Science.gov

Sample records for hazardous waste landfill

  1. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... permitted hazardous waste landfills. 264.555 Section 264.555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills. (a) The Regional Administrator with regulatory... hazardous waste landfills not located at the site from which the waste originated, without the...

  2. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... permitted hazardous waste landfills. 264.555 Section 264.555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills. (a) The Regional Administrator with regulatory... hazardous waste landfills not located at the site from which the waste originated, without the...

  3. Vegetative soil covers for hazardous waste landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peace, Jerry L.

    Shallow land burial has been the preferred method for disposing of municipal and hazardous wastes in the United States because it is the simplest, cheapest, and most cost-effective method of disposal. Arid and semiarid regions of the western United States have received considerable attention over the past two decades in reference to hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste disposal. Disposal is based upon the premise that low mean annual precipitation, high evapotranspiration, and low or negligible recharge, favor waste isolation from the environment for long periods of time. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that containment of municipal and hazardous wastes in arid and semiarid environments can be accomplished effectively without traditional, synthetic materials and complex, multi-layer systems. This research demonstrates that closure covers utilizing natural soils and native vegetation i.e., vegetative soil covers, will meet the technical equivalency criteria prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for hazardous waste landfills. Vegetative soil cover design combines layers of natural soil, native plant species, and climatic conditions to form a sustainable, functioning ecosystem that maintains the natural water balance. In this study, percolation through a natural analogue and an engineered cover is simulated using the one-dimensional, numerical code UNSAT-H. UNSAT-H is a Richards' equation-based model that simulates soil water infiltration, unsaturated flow, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, and deep percolation. This study incorporates conservative, site-specific soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters. Historical meteorological data from 1919 to 1996 are used to simulate percolation through the natural analogue and an engineered cover, with and without vegetation. This study indicates that a 1 m (3 ft) cover is the minimum design thickness necessary to meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  4. The Impact of Household Hazardous Wastes on Landfill Leachates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    sample was taken. Sorting municipal solid waste after collection has the advantage of directly sampling what will go into the landfill. A study of the...Seattle/King County area (Cal Recovery Systems, 1985) determined that approximately 0.5 percent (by weight) of the municipal solid waste stream are...the Stanford Research Institute is now underway to determine the concentration of household hazardous waste in municipal solid waste (Galvin, 1987). A

  5. Accepting leachate from a hazardous-waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.M.; Brandenburg, B.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This article discusses the considerations necessary in preparing to treat leachate from a hazardous-waste landfill. The topics discussed include a review of the law, federal, state and local regulations, specific constituents of concern, leachate characteristics, process design and toxicity of the leachate. A table of the actual leachate composition is included.

  6. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills. 264.555 Section 264.555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS...

  7. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills. 264.555 Section 264.555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS...

  8. Remote sensing investigations at a hazardous-waste landfill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohr, C.; Su, W.-J.; DuMontelle, P.B.; Griffin, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    In 1976 state licensed landfilling of industrial chemicals was begun above an abandoned, underground coal mine in Illinois. Five years later organic chemical pollutants were discovered in a monitoring well, suggesting migration 100 to 1000 times faster than predicted by laboratory tests. Remote sensing contributed to the determination of the causes of faster-than-predicted pollutant migration at the hazardous-waste landfill. Aerial and satellite imagery were employed to supplement field studies of local surface and groundwater hydrology, and to chronicle site history. Drainage impediments and depressions in the trench covers collected runoff, allowing rapid recharge of surface waters to some burial trenches. These features can be more effectively identified by photointerpretation than by conventional field reconnaissance. A ground-based, post-sunset survey of the trench covers that showed that a distinction between depressions which hold moisture at the surface from freely-draining depressions which permit rapid recharge to the burial trenches could be made using thermal infrared imagery.In 1976 state licensed landfilling of industrial chemicals was begun above an abandoned, underground coal mine in Illinois. Five years later organic chemical pollutants were discovered in a monitoring well, suggesting migration 100 to 1000 times faster than predicted by laboratory tests. Remote sensing contributed to the determination of the causes of faster-than-predicted pollutant migration at the hazardous-waste landfill. Aerial and satellite imagery were employed to supplement field studies of local surface and groundwater hydrology, and to chronicle site history. Drainage impediments and depressions in the trench covers collected runoff, allowing rapid recharge of surface waters to some burial trenches.

  9. Risk-Based Prioritization Method for the Classification of Groundwater Pollution from Hazardous Waste Landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Jiang, Yong-Hai; lian, Xin-Ying; Xi, Bei-Dou; Ma, Zhi-fei; Xu, Xiang-Jian; An, Da

    2016-12-01

    Hazardous waste landfill sites are a significant source of groundwater pollution. To ensure that these landfills with a significantly high risk of groundwater contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater contamination is needed. In this research, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pollution from hazardous waste landfills was established. The method encompasses five phases, including risk pre-screening, indicator selection, characterization, classification and, lastly, validation. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 14 indicators involving hazardous waste landfills and migration in the vadose zone as well as aquifer were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined by K-means cluster analysis and the weight of each indicator was calculated by principal component analysis. These methods were applied to 37 hazardous waste landfills in China. The result showed that the risk for groundwater contamination from hazardous waste landfills could be ranked into three classes from low to high risk. In all, 62.2 % of the hazardous waste landfill sites were classified in the low and medium risk classes. The process simulation method and standardized anomalies were used to validate the result of risk ranking; the results were consistent with the simulated results related to the characteristics of contamination. The risk ranking method was feasible, valid and can provide reference data related to risk management for groundwater contamination at hazardous waste landfill sites.

  10. Risk-Based Prioritization Method for the Classification of Groundwater Pollution from Hazardous Waste Landfills.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Lian, Xin-Ying; Xi, Bei-Dou; Ma, Zhi-Fei; Xu, Xiang-Jian; An, Da

    2016-12-01

    Hazardous waste landfill sites are a significant source of groundwater pollution. To ensure that these landfills with a significantly high risk of groundwater contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater contamination is needed. In this research, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pollution from hazardous waste landfills was established. The method encompasses five phases, including risk pre-screening, indicator selection, characterization, classification and, lastly, validation. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 14 indicators involving hazardous waste landfills and migration in the vadose zone as well as aquifer were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined by K-means cluster analysis and the weight of each indicator was calculated by principal component analysis. These methods were applied to 37 hazardous waste landfills in China. The result showed that the risk for groundwater contamination from hazardous waste landfills could be ranked into three classes from low to high risk. In all, 62.2 % of the hazardous waste landfill sites were classified in the low and medium risk classes. The process simulation method and standardized anomalies were used to validate the result of risk ranking; the results were consistent with the simulated results related to the characteristics of contamination. The risk ranking method was feasible, valid and can provide reference data related to risk management for groundwater contamination at hazardous waste landfill sites.

  11. Insitu vacuum extraction/bioventing of a hazardous waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Heuckeroth, D.M.; Eberle, M.F.; Rykaczewski, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Insitu vacuum extraction (VE)/bioventing of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) was performed at an inactive hazardous waste landfill in the northeast United States. A VE system was used to extract VOCs from a horizontal well (trench), thereby delivering oxygen to the subsurface to biodegrade VOCs and SVOCs insitu. In areas where oxygen concentration increases were observed in the subsurface, microbial populations increased by orders of magnitude, and temperatures increased from 18 C to as high as 27 C. In these areas, up to 99% reductions were observed in specific VOC and SVOC concentrations after 3 months of operation. Based on system monitoring, the remediation of soil contaminants was approximately 90% attributable to insitu biodegradation and 10% attributable to volatilization.

  12. Subsurface geology of Louisiana hazardous waste landfills: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanor, J. S.

    1995-09-01

    Many hazardous waste sites in the south Louisiana Gulf Coast have been emplaced in sediments of Plio-Pleistocene to Recent age. Because of the fining upward nature of these regressive-transgressive fluvial-deltaic sequences and the purported confining capabilities of the shallow clay layers within them, this area would seem to be ideal for the location of surface waste landfills. However, detailed geologic mapping at a site in southeastern Louisiana documents how the three-dimensional distribution of sediment types and early diagenetic features, both of which were ultimately controlled by depositional history, can increase effective vertical permeability of finegrained sequences. Many bodies of sand that appear to be isolated in standard geotechnical cross sections can be shown to be part of spatially complex three-dimensional distributary networks, with fine-grained sediments representing overbank and backswamp deposits. Some clay layers are actually a composite of thinner clay beds, each subjected to subaerial exposure and the development of secondary porosity related to soil formation. There has been documented leakage of wastes down through the clays, and a recent study indicates that the effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the clay layers exceeds 10-5 cm s-1, or from one to four orders of magnitude higher than values measured on samples from cores of the same sediment. An understanding of the depositional framework, facies architecture, and diagenetic history of geologic materials underlying waste disposal sites in Louisiana is required for rational development of monitoring and remediation plans.

  13. Landfilling of solid and hazardous waste: Facing long-term liability

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.F.; Jones-Lee, A.

    1994-12-31

    In the past, the cheapest method available was used for the management of solid non-hazardous and hazardous waste. Now with cradle-to-grave liability, many companies are more critically evaluating the near-term and long-term liabilities and costs associated with various options for solid and liquid waste management. Recycle and reuse of wastes with residue management that eliminates long-term liability are the most desirable. However, most waste management programs involve some landfilling of wastes and/or treated residues. The disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes in such landfills carries a significant, perpetual liability for clean-up of contaminated groundwaters and eventual Superfund-like activities for waste removal and proper management. The inability of US EPA-prescribed Subtitle C and D landfills to prevent groundwater pollution by landfill leachate for as long as the wastes are a threat should be of significant concern to all waste generators. Solid and hazardous waste generators should critically evaluate the potential near-term and long-term liabilities associated with any particular approach for waste management, resource recovery (including fuel blending, solvent recovery, and reuse), and management of waste residues. This paper reviews why landfills of the type being developed today do no eliminate long-term liability associated with wastes and issues of long-term liability associated with alternative methods of waste management.

  14. Estimating the Long Term Liability from Landfilling Hazardous Waste

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments make the key element in...Society of Civil Engineers, New York, Nov. 1990. 44 required by the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to RCRA, as shown in Figure 10...reauthorized in 1984 by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments , is due for reauthorization in 1992 and it is probable that leachate flow rates shall

  15. Hazardous Waste Management - Liquids in Landfills - Federal Register Notice, November 18, 1992

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA), EPA is promulgating this final rule regarding the landfill disposal of containerized liquids mixed with sorbents.

  16. Geotechnical hazards associated with closed municipal solid waste landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powrie, W.; Richards, D.; Beaven, R.

    2015-09-01

    As pressure for new infrastructure and development grows, it is inevitable that building projects will encounter some of the c20,000 closed former solid waste landfills in the UK, many of which will have accepted municipal solid wastes (MSW). Construction on or across these sites brings a special set of geohazards associated with the potential for large and difficult to predict settlements, gas (and odour) release or generation, contaminated leachate and the breach of containment systems and other environmental controls. The presentation will discuss these issues with reference to recent research into understanding and predicting settlements in municipal solid waste landfills; assessing the total, current and residual gas potential of biodegradable wastes; the role of the hydraulic regime in the flushing of contaminants from the waste and the quality of leachate; and the need or otherwise for the long term integrity of engineered barriers and controls.

  17. A RULE-BASED SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING FINAL COVERS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter examines how rules are used as a knowledge representation formalism in the domain of hazardous waste management. A specific example from this domain involves performance evaluation of final covers used to close hazardous waste landfills. Final cover design and associ...

  18. EU landfill waste acceptance criteria and EU Hazardous Waste Directive compliance testing of incinerated sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Donatello, S; Tyrer, M; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-01-01

    A hazardous waste assessment has been completed on ash samples obtained from seven sewage sludge incinerators operating in the UK, using the methods recommended in the EU Hazardous Waste Directive. Using these methods, the assumed speciation of zinc (Zn) ultimately determines if the samples are hazardous due to ecotoxicity hazard. Leaching test results showed that two of the seven sewage sludge ash samples would require disposal in a hazardous waste landfill because they exceed EU landfill waste acceptance criteria for stabilised non-reactive hazardous waste cells for soluble selenium (Se). Because Zn cannot be proven to exist predominantly as a phosphate or oxide in the ashes, it is recommended they be considered as non-hazardous waste. However leaching test results demonstrate that these ashes cannot be considered as inert waste, and this has significant implications for the management, disposal and re-use of sewage sludge ash.

  19. Statistical comparison of leachate from hazardous, codisposal, and municipal solid waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, R.D.; Dolan, D.G.; May, H.; O'Leary, K.; O'Hara, R.

    1999-09-30

    There has been considerable debate regarding the chemical characterization of landfill leachate in general and the comparison of various types of landfill leachate (e.g., hazardous, codisposal, and municipal) in particular. For example, the preamble to the US EPA Subtitle D regulation (40 CFR Parts 257 and 258) suggests that there are no significant differences between the number and concentration of toxic constituents in hazardous versus municipal solid waste landfill leachate. The purpose of this paper is to statistically test this hypothesis in a large leachate database comprising 1490 leachate samples from 283 sample points (i.e., monitoring location such as a leachate sump) in 93 landfill waste cells (i.e., a section of a facility that took a specific waste stream or collection of similar waste streams) from 48 sites with municipal, codisposal, or hazardous waste site histories. Results of the analysis reveal clear differention between landfill leachate types, both in terms of constituents detected and their concentrations. The result of the analysis is a classification function that can estimate the probability that new leachate or ground water sample was produced by the disposal of municipal, codisposal, or hazardous waste. This type of computation is illustrated, and applications of the model to Superfund cost-allocation problems are discussed.

  20. Assessment for the management of NORM wastes in conventional hazardous and nonhazardous waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Mora, Juan C; Baeza, Antonio; Robles, Beatriz; Sanz, Javier

    2016-06-05

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) wastes are generated in huge quantities in several industries and their management has been carried out under considerations of industrial non-radioactive wastes, before the concern on the radioactivity content was included in the legislation. Therefore these wastes were conditioned using conventional methods and the waste disposals were designed to isolate toxic elements from the environment for long periods of time. Spanish regulation for these conventional toxic waste disposals includes conditions that assure adequate isolation to minimize the impact of the wastes to the environment in present and future conditions. After 1996 the radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes is considered and all the aspects related with natural radiations and the radiological control regarding the management of residues from NORM industries were developed in the new regulation. One option to be assessed is the disposal of NORM wastes in hazardous and non-hazardous waste disposals, as was done before this new regulation. This work analyses the management of NORM wastes in these landfills to derive the masses that can be disposed without considerable radiological impact. Generic dose assessments were carried out under highly conservative hypothesis and a discussion on the uncertainty and variability sources was included to provide consistency to the calculations.

  1. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Feo, Giovanni De; Gisi, Sabino De

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  2. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S. G.; Schofield, D. P.; Kwiecinski, D.; Edgmon, C. L.; Methvin, R.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals.

  3. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.

    PubMed

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  4. REQUIREMENTS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND CLOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication contains edited versions of the material presented at ten Technology Transfer seminars conducted in 1988 on this subject. Sections are included on design of clay and flexible membrane liners, leachate collector systems, and landfill covers. Construction quality a...

  5. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... taking place identifies principal hazardous constitutes in such waste, in accordance with § 264.552(e)(4... following standards specified for CAMU-eligible wastes: (i) The treatment standards under § 264.552(e)(4)(iv... authorizes receipt of such waste. (e) For each remediation, CAMU-eligible waste may not be placed in an...

  6. Landfills

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To provide information on landfills, including laws/regulations, and technical guidance on municipal solid waste, hazardous waste, industrial, PCBs, and construction and debris landfills. To provide resources for owners and operators of landfills.

  7. Birth weight reduction associated with residence near a hazardous waste landfill.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, M; Bove, F

    1997-01-01

    We examined the relationship between birth weight and mother's residence near a hazardous waste landfill. Twenty-five years of birth certificates (1961-1985) were collected for four towns. Births were grouped into five 5-year periods corresponding to hypothesized exposure periods (1971-1975 having the greatest potential for exposure). From 1971 to 1975, term births (37-44 weeks gestation) to parents living closest to the landfill (Area 1A) had a statistically significant lower average birth weight (192 g) and a statistically significant higher proportion of low birth weight [odds ratio (OR) = 5.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1-12.3] than the control population. Average term birth weights in Area 1A rebounded by about 332 g after 1975. Parallel results were found for all births (gestational age > 27 weeks) in Area 1A during 1971-1975. Area 1A infants had twice the risk of prematurity (OR = 2.1; 95 CI, 1.0-4.4) during 1971-1975 compared to the control group. The results indicate a significant impact to infants born to residents living near the landfill during the period postulated as having the greatest potential for exposure. The magnitude of the effect is in the range of birth weight reduction due to cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9347901

  8. Hydrogeology and water quality near a solid- and hazardous-waste landfill, Northwood, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Roche, J.T.; Breen, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogeology and water quality of ground water and selected streams were evaluated near a landfill in northwestern Ohio. The landfill is used for codisposal of solid and hazardous waste. Water-level and geologic data were collected from 36 wells and 3 surface-water sites during the period November 1983 to November 1985. Water-quality samples were collected from 18 wells and 3 surface-water sites this during this same period. The primary aquifers in the area are the Greenfield Dolomite and underlying Lockport Dolomite of Silurian age. These bedrock carbonates are overlain by two clay tills of Wisconsin age. The tills are capped by a glacial lake clay. The tills generally are saturated, but do not yield sufficient water to be considered an aquifer. Two wells in the study area yield water, in part, from discontinuous deposits of outwash sand and gravel at the lower till-bedrock interface. Regional ground-water flow is from southwest to northeast; local flow is influenced by a ground-water mound centered under the northernmost cells of the landfill. Water levels in wells penetrating refuse within the landfill and the presence of leachate seeps indicate that the refuse is saturated. Head relations among the landfill, till, and dolomite aquifer indicate a vertical component of flow downward from the landfill to the dolomite aquifer. Water levels near the landfill fluctuate as much as 14 feet per year, in contrast to fluctuations of less than 3 feet per year in wells upgradient landfill. Ground waters from wells completed in the dolomite aquifer and glacial till were found to have major-iron concentrations controlled, in large part, by reaction with calcite, dolomite, and other minerals in the aquifer. Only minor departures from equilibrium mineral saturation were noted for ground water, except in wells affected by cement/grout contamination. Molal ratios of calcuim:magnesium in ground water suggest a similar chemical evolution of waters throughout the dolomite aquifer in

  9. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  10. In situ vacuum extraction/bioventing of a hazardous waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Heuckeroth, D.M.; Eberle, M.F.; Rykaczewski, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    In situ vacuum extraction (VE)/bioventing of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) was performed at an inactive hazardous waste landfill in the northeast US. A VE system was used to extract VOCs from a horizontal well (trench), thereby delivering oxygen to the subsurface to biodegrade VOCs and SVOCs in situ. In areas where oxygen concentration increases were observed in the subsurface, microbial populations increased by orders of magnitude, and temperatures increased from 18 C to as high as 27 C. In these areas, up to 99% reductions were observed in specific VOC and SVOC concentrations after 3 months of operation. Based on system monitoring, the remediation of soil contaminants was approximately 90% attributable to in situ biodegradation and 10% attributable to volatilization.

  11. Health effects of residence near hazardous waste landfill sites: a review of epidemiologic literature.

    PubMed Central

    Vrijheid, M

    2000-01-01

    This review evaluates current epidemiologic literature on health effects in relation to residence near landfill sites. Increases in risk of adverse health effects (low birth weight, birth defects, certain types of cancers) have been reported near individual landfill sites and in some multisite studies, and although biases and confounding factors cannot be excluded as explanations for these findings, they may indicate real risks associated with residence near certain landfill sites. A general weakness in the reviewed studies is the lack of direct exposure measurement. An increased prevalence of self-reported health symptoms such as fatigue, sleepiness, and headaches among residents near waste sites has consistently been reported in more than 10 of the reviewed papers. It is difficult to conclude whether these symptoms are an effect of direct toxicologic action of chemicals present in waste sites, an effect of stress and fears related to the waste site, or an effect of reporting bias. Although a substantial number of studies have been conducted, risks to health from landfill sites are hard to quantify. There is insufficient exposure information and effects of low-level environmental exposure in the general population are by their nature difficult to establish. More interdisciplinary research can improve levels of knowledge on risks to human health of waste disposal in landfill sites. Research needs include epidemiologic and toxicologic studies on individual chemicals and chemical mixtures, well-designed single- and multisite landfill studies, development of biomarkers, and research on risk perception and sociologic determinants of ill health. PMID:10698726

  12. How residents cope with living near a hazardous waste landfill: an example of substantive theorizing.

    PubMed

    Wandersman, A; Hallman, W; Berman, S

    1989-10-01

    It is hard to be a community or environmental psychologist and not be interested in newspaper stories on global warming, oil spills, or toxic wastes in your own backyard. To the general public, these issues tend to be viewed as environmental, technological, toxicological, or governmental, but not psychological. As psychologists, we see many ways in which psychology does play a role in understanding these events. We have been engaged in a study of residents living near a hazardous waste landfill in which many subdisciplines of psychology have played an illuminating role. Wicker's (this issue) article on substantive theorizing outlines an approach to theory and research that helps communicate the structure and process of doing research on a complex area. We use his article to help us describe key aspects of our research that are not usually discussed in research articles. We believe that the type of research Wicker describes occurs more often than people realize. Unfortunately, however, journal conventions cause investigators to omit discussions of substantive theorizing aspects of their work. We hope that reading this article increases your understanding of substantive theorizing and our research as much as writing it increased our own.

  13. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  14. Aspergillus fumigatus and mesophilic moulds in air in the surrounding environment downwind of non-hazardous waste landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Olivier; Robert, Samuel; Debeaupuis, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Non-hazardous waste landfilling has the potential to release biological agents into the air, notably mould spores. Some species, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, may be a cause of concern for at-risk nearby residents. However, air concentration in the surrounding environment of non-hazardous waste landfill sites is poorly documented. An extensive sampling programme was designed to investigate the relationship between culturable mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus concentrations in air and distance downwind of non-hazardous waste landfill sites. On-site and off-site repeated measurements were performed at four landfill sites during cold and warm seasons. A high-flow air-sampler device was selected so as to allow peak concentration measurement. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explain variability in the concentrations in air over time and across sites, seasons, instantaneous meteorological conditions and discharged waste tonnage. Concentrations of mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus at off-site upwind sampling locations were compared with concentrations at each of the downwind sampling locations. At the tipping face location, peak concentration reached 480,000CFUm(-3) for mesophilic moulds and 9300CFUm(-3) for A. fumigatus. Compared with upwind background levels, these concentrations were, on average, approximately 20 and 40 times higher respectively. A steep decline in the concentration of both mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus was observed between the tipping face location and the downwind property boundary (reduction by 77% and 84% respectively), followed by a low decline leading to a 90% and 94% reduction in concentration at 200m from the property boundary and beyond. With the 200m and 500m downwind sampling point values added together, the 97.5th percentile of concentration was 6013CFUm(-3) and 87CFUm(-3) for mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus, respectively. Other determining factors were the discharged waste tonnage, the season, instantaneous temperature

  15. Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration; Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) is to demonstrate, in contaminated sites, new technologies for clean-up of chemical and mixed waste landfills that are representative of many sites throughout the DOE Complex and the nation. When implemented, these new technologies promise to characterize and remediate the contaminated landfill sites across the country that resulted from past waste disposal practices. Characterization and remediation technologies are aimed at making clean-up less expensive, safer, and more effective than current techniques. This will be done by emphasizing in-situ technologies. Most important, MWLID`s success will be shared with other Federal, state, and local governments, and private companies that face the important task of waste site remediation. MWLID will demonstrate technologies at two existing landfills. Sandia National Laboratories` Chemical Waste Landfill received hazardous (chemical) waste from the Laboratory from 1962 to 1985, and the Mixed-Waste Landfill received hazardous and radioactive wastes (mixed wastes) over a twenty-nine year period (1959-1988) from various Sandia nuclear research programs. Both landfills are now closed. Originally, however, the sites were selected because of Albuquerque`s and climate and the thick layer of alluvial deposits that overlay groundwater approximately 480 feet below the landfills. This thick layer of ``dry`` soils, gravel, and clays promised to be a natural barrier between the landfills and groundwater.

  16. Integrated Geophysical and Geological Fault Assessment at a Hazardous-Waste Landfill: Fluorspar Area Fault Complex, Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolery, E.; Baldwin, J.; Kelson, K.; Hampson, S.; Givler, R.

    2007-12-01

    Federal and Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations require proposed hazardous waste facilities undergo a surface-fault rupture hazard assessment prior to issuing construction permits. Permanent ground deformation may expose below-ground structures such as landfills and settling ponds, as well as above-ground structures such as tanks and incinerators to rupture and/or topple failure, and thus potential uncontrolled contaminant release. Regulations prohibit placing new hazardous waste facilities within 61 m (200 ft) of a Holocene-active fault. However, identifying and characterizing active faults in areas lacking geomorphic expression is a challenging task, as exemplified in and near the New Madrid seismic zone and Fluorspar Area fault complex (FAFC). In the mid-continent, surface manifestations of active faults are generally impeded by thick sequence of relatively weak, water-saturated Mississippi embayment sediment overlying bedrock. The soft sediment overburden and long recurrence interval between large earthquakes conceal neotectonic structures in bedrock and commonly fail to produce significant or noticeable geomorphic features. A proposed hazardous-waste landfill in western Kentucky is located within the upper Mississippi embayment and above the late Proterozoic-early Cambrian FAFC, an area also coincident with diffuse microseismicity. Integrated geophysical and geological methodologies were essential for a surface-fault rupture assessment. Nearly 1 km of SH-wave seismic reflection data were collected and interpreted for evidence of late Quaternary deformation. Five significant high-angle anomalies were interpreted to extend within approximately 7 m of the ground surface, near the upper limit of the seismic sampling. Eighty-six, densely spaced, continuous cores, each 9.1 m deep, intersected these features. Stratigraphic and chronological analyses were performed on the cores to assess the presence or absence of structure, and to determine the near-surface extent

  17. Baghdad Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-19

    SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SIGIR PA... Solid Waste Landfill 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Municipal Solid Waste Landfill , Baghdad, Iraq (Report Number SIGIR-PA-06-067) We are providing this project assessment report for your information

  18. Establishment of a successional oldfield on a capped hazardous waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; Young, W. |

    1995-12-31

    Bayer Corporation recently closed a 100-year old pigment manufacturing facility in Haledon, New Jersey. All buildings associated with the production portion of the site were demolished and due to subsurface contamination by a number of volatile organics, 12 acres of the site were capped in accordance with the strictest regulations that could be imposed. Rather than paving or installing turf grass on the cap, the cover was designed to simulate a northeastern successional oldfield. Criteria for selection of plants included: native, ability to survive with little maintenance (no irrigation), highly reproductive (i.e., early fruiting and/or clonal growth to expand the planting), high diversity, varying age and size for more diverse habitat structure, and aesthetics. The design emphasized the use of native warm season grasses and perennial wildflowers for year-round interest. It also included the use of tree/shrub islands or fingers between sampling wells within the main meadow to obscure the landfill mound, the use of problem soils and waste products for soil building to save the cost of topsoil, and the use of coir fabrics for erosion control. After establishment, the meadow will require only annual mowing and will ultimately provide an educational and aesthetic amenity to the Borough.

  19. Techniques for modeling hazardous air pollutant emissions from landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.J.; Vigil, S.A.; Melcer, H.

    1998-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency`s Landfill Air Estimation Model (LAEEM), combined with either the AP-42 or CAA landfill emission factors, provide a basis to predict air emissions, including hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), from municipal solid waste landfills. This paper presents alternative approaches for estimating HAP emissions from landfills. These approaches include analytical solutions and estimation techniques that account for convection, diffusion, and biodegradation of HAPs. Results from the modeling of a prototypical landfill are used as the basis for discussion with respect to LAEEM results

  20. Predictive modeling of hazardous waste landfill total above-ground biomass using passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadley, Brian Christopher

    This dissertation assessed remotely sensed data and geospatial modeling technique(s) to map the spatial distribution of total above-ground biomass present on the surface of the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) hazardous waste landfill. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, regression kriging, and tree-structured regression were employed to model the empirical relationship between in-situ measured Bahia (Paspalum notatum Flugge) and Centipede [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] grass biomass against an assortment of explanatory variables extracted from fine spatial resolution passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data. Explanatory variables included: (1) discrete channels of visible, near-infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) reflectance, (2) spectral vegetation indices (SVI), (3) spectral mixture analysis (SMA) modeled fractions, (4) narrow-band derivative-based vegetation indices, and (5) LIDAR derived topographic variables (i.e. elevation, slope, and aspect). Results showed that a linear combination of the first- (1DZ_DGVI), second- (2DZ_DGVI), and third-derivative of green vegetation indices (3DZ_DGVI) calculated from hyperspectral data recorded over the 400--960 nm wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum explained the largest percentage of statistical variation (R2 = 0.5184) in the total above-ground biomass measurements. In general, the topographic variables did not correlate well with the MWMF biomass data, accounting for less than five percent of the statistical variation. It was concluded that tree-structured regression represented the optimum geospatial modeling technique due to a combination of model performance and efficiency/flexibility factors.

  1. Validation of an in situ solidification/stabilization technique for hazardous barium and cyanide waste for safe disposal into a secured landfill.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Rucha; Kodam, Kisan; Ghole, Vikram; Surya Mohan Rao, K

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to devise and validate an appropriate treatment process for disposal of hazardous barium and cyanide waste into a landfill at a Common Hazardous Waste Treatment Storage Disposal Facility (CHWTSDF). The waste was generated during the process of hardening of steel components and contains cyanide (reactive) and barium (toxic) as major contaminants. In the present study chemical fixation of the contaminants was carried out. The cyanide was treated by alkali chlorination with calcium hypochlorite and barium by precipitation with sodium sulfate as barium sulfate. The pretreated mixture was then solidified and stabilized by binding with a combination of slag cement, ordinary Portland cement and fly ash, molded into blocks (5 x 5 x 5 cm) and cured for a period of 3, 7 and 28 days. The final experiments were conducted with 18 recipe mixtures of waste + additive:binder (W:B) ratios. The W:B ratios were taken as 80:20, 70:30 and 50:50. The optimum proportions of additives and binders were finalized on the basis of the criteria of unconfined compressive strength and leachability. The leachability studies were conducted using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. The blocks were analyzed for various physical and leachable chemical parameters at the end of each curing period. Based on the results of the analysis, two recipe mixtures, with compositions - 50% of [waste + (120 g Ca(OCl)(2) + 290 g Na(2)SO(4)) kg(-1) of waste] + 50% of binders, were validated for in situ stabilization into a secured landfill of CHWTSDF.

  2. Delisting a Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page discussed the hazardous waste delisting process. A hazardous waste delisting is a rulemaking procedure to amend the list of hazardous wastes to exclude a waste produced at a particular facility.

  3. Municipal solid waste landfills harbor distinct microbiomes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity.

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Harbor Distinct Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Blake W.; Lyles, Christopher N.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Stevenson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are the final repository for most of the discarded material from human society and its “built environments.” Microorganisms subsequently degrade this discarded material in the landfill, releasing gases (largely CH4 and CO2) and a complex mixture of soluble chemical compounds in leachate. Characterization of “landfill microbiomes” and their comparison across several landfills should allow the identification of environmental or operational properties that influence the composition of these microbiomes and potentially their biodegradation capabilities. To this end, the composition of landfill microbiomes was characterized as part of an ongoing USGS national survey studying the chemical composition of leachates from 19 non-hazardous landfills across 16 states in the continental U.S. The landfills varied in parameters such as size, waste composition, management strategy, geography, and climate zone. The diversity and composition of bacterial and archaeal populations in leachate samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and compared against a variety of physical and chemical parameters in an attempt to identify their impact on selection. Members of the Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and candidate division OP3 were the most abundant. The distribution of the observed phylogenetic diversity could best be explained by a combination of variables and was correlated most strongly with the concentrations of chloride and barium, rate of evapotranspiration, age of waste, and the number of detected household chemicals. This study illustrates how leachate microbiomes are distinct from those of other natural or built environments, and sheds light on the major selective forces responsible for this microbial diversity. PMID:27148222

  5. Hazardous Waste Generators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many industries generate hazardous waste. EPA regulates hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to ensure these wastes are managed in ways that are protective of human health and the environment.

  6. Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Daily activities at the Hanford Site generate sanitary solid waste (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) that is transported to and permanently disposed of at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. This permit application describes the manner in which the solid Waste Landfill will be operated under Washington State Department of Ecology Minimum Functional Standards for Solid Waste Handling, Washington Administrative Code 173-304. The solid Waste Landfill is owned by the US Department of Energy -- Richland Operations Office and is used for disposal of solid waste generated at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The jurisdictional health department's permit application form for the Solid Waste Landfill is provided in Chapter 1.0. Chapter 2.0 provides a description of the Hanford Site and the Solid Waste Landfill and reviews applicable locational, general facility, and landfilling standards. Chapter 3.0 discusses the characteristics and quantity of the waste disposed of in the Solid Waste Landfill. Chapter 4.0 reviews the regional and site geology and hydrology and the groundwater and vadose zone quality beneath the landfill. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 contain the plan of operation, closure plan, and postclosure plan, respectively. The plan of operation describes the routine operation and maintenance of the Solid Waste Landfill, the environmental monitoring program, and the safety and emergency plans. Chapter 5.0 also addresses the operational cover, environmental controls, personnel requirements, inspections, recordkeeping, reporting, and site security. The postclosure plan describes requirements for final cover maintenance and environmental monitoring equipment following final closure. Chapter 8.0 discusses the integration of closure and postclosure activities between the Solid Waste Landfill and adjacent Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 76 refs., 48 figs, 15 tabs.

  7. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  8. Seismic evaluation of municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Hovind, C.; Slyh, R.

    1995-12-31

    With the promulgation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery (RCRA) Subtitle D, landfills situated within seismic impact zones must be evaluated for seismic hazards to demonstrate that the containment structures of the landfill can resist the maximum horizontal acceleration in lithified earth materials (bedrock) for the site. If a landfill is sited on saturated soils, it must also be evaluated for liquefaction and lateral spreading. In 1994, EMCON evaluated the seismic hazard for a landfill located along the Columbia River in southwestern Washington. The landfill was founded on dredge fill over natural alluvial deposits. Laboratory testing and state-of-the-art engineering analyses indicated that the sand unit below the landfill had a high potential for liquefaction. The seismic hazard evaluation for the site included a site-specific seismic response analysis, a liquefaction potential analysis, and seismic stability and deformation analysis. The seismic response analysis was conducted for nonliquefied, partially liquefied, and fully liquefied foundation soil conditions. Results are described.

  9. Hydrogeologic framework and simulation of shallow ground-water flow in the vicinity of a hazardous-waste landfill near Pinewood, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The geologic units in the vicinity of a hazardous- waste landfill near Pinewood, S.C., were divided into hydrogeologic units on the basis of lithologic and hydrologic characteristics. A quasi-3- dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow model was constructed to represent the hydrogeologic flamework. The simulation results indicate that if non-reactive constituents were released to the Lang Syne water-bearing zone underlying the central and western pans of the disposal area, the constituents would move in a southwesterly direction at a rate of about one-half to 7 feet per year. Contaminants could move from the Lang Syne water-bearing zone upward to the surficial aquifer, to streams, or to Lake Marion. Although these flow rates indicate that it would require at least 50 years for contaminants to travel between the disposal area and a nearby (400 ft) potential discharge area, the heterogeneity of the site hydrogeology imparts an uncertainty to the conclusion. Faster travel times cannot be ruled out if contamination enters an area having a higher hydraulic conductivity than those determined in this investigation. Faster arrival times at Lake Marion also could result if there are pathways shorter than about 400 feet between contaminated water and an area where it can discharge to the surficial aquifer or to streams. If contaminant releases were to occur on the eastern side of the ground-water mounds, near landfill section II and the southeastern part of land fill section I, initial flow directions would be toward the water-level depression in the eastern part of the facility. Ground water within water- level depression would flow downward, probably to the underlying lower Sawdust Landing water-beating zone. Movement of non-reactive constituents in the tower Sawdust Landing water-bearing zone would be southwestward toward Lake Marion at a rate of about 8 to 20 feet per year. Transport to the lake by this route could require more than 200 years.

  10. Hazardous Waste Permitting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To provide RCRA hazardous waste permitting regulatory information and resources permitted facilities, hazardous waste generators, and permit writers. To provide the public with information on how they can be involved in the permitting process.

  11. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Lindberg; M.J. Hartman

    1999-08-17

    The Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL), which received nonradioactive hazardous waste between 1975 and 1985, is located in the central Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) in southeastern Washington State. The Solid Waste Landfill, which is regulated and monitored separately, is adjacent to the NRDWL. The NRDWL is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and monitored by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Monitoring is done under interim-status, indicator-evaluation requirements (WAC 173-303 and by reference, 40 CFR 265.92). The well network includes three upgradient wells (one shared with the Solid Waste Landfill) and six downgradient wells. The wells are sampled semiannually for contaminant indicator parameters and site-specific parameters and annually for groundwater quality parameters.

  12. Hazardous Waste Manifest System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s hazardous waste manifest system is designed to track hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator facility where it was produced, until it reaches the off-site waste management facility that will store, treat, or dispose of the waste.

  13. Risk mitigation methodology for solid waste landfills. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, W.B.

    1995-05-01

    Several recent models have attempted to simulate or assess the probability and consequences of the leakage of aqueous contaminant leakage from solid waste landfills. These models incorporate common factors, including climatological and geological characteristics. Each model, however, employs a unique approach to the problem, assigns different relative weights to factors, and relies upon extrapolated small-scale experimental data and/or subjective judgment in predicting the full-scale landfill failure mechanisms leading to contaminant migration. As a result, no two models are likely to equally assess a given landfill, and no one model has been validated as a predictor of long-term performance. The United States Air Force maintains a database for characterization of potential hazardous waste sites. Records include more than 500 landfills, providing such information as waste, soil, aquifer, monitoring location data, and the results of sample testing. Through analysis of this information, nearly 300 landfills were assessed to have sufficiently, partially, or inadequately contained hazardous constituents of the wastes placed within them.

  14. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment.

  15. Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates.

    PubMed Central

    Sobsey, M D

    1978-01-01

    Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses. In this study, 22 leachate samples from 21 different landfills in the United States and Canada were examined for enteric viruses. The sites represented a broad range of conditions for solid waste landfills and the leachate samples ranged from 10.3 to 18 liters in volume. Enteric viruses were found in only one of the 22 leachate samples examined. Two viruses, identified as poliovirus types 1 and 3, were found in an 11.8 liter sample obtained from a site where solid waste landfill practice was deficient. The low levels of enteric viruses detected in field samples of raw leachate and the opportunities for further reductions in the virus concentration of leachates by such processes as thermal inactivation, removal by soil and dilution in ground and surface waters, suggest that leachates from properly operated solid waste landfills do not constitute an environmental or public health hazard due to enteric viruses. PMID:28677

  16. Hazardous Waste Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Americans generate approximately 1.6 million tons of hazardous household waste every year. When most people think of hazardous waste, they generally think of materials used in construction, the defense industry, mining, manufacturing, and agriculture. Few people think of hazardous substances…

  17. 40 CFR 258.20 - Procedures for excluding the receipt of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous waste. 258.20 Section 258.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.20 Procedures..., regulated hazardous waste means a solid waste that is a hazardous waste, as defined in 40 CFR 261.3, that...

  18. Hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, G.W.; Mercer, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    This is a reference work designed to guide the chemist to solutions to problems of waste disposal. It has chapters on incineration, ocean dumping and underground injection, landfill disposal, transportation, abandoned sites, regulation, etc. A group of 12 appendices provide a lot of useful information for quick reference.

  19. Applying the Clean Air Act to municipal solid waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Heitz, D.R.; Romzick, P.G.

    1998-12-31

    On March 12, 1996, the EPA promulgated the new Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfills, the first federal air regulation specifically for MSW landfills. Landfills subject to this regulation which exceeded the threshold design capacity also became subject to the Title V operating permit program. This began the application of the Clean Air Act (CAA) to most of these nontraditional air sources. Unlike landfills, typical air sources have easily defined input capacities that correspond to potential emissions while the process creates a product or output. All these concepts are difficult and confusing to apply to MSW landfills. Applicability of the following CAA regulations are specifically addressed in this paper: NSPS for MSW landfills; new Source Review (NSR)/Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD); landfill Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT); 112(g) Modification of Major Sources of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(r) Accidental Release Prevention; and Title V. Along with summarizing the potential applicability of each, the main issues are presented along with the current information on the regulations.

  20. Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

  1. Implementing landfill surfaces methane monitoring for the municipal solid waste landfill NSPS/EG

    SciTech Connect

    Huitric, R.; Banaji, J.

    1996-11-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (USEPA) Municipal Solid Waste Landfill New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG) implements a landfill surface methane performance standard to verify emissions control effectiveness. The standard requires that periodic measures of surface gases along a predesignated route be less than 500 ppm methane at any point. During rule proposal, SWANA`s Landfill Gas Management Division (LFGMD) had advocated a performance standard as a more economic and effective alternative to the very prescriptive requirements first proposed by the USEPA in 1991. However, LFGMD recommended an averaged rather than a point source measure of the surface gases. Under the final NSPS rule, the landfill surface gas must be tested along the landfill`s perimeter and along interior routes each quarter. The interior routes must be aligned such that no route portion is more than 30 meters from any other portion. Exemptions are allowed for hazardous areas. A portable methane detector meeting USEPA`s Method 21 requirements is used to continuously sample air pumped from a probe or wand placed between 5 and 10 centimeters of the ground surface as a technician walks along a route. This paper addresses various implementation issues and discusses the development of possible monitoring alternatives, as allowed by the rule.

  2. Hazardous Waste Data (RCRAInfo)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazardous waste information is contained in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo), a national program management and inventory system about hazardous waste handlers. In general, all generators, transporters, treaters, storers, and disposers of hazardous waste are required to provide information about their activities to state environmental agencies. These agencies, in turn pass on the information to regional and national EPA offices. This regulation is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. You may use the RCRAInfo Search to determine identification and location data for specific hazardous waste handlers, and to find a wide range of information on treatment, storage, and disposal facilities regarding permit/closure status, compliance with Federal and State regulations, and cleanup activities.

  3. Municipal waste landfill permitting in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Mentzer, G.F.

    1996-11-01

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has 50 permitted municipal waste landfills (MWL) with calculated capacities ranging from 0.5 to 25.3 million tons. The most common size for our landfills is in the range of 3 to 5 million tons, with three landfills exceeding the 20+ million ton capacity. Future expansion projects will increase a few landfills to in excess of 35+ million tons. Exact VOC emission numbers are not available since not all landfills have or are required to report their emissions to the Pennsylvania air emissions database. However, estimates from several of our larger facilities indicates the uncontrolled VOC emissions are in the range of 250 to 350 TPY with a possible high of 580 TPY. Although the numbers are not exact, it does point out the fact that landfills are a major source of VOC emissions. With the advent of the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) proposed New Source Performance Standards (Subpart WWW) and emissions guidance (Subpart Cc), the EPA declared that the MWL are a source of air pollution. Following the release of these proposed regulations, the Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Air Quality began in mid 1994 the task of permitting landfills. Through the use of customized forms G(A) and G(B), the Department made in 1995 its first attempt to identify and quantify emissions from its landfills. The process of quantifying and verifying emission estimates is still on going. To date, the Department is in various stages of permitting eight MWL.

  4. Estimation of municipal solid waste landfill settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, H.I.; Leshchinsky, D.; Mohri, Yoshiyuki; Kawabata, Toshinori

    1998-01-01

    The municipal solid waste landfill suffers from large postclosure settlement that occurs over an extended period of time. A large differential settlement may impair foundations, utilities, and other associated facilities constructed on top of a landfill. It may also lead to breakage of the geomembrane and damage of the cover system in a modern municipal solid waste landfill. The waste material exhibits heterogeneous engineering properties that vary over locations and time within a landfill. These factors, combined with the fact that a landfill is not fully saturated, render a traditional soil mechanics approach less attractive for settlement prediction. An empirical approach of expressing settlement rate using logarithmic and power relationships is commonly used in conjunction with an observational procedure. In this paper, validity of these functions is reexamined based on published settlement results from three landfill sites. A hyperbolic function is proposed as an improved tool to simulate the settlement-time relationships, as well as to detect final settlement. The relationships between the parameters of these empirical functions and water content are examined.

  5. Hazardous Wastes from Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, John

    The management of waste materials has become more complex with the increase in human population and the development of new substances. This illustrated booklet traces the history of waste management and provides guidelines for individuals and communities in disposing of certain hazardous wastes safely. It addresses such topics as: (1) how people…

  6. Analysis of the contaminants released from municipal solid waste landfill site: A case study.

    PubMed

    Samadder, S R; Prabhakar, R; Khan, D; Kishan, D; Chauhan, M S

    2017-02-15

    Release and transport of leachate from municipal solid waste landfills pose a potential hazard to both surrounding ecosystems and human populations. In the present study, soil, groundwater, and surface water samples were collected from the periphery of a municipal solid waste landfill (located at Ranital of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India) for laboratory analysis to understand the release of contaminants. The landfill does not receive any solid wastes for dumping now as the same is under a landfill closure plan. Groundwater and soil samples were collected from the bore holes of 15m deep drilled along the periphery of the landfill and the surface water samples were collected from the existing surface water courses near the landfill. The landfill had neither any bottom liner nor any leachate collection and treatment system. Thus the leachate generated from the landfills finds paths into the groundwater and surrounding surface water courses. Concentrations of various physico-chemical parameters including some toxic metals (in collected groundwater, soil, and surface water samples) and microbiological parameters (in surface water samples) were determined. The analyzed data were integrated into ArcGIS environment and the spatial distribution of the metals and other physic- chemical parameter across the landfill was extrapolated to observe the distribution. The statistical analysis and spatial variations indicated the leaching of metals from the landfill to the groundwater aquifer system. The study will help the readers and the municipal engineers to understand the release of contaminants from landfills for better management of municipal solid wastes.

  7. Physical and chemical methods for the characterization of hazardous wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, C. W.; Maskarinec, M. P.; Lee, D. W.

    Numerous test methods have been proposed and developed to evaluate the hazards associated with handling and disposal of wastes in landfills. The major concern is the leaching of toxic constituents from the wastes. The fate of hazardous constituents in landfilled wastes is highly dependent on the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste. Thus, the primary objective in the selection of waste characterization procedures should be focused on those methods that gauge the fate of the waste's hazardous constituents in a specific landfill environment. Waste characterization in the United States has centered around the characteristics of ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity. The strategy employed in the development of most regulatory waste characterization procedures has been a pass or fail approach, usually tied to some form of a mismanagement scenario for that waste. For example, USEPA has chosen the disposal of a waste in a municipal waste landfill as a mismanagement scenario for the development of the waste leaching tests to determine the toxicity characteristic. Many wastes, such as large-volume utility wastes or mining wastes, are not disposed of in municipal waste landfills. As a consequence, more effort is needed in the development of waste leaching tests that determine the long-term leaching characteristics of that waste in the landfill environment in which the waste is to be disposed. Waste leaching models also need to be developed and tested as to their ability to simulate actual disposal environments. These models need to be compared with laboratory leaching tests, and, if practical, coupled with groundwater transport models.

  8. MICROBIAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESHLY LANDFILLED WASTE: COMPARISONS TO LANDFILLED WASTES OF DIFFERENT AGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cooperative research and development agreement was initiated between U.S. EPA and Waste Management Inc. for a multi-year study of landfill bioreactors at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY. As part of the agreement a research project is underway to study the microbiolog...

  9. Developing hazardous waste programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  10. Household Hazardous Waste (HHW)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page gives an overview of how to safely manage household hazardous wastes like cleaners, paints and oils. Information is also provided on how to find recycling and disposal options for these products, as well as natural alternatives.

  11. 40 CFR 264.317 - Special requirements for hazardous wastes FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... design, operating, and monitoring requirements are necessary for landfills managing hazardous wastes FO20... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 264.317 Special requirements for..., and FO27 must not be placed in a landfill unless the owner or operator operates the landfill in...

  12. Innovative hazardous waste treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.M.; Sferra, P.R. . Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains information about the latest developments in destroying hazardous wastes by incineration or pyrolysis. Topics include: hydrogenation and reuse of hazardous organic wastes; catalytic incineration of gaseous wastes; oxygen enhancement of hazardous waste incineration; and thermal fixation of hazardous metal sludges in an alumina-silicate matrix.

  13. Surface emission of landfill gas from solid waste landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Won; Shin, Ho-Chul

    The surface emission of landfill gas (LFG) was studied to estimate the amount of LFG efflux from solid waste landfills using an air flux chamber. LFG efflux increased as atmospheric temperature increased during the day, and the same pattern for the surface emission was observed for the change of seasons. LFG efflux rate decreased from summer through winter. The average LFG efflux rates of winter, spring and summer were 0.1584, 0.3013 and 0.8597 m 3 m -2 h -1 respectively. The total amount of surface emission was calculated based on the seasonal LFG efflux rate and the landfill surface area. From the estimates of LFG generation, it is expected that about 30% of the generated LFG may be released through the surface without extraction process. As forced extraction with a blower proceeded, the extraction well pressure decreased from 1100 to -100 mm H 2O, and the LFG surface efflux decreased markedly above 80%. Thus, the utilization of LFG by forced extraction would be the good solution for global warming and air pollution by LFG.

  14. Household Hazardous Waste and Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Household wastes that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, or reactive are known as Household Hazardous Waste (HHW). Household Hazardous Waste may be found during residential demolitions, and thus require special handling for disposal.

  15. Impact assessment of intermediate soil cover on landfill stabilization by characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Rui; Shi, Xiaochong; He, Liang; Guo, Jingting; Miao, Haomei; Nie, Yongfeng

    2013-10-15

    Waste samples at different depths of a covered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Beijing, China, were excavated and characterized to investigate the impact of intermediate soil cover on waste stabilization. A comparatively high amount of unstable organic matter with 83.3 g kg(-1) dry weight (dw) total organic carbon was detected in the 6-year-old MSW, where toxic inorganic elements containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of 10.1, 0.98, 85.49, 259.7, 530.4, 30.5, 84.0, and 981.7 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively, largely accumulated because of the barrier effect of intermediate soil cover. This accumulation resulted in decreased microbial activities. The intermediate soil cover also caused significant reduction in moisture in MSW under the soil layer, which was as low as 25.9%, and led to inefficient biodegradation of 8- and 10-year-old MSW. Therefore, intermediate soil cover with low permeability seems to act as a barrier that divides a landfill into two landfill cells with different degradation processes by restraining water flow and hazardous matter.

  16. Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.; Wilson, L.G.; Hoylman, E.W.

    1983-10-01

    This book describes the applicability of vadose zone monitoring techniques to hazardous waste site investigations. More than 70 different sampling and nonsampling vadose zone monitoring techniques are described in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Physical, chemical, geologic, topographic, geohydrologic, and climatic constraints for vadose zone monitoring are quantitatively determined. Vadose zone monitoring techniques are categorized for premonitoring, active, and postclosure site assessments. Waste disposal methods are categorized for piles, landfills, impoundments, and land treatment. Conceptual vadose zone monitoring approaches are developed for specific waste disposal method categories.

  17. Hazardous Waste: Cleanup and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve; Cronin, Nancy L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses hazardous waste, waste disposal, unsafe exposure, movement of hazardous waste, and the Superfund clean-up process that consists of site discovery, site assessment, clean-up method selection, site clean up, and site maintenance. Argues that proper disposal of hazardous waste is everybody's responsibility. (JRH)

  18. Waste management health risk assessment: a case study of a solid waste landfill in South Italy.

    PubMed

    Davoli, E; Fattore, E; Paiano, V; Colombo, A; Palmiotto, M; Rossi, A N; Il Grande, M; Fanelli, R

    2010-01-01

    An integrated risk assessment study has been performed in an area within 5 km from a landfill that accepts non hazardous waste. The risk assessment was based on measured emissions and maximum chronic population exposure, for both children and adults, to contaminated air, some foods and soil. The toxic effects assessed were limited to the main known carcinogenic compounds emitted from landfills coming both from landfill gas torch combustion (e.g., dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) and from diffusive emissions (vinyl chloride monomer, VCM). Risk assessment has been performed both for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Results indicate that cancer and non-cancer effects risk (hazard index, HI) are largely below the values accepted from the main international agencies (e.g., WHO, US EPA) and national legislation (D.Lgs. 152/2006 and D.Lgs. 4/2008).

  19. Waste management health risk assessment: A case study of a solid waste landfill in South Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Davoli, E.; Fattore, E.; Paiano, V.; Colombo, A.; Palmiotto, M.; Rossi, A.N.; Il Grande, M.; Fanelli, R.

    2010-08-15

    An integrated risk assessment study has been performed in an area within 5 km from a landfill that accepts non hazardous waste. The risk assessment was based on measured emissions and maximum chronic population exposure, for both children and adults, to contaminated air, some foods and soil. The toxic effects assessed were limited to the main known carcinogenic compounds emitted from landfills coming both from landfill gas torch combustion (e.g., dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) and from diffusive emissions (vinyl chloride monomer, VCM). Risk assessment has been performed both for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Results indicate that cancer and non-cancer effects risk (hazard index, HI) are largely below the values accepted from the main international agencies (e.g., WHO, US EPA) and national legislation ( and ).

  20. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  1. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  2. Hazardous Waste: Cleanup and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve; Cronin, Nancy L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Superfund, a federal cleanup program created in response to growing public concern over the health and environmental risks posed by hazardous waste sites. Discusses sources, disposal, and movement and risk of hazardous waste. (JRH)

  3. Air emissions at a municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Capenter, J.E.; Bidwell, J.N.

    1996-09-01

    The on-site and off-site ambient air concentrations of non-methane organic compounds (NMOC) and hydrogen sulfide were evaluated at a regional municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. A target list was developed to reflect those compounds typically found at MSW landfills that have potential health effects or odors. The on-site effects on ambient air were estimated conservatively by collecting air samples 10 to 13 cm above the landfill surface. The off-site impacts were predicted using air dispersion modeling that considered both fugitive and point source emissions and were based on landfill gas sampled from an active well collection system. The on-site and off-site ambient air concentrations were compared to levels set by regulatory requirements (Connecticut`s Hazard Limiting Values or HLVs) and odor threshold levels. No compound exceeded the HLVs either on- or off-site. No compounds detected on-site exceeded their odor thresholds. Several compounds evaluated at one-half their detection limit did exceed the odor threshold on-site. Only hydrogen sulfide exceeded its odor threshold off-site but remained below Connecticut`s Odor Limit Value.

  4. A Study of Leachate Generated from Construction and Demolition Landfills,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    solid waste (MSW) landfills and hazardous waste landfills. Regulators felt that since C&D landfills did not accept large quantities of hazardous waste...Construction and demolition (C&D) waste landfills have largely been ignored because they have been viewed as innocuous in comparison to municipal

  5. Space monitoring of municipal solid waste landfills in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakova, Olga; Shagarova, Lyudmila

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are special facilities designed for waste isolation and disposal ensuring sanitary and epidemiological safety of population. A solid waste landfill is a complex object with its own specific features. Modern remote-sensing methods are an indispensable source of information for the analysis of space images of solid waste landfills in Kazakhstan. Space monitoring of solid waste landfills includes the following tasks: 1. Identification and mapping of landfill areas according to the data of remote earth sensing. 2. Studying of energy and structural characteristics of landfills based on remote sensing data. 3. Analysis of the state of landfills based on a comparison of current and archive remote sensing data. Space monitoring of territories of municipal solid waste landfills uses modern computer technologies. They include satellite imagery combined with sub-satellite research, as well as other sources of information used for identification and mapping of landfill territories. Investigation of municipal solid waste landfills requires targeted survey of landfill areas, remote sensing using operational and archival data including theoretical foundations of physical optics and statistical data. Processing of digital satellite information uses methods of pattern recognition, automated image processing and correlation analysis. Based on spectral energy and textural characteristics of municipal solid waste landfills obtained by remote sensing methods, the technology of space monitoring of landfill areas, including landfill recognition and characterization of solid waste landfills from remote observations was developed. Monitoring of MSW landfills uses satellite images of ultrahigh and medium spatial resolution. Medium-resolution images are used to determine temperature, vegetation cover and soil degradation. High-resolution images are used to detect landfills, to determine forms of soil degradation, to calculate geometrical parameters, and

  6. Report: management problems of solid waste landfills in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Yaqout, Anwar F; Hamoda, Mohamed F

    2002-08-01

    This paper evaluates current operational practices in municipal solid waste landfills in Kuwait to provide existing knowledge on uncontrolled landfilling and associated problems of solid waste disposal in developing countries. The current landfilling practices are safe neither for humans nor for the environment. The landfill sites receive all kinds of wastes such as food wastes, oil products, debris, dead animals, agricultural wastes, chemical wastes, wastewater and sewage sludge. The wastes are dumped, spread and compacted in an uncontrolled manner and cover material is not applied regularly. Dust created within the landfill site and gas emissions cause a public nuisance. The characteristics of leachate formed indicate high organic content and presence of heavy metals, salts and nutrients. There are no provisions for leachate or landfill gas collection at the landfill sites. Recommendations for adjustment in landfill operation have been made in recognition of the transition period that is experienced in proceeding from the past and present to the future management of landfills in Kuwait to safeguard the public health and protect the environment.

  7. New hazardous waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Krukowski, J.

    1993-05-15

    From data supplied by industrial laboratories, from academia, and from the EPA's Superfund Innovative Site Evaluation (SITE) program, this paper presents an informal look at some new and innovative hazardous waste treatment processes. These processes show promise for sparing users off-site disposal costs as well as for remediation of contamination at Superfund or RCRA sites. Included are the following: equipment that will biodegrade water-based paint wastes and pesticide wastes; recycling of potliner and furnace dusts for metal recovery; a process that reduces PCBs and PAHs to lighter hydrocarbons such as methane. Finally, two radiofrequency (RF) processes are described that can be used to remove soil contaminants such as pentachlorophenols, Aroclor 1242, solvents, oils, jet fuel, and pesticides.

  8. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  9. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  10. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  11. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  12. Criteria for municipal solid-waste landfills (40 CFR Part 258). Subtitle D of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Summary of data on municipal solid-waste-landfill leachate characteristics. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    In August 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed Solid Waste Disposal Facilities Criteria (40 CFR Part 258) for municipal solid-waste landfills. This background document is the basis for the development of a portion of the Subtitle D criteria. The document presents information on the character of leachate from municipal solid-waste landfills based on a study of existing leachate data. The purpose of the document was to: (1) investigate municipal solid-waste-landfill leachate; (2) determine the constituents present; (3) determine the concentrations of the constituents present relative to human health and environmental regulatory standards; and (4) evaluate the effects of Subtitle C hazardous waste regulations on constituent concentrations in municipal solid-waste-landfill leachate. The document describes the sources of the data and its quality and presents the results of the study.

  13. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-28

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising.

  14. Characterization of landfill gas composition at the Fresh Kills municipal solid-waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, B.; Anderson, E.P.; Walker, B.L.; Burrows, D.B.

    1998-08-01

    The most common disposal method in the US for municipal solid waste (MSW) is burial in landfills. Until recently, air emissions from these landfills were not regulated. Under the New Source Performance Standards and Emission Guidelines for MSW landfills, MSW operators are required to determine the nonmethane organic gas generation rate of their landfill through modeling and/or measurements. This paper summarizes speciated nonmethane organic compound (NMOC) measurement data collected during an intensive, short-term field program. Over 250 separate landfill gas samples were collected from emission sources at the Fresh Kills landfill in New York City and analyzed for approximately 150 different analytes. The average total NMOC value for the landfill was 438 ppmv (as hexane) versus the regulatory default value of 4,000 ppmv (as hexane). Over 70 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected and quantified in the landfill gas samples. The typical gas composition for this landfill was determined as well as estimates of the spatial, temporal, and measurement variability in the gas composition. The data for NMOC show that the gas composition within the landfill is equivalent to the composition of the gas exiting the landfill through passive vents and through the soil cover.

  15. Hazardous Wastes--New Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Harvey W.

    1979-01-01

    The need for effective disposal of hazardous medical and pathological wastes is discussed and the results of a test of five different models of incinerators in disposing of such wastes is presented. (MJB)

  16. Management of hazardous medical waste in Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Marinkovic, Natalija Vitale, Ksenija; Holcer, Natasa Janev; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Pavic, Tomo

    2008-07-01

    This article provides a review of hazardous medical waste production and its management in Croatia. Even though Croatian regulations define all steps in the waste management chain, implementation of those steps is one of the country's greatest issues. Improper practice is evident from the point of waste production to final disposal. The biggest producers of hazardous medical waste are hospitals that do not implement existing legislation, due to the lack of education and funds. Information on quantities, type and flow of medical waste are inadequate, as is sanitary control. We propose an integrated approach to medical waste management based on a hierarchical structure from the point of generation to its disposal. Priority is given to the reduction of the amounts and potential for harm. Where this is not possible, management includes reduction by sorting and separating, pretreatment on site, safe transportation, final treatment and sanitary disposal. Preferred methods should be the least harmful for human health and the environment. Integrated medical waste management could greatly reduce quantities and consequently financial strains. Landfilling is the predominant route of disposal in Croatia, although the authors believe that incineration is the most appropriate method. In a country such as Croatia, a number of small incinerators would be the most economical solution.

  17. Capping as an alternative for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes some of the regulatory and technical issues concerning the use of capping as a containment strategy for radioactive and hazardous waste. Capping alternatives for closure of landfills is not just an engineering problem, but rather involves complex physical, biological, and chemical processes requiring a multidisciplinary approach to develop designs that will work over the long haul and are cost-effective. Much of the information has been distilled from regulatory and guidance documents and a compilation of research activities on waste disposal, contaminant transport processes, and technology development for landfills that has been conducted over the last 21 years.

  18. FIELD TEST MEASUREMENTS AT FIVE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS WITH LANDFILL GAS CONTROL TECHNOLOGY--FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to evaluate landfill gas emissions at five municipal solid waste landfills which have modern control technology for landfill gas emissions. Comprehensive testing was conducted on the raw landfill gas and the combustion outlet exhaust. The project had two ...

  19. Performance of bioreactor landfill with waste mined from a dumpsite.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Swati, M; Nagendran, R; Joseph, Kurian

    2007-12-01

    Emissions from landfills via leachate and gas are influenced by state and stability of the organic matter in the solid waste and the environmental conditions within the landfill. This paper describes a modified, ecologically sound waste treatment technique, where municipal solid waste is anaerobically treated in a lysimeter-scale landfill bioreactor with leachate recirculation to enhance organic degradation. The results demonstrate a substantial decrease in organic matter (BOD 99%, COD 88% and TOC 81%) and a clear decrease in nutrient concentrations especially ammonia (85%) over a period of 1 year with leachate recirculation.

  20. Liners and Leak Detection Systems for Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Units - Federal Register Notice, January 29, 1992

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is amending its current regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) concerning liner and leachate collection and removal systems for hazardous waste surface impoundments, landfills, and waste piles.

  1. Public health assessment for Clarke Road Municipal Solid Waste Landfill, Waynesboro, Burke County, Georgia, Region 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-21

    The Burke County Clarke Road Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWL) opened in 1975 and is still in operation. This landfill has two areas which accept waste, one cell for municipal and the other for construction and demolition waste. The Georgia Environmental Protection Division (EPD) and the consultant for Burke County, Tribble and Richardson, Inc. (T and R) collected drinking-water well samples on May 12, 1997, at seven residences in the vicinity of the landfill. EPD asked the Georgia Division of Public Health (GDPH) to conduct a public health investigation at the Clarke Road MSWL in Waynesboro, Georgia. EPD is concerned about possible adverse health effects caused by past, present, and future exposure to environmental contamination from the landfill. GDPH classifies this site as no apparent public health hazard. Discussions of exposure pathways, specific contaminants, and conclusions about the risk posed to residents near the landfill are included in this document.

  2. Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview that includes the definition of hazardous waste, EPA’s Cradle-to-Grave Hazardous Waste Management Program, and hazardous waste generation, identification, transportation, recycling, treatment, storage, disposal and regulations.

  3. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  4. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  5. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  6. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  7. GUIDANCE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. The report's 18 chapters include critical ...

  8. GUIDANCE AVAILABLE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides a brief summary of a report that offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. T...

  9. Impact of electronic waste disposal on lead concentrations in landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Spalvins, Erik; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy

    2008-10-01

    Lead is the element most likely to cause discarded electronic devices to be characterized as hazardous waste. To examine the fate of lead from discarded electronics in landfills, five columns were filled with synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW). A mix of electronic devices was added to three columns (6% by weight), while two columns served as controls. A sixth column contained waste excavated from an existing MSW landfill. Leachate quality was monitored for 440 days. In columns with the synthetic waste, leachate pH indicated that the simulated landfill environment was characteristic of the acid phase of waste decomposition; lead leachability should be greater in the acid phase of landfill degradation as compared to the methanogenic phase. Lead concentrations ranged from 7 to 66 microg/L in the columns containing electronic waste and ranged from < 2 to 54 microg/L in the control columns. Although the mean lead concentrations in the columns containing electronic devices were greater than those in the controls, the difference was not found to be statistically significant when comparing the data sets over the entire monitoring period. Lead results from the excavated waste column suggest that lead concentrations in all columns will decrease as the pH increases toward more neutral methanogenic conditions.

  10. Bioreactor landfill technology in municipal solid waste treatment: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Mudhoo, Ackmez

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, due to an advance in knowledge of landfill behaviour and decomposition processes of municipal solid waste, there has been a strong thrust to upgrade existing landfill technologies for optimizing these degradation processes and thereafter harness a maximum of the useful bioavailable matter in the form of higher landfill gas generation rates. Operating landfills as bioreactors for enhancing the stabilization of wastes is one such technology option that has been recently investigated and has already been in use in many countries. A few full-scale implementations of this novel technology are gaining momentum in landfill research and development activities. The publication of bioreactor landfill research has resulted in a wide pool of knowledge and useful engineering data. This review covers leachate recirculation and stabilization, nitrogen transformation and corresponding extensive laboratory- and pilot-scale research, the bioreactor landfill concept, the benefits to be derived from this bioreactor landfill technology, and the design and operational issues and research trends that form the basis of applied landfill research.

  11. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Coulon, R.; Barlaz, M.A.; Ham, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    The Environmental Industries Association Research Foundation (EIA), in conjunction with Ecobalance and researchers from the Universities of Wisconsin and North Carolina State, are carrying out a comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of landfills. LCA is increasingly used in shaping national and international waste management policies. Little work has been done on sanitary landfills and thus their comparison with other waste management alternatives has not been properly evaluated. The main reasons are that: (1) the internal biological, physical and chemical decomposition processes are not fully understood, (2) these processes occur over a long period of time, (3) the need for modeling landfills has only recently become appreciated, and (4) existing models often deal with partial aspects of a landfill`s environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gases) and therefore can not be used in a comprehensive evaluation like LCA.

  12. Attenuation of heavy metal leaching from hazardous wastes by co-disposal of wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Wookeun; Shin, Eung Bai; Lee, Kil Chul; Kim, Jae Hyung

    1996-12-31

    The potential hazard of landfill wastes was previously evaluated by examining the extraction procedures for individual waste, although various wastes were co-disposed of in actual landfills. This paper investigates the reduction of extraction-procedure toxicity by co-disposing various combinations of two wastes. When two wastes are mixed homogeneously, the extraction of heavy metals from the waste mixture is critically affected by the extract pH. Thus, co-disposal wastes will have a resultant pH between the pH values of its constituent. The lower the resultant pH, the lower the concentrations of heavy metals in the extract. When these wastes are extracted sequentially, the latter extracted waste has a stronger influence on the final concentration of heavy metals in the extract. Small-scale lysimeter experiments confirm that when heavy-metal-bearing leachates Generated from hazardous-waste lysimeters are passed through a nonhazardous-waste lysimeter filled with compost, briquette ash, or refuse-incineration ashes, the heavy-metal concentration in the final leachates decreases significantly. Thus, the heavy-metal leaching could be attenuated if a less extraction-procedure-toxic waste were placed at the bottom of a landfill. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Hazardous waste: cleanup and prevention

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Cronin, Nancy L.; Farrar, Frank; Serrano, Guillermo Eliezer Ávila; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Our lifestyles are supported by complex Industrial activities that produce many different chemicals and chemical wastes. The Industries that produce our clothing, cars, medicines, paper, food, fuels, steel, plastics, and electric components use and discard thousands of chemicals every year. At home we may use lawn chemicals, solvents, disinfectants, cleaners, and auto products to Improve our quality of life. A chemical that presents a threat or unreasonable risk to people or the environment Is a hazardous material. When a hazardous material can no longer be used, It becomes a hazardous waste. Hazardous wastes come from a variety of sources, from both present and past activities. Impacts to human health and the environment can result from Improper handling and disposal of hazardous waste.

  14. Avoiding the Hazards of Hazardous Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Under a 1980 law, colleges and universities can be liable for cleanup of hazardous waste on properties, in companies, and related to stocks they invest in or are given. College planners should establish clear policy concerning gifts, investigate gifts, distance university from business purposes, sell real estate gifts quickly, consult a risk…

  15. Leaching of lead from computer printed wire boards and cathode ray tubes by municipal solid waste landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong-Chul; Townsend, Timothy G

    2003-10-15

    The proper management of discarded electronic devices (E-waste) is an important issue for solid waste professionals because of the magnitude of the waste stream and because these devices often contain a variety of toxic metals (e.g., lead). While recycling of E-waste is developing, much of this waste stream is disposed in landfills. Leaching tests are frequently used to characterize the potential of a solid waste to leach when disposed in a landfill. In the United States, the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) is used to determine whether a solid waste is a hazardous waste by the toxicity characteristic. The TCLP is designed to simulate worse-case leaching in a landfill environment where the waste is co-disposed with municipal solid waste (MSW). While the TCLP is a required analysis from a regulatory perspective, the leachate concentrations measured may not accurately reflect the concentrations observed under typical landfill conditions. Another method that can be performed to assess the degree a pollutant might leach from a waste in a landfill is to use actual landfill leachate as the leaching solution. In this study, two lead-containing components found in electronic devices (printed wire boards from computers and cathode ray tubes from computers and televisions) were leached using the TCLP and leachates from 11 Florida landfills. California's Waste Extraction Test (WET) and the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure were also performed. The results indicated that the extractions using MSW landfill leachates resulted in lower lead concentrations than those by the TCLP. The pH of the leaching solution and the ability of the organic acids in the TCLP and WET to complex with the lead are factors that regulate the amount of lead leached.

  16. Methane production from food waste leachate in laboratory-scale simulated landfill.

    PubMed

    Behera, Shishir Kumar; Park, Jun Mo; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Park, Hung-Suck

    2010-01-01

    Due to the prohibition of food waste landfilling in Korea from 2005 and the subsequent ban on the marine disposal of organic sludge, including leachate generated from food waste recycling facilities from 2012, it is urgent to develop an innovative and sustainable disposal strategy that is eco-friendly, yet economically beneficial. In this study, methane production from food waste leachate (FWL) in landfill sites with landfill gas recovery facilities was evaluated in simulated landfill reactors (lysimeters) for a period of 90 d with four different inoculum-substrate ratios (ISRs) on volatile solid (VS) basis. Simultaneous biochemical methane potential batch experiments were also conducted at the same ISRs for 30 d to compare CH(4) yield obtained from lysimeter studies. Under the experimental conditions, a maximum CH(4) yield of 0.272 and 0.294 L/g VS was obtained in the batch and lysimeter studies, respectively, at ISR of 1:1. The biodegradability of FWL in batch and lysimeter experiments at ISR of 1:1 was 64% and 69%, respectively. The calculated data using the modified Gompertz equation for the cumulative CH(4) production showed good agreement with the experimental result obtained from lysimeter study. Based on the results obtained from this study, field-scale pilot test is required to re-evaluate the existing sanitary landfills with efficient leachate collection and gas recovery facilities as engineered bioreactors to treat non-hazardous liquid organic wastes for energy recovery with optimum utilization of facilities.

  17. Elimination of the hazards from hazardous wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Gloyna, E F; Taylor, R D

    1978-01-01

    The "hazard" associated with a waste essentially controls the overall engineering approach to finding suitable alternatives for solving potential disposal problems. It should be recognized that all factors affecting environmental equilibrium must be considered, including product sales, process design, financing, pre- and end-of-pipe treatment, residuals management, and ultimate bioaccumulation of residuals. To meet this challenge, a systems approach to waste treatment and residuals disposal provides a logical approach, but this management concept requires a thorough understanding of the important physical and chemical aspects of the problem, as well as many social implications of the resulting decisions. Thus waste management within a plant necessarily involves process control, pretreatment and end-of-pipe treatment. Further, it follows that residuals management from a disposal point-of-view must ultimately embrace what is called the "multi-barrier concept." In essence, hazard elimination occurs in varying degrees during each phase of a properly engineered system. PMID:738249

  18. Treatment of hazardous landfill leachate by the Rochem DTM membrane separation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, D.W.; Cook, K.

    1995-10-01

    The Disc Tube{trademark} Module (DTM) technology was developed by Rochem Separations Systems, Inc. and designed to remove a variety of organic and inorganic contaminants from liquid hazardous waste streams. The DTM technology is a membrane based technology utilizing an innovative process configuration which allows for treatment of aqueous waste streams such as landfill leachate. Historically, membrane based technologies have been used as a secondary polishing step in treating effluents to meet pretreatment discharge standards. The DTM technology was designed to treat liquids containing higher dissolved solids, turbidity and contaminant levels than previously possible with conventional membrane processes. The DTM process was evaluated under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island during the months of August and September 1994. Approximately 33,000 gallons of hazardous landfill leachate were treated by the DTM technology using reverse osmosis membranes. The leachate contained moderate to high levels of volatile organic contaminants, low levels of heavy metals, and high total dissolved solids. The Developer (Rochem) claimed that the technology was capable of (1) achieving a high percent rejection of the contaminants of concern; (2) recovering {ge}75% permeate (treated water); and (3) allowing for a greater resistance to scaling and fouling of membranes than conventional membrane processes.

  19. Implications of variable waste placement conditions for MSW landfills.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jason T; Yesiller, Nazli; Hanson, James L

    2015-12-01

    This investigation was conducted to evaluate the influence of waste placement practices on the engineering response of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Waste placement conditions were varied by moisture addition to the wastes at the time of disposal. Tests were conducted at a California landfill in test plots (residential component of incoming wastes) and full-scale active face (all incoming wastes including residential, commercial, and self-delivered components). The short-term effects of moisture addition were assessed by investigating compaction characteristics and moisture distribution and the long-term effects by estimating settlement characteristics of the variably placed wastes. In addition, effects on engineering properties including hydraulic conductivity and shear strength, as well as economic aspects were investigated. The unit weight of the wastes increased with moisture addition to a maximum value and then decreased with further moisture addition. At the optimum moisture conditions, 68% more waste could be placed in the same landfill volume compared to the baseline conditions. Moisture addition raised the volumetric moisture content of the wastes to the range 33-42%, consistent with values at and above field capacity. Moisture transfer occurred between consecutive layers of compacted wastes and a moisture addition schedule of 2 days of as-received conditions and 1 day of moisture addition was recommended. Settlement of wastes was estimated to increase with moisture addition, with a 34% increase at optimum moisture compared to as-received conditions. Overall, moisture addition during compaction increased unit weight, the amount of incoming wastes disposed in a given landfill volume, biological activity potential, and predicted settlement. The combined effects have significant environmental and economic implications for landfill operations.

  20. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis

    2004-06-15

    This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

  1. Mixed waste landfill cell construction at energy solutions LLC: a regulator's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Lukes, G.C.; Willoughby, O.H.

    2007-07-01

    A small percentage of the property that EnergySolutions' (formerly Envirocare) operates at Clive, Utah is permitted by the State of Utah as a treatment, storage and disposal facility for mixed waste. Mixed Waste is defined as a hazardous waste (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 261.3) that also has a radioactive component. Typically, the waste EnergySolutions receives at its mixed waste facility is contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds while also contaminated with radioactivity. For EnergySolutions, the largest generator of mixed waste is the United States Department of Energy. However, EnergySolutions also accepts a wide variety of mixed waste from other generators. For many wastes, EnergySolutions goes through the process of characterization and acceptance (if appropriate) of the waste, treating the waste (if necessary), confirmation that the waste meets Land Disposal Restriction, and disposal of the waste in its mixed waste landfill cell (MWLC). EnergySolutions originally received its State-issued Part B (RCRA) permit in 1990. The Permit allows a mixed waste landfill cell footprint that covers roughly 10 hectares and includes 20 individual 'sumps'. EnergySolutions chose to build small segments of the landfill cell as waste receipts dictated. Nearly 16 years later, EnergySolutions has just completed its Phase V construction project. 18 of the 20 sumps in the original design have been constructed. The last two sumps are anticipated to be its Phase VI construction project. Further expansion of its mixed waste disposal landfill capacity beyond the current design would require a permit modification request and approval by the Executive Secretary of the Utah Solid and Hazardous Waste Control Board. Construction of the landfill cell is governed by the Construction Quality Assurance/Quality Control manual of its State-issued Permit. The construction of each sump is made up of (from the bottom up): a foundation; three feet of engineered clay

  2. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  3. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  4. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  5. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make...

  6. Innovative hazardous waste treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.M.; Sferra, P.R. . Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains technical overviews of new processes for reducing hazardous waste volume. These processes are based upon physico-chemical principles. Topics include: vacuum extraction for cleanup of soils and groundwater; catalytic hydrodechlorination; on stripping technology; and recovery and disposal of nitrate wastes.

  7. 40 CFR 258.20 - Procedures for excluding the receipt of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedures for excluding the receipt of hazardous waste. 258.20 Section 258.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.20...

  8. 40 CFR 258.20 - Procedures for excluding the receipt of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for excluding the receipt of hazardous waste. 258.20 Section 258.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.20...

  9. 40 CFR 258.20 - Procedures for excluding the receipt of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Procedures for excluding the receipt of hazardous waste. 258.20 Section 258.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.20 Procedures...

  10. 40 CFR 258.20 - Procedures for excluding the receipt of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for excluding the receipt of hazardous waste. 258.20 Section 258.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.20...

  11. Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket contains information reported to EPA by federal facilities that manage hazardous waste or from which hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants have been - or may be - released.

  12. Post-closure care of engineered municipal solid waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Amalendu; Bhattacharya, Abhik

    2015-03-01

    Post-closure care is divided into perpetual care (PPC) and long-term care (LTC). Guidelines for post-closure care and associated costs are important for engineered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. In many states in the USA, landfill owners are required to set aside funds for 30-40 years of LTC. Currently there are no guidelines for PPC, which is also required. We undertook a pilot study, using two landfills (note: average landfill capacity 2.5 million MT MSW waste) in Wisconsin, to establish an approach for estimating the LTC period using field data and PPC funding need. Statistical analysis of time versus concentration data of selected leachate parameters showed that the concentration of most parameters is expected to be at or below the preventive action limit of groundwater and leachate volume will be very low, within 40 years of the LTC period. The gas extraction system may need to be continued for more than 100 years. Due to lack of data no conclusion could be made regarding adequacy of the LTC period for the groundwater monitoring system. The final cover must be maintained for perpetuity. The pilot study shows that although technology is available, the financial liability of maintaining a 'Dry Tomb' design for landfills is significantly higher than commonly perceived. The paper will help landfill professionals to estimate realistic post-closure funding and to develop field-based policies for LTC and PPC of engineered MSW landfills.

  13. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

    1995-10-01

    We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy.

  14. 76 FR 16534 - Hazardous Waste Management System Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste...,'' to exclude (or delist) on a one-time basis from the lists of hazardous waste, a certain solid waste... the petitioned waste is ] not hazardous waste. This exclusion applies to 148 cubic yards of...

  15. Gas emissions from biodegradable waste in United Kingdom landfills.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Sally Maree; Jilang Pan; Bateson, Thomas; Gronow, Jan R; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to predict the effect that the biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) diversion targets in the European Union landfill directive (99/31/EC) would have on landfill gas emissions. This is important for continued mitigation of these emissions. Work was undertaken in three stages using the GasSim model (v1.03) developed by the Environment Agency (England and Wales). The first stage considered the contribution to gas emissions made by each biodegradable component of the waste stream. The second stage considered how gas emissions from a landfill accepting biodegradable wastes with reduced biodegradable content would be affected. The third stage looked at the contribution to gas emissions from real samples of biologically pretreated BMW. For the first two stages, data on the waste components were available in the model. For the third stage samples were obtained from four different biological treatment facilities and the required parameters determined experimentally. The results of stage 1 indicated that in the first 15 years of the landfill the putrescible fraction makes the most significant contribution, after which paper/card becomes the most significant. The second stage found that biodegradability must be reduced by at least 60% to achieve a reduction in overall methane generation. The third stage found that emissions from samples of biologically pretreated BMW would result in a significant reduction in gas emissions over untreated waste, particularly in the early stage of the landfill lifetime; however, low level emissions would continue to occur for the long term.

  16. Assessing mobility of household organic hazardous chemicals in landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, R.; Zeiss, C.

    1995-11-01

    The principal components of these hazardous materials are motor oils, detergents, paints and pesticides. Occurrence of their ingredients in landfill leachate follows source release function that determines their discharge rate to groundwater. Five compounds were identified very mobile in the landfill based on mobility index calculations. They were phenolate for the motor oil group, ethylene oxide and thylene glycol from detergent group, and formaldehyde and methylethyl ketone (MEK) from the paint group. These five chemicals were used as tracing compounds for quantitative assessment of their emission to the groundwater. An analytical solution to a one dimensional convective-diffusion transport equation was used to model their transport in the landfill. The model into which the channeled flow was incorporated considered adsorption-desorption and degradation. Leachate from earlier stage of leaching had significantly higher concentrations of the tracing compounds in comparison to that produced later. Contaminant concentrations in leachate decreased with time and the decreases occurred in order of formaldehyde {ge} phenol > MEK {ge} ethylene glycol > ethylene oxide. Concentrations of phenol, formaldehyde, and ethylene glycol were less than 0.02 g/L, which is about 0.1% of initial concentration, after 11 weeks. It took 22 weeks for MEK to be reduced to the same concentration at a velocity of 6 pore volumes per year.

  17. Hazardous solid waste from agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, R C

    1978-01-01

    Large quantities of food processing, crop, forestry, and animal solid wastes are generated in the United States each year. The major components of these wastes are biodegradable. However, they also contain components such as nitrogen, human and animal pathogens, medicinals, feed additives, salts, and certain metals, that under uncontrolled conditions can be detrimental to aquatic, plant, animal, or human life. The most common method of disposal of these wastes is application to the land. Thus the major pathways for transmission of hazards are from and through the soil. Use of these wastes as animal feed also can be a pathway. While at this time there are no crises associated with hazardous materials in agricultural solid wastes, the potential for problems should not be underestimated. Manpower and financial support should be provided to obtain more detailed information in this area, esepcially to better delineate transport and dispersal and to determine and evaluate risks. PMID:367770

  18. Characterization of thermal properties of municipal solid waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Faitli, József; Magyar, Tamás; Erdélyi, Attila; Murányi, Attila

    2015-02-01

    Municipal waste landfills represent not only a source of landfill gases, but a source of thermal energy as well. The heat in landfills is generated by physical, chemical and microbiological processes. The goal of our study was to characterize the thermal properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) samples of the given landfill. A new apparatus was designed and constructed to measure heat flow. A systematic test series of 17 discrete measurements was carried out with municipal waste samples of 1.0-1.7 m(3). The thermal conductivity, heat diffusivity and specific heat capacity of the samples were determined. Analysing the results of the sampling and our experiments it was realized that the theoretical fundaments should be clarified. Two theories were developed for the serial and for the parallel heat flow in three phase disperse systems. The serial and parallel models resulted in different theoretical estimations. The measured thermal conductivity and heat diffusivity were better characterized by the parallel heat flow estimations. The results show that heat can flow parallel in solid, liquid and gas phases. Characterization of thermal properties serves to establish the fundament of heat extraction from municipal waste landfills.

  19. Landfill disposal systems

    PubMed Central

    Slimak, Karen M.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of landfill disposal of hazardous wastes in the United States is indicated by presenting descriptions of six operating landfills. These landfills illustrate the variety of techniques that exist in landfill disposal of hazardous wastes. Although some landfills more effectively isolate hazardous waste than others, all landfills must deal with the following problems. Leachate from hazardous waste landfills is generally highly polluted. Most landfills attempt to contain leachate at the site and prevent its discharge to surface or groundwaters. To retain leachate within a disposal area, subsurface barriers of materials such as concrete, asphalt, butyl rubber, vinyl, and clay are used. It is difficult to assure that these materials can seal a landfill indefinitely. When a subsurface barrier fails, the leachate enters the groundwater in a concentrated, narrow band which may bypass monitoring wells. Once a subsurface barrier has failed, repairs are time-consuming and costly, since the waste above the repair site may have to be removed. The central problem in landfill disposal is leachate control. Recent emphasis has been on developing subsurface barriers to contain the wastes and any leachate. Future emphasis should also be on techniques for removing water from hazardous wastes before they are placed in landfills, and on methods for preventing contact of the wastes with water during and after disposal operations. When leachate is eliminated, the problems of monitoring, and subsurface barrier failure and repair can be addressed, and a waste can be effectively isolated. A surface seal landfill design is recommended for maintaining the dry state of solid hazardous wastes and for controlling leachate. Any impervious liner is utilized over the top of the landfill to prevent surface water from seeping into the waste. The surface barrier is also the site where monitoring and maintenance activities are focused. Barrier failure can be detected by visual

  20. Biological treatment of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, G.A.; Filippi, L.J. de

    1998-12-01

    This reference book is intended for individuals interested in or involved with the treatment of hazardous wastes using biological/biochemical processes. Composed of 13 chapters, it covers a wide variety of topics ranging from engineering design to hydrogeologic factors. The first four chapters are devoted to a description of several different types of bioreactors. Chapter 5 discusses the biofiltration of volatile organic compounds. Chapters 6 through 9 discuss specific biological, biochemical, physical, and engineering factors that affect bioremediation of hazardous wastes. Chapter 10 is a very good discussion of successful bioremediation of pentachlorophenol contamination under laboratory and field conditions, and excellent references are provided. The next chapter discusses the natural biodegradation of PCB-contaminated sediments in the Hudson River in New York state. Chapter 12 takes an excellent look at the bioremediation capability of anaerobic organisms. The final chapter discusses composting of hazardous waste.

  1. 75 FR 53268 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve New Hampshire's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 28, 2010...

  2. 77 FR 65875 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... AGENCY Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... determination to approve a modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to... amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for Research,...

  3. 78 FR 5350 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve Massachusetts's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On December 7,...

  4. 78 FR 20073 - Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY... modification to the State of Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA... certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 14, 2012, Oregon submitted...

  5. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of...

  6. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of...

  7. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of...

  8. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of...

  9. From dumping to sanitary landfills - solid waste management in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Nissim, I. . E-mail: ilan@sviva.gov.il; Shohat, T.; Inbar, Y.

    2005-07-01

    To address the problem of solid waste in Israel, the Ministry of the Environment has formulated a policy based on integrated waste management. The policy calls for reduction of waste at source, reuse, recycling (including composting), waste-to-energy technologies, and landfilling. Due to the implementation of this policy, all the large dumps were closed, state-of-the art landfills were built, and recovery rates have increased from 3% in the beginning of the 1990s to almost 20% in 2003. More than 95% of the municipal solid waste is disposed and treated in an environmentally sound manner - in comparison to a mere 10% just a decade ago. The policy was implemented utilizing both enforcement and financial support ('stick and carrot' approach)

  10. Groundwater impacts associated with landfill gas migration at municipal solid waste landfill sites

    SciTech Connect

    Clister, W.; Janechek, A.; Hibbs, S.

    1998-07-01

    Many older municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are unlined and subsequently have become a source of local groundwater contamination. However, the adverse impact on the groundwater quality at such sites is not necessarily limited to that caused by leachate contamination of the underlying aquifer but also may include the effects of landfill gas (LFG) migration. Absorption of certain LFG components, particularly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), may occur at offsite locations when a LFG excursion front migrates into adjacent soils. When LFG management systems are installed at such sites, this problem is often eliminated.

  11. Innovative hazardous waste treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.M.; Sferra, P.R. . Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains 21 various biodegradation techniques for hazardous waste treatment. Topics include: cyclic vertical water table movement for enhancement of in situ biodegradation of diesel fuel; enhanced biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons; and evaluation of aeration methods to bioremediate fuel-contaminated soils.

  12. Searching for Solutions. A Citizen's Guide to Hazardous Waste Management in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Pete, Comp.

    This guide was developed to promote responsible hazardous waste management by Ohio citizens, citizens who are interested in upgrading operations of existing waste facilities, oppose the development of any new landfills, and those who promote the establishment of modern, efficient facilities. Information is presented in six chapters. The hazardous…

  13. Forest products decomposition in municipal solid waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Barlaz, Morton A. . E-mail: barlaz@eos.ncsu.edu

    2006-07-01

    Cellulose and hemicellulose are present in paper and wood products and are the dominant biodegradable polymers in municipal waste. While their conversion to methane in landfills is well documented, there is little information on the rate and extent of decomposition of individual waste components, particularly under field conditions. Such information is important for the landfill carbon balance as methane is a greenhouse gas that may be recovered and converted to a CO{sub 2}-neutral source of energy, while non-degraded cellulose and hemicellulose are sequestered. This paper presents a critical review of research on the decomposition of cellulosic wastes in landfills and identifies additional work that is needed to quantify the ultimate extent of decomposition of individual waste components. Cellulose to lignin ratios as low as 0.01-0.02 have been measured for well decomposed refuse, with corresponding lignin concentrations of over 80% due to the depletion of cellulose and resulting enrichment of lignin. Only a few studies have even tried to address the decomposition of specific waste components at field-scale. Long-term controlled field experiments with supporting laboratory work will be required to measure the ultimate extent of decomposition of individual waste components.

  14. Evaluation of landfill gas decay constant for municipal solid waste landfills operated as bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Tolaymat, Thabet M; Green, Roger B; Hater, Gary R; Barlaz, Morton A; Black, Paul; Bronson, Doug; Powell, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important for the optimization of energy recovery and for estimating greenhouse gas emissions. To improve the predictability of gas production, landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rates were monitored for 4 yr from one conventional and two bioreactor landfill cells at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY. The ultimate methane yield (L(o)) was estimated from the biochemical methane (CH4) potential of freshly buried refuse and the decay rate constant (k) was estimated from measured CH4 collection. The site-specific L(o) was estimated to be 48.4 m3-CH4 wet Mg(-1). The estimated decay rate in the conventional cell (0.06 yr(-1)) was comparable to the AP-42 default value of 0.04 yr(-1), whereas estimates for the two bioreactor cells were substantially higher (approximately 0.11 yr(-1)). The data document the ability of the bioreactor operation to enhance landfill CH4 generation, although the estimated decay rate is sensitive to the selected L(o). The more rapid decomposition in the bioreactor cells reduces the length of time over which gas will be produced and emphasizes the importance of having a LFG collection system operational once the waste receives added moisture.

  15. Hazardous Waste Reduction Naval Air Station Oceana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    hazardous waste. 1. Federal Legislation Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of...Material Control and Management HSWA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments MATWING Medium Attack Wing MEK Methylethyl Ketone MI Maintenance Instruction

  16. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... landfill emissions. 62.14353 Section 62.14353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... landfill emissions. 62.14353 Section 62.14353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  18. 75 FR 11002 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities..., Tennessee from the lists of hazardous wastes. This final rule responds to a petition submitted by Valero...

  19. 75 FR 57686 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... specific waste from a particular generating facility should not be regulated as a hazardous waste. Based on waste-specific information provided by the petitioner, EPA granted an exclusion for up to 3,000...

  20. 75 FR 58346 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste...) certain solid wastes generated by its Longview, Texas, facility from the lists of hazardous wastes. EPA... petitioned waste on human health and the environment. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  1. Influence of a municipal solid waste landfill in the surrounding environment: toxicological risk and odor nuisance effects.

    PubMed

    Palmiotto, Marinella; Fattore, Elena; Paiano, Viviana; Celeste, Giorgio; Colombo, Andrea; Davoli, Enrico

    2014-07-01

    The large amounts of treated waste materials and the complex biological and physicochemical processes make the areas in the proximity of landfills vulnerable not only to emissions of potential toxic compounds but also to nuisance such as odor pollution. All these factors have a dramatic impact in the local environment producing environmental quality degradation. Most of the human health problems come from the landfill gas, from its non-methanic volatile organic compounds and from hazardous air pollutants. In addition several odorants are released during landfill operations and uncontrolled emissions. In this work we present an integrated risk assessment for emissions of hazard compounds and odor nuisance, to describe environmental quality in the landfill proximity. The study was based on sampling campaigns to acquire emission data for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene and vinyl chloride monomer and odor. All concentration values in the emissions from the landfill were measured and used in an air dispersion model to estimate maximum concentrations and depositions in correspondence to five sensitive receptors located in proximity of the landfill. Results for the different scenarios and cancer and non-cancer effects always showed risk estimates which were orders of magnitude below those accepted from the main international agencies (WHO, US EPA). Odor pollution was significant for a limited downwind area near the landfill appearing to be a significant risk factor of the damage to the local environment.

  2. Phytoremediation of hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    McCutcheon, S.C.; Wolfe, N.L.; Carreria, L.H.; Ou, T.Y.

    1995-11-01

    A new and innovative approach to phytoremediation (the use of plants to degrade hazardous contaminants) was developed. The new approach to phytoremediation involves rigorous pathway analyses, mass balance determinations, and identification of specific enzymes that break down trinitrotoluene (TNT), other explosives (RDX and HMX), nitrobenzene, and chlorinated solvents (e.g., TCE and PCE) (EPA 1994). As a good example, TNT is completely and rapidly degraded by nitroreductase and laccase enzymes. The aromatic ring is broken and the carbon in the ring fragments is incorporated into new plant fiber, as part of the natural lignification process. Half lives for TNT degradation approach 1 hr or less under ideal laboratory conditions. Continuous-flow pilot studies indicate that scale up residence times in created wetlands may be two to three times longer than in laboratory batch studies. The use of created wetlands and land farming techniques guided by rigorous field biochemistry and ecology promises to be a vital part of a newly evolving field, ecological engineering.

  3. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section 171.3... waste. (a) No person may offer for transportation or transport a hazardous waste (as defined in § 171.8... waste for which a manifest is required unless that person: (1) Has marked each motor vehicle used...

  4. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section 171.3... waste. (a) No person may offer for transportation or transport a hazardous waste (as defined in § 171.8... waste for which a manifest is required unless that person: (1) Has marked each motor vehicle used...

  5. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section 171.3... waste. (a) No person may offer for transportation or transport a hazardous waste (as defined in § 171.8... waste for which a manifest is required unless that person: (1) Has marked each motor vehicle used...

  6. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section 171.3... waste. (a) No person may offer for transportation or transport a hazardous waste (as defined in § 171.8... waste for which a manifest is required unless that person: (1) Has marked each motor vehicle used...

  7. 49 CFR 171.3 - Hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous waste. 171.3 Section 171.3... waste. (a) No person may offer for transportation or transport a hazardous waste (as defined in § 171.8... waste for which a manifest is required unless that person: (1) Has marked each motor vehicle used...

  8. WASTE STABILIZATION FUNDAMENTALS FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waste stabilization is the process where putrescible waste is biodegraded by microorganisms resulting in an end-product being a relatively inert substrate (e.g., like compost). When exposed to moisture, biologically stabilized waste should not produce substantial quantitie...

  9. Municipal solid waste landfill siting using intelligent system

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Jarrah, Omar . E-mail: aljarrah@just.edu.jo; Abu-Qdais, Hani . E-mail: hqdais@just.edu.jo

    2006-07-01

    Historically, landfills have been the dominant alternative for the ultimate disposal of municipal solid waste. This paper addresses the problem of siting a new landfill using an intelligent system based on fuzzy inference. The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including topography and geology, natural resources, socio-cultural aspects, and economy and safety. The system will rank sites on a scale of 0-100%, with 100% being the most appropriate one. A weighting system is used for all of the considered factors. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  10. Municipal solid waste landfill siting using intelligent system.

    PubMed

    Al-Jarrah, Omar; Abu-Qdais, Hani

    2006-01-01

    Historically, landfills have been the dominant alternative for the ultimate disposal of municipal solid waste. This paper addresses the problem of siting a new landfill using an intelligent system based on fuzzy inference. The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including topography and geology, natural resources, socio-cultural aspects, and economy and safety. The system will rank sites on a scale of 0-100%, with 100% being the most appropriate one. A weighting system is used for all of the considered factors. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  11. Training for hazardous waste workers

    SciTech Connect

    Favel, K.

    1990-10-26

    This implementation plan describes the system and provides the information and schedules that are necessary to comply with the Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) Memorandum, Reference EPD dated September 11, 1990, Training for Hazardous Waste Workers. The memo establishes the need for identifying employees requiring environmental training, ensuring that the training is received, and meeting documentation and recordkeeping requirements for the training.

  12. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.G.; Hunter, A.J.R.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    We are part-way through the second phase of a 4-year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Our analysis approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The D-B discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. Furthermore, the discharge power requirements are quite modest, so that the unit can be powered by batteries. Thus an instrument based on ANET can readily be made portable. Our results indicate that ANET is a very sensitive technique for monitoring heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. We have demonstrated an overall detection sensitivity for most species that is at or below ppb levels. ANET alone, however, appears to be most successful in treating hazardous species that have been atomized. We are therefore developing a hybrid technique which combines a miniature, solid-state laser for sample collection and vaporization with ANET for subsequent detection. This approach requires no special sample preparation, can operate continuously, and lends itself well to compact packaging.

  13. Landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management: Combining valuable practices with respect to future waste streams.

    PubMed

    Hoogmartens, Rob; Eyckmans, Johan; Van Passel, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Both landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management (EWM) practices can mitigate the scarcity issue of landfill capacity by respectively reducing landfilled waste volumes and valorising future waste streams. However, high landfill taxes might erode incentives for EWM, even though EWM creates value by valorising waste. Concentrating on Flanders (Belgium), the paper applies dynamic optimisation modelling techniques to analyse how landfill taxation and EWM can reinforce each other and how taxation schemes can be adjusted in order to foster sustainable and welfare maximising ways of processing future waste streams. Based on the Flemish simulation results, insights are offered that are generally applicable in international waste and resource management policy. As shown, the optimal Flemish landfill tax that optimises welfare in the no EWM scenario is higher than the one in the EWM scenario (93 against €50/ton). This difference should create incentives for applying EWM and is driven by the positive external effects that are generated by EWM practices. In Flanders, as the current landfill tax is slightly lower than these optimal levels, the choice that can be made is to further increase taxation levels or show complete commitment to EWM. A first generally applicable insight that was found points to the fact that it is not necessarily the case that the higher the landfill tax, the more effective waste management improvements can be realised. Other insights are about providing sufficient incentives for applying EMW practices and formulating appropriate pleas in support of technological development. By these insights, this paper should provide relevant information that can assist in triggering the transition towards a resource-efficient, circular economy in Europe.

  14. The new Waste Law: Challenging opportunity for future landfill operation in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Meidiana, Christia; Gamse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Waste Law No. 18/2008 Article 22 and 44 require the local governments to run environmentally sound landfill. Due to the widespread poor quality of waste management in Indonesia, this study aimed to identify the current situation by evaluating three selected landfills based on the ideal conditions of landfill practices, which are used to appraise the capability of local governments to adapt to the law. The results indicated that the local governments have problems of insufficient budget, inadequate equipment, uncollected waste and unplanned future landfill locations. All of the selected landfills were partially controlled landfills with open dumping practices predominating. In such inferior conditions the implementation of sanitary landfill is not necessarily appropriate. The controlled landfill is a more appropriate solution as it offers lower investment and operational costs, makes the selection of a new landfill site unnecessary and can operate with a minimum standard of infrastructure and equipment. The sustainability of future landfill capacity can be maintained by utilizing the old landfill as a profit-oriented landfill by implementing a landfill gas management or a clean development mechanism project. A collection fee system using the pay-as-you-throw principle could increase the waste income thereby financing municipal solid waste management.

  15. Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

    2014-08-01

    The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

  16. Sources and management of hazardous waste in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K.

    1996-12-31

    Papua New Guinea (PNG) has considerable mineral wealth, especially in gold and copper. Large-scale mining takes place, and these activities are the source of most of PNG`s hazardous waste. Most people live in small farming communities throughout the region. Those living adjacent to mining areas have experienced some negative impacts from river ecosystem damage and erosion of their lands. Industry is centered mainly in urban areas and Generates waste composed of various products. Agricultural products, pesticide residues, and chemicals used for preserving timber and other forestry products also produce hazardous waste. Most municipal waste comes from domestic and commercial premises; it consists mainly of combustibles, noncombustibles, and other wastes. Hospitals generate pathogenic organisms, radioactive materials, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratory waste. Little is known about the actual treatment of waste before disposal in PNG. Traditional low-cost waste disposal methods are usually practiced, such as use of landfills; storage in surface impoundments; and disposal in public sewers, rivers, and the sea. Indiscriminate burning of domestic waste in backyards is also commonly practiced in urban and rural areas. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. 75 FR 60689 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... Refinery (Beaumont Refinery) to exclude (or delist) a certain solid waste generated by its Beaumont, Texas, facility from the lists of hazardous wastes. EPA used the Delisting Risk Assessment Software (DRAS)...

  18. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G.; Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H.

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  19. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Robert C. W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluidtight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC (about 1" WC) higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes.

  20. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  1. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  2. Decision maker`s guide to issues effecting post-closure reutilization of municipal solid waste landfills. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ganowski, R.W.

    1996-12-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills serve as society`s primary waste handling mechanism and have promising potential to continue as a community asset well after their capacity has been reached. This guide aims to familiarize the reader with landfills and the issues that can effect their potential after closure. Landfills have evolved into technologically advanced facilities that are designed, constructed, and operated with strict environmental controls. When a landfill reaches capacity, it must be formally and properly closed, ensuring that the environment and public health will continue to be protected. To establish a baseline, the guide will discuss the landfill`s evolution, its life-cycle, and closure/post-closure requirements. The acreage of a closed landfill site offers wonderful opportunities for beneficial re-use. There are, however, several imperative issues that must be appreciated and considered when evaluating options for a closed, or soon to close, landfill: socioeconomics, landfill gas, settlement, and revegetation. Each of these issues is a potential obstacle to successful re-use. Conversely, if their associated hazards are known and mitigating methods are selectively applied, the issues can breed innovation and opportunity. The focus of this guide is to address these issues and present techniques that can lead to a fruitful re-use effort. Although post-closure re-use is a logical goal, this guide will also introduce developments and research in landfill mining and accelerated waste decomposition that offer promise for extending the life of landfills. Extending the life of a landfill complements a proactive re-use strategy. Accounting for the issues discussed in this guide and exercising foresight will facilitate the smooth transition of a closed landfill into a symbol of community pride.

  3. Morbidity and mortality of people who live close to municipal waste landfills: a multisite cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mataloni, Francesca; Badaloni, Chiara; Golini, Martina Nicole; Bolignano, Andrea; Bucci, Simone; Sozzi, Roberto; Forastiere, Francesco; Davoli, Marina; Ancona, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The evidence on the health effects related to residing close to landfills is controversial. Nine landfills for municipal waste have been operating in the Lazio region (Central Italy) for several decades. We evaluated the potential health effects associated with contamination from landfills using the estimated concentration of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) as exposure. Methods: A cohort of residents within 5 km of landfills was enrolled (subjects resident on 1 January 1996 and those who subsequently moved into the areas until 2008) and followed for mortality and hospitalizations until 31 December 2012. Assessment of exposure to the landfill (H2S as a tracer) was performed for each subject at enrolment, using a Lagrangian dispersion model. Information on several confounders was available (gender, age, socioeconomic position, outdoor PM10 concentration, and distance from busy roads and industries). Cox regression analysis was performed [Hazard Ratios (HRs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs)]. Results: The cohort included 242 409 individuals. H2S exposure was associated with mortality from lung cancer and respiratory diseases (e.g. HR for increment of 1 ng/m3 H2S: 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19; HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00–1.19, respectively). There were also associations between H2S and hospitalization for respiratory diseases (HR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.03), especially acute respiratory infections among children (0–14 years) (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.11). Conclusions: Exposure to H2S, a tracer of airborne contamination from landfills, was associated with lung cancer mortality as well as with mortality and morbidity for respiratory diseases. The link with respiratory disease is plausible and coherent with previous studies, whereas the association with lung cancer deserves confirmation. PMID:27222499

  4. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests.

  5. Garbage imperialism: health implications of dumping hazardous wastes in Third World countries.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, K R

    1992-11-01

    This paper calls for studies of the potential health implications of today's hazardous waste disposal practices, and suggests that such studies are urgently needed in Third World countries where industrial nations are increasingly dumping their unwanted waste materials. The United States produces enormous quantities of hazardous waste each year, and approximately 1,200 "priority hazardous waste sites" presently threaten the nation's health. Because of environmental regulations, landfill closings, and citizen opposition to local waste facilities, industrialized countries are increasingly disposing of their problematic materials by shipping them to the Third World, where they pose substantial threats to human health and the environment. From a political economy perspective, this paper suggests that global health would be better served by reducing hazardous waste production, encouraging reusing and recycling, and restricting or banning international shipment of toxic wastes.

  6. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  7. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of existing municipal...

  8. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  9. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  10. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit... proposes to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit... Domenic Calabro, Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics, U.S. EPA, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite...

  11. Land Disposal Restrictions for Hazardous Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The land disposal restrictions prohibits the land disposal of untreated hazardous wastes. EPA has specified either concentration levels or methods of treatment for hazardous constituents to meet before land disposal.

  12. Landfills: Engineering Design for Waste Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deck, Anita; Grubbs, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to consider the waste humans produce and options for reducing the impact it has on the environment. Allowing students the opportunities to research potential solutions and present their ideas results in an educated citizenry that considers consequences of technological advances. Throughout the course of a…

  13. Solid waste landfills under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document provides guidance for meeting: (1) Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste (40 CFR 241); (2) Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices (40 CFR 257); and (3) Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (MSWLFs) (40 CFR Part 258). Revisions to 40 CFR 257 and a new Part 258 were published in the Federal Register (56 FR 50978, 10/9/91). The Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste set requirements and recommended procedures to ensure that the design, construction, and operation of land disposal sites is done in a manner that will protect human health and the environment. These regulations are applicable to MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs (e.g., landfills used only for the disposal of demolition debris, commercial waste, and/or industrial waste). These guidelines are not applicable to the, land disposal of hazardous, agricultural, and/or mining wastes. These criteria are to be used under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in determining which solid waste disposal facilities pose a reasonable possibility of adversely affecting human health or the environment. Facilities failing to satisfy these criteria will be considered to be open dumps which are prohibited under Section 4005 of RCRA. The Criteria for MSWLFs are applicable only to MSWLFs, including those MSWLFs in which sewage sludge is co-disposed with household waste. Based on specific criteria, certain MSWLFs are exempt from some, or all, of the regulations of 40 CFR 258. MSWLFs that fail to satisfy the criteria specified in 40 CFR 258 are also considered open dumps for the purposes of Section 4005 of RCRA. Through the use of a series of interrelated flow diagrams, this guidance document directs the reader to each design, operation, maintenance, and closure activity that must be performed for MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs.

  14. EPA Sets Rules on Hazardous Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, R. Jeffrey

    1980-01-01

    Announces the final rules published by the Environmental Protection Agency requiring that generators, transporters, and disposers of hazardous wastes report exactly where the wastes will be taken. (Author/SA)

  15. Improving Tamper Detection for Hazardous Waste Security

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Pacheco, N.; Martinez, R. K.; Martinez, D. D.; Trujillo, S. J.; Lopez, L. N.

    2003-02-26

    Since September 11, waste managers are increasingly expected to provide effective security for their hazardous wastes. Tamper-indicating seals can help. This paper discusses seals, and offers recommendations for how to choose and use them.

  16. Destruction of hazardous military wastes using plasma arc technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaras, L.; Qazi, M.

    1996-12-31

    A Plasma Arc Technology (PAT) system treats hazardous wastes in a furnace, at temperatures of 2,000 C, or higher, using a plasma torch. The organic components vaporize, decompose or oxidize. The off-gases consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitric oxides. A wet air scrubber is used to remove most of these gases. The scrubber water is treated and recycled. Metal-bearing solids are melted or vaporized. The solids are usually recovered as molten metal, or as non-leachable vitrified slag, suitable for disposal in a landfill. A Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment system was used to evaluate this technology for destruction of four military hazardous wastes: sludge from Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, TX; blast media from Letterkenny Army Depot, PA; medical incineration ash from Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD; and contaminated soil from open burning/open detonation ground at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ.

  17. Modelling biogas production of solid waste: application of the BGP model to a synthetic landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Production of biogas as a result of the decomposition of organic matter included on solid waste landfills is still an issue to be understood. Reports on this matter are rarely included on the engineering construction projects of solid waste landfills despite it can be an issue of critical importance while operating the landfill and after its closure. This paper presents an application of BGP (Bio-Gas-Production) model to a synthetic landfill. The evolution in time of the concentrations of the different chemical compounds of biogas is studied. Results obtained show the impact on the air quality of different management alternatives which are usually performed in real landfills.

  18. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  19. Hazardous waste operational plan for site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    This plan outlines the procedures and operations used at LLNL's Site 300 for the management of the hazardous waste generated. This waste consists primarily of depleted uranium (a by-product of U-235 enrichment), beryllium, small quantities of analytical chemicals, industrial type waste such as solvents, cleaning acids, photographic chemicals, etc., and explosives. This plan details the operations generating this waste, the proper handling of this material and the procedures used to treat or dispose of the hazardous waste. A considerable amount of information found in this plan was extracted from the Site 300 Safety and Operational Manual written by Site 300 Facility personnel and the Hazards Control Department.

  20. 75 FR 62040 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... exposure pathway analyzed. For a one-time delisting, EPA Region III evaluates the cumulative cancer risk... constituents through surface pathways (e.g., volatilization or wind-blown particulate from the landfill). As in... cancer risks (risk) and noncarcinogenic hazards (hazard). If a delisting evaluation is performed for...

  1. Technology transfer in hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Drucker, H.

    1989-01-01

    Hazardous waste is a growing problem in all parts of the world. Industrialized countries have had to deal with the treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes for many years. The newly industrializing countries of the world are now faced with immediate problems of waste handling. The developing nations of the world are looking at increasing quantities of hazardous waste generation as they move toward higher levels of industrialization. Available data are included on hazardous waste generation in Asia and the Pacific as a function of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Although there are many inconsistencies in the data (inconsistent hazardous waste definitions, inconsistent reporting of wastes, etc.) there is definite indication that a growing economy tends to lead toward larger quantities of hazardous waste generation. In developing countries the industrial sector is growing at a faster rate than in the industrialized countries. In 1965 industry accounted for 29% of GDP in the developing countries of the world. In 1987 this had grown to 37% of GDP. In contrast, industry accounted for 40% of GDP in 1965 in industrialized countries and dropped to 35% in 1987. This growth in industrial activity in the developing countries brings an increase in the need to handle hazardous wastes. Although hazardous wastes are ubiquitous, the control of hazardous wastes varies. The number of regulatory options used by various countries in Asia and the Pacific to control wastes are included. It is evident that the industrialized countries, with a longer history of having to deal with hazardous wastes, have found the need to use more mechanisms to control them. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Solid Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    JW Lindberg; CJ Chou

    2000-12-14

    The Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) is regulated by the Washington State Department of Ecology under WAC 173-304. Between 1973 and 1976, the landfill received primarily paper waste and construction debris, but it also received asbestos, sewage, and catch tank liquid waste. Groundwater monitoring results indicate the SWL has contaminated groundwater with volatile organic compounds and possibly metals at levels that exceed regulatory limits. DynCorp, Tri-Cities, Inc. operates the facility under an interim closure plan (final closure plan will be released shortly). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) monitors groundwater at the site. This monitoring plan includes well and constituent lists, and summarizes sampling, analytical, and quality control requirements. Changes from the previous monitoring plan include elimination of two radionuclides from the analyte list and some minor changes in the statistical analysis. Existing wells in the current monitoring network only monitor the uppermost portion of the upper-most aquifer. Therefore, two new downgradient wells and one existing upgradient well are proposed to determine whether groundwater waste constituents have reached the lower portion of the uppermost aquifer. The proposed well network includes three upgradient wells and ten downgradient wells. The wells will be sampled quarterly for 14 analytes required by WAC 173-304-490 plus volatile organic compounds and filtered arsenic as site-specific analytes.

  3. Integrated management of hazardous waste generated from community sources in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Yodnane, P.; Spaeder, D.J.

    1999-07-01

    A system for the collection, transport, disposal and recycling of hazardous waste was developed as part of an overall master plan for the management of hazardous waste generated from community sources in Thailand. Results of a waste generation survey conducted as part of the study indicated that over 300 million kilograms per year of hazardous waste is generated from non-industrial, community sources such as automotive repair shops, gas stations, hospitals, farms, and households in Thailand. Hazardous waste from community sources consists primarily of used oils, lead-acid and dry cell batteries, cleaning chemicals, pesticides, medical wastes, solvents and fuels. Most of this waste was found to be mismanaged by codisposing with municipal waste in burning, unlined dumps, dumping directly to land or water courses, dumping into sewers, or recycling improperly, all of which pose serious threats to human health and the environment. The survey data on waste generation quantities and data from a reconnaissance survey of the conditions and operations of 86 existing waste disposal facilities was incorporated into a nationwide Geographic Information System (GIS) database. Based on this data, problems associated with hazardous waste were identified and needs for waste management systems were tabulated. A system was developed for ranking geographic regions according to hazardous waste management problems and needs, in order to prioritize implementation of waste management programs. The data were also used in developing solutions for hazardous waste management, which addressed methods for storing, collecting, transporting, disposing, and recycling the waste. It was recommended that centralized waste management facilities be utilized which included hazardous waste and medical waste incinerators, waste stabilization units, and secure landfills.

  4. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.

    1991-08-01

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing electrochemical processes that convert the toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, an innocuous anions such as chloride. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag{sup 2+} or Ce{sup +4} are produced at an anode. These can attack the organic molecules directly. They can also attack water which yields hydroxyl free radicals that in turn attack the organic molecules. The condensed (i.e., solid and/or liquid) effluent streams contain the inorganic radionuclide forms. These may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. Kinetics and the extent of destruction of some toxic organics have been measured. Depending on how the process is operated, coulombic efficiency can be nearly 100%. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient-temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag (2) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(6) and Co(3) are attractive alternatives to Ag(2) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is a toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data has been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(6) and Co(3). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, this data has enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(6) and Co(3) with Ag(2). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(2) had already been collected. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Coal tar-containing asphalt - resource or hazardous waste?

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson-Skold, Y.; Andersson, K.; Lind, B.; Claesson, A.; Larsson, L.; Suer, P.; Jacobson, T.

    2007-09-30

    Coal tar was used in Sweden for the production of asphalt and for the drenching of stabilization gravel until 1973. The tar has high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which may be strongly carcinogenic. Approximately 20 million tonnes of tar-containing asphalt is present in the public roads in Sweden. Used asphalt from rebuilding can be classified as hazardous waste according to the Swedish Waste Act. The cost of treating the material removed as hazardous waste can be very high due to the large amount that has to be treated, and the total environmental benefit is unclear. The transport of used asphalt to landfill or combustion will affect other environmental targets. The present project, based on three case studies of road projects in Sweden, evaluates the consequences of four scenarios for handling the material: reuse, landfill, biological treatment, and incineration. The results show that reuse of the coal tar-containing materials in new road construction is the most favorable alternative in terms of cost, material use, land use, energy consumption, and air emissions.

  6. Contribution of individual waste fractions to the environmental impacts from landfilling of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-03-01

    A number of LCA-based studies have reported on the environmental performance of landfilling of mixed waste, but little is known about the relative contributions of individual waste fractions to the overall impact potentials estimated for the mixed waste. In this paper, an empirical model has been used to estimate the emissions to the environment from landfilling of individual waste fractions. By means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE, the emissions estimated have been used to quantify how much of the overall impact potential for each impact category is to be attributed to the individual waste fractions. Impact potentials are estimated for 1 tonne of mixed waste disposed off in a conventional landfill with bottom liner, leachate collection and treatment and gas collection and utilization for electricity generation. All the environmental aspects are accounted for 100 years after disposal and several impact categories have been considered, including standard categories, toxicity-related categories and groundwater contamination. Amongst the standard and toxicity-related categories, the highest potential impact is estimated for human toxicity via soil (HTs; 12 mPE/tonne). This is mostly caused by leaching of heavy metals from ashes (e.g. residues from roads cleaning and vacuum cleaning bags), batteries, paper and metals. On the other hand, substantial net environmental savings are estimated for the categories Global Warming (GW; -31 mPE/tonne) and Eco-Toxicity in water chronic (ETwc; -53 mPE/tonne). These savings are mostly determined by the waste fractions characterized by a high content of biogenic carbon (paper, organics, other combustible waste). These savings are due to emissions from energy generation avoided by landfill gas utilization, and by the storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill due to incomplete waste degradation.

  7. 76 FR 48073 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260 and 261 RIN 2050-AG60 Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY... the Agency) is proposing to revise the regulations for hazardous waste management under the...

  8. Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann

    1992-03-01

    The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

  9. Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shen-yann.

    1992-01-01

    The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.

  10. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at Laogang Landfill, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Gao, Ke-Wei; Chen, Yi-Xin; Li, Yao; Zhang, L M; Chen, H X

    2016-09-19

    Landfills have been widely constructed all around the world in order to properly dispose municipal solid waste (MSW). Understanding geotechnical properties of MSW is essential for the design and operation of landfills. A comprehensive investigation of geotechnical properties of MSW at the largest landfill in China was conducted, including waste composition, unit weight, void ratio, water content, hydraulic conductivity, and shear behavior. A large-scale rigid-wall permeameter and a direct-shear apparatus were adopted to test the hydraulic conductivity and shear behavior of the MSW, respectively. The composition of the MSW varied with age. With the depth increasing from 0 to 16m, the unit weight increased from 7.2 to 12.5kN/m(3), while the void ratio decreased from 2.5 to 1.76. The water content ranged between 30.0% and 68.9% but did not show a trend with depth. The hydraulic conductivity of the MSW ranged between 4.6×10(-4) and 6.7×10(-3)cm/s. It decreased as the dry unit weight increased and was sensitive to changes in dry unit weight in deeper layers. Displacement-hardening was observed during the whole shearing process and the shear strength increased with the normal stress, the displacement rate, and the unit weight. The friction angle and cohesion varied from (15.7°, 29.1kPa) to (21.9°, 18.3kPa) with depth increasing from 4 to 16m. The shear strength of the MSW obtained in this study was lower than the reported values in other countries, which was caused by the less fibrous materials in the specimens in this study. The results in this study will provide guidance in the design and operation of the landfills in China.

  11. Responses to Public Comments on EPA’s Standards of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills and Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills: Proposed Rules - July 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Responses to Public Comments on EPA’s Standards of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills and Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills: Proposed Rules - July 2016

  12. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, Janus T; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H

    2007-01-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion.

  13. Modelling of environmental impacts of solid waste landfilling within the life-cycle analysis program EASEWASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkeby, Janus T.; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakash Singh; Hauschild, Michael; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2007-07-01

    A new computer-based life-cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) has been developed to evaluate resource and environmental consequences of solid waste management systems. This paper describes the landfilling sub-model used in the life-cycle assessment program EASEWASTE, and examines some of the implications of this sub-model. All quantities and concentrations of leachate and landfill gas can be modified by the user in order to bring them in agreement with the actual landfill that is assessed by the model. All emissions, except the generation of landfill gas, are process specific. The landfill gas generation is calculated on the basis of organic matter in the landfilled waste. A landfill assessment example is provided. For this example, the normalised environmental effects of landfill gas on global warming and photochemical smog are much greater than the environmental effects for landfill leachate or for landfill construction. A sensitivity analysis for this example indicates that the overall environmental impact is sensitive to the gas collection efficiency and the use of the gas, but not to the amount of leachate generated, or the amount of soil or liner material used in construction. The landfill model can be used for evaluating different technologies with different liners, gas and leachate collection efficiencies, and to compare the environmental consequences of landfilling with alternative waste treatment options such as incineration or anaerobic digestion.

  14. Chemical Waste Landfill Annual Post-Closure Care Report Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Michael Marquand; Little, Bonnie Colleen

    2015-03-01

    The CWL is a 1.9-acre remediated interim status landfill located in the southeastern corner of SNL/NM Technical Area III (Figures 2-1 and 2-2) undergoing post-closure care in accordance with the PCCP (NMED October 2009 and subsequent revisions). From 1962 until 1981, the CWL was used for the disposal of chemical and solid waste generated by SNL/NM research activities. Additionally, a small amount of radioactive waste was disposed of during the operational years. Disposal of liquid waste in unlined pits and trenches ended in 1981, and after 1982 all liquid waste disposal was terminated. From 1982 through 1985, only solid waste was disposed of at the CWL, and after 1985 all waste disposal ended. The CWL was also used as a hazardous waste drum-storage facility from 1981 to 1989. A summary of the CWL disposal history is presented in the Closure Plan (SNL/NM December 1992) along with a waste inventory based upon available disposal records and information.

  15. Assessing the disposal of wastes containing NORM in nonhazardous waste landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K. P.; Blunt, D. L.; Williams, G. P.; Arnish, J. J.; Pfingston, M. R.; Herbert, J.

    1999-11-22

    In the past few years, many states have established specific regulations for the management of petroleum industry wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) above specified thresholds. These regulations have limited the number of disposal options available for NORM-containing wastes, thereby increasing the related waste management costs. In view of the increasing economic burden associated with NORM management, industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that still provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. One such alternative being considered is the disposal of NORM-containing wastes in landfills permitted to accept only nonhazardous wastes. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 and lead-210 above regulated levels in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and associated health risks to workers and the general public. A variety of scenarios were considered to evaluate the effects associated with the operational phase (i.e., during landfill operations) and future use of the landfill property. Doses were calculated for the maximally exposed receptor for each scenario. This paper presents the results of that study and some conclusions and recommendations drawn from it.

  16. Wet landfill decomposition rate determination using methane yield results for excavated waste samples.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwidong; Townsend, Timothy G

    2012-07-01

    An increasing number of landfills are operated to accelerate waste decomposition through liquids addition (e.g., leachate recirculation) as a wet landfill. Landfill design and regulation often depend on utilizing landfill gas production models that require an estimate of a first-order gas generation rate constant, k. Consequently, several studies have estimated k using collected gas volumes from operating wet landfills. Research was conducted to examine an alternative approach in which k is estimated not from collected landfill gas but from solid waste samples collected over time and analyzed for remaining gas yield. To achieve this goal, waste samples were collected from 1990 through 2007 at two full-scale landfills in Florida that practiced liquids addition. Methane yields were measured from waste samples collected over time, including periods before and after leachate recirculation, and the results were applied to a first-order decay model to estimate rate constants for each of the sites. An initial, intensive processing step was conducted to exclude non-biodegradable components from the methane yield testing procedure. The resulting rate constants for the two landfills examined were 0.47 yr(-1) and 0.21 yr(-1). These results expectedly exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency's rate constants for dry and conventional landfills (0.02-0.05 yr(-1)), but they are comparable to wet landfill rate constants derived using landfill gas data (0.1-0.3 yr(-1)).

  17. 76 FR 59960 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... Planning and Permitting Division, Corrective Action and Waste Minimization Section (6PD-C), 1445 Ross... will be taken on this petition. A new petition will be required for this waste stream. List of...

  18. 75 FR 58315 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... landfill. The scrubber water blowdown will be managed in the waste water treatment plant (WWTP). The sludge..., and the RKI scrubber water blowdown will be treated in the Wastewater Treatment Plant. Treatment of... captured facilities, such use of the wastewater treatment plant and waste management in the RKI...

  19. Military hazardous wastes: an overview and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaoka, K.E.; Malloy, M.C.; Dever, G.L.; Weinberger, L.P.

    1981-12-01

    The report describes and analyzes the management activities and motivating factors of the military in dealing with its hazardous waste streams. Findings and conclusions in areas of concern are given to provide information that may be of value to the future management of military hazardous wastes.

  20. The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, Benjamin J.

    1978-01-01

    The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

  1. Sustainability Gaps in Municipal Solid Waste Management: The Case of Landfills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    disposal technologies , bioreactor and dry tomb landfills, in a 600-year time-horizon using two different discounting techniques: Constant conventional...Abstract: Our paper compares external effects of two municipal solid waste disposal technologies , bioreactor and dry tomb landfills, in a 600-year time...different types of landfills, i.e., the dry tomb technology and the bioreactor type for municipal solid waste disposal (section 2). This is followed

  2. Co-disposal of electronic waste with municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills.

    PubMed

    Visvanathan, C; Visvanthan, C; Yin, Nang Htay; Karthikeyan, Obuli P

    2010-12-01

    Three pilot scale lysimeters were adopted to evaluate the stability pattern and leaching potential of heavy metals from MSW landfills under the E-waste co-disposed condition. One lysimeter served as control and solely filled with MSW, whereas the other two lysimeters were provided with 10% and 25% of E-waste scraps (% by weight), respectively. The reactors were monitored over a period of 280 days at ambient settings with continuous leachate recirculation. Stabilization pattern of carbon appears to be more than 50% in all the three lysimeters with irrespective of their operating conditions. Iron and zinc concentrations were high in leachate during bioreactor landfill operation and correlating with the TCLP leachability test results. In contrast, Pb concentration was around <0.6 mg/L, but which showed maximum leaching potential under TCLP test conditions. But, no heavy metal accumulation was found with leachate recirculation practices in lysimeters. Mobility of the metal content from the E-waste was found to be amplified with the long term disposal or stabilization within landfills. The results showed that the TCLP test cannot be completely reliable tool for measuring long-term leachability of toxic substances under landfill condition; rather landfill lysimeter studies are necessary to get the real scenario.

  3. Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas H; Scharff, Heijo

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recovery, and landfills receiving low-organic-carbon waste. The results showed that direct emissions of GHG from the landfill systems (primarily dispersive release of methane) are the major contributions to the GHG accounting, up to about 1000 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) for the open dump, 300 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) for conventional landfilling of mixed waste and 70 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) for low-organic-carbon waste landfills. The load caused by indirect, upstream emissions from provision of energy and materials to the landfill was low, here estimated to be up to 16 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1). On the other hand, utilization of landfill gas for electricity generation contributed to major savings, in most cases, corresponding to about half of the load caused by direct GHG emission from the landfill. However, this saving can vary significantly depending on what the generated electricity substitutes for. Significant amounts of biogenic carbon may still be stored within the landfill body after 100 years, which here is counted as a saved GHG emission. With respect to landfilling of mixed waste with energy recovery, the net, average GHG accounting ranged from about -70 to 30 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1), obtained by summing the direct and indirect (upstream and downstream) emissions and accounting for stored biogenic carbon as a saving. However, if binding of biogenic carbon was not accounted for, the overall GHG load would be in the range of 60 to 300 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1). This paper clearly shows that electricity generation as well as accounting of stored biogenic carbon are crucial to the accounting of GHG of waste landfilling.

  4. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of MSW... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission guidelines for municipal...

  5. Management of old landfills by utilizing forest and energy industry waste flows.

    PubMed

    Niutanen, Ville; Korhonen, Jouni

    2002-05-01

    The lack of landfill capacity, forthcoming EU waste disposal and landfill management legislation and the use of non-renewable and energy intensive natural resources for the end-treatment of old landfills increase pressures to develop new landfill management methods. This paper considers a method for the end-management of old landfills in Finland, which is based on the utilization of forest and paper industry waste flows, wastes from paper recycling (de-inking) and wastes from forest industry energy production. Fibre clay wastes from paper mills, de-inking sludges from de-inking of recovered waste paper and incineration ash from forest industry power plants serve to substitute the use of natural clay for the building of landfill structures for closed landfills. Arguably, this method is preferable to existing practices of natural clay use for landfill building, because it (1) substitutes non-renewable natural clay, (2) consumes less energy and generates less CO2 emissions than the use of natural clay, and (3) eliminates considerable amounts of wastes from paper production, paper consumption and from forest industry energy production. Some difficulties in the application of the method are considered and the waste flow utilization is incorporated into a local forest industry recycling network.

  6. Thermal co-treatment of combustible hazardous waste and waste incineration fly ash in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Huber, Florian; Blasenbauer, Dominik; Mallow, Ole; Lederer, Jakob; Winter, Franz; Fellner, Johann

    2016-12-01

    As current disposal practices for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash are either associated with significant costs or negative environmental impacts, an alternative treatment was investigated in a field scale experiment. Thereto, two rotary kilns were fed with hazardous waste, and moistened MSWI fly ash (water content of 23%) was added to the fuel of one kiln with a ratio of 169kg/Mg hazardous waste for 54h and 300kg/Mg hazardous waste for 48h while the other kiln was used as a reference. It was shown that the vast majority (>90%) of the inserted MSWI fly ash was transferred to the bottom ash of the rotary kiln. This bottom ash complied with the legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills, thereby demonstrating the potential of the investigated method to transfer hazardous waste (MSWI fly ash) into non-hazardous waste (bottom ash). The results of a simple mixing test (MSWI fly ash and rotary kiln bottom ash have been mixed accordingly without thermal treatment) revealed that the observed transformation of hazardous MSWI fly ash into non-hazardous bottom ash during thermal co-treatment cannot be referred to dilution, as the mixture did not comply with legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills. For the newly generated fly ash of the kiln, an increase in the concentration of Cd, K and Pb by 54%, 57% and 22%, respectively, was observed. In general, the operation of the rotary kiln was not impaired by the MSWI fly ash addition.

  7. Perpetual landfilling through aeration of the waste mass; lessons from test cells in Georgia (USA).

    PubMed

    Read, A D; Hudgins, M; Phillips, P

    2001-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills worldwide are experiencing the consequences of conventional landfilling techniques, whereby anaerobic conditions are created within the landfilled waste. Under anaerobic conditions within a landfill site slow stabilization of the waste mass occurs, producing methane, (an explosive 'green house' gas) and leachate (which can pollute groundwater) over long periods of time. As a potential solution, it was demonstrated that the aerobic degradation of MSW within a landfill can significantly increase the rate of waste decomposition and settlement, decrease the methane production and leachate leaving the system, and potentially increase the operational life of the site. Readily integrated into the existing landfill infrastructure, this approach can safely and cost-effectively convert a MSW landfill from anaerobic to aerobic degradation processes, thereby effectively composting much of the organic portions (one of the potentially polluting elements in a conventional landfill site) of the waste. This paper summarizes the successful results of two separate aerobic landfill projects located in Georgia (USA) and discusses the potential economic and environmental impacts to worldwide solid waste management practices.

  8. Solid waste management in Croatia in response to the European Landfill Directive.

    PubMed

    Stanic-Maruna, Ira; Fellner, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The European Landfill Directive 99/31/EC represents the most influential piece of waste legislation on the management of municipal solid waste. In addition to technical standards regarding the design and location of landfills, it calls for a decrease in the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled. In order to meet the reduction targets set in the Landfill Directive, national solid waste strategies need to be changed. This article outlines the impact of the Landfill Directive on the Croatian waste management strategy and discusses the key challenges of its implementation. In addition, three scenarios of future waste management (mechanical biological pre-treatment, waste-to-energy and landfilling) have been investigated and evaluated regarding environmental impacts and affordability. The results of the analysis show that Croatia has transposed the said Directive into its own legislation in an exemplary way. The developed national waste management strategy foresees the set up of a separate collection of recyclables, waste pre-treatment of MSW, as well as the upgrading of existing disposal sites to sanitary landfills. However, the practical progress of carrying out provisions implemented on paper is lagging behind. Concerning the investigated scenarios the results of the evaluation indicate that mechanical biological pre-treatment in conjunction with separate collection of recyclables appears to be the most feasible option (in terms of economic and ecologic parameters). This result is in line with the proposed national waste management strategy.

  9. Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

  10. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  11. Characterization of household hazardous waste from Marin County, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Rathje, W.L.; Wilson, D.C.; Lambou, V.W.; Herndon, R.C.

    1987-09-01

    There is a growing concern that certain constituents of common household products, that are discarded in residential garbage, may be potentially harmful to human health and the environment by adversely affecting the quality of ground and surface water. A survey of hazardous wastes in residential garbage from Marin County, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana, was conducted in order to determine the amount and characteristics of such wastes that are entering municipal landfills. The results of the survey indicate that approximately 642 metric tons of hazardous waste are discarded per year for the New Orleans study area and approximately 259 metric tons are discarded per year for the Marin County study area. Even though the percent of hazardous household waste in the garbage discarded in both study areas was less than 1%, it represents a significant quantity of hazardous waste because of the large volume of garbage involved.

  12. [Research advances in control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites].

    PubMed

    Cai, Chuan-Yu; Li, Bo; Lü, Hao-Hao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Landfill is one of the main approaches for municipal solid waste treatment, and landfill site is a main emission source of greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). As a high-efficient trace greenhouse gas, N2O has a very high warming potential, with a warming capacity 296 times of CO2, and has a long-term stability in atmosphere, giving greater damage to the ozone layer. Aiming at the researches in the control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites, this paper summarized the characteristics and related affecting factors of the N2O emission from the landfill sites, and put forward a series of the measures adaptable to the N2O emission control of present municipal solid waste landfill sites in China. Some further research focuses on the control of N2O emission from the landfill sites were also presented.

  13. Simulation of municipal solid waste degradation in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor landfills.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bhagwan Shamrao; C, Agnes Anto; Singh, Devendra Narain

    2017-03-01

    Municipal solid waste generation is huge in growing cities of developing nations such as India, owing to the rapid industrial and population growth. In addition to various methods for treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste (landfills, composting, bio-methanation, incineration and pyrolysis), aerobic/anaerobic bioreactor landfills are gaining popularity for economical and effective disposal of municipal solid waste. However, efficiency of municipal solid waste bioreactor landfills primarily depends on the municipal solid waste decomposition rate, which can be accelerated through monitoring moisture content and temperature by using the frequency domain reflectometry probe and thermocouples, respectively. The present study demonstrates that these landfill physical properties of the heterogeneous municipal solid waste mass can be monitored using these instruments, which facilitates proper scheduling of the leachate recirculation for accelerating the decomposition rate of municipal solid waste.

  14. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and closure of the solid waste landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the proposed construction, operation, and closure of a Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) that would be designed in accordance with Commonwealth of Kentucky landfill regulations (401 Kentucky Administrative Regulations Chapters 47 and 48 and Kentucky Revised Statutes 224.855). PGDP produces approximately 7,200 cubic yards per year of non-hazardous, non-radioactive solid waste currently being disposed of in a transitional contained (residential) landfill cell (Cell No. 3). New Kentucky landfill regulations mandate that all existing landfills be upgraded to meet the requirements of the new regulations or stop receiving wastes by June 30, 1995. Cell No. 3 must stop receiving wastes at that time and be closed and capped within 180 days after final receipt of wastes. The proposed SWL would occupy 25 acres of a 60-acre site immediately north of the existing PGDP landfill (Cell No. 3). The EA evaluated the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action and reasonable alternative actions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action which will significantly affect the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, it is determined that an environmental impact statement will not be prepared, and DOE is issuing this FONSI.

  15. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Manahan, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  16. Treating landfill gas hydrogen sulphide with mineral wool waste (MWW) and rod mill waste (RMW).

    PubMed

    Bergersen, Ove; Haarstad, Ketil

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas is a major odorant at municipal landfills. The gas can be generated from different waste fractions, for example demolition waste containing gypsum based plaster board. The removal of H2S from landfill gas was investigated by filtering it through mineral wool waste products. The flow of gas varied from 0.3 l/min to 3.0 l/min. The gas was typical for landfill gas with a mean H2S concentration of ca. 4500 ppm. The results show that the sulphide gas can effectively be removed by mineral wool waste products. The ratios of the estimated potential for sulphide precipitation were 19:1 for rod mill waste (RMW) and mineral wool waste (MWW). A filter consisting of a mixture of MWW and RMW, with a vertical perforated gas tube through the center of filter material and with a downward gas flow, removed 98% of the sulfide gas over a period of 80 days. A downward gas flow was more efficient in contacting the filter materials. Mineral wool waste products are effective in removing hydrogen sulphide from landfill gas given an adequate contact time and water content in the filter material. Based on the estimated sulphide removal potential of mineral wool and rod mill waste of 14 g/kg and 261 g/kg, and assuming an average sulphide gas concentration of 4500 ppm, the removal capacity in the filter materials has been estimated to last between 11 and 308 days. At the studied location the experimental gas flow was 100 times less than the actual gas flow. We believe that the system described here can be upscaled in order to treat this gas flow.

  17. Biological-mechanical waste treatment tests at a landfill in East Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Wotte, J.; Brummack, J.; Paar, S.; Gemende, B.

    1996-11-01

    The paper begins by describing the present situation in East Germany with regard to sanitary landfills, that is, there is very limited space for new landfills. The paper discusses the new German waste act amendments, special waste management problems in East Germany, and the combination biological and mechanical waste treatment (BMT) method proposed to help solve these problems. In general terms the BMT method would use a combination of composting, fermentation, separation, mixing, and crushing processes to minimize the waste to be disposed of and to render it harmless to further degradation which leads to emission of methane and contaminated leachates from the landfills.

  18. Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling.

    PubMed

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut; Christensen, Thomas H

    2014-05-01

    The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has no gas or leachate collection system. The global warming contribution is due to the emission of methane of the order of 420 000 tons CO2-equivalents per year. Collection and transport of the waste are insignificant compared with impacts from the landfill. As the old landfill runs out of capacity in a few years, the LCA modelling showed that introduction of a new and modern landfill with gas and leachate collection could improve the performance of the waste management system significantly. Collection of landfill gas and utilization for 30 years for electricity production (gas turbine) would reduce the global warming completely and result in a net saving of 100 000 CO2-equivalents per year due to storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill beyond 100 years. Considering other first-order degradation rates for the landfilled organic matter did not overtly affect the results, while assumptions about the top cover oxidation of methane significantly affected the results. This shows the importance of controlling the gas escape from the landfill.

  19. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  20. Environmental Hazards of Nuclear Wastes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micklin, Philip P.

    1974-01-01

    Present methods for storage of radioactive wastes produced at nuclear power facilities are described. Problems arising from present waste management are discussed and potential solutions explored. (JP)

  1. The environmental comparison of landfilling vs. incineration of MSW accounting for waste diversion

    SciTech Connect

    Assamoi, Bernadette; Lawryshyn, Yuri

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residential waste diversion initiatives are more successful with organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using a incineration to manage part of the waste is better environmentally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incineration leads to more power plant emission offsets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Landfilling all of the waste would be preferred financially. - Abstract: This study evaluates the environmental performance and discounted costs of the incineration and landfilling of municipal solid waste that is ready for the final disposal while accounting for existing waste diversion initiatives, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Parameters such as changing waste generation quantities, diversion rates and waste composition were also considered. Two scenarios were assessed in this study on how to treat the waste that remains after diversion. The first scenario is the status quo, where the entire residual waste was landfilled whereas in the second scenario approximately 50% of the residual waste was incinerated while the remainder is landfilled. Electricity was produced in each scenario. Data from the City of Toronto was used to undertake this study. Results showed that the waste diversion initiatives were more effective in reducing the organic portion of the waste, in turn, reducing the net electricity production of the landfill while increasing the net electricity production of the incinerator. Therefore, the scenario that incorporated incineration performed better environmentally and contributed overall to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions because of the displacement of power plant emissions; however, at a noticeably higher cost. Although landfilling proves to be the better financial option, it is for the shorter term. The landfill option would require the need of a replacement landfill much sooner. The financial and environmental effects of this expenditure have yet to be considered.

  2. Effects of specimen size and mix ratio on the nickel migration behavior of landfill waste mixed mortar.

    PubMed

    Haque, M Aminul

    2017-04-01

    Landfill solid waste management system poses the potential source of silent wide-spread heavy metals like nickel poisoning in the entire ecosystem of nearby environment. Nickel containing demolish solid wastes are disposed at landfill zones to a great extent from where nickel migrate into the food chain through the surface water body as well as groundwater. Consequently, nickel exposure may cause different environmental problems. From this sense, it may be an attractive proposal to recycle the waste as a sustainable product. Herein is presented a long-term feasibility study on potential leaching behavioral pattern of nickel from different sizes and mixes based solidified landfill waste mixed mortar block. The calculated results revealed the larger sizes block entrapped more nickel content than the smaller in relation to the available for leaching. Moreover, the specimen bearing the higher amount of waste resulted the significant nickel immobilization within the crystalline structure. The study observed the fixation results 97.72%-99.35%, 97.08%-99.11%, 96.19%-98.58% and 95.86%-91.6% under the stabilizing agent to fine aggregate mixing combination 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2 and 1:2.5 respectively where 30% of the total volume of fine aggregate was replaced by landfill waste. Although, mechanical strength test of all surrogate waste forms was also conducted that showed acceptable performance for land disposal, the current research pointing out that constructed green products were non-hazardous except the specimens having mixture ratio 1:2.5 because nickel ion release mechanism was observed under this ratio by surface decay or physical erosion of the monolithic matrices. Furthermore, semi-empirical based dominant leaching mechanism models were justified against the goodness of fit statistical parameters for interpreting the experimental observations of nickel transport profile where the adopted models possessed strong potential for predicting Ni content with high accuracy.

  3. Indirect measurements of field-scale hydraulic conductivity of waste from two landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Fleming, I R

    2011-12-01

    Management and prediction of the movement and distribution of fluids in large landfills is important for various reasons. Bioreactor landfill technology shows promise, but in arid or semi-arid regions, the natural content of landfilled waste may be low, thus requiring addition of significant volumes of water. In more humid locations, landfills can become saturated, flooding gas collection systems and causing sideslope leachate seeps or other undesirable occurrences. This paper compares results from two different approaches to monitoring water in waste. At the Brock West Landfill in eastern Canada, positive pore pressures were measured at various depths in saturated waste. The downward seepage flux through the waste is known, thus the vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity of the waste at this landfill was determined to be 3 × 10(-7)cm/s. By comparison, the Spadina Landfill in western Canada is predominantly unsaturated. The infiltration of moisture into the waste was measured using moisture sensors installed in boreholes which determined arrival time for moisture fronts resulting from major precipitation events as well as longer-term change in moisture content resulting from unsaturated drainage during winter when frozen ground prevented infiltration. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity calculated from these data ranged from approximately 10(-6)cm/s for the slow winter drainage in the absence of significant recharge to 10(-2)cm/s or higher for shallow waste subject to high infiltration through apparent preferential pathways. These two very different approaches to field-scale measurements of vertical hydraulic conductivity provide insight into the nature of fluid movement in saturated and unsaturated waste masses. It is suggested that the principles of unsaturated seepage apply reasonably well for landfilled waste and that the hydraulic behavior of waste is profoundly influenced by the nature and size of voids and by the degree of saturation prevailing in the

  4. A technologist's view on municipal solid waste landfill risks

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    There are risks associated with all human activity. The level of risk that is acceptable is a matter of choice, personal judgement, and public policy. We are not conscious of many of the risks that we take. We tend to be unbalanced in our assessments of risk. We attach more importance to accidents and catastrophic events where large numbers of people die (e.g., airplane crashes) than to the individual deaths from a large number of events (e.g., deaths from automobile accidents). Scientists do not communicate technical risks well. Public risk perceptions are based on broad considerations such as justice, equity, choice, concern for future generations, morality, etc. Thus, there are frequent differences between a technical assessment of risk versus the public's perception of the risk. As engineers and scientists, it is our duty to effectively communicate risk options facing society. Technologists must understand why the public feels the way it does about waste risks and address the root causes of those concerns. There is a disturbing trend to concentrate on small'' risks (e.g., chemicals in clothing) and to minimize truly important and large risks (e.g., the disparity between rich and poor). The risks posed by the modern municipal waste landfill are small compared to others we face daily. Regarding contamination of drinking water, the EPA reported in its 1988 report to Congress that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills pose between no and very low risks, some 12% pose moderate risks, and only a small fraction of a percent nationwide have a high risk. The risks from gas emissions are summarily low. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Electrochemical treatment of mixed and hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.; Nuttall, E.

    1995-12-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and The University of New Mexico are jointly developing an electrochemical process for treating hazardous and radioactive wastes. The wastes treatable by the process include toxic metal solutions, cyanide solutions, and various organic wastes that may contain chlorinated organic compounds. The main component of the process is a stack of electrolytic cells with peripheral equipment such as a rectifier, feed system, tanks with feed and treated solutions, and a gas-venting system. During the treatment, toxic metals are deposited on the cathode, cyanides are oxidized on the anode, and organic compounds are anodically oxidized by direct or mediated electrooxidation, depending on their type. Bench scale experimental studies have confirmed the feasibility of applying electrochemical systems to processing of a great variety of hazardous and mixed wastes. The operating parameters have been defined for different waste compositions using surrogate wastes. Mixed wastes are currently treated at bench scale as part of the treatability study.

  6. Analysis of a landfill gas to energy system at the municipal solid waste landfill in Gaziantep, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tercan, Safak Hengirmen; Cabalar, Ali Firat; Yaman, Gokhan

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW), via landfill gas valorization technology, at the landfill of Gaziantep City, Turkey. Rapid increase in population, and industrial developments, throughout the world including Turkey results in larger amount of waste materials generated, increased need for energy, and adverse affects on the environment and human health. Turkey plans to produce 1/3 of its electricity demand using renewable energy sources by the year of 2023. It is recommended to use each year around 25 million tonnes of the MSW generated nationwide for a renewable energy supply. In this study, a concise summary of current status of electricity generation from a MSW landfill gas plant (via biogas harnessing) located in Gaziantep City was analyzed as a case study.

  7. Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of the Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket Facilities comprised of four lists: National Priorities List (NPL), Non-National Priorities List, Base Realignment and Closure Act (BRAC), and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).

  8. GEOSTATISTICAL SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter discusses field sampling design for environmental sites and hazardous waste sites with respect to random variable sampling theory, Gy's sampling theory, and geostatistical (kriging) sampling theory. The literature often presents these sampling methods as an adversari...

  9. Online Hazardous Waste Cleanup Technical Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper is intended to give the reader examples of some online technical resources that can assist with hazardous waste cleanups in the Superfund, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and Brownfields programs.

  10. Waste Informatics: Establishing Characteristics of Contemporary U.S. Landfill Quantities and Practices.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jon T; Pons, José C; Chertow, Marian

    2016-10-06

    Waste generation is expected to increase in most countries for many decades with landfill disposal still the dominant solid waste management method(1-3). Yet, operational characteristics of landfills are often poorly understood with comparative statistics substantially lacking. Here, we call for a more formal waste informatics to organize and standardize waste management knowledge at multiple spatial scales through analysis of recently reported data from 1232 U.S. landfills and other high resolution data sets. We create the first known estimate of available U.S. municipal waste stocks (8.5 billion tonnes) and go on to resolve these stocks at the county level, reflecting prospective urban mining opportunities. Our analysis of disposal rates and landfill capacities reveals that more than half of U.S. states have more than 25 years of life remaining. We also estimate the gross energy potential of landfill gas in the U.S. (338 billion MJ/yr) by examining 922 operational methane collection systems and demonstrate that the greatest energy recovery opportunities lie at landfills with existing collection systems and energy conversion infrastructure. Finally, we found that the number of landfills reaching the federally defined 30-year postclosure care period will more than triple in the coming two decades, with 264 sites expected by the year 2044, highlighting the need to develop and standardize metrics carefully to define and standardize when it is appropriate to end or scale back long-term landfill monitoring.

  11. Site hydrogeologic/geotechnical characterization report for Site B new municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.

    1991-04-01

    This Site Hydrogeologic/Geotechnical Characterization Report (SHCR) presents the results of a comprehensive study conducted on a proposed solid waste landfill site, identified herein as Site B, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is intended to satisfy all requirements of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with regard to landfill siting requirements and ground water and environmental protection. In addition, this report provides substantial geotechnical data pertinent to the landfill design process.

  12. One-dimensional Seismic Analysis of a Solid-Waste Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Francesco; Lentini, Valentina; Maugeri, Michele

    2008-07-01

    Analysis of the seismic performance of solid waste landfill follows generally the same procedures for the design of embankment dams, even if the methods and safety requirements should be different. The characterization of waste properties for seismic design is difficult due the heterogeneity of the material, requiring the procurement of large samples. The dynamic characteristics of solid waste materials play an important role on the seismic response of landfill, and it also is important to assess the dynamic shear strengths of liner materials due the effect of inertial forces in the refuse mass. In the paper the numerical results of a dynamic analysis are reported and analysed to determine the reliability of the common practice of using 1D analysis to evaluate the seismic response of a municipal solid-waste landfill. Numerical results indicate that the seismic response of a landfill can vary significantly due to reasonable variations of waste properties, fill heights, site conditions, and design rock motions.

  13. One-dimensional Seismic Analysis of a Solid-Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Castelli, Francesco; Lentini, Valentina; Maugeri, Michele

    2008-07-08

    Analysis of the seismic performance of solid waste landfill follows generally the same procedures for the design of embankment dams, even if the methods and safety requirements should be different. The characterization of waste properties for seismic design is difficult due the heterogeneity of the material, requiring the procurement of large samples. The dynamic characteristics of solid waste materials play an important role on the seismic response of landfill, and it also is important to assess the dynamic shear strengths of liner materials due the effect of inertial forces in the refuse mass. In the paper the numerical results of a dynamic analysis are reported and analysed to determine the reliability of the common practice of using 1D analysis to evaluate the seismic response of a municipal solid-waste landfill. Numerical results indicate that the seismic response of a landfill can vary significantly due to reasonable variations of waste properties, fill heights, site conditions, and design rock motions.

  14. 75 FR 13066 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... standards for the management of specific types of hazardous waste and specific types of hazardous waste management facilities, the land disposal restrictions program and the hazardous waste permit program. DATES... disposal facilities, the standards for the management of specific types of hazardous waste and...

  15. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.62 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. When an owner or operator of a hazardous...

  16. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.62 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. When an owner or operator of a hazardous...

  17. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.62 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. When an owner or operator of a hazardous...

  18. 40 CFR 270.62 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.62 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. When an owner or operator of a hazardous...

  19. 75 FR 12989 - Hazardous Waste Technical Corrections and Clarifications Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) is taking Direct Final action on a number of technical changes that correct or clarify several parts of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste regulations that relate to hazardous waste identification, manifesting, the hazardous waste generator requirements, standards for owners and operators of hazardous waste......

  20. Aerobic biological treatment of leachates from municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Andrés, P; Gutierrez, F; Arrabal, C; Cortijo, M

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to improve chemical oxygen demand (COD) elimination by secondary biological treatment from leachate of municipal solid waste landfill. This effluent was a supernatant liquid obtained after physicochemical processes and coagulating with Al3+ followed by ammoniacal stripping. First, respirometric assays were carried out to determine the substrate biodegradability. Specific sludge respiration rate (R(s)) vs. concentration of substrate (S), showed an increasing specific rate of assimilation of substrate (Rs), which reached the highest value, when the substrate concentration (COD) was between 75 and 200 mg O2 L(-1). Second, continuous experiments were made in an aerobic digester to test the previous respirometric data and the results showed removal efficiency of COD between 83 and 69%, and a substrate assimilation rate between 1.3 and 3.1 g COD g(-1) volatile suspended solids d(-1).

  1. Ecological investigation of a hazardous waste site, Warner Robins, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M.; Billig, P.

    1993-05-01

    Landfill No. 4 and the sludge lagoon at Robins Air Force Base, Warner Robins, Georgia, were added to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List in 1987 because of highpotential for contaminant migration. Warner Robins is located approximately 90 miles southeast of Atlanta. In 1990 CH2M HILL conducted a Remedial Investigation at the base that recommended that further ecological assessment investigations be conducted (CH2M HILL 1990). The subject paper is the result of this recommendation. The ecological study was carried out by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)Division of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., working jointly with its subcontractor CDM (CDM 1992a). The primary area of investigation (Zone 1) included the sludge lagoon, Landfill No. 4, the wetland area east of the landfill and west of Hannah Road (including two sewage treatment ponds), and the area between Hannah Road and Horse Creek (Fig. 1). The bottomland forest wetlands of Zone 1 extend from the landfill east to Horse Creek. Surface water and groundwater flow across Zone 1 is generally in an easterly direction toward Horse Creek. Horse Creek is a south-flowing tributary of the Ocmulgee River Floodplain. The objective of the study was to perform a quantitative analysis of ecological risk associated with the ecosystems present in Zone 1. This investigation was unique because the assessment was to be based upon many measurement endpoints resulting in both location-specific data and data that would assess the condition of the overall ecosystem. The study was segregated into five distinct field investigations: hydrology, surface water and sediment, aquatic biology, wetlands ecology, and wildlife biology.

  2. Special Report: Hazardous Wastes in Academic Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Howard J.

    1986-01-01

    Topics and issues related to toxic wastes in academic laboratories are addressed, pointing out that colleges/universities are making efforts to dispose of hazardous wastes safely to comply with tougher federal regulations. University sites on the Environmental Protection Agency Superfund National Priorities List, costs, and use of lab packs are…

  3. Hazardous Educational Waste Collections in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield.

    This report presents the status of programs designed to manage hazardous educational waste collections in secondary schools in the state of Illinois. Laboratory wastes, expired chemicals, unstable compounds, and toxic or flammable materials are accounted for in this document. The report contains an executive summary, a review of Illinois statutes…

  4. Vitrification of hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1992-10-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site. The first hazardous/mixed wastes glassified at SRS have been (1) incinerator and (2) nickel plating line (F006) wastes. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and incinerator bottom kiln ash have been achieved in Soda (Na{sub 2}O) - Lime (CaO) - Silica (SiO{sub 2}) glass (SLS) at waste loadings of up to 50 wt%. Solidification of nickel-plating line waste sludges containing depleted uranium have also been achieved in both SLS and borosilicate glasses at waste loadings of 75 wt%. This corresponds to volume reductions of 97% and 81%, respectively. Further studies will examine glassification of: ion exchange zeolites, inorganic filter media, asbestos, glass fiber filters, contaminated soil, cementitious, or other materials in need of remediation.

  5. Vitrification of hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B. ); Ramsey, W.G. . Dept. of Ceramic Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Solidification of hazardous/mixed wastes into glass is being examined at the Savannah River Site. The first hazardous/mixed wastes glassified at SRS have been (1) incinerator and (2) nickel plating line (F006) wastes. Solidification of incinerator blowdown and mixtures of incinerator blowdown and incinerator bottom kiln ash have been achieved in Soda (Na[sub 2]O) - Lime (CaO) - Silica (SiO[sub 2]) glass (SLS) at waste loadings of up to 50 wt%. Solidification of nickel-plating line waste sludges containing depleted uranium have also been achieved in both SLS and borosilicate glasses at waste loadings of 75 wt%. This corresponds to volume reductions of 97% and 81%, respectively. Further studies will examine glassification of: ion exchange zeolites, inorganic filter media, asbestos, glass fiber filters, contaminated soil, cementitious, or other materials in need of remediation.

  6. Quantifying Methane Abatement Efficiency at Three Municipal Solid Waste Landfills; Final Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements were conducted at three municipal solid waste landfills to compare fugitive methane emissions from the landfill cells to the quantity of collected gas (i.e., gas collection efficiency). The measurements were conducted over a multi-week sampling campaign using EPA Oth...

  7. RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulations (40 CFR Part 258) went into effect. These regulations are applicable to landfills receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operation, and closure of MSW landfills....

  8. Previous Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket Updates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket contains information reported to EPA by federal facilities that manage hazardous waste or from which hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants have been - or may be - released.

  9. MAP precipitation from landfill leachate and seawater bittern waste.

    PubMed

    Li, X Z; Zhao, Q L

    2002-09-01

    The leachates generated at Hong Kong landfill sites contain high strength of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4+-N) over 3,000 mg l(-1) and are generally inhibitive to most biological treatment processes. To remove the NH4+-N from the landfill leachates and also recover the nitrogen as a struvite fertilizer, a lab-scale study was performed to investigate the feasibility of NH4+-N removal and struvite crystallization using different magnesium sources. Three combinations of chemicals, MgCl2 x 6H2O+Na2HPO4 x 12H2O, MgO+H3PO4 and MgSO4 x 7H2O+Ca(H2PO4) x H2O, were first used at different molar ratios to precipitate NH4+-N from the leachate. The experimental results indicated that NH4+-N was removed by 92%, 36% and 70% respectively at pH 9.0 and a molar ratio of Mg:N:P=1:1:1. Two synthetic seawater bitten wastes containing Mg2+ at 9,220 mg l(-1) and 24,900 mg l(-1) respectively were then used as a magnesium source, while 85% H3PO4 chemical was used as a phosphorus source. The results revealed that NH4+-N was removed by 80% and 72% respectively, while a molar ratio of Mg:N:P=1:1:1 was applied. In the final stage of experiments, the magnesium-ammonium-phosphate (MAP) precipitates were examined by SEM, EDS and XRD. The SEM micrographs of the MAP precipitates showed a typical morphology of elongated tubular and short prismatic crystals. The EDS and XRD results indicated that the chemical composition of the MAP precipitates depended on the chemicals used and experimental conditions. The study confirmed that the recovery of NH4+-N from landfill leachate and seawater bitten wastes could be effectively achieved by MAP precipitation to obtain struvite crystals with a composition of 5.1%N, 10.3%Mg and 16.5%P.

  10. Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    This book is a review and evaluation of vadose (unsaturated) zone monitoring. It describes the applicability of selected monitoring methods to hazardous waste disposal sites. Topics covered include: geohydrologic framework of the vadose zone; premonitoring of storage at disposal sites; premonitoring of water movement at disposal sites; active and abandoned site monitoring methods; waste source pollutant characterization; geohydrologic settings for waste disposals and conceptual vadose zone monitoring descriptions.

  11. Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Coyne, Martin J.; Fiscus, Gregory M.; Sammel, Alfred G.

    1998-01-01

    A system for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut.

  12. Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Coyne, M.J.; Fiscus, G.M.; Sammel, A.G.

    1998-10-06

    A system is described for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut. 8 figs.

  13. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... landfill do not exceed 500 ppm PCB and measures to prevent the migration of PCBs from the landfill. Bulk... shall be placed around the site to prevent unauthorized persons and animals from entering. (ii)...

  14. Biogeochemical transformations of mercury in solid waste landfills and pathways for release.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Woo; Lowry, Gregory V; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is present in a variety of solid wastes including industrial wastes, household products, consumer electronics, and medical wastes, some of which can be disposed in conventional landfills. The presence of this neurotoxic metal in landfills is a concern due to the potential for it to leach or volatilize from the landfill and impact local ecosystems. The objective of this review is to describe general practices for the disposal of mercury-bearing solid wastes, summarize previous studies on the release of mercury from landfills, and delineate the expected transformations of Hg within landfill environments that would influence transport of Hg via landfill gas and leachate. A few studies have documented the emissions of Hg as landfill gas, primarily as gaseous elemental Hg(0) and smaller amounts as methylated Hg species. Much less is known regarding the release of Hg in leachate. Landfill conditions are unique from other subsurface environments in that they can contain water with very high conductivity and organic carbon concentration. Landfills also experience large changes in redox potential (and the associated microbial community) that greatly influence Hg speciation, transformations, and mobilization potential. Generally, Hg is not likely to persist in large quantities as dissolved species, since Hg(0) tends to evolve in the gas phase and divalent Hg(ii) sorbs strongly to particulate phases including organic carbon and sulfides. However, Hg(ii) has the potential to associate with or form colloidal particles that can be mobilized in porous media under high organic carbon conditions. Moreover, the anaerobic conditions within landfills can foster the growth of microorganisms that produced monomethyl- and dimethyl-Hg species, the forms of mercury with high potential for bioaccumulation. Much advancement has recently been made in the mercury biogeochemistry research field, and this study seeks to incorporate these findings for landfill settings.

  15. Regulatory Exclusions and Alternative Standards for the Recycling of Materials, Solid Wastes and Hazardous Wastes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Determining the Level of Regulation for Hazardous Waste Recycling, Recycled Materials that are not Subject to RCRA Hazardous Waste Regulation, Materials Subject to Alternative Regulatory Controls, Materials Subject to Full Hazardous Waste Regulations.

  16. Life-cycle inventory and impact evaluation of mining municipal solid waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pradeep; Powell, Jon T; Smith, Justin L; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2014-01-01

    Recent research and policy directives have emerged with a focus on sustainable management of waste materials, and the mining of old landfills represents an opportunity to meet sustainability goals by reducing the release of liquid- and gas-phase contaminants into the environment, recovering land for more productive use, and recovering energy from the landfilled materials. The emissions associated with the landfill mining process (waste excavation, screening, and on-site transportation) were inventoried on the basis of diesel fuel consumption data from two full-scale mining projects (1.3-1.5 L/in-place m(3) of landfill space mined) and unit emissions (mass per liter of diesel consumption) from heavy equipment typically deployed for mining landfills. An analytical framework was developed and used in an assessment of the life-cycle environmental impacts of a few end-use management options for materials deposited and mined from an unlined landfill. The results showed that substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions can be realized in both the waste relocation and materials and energy recovery scenarios compared to a "do nothing" case. The recovery of metal components from landfilled waste was found to have the greatest benefit across nearly all impact categories evaluated, while emissions associated with heavy equipment to mine the waste itself were found to be negligible compared to the benefits that mining provided.

  17. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity.

  18. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency.

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), Emission Guidelines (EG) and Compliance Times

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    learn about the NSPS for municipal solid waste landfills by reading the rule summary, rule history, code of federal regulations text, fact sheets, background information documents, related rules and compliance information.

  20. Study on detecting leachate leakage of municipal solid waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangang; Cao, Xianxian; Ai, Yingbo; Zhou, Dongdong; Han, Qiting

    2015-06-01

    The article studies the detection of the leakage passage of leachate in a waste landfill dam. The leachate of waste landfill has its own features, like high conductivity, high chroma and an increasing temperature, also, the horizontal flow velocity of groundwater on the leakage site increases. This article proposes a comprehensive tracing method to identify the leakage site of an impermeable membrane by using these features. This method has been applied to determine two leakage sites of the Yahu municipal solid waste landfill site in Pingshan District, Shenzhen, China, which shows that there are two leachate leakage passages in the waste landfill dam A between NZK-2 and NZK-3, and between NZK-6 and NZK-7.

  1. 75 FR 71559 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... final exclusion for ExxonMobil Refining and Supply Company-- Beaumont Refinery, published on October 1...Mobil Refining and Supply Company--Beaumont Refinery, published on October 1, 2010, 75 FR 60632....

  2. 75 FR 73972 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Removal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... exclusion for Eastman Chemical Company--Texas Operations, published on September 24, 2010. DATES: Effective... Company--Texas Operations, published on September 24, 2010, 75 FR 58315. We stated in that direct...

  3. Estimates of solid waste disposal rates and reduction targets for landfill gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Jon T.; Townsend, Timothy G.; Zimmerman, Julie B.

    2016-02-01

    Landfill disposal of municipal solid waste represents one of the largest anthropogenic global methane emission sources, and recent policy approaches have targeted significant reductions of these emissions to combat climate change in the US (ref. ). The efficacy of active gas collection systems in the US was examined by analysing performance data, including fire occurrence, from more than 850 landfills. A generalized linear model showed that the operating status of a landfill--open and actively receiving waste or closed--was the most significant predictor of collection system performance. Gas collection systems at closed landfills were statistically significantly more efficient (p < 0.001) and on average 17 percentage points more efficient than those at open landfills, but open landfills were found to represent 91% of all landfill methane emissions. These results demonstrate the clear need to target open landfills to achieve significant near-term methane emission reductions. This observation is underscored by landfill disposal rates in the US significantly exceeding previously reported national estimates, with this study reporting 262 million tonnes in the year 2012 compared with 122 million tonnes in 2012 as estimated by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  4. Does industrial waste taxation contribute to reduction of landfilled waste? Dynamic panel analysis considering industrial waste category in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasao, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Waste taxes, such as landfill and incineration taxes, have emerged as a popular option in developed countries to promote the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle). However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of waste taxes. In addition, quite a few studies have considered both dynamic relationships among dependent variables and unobserved individual heterogeneity among the jurisdictions. If dependent variables are persistent, omitted variables cause a bias, or common characteristics exist across the jurisdictions that have introduced waste taxes, the standard fixed effects model may lead to biased estimation results and misunderstood causal relationships. In addition, most existing studies have examined waste in terms of total amounts rather than by categories. Even if significant reductions in total waste amounts are not observed, some reduction within each category may, nevertheless, become evident. Therefore, this study analyzes the effects of industrial waste taxation on quantities of waste in landfill in Japan by applying the bias-corrected least-squares dummy variable (LSDVC) estimators; the general method of moments (difference GMM); and the system GMM. In addition, the study investigates effect differences attributable to industrial waste categories and taxation types. This paper shows that industrial waste taxes in Japan have minimal, significant effects on the reduction of final disposal amounts thus far, considering dynamic relationships and waste categories.

  5. Quarterly Groundwater Report for the Solid Waste Landfill October - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Jon W.

    2007-04-13

    This report provides information on groundwater monitoring at the Solid Waste Landfill during the quarterly time period October through December 2006. Conditions remain very similar to those reported in the previous quarterly report. Four background threshold values, two WAC 173-200 Groundwater Quality Criteria, and one WAC 246-290-310 maximum contaminant level were exceeded. The results that exceed applicable limits are consistent with the type of waste disposed to the landfill.

  6. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. [Nitrous oxide emissions from municipal solid waste landfills and its measuring methodology: a review].

    PubMed

    Jia, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Shao-Hua

    2014-06-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of three major greenhouse gases and the dominant ozone-depleting substance. Landfilling is the major approach for the treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW), while MSW landfills can be an important anthropogenic source for N2O emissions. Measurements at lab-scale and full-scale landfills have demonstrated that N2O can be emitted in substantial amounts in MSW landfills; however, a large variation in reported emission values exists. Currently, the mechanisms of N2O production and emission in landfills and its contribution to global warming are still lack of sufficient studies. Meanwhile, obtaining reliable N2O fluxes data in landfills remains a question with existing in-situ measurement techniques. This paper summarized relevant literature data on this issue and analyzed the potential production and emission mechanisms of N2O in traditional anaerobic sanitary landfill by dividing it into the MSW buried and the cover soil. The corresponding mechanisms in nitrogen removal bioreactor landfills were analyzed. Finally, the applicability of existing in-situ approaches measuring N2O fluxes in landfills, such as chamber and micrometeorological methods, was discussed and areas in which further research concerning N2O emissions in landfills was urgently required were proposed as well.

  8. E-waste hazard: The impending challenge

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Violet N.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India's lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. This review article provides a concise overview of India's current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal and recycling operations, existing legal framework, organizations working on this issue and recommendations for action. PMID:20040981

  9. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY...) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the definition of... Recovery Act (RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from...

  10. Methanogenic diversity and activity in municipal solid waste landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Laloui-Carpentier, Wassila; Li, Tianlun; Vigneron, Vassilia; Mazéas, Laurent; Bouchez, Théodore

    2006-01-01

    Archaeal microbial communities present in municipal solid waste landfill leachates were characterized using a 16S rDNA approach. Phylogenetic affiliations of 239 partial length 16S rDNA sequences were determined. Sequences belonging to the order Methanosarcinales were dominant in the clone library and 65% of the clones belonged to the strictly acetoclastic methanogenic family Methanosaetaceae. Sequences affiliated to the metabolically versatile family Methanosarcinaceae represented 18% of the retrieved sequences. Members of the hydrogenotrophic order Methanomicrobiales were also recovered in limited numbers, especially sequences affiliated to the genera Methanoculleus and Methanofollis. Eleven euryarchaeal and thirteen crenarchaeal sequences (i.e. 10%) were distantly related to any hitherto cultivated microorganisms, showing that archaeal diversity within the investigated samples was limited. Lab-scale incubations were performed with leachates mixed with several methanogenic precursors (acetate, hydrogen, formate, methanol, methylamine). Microbial populations were followed using group specific 16S rRNA targeted fluorescent oligonucleotidic probes. During the incubations with acetate, acetoclastic methanogenesis was rapidly induced and led to the dominance of archaea hybridizing with probe MS1414 which indicates their affiliation to the family Methanosarcinaceae. Hydrogen and formate addition induced an important acetate synthesis resulting from the onset of homoacetogenic metabolism. In these incubations, species belonging to the family Methanosarcinaceae (hybridizing with probe MS1414) and the order Methanomicrobiales (hybridizing with probe EURY496) were dominant. Homoacetogenesis was also recorded for incubations with methanol and methylamines. In the methanol experiment, acetoclastic methanogenesis took place and archaea hybridizing with probe MS821 (specific for Methanosarcina spp.) were observed to be the dominant population. These results confirm that

  11. Evaluating the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The biochemical methane potential (BMP) is an essential parameter when using first order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate methane (CH4) generation from landfills. Different categories of waste (mixed, shredder and sludge waste) with a low-organic content and temporarily stored combustible waste were sampled from four Danish landfills. The waste was characterized in terms of physical characteristics (TS, VS, TC and TOC) and the BMP was analyzed in batch tests. The experiment was set up in triplicate, including blank and control tests. Waste samples were incubated at 55°C for more than 60 days, with continuous monitoring of the cumulative CH4 generation. Results showed that samples of mixed waste and shredder waste had similar BMP results, which was in the range of 5.4-9.1 kg CH4/ton waste (wet weight) on average. As a calculated consequence, their degradable organic carbon content (DOCC) was in the range of 0.44-0.70% of total weight (wet waste). Numeric values of both parameters were much lower than values of traditional municipal solid waste (MSW), as well as default numeric values in current FOD models. The sludge waste and temporarily stored combustible waste showed BMP values of 51.8-69.6 and 106.6-117.3 kg CH4/ton waste on average, respectively, and DOCC values of 3.84-5.12% and 7.96-8.74% of total weight. The same category of waste from different Danish landfills did not show significant variation. This research studied the BMP of Danish low-organic waste for the first time, which is important and valuable for using current FOD LFG generation models to estimate realistic CH4 emissions from modern landfills receiving low-organic waste.

  12. Household hazardous waste disposal in Benton County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    McEvoy, J.W. ); Rossignol, A.M.

    1993-10-01

    Residents of Benton County, Oregon were studied to assess current and recent disposal practices for hazardous household wastes (HHW), plan for future HHW disposal programs, and guide educational and informational resource strategies that foster the safe disposal of HHW. The study results indicate that many Benton County residents dispose of their HHW by methods that may not protect human health and the environment. These methods include landfilling HHW, pouring HHW on the ground or into sewer/septic systems, and burning HHW. The study suggests that the most viable disposal system for HHW in Benton County is a permanent collection site within easy access (fewer than 10 miles) to potential users and funded by user fees.

  13. Landfill reclamation feasibility study for the Montauk Landfill, town of East Hampton, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    A landfill reclamation feasibility study was performed at Montauk Landfill in East Hampton, Long Island, New York. The purpose of the study was to determine whether landfill reclamation is a technically and economically feasible alternative to conventional landfill closure via capping. The technical feasibility of landfill reclamation at the site was determined from a field investigation in which the waste from different periods in the landfill`s history was characterized, the percent of reusable and recyclable materials determined, environmental hazards assessed, and throughput rates determined. Potential markets and/or uses for reclaimed materials were identified and estimates for the re-disposal of the residual waste were obtained from waste-to-energy facilities and offsite landfills.

  14. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

  15. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford`s 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location.

  16. Significance analysis of the leachate level in a solid waste landfill in a coastal zone using total water balance and slope stability alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Do, Nam-Young

    1996-12-31

    The K site near Seoul began landfilling in 1992. The landfilled wastes include municipal solid waste (66.4%), construction residues (20.4%), water and wastewater sludges (trace levels), and hazardous waste (trace levels). The water content of the municipal solid waste is very high (47.3%); as a result, the leachate level (average E.L.) of the landfill, the design value of which is 7.0 m, was measured at 10.3 m in January 1995 and is increasing. The increase of leachate level in the landfill site causes a problem with slope stability. The leachate level at each disposal stage divided by the intermediate cover layer was calculated with the HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) model and calibrated with the data measured from February 1993 to June 1995. Also, the hydraulic conductivities of the waste layer and the intermediate cover layer in each stage were calibrated continuously with HELP model analysis. To verify these results, the total water balance in the landfill site was calculated using the infiltration rate calculated from HELP modeling. The leachate level was E.L. 10.0 m, which was close to the measured leachate level. To estimate the change of the leachate level in the future, the total water balances with different leachate discharge rates of 3,000, 3,500, and 5,000 m{sup 3}/day were analyzed. When the leachate discharge rate was 5,000 ton/day and the initial water content was decreased below 25%, the average leachate level was 10.8 m. This result satisfies the safety factor requirements (=1.3) for landfill slope stability. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Hazardous waste regulations: an interpretive guide

    SciTech Connect

    Mallow, A.

    1981-01-01

    Compliance with hazardous-waste laws has been made difficult by new, lengthy, and complicated Environmental Protection Agency regulations. This book analyzes and reorganizes the 150 pages of three-column regulations, clarifying all aspects of the requirements. Paralleling the related sections of the law (Subtitle C of the Resources Act), the book begins with an overview of the law and regulations and an identification and listing of hazardous wastes. There are guidelines for authorized state programs along with notification requirements for those in hazardous-waste activities. A checklist format, using five different scenarios offers a practical approach to analyzing the unique requirements for generators and transporters as well as owners and operators. 3 figures.

  18. Methane oxidation in landfill waste biocover soil: kinetics and sensitivity to ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Xia, Fang-Fang; Bai, Yun; Fang, Cheng-Ran; Shen, Dong-Sheng; He, Ruo

    2011-05-01

    Waste biocover soil was investigated as an alternative in regions with a shortage of landfill cover soil. In the work, effects of the composition, ambient conditions and nitrogen stress on CH(4) oxidation in waste biocover soil were studied. The results showed that the optimal composition of waste biocover soil as a landfill cover material for CH(4) oxidation was original pH value, 45% moisture and a particle size of ≤ 4mm. CH(4) oxidation rate increased rapidly over a CH(4) concentration range of 0.01-10% (v/v), and kept stable at CH(4) concentrations of 10-30% (v/v). The Michaelis-Menten model showed a good fit for the kinetic of CH(4) oxidation in landfill waste biocover soil with a maximum of 9.03 μmol/gd.w./h. The average Q(10) was 10.6 in the batch experiments. A level of 5% of oxygen concentration was enough to sustain the activity of methanotrophs community structure in waste biocover soil. Waste biocover soil had low baseline concentrations of NH(4)(+)-N and NO(3)(-)-N. Ammonia volatilization from landfills and nitrification in landfill waste biocover soils might stimulate CH(4) consumption at concentrations below 600 mg/kg. However, the contents of NH(4)(+)-N and NO(3)(-)-N above 1200 mg/kg would inhibit CH(4) oxidation in landfill waste biocover soil. Compared with NO(3)(-)-N, NH(4)(+)-N had a greater stimulating action as nutrient at lower concentrations and inhibitory effect at higher concentrations on CH(4) oxidation in landfill waste biocover soil.

  19. LEACHATE CLOGGING ASSESSMENT OF GEOTEXTILE AND SOIL LANDFILL FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The liquids management strategy for any municipal or hazardous waste landfill requires a knowledgeable design strategy for the leachate collection system located at the base of the waste mass. Such leachate collection systems generally consist of sumps, perforated pipes, drainag...

  20. Estimating methane emissions from landfills based on rainfall, ambient temperature, and waste composition: The CLEEN model.

    PubMed

    Karanjekar, Richa V; Bhatt, Arpita; Altouqui, Said; Jangikhatoonabad, Neda; Durai, Vennila; Sattler, Melanie L; Hossain, M D Sahadat; Chen, Victoria

    2015-12-01

    Accurately estimating landfill methane emissions is important for quantifying a landfill's greenhouse gas emissions and power generation potential. Current models, including LandGEM and IPCC, often greatly simplify treatment of factors like rainfall and ambient temperature, which can substantially impact gas production. The newly developed Capturing Landfill Emissions for Energy Needs (CLEEN) model aims to improve landfill methane generation estimates, but still require inputs that are fairly easy to obtain: waste composition, annual rainfall, and ambient temperature. To develop the model, methane generation was measured from 27 laboratory scale landfill reactors, with varying waste compositions (ranging from 0% to 100%); average rainfall rates of 2, 6, and 12 mm/day; and temperatures of 20, 30, and 37°C, according to a statistical experimental design. Refuse components considered were the major biodegradable wastes, food, paper, yard/wood, and textile, as well as inert inorganic waste. Based on the data collected, a multiple linear regression equation (R(2)=0.75) was developed to predict first-order methane generation rate constant values k as functions of waste composition, annual rainfall, and temperature. Because, laboratory methane generation rates exceed field rates, a second scale-up regression equation for k was developed using actual gas-recovery data from 11 landfills in high-income countries with conventional operation. The Capturing Landfill Emissions for Energy Needs (CLEEN) model was developed by incorporating both regression equations into the first-order decay based model for estimating methane generation rates from landfills. CLEEN model values were compared to actual field data from 6 US landfills, and to estimates from LandGEM and IPCC. For 4 of the 6 cases, CLEEN model estimates were the closest to actual.

  1. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  2. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  3. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hazardous waste manifest. 172.205 Section 172.205... SECURITY PLANS Shipping Papers § 172.205 Hazardous waste manifest. (a) No person may offer, transport, transfer, or deliver a hazardous waste (waste) unless an EPA Form 8700-22 and 8700-22A (when...

  4. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  5. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  6. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  7. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  8. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  9. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  10. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  11. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that—...

  12. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Imports of hazardous waste. 262.60 Section 262.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60...

  13. Management of hazardous wastes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, C.S.

    1993-11-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), during the course of numerous research activities, generates hazardous, radioactive, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The management of these waste materials is highly regulated in the United States (US). This paper focuses on the hazardous waste regulations that limit and prescribe waste management at LLNL.

  14. Ground freezing for containment of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sayles, F.N.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1998-07-01

    The freezing of ground for the containment of subsurface hazardous waste is a promising method that is environmentally friendly and offers a safe alternative to other methods of waste retention in many cases. The frozen soil method offers two concepts for retaining waste. One concept is to freeze the entire waste area into a solid block of frozen soil thus locking the waste in situ. For small areas where the contaminated soil does not include vessels that would rupture from frost action, this concept may be simpler to install. A second concept, of course, is to create a frozen soil barrier to confine the waste within prescribed unfrozen soil boundaries; initial research in this area was funded by EPA, Cincinnati, OH, and the Army Corps of Engineers. The paper discusses advantages and limitations, a case study from Oak Ridge, TN, and a mesh generation program that simulates the cryogenic technology.

  15. Tougher standards for burning hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1993-08-01

    This article reports that tighter emission standards for hazardous waste combustion proposed by the EPA may require design changes that could alter the economics of hazardous waste incineration in the US. A recent draft strategy for the combustion of hazardous waste by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Washington, DC, has sent tremors through the two major types of combustors of industrial wastes: commercial incinerators and cement kilns. It is too early to predict what new environmental regulations will result from this proposal, but the ability of competitive combustors to meet them will likely determine their survival. The two emissions standards specified in the draft strategy announced in May by EPA administrator Carol Browner limit the particulate emissions from hazardous waste incinerators to 0.015 grain per dry standard cubic foot, less than one-fifth the 0.08 grain now permitted. Control of dioxins spells an even sharper change in EPA strategy, for these must be held to under 30 nanograms per dry standard cubic meter. Currently, there are no overall dioxin limits, only site-specific boundaries calculated on a risk-assessment basis for boilers and industrial furnaces (BIF) that have the potential to emit large amounts of dioxins and furans.

  16. VEGETATIVE COVERS FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disposal of municipal ahd hazardous waste in the United States is primarily accomplished by containment in lined and capped landfills. Evapotranspiration cover systems offer an alternative to conventional landfill cap systems. These covers work on completely different principles ...

  17. Using multivariate regression modeling for sampling and predicting chemical characteristics of mixed waste in old landfills.

    PubMed

    Brandstätter, Christian; Laner, David; Prantl, Roman; Fellner, Johann

    2014-12-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills pose a threat on environment and human health, especially old landfills which lack facilities for collection and treatment of landfill gas and leachate. Consequently, missing information about emission flows prevent site-specific environmental risk assessments. To overcome this gap, the combination of waste sampling and analysis with statistical modeling is one option for estimating present and future emission potentials. Optimizing the tradeoff between investigation costs and reliable results requires knowledge about both: the number of samples to be taken and variables to be analyzed. This article aims to identify the optimized number of waste samples and variables in order to predict a larger set of variables. Therefore, we introduce a multivariate linear regression model and tested the applicability by usage of two case studies. Landfill A was used to set up and calibrate the model based on 50 waste samples and twelve variables. The calibrated model was applied to Landfill B including 36 waste samples and twelve variables with four predictor variables. The case study results are twofold: first, the reliable and accurate prediction of the twelve variables can be achieved with the knowledge of four predictor variables (Loi, EC, pH and Cl). For the second Landfill B, only ten full measurements would be needed for a reliable prediction of most response variables. The four predictor variables would exhibit comparably low analytical costs in comparison to the full set of measurements. This cost reduction could be used to increase the number of samples yielding an improved understanding of the spatial waste heterogeneity in landfills. Concluding, the future application of the developed model potentially improves the reliability of predicted emission potentials. The model could become a standard screening tool for old landfills if its applicability and reliability would be tested in additional case studies.

  18. Compositional and physicochemical changes in waste materials and biogas production across 7 landfill sites in UK.

    PubMed

    Frank, R R; Cipullo, S; Garcia, J; Davies, S; Wagland, S T; Villa, R; Trois, C; Coulon, F

    2016-08-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the paper and fines across seven landfill sites (LFS) and assess the relationship between waste physicochemical properties and biogas production. Physicochemical analysis of the waste samples demonstrated that there were no clear trends in the spatial distribution of total solids (TS), moisture content (MC) and waste organic strength (VS) across all LFS. There was however noticeable difference between samples from the same landfill site. The effect of landfill age on waste physicochemical properties showed no clear relationship, thus, providing evidence that waste remains dormant and non-degraded for long periods of time. Landfill age was however directly correlated with the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of waste; with the highest BMP obtained from the most recent LFS. BMP was also correlated with depth as the average methane production decreased linearly with increasing depth. There was also a high degree of correlation between the Enzymatic Hydrolysis Test (EHT) and BMP test results, which motivates its potential use as an alternative to the BMP test method. Further to this, there were also positive correlations between MC and VS, VS and biogas volume and biogas volume and CH4 content. Outcomes of this work can be used to inform waste degradation and methane enhancement strategies for improving recovery of methane from landfills.

  19. Mixed waste storage facility CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Solid waste landfill CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This report consists of two papers reviewing the waste storage facility and the landfill projects proposed for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant complex. The first paper is a review of DOE`s conceptual design report for a mixed waste storage facility. This evaluation is to review the necessity of constructing a separate mixed waste storage facility. The structure is to be capable of receiving, weighing, sampling and the interim storage of wastes for a five year period beginning in 1996. The estimated cost is assessed at approximately $18 million. The review is to help comprehend and decide whether a new storage building is a feasible approach to the PGDP mixed waste storage problem or should some alternate approach be considered. The second paper reviews DOE`s conceptual design report for a solid waste landfill. This solid waste landfill evaluation is to compare costs and the necessity to provide a new landfill that would meet State of Kentucky regulations. The assessment considered funding for a ten year storage facility, but includes a review of other facility needs such as a radiation detection building, compactor/baler machinery, material handling equipment, along with other personnel and equipment storage buildings at a cost of approximately $4.1 million. The review is to help discern whether a landfill only or the addition of compaction equipment is prudent.

  20. Hazardous Waste Certification Plan: Hazardous Waste Handling Facility, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of hazardous waste (HW) handled in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). The plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end- product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; and executive summary of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. The plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Systems Group Manager to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with several requirements of the Federal Resource Conservation and Resource Recovery Act (RCRA), the Federal Department of Transportation (DOT), and the State of California, Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 22.

  1. Landfill reclamation feasibility study for the Springs-Fireplace Road Landfill, town of East Hampton, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    A landfill reclamation feasibility study was performed at the Springs-Fireplace Road Landfill in East Hampton, Long Island, New York. The purpose of the study was to determine whether landfill reclamation at the Springs-Fireplaces Road Landfill is a technically and economically feasible alternative to conventional landfill closure via capping. The technical feasibility of landfill reclamation at the site was determined from a field investigation in which the waste from different periods in the landfill`s history was characterized, the percent of reusable and recyclable materials determined, environmental hazards assessed, and throughput rates determined. Potential markets and/or uses for reclaimed materials were identified and estimates for the re-disposal of the residual waste were obtained from waste-to-energy facilities and offsite landfills.

  2. Audits of hazardous waste TSDFs let generators sleep easy. [Hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, F.H.

    1990-02-01

    Because of the increasingly strict enforcement of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), generators of hazardous waste are compelled to investigate the hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF) they use. This investigation must include an environmental and a financial audit. Simple audits may be performed by the hazardous waste generator, while more thorough ones such as those performed for groups of generators are more likely to be conducted by environmental consultants familiar with treatment, storage, and disposal techniques and the regulatory framework that guides them.

  3. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 262.11 Hazardous waste... waste in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261. Note: Even if the waste is listed, the generator still has an... the waste is not listed in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261, the generator must then determine whether...

  4. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 262.11 Hazardous waste... waste in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261. Note: Even if the waste is listed, the generator still has an... the waste is not listed in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261, the generator must then determine whether...

  5. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 262.11 Hazardous waste... waste in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261. Note: Even if the waste is listed, the generator still has an... the waste is not listed in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261, the generator must then determine whether...

  6. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 262.11 Hazardous waste... waste in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261. Note: Even if the waste is listed, the generator still has an... the waste is not listed in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261, the generator must then determine whether...

  7. 40 CFR 262.11 - Hazardous waste determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 262.11 Hazardous waste... waste in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261. Note: Even if the waste is listed, the generator still has an... the waste is not listed in subpart D of 40 CFR part 261, the generator must then determine whether...

  8. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  9. Phytostabilization of a landfill containing coal combustion waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Christopher; Marx, Donald; Adriano, Domy; Koo, Bon Jun; Newman, Lee; Czapka, Stephen; Blake, John

    2005-12-01

    The establishment of a vegetative cover to enhance evapotranspiration and control runoff and drainage was examined as a method for stabilizing a landfill containing coal combustion waste. Suitable plant species and pretreatment techniques in the form of amendments, tilling, and chemical stabilization were evaluated. A randomized plot design consisting of three subsurface treatments (blocks) and five surface amendments (treatments) was implemented. The three blocks included (1) ripping and compost amended, (2) ripping only, and (3) control. Surface treatments included (1) topsoil, (2) fly ash, (3) compost, (4) apatite, and (5) control. Inoculated loblolly (Pinus taeda) and Virginia (Pinus virginiana) pine trees were planted on each plot. After three growing seasons, certain treatments were shown to be favorable for the establishment of vegetation on the basin. Seedlings located on block A developed a rooting system that penetrated into the basin media without significant adverse effects to the plant. However, seedlings on blocks B and C displayed poor rooting conditions and high mortality, regardless of surface treatment. Pore-water samples from lysimeters in block C were characterized by high acidity, Fe, Mn, Al, sulfate, and traceelement concentrations. Water-quality characteristics of the topsoil plots in block A, however, conformed to regulatory protocols. A decrease in soil-moisture content was observed in the rooting zone of plots that were successfully revegetated, which suggests that the trees, in combination with the surface treatments, influenced the water balance by facilitating water loss through transpiration and thereby reducing the likelihood of unwanted surface runoff and/or drainage effluent.

  10. Health assessment for York County Solid Waste Landfill, York County, Hopewell Township, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD980830715. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-26

    The York County Waste Landfill site is an active unlined landfill which has been in operation since November 1974. Environmental contamination on-site consists of 1,2-dichloroethane (28 ppb), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (11 ppb), methylene chloride (12 ppb), trichlorofluoromethane (8 ppb), dichlorodifluoromethane (68 ppb), toluene (5 ppb), methyl ethyl ketone (140 ppb), acetone (170 ppb), and tetrachloroethylene (12 ppb) in groundwater. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated groundwater.

  11. 2002 Hyperspectral Analysis of Hazardous Waste Sites on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.B.

    2003-08-28

    Hazardous waste site inspection is a labor intensive, time consuming job, performed primarily on the ground using visual inspection and instrumentation. It is an expensive process to continually monitor hazardous waste and/or landfill sites to determine if they are maintaining their integrity. In certain instances, it may be possible to monitor aspects of the hazardous waste sites and landfills remotely. The utilization of multispectral data was suggested for the mapping of clays and iron oxides associated with contaminated groundwater, vegetation stress, and methane gas emissions (which require longer wavelength detectors). The Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, S.C. is a United States Department of Energy facility operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. For decades the SRS was responsible for developing weapons grade plutonium and other materials for the nation's nuclear defense. Hazardous waste was generated during this process. Waste storage site inspection is a particularly important issue at the SRS because there are over 100 hazardous waste sites scattered throughout the 300 mile complex making it difficult to continually monitor all of the facilities. The goal is to use remote sensing technology to identify surface anomalies on the hazardous waste sites as early as possible so that remedial work can take place rapidly to maintain the integrity of the storage sites. The anomalous areas are then targeted for intensive in situ human examination and measurement. During the 1990s, many of the hazardous waste sites were capped with protective layers of polyethelene sheeting and soil, and planted with bahia grass and/or centipede grass. This research investigated hyperspectral remote sensing technology to determine if it can be used to measure accurately and monitor possible indicators of change on vegetated hazardous waste sites. Specifically, it evaluated the usefulness of hyperspectral remote sensing to assess the condition of vegetation on clay

  12. The Excavation and Remediation of the Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    KWIECINSKI,DANIEL ALBERT; METHVIN,RHONDA KAY; SCHOFIELD,DONALD P.; YOUNG,SHARISSA G.

    1999-11-23

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a 1.9-acre disposal site that was used for the disposal of chemical wastes generated by many of SNL/NM research laboratories from 1962 until 1985. These laboratories were primarily involved in the design, research and development of non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons and the waste generated by these labs included small quantities of a wide assortment of chemical products. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan for the Chemical Waste Landfill was approved by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in 1992. Subsequent site characterization activities identified the presence of significant amounts of chromium in the soil as far as 80 feet below ground surface (fbgs) and the delineation of a solvent plume in the vadose zone that extends to groundwater approximately 500 fbgs. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected in some groundwater samples at concentrations slightly above the drinking water limit of 5 parts per billion. In 1997 an active vapor extraction system reduced the size of the TCE vapor plume and for the last six quarterly sampling events groundwater samples have not detected TCE above the drinking water standard. A source term removal, being conducted as a Voluntary Corrective Measure (VCM), began in September 1998 and is expected to take up to two years. Four distinct disposal areas were identified from historical data and the contents of disposal pits and trenches in these areas, in addition to much of the highly contaminated soil surrounding the disposal cells, are currently being excavated. Buried waste and debris are expected to extend to a depth of 12 to 15 fbgs. Excavation will focus on the removal of buried debris and contaminated soil in a sequential, area by area manner and will proceed to whatever depth is required in order to remove all pit contents. Up to 50,000 cubic yards of soil and debris will be removed and managed during

  13. HAZARDOUS WASTE DECONTAMINATION WITH PLASMA REACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of electrical energy in the form of plasma has been considered as a potentially efficient means of decontaminating hazardous waste, although to date only a few attempts have been made to do so. There are a number of relative advantages and some potential disadvantages to...

  14. Management of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book is a compilation of papers presented at a conference on the management of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Papers were presented in the following topics: federal and state programs; sampling and monitoring; leaking tanks; in-situ treatment; site remediation; banner technology; storage/disposal; endangerment assessment; risk assessment techniques; and research and development.

  15. Effects of concentrated leachate injection modes on stabilization of landfilled waste.

    PubMed

    He, Ruo; Wei, Xiao-Meng; Chen, Min; Su, Yao; Tian, Bao-Hu

    2016-02-01

    Injection of concentrated leachate to landfills is a simple and cost-effective technology for concentrated leachate treatment. In this study, the effects of injection mode of concentrated leachate and its hydraulic loading rate on the stabilization of landfilled waste were investigated. Compared with the injection of concentrated leachate, the joint injection of leachate and concentrated leachate (1:1, v/v) was more beneficial to the degradation of landfilled waste and mitigated the discharge amount of pollutants at the hydraulic loading rate of 5.9 L m(-2) day(-1). As the hydraulic loading rate of the joint injection of leachate and concentrated leachate was increased from 5.9 to 17.6 L m(-2) day(-1), the organic matter, biologically degradable matter, and total nitrogen of landfilled waste were degraded more rapidly, with the degradation constant of the first-order kinetics of 0.005, 0.004, and 0.003, respectively. Additionally, NO2(-)-N and NO3(-)-N in the concentrated leachate could be well removed in the landfill bioreactors. These results showed that a joint injection of concentrated leachate and raw leachate might be a good way to relieve the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of toxic pollutants in the concentrated leachate and accelerate the stabilization of landfilled waste.

  16. BIOLEACH: Coupled modeling of leachate and biogas production on solid waste landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena; Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important factors to address when performing the environmental impact assessment of urban solid waste landfills is to evaluate the leachate production. Leachate management (collection and treatment) is also one of the most relevant economical aspects to take into account during the landfill life. Leachate is formed as a solution of biological and chemical components during operational and post-operational phases on urban solid waste landfills as a combination of different processes that involve water gains and looses inside the solid waste mass. Infiltration of external water coming from precipitation is the most important component on this water balance. However, anaerobic waste decomposition and biogas formation processes play also a role on the balance as water-consuming processes. The production of leachate one biogas is therefore a coupled process. Biogas production models usually consider optimal conditions of water content on the solid waste mass. However, real conditions during the operational phase of the landfill may greatly differ from these optimal conditions. In this work, the first results obtained to predict both the leachate and the biogas production as a single coupled phenomenon on real solid waste landfills are shown. The model is applied on a synthetic case considering typical climatological conditions of Mediterranean catchments.

  17. Evaluating the methane generation rate constant (k value) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The methane (CH4) generation rate constant (k value, yr(-1)) is an essential parameter when using first-order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate CH4 generation from landfills. Four categories of waste (street cleansing, mixed bulky, shredder, and sludge waste) with a low-organic content, as well as temporarily stored combustible waste, were sampled from four Danish landfills. Anaerobic degradation experiments were set up in duplicate for all waste samples and incubated for 405 days, while the cumulative CH4 generation was continuously monitored. Applying FOD equations to the experimental results, half-life time values (t½, yr) and k values of various waste categories were determined. In general, similar waste categories obtained from different Danish landfills showed similar results. Sludge waste had the highest k values, which were in the range 0.156-0.189 yr(-1). The combustible and street cleansing waste showed k values of 0.023-0.027 yr(-1) and 0.073-0.083 yr(-1), respectively. The lowest k values were obtained for mixed bulky and shredder wastes ranging from 0.013 to 0.017 yr(-1). Most low-organic waste samples showed lower k values in comparison to the default numeric values in current FOD models (e.g., IPCC, LandGEM, and Afvalzorg). Compared with the k values reported in the literature, this research determined low-organic waste for the first time via reliable large-scale and long-term experiments. The degradation parameters provided in this study are valuable when using FOD LFG generation models to estimate CH4 generation from modern landfills that receive only low-organic waste.

  18. Modelling for environmental assessment of municipal solid waste landfills (part 1: hydrology).

    PubMed

    García de Cortázar, Amaya Lobo; Lantarón, Javier Herrero; Fernández, Oscar Montero; Monzón, Iñaki Tejero; Lamia, Maria Fantelli

    2002-04-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic simulation program for the prediction of leachate flows, their organic contamination and the gas generated in municipal waste landfills, (MODUELO) has been developed. It permits the simulation of canyon landfills in which the surface area changes throughout the landfill's history and of complex drainage systems. The "hydrologic module" calculates, based on the saturated flow equations, the water flow between cells and the overall moisture balance. Its results allow the "contamination module" to carry out the balance of organic material. This paper presents the development of the "hydrologic module". The contamination models are included in another paper. A preliminary application to the Meruelo Landfill (Spain) is also shown here. The fitting of a data series of leachate flows in Meruelo indicated the existence, in this particular landfill, of unconsidered phenomena. The final adjustment of the results makes it possible to obtain a reliable simulation of the degradation processes.

  19. Specific model for the estimation of methane emission from municipal solid waste landfills in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Nimchuk, Nick; Kumar, Rakesh; Zietsman, Josias; Ramani, Tara; Spiegelman, Clifford; Kenney, Megan

    2016-09-01

    The landfill gas (LFG) model is a tool for measuring methane (CH4) generation rates and total CH4 emissions from a particular landfill. These models also have various applications including the sizing of the LFG collection system, evaluating the benefits of gas recovery projects, and measuring and controlling gaseous emissions. This research paper describes the development of a landfill model designed specifically for Indian climatic conditions and the landfill's waste characteristics. CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2) and temperature were considered as the prime factor for the development of this model. The developed model was validated for three landfill sites in India: Shillong, Kolkata, and Jaipur. The autocorrelation coefficient for the model was 0.915, while the R(2) value was 0.429.

  20. What Specific Areas Must a Hazardous Waste Permit Address?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hazardous waste permits provide treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) with the legal authority to treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste and detail how the facility must comply with the regulations

  1. Psychosocial effects of hazardous toxic waste disposal on communities

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, D.L. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Community responses to exposure to hazardous wastes; Characteristics of citizen groups which emerge with respect to hazardous waste sites; The technological world-view and environmental planning.

  2. Hazardous Waste Generator Regulations: A User-Friendly Reference Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    User-friendly reference to assist EPA and state staff, industrial facilities generating and managing hazardous wastes as well as the general public, in locating and understanding RCRA hazardous waste generator regulations.

  3. Hazardous Waste Electronic Manifest System (E-Manifest)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webpage provides information on EPA's work toward developing a hazardous waste electronic manifest system. Information on the Hazardous Waste Electronic Manifest Establishment Act, progress on the project and frequent questions are available.

  4. 75 FR 16037 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... (carcinogenic risk of 10 -5 and non-cancer hazard index of 1.0). The DRAS program can back-calculate the... possible risks associated with releases of waste constituents through surface pathways...

  5. 75 FR 60632 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Direct Final Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... site. Using the risk level (carcinogenic risk of 10 -5 and non-cancer hazard index of 0.1), the DRAS... of waste constituents through surface pathways (e.g., volatilization or wind-blown particulate...

  6. Geomorphic and hydrologic assessment of erosion hazards at the Norman municipal landfill, Canadian River floodplain, Central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, J.A.; Whitney, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Norman, Oklahoma, municipal landfill closed in 1985 after 63 years of operation, because it was identified as a point source of hazardous leachate composed of organic and inorganic compounds. The landfill is located on the floodplain of the Canadian River, a sand-bed river characterized by erodible channel boundaries and by large variation in mean monthly discharges. In 1986, floodwaters eroded riprap protection at the southern end of the landfill and penetrated the landfill's clay cap, thereby exposing the landfill contents. The impact of this moderate-magnitude flood event (Q12) was the catalyst to investigate erosion hazards at the Norman landfill. This geomorphic investigation analyzed floodplain geomorphology and historical channel changes, flood-frequency distributions, an erosion threshold, the geomorphic effectiveness of discharge events, and other factors that influence erosion hazards at the landfill site. The erosion hazard at the Norman landfill is a function of the location of the landfill with respect to the channel thalweg, erosional resistance of the channel margins, magnitude and duration of discrete discharge events, channel form and hydraulic geometry, and cumulative effects related to a series of discharge events. Based on current climatic conditions and historical channel changes, a minimum erosion threshold is set at bankfull discharge (Q = 572 m3/s). The annual probability of exceeding this threshold is 0.53. In addition, this analysis indicates that peak stream power is less informative than total energy expenditures when estimating the erosion potential or geomorphic effectiveness of discrete discharge events. On the Canadian River, long-duration, moderate-magnitude floods can have larger total energy expenditures than shorter-duration, high-magnitude floods and therefore represent the most serious erosion hazard to floodplain structures.

  7. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  8. Waste management facilities cost information for hazardous waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing hazardous waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  9. Integrating waste management with Job Hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The web-based Automated Job Hazard Analysis (AJHA) system is a tool designed to help capture and communicate the results of the hazard review and mitigation process for specific work activities. In Fluor Hanford's day-to-day work planning and execution process, AJHA has become the focal point for integrating Integrated Safety Management (ISM) through industrial health and safety principles; environmental safety measures; and involvement by workers, subject-matter experts and management. This paper illustrates how AJHA has become a key element in involving waste-management and environmental-control professionals in planning and executing work. To support implementing requirements for waste management and environmental compliance within the core function and guiding principles of an integrated safety management system (ISMS), Fluor Hanford has developed the a computer-based application called the 'Automated Job Hazard Analysis' (AJHA), into the work management process. This web-based software tool helps integrate the knowledge of site workers, subject-matter experts, and safety principles and requirements established in standards, and regulations. AJHA facilitates a process of work site review, hazard identification, analysis, and the determination of specific work controls. The AJHA application provides a well-organized job hazard analysis report including training and staffing requirements, prerequisite actions, notifications, and specific work controls listed for each sub-task determined for the job. AJHA lists common hazards addressed in the U.S. Occupational, Safety, and Health Administration (OSHA) federal codes; and State regulations such as the Washington Industrial Safety and Health Administration (WISHA). AJHA also lists extraordinary hazards that are unique to a particular industry sector, such as radiological hazards and waste management. The work-planning team evaluates the scope of work and reviews the work site to identify potential hazards. Hazards

  10. Siting of a metals industry landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldo-Lee, M.B.; Diffendorf, A.F.; Hagarman, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    A recent application by a steel-manufacturing plant to obtain a permit for an industrial landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds near the city of Syracuse, New York, resulted in an extensive hydrogeologic and geochemical investigation. This investigation was initiated because of (1) previous disposal of waste by the metal manufacturer at this site and (2) the unique location of the landfill on top of preexisting waste beds on the shores of Onondaga Lake. The results of groundwater monitoring over a one-year period indicate no detectable chromium from the metal-waste leachate escaping through the soda ash wastes. Retention ofhexavalent chromium within the underlying highly alkaline soda ash wastes by adsorption, reduction, and precipitation suggests a viable means for in situ treatment of several metals-manufacturing waste products.

  11. Wastewater and Hazardous Waste Survey, England AFB Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Background 1 A. Wastewater System 2 B. England AFB Wastewater Discharge Limitations 2 C. Characteristic Hazardous Waste Regulations 3 1II. Procedures 4 A...Conservation and Recovery Act, or the Louisiana State Hazardous Waste Regulations . The wastewater survey was conducted by 1 Lt Robert A. Tetla, 2Lt Charles W...34Hazardous Waste Abatement Plan, England Air Force Base, Louisiana," 1987. 0 12. State of Louisiana Hazardous Waste Regulations 13. RCRA Interim

  12. Method and apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Korenberg, Jacob

    1990-01-01

    An incineration apparatus and method for disposal of infectious hazardous waste including a fluidized bed reactor containing a bed of granular material. The reactor includes a first chamber, a second chamber, and a vertical partition separating the first and second chambers. A pressurized stream of air is supplied to the reactor at a sufficient velocity to fluidize the granular material in both the first and second chambers. Waste materials to be incinerated are fed into the first chamber of the fluidized bed, the fine waste materials being initially incinerated in the first chamber and subsequently circulated over the partition to the second chamber wherein further incineration occurs. Coarse waste materials are removed from the first chamber, comminuted, and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. Any partially incinerated waste materials and ash from the bottom of the second chamber are removed and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. This process is repeated until all infectious hazardous waste has been completely incinerated.

  13. Compartment model of aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation in a municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Yul; Tojo, Yasumasa; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2007-12-01

    The mathematical formulations in a one-dimensional compartment model of the biodegradation of organic landfill components are described. The model is designed to switch between anaerobic and aerobic conditions, depending on the local oxygen concentration. The model also includes the effect of environmental factors, such as moisture content, pH, and temperature, on reaction rates. The model includes not only biodegradation processes for carbon compounds (acetate, CO2, CH4), but also for nitrogen compounds involved in nitrification and denitrification due to their significance in landfills. Two example runs to simulate anaerobic and aerobic waste were conducted for a single landfill unit cell by changing the organic content and diffusion coefficient.

  14. The degradability of biodegradable plastics in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfill model reactors.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Tomonori; Sugano, Wataru; Nakanishi, Akane; Tateda, Masafumi; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    Degradabilities of four kinds of commercial biodegradable plastics (BPs), polyhydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) plastic, polycaprolactone plastic (PCL), blend of starch and polyvinyl alcohol (SPVA) plastic and cellulose acetate (CA) plastic were investigated in waste landfill model reactors that were operated as anaerobically and aerobically. The application of forced aeration to the landfill reactor for supplying aerobic condition could potentially stimulate polymer-degrading microorganisms. However, the individual degradation behavior of BPs under the aerobic condition was completely different. PCL, a chemically synthesized BP, showed film breakage under the both conditions, which may have contributed to a reduction in the waste volume regardless of aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Effective degradation of PHBV plastic was observed in the aerobic condition, though insufficient degradation was observed in the anaerobic condition. But the aeration did not contribute much to accelerate the volume reduction of SPVA plastic and CA plastic. It could be said that the recalcitrant portions of the plastics such as polyvinyl alcohol in SPVA plastic and the highly substituted CA in CA plastic prevented the BP from degradation. These results indicated existence of the great variations in the degradability of BPs in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfills, and suggest that suitable technologies for managing the waste landfill must be combined with utilization of BPs in order to enhance the reduction of waste volume in landfill sites.

  15. 76 FR 36480 - Hazardous Waste Manifest Printing Specifications Correction Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 262 Hazardous Waste Manifest Printing Specifications Correction Rule AGENCY... proposing a minor change to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste manifest regulations that affects those entities that print the hazardous waste manifest form in accordance with...

  16. 76 FR 72311 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... the receptor's respiratory system. This is no longer necessary as toxicity reference values for...-2009-0312; SW FRL-9490-9] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous... States: States having a dual system that includes Federal RCRA requirements and their own...

  17. Occupational Hearing Loss among Chinese Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuewei; Wang, Haijiao; Weng, Shaofan; Su, Wenjin; Wang, Xin; Guo, Yanfei; Yu, Dan; Du, Lili; Zhou, Ting; Chen, Weihong; Shi, Tingming

    2015-01-01

    Background Occupational hearing loss is an increasingly prevalent occupational condition worldwide, and has been reported to occur in a wide range of workplaces; however, its prevalence among workers from municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLs) remains less clear. This study aimed to investigate the occupational hearing loss among Chinese MSWL workers. Methods A cross-sectional study of 247 workers from 4 Chinese MSWLs was conducted. Noise and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) levels at worksites were determined. We conducted hearing examinations to determine hearing thresholds. A worker was identified as having hearing loss if the mean threshold at 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz in either ear was equal to or greater than 25 dB. Prevalence of occupational hearing loss was then evaluated. Using unconditional Logistic regression models, we estimated the odds ratios (ORs) of MSWL work associated with hearing loss. Results According to the job title for each worker, the study subjects were divided into 3 groups, including group 1 of 63 workers without MSWL occupational hazards exposure (control group), group 2 of 84 workers with a few or short-period MSWL occupational hazards exposure, and group 3 of 100 workers with continuous MSWL occupational hazards exposure. Both noise and TVOCs levels were significantly higher at worksites for group 3. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds at frequencies of 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz were found in group 3, compared with that in group 1 and group 2. The overall prevalence rate of hearing loss was 23. 5%, with the highest in group 3 (36.0%). The OR of MSWL work associated with hearing loss was 3.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-8.96). Conclusion The results of this study suggest significantly higher prevalence of hearing loss among MSWL workers. Further studies are needed to explore possible exposure-response relationship between MSWL occupational hazards exposure and hearing loss. PMID:26042421

  18. Geophysical experiments for the pre-reclamation assessment of industrial and municipal waste landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balia, R.; Littarru, B.

    2010-03-01

    Two examples of combined application of geophysical techniques for the pre-reclamation study of old waste landfills in Sardinia, Italy, are illustrated. The first one concerned a mine tailings basin and the second one a municipal solid waste landfill; both disposal sites date back to the 1970-80s. The gravity, shallow reflection, resistivity and induced polarization methods were employed in different combinations at the two sites, and in both cases useful information on the landfill's geometry has been obtained. The gravity method proved effective for locating the boundaries of the landfill and the shallow reflection seismic technique proved effective for the precise imaging of the landfill's bottom; conversely the electrical techniques, though widely employed for studying waste landfills, provided mainly qualitative and debatable results. The overall effectiveness of the surveys has been highly improved through the combined use of different techniques, whose individual responses, being strongly dependent on their specific basic physical characteristic and the complexity of the situation to be studied, did not show the same effectiveness at the two places.

  19. Hazardous waste minimization report for CY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, C.M.

    1990-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. As a result of these activities, hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes are generated at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid 1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a distribution system for surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  20. 77 FR 58315 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) is granting a petition submitted by ExxonMobil Refining and Supply Company (ExxonMobil) Baytown Refinery to exclude from hazardous waste control (or delist) a certain solid waste. This final rule responds to the petition submitted by ExxonMobil to have the F039 underflow water...

  1. 75 FR 51678 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... exclude (or delist) its wastewater treatment biosludge generated by its Ingleside, Texas facility from the..., K020, F025, F001, F003, and F005 waste resulting from the treatment of wastewaters from the... 9, 2009, to exclude the wastewater treatment biosludge from the lists of hazardous waste under...

  2. Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsydenova, Oyuna; Bengtsson, Magnus

    2011-01-15

    This review paper summarizes the existing knowledge on the chemical hazards associated with recycling and other end-of-life treatment options of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste). The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals (e.g., mercury, cadmium, lead, etc.), flame retardants (e.g., pentabromophenol, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), etc.) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. If improperly managed, the substances may pose significant human and environmental health risks. The review describes the potentially hazardous content of e-waste, examines the existing e-waste management practices and presents scientific data on human exposure to chemicals, workplace and environmental pollution associated with the three major e-waste management options, i.e., recycling, incineration and landfilling. The existing e-waste management practices and associated hazards are reviewed separately for developed and developing countries. Finally, based on this review, the paper identifies gaps in the existing knowledge and makes some recommendations for future research.

  3. Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    PubMed

    Tsydenova, Oyuna; Bengtsson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the existing knowledge on the chemical hazards associated with recycling and other end-of-life treatment options of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste). The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals (e.g., mercury, cadmium, lead, etc.), flame retardants (e.g., pentabromophenol, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), etc.) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. If improperly managed, the substances may pose significant human and environmental health risks. The review describes the potentially hazardous content of e-waste, examines the existing e-waste management practices and presents scientific data on human exposure to chemicals, workplace and environmental pollution associated with the three major e-waste management options, i.e., recycling, incineration and landfilling. The existing e-waste management practices and associated hazards are reviewed separately for developed and developing countries. Finally, based on this review, the paper identifies gaps in the existing knowledge and makes some recommendations for future research.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of the waste composition and water content parameters on the biogas production models on solid waste landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco; Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are commonly used as the final deposit of urban solid waste. Despite the waste is previously processed on a treatment plant, the final amount of organic matter which reaches the landfill is large however. The biodegradation of this organic matter forms a mixture of greenhouse gases (essentially Methane and Carbon-Dioxide as well as Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide). From the environmental point of view, solid waste landfills are therefore considered to be one of the main greenhouse gas sources. Different mathematical models are usually applied to predict the amount of biogas produced on real landfills. The waste chemical composition and the availability of water in the solid waste appear to be the main parameters of these models. Results obtained when performing a sensitivity analysis over the biogas production model parameters under real conditions are shown. The importance of a proper characterizacion of the waste as well as the necessity of improving the understanding of the behaviour and development of the water on the unsaturated mass of waste are emphasized.

  5. Estimation of waste component-specific landfill decay rates using laboratory-scale decomposition data.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2010-06-15

    The current methane generation model used by the U.S. EPA (Landfill Gas Emissions Model) treats municipal solid waste (MSW) as a homogeneous waste with one decay rate. However, component-specific decay rates are required to evaluate the effects of changes in waste composition on methane generation. Laboratory-scale rate constants, k(lab), for the major biodegradable MSW components were used to derive field-scale decay rates (k(field)) for each waste component using the assumption that the average of the field-scale decay rates for each waste component, weighted by its composition, is equal to the bulk MSW decay rate. For an assumed bulk MSW decay rate of 0.04 yr(-1), k(field) was estimated to be 0.298, 0.171, 0.015, 0.144, 0.033, 0.02, 0.122, and 0.029 yr(-1), for grass, leaves, branches, food waste, newsprint, corrugated containers, coated paper, and office paper, respectively. The effect of landfill waste diversion programs on methane production was explored to illustrate the use of component-specific decay rates. One hundred percent diversion of yard waste and food waste reduced the year 20 methane production rate by 45%. When a landfill gas collection schedule was introduced, collectable methane was most influenced by food waste diversion at years 10 and 20 and paper diversion at year 40.

  6. 78 FR 46447 - Conditional Exclusions From Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste for Solvent-Contaminated Wipes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... services, chemical and allied product manufacturing, plastics and rubber, fabricated metal products... HQ Hazard Quotient IRIS EPA's Integrated Risk Information System LFCR Landfill Coupled Reactor Model... automobiles, electronics, furniture, and chemicals, to name a few, use large quantities of wipes,...

  7. The newest achievements of studies on the reutilization, treatment, and disposal technology of hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Peizhe

    1996-12-31

    From 1991 to 1996, key studies on the reutilization, treatment, and disposal technology of hazardous wastes have been incorporated into the national plan for environmental protection science and technology. At present, the research achievements have been accomplished, have passed national approval, and have been accepted. The author of this paper, as leader of the national group for this research work, expounds the newest achievements of the studies involving four parts: (1) the reutilization technology of electroplating sludge, including the ion-exchange process for recovering the sludge and waste liquor for producing chromium tanning agent and extracting chromium and colloidal protein from tanning waste residue; on the recovery of heavy metals from the electroplating waste liquor with microbic purification; on the demonstration project of producing modified plastics from the sludge and the waste plastics; and on the demonstration of the recovery of heavy metals from waste electroplating sludge by using the ammonia-leaching process; (2) the demonstrative research of reutilization technology of chromium waste residues, including production of self-melting ore and smelting of chromium-containing pig iron, and of pyrolytic detoxification of the residue with cyclone furnace; (3) the incineration technology of hazardous wastes with successful results of the industrial incinerator system for polychlorinated biphenyls; and (4) the safety landfill technology for disposal of hazardous wastes, with a complete set of technology for pretreatment, selection of the site, development of the antipercolating materials, and design and construction of the landfill. Only a part of the achievements is introduced in this paper, most of which has been built and is being operated for demonstration to further spreading application and accumulate experience. 6 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. The Scientific Management of Hazardous Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Keith S.

    According to the jacket of this book, three independent scientists carefully define the limits of scientific knowledge applicable to the management of hazardous wastes. It is claimed that the extrapolation and application of this knowledge is examined, significant areas of uncertainty are identified, and the authors reveal “the fallibility of certain interpretations.” It would be more accurate to claim these as possible goals of the book rather than its accomplishments.Chapter 1, Hazardous Wastes and Their Recycling Potential, includes 11 pages of lists of chemicals, some of which are poorly reproduced. The remaining pages describe, superficially, several recycling schemes. Connections between the chemicals previously listed and the recycling schemes are not given. Concerning the potential for recycling, the last sentence of the chapter reads, “Indeed, the concept of waste recycling, itself a contradiction in terms, is better politics than business.” Taken literally, this assertion itself contradicts venerable practice, as the farmer might observe as he transfers waste from his cows to the crops in his field. More pertinently, it can be argued that the recovery of solvents, metals, and oil from waste flows is much more than a political gesture.

  9. Appendix E: Research papers. Analysis of landfills with historic airphotos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.; Philipson, W. R. (Principal Investigator); Erb, T. L.; Teng, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    The nature of landfill-related information that can be derived from existing, or historic, aerial photographs, is reviewed. This information can be used for conducting temporal assessments of landfill existence, land use and land cover, and the physical environment. As such, analysis of low cost, readily available aerial photographs can provide important, objective input to landfill inventories, assessing contamination or health hazards, planning corrective measures, planning waste collection and facilities, and developing on inactive landfills.

  10. Biological treatment of hazardous aqueous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Opatken, E.J.; Howard, H.K.; Bond, J.J.

    1987-06-01

    Studies were conducted with a rotating biological conractor (RBC) to evaluate the treatability of leachates from the Stringfellow and New Lyme hazardous-waste sites. The leachates were transported from the waste sites to Cincinnati at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Testing and Evaluation Facility. A series of batches were run with primary effluent from Cincinnati's Mill Creek Sewage Treatment Facility. The paper reports on the results from these experiments and the effectiveness of an RBC to adequately treat leachates from Superfund sites.

  11. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 8, Appendix F, Landfills

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    While the preceding appendices have focused on the thermochemical approaches to managing municipal solid waste (MSW), this appendix and those that follow on composting and anaerobic digestion address more of the bioconversion process technologies. Landfilling is the historical baseline MSW management option central to every community`s solid waste management plan. It generally encompasses shredfills, balefills, landfill gas recovery, and landfill mining. While landfilling is virtually universal in use, it continues to undergo intense scrutiny by the public and regulators alike. Most recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final rule on criteria for designing, operating, monitoring, and closing municipal solid waste landfills. While the Federal government has established nationwide standards and will assist the States in planning and developing their own practices, the States and local governments will carry out the actual planning and direct implementation. The States will also be authorized to devise programs to deal with their specific conditions and needs. While the main body of this appendix and corresponding research was originally prepared in July of 1991, references to the new RCRA Subtitle D, Part 258 EPA regulations have been included in this resubmission (908). By virtue of timing, this appendix is, necessarily, a ``transition`` document, combining basic landfill design and operation information as well as reference to new regulatory requirements. Given the speed with which landfill practices are and will be changing, the reader is encouraged to refer to Part 258 for additional details. As States set additional requirements and schedules and owners and operators of MSW landfills seek to comply, additional guidance and technical information, including case studies, will likely become available in the literature.

  12. Data Summary of Municipal Solid Waste Management Alternatives. Volume VIII: Appendix F - Landfills

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    While the preceding appendices have focused on the thermochemical approaches to managing municipal solid waste (MSW), this appendix and those that follow on composting and anaerobic digestion address more of the bioconversion process technologies. Landfilling is the historical baseline MSW management option central to every community's solid waste management plan. It generally encompasses shredfills, balefills, landfill gas recovery, and landfill mining. While landfilling is virtually universal in use, it continues to undergo intense scrutiny by the public and regulators alike. Most recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final rule on criteria for designing, operating, monitoring, and closing municipal solid waste landfills. While the Federal government has established nationwide standards and will assist the States in planning and developing their own practices, the States and local governments will carry out the actual planning and direct implementation. The States will also be authorized to devise programs to deal with their specific conditions and needs. While the main body of this appendix and corresponding research was originally prepared in July of 1991, references to the new RCRA Subtitle D, Part 258 EPA regulations have been included in this resubmission (908). By virtue of timing, this appendix is, necessarily, a transition'' document, combining basic landfill design and operation information as well as reference to new regulatory requirements. Given the speed with which landfill practices are and will be changing, the reader is encouraged to refer to Part 258 for additional details. As States set additional requirements and schedules and owners and operators of MSW landfills seek to comply, additional guidance and technical information, including case studies, will likely become available in the literature.

  13. Bioreactivity of municipal solid waste landfill leachates-Hormesis and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Lata; Jones, Tim; BéruBé, Kelly

    2008-04-01

    The issue of domestic waste is recognised as one of the most serious environmental problems facing the nation. With the UK producing 35 million tonnes of municipal solid waste per annum, an understanding of the ranges of toxicity of landfill emissions is crucial to determine the degree of concern we should have about the potential effects these waste sites could have upon nearby populations and the surrounding environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioreactivity of landfill leachates in terms of their capacity to damage ROS-sensitive bacteriophage plasmid DNA and induce toxicity in a commercial photobacterium toxicity assay, based on the light emission of Vibrio fischeri bacteria (ROTAS). The bacterial assay revealed widespread biostimulation and a hormesis response in the bacteria, with alpha-, beta- and gamma-response curves observed following exposure to the different landfill leachates. Different biological mechanisms lead to variations in bioreactivity, as seen in the plasmid DNA scission and ROTAS assays.

  14. Assessing the leaching of hazardous metals from pharmaceutical wastes and their ashes.

    PubMed

    Gerassimidou, Spyridoula; Komilis, Dimitrios

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this research was the determination of the leaching potential of eight hazardous metals from expired pharmaceutical wastes and their ashes obtained after simulated incineration. A standardized leaching test (EN 14429) was used to assess leaching over a range of pH and comparison with the limits included in Decision 2003/33/EC was done at liquid/solid ratio 10. The goal was to assess the environmental impacts of pharmaceutical wastes after different disposal techniques (direct landfilling, incineration). A 3-year old composite sample of expired pharmaceutical wastes (drugs) was obtained and was separated into solid and liquid drugs. The packaging from each type of drug was also removed and tested separately, whilst the solid drugs and their packaging were incinerated at 900°C. Leaching tests on all solid substrates (solid drugs, packaging, ashed drugs, ashed packaging) were performed over a wide range of pH. The experiments showed that ashed drugs leached the highest amounts of all metals, except iron, and should be disposed of to a hazardous waste landfill, since Cd, Ni, and Pb exceeded the corresponding limits. Raw expired drugs, raw and ashed packaging did not exceed the pertinent limit values and could be, thus, disposed of directly to a non-hazardous waste landfill. In all experiments, the highest leaching potential (>90% of the total metal content) was measured at acidic pHs (<4). The leachable concentration of all metals increased as pH decreased, whilst Zn observed a small re-dissolution in the alkaline range.

  15. Frozen soil barriers for hazardous waste confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, J.G.; Leger, R.; Fu, H.Y.

    1997-12-31

    Laboratory and full field measurements have demonstrated the effectiveness of artificial ground freezing for the containment of subsurface hazardous and radioactive wastes. Bench tests and a field demonstration have shown that cryogenic barriers are impenetrable to aqueous and non aqueous liquids. As a result of the successful tests the US Department of Energy has designated frozen ground barriers as one of its top ten remediation technologies.

  16. Determining Cleanup Standards for Hazardous Waste Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    CERCLA ) 8 was designed to deal with so-called Superfund sites like Love Canal. Among other things, Section 121 of that Act 9 describes, the cleanup...the "big stick" for cleaning up dangerous environmental sites falls under the broad 17 scope of CERCLA and the Superfund . The fundamental difference...as wastes under RCRA but are still 43 considered "hazardous" for CERCLA regulation. Furthermore, CERCLA , as amended by the Superfund Amendment and

  17. Hazardous Waste Minimization Guide for Shipyards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    suited for low-boiling solvents without abrasive solids. Another evaporation method involves the use of a dryer . In this operation, the waste is fed...sludge is dewatered through filter presses and sludge dryers . The sludge is then generally disposed of at a class 1 Iandfill site owned by a hazardous...piece, the metal powder, water, glass shot, and additives are tumbled together in a barrel. Coatings are limited to ductile metals such as Cd, An, Sn

  18. The pedagogy of three hazardous waste design projects

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.L.

    1997-12-31

    Sixty percent of the grade assigned in a senior level design course entitled Hazardous and Solid Waste Engineering is based on three interrelated design projects: a metal plating line wastewater minimization/treatment system, sludge treatment, and a landfill leachate collection system. Although not truly integrated, these projects provide the student with the capacity to synthesize large projects. The plating line project is a major project requiring not only design of the wastewater treatment facilities but also preparing a waste minimization plan. The sludge treatment project requires the design of facilities for both organic and inorganic sludges. The leachate collection system is a small scale project that is integrated with the first two projects. The overall role of the projects as they relate to the course content and the relationship of this course to other design courses in the curriculum is explained. A description of the data provided and the requirements to complete the designs are presented. The pedagogic objectives in selecting these projects are also presented. The assessment process is outlined.

  19. Staged mold for encapsulating hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Unger, Samuel L.; Telles, Rodney W.; Lubowitz, Hyman R.

    1990-01-01

    A staged mold for stabilizing hazardous wastes for final disposal by molding an agglomerate of the hazardous wastes and encapsulating the agglomerate. Three stages are employed in the process. In the first stage, a first mold body is positioned on a first mold base, a mixture of the hazardous wastes and a thermosetting plastic is loaded into the mold, the mixture is mechanically compressed, heat is applied to cure the mixture to form a rigid agglomerate, and the first mold body is removed leaving the agglomerate sitting on the first mold base. In the second stage, a clamshell second mold body is positioned around the agglomerate and the first mold base, a powdered thermoplastic resin is poured on top of the agglomerate and in the gap between the sides of the agglomerate and the second mold body, the thermoplastic is compressed, heat is applied to melt the thermoplastic, and the plastic is cooled jacketing the agglomerate on the top and sides. In the third stage, the mold with the jacketed agglomerate is inverted, the first mold base is removed exposing the former bottom of the agglomerate, powdered thermoplastic is poured over the former bottom, the first mold base is replaced to compress the thermoplastic, heat is applied to melt the new thermoplastic and the top part of the jacket on the sides, the plastic is cooled jacketing the bottom and fusing with the jacketing on the sides to complete the seamless encapsulation of the agglomerate.

  20. Staged mold for encapsulating hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Unger, Samuel L.; Telles, Rodney W.; Lubowitz, Hyman R.

    1988-01-01

    A staged mold for stabilizing hazardous wastes for final disposal by molding an agglomerate of the hazardous wastes and encapsulating the agglomerate. Three stages are employed in the process. In the first stage, a first mold body is positioned on a first mold base, a mixture of the hazardous wastes and a thermosetting plastic is loaded into the mold, the mixture is mechanically compressed, heat is applied to cure the mixture to form a rigid agglomerate, and the first mold body is removed leaving the agglomerate sitting on the first mold base. In the second stage, a clamshell second mold body is positioned around the agglomerate and the first mold base, a powdered thermoplastic resin is poured on top of the agglomerate and in the gap between the sides of the agglomerate and the second mold body, the thermoplastic is compressed, heat is applied to melt the thermoplastic, and the plastic is cooled jacketing the agglomerate on the top and sides. In the third stage, the mold with the jacketed agglomerate is inverted, the first mold base is removed exposing the former bottom of the agglomerate, powdered thermoplastic is poured over the former bottom, the first mold base is replaced to compress the thermoplastic, heat is applied to melt the new thermoplastic and the top part of the jacket on the sides, the plastic is cooled jacketing the bottom and fusing with the jacketing on the sides to complete the seamless encapsulation of the agglomerate.

  1. Identification of Cellulose Breaking Bacteria in Landfill Samples for Organic Waste Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, P. M.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    According to the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department, the citizens of Hong Kong disposes 13,500 tonnes of waste to the landfill everyday. Out of the 13,500 tonnes, 3600 tonnes consist of organic waste. Furthermore, due to the limited supply of land for landfills in Hong Kong, it is estimated that landfills will be full by about 2020. Currently, organic wastes at landfills undergo anaerobic respiration, where methane gas, one of the most harmful green house gases, will be released. The management of such waste is a pressing issue, as possible solutions must be presented in this crucial period of time. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy introduced their very own method to manage the waste produced by the students. With an approximate of 1500 students on campus, the school produces 27 metric tonnes of food waste each academic year. The installation of the rocket food composter provides an alternate method of disposable of organic waste the school produces, for the aerobic environment allows for different by-products to be produced, namely compost that can be used for organic farming by the primary school students and subsequently carbon dioxide, a less harmful greenhouse gas. This research is an extension on the current work, as another natural factor is considered. It evaluates the microorganism community present in leachate samples collected from the North East New Territories Landfill, for the bacteria in the area exhibits special characteristics in the process of decomposition. Through the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the bacteria, the identification of the bacteria might lead to a break through on the current issue. Some bacteria demonstrate the ability to degrade lignin cellulose, or assist in the production of methane gas in aerobic respirations. These characteristics can hopefully be utilized in the future in waste managements across the globe.

  2. Quarterly Groundwater Report for the Solid Waste Landfill July - September 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Jon W.

    2007-02-19

    This report provides information on groundwater monitoring at the Solid Waste Landfill during the quarterly time period July to September 2006. Conditions remain very similar to those reported in the previous quarterly report. Six background threshold values, one WAC 173-200 Groundwater Quality Criterion, and one WAC 246-290-310 Maximum Contaminant Level were exceeded. The results that exceed applicable limits are consistent with the type of waste disposed to the landfill including sewage and chlorinated hydrocarbons from either the sewage or the 1100 Area heavy equipment garage and bus shop.

  3. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-12-01

    The quantity of leachate is crucial when assessing pollution emanating from municipal landfills. In most cases, existing leachate quantification measures only take into account one source - precipitation, which resulted in serious underestimation in China due to its waste properties: high moisture contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese waste. The two sources depended on climate conditions and waste characteristics, respectively, which both varied in different regions. In this study, 31 Chinese cities were investigated and classified into three geographic regions according to landfill leachate generation performance: northwestern China (China-NW) with semi-arid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 46.0%, northern China (China-N) with semi-humid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%, and southern China (China-S) with humid and sub-tropical/tropical climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%. In China-NW, accumulated leachate amounts were very low and mainly the result of waste degradation, implying on-site spraying/irrigation or recirculation may be an economic approach to treatment. In China-N, water squeezed out of waste by compaction totaled 22-45% of overall leachate amounts in the first 40 years, so decreasing the initial moisture content of waste arriving at landfills could reduce leachate generation. In China-S, the leachate generated by infiltrated precipitation after HDPE geomembranes in top cover started failing, contributed more than 60% of the overall amounts over 100 years of landfilling. Therefore, the quality and placing of HDPE geomembranes in the top cover should be controlled strictly for the purpose of mitigation leachate generation.

  4. Stable isotope signatures for characterising the biological stability of landfilled municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmer, Bernhard; Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion; Watzinger, Andrea; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The isotopic signature of δ{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates is linked to the reactivity of MSW. ► Isotopic signatures of leachates depend on aerobic/anaerobic conditions in landfills. ► In situ aeration of landfills can be monitored by isotope analysis in leachate. ► The isotopic analysis of leachates can be used for assessing the stability of MSW. ► δ{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates helps to define the duration of landfill aftercare. - Abstract: Stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates are influenced by processes within municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills mainly depending on the aerobic/anaerobic phase of the landfill. We investigated the isotopic signatures of δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O of different leachates from lab-scale experiments, lysimeter experiments and a landfill under in situ aeration. In the laboratory, columns filled with MSW of different age and reactivity were percolated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In landfill simulation reactors, waste of a 25 year old landfill was kept under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The lysimeter facility was filled with mechanically shredded fresh waste. After starting of the methane production the waste in the lysimeter containments was aerated in situ. Leachate and gas composition were monitored continuously. In addition the seepage water of an old landfill was collected and analysed periodically before and during an in situ aeration. We found significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C-value of the dissolved inorganic carbon (δ{sup 13}C-DIC) of the leachate between aerobic and anaerobic waste material. During aerobic degradation, the signature of δ{sup 13}C-DIC was mainly dependent on the isotopic composition of the organic matter in the waste, resulting in a δ{sup 13}C-DIC of −20‰ to −25‰. The production of methane under anaerobic conditions caused an increase in δ{sup 13}C-DIC up to values of +10‰ and higher depending on the actual reactivity of the MSW

  5. Adaptive sampling strategy support for the unlined chromic acid pit, chemical waste landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Adaptive sampling programs offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the real-time data generated by an adaptive sampling program. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system (SitePlanner{trademark} ) for data fusion, management, and display and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods (PLUME) for contamination-extent estimation and sample location selection. This approach is applied in a retrospective study of a subsurface chromium plume at Sandia National Laboratories` chemical waste landfill. Retrospective analyses suggest the potential for characterization cost savings on the order of 60% through a reduction in the number of sampling programs, total number of soil boreholes, and number of samples analyzed from each borehole.

  6. A framework for assessment and characterisation of municipal solid waste landfill leachate: an application to the Turbhe landfill, Navi Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Harshit; Rathod, Merwan; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialisation, growing population and changing lifestyles are the root causes for the generation of huge amounts of solid waste in developing countries. In India, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) through open dumping is the most common waste disposal method. Unfortunately, leachate generation from landfill is high due to the prolonged and prominent monsoon season in India. As leachate generation rate is high in most of the tropical countries, long-term and extensive monitoring efforts are expected to evaluate actual environmental pollution potential due to leachate contamination. However, the leachate characterisation involves a comprehensive process, which has numerous shortcomings and uncertainties possibly due to the complex nature of landfilling process, heterogeneous waste characteristics, widely varying hydrologic conditions and selection of analytes. In order to develop a sustainable MSW management strategy for protecting the surface and ground water resources, particularly from MSW landfill leachate contamination, assessment and characterisation of leachate are necessary. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past to characterise leachate quality from various municipal landfills; unfortunately, none of these propose a framework or protocol. The present study proposes a generic framework for municipal landfill leachate assessment and characterisation. The proposed framework can be applied to design any type of landfill leachate quality monitoring programme and also to facilitate improved leachate treatment activities. A landfill site located at Turbhe, Navi Mumbai, India, which had not been investigated earlier, has been selected as a case study. The proposed framework has been demonstrated on the Turbhe landfill site which is a comparatively new and the only sanitary landfill in Navi Mumbai.

  7. Influences of operational practices on municipal solid waste landfill storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chao; Liu, Hai-Long; Cleall, Peter John; Ke, Han; Bian, Xue-Cheng

    2013-03-01

    The quantitative effects of three operational factors, that is initial compaction, decomposition condition and leachate level, on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill settlement and storage capacity are investigated in this article via consideration of a hypothetical case. The implemented model for calculating landfill compression displacement is able to consider decreases in compressibility induced by biological decomposition and load dependence of decomposition compression for the MSW. According to the investigation, a significant increase in storage capacity can be achieved by intensive initial compaction, adjustment of decomposition condition and lowering of leachate levels. The quantitative investigation presented aims to encourage landfill operators to improve management to enhance storage capacity. Furthermore, improving initial compaction and creating a preferential decomposition condition can also significantly reduce operational and post-closure settlements, respectively, which helps protect leachate and gas management infrastructure and monitoring equipment in modern landfills.

  8. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill (C Italy).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Grassi, Alice; Vannini, Andrea; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Bil'ová, Ivana; Bačkor, Martin; Corsini, Adelmo; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Epiphytic lichens have been used as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill in C Italy. An integrated approach, using the diversity of epiphytic lichens, as well as element bioaccumulation and physiological parameters in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale was applied along a transect from the facility. The results highlighted the biological effects of air pollution around the landfill. The Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) increased and the content of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn) decreased with distance from the landfill. Clear stress signals were observed in lichens growing in front of the facility, i.e. discoloration, necrosis, membrane lipid peroxidation, lower ergosterol content, higher dehydrogenase activity. Decreased photosynthetic efficiency, altered chlorophyll integrity and production of secondary metabolites were also found. The results suggested that lichens can be profitably used as bioindicators of environmental quality around landfills.

  9. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Hazardous Waste Training Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    substances, which reduces the amount of waste covered by RCRA. 2.2.2. Enforcement of Hazardous Waste Regulations The goals of the RCRA enforcement...civil action is a formal lawsuit filed against an entity that failed to comply with hazardous waste regulations or contributed to a release of... hazardous waste regulations on an Air Force installation is the _______________. A. State environmental regulatory agency B. Local county or city

  10. Hazardous and toxic waste management in Botswana: practices and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mmereki, Daniel; Li, Baizhan; Meng, Liu

    2014-12-01

    Hazardous and toxic waste is a complex waste category because of its inherent chemical and physical characteristics. It demands for environmentally sound technologies and know-how as well as clean technologies that simultaneously manage and dispose it in an environmentally friendly way. Nevertheless, Botswana lacks a system covering all the critical steps from importation to final disposal or processing of hazardous and toxic waste owing to limited follow-up of the sources and types of hazardous and toxic waste, lack of modern and specialised treatment/disposal facilities, technical know-how, technically skilled manpower, funds and capabilities of local institutions to take lead in waste management. Therefore, because of a lack of an integrated system, there are challenges such as lack of cooperation among all the stakeholders about the safe management of hazardous and toxic waste. Furthermore, Botswana does not have a systematic regulatory framework regarding monitoring and hazardous and toxic waste management. In addition to the absence of a systematic regulatory framework, inadequate public awareness and dissemination of information about hazardous and toxic waste management, slower progress to phase-out persistent and bio-accumulative waste, and lack of reliable and accurate information on hazardous and toxic waste generation, sources and composition have caused critical challenges to effective hazardous and toxic waste management. It is, therefore, important to examine the status of hazardous and toxic waste as a waste stream in Botswana. By default; this mini-review article presents an overview of the current status of hazardous and toxic waste management and introduces the main challenges in hazardous and toxic waste management. Moreover, the article proposes the best applicable strategies to achieve effective hazardous and toxic waste management in the future.

  11. RFID technology for hazardous waste management and tracking.

    PubMed

    Namen, Anderson Amendoeira; Brasil, Felipe da Costa; Abrunhosa, Jorge José Gouveia; Abrunhosa, Glaucia Gomes Silva; Tarré, Ricardo Martinez; Marques, Flávio José Garcia

    2014-09-01

    The illegal dumping of hazardous waste is one of the most concerning occurrences related to illegal waste activities. The waste management process is quite vulnerable, especially when it comes to assuring the right destination for the delivery of the hazardous waste. The purpose of this paper is to present a new system design and prototype for applying the RFID technology so as to guarantee the correct destination for the hazardous waste delivery. The aim of this innovative approach, compared with other studies that employ the same technology to the waste disposal process, is to focus on the certification that the hazardous waste will be delivered to the right destination site and that no inappropriate disposal will occur in the transportation stage. These studies were carried out based on data collected during visits to two hazardous waste producer companies in Brazil, where the material transportation and delivery to a company in charge of the waste disposal were closely monitored.

  12. Temperature development in a modern municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash landfill with regard to sustainable waste management.

    PubMed

    Klein, R; Baumann, T; Kahapka, E; Niessner, R

    2001-05-30

    Municipal solid waste is treated in incineration plants to reduce the volume, the toxicity and the reactivity of the waste. The final product, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash, was considered as a material with a low reactivity, which can safely be deposited in a MSWI bottom ash landfill, or which can be used, e.g. in road construction after further treatment. However, temperature measurements in MSWI bottom ash landfills showed temperatures up to 90 degrees C, caused by exothermic reactions within the landfill. Such high temperatures may affect the stability of the flexible polymer membrane liner (FML) and may also lead to an accelerated desiccation of the clay barrier. At the beginning of this study it was uncertain whether those reported results would be applicable to modern landfills, because the treatment techniques in MSWI and landfills have changed, bottom and fly ash are stored separately, and the composition of the incinerated waste has changed significantly since the publication of those results. The aim of this study was to gain detailed knowledge of temperature development under standard disposal conditions in relation to the rate of ash disposal, the variation of layer thickness, and the environmental conditions in a modern landfill. Temperatures were measured at nine levels within the body of a landfill for a period of nearly 3 years. Within 7 months of the start of the disposal, a temperature increase of up to 70 degrees C within the vertical centre of the disposal was observed. In the upper and central part of the landfill this initial temperature increase was succeeded by a decrease in temperature. The maximum temperature at the time of writing (May 2000) is about 55 degrees C in the central part of the landfill. The maximum temperature (45.9 degrees C) at the FML was reached 17 months after the start of the deposition. Since then the temperatures decreased at a rate of 0.6 degrees C per month. Temperature variation within each

  13. Single-walled carbon nanotube transport in representative municipal solid waste landfill conditions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Iftheker A; Berge, Nicole D; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Ferguson, P Lee; Saleh, Navid B

    2013-08-06

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are being used in many consumer products and devices. It is likely that as some of these products reach the end of their useful life, they will be discarded in municipal solid waste landfills. However, there has been little work evaluating the fate of nanomaterials in solid waste environments. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the influence of organic matter type and concentration in landfill-relevant conditions on SWNT transport through a packed-bed of mixed municipal solid waste collectors. The influence of individual waste materials on SWNT deposition is also evaluated. Transport experiments were conducted through saturated waste-containing columns over a range of simulated leachate conditions representing both mature and young leachates. Results indicate that SWNT transport may be significant in mature waste environments, with mobility decreasing with decreasing humic acid concentration. SWNT mobility in the presence of acetic acid was inhibited, suggesting their mobility in young waste environments may be small. SWNTs also exhibited collector media-dependent transport, with greatest transport in glass and least in paper. These results represent the first study evaluating how leachate age and changes in waste composition influence potential SWNT mobility in landfills.

  14. Mining the Midden: A Facility for Dynamic Waste Harvesting at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Aaron

    Mining the Midden intends to re-frame the sanitary landfill as a new typology of public land containing an embodied energy of cultural and material value. By reconnecting the public with the landfill and seriously exposing its layers of history and then digesting both mined and new waste within an industrial facility of materials recovery and plasma gasification technology waste-to-energy plant. The sequence of experience for a public visitor begins where the waste is transformed to energy and flows in the opposite direction of the trash through the facility and then into the active landfill mining operation which is the large site component of the project. The mine is flanked by the visitor path, which is suspended from the soldier piles of the excavation system and allows the visitor to interpret along the 1/3 mile path their personal connection to the waste stream and the consumption patterns which drive our waste. Interpretation results from multi-sensory experience of the open mine and its connection to the processing structure as one hovers above, through moments of seeing through structural glass lagging directly into the sectional cut of the landfill, and through cultural artifacts harvested by landfill archaeologists which are displayed in rhythm with the structure and lagging. The culmination of the prescribed path is a narrow cut which frames the view of Mt. Rainier in the distance and opens up a visual connection with the remaining majority of the landfill which have up to this point been blocked by the small mountain of trash which they just walked up and through. This thesis intends that by confronting people with the juxtapositions of 2 potentially destructive mounds or mountains, and how we as a culture value and protect land while we simultaneously dump our rubbish on other lands, this experience will make the visitor more conscious of ones personal contribution to our culture of disposable commodities.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions during MSW landfilling in China: influence of waste characteristics and LFG treatment measures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-Jing

    2013-11-15

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can be highly cost-effective in terms of GHG mitigation. This study investigated GHG emissions during MSW landfilling in China under four existing scenarios and in terms of seven different categories: waste collection and transportation, landfill management, leachate treatment, fugitive CH4 (FM) emissions, substitution of electricity production, carbon sequestration and N2O and CO emissions. GHG emissions from simple sanitary landfilling technology where no landfill gas (LFG) extraction took place (Scenario 1) were higher (641-998 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww) than those from open dump (Scenario 0, 480-734 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww). This was due to the strictly anaerobic conditions in Scenario 1. LFG collection and treatment reduced GHG emissions to 448-684 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 2 (with LFG flare) and 214-277 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 3 (using LFG for electricity production). Amongst the seven categories, FM was the predominant contributor to GHG emissions. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the parameters associated with waste characteristics (i.e. CH4 potential and carbon sequestered faction) and LFG management (i.e. LFG collection efficiency and CH4 oxidation efficiency) were of great importance. A further learning on the MSW in China indicated that water content and dry matter content of food waste were the basic factors affecting GHG emissions. Source separation of food waste, as well as increasing the incineration ratio of mixed collected MSW, could effectively mitigate the overall GHG emissions from landfilling in a specific city. To increase the LFG collection and CH4 oxidation efficiencies could considerably reduce GHG emissions on the landfill site level. While, the improvement in the LFG utilization measures had an insignificant impact as long as the LFG is recovered for energy generation.

  16. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company's hazardous waste program.

    PubMed

    Van Noordwyk, H J; Santoro, M A

    1978-12-01

    This paper discusses the present hazardous waste program of 3M Company (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company). 3M's definition of hazardous waste and the company's position on hazardous waste disposal are first considered. The company position is that wherever and whenever the disposal of a waste material threatens the environment or public safety, then that waste should be considered a hazardous waste and treated accordingly in terms of its handling and ultimate disposal. The generation of hazardous wastes and the differentiation of "hazardous" and "nonhazardous" wastes are described next. Handling of hazardous wastes from their generation to their disposal is then covered. This includes a definition of internal 3M terminology and a description of the hazard rating system used by the company. Finally, 3M disposal practices are presented. It is 3M's position that thermal destruction of hazardous wastes, where appropriate, is the best method for their disposal. With this in mind, 3M has constructed incineration facilities throughout the country. The rotary kiln incinerator at the 3M Chemolite plant in Cottage Grove, Minnesota is briefly described. Disposal of certain hazardous wastes in controlled secure land disposal sites is then briefly discussed.

  17. Leaching, geochemical modelling and field verification of a municipal solid waste and a predominantly non-degradable waste landfill.

    PubMed

    van der Sloot, H A; Kosson, D S; van Zomeren, A

    2016-08-11

    In spite of the known heterogeneity, wastes destined for landfilling can be characterised for their leaching behaviour by the same protocols as soil, contaminated soil, sediments, sludge, compost, wood, waste and construction products. Characterisation leaching tests used in conjunction with chemical speciation modelling results in much more detailed insights into release controlling processes and factors than single step batch leaching tests like TCLP (USEPA) and EN12457 (EU Landfill Directive). Characterisation testing also can provide the potential for mechanistic impact assessments by making use of a chemical speciation fingerprint (CSF) derived from pH dependence leaching test results. This CSF then forms the basis for subsequent chemical equilibrium and reactive transport modelling to assess environmental impact in a landfill scenario under relevant exposure conditions, including conditions not readily evaluated through direct laboratory testing. This approach has been applied to municipal solid waste (MSW) and predominantly non-degradable waste (PNW) that is representative of a significant part of waste currently being landfilled. This work has shown that a multi-element modelling approach provides a useful description of the release from each of these matrices because relevant release controlling properties and parameters (mineral dissolution/precipitation, sorption on Fe and Al oxides, clay interaction, interaction with dissolved and particulate organic carbon and incorporation in solid solutions) are taken into consideration. Inclusion of dissolved and particulate organic matter in the model is important to properly describe release of the low concentration trace constituents observed in the leachate. The CSF allows the prediction of release under different redox and degradation conditions in the landfill by modifying the redox status and level of dissolved and particulate organic matter in the model runs. The CSF for MSW provides a useful starting point

  18. Mixed waste landfill corrective measures study final report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James

    2004-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill occupies 2.6 acres in the north-central portion of Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The landfill accepted low-level radioactive and mixed waste from March 1959 to December 1988. This report represents the Corrective Measures Study that has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the study was to identify, develop, and evaluate corrective measures alternatives and recommend the corrective measure(s) to be taken at the site. Based upon detailed evaluation and risk assessment using guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories recommend that a vegetative soil cover be deployed as the preferred corrective measure for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The cover would be of sufficient thickness to store precipitation, minimize infiltration and deep percolation, support a healthy vegetative community, and perform with minimal maintenance by emulating the natural analogue ecosystem. There would be no intrusive remedial activities at the site and therefore no potential for exposure to the waste. This alternative poses minimal risk to site workers implementing institutional controls associated with long-term environmental monitoring as well as routine maintenance and surveillance of the site.

  19. Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan will address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste.

  20. Evaluation of health effects from hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Andelman, J.B.; Underhill, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    This information and data for evaluating health effects from hazardous waste sites stems from the efforts of specialists representing leading research centers, hospitals, universities, government agencies and includes consultant as well as corporate viewpoints. The work evolved from the Fourth Annual Symposium on Environmental Epidemiology sponsored by the Center for Environmental Epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh and the U.S. EPA. Contents-One: Scope of the Hazardous Wastes Problems. Evaluating Health Effects at Hazardous Waste Sites. Historical Perspective on Waste Disposal. Two: Assessment of Exposure to Hazardous Wastes. Chemical Emissions Assessment for Hazardous Waste Sites. Assessing Pathways to Human Populations. Methods of Defining Human Exposures. Three: Determining Human Health Effects. Health Risks of Concern. Expectations and Limitations of Human Health Studies and Risk Assessment. Four: Case Studies. Love Canal. Hardeman County, Tennessee. Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania. Five: Defining Health Risks at Waste Sites. Engineering Perspectives from an Industrial Viewpoint. Role of Public Groups. Integration of Governmental Resources in Assessment of Hazards.

  1. Seismic analysis of Industrial Waste Landfill 4 at Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-07

    This calculation was to seismically evaluate Landfill IV at Y-12 as required by Tennessee Rule 1200-1-7-04(2) for seismic impact zones. The calculation verifies that the landfill meets the seismic requirements of the Tennessee Division of Solid Waste, ``Earthquake Evaluation Guidance Document.`` The theoretical displacements of 0.17 in. and 0.13 in. for the design basis earthquake are well below the limiting seimsic slope stability design criteria. There is no potential for liquefaction due to absence of chohesionless soils, or for loss or reduction of shear strength for the clays at this site as result of earthquake vibration. The vegetative cover on slopes will most likely be displaced and move during a large seismic event, but this is not considered a serious deficiency because the cover is not involved in the structural stability of the landfill and there would be no release of waste to the environment.

  2. Scenario analysis of the benefit of municipal organic-waste composting over landfill, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seng, Bunrith; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Ochiai, Satoru; Kaneko, Hidehiro

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents insight into the benefits of organic waste recycling through composting over landfill, in terms of landfill life extension, compost product, and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Future waste generation from 2003 to 2020 was forecast, and five scenarios of organic waste recycling in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia, were carried out. Organic waste-specifically food and garden waste-was used for composting, and the remaining waste was landfilled. The recycling scenarios were set based on organic waste generated from difference sources: households, restaurants, shops, markets, schools, hotels, offices, and street sweeping. Through the five scenarios, the minimum volume reductions of waste disposal were about 56, 123, and 219 m(3) d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, whereas the maximum volume reductions in these years were about 325, 643, and 1025 m(3) d(-1). These volume reductions reflect a landfill life extension of a minimum of half a year and a maximum of about four years. Compost product could be produced at a minimum of 14, 30, and 54 tons d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, and at a maximum in those years of about 80, 158, and 252 tons d(-1). At the same time benefit is gained in compost product, GHG emissions could be reduced by a minimum of 12.8% and a maximum of 65.0% from 2003 to 2020. This means about 3.23 (minimum) and 5.79 million tons CO(2)eq (maximum) contributed to GHG mitigation. In this regard, it is strongly recommended that MPP should try to initiate an organic-waste recycling strategy in a best fit scenario.

  3. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

    PubMed

    Ozonoff, D

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, (1) causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. (2) This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

  4. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ozonoff, D.

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

  5. Town of Hague landfill reclamation study: Research ways to increase waste heating value and reduce waste volume. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Salerni, E.

    1997-01-01

    Monitored composing was studied as a method for reducing the quantity of waste requiring disposed from a landfill reclamation project. After each of two re-screening steps, composted {open_quotes}soil{close_quotes} from a single long windrow of varying depths and moisture content was subjected to analytical testing to determine its suitability to remain as backfill in a reclaimed landfill site. The remaining uncomposted waste was combusted at a waste-to-energy facility to determine if Btu values were improved. Results indicate that a full-scale composting operation could result in a net decrease of approximately 11 percent in disposal costs. The Btu value of the reclaimed waste was calculated to be 4,500 to 5,000 Btu/lb. The feasibility of composting reclaimed waste at other landfill reclamation projects will depend upon site-specific technical and economic factors, including size and nature of the organic fraction of the waste mass, local processing costs, and the cost of waste disposal alternatives.

  6. Leachates draining from controlled municipal solid waste landfill: Detailed geochemical characterization and toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Mavakala, Bienvenu K; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mulaji, Crispin K; Laffite, Amandine; Devarajan, Naresh; Biey, Emmanuel M; Giuliani, Gregory; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Kabatusuila, Prosper; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-09-01

    Management of municipal solid wastes in many countries consists of waste disposal into landfill without treatment or selective collection of solid waste fractions including plastics, paper, glass, metals, electronic waste, and organic fraction leading to the unsolved problem of contamination of numerous ecosystems such as air, soil, surface, and ground water. Knowledge of leachate composition is critical in risk assessment of long-term impact of landfills on human health and the environment as well as for prevention of negative outcomes. The research presented in this paper investigates the seasonal variation of draining leachate composition and resulting toxicity as well as the contamination status of soil/sediment from lagoon basins receiving leachates from landfill in Mpasa, a suburb of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, soluble ions, toxic metals, and were then subjected to toxicity tests. Results highlight the significant seasonal difference in leachate physicochemical composition. Affected soil/sediment showed higher values for toxic metals than leachates, indicating the possibility of using lagoon system for the purification of landfill leachates, especially for organic matter and heavy metal sedimentation. However, the ecotoxicity tests demonstrated that leachates are still a significant source of toxicity for terrestrial and benthic organisms. Therefore, landfill leachates should not be discarded into the environment (soil or surface water) without prior treatment. Interest in the use of macrophytes in lagoon system is growing and toxic metal retention in lagoon basin receiving systems needs to be fully investigated in the future. This study presents useful tools for evaluating landfill leachate quality and risk in lagoon systems which can be applied to similar environmental compartments.

  7. 40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section 279.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste...

  8. 40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section 279.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste...

  9. 40 CFR 279.21 - Hazardous waste mixing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste mixing. 279.21 Section 279.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Generators § 279.21 Hazardous waste...

  10. Reduce Food Waste and Feed People, Not Landfills

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Nov. 10, 2015) Imagine 37 million tons of food. Think of how many people that amount could feed, the money it cost to buy, and the resources needed to produce it. Then imagine almost every pound of that sitting in a landfill or incinerator

  11. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in thick, relatively impermeable formations such as large-area clay pans. Where this is not possible.... Floodplains, shorelands, and groundwater recharge areas shall be avoided. There shall be no hydraulic..., 25-year storm. (5) Topography. The landfill site shall be located in an area of low to...

  12. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... connection between the site and standing or flowing surface water. The site shall have monitoring wells and... least fifty feet from the historical high water table. (4) Flood protection. (i) If the landfill site is below the 100-year floodwater elevation, the operator shall provide surface water diversion dikes...

  13. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... connection between the site and standing or flowing surface water. The site shall have monitoring wells and... least fifty feet from the historical high water table. (4) Flood protection. (i) If the landfill site is below the 100-year floodwater elevation, the operator shall provide surface water diversion dikes...

  14. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... connection between the site and standing or flowing surface water. The site shall have monitoring wells and... least fifty feet from the historical high water table. (4) Flood protection. (i) If the landfill site is below the 100-year floodwater elevation, the operator shall provide surface water diversion dikes...

  15. Guide to implementing reclamation processes at Department of Defense municipal solid waste and construction debris landfills. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tures, G.L.

    1993-09-21

    This thesis serves as a guide for implementing landfill reclamation techniques on municipal solid waste or construction debris landfills owned, operated, or used by the DoD. The research describes historical and current methods for disposing of solid waste including open dumping, sanitary landfilling, and the development of state-of-the-art sanitary landfill cell technology. The thesis also identifies the factors which have led to the need for new methods of managing municipal solid waste. The vast majority of the study is devoted to identifying actions which should be taken before, during, and after implementation of a landfill reclamation project. These actions include the development of health, safety, and contingency planning documents, the establishment of systems for characterizing and monitoring site conditions, and the identification of other procedures and processes necessary for performing successful operations. Finally, this study contains a model for analyzing under which conditions reclamation is economically feasible. The model examines economic feasibility in four separate conditions and shows that reclamation is economically feasible in a wide variety of markets. However, the model also shows that feasibility is directly associated with a continuance of normal landfilling operations. Landfill, Landfill reclamation, Landfill mining, Municipal solid waste, Recycling, Construction debris.

  16. 77 FR 36447 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... (that is, ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity), (2) the wastes meet the criteria for... any of the hazardous waste characteristics (that is, ignitability, reactivity, corrosivity, and...+00 Copper 2.23E-03 4.60E+02 o-Cresol ND 2.00E+02 m-Cresol ND 2.00E+02 p-Cresol ND 2.00E+02...

  17. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, D.D.; Stansbury, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions.

  18. Co-occurrence of mobile genetic elements and antibiotic resistance genes in municipal solid waste landfill leachates: A preliminary insight into the role of landfill age.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhuofeng; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhang, Hua; Lü, Fan

    2016-12-01

    Since municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill harbours miscellaneous wastes, pollutants and microorganisms, it gradually becomes a huge potential reservoir for breeding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of ARGs associated with various mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in MSW landfill leachates. The relationship of ARGs with leachate characteristics was also studied to explore the influence of landfill age. Seven sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine and sulfaquinoxaline), three encoded ARGs (sul-I, sul-II and sul-III) and four types of MGEs (plasmids, transposons, integrons and insertion sequences) were quantified in leachates with landfill ages ranging from 3 months-6 years. ARGs increased to an absolute concentration of 10(6) copies/μL and were positively correlated (p < 0.05) to MGEs. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were also discovered among ARGs and the increasing humic acids, heavy metals (Zn, Cu and Co) and antibiotics (except for sulfathiazole and sulfaquinoxaline), implying landfilling might contribute to the enrichment of ARGs in the long-term. Non-target full scans revealed the role of persistent unknown compounds in stimulating the ARGs dissemination. Overall, this study demonstrates the exacerbation of ARGs pollution in landfill environment and a detailed delineation of the complex inter-relationships between ARGs and the substances harbouring in landfills is badly required.

  19. Analysis of Indirect Emissions Benefits of Wind, Landfill Gas, and Municipal Solid Waste Generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Techniques are introduced to calculate the hourly indirect emissions benefits of three types of green power resources: wind energy, municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion, and landfill gas (LFG) combustion. These techniques are applied to each of the U.S. EPA's eGRID subregions i...

  20. In situ performance assessment of different final cover systems of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Poignard, S.; Didier, G.; Guerbois, M.

    1999-07-01

    Different configurations of cover systems (clay and a geosynthetic clay layer), are tested in order to evaluate their performances, and they are compared on an experimental Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in France. Results are given about the influence of a drainage layer under the top soil, the slope, and the material.

  1. 76 FR 9772 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to allow the State to issue research, development, and... risk to human health and the environment. The Director may provide a variance from existing... to human heath and the environment over compliance with a standard MSWLF permit. Following the...

  2. PERMANENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to permit EPA/ORD's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to collaborate together to test the permanence of biological and chemical warfare agents in municipal solid waste landfills. Research into ...

  3. Application of inert wastes in the construction, operation and closure of landfills: Calculation tool.

    PubMed

    Colomer Mendoza, Francisco J; Esteban Altabella, Joan; Gallardo Izquierdo, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Waste from construction and demolition activities represents one of the highest volumes of waste in Europe. 500 million tonnes are produced throughout the whole EU every year. In some EU members like Spain, approximately 83 per cent of such waste is disposed in landfills. The remaining part is classified and processed in treatment facilities so that it can later be used as recycled aggregates in the construction sector (sand, gravel, aggregates, etc.) but without much commercial success. The aim of this study is to use recycled aggregates from inert wastes (IW) in the different phases of a landfill (construction, operation and closure) with the aid of a new computer tool called LABWASTE.14. This tool incorporates the mathematical relationship among the activities of the landfill and provides as a result the economic viability of using recycled aggregates compared to aggregates from quarries. Therefore, knowing the needs of aggregates in landfills (dams, drainage layers, covering layers, collection wells, etc.) may determine the amount of IW that could be recovered. These calculations can be obtained from some of the data that is introduced (population, land physiography, etc.). Furthermore, the use of LABWASTE.14 makes it possible to reduce the demand for aggregates from quarries.

  4. Landfill gas energy recovery: Turning a liability into an asset

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, M.

    1996-08-01

    Until the past decade, landfill gas (LFG) was viewed as a nuisance at best and a hazard at worst. Today, municipalities and private-sector solid waste management companies are findings ways to put landfill gas to productive use. Landfill gas energy recovery eliminates detrimental air emissions; prevents landfill methane from contributing to global climate change; stops methane from migrating off-site and becoming a safety hazard or odor problem; and provides local utilities, industry, and consumers with a competitive, local source of power. In other words, LFG-to-energy facilities provide a unique form of recycling--solid waste is hauled to the landfill as refuse and returned to the consumer in the form of energy. US EPA`s Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) and new EPA regulations for control of landfill gas emissions work together to encourage greater use of LFT at many facilities across the US.

  5. Evaluation of prospective hazardous waste treatment technologies for use in processing low-level mixed wastes at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    McGlochlin, S.C.; Harder, R.V.; Jensen, R.T.; Pettis, S.A.; Roggenthen, D.K.

    1990-09-18

    Several technologies for destroying or decontaminating hazardous wastes were evaluated (during early 1988) as potential processes for treating low-level mixed wastes destined for destruction in the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. The processes that showed promise were retained for further consideration and placed into one (or more) of three categories based on projected availability: short, intermediate, and long-term. Three potential short-term options were identified for managing low-level mixed wastes generated or stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (operated by Rockwell International in 1988). These options are: (1) Continue storing at Rocky Flats, (2) Ship to Nevada Test Site for landfill disposal, or (3) Ship to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for incineration in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The third option is preferable because the wastes will be destroyed. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has received interim status for processing solid and liquid low-level mixed wastes. However, low-level mixed wastes will continue to be stored at Rocky Flats until the Department of Energy approval is received to ship to the Nevada Test Site or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Potential intermediate and long-term processes were identified; however, these processes should be combined into complete waste treatment systems'' that may serve as alternatives to the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Waste treatment systems will be the subject of later work. 59 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Influence of a Municipal Waste Landfill on the Spatial Distribution of Mercury in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Gworek, Barbara; Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Koda, Eugeniusz; Osiecka, Renata; Borzyszkowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The study investigations were focused on assessing the influence of a 35-year-old municipal waste landfill on environmental mercury pollution. The total Hg content was determined in the soil profile, groundwater, and the plants (Solidago virgaurea and Poaceae sp.) in the landfill area. Environmental pollution near the landfill was relatively low. The topsoil layer, groundwater and the leaves of Solidago virgaurea and Poaceae sp. contained 19–271 μg kg-1, 0.36–3.01 μg l-1, 19–66 μg kg-1 and 8–29 μg kg-1 of Hg, respectively. The total Hg content in the soil decreased with the depth. The results are presented as pollution maps of the landfill area based on the total Hg content in the soil, groundwater and plants. Statistical analysis revealed the lack of correlation between the total Hg content in the soil and plants, but a relationship between the total concentration of Hg in groundwater and soil was shown. The landfill is not a direct source of pollution in the area. The type of land morphology did not influence the pollution level. Construction of bentonite cut-off wall bypassing MSW landfill reduces the risk of mercury release into ground-water environment. PMID:26176607

  7. Environmental and economic assessment of combined biostabilization and landfill for municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Dong-Qing; Jin, Tai-Feng; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Zheng-Hao; Shao, Li-Ming

    2011-10-01

    Biostabilization can remove considerable amounts of moisture and degradable organic materials from municipal solid waste (MSW), and can therefore be an effective form of pretreatment prior to landfill. The environmental and economic impacts of two combined processes, active stage biostabilization + sanitary landfill (AL), and active and curing stage biostabilization + sanitary landfill (ACL), were compared with sanitary landfill (SL) for MSW with high moisture content. The results indicated that land requirement, leachate generation, and CH(4) emission in the ACL process decreased by 68.6%, 89.1%, and 87.6%, respectively, and the total cost was reduced by 24.1%, compared with SL. This implies that a combined biostabilization and landfill process can be an environmentally friendly and economically feasible alternative to landfill of raw MSW with high moisture content. Sensitivity analysis revealed that treatment capacity and construction costs of biostabilization and the oxidation factor of CH(4) significantly influenced the costs and benefits of the AL and ACL process at an extremely low land price. When the land price was greater than 100 USD m(-2), it became the dominating factor in determining the cost of treatment and disposal, and the total costs of ACL were reduced to less than 40% of those of SL.

  8. Characterizing soils for hazardous waste site assessments.

    PubMed

    Breckenridge, R P; Keck, J F; Williams, J R

    1994-04-01

    This paper provides a review and justification of the minimum data needed to characterize soils for hazardous waste site assessments and to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Scientists and managers within the regulatory agency and the liable party need to know what are the important soil characteristics needed to make decisions about risk assessment, what areas need remediation and what remediation options are available. If all parties involved in characterizing a hazardous waste site can agree on the required soils data set prior to starting a site investigation, data can be collected in a more efficient and less costly manner. Having the proper data will aid in reaching decisions on how to address concerns at, and close-out, hazardous waste sites.This paper was prepared to address two specific concerns related to soil characterization for CERCLA remedial response. The first concern is the applicability of traditional soil classification methods to CERCLA soil characterization. The second is the identification of soil characterization data type required for CERCLA risk assessment and analysis of remedial alternatives. These concerns are related, in that the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process addresses both. The DQO process was developed in part to assist CERCLA decision-makers in identifying the data types, data quality, and data quantity required to support decisions that must be made during the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response Activities: Development Process (US EPA, 1987a) is a guidebook on developing DQOs. This process as it relates to CERCLA soil characterization is discussed in the Data Quality Objective Section of this paper.

  9. Performance evaluation of the bioreactor landfill in treatment and stabilisation of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Lakshmikanthan, P; Sivakumar Babu, G L

    2017-03-01

    The potential of bioreactor landfills to treat mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste is analysed in this study. Developing countries like India and China have begun to investigate bioreactor landfills for municipal solid waste management. This article describes the impacts of leachate recirculation on waste stabilisation, landfill gas generation, leachate characteristics and long-term waste settlement. A small-scale and large-scale anaerobic cell were filled with mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste collected from a landfill site at the outskirts of Bangalore, India. Leachate collected from the same landfill site was recirculated at the rate of 2-5 times a month on a regular basis for 370 days. The total quantity of gas generated was around 416 L in the large-scale reactor and 21 L in the small-scale reactor, respectively. Differential settlements ranging from 20%-26% were observed at two different locations in the large reactor, whereas 30% of settlement was observed in the small reactor. The biological oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio indicated that the waste in the large reactor was stabilised at the end of 1 year. The performance of the bioreactor with respect to the reactor size, temperature, landfill gas and leachate quality was analysed and it was found that the bioreactor landfill is efficient in the treatment and stabilising of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

  10. Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

    1995-06-01

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes.

  11. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data on CCW

  12. [Uncertainty analysis for evaluating methane emissions from municipal solid waste landfill in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Chen, Cao-Cao; Liu, Chun-Lan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Hai-Hua; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Lu

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the accurate evaluation of CH4 emissions from municipal solid waste landfill in Beijing, FOD-model and Monte Carlo method were conducted. Based on local data, national data and experts' experience, the uncertainty of FOD-model and parameters' sensitivity analysis were identified. And we quantified effect of various parameters on model output. The results showed that 95% probability distribution range of CH4 emission from landfill was (11.8-19.76) x 10(4) t x a(-1) in Beijing. The mean value was 15.58 x 10(4)t x a(-1) with uncertainty range of -24.26% - 26.83%. Among all the parameters MCF (after 2000) showed the greatest impact on landfill CH4 emission in 2008, and its contribution to the uncertainty of emission result was 41.4%. This research can improve the assessment accuracy and quality on CH4 emission from municipal solid waste landfill in Beijing, as providing scientific basis to improve the landfill greenhouse gas inventory and data collection.

  13. Study of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities exposed to buckeye reclamation landfill drainage wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Klemm, D.J.; Thoeny, W.T.; McCarthy, H.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Buckeye Reclamation Landfill (BRL), a Superfund site, incorporates approximately 50 acres of a 658 acre tract of land. The BRL consists of past underground mining voids, including some surface-mined lands, and mine refuse piles from processed bituminous coal. The area was subsequently used as a nonhazardous public and municipal solid waste landfill, and industrial sludge and liquid wastes were also deposited in an impoundment in the northern section of the landfill. The entire landfill area was completely covered with soil and revegetated in the late 1980`s and early 1990`s. The BRL produces acidic and highly mineralized drainage causing a widespread problem of serious mine drainage pollution in the watershed. A study was undertaken to assess the exposure of pollutants to the macroinvertebrate assemblages and to determine the extent of pollution of the BRL watershed. Samples were collected from ten sites in 1995. Nine systematic and spatial transect samples were taken at each collection site for macroinverbrates with a 595 {micro}m mesh, modified kick net from riffle/run and glide/pool habitats of streams above and below the BRL watershed. All macroinverbrates were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible. The levels for total Zn ranged from 22--604 {micro}g/L; pH ranged from 4.4 to 8.1. The data distinguished the exposed sites receiving landfill leachates and sedimentation runoff from the less impacted sites.

  14. Economic Analysis of Hazardous Waste Minimization Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    OF REPORT OF THIS PP,,E OF ABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassilied Unclassified SAR NSN 7540 01-280 5500 SuxVl form t (Rev 2- R ]I Pe•nbed or ANSi Srd 2r39...Consulting Associates, Inc.. 15 June 1987). Chapter 7. T . Page, R . Harris, and J. Bruser, Removal of Carcinogens from Drinking Water: A Cost-Benefit Analysis...Pretreatment of Hazardous Waste, EPA/600/D-87/047 (EPA, January 1987), pp 58-70. Page, T ., R . Harris, and J. Bruser. Removal of Carcinogens from Drinking Water

  15. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  16. Metal loss from treated wood products in contact with municipal solid waste landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy; Solo-Gabriele, Helena

    2010-03-15

    The research presented in this paper evaluates the potential impact of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate quality on the loss of metals from discarded treated wood during disposal. The loss of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and boron (B) from several types of pressure-treated wood (CCA: chromated copper arsenate, ACQ: alkaline copper quaternary, CBA: copper boron azole, and DOT: disodium octaborate tetrahydrate) using leachate collected from 26 MSW landfills in Florida was examined. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and California's waste extraction test (WET) were also performed. The results suggested that loss of preservative components was influenced by leachate chemistry. Copper loss from CCA-, ACQ- and CBA-treated wood was similar in magnitude when in contact with landfill leachates compared to synthetic TCLP and SPLP solutions. Ammonia was found as one of the major parameters influencing the leaching of Cu from treated wood when leached with MSW landfill leachates. The results suggest that disposal of ACQ- and CBA-treated wood in substantial quantity in MSW landfills may elevate the Cu concentration in the leachate; this could be of potential concern, especially for a bioreactor MSW landfill in which relatively higher ammonia concentrations in leachate have been reported in recent literature. For the As, Cr and B the concentrations observed with the landfill leachate as the leaching solutions were over a range from some sample showing the concentrations below and some showing above the observed value from corresponding SPLP and TCLP tests. In general the WET test showed the highest concentrations.

  17. Landfill site selection for municipal solid wastes in mountainous areas with landslide susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Falamaki, Amin

    2016-06-01

    Several cities across the world are located in mountainous and landslide prone areas. Any landfill siting without considering landslide susceptibility in such regions may impose additional environmental adversity. This study was aimed to propose a practical method for selecting waste disposal site that accounts for landslide exposure. The proposed method was applied to a city which is highly proneness to landslide due to its geology, morphology, and climatic conditions. First, information on the previously occurred landslides of the region was collected. Based on this information, proper landslide causative factors were selected and their thematic maps were prepared. Factors' classes were then standardized in 0-1 domain, and thematic layers were weighted by using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The landslide susceptibility map was prepared afterwards. Unsuitable areas for landfill location were masked in GIS environment by Boolean method, retaining sufficient areas for further evaluation. Nine remaining alternatives were selected through comprehensive field visits and were ranked by using AHP. Consequently, 17 factors in three environmental, economical, and social perspectives were employed. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the stability of the alternatives ranking with respect to variations in criterion weights. Based on the obtained landslide susceptible map, nearly 36 % of the entire region is proneness to landslide. The prepared Boolean map indicates that potential areas for landfill construction cover 11 % of the whole region. The results further indicated that if landslide susceptible areas are not considered in landfill site selection, the potential landfill sites would become more than twice. It can be concluded that if any of these landslide prone sites are selected for landfilling, further environmental disaster would be terminated in the future. It can be further concluded that the proposed method could reasonably well be adjusted to

  18. Regulatory compliance by small-quantity generators of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Deyle, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    While small quantity and very small quantity generators of hazardous waste (SQCs and VSQGs) are responsible for less than one percent of the total hazardous waste produced, mismanagement of even small quantities of many types of hazardous waste can cause significant local impacts. Most SQGs and VSQGs are also small businesses. They are presumed to face significant time, expertise, and other resource constraints in complying with legally and technically complex regulations such as those that govern hazardous waste management. A sample of 400 SQGs and VSQGs in New Jersey was surveyed to assess policy options for two policy issues identified by the New Jersey Hazardous Waste Facilities Siting Commission: (1) enhancing regulatory compliance by SQGs, and (2) promoting voluntary adherence with hazardous waste regulations by VSQGs in the state. The analysis empirically tests hypotheses based on the rational utility maximization and bounded rationality models of individual and organizational decision making and compliance behavior.

  19. Characterization of adsorption removal of hydrogen sulfide by waste biocover soil, an alternative landfill cover.

    PubMed

    He, Ruo; Xia, Fang-Fang; Wang, Jing; Pan, Chang-Liang; Fang, Cheng-Ran

    2011-02-15

    Landfill is an important anthropogenic source of odorous gases. In this work, the adsorption characteristics of H(2)S on waste biocover soil, an alternative landfill cover, were investigated. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of H(2)S increased with the reduction of particle size, the increase of pH value and water content of waste biocover soil. The optimal composition of waste biocover soil, in regard to operation cost and H(2)S removal performance, was original pH value, water content of 40% (w/w) and particle size of ≤4 mm. A net increase was observed in the adsorption capacity of H(2)S with temperatures in the range of 4-35°C. The adsorption capacity of H(2)S on waste biocover soil with optimal composition reached the maximum value of 60±1 mg/kg at oxygen concentration of 10% (v/v). When H(2)S concentration was about 5% (v/v), the adsorption capacity was near saturation, maintaining at 383±40 mg/kg. Among the four experimental soils, the highest adsorption capacity of H(2)S was observed on waste biocover soil, followed by landfill cover soil, mulberry soil, and sand soil, which was only 9.8% of that of waste biocover soil.

  20. Environmental assessment of low-organic waste landfill scenarios by means of life-cycle assessment modelling (EASEWASTE).

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H; Scharff, Heijo; Jacobs, Joeri

    2010-02-01

    The environmental performance of two low-organic waste landfill scenarios ('low-organic-energy' and 'low-organic-flare') was developed and compared with two household waste landfill scenarios ('household-energy' and 'household-flare') by means of LCA-modelling. The LCA-modelling was made for 1 tonne of wet waste landfilled and the environmental aspects were evaluated for a 100-year period after disposal. The data utilized in the LCA-calculations to model the first 10-20 years of landfilling of the two low-organic waste scenarios make extensive use of site-specific data from the Nauerna Landfill (The Netherlands), but average data from other comparable, existing landfills were used too. As data from full-scale landfills do not cover more than 30-40 years of landfilling, data from laboratory simulations and accelerated tests of limited scale were also utilized. The life-cycle impact assessments show that the low-organic waste scenarios achieved better environmental performance than the household waste scenarios with regard to both ordinary and toxicity-related environmental impact categories. This indicates that the reduction of organic matter accepted at landfills (as prescribed by the European Union Landfill Directive: Council Directive 1999/31/EC, EU, Brussels, 1999) can be a successful approach to decrease the environmental loads in several impact categories in comparison with landfilling of waste with significant organic content. However, when utilization of landfill gas is accounted for in the life-cycle impact assessment calculation, the small gas generation in low-organic waste landfills reduced the actual potential for energy generation and therefore the environmental savings obtained were reduced proportionally. Groundwater pollution from input of leachate was also evaluated and the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality; WHO, Geneva, 2006) guideline for drinking water quality was assumed as reference. The results show that low-organic waste landfills

  1. Quantification of parameters influencing methane generation due to biodegradation of municipal solid waste in landfills and laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xunchang; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2016-09-01

    The energy conversion potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposed of in landfills remains largely untapped because of the slow and variable rate of biogas generation, delayed and inefficient biogas collection, leakage of biogas, and landfill practices and infrastructure that are not geared toward energy recovery. A database consisting of methane (CH4) generation data, the major constituent of biogas, from 49 laboratory experiments and field monitoring data from 57 landfills was developed. Three CH4 generation parameters, i.e., waste decay rate (k), CH4 generation potential (L0), and time until maximum CH4 generation rate (tmax), were calculated for each dataset using U.S. EPA's Landfill Gas Emission Model (LandGEM). Factors influencing the derived parameters in laboratory experiments and landfills were investigated using multi-linear regression analysis. Total weight of waste (W) was correlated with biodegradation conditions through a ranked classification scheme. k increased with increasing percentage of readily biodegradable waste (Br0 (%)) and waste temperature, and reduced with increasing W, an indicator of less favorable biodegradation conditions. The values of k obtained in the laboratory were commonly significantly higher than those in landfills and those recommended by LandGEM. The mean value of L0 was 98 and 88L CH4/kg waste for laboratory and field studies, respectively, but was significantly affected by waste composition with ranges from 10 to 300L CH4/kg. tmax increased with increasing percentage of biodegradable waste (B0) and W. The values of tmax in landfills were higher than those in laboratory experiments or those based on LandGEM's recommended parameters. Enhancing biodegradation conditions in landfill cells has a greater impact on improving k and tmax than increasing B0. Optimizing the B0 and Br0 values of landfilled waste increases L0 and reduces tmax.

  2. In-plant management of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.W.; Howell, W.L. Jr. |

    1995-12-31

    One of the earliest sustainable technologies for the management of hazardous industrial wastes, and one of the most successful, is {open_quotes}In-Plant Control{close_quotes} Waste elimination, reuse and/or minimization can encourage improved utilization of resources, decreased environmental degradation and increased profits at individual industrial product ion sites, or within an industry. For new facilities and industries, putting such programs in place is relatively easy. Experience has shown, however, that this may be more difficult to initiate in existing facilities, especially in older and heavier industries. This task can be made easier by promoting a mutually respectful partnership between production and environmental interests within the facility or industry. This permits {open_quotes}common sense{close_quotes} thinking and a cooperative, proactive strategy for securing an appropriate balance between economic growth, environmental protection and social responsibility. Case studies are presented wherein a phased, incremental in-plant system for waste management was developed and employed to good effect, using a model that entailed {open_quotes}Consciousness, Commitment, Training, Recognition, Re-engineering and Continuous Improvement{close_quotes} to promote waste minimization or elimination.

  3. Study on the law of heavy metal leaching in municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-Hu; Sang, Shu-Xun

    2010-06-01

    Comparative leaching experiments were carried out using leaching medium with different pH to municipal solid waste in the landfill columns in order to investigate the mobility of heavy metals. The leachate pH and oxidation-reduction potential were measured by oxidation-reduction potential analyzer; the contents of heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It is very different in leaching concentrations of heavy metals; the dynamic leaching of heavy metals decreased with the rise of the leaching amount on the whole. Acid leaching medium had definite influence on the leaching of heavy metals in the early landfill, but it had the obvious inhibition effect on the leaching in the middle and late period of landfill; the neutral and alkaline leaching medium are more beneficial to the leaching of heavy metals. Due to the influence of the environment of landfill, the differences of the results in cumulative leaching amount, leaching rate, and leaching intensity of heavy metals are very big. The calculation results of the release rates of heavy metals prove that the orders of the release rates are not identical under different leaching conditions. Acid rain made heavy metals migrate from municipal solid waste to soil and detain in soil more easily; approached neutral and alkaline leaching mediums are more beneficial to leaching of heavy metals in the municipal solid waste and soil with leachate. The field verification of experimental data showed that the law of heavy metal leaching in municipal solid waste revealed by the experiment has a good consistency with the data obtained by municipal solid waste landfill.

  4. Hazardous-waste minimization assessment: Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmavaram, S.; Knowlton, D.A.; Heflin, C.; Donahue, B.A.

    1991-03-01

    Waste minimization is the process of reducing the net outflow of hazardous materials that may be solid, liquid, or gaseous effluents from a given source or generating process. It involves reducing air pollution emissions, contamination of surface and ground water, and land disposal by means of source reduction, waste recycling processes, and treatment leading to complete destruction. Among Federal regulations is a requirement that every generator of hazardous wastes producing in excess of 2205 pounds per month certify that a hazardous waste minimization program is in operation. Generators are required to submit biennial reports to the USEPA that describe efforts taken to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated during the year. The objective of this research was to develop a hazardous waste minimization plan for Fort Campbell, Kentucky, to include actions necessary to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes. Reduction should be in both volume and toxicity.

  5. 40 CFR 270.21 - Specific part B information requirements for landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for landfills. 270.21 Section 270.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Permit Application § 270.21 Specific part B information requirements for landfills. Except as otherwise provided in § 264.1, owners and operators of facilities that dispose of hazardous waste in landfills...

  6. 40 CFR 270.21 - Specific part B information requirements for landfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for landfills. 270.21 Section 270.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Permit Application § 270.21 Specific part B information requirements for landfills. Except as otherwise provided in § 264.1, owners and operators of facilities that dispose of hazardous waste in landfills...

  7. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous waste manifest. 172.205 Section 172.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  8. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous waste manifest. 172.205 Section 172.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  9. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hazardous waste manifest. 172.205 Section 172.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  10. 49 CFR 172.205 - Hazardous waste manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hazardous waste manifest. 172.205 Section 172.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  11. 76 FR 74709 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... F037 Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, lead, chromium. F038 Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, lead.... K052 Lead. K169 Benzene. K170 Benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(b... separation sludges that are listed as hazardous wastes due to benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, lead...

  12. Quantification of landfill methane using modified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's waste model and error function analysis.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Siva Shangari; Agamuthu, P

    2014-10-01

    Waste management can be regarded as a cross-cutting environmental 'mega-issue'. Sound waste management practices support the provision of basic needs for general health, such as clean air, clean water and safe supply of food. In addition, climate change mitigation efforts can be achieved through reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management operations, such as landfills. Landfills generate landfill gas, especially methane, as a result of anaerobic degradation of the degradable components of municipal solid waste. Evaluating the mode of generation and collection of landfill gas has posted a challenge over time. Scientifically, landfill gas generation rates are presently estimated using numerical models. In this study the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Waste Model is used to estimate the methane generated from a Malaysian sanitary landfill. Key parameters of the model, which are the decay rate and degradable organic carbon, are analysed in two different approaches; the bulk waste approach and waste composition approach. The model is later validated using error function analysis and optimum decay rate, and degradable organic carbon for both approaches were also obtained. The best fitting values for the bulk waste approach are a decay rate of 0.08 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.12; and for the waste composition approach the decay rate was found to be 0.09 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.08. From this validation exercise, the estimated error was reduced by 81% and 69% for the bulk waste and waste composition approach, respectively. In conclusion, this type of modelling could constitute a sensible starting point for landfills to introduce careful planning for efficient gas recovery in individual landfills.

  13. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling technologies by means of LCA-modeling.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-01-01

    By using life cycle assessment (LCA) modeling, this paper compares the environmental performance of six landfilling technologies (open dump, conventional landfill with flares, conventional landfill with energy recovery, standard bioreactor landfill, flushing bioreactor landfill and semi-aerobic landfill) and assesses the influence of the active operations practiced on these performances. The environmental assessments have been performed by means of the LCA-based tool EASEWASTE, whereby the functional unit utilized for the LCA is "landfilling of 1ton of wet household waste in a 10m deep landfill for 100 years". The assessment criteria include standard categories (global warming, nutrient enrichment, ozone depletion, photo-chemical ozone formation and acidification), toxicity-related categories (human toxicity and ecotoxicity) and impact on spoiled groundwater resources. Results demonstrate that it is crucially important to ensure the highest collection efficiency of landfill gas and leachate since a poor capture compromises the overall environmental performance. Once gas and leachate are collected and treated, the potential impacts in the standard environmental categories and on spoiled groundwater resources significantly decrease, although at the same time specific emissions from gas treatment lead to increased impact potentials in the toxicity-related categories. Gas utilization for energy recovery leads to saved emissions and avoided impact potentials in several environmental categories. Measures should be taken to prevent leachate infiltration to groundwater and it is essential to collect and treat the generated leachate. The bioreactor technologies recirculate the collected leachate to enhance the waste degradation process. This allows the gas collection period to be reduced from 40 to 15 years, although it does not lead to noticeable environmental benefits when considering a 100 years LCA-perspective. In order to more comprehensively understand the influence

  14. Estimation of methane emission rate changes using age-defined waste in a landfill site.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2013-09-01

    Long term methane emissions from landfill sites are often predicted by first-order decay (FOD) models, in which the default coefficients of the methane generation potential and the methane generation rate given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are usually used. However, previous studies have demonstrated the large uncertainty in these coefficients because they are derived from a calibration procedure under ideal steady-state conditions, not actual landfill site conditions. In this study, the coefficients in the FOD model were estimated by a new approach to predict more precise long term methane generation by considering region-specific conditions. In the new approach, age-defined waste samples, which had been under the actual landfill site conditions, were collected in Hokkaido, Japan (in cold region), and the time series data on the age-defined waste sample's methane generation potential was used to estimate the coefficients in the FOD model. The degradation coefficients were 0.0501/y and 0.0621/y for paper and food waste, and the methane generation potentials were 214.4 mL/g-wet waste and 126.7 mL/g-wet waste for paper and food waste, respectively. These coefficients were compared with the default coefficients given by the IPCC. Although the degradation coefficient for food waste was smaller than the default value, the other coefficients were within the range of the default coefficients. With these new coefficients to calculate methane generation, the long term methane emissions from the landfill site was estimated at 1.35×10(4)m(3)-CH(4), which corresponds to approximately 2.53% of the total carbon dioxide emissions in the city (5.34×10(5)t-CO(2)/y).

  15. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: a case study of the landfill allowance trading scheme (LATS) in England.

    PubMed

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years - which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) - being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06-2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02-2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as a waste management policy, make a comparison with the Landfill Tax, discuss its main features as regards efficiency, effectiveness and the application of the "polluter pays" principle and finally discuss if the effect of the increase in the Landfill Tax is what made the LATS ultimately unnecessary.

  16. Hazardous Waste Minimization Assessment: Fort Sam Houston, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Houston has a number of power production and heating/cooling plants ( HCP ) that use hazardous materials and generate potentially hazardous wastes. The DEH...Training and Support Center - Photo, Print Section; Buildings 2010, 2016 2. DPTMSEC - Training and Support Center - Graphics Section; Building 1450 3...Hazardous Waste Minimization HCL Hospitals, Clinics, and Laboratories HCP Heating/Cooling Plants HMTC Hazardous Materials Technical Center HSC Health

  17. Landfill gas utilization at a waste water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Weddle, C.L.; McDonald, H.S.; Howard, W.R.

    1983-11-01

    The Central Contra Costa Sanitary District (CCCSD) in Contra Costa County, California, has been using landfill gas (LFG) as a major source of energy in its wastewater treatment plant for approximately one and half years. A discussion of the CCCSD LFG project is presented, including its origin, highlights of the initial feasibility study, the design of the selected LFG alternative, project costs, and operating experience. 9 references.

  18. Environmental state and buffering properties of underground hydrosphere in waste landfill site of the largest petrochemical companies in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musin, R. Kh; Kurlyanov, N. A.; Kalkamanova, Z. G.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2016-03-01

    The article examines the waste landfill site of PJSC “Nizhnekamskneftekhim” built 1982. Particular attention is paid to the volume of disposed wastes and peculiarities of landfill operation. It has been revealed that the landfill negatively impacts groundwater. The increase in groundwater level and contamination degree is dependent on recharge from infiltration of precipitation that interacts with the waste in the landfill cells. Groundwater contamination follows the longitudinal distribution pattern, with maximum intensity reaching in the nearest area of the landfill. With increasing distance, concentration of all pollutants sharply reduces. Within three kilometers away from the landfill, groundwater turns to its background values indicating its quality. The landfill discharges oil, phenols, formaldehyde, benzol, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, and iron and, to a lesser extent, sulfates, chlorides and barium into the underground hydrosphere. The overlimiting concentrations of other components are caused by intensive leaching from the rocks by aggressive carbonic acid water. The concentrations of hydrocarbonates can reach 8 g/l in the groundwater within the landfill and its nearest area, however, under natural conditions, they do not exceed 0.4 g/l. This is only possible in a case of partial activity of carbon dioxide associated with destruction of organic matter disposed in the landfill. One of the processes that play an important role in groundwater quality recovery is mixing of contaminated groundwater with infiltrating precipitation.

  19. Fire hazards analysis of transuranic waste storage and assay facility

    SciTech Connect

    Busching, K.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This document analyzes the fire hazards associated with operations at the Central Waste Complex. It provides the analysis and recommendations necessary to ensure compliance with applicable fire codes.

  20. Soil-gas survey at the solid waste landfill - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Fruland, R.M.; Glover, D.W.; Veverka, C.

    1989-12-01

    A soil-gas survey to determine the lateral distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents in the vadose zone, and possibly ground water, was conducted at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill. For a 2-year period, three trenches just inside the western perimeter of the landfill had received liquid discharges of both sewage and washwater, which contained solvents. Ground-water monitoring wells, installed a few months after liquid discharge had been discontinued, indicated very low levels (less than 10 ppb) of solvents exist in the ground water downgradient from the disposal trenches. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. In-situ treatment of landfill leachate and wastes using bioventing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, K.D.; O`Flanagan, B.D.; Newman, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    The effectiveness of in-situ, aerobic biodegradation of landfill leachate has been tested by applying bioventing at a closed municipal solid waste landfill in Minnesota. A pilot test was conducted with air injection into a field of six bioventing wells for a six month period, creating an aerobic biotreatment zone for leachate as it migrates to groundwater. Results show that an effective aerobic treatment zone can be established and maintained with organic compounds actively biodegraded and dissolved inorganic compounds, such as metals, oxidized and immobilized. Groundwater contaminants also showed decreasing concentrations during the pilot test. This approach may, ultimately, obviate the need for groundwater removal and treatment.

  2. In-situ treatment of landfill leachate and wastes using bioventing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, K.D.; O`Flanagan, B.D.; Newman, W.A.; Julik, J.K.; Wetzstein, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The effectiveness of in-situ, aerobic biodegradation of landfill leachate has been tested by applying bioventing at a closed municipal solid waste landfill in Minnesota. A pilot test was conducted with air injection into a field of six bioventing wells for a six month period, creating an aerobic biotreatment zone for leachate as it migrates to ground water. Results show that an effective aerobic treatment zone can be established and maintained with organic compounds actively biodegraded and dissolved inorganic compounds, such as metals, oxidized and immobilized. Groundwater contaminants also showed decreasing concentrations during the pilot test. This approach may, ultimately, obviate the need for groundwater removal and treatment.

  3. Landfill disposal of limestone dual-alkali flue-gas-desulfurization waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, L.K.; Gibson, E.D.; Pierson, J.F.; Brown, D.M.

    1982-09-01

    A landfill disposal test program was undertaken to demonstrate the addition of fly ash and lime to calcium sulfite-sulfate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes and to establish design and operating guidelines for an environmentally acceptable waste disposal system. A lined, diked landfill disposal site was partially filled with waste mixtures of FGD filter cake, fly ash, and lime. Field samples were assessed in terms of engineering properties and leachate quality. Laboratory mixtures were analyzed for comparison with field samples. Revegetation studies were performed with laboratory mixtures to determine how fly ash and FGD sludge affect plant growth and to identify candidate species for on-site testing. Fixation and stabilization improved the shear strength and reduced the compressibility of the laboratory mixtures tested. Laboratory testing of the properties of fixed filter cake indicated that mixtures of filter cake with a solids content of 56%, a fly ash-to-filter cake ratio of 1:1, and a lime content of 3% have a natural water content below the liquid limit and appear to be suitable for landfill. Lime fixation also reduced steady-state leachate concentrations of major constituents (total solids, sulfate, and calcium) and may help to minimize trace metal concentrations. Grasses were identified as the preferred species for vegetating landfills.

  4. Genotoxic monitoring of workers at a hazardous waste disposal site in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Gonsebatt, M E; Salazar, A M; Montero, R; Díaz Barriga, F; Yáñez, L; Gómez, H; Ostrosky-Wegman, P

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies were determined in lymphocytes cultured from 12 high-risk individuals working at a landfill for hazardous waste disposal. Cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) was also determined. Compared with 7 control individuals, no effects were observed with respect to SCE nor on CPK. However, the workers exhibited significantly higher frequencies of chromatid and chromosomal deletions, the magnitude of which was related with exposure time. This study suggests that when high-risk exposure is suspected, determining biomarkers of genotoxic damage (e.g., chromosomal aberrations), is useful for risk assessments. PMID:7621789

  5. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jiang

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  6. Long-term biological monitoring of environmental quality around a solid waste landfill assessed with lichens.

    PubMed

    Paoli, L; Corsini, A; Bigagli, V; Vannini, J; Bruscoli, C; Loppi, S

    2012-02-01

    The diversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected trace elements in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata L. (Hale) were used as indicators of pollution around a landfill in central Italy along 14 years of waste management. Lichens revealed an increased deposition for some elements (i.e., Cd, Cr, Fe and Ni) and a decrease of the lichen diversity at sites facing the landfill after an enlargement of the dumping area. However, the results allowed to exclude a significant increase in heavy metal depositions in the surrounding area and suggested that successful waste management may be associated with environmental quality. It is concluded that lichen monitoring might provide essential information to enhance the implementation of ecological impact assessment, supporting industrial regulatory procedures, also when waste management is concerned.

  7. Constructed wetlands for municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peverly, J.; Sanford, W.E.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    1993-11-01

    In 1989, the US Geological Survey and Cornell University, in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Tompkins County Solid Waste Department, began a three-year study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Ithaca, New York, to test the effectiveness of leachate treatment with constructed wetlands and to examine the associated treatment processes. Specific objectives of the study were to examine: treatment efficiency as function of substrate composition and grain size, degree of plant growth, and seasonal changes in evapotranspiration rates and microbial activity; effects of leachate and plant growth on the hydraulic characteristics of the substrate; and chemical, biological, and physical processes by which nutrients, metals, and organic compounds are removed from leachate as it flows through the substrate. A parallel study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Fenton, New York was conducted by researchers at Cornell University, Ithaca College, and Hawk Engineering (Trautmann and others, 1989). Results are described.

  8. Background Information Document for Updating AP42 Section 2.4 for Estimating Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    EPA Science Inventory

    This revised draft document was prepared for U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development, and describes the data analysis undertaken to update the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Landfill section of AP-42. This 2008 update includes the addition of data from 62 landfill gas emission...

  9. Field air permeability and hydraulic conductivity of landfilled municipal solid waste in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huayong; Chen, Tan; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-05-15

    The successful design and operation of in situ treatment systems using air and water additions for sustainable landfilling are constrained by a lack of knowledge of the key parameters, such as field air permeability and hydraulic conductivity of landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW). This work provides data on the field air permeability k(a) and hydraulic conductivity K(w) of MSW obtained by conducting short-term air and water injection tests at a landfill in Beijing, China. The k(a) and K(w) values are found to in the range of 1.2 × 10(-13)-1.9 × 10(-12) m(2) and 5.9 × 10(-7)-7.2 × 10(-6) m s(-1), respectively. Both k(a) and K(w) decreased significantly with landfill depth due to the increase in overburden pressure and the finer particles of the waste in deeper layers, leading to a lower porosity of waste. The higher moisture saturation in the deeper layers also contributed to the decrease in k(a). To compare the permeability with respect to air and water, the water permeability k(w) was calculated based on the estimated K(w) and was found to be approximately three orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding k(a) for waste at the same layer. The differences in k(w) and k(a) may be due to the relative air permeability, the potential short-circuiting of air and active production of biogas, which undermine the relationship between k(w) and k(a). Therefore, to successfully design and operate air and water addition systems in a landfill, in situ measurements of the air permeability and hydraulic conductivity are essential.

  10. Case study on prediction of remaining methane potential of landfilled municipal solid waste by statistical analysis of waste composition data.

    PubMed

    Sel, İlker; Çakmakcı, Mehmet; Özkaya, Bestamin; Suphi Altan, H

    2016-10-01

    Main objective of this study was to develop a statistical model for easier and faster Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) prediction of landfilled municipal solid waste by analyzing waste composition of excavated samples from 12 sampling points and three waste depths representing different landfilling ages of closed and active sections of a sanitary landfill site located in İstanbul, Turkey. Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used as a decision support tool to evaluation and describe the waste composition variables. Four principal component were extracted describing 76% of data set variance. The most effective components were determined as PCB, PO, T, D, W, FM, moisture and BMP for the data set. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models were built by original compositional data and transformed data to determine differences. It was observed that even residual plots were better for transformed data the R(2) and Adjusted R(2) values were not improved significantly. The best preliminary BMP prediction models consisted of D, W, T and FM waste fractions for both versions of regressions. Adjusted R(2) values of the raw and transformed models were determined as 0.69 and 0.57, respectively.

  11. A Guidance Manual: Waste Analysis at Facilities that Generate, Treat, Store, and Dispose of Hazardous Wastes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Discusses how a person can perform waste analyses and develop waste analysis plans (WAPs) in accordance with the federal hazardous waste regulations of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

  12. Planning document for the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.; Bostick, K.V.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy and Department of Defense are faced with the closure of thousands of decommissioned radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste landfills as a part of ongoing Environmental Restoration activities. Regulations on the closure of hazardous and radioactive waste landfills require the construction of a ``low-permeability`` cover over the unit to limit the migration of liquids into the underlying waste. These landfills must be maintained and monitored for 30 years to ensure that hazardous materials are not migrating from the landfill. This test plan is intended as an initial road map for planning, designing, constructing, evaluating, and documenting the Advanced Landfill Cover Demonstration (ALCD). It describes the goals/ objectives, scope, tasks, responsibilities, technical approach, and deliverables for the demonstration.

  13. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control

  14. Choice of noxious facilities: case of a solid waste incinerator versus a sanitary landfill in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Othman, Jamal; Khee, Pek Chuen

    2014-05-01

    A choice experiment analysis was conducted to estimate the preference for specific waste disposal technologies in Malaysia. The study found that there were no significant differences between the choice of a sanitary landfill or an incinerator. What matters is whether any disposal technology would lead to obvious social benefits. A waste disposal plan which is well linked or integrated with the community will ensure its acceptance. Local authorities will be challenged to identify solid waste disposal sites that are technically appropriate and also socially desirable.

  15. Seismic characterization and dynamic site response of a municipal solid waste landfill in Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Anbazhagan, P; SivakumarBabu, G L; Lakshmikanthan, P; VivekAnand, K S

    2016-03-01

    Seismic design of landfills requires an understanding of the dynamic properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the dynamic site response of landfill waste during seismic events. The dynamic response of the Mavallipura landfill situated in Bangalore, India, is investigated using field measurements, laboratory studies and recorded ground motions from the intraplate region. The dynamic shear modulus values for the MSW were established on the basis of field measurements of shear wave velocities. Cyclic triaxial testing was performed on reconstituted MSW samples and the shear modulus reduction and damping characteristics of MSW were studied. Ten ground motions were selected based on regional seismicity and site response parameters have been obtained considering one-dimensional non-linear analysis in the DEEPSOIL program. The surface spectral response varied from 0.6 to 2 g and persisted only for a period of 1 s for most of the ground motions. The maximum peak ground acceleration (PGA) obtained was 0.5 g and the minimum and maximum amplifications are 1.35 and 4.05. Amplification of the base acceleration was observed at the top surface of the landfill underlined by a composite soil layer and bedrock for all ground motions. Dynamic seismic properties with amplification and site response parameters for MSW landfill in Bangalore, India, are presented in this paper. This study shows that MSW has less shear stiffness and more amplification due to loose filling and damping, which need to be accounted for seismic design of MSW landfills in India.

  16. Hazardous healthcare waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, L.F. Ebrahim, S.A.; Al-Thukair, A.A.

    2009-08-15

    Hazardous healthcare waste has become an environmental concern for many developing countries including the Kingdom of Bahrain. There have been several significant obstacles facing the Kingdom in dealing with this issue including; limited documentation regarding generation, handling, management, and disposal of waste. This in turn hinders efforts to plan better healthcare waste management. In this paper, hazardous waste management status in the Kingdom has been investigated through an extensive survey carried out on selected public and private healthcare premises. Hazardous waste management practices including: waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal were determined. The results of this study along with key findings are discussed and summarized. In addition; several effective recommendations and improvements of hazardous waste management are suggested.

  17. Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.; Stevens, L.

    1992-12-31

    Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste.

  18. Hazardous waste shipment data collection from DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Page, L.A.; Kirkpatrick, T.D. ); Stevens, L. )

    1992-01-01

    Past practices at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites for offsite release of hazardous waste are being reviewed to determine if radioactively contaminated hazardous wastes were released to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. Records indicating the presence of radioactivity in waste shipped to and treated at a commercial incineration facility led to a ban on offsite hazardous waste shipments and investigation of past practices for offsite release of hazardous waste from the DOE sites. A House of Representatives Interior and Insular Affairs Committee oversight hearing on potentially contaminated waste shipments to commercial facilities concluded that the main issue was the lack of a uniform national standard to govern disposal of mixed waste.

  19. Tracking quicksilver: estimation of mercury waste from consumer products and subsequent verification by analysis of soil, water, sediment, and plant samples from the Cebu City, Philippines, landfill.

    PubMed

    Buagas, Dale Jo B; Megraso, Cristi Cesar F; Namata, John Darwin O; Lim, Patrick John Y; Gatus, Karen P; Cañete, Aloysius M L

    2015-03-01

    Source attribution of mercury (Hg) is critical for policy development to minimize the impact of Hg in wastes. Mercury content of consumer products and its subsequent release into the waste stream of Cebu City, Philippines, is estimated through surveys that employed validated, enumerator-administered questionnaires. Initially, a citywide survey (n = 1636) indicates that each household annually generates 1.07 ppm Hg (i.e., mg Hg/kg waste) and that linear and compact fluorescent lamps (17.2 %) and thermometers (52.1 %) are the major sources of Hg. A subsequent survey (n = 372) in the vicinity of the city's municipal solid waste landfill shows that residents in the area annually generate 0.38 ppm Hg per household, which is less than the citywide mean; surprisingly though, less affluent respondents living closer to the landfill site reported more Hg from thermometers and sphygmomanometers. Analysis of collected soil (0.238 ppm), leachate water (6.5 ppb), sediment (0.109 ppm), and three plants (0.393 to 0.695 ppm) shows no significant variation throughout five stations in and around the landfill site, although the period of collection is significant for soil (P = 0.001) and Cenchrus echinatus (P = 0.016). Detected Hg in the landfill is considerably less than the annual estimated release, indicating that there is minimal accumulation of Hg in the soil or in plants. As a result of this project, a policy brief has been provided to the Cebu City council in aid of hazardous waste legislation.

  20. Slope stability of bioreactor landfills during leachate injection: effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic municipal solid waste conditions.

    PubMed

    Giri, Rajiv K; Reddy, Krishna R

    2014-03-01

    In bioreactor landfills, leachate recirculation can significantly affect the stability of landfill slope due to generation and distribution of excessive pore fluid pressures near side slope. The current design and operation of leachate recirculation systems do not consider the effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the increased pore gas pressures in landfilled waste caused due to leachate recirculation on the physical stability of landfill slope. In this study, a numerical two-phase flow model (landfill leachate and gas as immiscible phases) was used to investigate the effects of heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of MSW on moisture distribution and pore-water and capillary pressures and their resulting impacts on the stability of a simplified bioreactor landfill during leachate recirculation using horizontal trench system. The unsaturated hydraulic properties of MSW were considered based on the van Genuchten model. The strength reduction technique was used for slope stability analyses as it takes into account of the transient and spatially varying pore-water and gas pressures. It was concluded that heterogeneous and anisotropic MSW with varied unit weight and saturated hydraulic conductivity significantly influenced the moisture distribution and generation and distribution of pore fluid pressures in landfill and considerably reduced the stability of bioreactor landfill slope. It is recommended that heterogeneous and anisotropic MSW must be considered as it provides a more reliable approach for the design and leachate operations in bioreactor landfills.

  1. Measurement of chemical leaching potential of sulfate from landfill disposed sulfate containing wastes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-02-01

    A number of sulfate-containing wastes are disposed in municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfills including residues from coal, wood, and MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, the sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide which is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, toxicity, and corrosive nature. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate existing protocols for the quantification of total leachable sulfate from solid samples and to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with a new protocol described in this study. Methods compared include two existing acid extraction protocols commonly used in the U.S., a pH neutral protocol that requires multiple changes of the leaching solution, and a new acid extraction method. The new acid extraction method was shown to be simple and effective to measure the leaching potential of sulfate from a range of landfill disposed sulfate-containing wastes. However, the acid extraction methods do not distinguish between sulfate and other forms of sulfur and are thus most useful when sulfate is the only form of sulfur present.

  2. Characterizing the biotransformation of sulfur-containing wastes in simulated landfill reactors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjie; Sun, Mei; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-07-01

    Landfills that accept municipal solid waste (MSW) in the U.S. may also accept a number of sulfur-containing wastes including residues from coal or MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, microbially mediated processes can convert sulfate to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The presence of H2S in landfill gas is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, human toxicity, and corrosive nature. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a laboratory-scale reactor method to measure the H2S production potential of a range of sulfur-containing wastes. The H2S production potential was measured in 8-L reactors that were filled with a mixture of the target waste, newsprint as a source of organic carbon required for microbial sulfate reduction, and leachate from decomposed residential MSW as an inoculum. Reactors were operated with and without N2 sparging through the reactors, which was designed to reduce H2S accumulation and toxicity. Both H2S and CH4 yields were consistently higher in reactors that were sparged with N2 although the magnitude of the effect varied. The laboratory-measured first order decay rate constants for H2S and CH4 production were used to estimate constants that were applicable in landfills. The estimated constants ranged from 0.11yr(-1) for C&D fines to 0.38yr(-1) for a mixed fly ash and bottom ash from MSW combustion.

  3. Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Qu, Xian; Lee, Duujong

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills, this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux.

  4. GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Sumathi, V.R. Natesan, Usha; Sarkar, Chinmoy

    2008-11-15

    The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries in the past few decades and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient waste management systems. Sanitary landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Optimized siting decisions have gained considerable importance in order to ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub-components as well as reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including geology, water supply resources, land use, sensitive sites, air quality and groundwater quality. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  5. An investigation of carbon release rate via leachate from an industrial solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jong; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2011-06-01

    Long-term behaviour of leachate pollutants is a key factor to estimate time and cost required for the leachate treatment in landfills. Estimating carbon release via leachate can be a good way by which to understand the long-term behaviour, however, most studies have had a timeline of only several months or years. In this study, a release rate of carbon via leachate for 20 years was estimated at an industrial solid waste landfill. The total carbon content in dumped waste was estimated based on combustible contents determined by collecting samples from other industrial landfills and pretreatment facilities, and carbon contents in literature values. Leachate quantity data, which were not recorded for the first ten years, were estimated using a macro-moisture balance model including the effect of snow melt. Because leachate quantity and quality at each site were only measured after leachates were mixed, the quantity at each site was calculated by assuming infiltration rates with and without final cover. Results indicated that less than 2% of total input carbon was released from each site via leachate regardless of landfill age.

  6. Measurement of carbon storage in landfills from the biogenic carbon content of excavated waste samples.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Florentino B; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-10-01

    Landfills are an anaerobic ecosystem and represent the major disposal alternative for municipal solid waste (MSW) in the U.S. While some fraction of the biogenic carbon, primarily cellulose (Cel) and hemicellulose (H), is converted to carbon dioxide and methane, lignin (L) is essentially recalcitrant. The biogenic carbon that is not mineralized is stored within the landfill. This carbon storage represents a significant component of a landfill carbon balance. The fraction of biogenic carbon that is not reactive in the landfill environment and therefore stored was derived for samples of excavated waste by measurement of the total organic carbon, its biogenic fraction, and the remaining methane potential. The average biogenic carbon content of the excavated samples was 64.6±18.0% (average±standard deviation), while the average carbon storage factor was 0.09±0.06g biogenic-C stored per g dry sample or 0.66±0.16g biogenic-C stored per g biogenic C.

  7. GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, V R; Natesan, Usha; Sarkar, Chinmoy

    2008-11-01

    The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries in the past few decades and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient waste management systems. Sanitary landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Optimized siting decisions have gained considerable importance in order to ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub-components as well as reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including geology, water supply resources, land use, sensitive sites, air quality and groundwater quality. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  8. Sources of microbial pathogens in municipal solid waste landfills in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Gerba, Charles P; Tamimi, Akrum H; Pettigrew, Charles; Weisbrod, Anne V; Rajagopalan, Vijay

    2011-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) categories, as specified by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), were evaluated for their relative contribution of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and protozoan parasites into MSW landfills from 1960 to 2007. The purpose of this study was to identify trends and quantify the potential contribution of pathogens in MSW as an aid to the assessment of potential public health risks. A review of the literature was conducted to estimate values for the concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens in the major categories of MSW. The major sources of MSW contributing enteric pathogens were food waste, pet faeces, absorbent products, and biosolids. During the last 47 years, recycling of glass, metals, plastic, paper and some organic wastes in MSW has increased, resulting in a decreased proportion of these materials in the total landfilled MSW. The relative proportion of remaining waste materials has increased; several of these waste categories contain pathogens. For all potential sources, food waste contributes the greatest number of faecal coliforms (80.62%). The largest contribution of salmonellae (97.27%), human enteroviruses (94.88%) and protozoan parasites (97%) are expected to come from pet faeces. Biosolids from wastewater treatment sludge contribute the greatest number of human noroviruses (99.94%). By comparison, absorbent hygiene products do not appear to contribute significantly to overall pathogen loading for any group of pathogens. This is largely due to the relatively low volume of these pathogen sources in MSW, compared, for example, with food waste at almost 40% of total MSW.

  9. HAZ-ED Classroom Activities for Understanding Hazardous Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Superfund Program investigates and cleans up hazardous waste sites throughout the United States. Part of this program is devoted to informing the public and involving people in the process of cleaning up hazardous waste sites from beginning to end. The Haz-Ed program was developed to assist the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)…

  10. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  11. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTION DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The information in the document is based on presentations at the EPA-sponsored seminar series on Operational Parameters for Hazardous Waste Combustion Devices. This series consisted of five seminars held in 1992. Hazardous waste combustion devices are regulated under the Resource...

  12. Hazardous Waste Technical Assistance Survey, March AFB, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Bioenvironmental Engineer, SGPB, AV 947-3952 2Lt Bachand, Environmental Coordinator, OEEV, AV 947-4855 Ms Billy Maddi, Hazardous Waste Manager, DRMO (Located...amounts of oily rags which are drummed and disposed of as hazardous waste. Shop: Fuel Systems Building: 2307 Contact: Mr Vaughn AUTOVON: 947-5256 Shop

  13. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  14. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  15. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  16. 40 CFR 262.60 - Imports of hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Imports of Hazardous Waste § 262.60 Imports... except that: (1) In place of the generator's name, address and EPA identification number, the name and address of the foreign generator and the importer's name, address and EPA identification number must...

  17. A rating system for determination of hazardous wastes.

    PubMed

    Talinli, Ilhan; Yamantürk, Rana; Aydin, Egemen; Başakçilardan-Kabakçi, Sibel

    2005-11-11

    Although hazardous waste lists and their classification methodologies are nearly the same in most of the countries, there are some gaps and subjectiveness in determining the waste as hazardous waste. A rating system for the determination of waste as a hazardous waste is presented in this study which aims to overcome the problems resulted from the existing methodologies. Overall rating value (ORV) calculates and quantifies the waste as regular, non-regular or hazardous waste in an "hourglass" scale. "ORV" as a cumulative-linear formulation in proposed model consists of components such as ecological effects of the waste (Ee) in terms of four main hazard criteria: ignitability, reactivity, corrosivity and toxicity; combined potential risk (CPR) including carcinogenic effect, toxic, infectious and persistence characteristics; existing lists and their methodology (L) and decision factor (D) to separate regular and non-regular waste. Physical form (f) and quantity (Q) of the waste are considered as factors of these components. Seventeen waste samples from different sources are evaluated to demonstrate the simulation of the proposed model by using "hourglass" scale. The major benefit of the presented rating system is to ease the works of decision makers in managing the wastes.

  18. Method for disposing of hazardous wastes

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1995-01-01

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl- 2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  19. The municipal solid waste landfill as a source of ozone-depleting substances in the United States and United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, E. L.; Martin, D.; Prinn, R. G.

    2010-02-01

    This study provides observation-based national estimates of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane emissions for the United States (US) and United Kingdom (UK) from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The scarcity of national estimates has lead to the assumption that a significant fraction of the lingering ozone-depleting substance (ODS) emissions, which have been detected in industrialized countries, could be emitted from landfills. Spatial coverage was achieved through sampling at seven landfills in Massachusetts and through data provided by nine UK landfills. Linear least square regressions of recovered ODS vs. CH4 were used in combination with national estimates of landfill CH4 emissions to estimate 2006 national US and UK ODS landfill emissions. The ODS landfill emission estimates were then compared to recent estimates of total US and UK ODS emissions. US ODS landfill emissions are 0.4%-1% (0.006-0.09 Gg/year) of total US emissions. UK ODS landfill emission estimates are 1% (0.008 Gg/year) and 6% (0.03 Gg/year) of total UK CFC-11 and CFC-12 emissions, respectively. This indicates that landfills are only a minor source of lingering ODS emissions in the US, but may be more significant for CFC-12 emissions in the UK. The implication is that the majority of current ODS emissions in industrialized countries is likely coming from equipment still in use.

  20. The municipal solid waste landfill as a source of ozone-depleting substances in the United States and United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, E. L.; Martin, D.; Prinn, R. G.

    2009-10-01

    This study provides observation-based national estimates of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane emissions for the United States (US) and United Kingdom (UK) from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The scarcity of national estimates has lead to the assumption that a significant fraction of the lingering ozone-depleting substance (ODS) emissions, which have been detected in industrialized countries, could be emitted from landfills. Spatial coverage was achieved through sampling at seven landfills in Massachusetts and through data provided by nine UK landfills. Linear least square regressions of recovered ODS vs. CH4 were used in combination with national estimates of landfill CH4 emissions to estimate 2006 national US and UK ODS landfill emissions. The ODS landfill emission estimates were then compared to recent estimates of total US and UK ODS emissions. US ODS landfill emissions were 0.4%-0.9% (0.006-0.09 Gg/year) of total US emissions. UK ODS landfill emission estimates were 1% (0.008 Gg/year) and 6% (0.03 Gg/year) of total UK CFC-11 and CFC-12 emissions, respectively. This indicates that landfills are only a minor source of lingering ODS emissions in the US, but may be more significant for CFC-12 emissions in the UK. The implications are that the majority of current ODS emissions in industrialized countries are likely coming from equipment still in use.