

  18. 40 CFR 68.67 - Process hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.67 Process hazard analysis. (a... completed to comply with 29 CFR 1910.119(e) are acceptable as initial process hazards analyses. These... potential for catastrophic consequences. (3) Engineering and administrative controls applicable to...

  19. Guide and Checklist for Nonstructural Earthquake Hazards in California Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The recommendations included in this document are intended to reduce seismic hazards associated with the non-structural components of schools buildings, including mechanical systems, ceiling systems, partitions, light fixtures, furnishings, and other building contents. It identifies potential earthquake hazards and provides recommendations for…

  20. Selected References on Asbestos: Its Nature, Hazards, Detection, and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This document provides teachers with sources of information about the nature, hazards, detection, and control of asbestos. Because many school buildings include asbestos-containing materials, teachers and other school personnel must be aware of the potential dangers to students and to themselves and take steps to have asbestos hazards contained or…

  1. NFPA 70E: Performing the electrical flash hazard analysis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, W Jon

    2005-08-01

    Arc flash hazards pose a serious risk to employee safety; proper safe work practices must be utilized. Electrical equipment > or = 50 volts must be deenergized and locked out/tagged out prior to servicing and maintenance unless doing so would increase hazards or is infeasible. Remember, convenience is not an acceptable reason for keeping equipment energized during servicing and maintenance. If electrical equipment must remain energized during Servicing and maintenance, NFPA 70E should be consulted to determine flash hazard boundaries as well as required PPE. Finally, circuit breakers and electrical disconnects must be marked to warn qualified employees of potential arc flash hazards. PMID:16212025

  2. Occupational health hazards in a prosthodontic practice: review of risk factors and management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Kuthalingam Subbiah; Solomon, EGR

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this article was to analyze the potential hazards and risks involved in persons exposed to prosthodontic practice. These risks include exposure to physical and chemical hazards, dental materials, infectious environment, inappropriate working pattern and psychosocial stress. The potential harm of these hazards and its prevention is highlighted. Prosthodontists, students, dental technicians, and others working in the prosthodontic clinics and laboratory should be aware of the specific risk factors and take measures to prevent and overcome these hazards. PMID:23236581

  3. Hazardous household wastes need careful disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Mackin, J.

    1988-01-01

    Hazardous wastes are everywhere, including the average American household.Some cleaners, automobile products, pesticides and paint products can be potentially hazardous substances. Such products may contain solvents, petroleum products, heavy metals, or other toxic chemicals. Chemicals found in the kitchen, bathroom, garage, garden shed to workshop can poison, corrode, explode, or burst into flames if improperly handled. If improperly discarded, they can injure people and pollute the environment. The author then lists the major classes of household wastes and outlines their proper use, storage, and disposal.

  4. Modified hazard ranking system for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes. User manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, K.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Stenner, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    This document describes both the original Hazard Ranking System and the modified Hazard Ranking System as they are to be used in evaluating the relative potential for uncontrolled hazardous substance facilities to cause human health or safety problems or ecological or environmental damage. Detailed instructions for using the mHRS/HRS computer code are provided, along with instructions for performing the calculations by hand. Uniform application of the ranking system will permit the DOE to identify those releases of hazardous substances that pose the greatest hazard to humans or the environment. However, the mHRS/HRS by itself cannot establish priorities for the allocation of funds for remedial action. The mHRS/HRS is a means for applying uniform technical judgment regarding the potential hazards presented by a facility relative to other facilities. It does not address the feasibility, desirability, or degree of cleanup required. Neither does it deal with the readiness or ability of a state to carry out such remedial action, as may be indicated, or to meet other conditions prescribed in CERCLA. 13 refs., 13 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. Counterfactual Volcano Hazard Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Gordon

    2013-04-01

    The historical database of past disasters is a cornerstone of catastrophe risk assessment. Whereas disasters are fortunately comparatively rare, near-misses are quite common for both natural and man-made hazards. The word disaster originally means 'an unfavourable aspect of a star'. Except for astrologists, disasters are no longer perceived fatalistically as pre-determined. Nevertheless, to this day, historical disasters are treated statistically as fixed events, although in reality there is a large luck element involved in converting a near-miss crisis situation into a disaster statistic. It is possible to conceive a stochastic simulation of the past to explore the implications of this chance factor. Counterfactual history is the exercise of hypothesizing alternative paths of history from what actually happened. Exploring history from a counterfactual perspective is instructive for a variety of reasons. First, it is easy to be fooled by randomness and see regularity in event patterns which are illusory. The past is just one realization of a variety of possible evolutions of history, which may be analyzed through a stochastic simulation of an array of counterfactual scenarios. In any hazard context, there is a random component equivalent to dice being rolled to decide whether a near-miss becomes an actual disaster. The fact that there may be no observed disaster over a period of time may belie the occurrence of numerous near-misses. This may be illustrated using the simple dice paradigm. Suppose a dice is rolled every month for a year, and an event is recorded if a six is thrown. There is still an 11% chance of no events occurring during the year. A variety of perils may be used to illustrate the use of near-miss information within a counterfactual disaster analysis. In the domain of natural hazards, near-misses are a notable feature of the threat landscape. Storm surges are an obvious example. Sea defences may protect against most meteorological scenarios. However

  6. Maritime Tsunami Hazard Assessment in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynett, P. J.; Borrero, J. C.; Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The California tsunami program in cooperation with NOAA and FEMA has begun implementing a plan to increase awareness of tsunami generated hazards to the maritime community (both ships and harbor infrastructure) through the development of in-harbor hazard maps, offshore safety zones for boater evacuation, and associated guidance for harbors and marinas before, during and following tsunamis. The hope is that the maritime guidance and associated education and outreach program will help save lives and reduce exposure of damage to boats and harbor infrastructure. An important step in this process is to understand the causative mechanism for damage in ports and harbors, and then ensure that the models used to generate hazard maps are able to accurately simulate these processes. Findings will be used to develop maps, guidance documents, and consistent policy recommendations for emergency managers and port authorities and provide information critical to real-time decisions required when responding to tsunami alert notifications. Basin resonance and geometric amplification are two reasonably well understood mechanisms for local magnification of tsunami impact in harbors, and are generally the mechanisms investigated when estimating the tsunami hazard potential in a port or harbor. On the other hand, our understanding of and predictive ability for currents is lacking. When a free surface flow is forced through a geometric constriction, it is readily expected that the enhanced potential gradient will drive strong, possibly unstable currents and the associated turbulent coherent structures such as "jets" and "whirlpools"; a simple example would be tidal flow through an inlet channel. However, these fundamentals have not been quantitatively connected with respect to understanding tsunami hazards in ports and harbors. A plausible explanation for this oversight is the observation that these features are turbulent phenomena with spatial and temporal scales much smaller than that

  7. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  8. Advanced Materials Laboratory hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, B.; Banda, Z.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55OO.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the AML. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 23 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets.

  9. Hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.

    1981-12-01

    An international meeting held at the State Department in Washington, DC on hazardous waste management is discussed. The conference was held by the Committee on the Challenges to Modern Society of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Among the wastes considered at the meeting were chromium wastes, lead wastes, pesticides, mercury wastes, nickel wastes, oil refinery wastes, PCBs, cadmium wastes, and others. Radioactive wastes were not considered. Legislation, landfill use, recycling, and the Common Market's approach to these wastes were also discussed. (JMT)

  10. Publication: Evansville hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Evansville (Indiana) Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project was completed in February 2012. It was a collaborative effort among the U.S. Geological Survey and regional partners Purdue University; the Center for Earthquake Research and Information at the University of Memphis; the state geologic surveys of Kentucky, Illinois, and Indiana; the Southwest Indiana Disaster Resistant Community Corporation; and the Central U.S. Earthquake Consortium state geologists.

  11. Hazardous waste disposal and the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, D A

    1990-01-01

    Negligent, unregulated hazardous waste management has resulted in real and potential threats to public health and safety. The federal government has responded with laws and regulations aimed at the producers of hazardous waste, including clinical laboratories. Clinical laboratory managers must understand how the requirements apply to their facilities and how to comply with them, or risk violating the law. The Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) imposes controls on hazardous waste management through the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Transportation (DOT) regulate these activities through 40 CFR and 49 CFR, respectively. 49 CFR specifies the characteristics of hazardous waste and lists more than 400 toxic chemicals, including several commonly used in clinical laboratories. Laboratories must conduct chemical inventories to determine if they should obtain an EPA identification number as a hazardous waste generator. Most clinical laboratories can operate satellite accumulation points and accumulate, store, transport, and dispose of waste in accordance with EPA and DOT regulations. Regulations pertaining to infectious waste, sure to affect many clinical laboratories, are being developed now by the EPA. The tracking system mandated by the federal government can be supplemented by state and local authorities and poses a significant regulatory challenge to clinical laboratory managers.

  12. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  13. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers. PMID:25746178

  14. Multiple instance learning for buried hazard detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Joseph; Pinar, Anthony; Havens, Timothy C.; Webb, Adam; Schulz, Timothy J.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosives hazards are one of the many deadly threats facing our Soldiers, thus the U.S. Army is interested in the detection and neutralization of these hazards. One method of buried target detection uses forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR), and it has grown in popularity due to its ability to detect buried targets at a standoff distance. FLGPR approaches often use machine learning techniques to improve the accuracy of detection. We investigate an approach to explosive hazard detection that exploits multi-instance features to discriminate between hazardous and non-hazardous returns in FLGPR data. One challenge this problem presents is a high number of clutter and non-target objects relative to the number of targets present. Our approach learns a bag of words model of the multi-instance signatures of potential targets and confuser objects in order to classify alarms as either targets or false alarms. We demonstrate our method on test data collected at a U.S. Army test site.

  15. Hazardous factories: Nigerian evidence.

    PubMed

    Oloyede, Olajide

    2005-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives. However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5,021 workers were studied. One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. Yet the danger was perceived in behavioral terms, especially by manufacturing firms, which tend to see environmental investment in an increasingly global economy as detrimental to profitability. PMID:16022703

  16. Identifying and modeling safety hazards

    SciTech Connect

    DANIELS,JESSE; BAHILL,TERRY; WERNER,PAUL W.

    2000-03-29

    The hazard model described in this paper is designed to accept data over the Internet from distributed databases. A hazard object template is used to ensure that all necessary descriptors are collected for each object. Three methods for combining the data are compared and contrasted. Three methods are used for handling the three types of interactions between the hazard objects.

  17. Hazard Maps in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes the use of geophysical hazard maps and illustrates how they can be used in the classroom from kindergarten to college level. Depicts ways that hazard maps of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and multi-hazards can be integrated into classroom instruction. Tells how maps may be obtained. (SLM)

  18. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  19. Dielectric and electrical hazard shoes.

    PubMed

    Hoagland, Hugh

    2011-04-01

    With OSHA early documents falling on the side of EH shoes for electrical work, companies would do well to consider them for all electrical workers and other workers exposed to electrical hazards or damp locations. These shoes rarely add more than $5 to the cost of the shoe and have been known to save lives. They should be considered for low-voltage (<750V) and low-risk tasks. High-risk tasks, environments, and medium and high voltages require more and more stable protection. ASTM F1117 shoes provide this type of protection and are the preferred step potential PPE option in both OSHA 1910.269 and NFPA 70E. PMID:21561006

  20. Airflow Hazard Visualization for Helicopter Pilots: Flight Simulation Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2005-01-01

    Airflow hazards such as vortices or low level wind shear have been identified as a primary contributing factor in many helicopter accidents. US Navy ships generate airwakes over their decks, creating potentially hazardous conditions for shipboard rotorcraft launch and recovery. Recent sensor developments may enable the delivery of airwake data to the cockpit, where visualizing the hazard data may improve safety and possibly extend ship/helicopter operational envelopes. A prototype flight-deck airflow hazard visualization system was implemented on a high-fidelity rotorcraft flight dynamics simulator. Experienced helicopter pilots, including pilots from all five branches of the military, participated in a usability study of the system. Data was collected both objectively from the simulator and subjectively from post-test questionnaires. Results of the data analysis are presented, demonstrating a reduction in crash rate and other trends that illustrate the potential of airflow hazard visualization to improve flight safety.

  1. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-06

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards.

  2. System Safety Hazards Assessment in Conceptual Program Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eben, Dennis M.; Saemisch, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Providing a program in the concept development phase with a method of determining system safety benefits of potential concepts has always been a challenge. Lockheed Martin Space and Strategic Missiles has developed a methodology for developing a relative system safety ranking using the potential hazards of each concept. The resulting output supports program decisions with system safety as an evaluation criterion with supporting data for evaluation. This approach begins with a generic hazards list that has been tailored for the program being studied and augmented with an initial hazard analysis. Each proposed concept is assessed against the list of program hazards and ranked in three derived areas. The hazards can be weighted to show those that are of more concern to the program. Sensitivities can be also be determined to test the robustness of the conclusions

  3. Volcanic hazards to airports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  4. 10 CFR 851.22 - Hazard prevention and abatement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... abatement process to ensure that all identified and potential hazards are prevented or abated in a timely... appropriate; (2) Engineering controls where feasible and appropriate; (3) Work practices and...

  5. Modeling and Hazard Analysis Using STPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimatsu, Takuto; Leveson, Nancy; Thomas, John; Katahira, Masa; Miyamoto, Yuko; Nakao, Haruka

    2010-09-01

    A joint research project between MIT and JAXA/JAMSS is investigating the application of a new hazard analysis to the system and software in the HTV. Traditional hazard analysis focuses on component failures but software does not fail in this way. Software most often contributes to accidents by commanding the spacecraft into an unsafe state(e.g., turning off the descent engines prematurely) or by not issuing required commands. That makes the standard hazard analysis techniques of limited usefulness on software-intensive systems, which describes most spacecraft built today. STPA is a new hazard analysis technique based on systems theory rather than reliability theory. It treats safety as a control problem rather than a failure problem. The goal of STPA, which is to create a set of scenarios that can lead to a hazard, is the same as FTA but STPA includes a broader set of potential scenarios including those in which no failures occur but the problems arise due to unsafe and unintended interactions among the system components. STPA also provides more guidance to the analysts that traditional fault tree analysis. Functional control diagrams are used to guide the analysis. In addition, JAXA uses a model-based system engineering development environment(created originally by Leveson and called SpecTRM) which also assists in the hazard analysis. One of the advantages of STPA is that it can be applied early in the system engineering and development process in a safety-driven design process where hazard analysis drives the design decisions rather than waiting until reviews identify problems that are then costly or difficult to fix. It can also be applied in an after-the-fact analysis and hazard assessment, which is what we did in this case study. This paper describes the experimental application of STPA to the JAXA HTV in order to determine the feasibility and usefulness of the new hazard analysis technique. Because the HTV was originally developed using fault tree analysis

  6. Navy Shipboard Hazardous Material Minimization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bieberich, M.J.; Robinson, P.; Chastain, B.

    1994-12-31

    The use of hazardous (and potentially hazardous) materials in shipboard cleaning applications has proliferated as new systems and equipments have entered the fleet to reside alongside existing equipments. With the growing environmental awareness (and additional, more restrictive regulations) at all levels/echelon commands of the DoD, the Navy has initiated a proactive program to undertake the minimization/elimination of these hazardous materials in order to eliminate HMs at the source. This paper will focus on the current Shipboard Hazardous Materials Minimization Program initiatives including the identification of authorized HM currently used onboard, identification of potential substitute materials for HM replacement, identification of new cleaning technologies and processes/procedures, and identification of technical documents which will require revision to eliminate the procurement of HMs into the federal supply system. Also discussed will be the anticipated path required to implement the changes into the fleet and automated decision processes (substitution algorithm) currently employed. The paper will also present the most recent technologies identified for approval or additional testing and analysis including: supercritical CO{sub 2} cleaning, high pressure blasting (H{sub 2}O + baking soda), aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning materials and processes, solvent replacements and dedicated parts washing systems with internal filtering capabilities, automated software for solvent/cleaning process substitute selection. Along with these technological advances, data availability (from on-line databases and CDROM Database libraries) will be identified and discussed.

  7. Understanding earthquake hazards in urban areas - Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.

    2012-01-01

    The region surrounding Evansville, Indiana, has experienced minor damage from earthquakes several times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and the proximity of Evansville to the Wabash Valley and New Madrid seismic zones, there is concern among nearby communities about hazards from earthquakes. Earthquakes currently cannot be predicted, but scientists can estimate how strongly the ground is likely to shake as a result of an earthquake and are able to design structures to withstand this estimated ground shaking. Earthquake-hazard maps provide one way of conveying such information and can help the region of Evansville prepare for future earthquakes and reduce earthquake-caused loss of life and financial and structural loss. The Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (EAEHMP) has produced three types of hazard maps for the Evansville area: (1) probabilistic seismic-hazard maps show the ground motion that is expected to be exceeded with a given probability within a given period of time; (2) scenario ground-shaking maps show the expected shaking from two specific scenario earthquakes; (3) liquefaction-potential maps show how likely the strong ground shaking from the scenario earthquakes is to produce liquefaction. These maps complement the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Maps but are more detailed regionally and take into account surficial geology, soil thickness, and soil stiffness; these elements greatly affect ground shaking.

  8. Volcano hazards program in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, R.I.; Bailey, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Volcano monitoring and volcanic-hazards studies have received greatly increased attention in the United States in the past few years. Before 1980, the Volcanic Hazards Program was primarily focused on the active volcanoes of Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which have been monitored continuously since 1912 by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. After the reawakening and catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, the program was substantially expanded as the government and general public became aware of the potential for eruptions and associated hazards within the conterminous United States. Integrated components of the expanded program include: volcanic-hazards assessment; volcano monitoring; fundamental research; and, in concert with federal, state, and local authorities, emergency-response planning. In 1980 the David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory was established in Vancouver, Washington, to systematically monitor the continuing activity of Mount St. Helens, and to acquire baseline data for monitoring the other, presently quiescent, but potentially dangerous Cascade volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest. Since June 1980, all of the eruptions of Mount St. Helens have been predicted successfully on the basis of seismic and geodetic monitoring. The largest volcanic eruptions, but the least probable statistically, that pose a threat to western conterminous United States are those from the large Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic systems, such as Long Valley caldera (California) and Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming), which are underlain by large magma chambers still potentially capable of producing catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions. In order to become better prepared for possible future hazards associated with such historically unpecedented events, detailed studies of these, and similar, large volcanic systems should be intensified to gain better insight into caldera-forming processes and to recognize, if possible, the precursors of caldera-forming eruptions

  9. Volcano hazards program in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilling, Robert I.; Bailey, Roy A.

    1985-10-01

    Volcano monitoring and volcanic-hazards studies have received greatly increased attention in the United States in the past few years. Before 1980, the Volcanic Hazards Program was primarily focused on the active volcanoes of Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which have been monitored continuously since 1912 by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. After the reawakening and catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, the program was substantially expanded as the government and general public became aware of the potential for eruptions and associated hazards within the conterminous United States. Integrated components of the expanded program include: volcanic-hazards assessment; volcano monitoring; fundamental research; and, in concert with federal, state, and local authorities, emergency-response planning. In 1980 the David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory was established in Vancouver, Washington, to systematically monitor the continuing activity of Mount St. Helens, and to acquire baseline data for monitoring the other, presently quiescent, but potentially dangerous Cascade volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest. Since June 1980, all of the eruptions of Mount St. Helens have been predicted successfully on the basis of seismic and geodetic monitoring. The largest volcanic eruptions, but the least probable statistically, that pose a threat to western conterminous United States are those from the large Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic systems, such as Long Valley caldera (California) and Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming), which are underlain by large magma chambers still potentially capable of producing catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions. In order to become better prepared for possible future hazards associated with such historically unpecedented events, detailed studies of these, and similar, large volcanic systems should be intensified to gain better insight into caldera-forming processes and to recognize, if possible, the precursors of caldera-forming eruptions.

  10. Hazards Analysis Report Addendum Buildign 518/518A Industrial Gases & Chemtrack Receiving & Barcoding Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R D

    2000-02-04

    This report documents the Hazards Analysis Report (HAR) Addendum for Buildings 518 and 518A. In summary, the description of the facility and the operations given in the 1995 PHA are the same as the present in this year 2000. The hazards description also remains the same. The hazards analysis in this HAR Addendum is different in that it needs to be compared to operations routinely ''performed'' by the public. The HAR Addendum characterizes the level of intrinsic potential hazards associated with a facility and provides the basis for hazard classification. The hazard classification determines the level of safety documentation required and the DOE order governing the safety analysis. The hazard classification also determines the level of review and approval required for the safety analysis. This facility does not contain any safety class systems or systems important to safety as defined in Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-3009-94. The hazards of primary concern associated with B518 and B518A are chemical in nature. The hazard classification is determined by comparing facility inventories of chemicals with threshold values for the various hazard classification levels. In this way, the hazard level of the facility can be ascertained. The most significant hazards that could affect people in the local area of B518 and B518A, elsewhere on the LLNL site, and off site, are associated with hazardous and toxic materials. These hazards are the focus of this report and are the basis for the facility hazard classification.

  11. Chemical hazards in health care: high hazard, high risk, but low protection.

    PubMed

    McDiarmid, Melissa A

    2006-09-01

    It is counter-intuitive that the healthcare industry, whose mission is the care of the sick, is itself a "high-hazard" industry for the workers it employs. Possessing every hazard class, with chemical agents in the form of pharmaceuticals, sterilants, and germicidals in frequent use, this industry sector consistently demonstrates poor injury and illness statistics, among the highest in the United States, and in the European Union (EU), 34% higher than the average work-related accident rate. In both the United States and the EU, about 10% of all workers are employed in the healthcare sector, and in developing countries as well, forecasts for the increasing need of healthcare workers (HCW) suggests a large population at potential risk of health harm. The explosion of technology growth in the healthcare sector, most obvious in pharmaceutical applications, has not been accompanied by a stepped up safety program in hospitals. Where there is hazard recognition, the remedies are often voluntary, and often poorly enforced. The wrong assumption that this industry would police itself, given its presumed knowledge base, has also been found wanting. The healthcare industry is also a significant waste generator threatening the natural environment with chemical and infectious waste and products of incineration. The ILO has recommended that occupational health goals for industrial nations focus on the hazards of new technology of which pharma and biopharma products are the leaders. This unchecked growth cannot continue without a parallel commitment to the health and safety of workers encountering these "high tech" hazards. Simple strategies to improve the present state include: (a) recognizing healthcare as a "high-hazard" employment sector; (b) fortifying voluntary safety guidelines to the level of enforceable regulation; (c) "potent" inspections; (d) treating hazardous pharmaceuticals like the chemical toxicants they are; and (e) protecting HCWs at least as well as workers in

  12. Rocket plume burn hazard.

    PubMed

    Stoll, A M; Piergallini, J R; Chianta, M A

    1980-05-01

    By use of miniature rocket engines, the burn hazard posed by exposure to ejection seat rocket plume flames was determined in the anaesthetized rat. A reference chart is provided for predicting equivalent effects in human skin based on extrapolation of earlier direct measurements of heat input for rat and human burns. The chart is intended to be used in conjunction with thermocouple temperature measurements of the plume environment for design and modification of escape seat system to avoid thermal injury on ejection from multiplace aircraft. PMID:7387571

  13. Landing Hazard Avoidance Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, Michael Franklin (Inventor); Hirsh, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Landing hazard avoidance displays can provide rapidly understood visual indications of where it is safe to land a vehicle and where it is unsafe to land a vehicle. Color coded maps can indicate zones in two dimensions relative to the vehicles position where it is safe to land. The map can be simply green (safe) and red (unsafe) areas with an indication of scale or can be a color coding of another map such as a surface map. The color coding can be determined in real time based on topological measurements and safety criteria to thereby adapt to dynamic, unknown, or partially known environments.

  14. Toxic Hazards Research Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macewen, J. D.; Vernot, E. H.

    1971-01-01

    The activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period of June 1970 through May 1971 reviewed. Modification of the animal exposure facilities primarily for improved human safety but also for experimental integrity and continuity are discussed. Acute toxicity experiments were conducted on hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) both singly and in combination with carbon dioxide (CO). Additional acute toxicity experiments were conducted on oxygen difluoride (OF2) and chlorine pentafluoride (ClF5). Subacute toxicity studies were conducted on methylisobutylketone and dichloromethane (methylene dichloride). The interim results of further chronic toxicity experiments on monomethylhydrazine (MMH) are also described.

  15. Hazards of geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms are large and sometimes rapid fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field that are related to disturbances on the Sun's surface. Although it is not widely recognized, these transient magnetic disturbances can be a significant hazard to people and property. Many of us know that the intensity of the auroral lights increases during magnetic storms, but few people realize that these storms can also cause massive power outages, interrupt radio communications and satellite operations, increase corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and lead to spuriously high rejection rates in the manufacture of sensitive electronic equipment. 

  16. The Impact Hazard in the Context of Other Natural Hazards and Predictive Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    1998-09-01

    The hazard due to impact of asteroids and comets has been recognized as analogous, in some ways, to other infrequent but consequential natural hazards (e.g. floods and earthquakes). Yet, until recently, astronomers and space agencies have felt no need to do what their colleagues and analogous agencies must do in order the assess, quantify, and communicate predictions to those with a practical interest in the predictions (e.g. public officials who must assess the threats, prepare for mitigation, etc.). Recent heightened public interest in the impact hazard, combined with increasing numbers of "near misses" (certain to increase as Spaceguard is implemented) requires that astronomers accept the responsibility to place their predictions and assessments in terms that may be appropriately considered. I will report on preliminary results of a multi-year GSA/NCAR study of "Prediction in the Earth Sciences: Use and Misuse in Policy Making" in which I have represented the impact hazard, while others have treated earthquakes, floods, weather, global climate change, nuclear waste disposal, acid rain, etc. The impact hazard presents an end-member example of a natural hazard, helping those dealing with more prosaic issues to learn from an extreme. On the other hand, I bring to the astronomical community some lessons long adopted in other cases: the need to understand the policy purposes of impact predictions, the need to assess potential societal impacts, the requirements to very carefully assess prediction uncertainties, considerations of potential public uses of the predictions, awareness of ethical considerations (e.g. conflicts of interest) that affect predictions and acceptance of predictions, awareness of appropriate means for publicly communicating predictions, and considerations of the international context (especially for a hazard that knows no national boundaries).

  17. The Element of Surprise: Preparing for the Possibility of Hazardous Materials within Archival Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Unprocessed archival collections can contain unknown and potentially hazardous materials that can be harmful to other collections and staff. Archival literature largely focuses on collection and personnel dangers posed by environmental hazards such as mold and insect infestation but not on pharmaceutical and chemical hazards. In this article, the…

  18. 40 CFR 156.78 - Precautionary statements for physical or chemical hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .../chemical hazards (e.g., oxidizing potential, conductivity, chemical reactions leading to production of... or chemical hazards. 156.78 Section 156.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Precautionary Statements § 156.78 Precautionary statements for physical or chemical hazards. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 156.78 - Precautionary statements for physical or chemical hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../chemical hazards (e.g., oxidizing potential, conductivity, chemical reactions leading to production of... or chemical hazards. 156.78 Section 156.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Precautionary Statements § 156.78 Precautionary statements for physical or chemical hazards. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 156.78 - Precautionary statements for physical or chemical hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../chemical hazards (e.g., oxidizing potential, conductivity, chemical reactions leading to production of... or chemical hazards. 156.78 Section 156.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Precautionary Statements § 156.78 Precautionary statements for physical or chemical hazards. (a)...