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Sample records for hcmv ie1 exon4

  1. A fusion protein of HCMV IE1 exon4 and IE2 exon5 stimulates potent cellular immunity in an MVA vaccine vector

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Zhou, W.; Srivastava, T.; La Rosa, C.; Mandarino, A.; Forman, S.J.; Zaia, J.A.; Britt, W.J.; Diamond, D.J.

    2008-08-01

    A therapeutic CMV vaccine incorporating an antigenic repertoire capable of eliciting a cellular immune response has yet to be successfully implemented for patients who already have acquired an infection. To address this problem, we have developed a vaccine candidate derived from modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) that expresses three immunodominant antigens (pp65, IE1, IE2) from CMV. The novelty of this vaccine is the fusion of two adjacent exons from the immediate-early region of CMV, their successful expression in MVA, and robust immunogenicity in both primary and memory response models. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the viral vaccine in mouse models shows that it can stimulate primary immunity against all three antigens in both the CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cell subsets. Evaluation of human PBMC from healthy CMV-positive donors or patients within 6 months of receiving hematopoietic cell transplant shows robust stimulation of existing CMV-specific CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cell subsets.

  2. Modulation of Homology-Directed Repair in T98G Glioblastoma Cells Due to Interactions between Wildtype p53, Rad51 and HCMV IE1-72

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Amit S.; Fortunato, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous pathogen capable of causing life threatening consequences in neonates and immune-compromised individuals. HCMV inflicts site-specific double strand breaks (DSBs) in the cellular genome. DNA damage infliction raises the corollary question of virus modulation of DNA repair. We recently reported HDR was stimulated in wt human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) during fully permissive infection or expression of the HCMV protein IE1-72 (IE72). These studies have been extended into semi-permissive T98G glioblastoma cells. T98Gs encode a mutant p53, which may contribute to their high baseline rate of HDR. We fully expected HCMV infection to increase HDR in T98Gs, similar to its effects in HFFs. Surprisingly in T98Gs HCMV infection, or sole expression of IE72, decreased HDR by two-fold. Transient expression of wt p53 in T98Gs also reduced HDR by two-fold. Dual transient expression of wt p53 and IE72 restored high baseline HDR levels. GST pulldown experiments revealed that both IE72 and wt p53 bound the important HDR protein, Rad51. We conclude that the expression of certain HCMV proteins can modulate HDR in an infected cell, dependent upon p53 status. We propose a model of the protein interactions explaining this behavior. PMID:24576846

  3. Human cytomegalovirus IE1 protein alters the higher-order chromatin structure by targeting the acidic patch of the nucleosome.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qianglin; Chen, Ping; Wang, Mingzhu; Fang, Junnan; Yang, Na; Li, Guohong; Xu, Rui-Ming

    2016-01-26

    Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) immediate early 1 (IE1) protein associates with condensed chromatin of the host cell during mitosis. We have determined the structure of the chromatin-tethering domain (CTD) of IE1 bound to the nucleosome core particle, and discovered that IE1-CTD specifically interacts with the H2A-H2B acidic patch and impairs the compaction of higher-order chromatin structure. Our results suggest that IE1 loosens up the folding of host chromatin during hCMV infections.

  4. Two Polypyrimidine Tracts in Intron 4 of the Major Immediate Early Gene Are Critical for Gene Expression Switching from IE1 to IE2 and for Replication of Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Wangheng; Torres, Lilith; Cruz-Cosme, Ruth; Arroyo, Fernando; Irizarry, Luis; Luciano, Dalia; Márquez, Arturo; Rivera, Leslie L.; Sala, Antonio L.; Luo, Min-hua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate early (MIE) gene is essential for viral replication. The most abundant products encoded by the MIE gene include IE1 and IE2. Genes of IE1 and IE2 share the MIE promoter (MIEP), the first 3 exons, and the first 2 introns. IE1 is expressed earlier than IE2 after CMV infection or MIE gene transfection. In this study, we identified 2 polypyrimidine (Py) tracts in intron 4 (between exons 4 and 5) that are responsible for transcriptional switching from IE1 to IE2. The first Py is important and the second one is essential for the splicing and expression of IE2. In searching for the mechanisms of MIE gene switching from IE1 to IE2, we found that the second Py was required for the IE2's fourth intron to bind to a splicing factor such as U2AF65, as determined by an RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay and a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, while the first Py enhanced the binding of U2AF65 with the intron. An HCMV BACmid with the second Py mutated failed to produce any virus, while the HCMV with the first Py mutated replicated with a defective phenotype. Furthermore, we designed a small RNA (scRNAPy) that is complementary to the intron RNA covering the two Pys. The scRNAPy interfered with the interaction of U2AF65 with the intron and repressed the IE2 expression. Therefore, our studies implied that IE2 gene splicing might be an anti-CMV target. IMPORTANCE CMV is a ubiquitous herpesvirus and a significant cause of disease and death in the immunocompromised and elderly. Insights into its gene regulation will provide clues in designing anti-CMV strategies. The MIE gene is one of the earliest genes of CMV and is essential for CMV replication. It is known that the MIE gene needs to be spliced to produce more than two proteins; however, how MIE gene splicing is regulated remains elusive. In the present studies, we identified two Pys in intron 4 and found that the first Py is important and the second is

  5. Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-Specific CD4(+) T Cells Are Polyfunctional and Can Respond to HCMV-Infected Dendritic Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah E; Sedikides, George X; Mason, Gavin M; Okecha, Georgina; Wills, Mark R

    2017-03-15

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and periodic reactivation are generally well controlled by the HCMV-specific T cell response in healthy people. While the CD8(+) T cell response to HCMV has been extensively studied, the HCMV-specific CD4(+) T cell effector response is not as well understood, especially in the context of direct interactions with HCMV-infected cells. We screened the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) responses to 6 HCMV peptide pools (pp65, pp71, IE1, IE2, gB, and US3, selected because they were the peptides most frequently responded to in our previous studies) in 84 donors aged 23 to 74 years. The HCMV-specific CD4(+) T cell response to pp65, IE1, IE2, and gB was predominantly Th1 biased, with neither the loss nor the accumulation of these responses occurring with increasing age. A larger proportion of donors produced an IL-10 response to pp71 and US3, but the IFN-γ response was still dominant. CD4(+) T cells specific to the HCMV proteins studied were predominantly effector memory cells and produced both cytotoxic (CD107a expression) and cytokine (macrophage inflammatory protein 1β secretion) effector responses. Importantly, when we measured the CD4(+) T cell response to cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infected dendritic cells in vitro, we observed that the CD4(+) T cells produced a range of cytotoxic and secretory effector functions, despite the presence of CMV-encoded immune evasion molecules. CD4(+) T cell responses to HCMV-infected dendritic cells were sufficient to control the dissemination of virus in an in vitro assay. Together, the results show that HCMV-specific CD4(+) T cell responses, even those from elderly individuals, are highly functional and are directly antiviral.IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is carried for a lifetime and in healthy people is kept under control by the immune system. HCMV has evolved many mechanisms to evade the immune response, possibly explaining why the virus is never eliminated

  6. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication dynamics in HCMV-naive and -experienced immunocompromised hosts.

    PubMed

    Emery, Vincent C; Hassan-Walker, Aycan F; Burroughs, Andrew K; Griffiths, Paul D

    2002-06-15

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can infect both HCMV-naive and -experienced transplant patients. In this study, the growth rate of HCMV in HCMV-naive hosts (1.82 units/day; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-2.56 units/day) was shown to be significantly faster than the growth rate of virus in HCMV-experienced hosts undergoing recurrent infection (0.61 units/day; 95% CI, 0.55-0.7 units/day; P<.0001). The basic reproductive number (R(0)) for HCMV-naive liver transplant patients was 15.1 (95% CI, 8.9-44) but was only 2.4 (95% CI, 2.35-2.8) for HCMV-experienced transplant recipients, corresponding to an anti-HCMV immune efficacy of approximately 84%, despite immunosuppressive therapy. The R(0) values suggest that an anti-HCMV drug or vaccine with an efficacy of >93% (95% CI, 89%-98%) is required to eliminate viral growth during infection of HCMV-naive liver transplant recipients, whereas lower efficacy levels are sufficient to reduce the R(0) value to <1 in hosts with prior HCMV immunity.

  7. Crystal structure of cytomegalovirus IE1 protein reveals targeting of TRIM family member PML via coiled-coil interactions.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Myriam; Klingl, Stefan; Sevvana, Madhumati; Otto, Victoria; Schilling, Eva-Maria; Stump, Joachim D; Müller, Regina; Reuter, Nina; Sticht, Heinrich; Muller, Yves A; Stamminger, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. PML itself is a member of the E3-ligase TRIM family of proteins that regulates a variety of innate immune signaling pathways. Consequently, viruses have evolved effector proteins to modify PML-NBs; however, little is known concerning structure-function relationships of viral antagonists. The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses the abundant immediate-early protein IE1 that colocalizes with PML-NBs and induces their dispersal, which correlates with the antagonization of NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Here, we delineate the molecular basis for this antagonization by presenting the first crystal structure for the evolutionary conserved primate cytomegalovirus IE1 proteins. We show that IE1 consists of a globular core (IE1CORE) flanked by intrinsically disordered regions. The 2.3 Å crystal structure of IE1CORE displays an all α-helical, femur-shaped fold, which lacks overall fold similarity with known protein structures, but shares secondary structure features recently observed in the coiled-coil domain of TRIM proteins. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds efficiently to the TRIM family member PML, and is able to induce PML deSUMOylation. Intriguingly, this results in the release of NB-associated proteins into the nucleoplasm, but not of PML itself. Importantly, we show that PML deSUMOylation by IE1CORE is sufficient to antagonize PML-NB-instituted intrinsic immunity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds via the coiled-coil domain to PML and also interacts with TRIM5α We propose that IE1CORE sequesters PML and possibly other TRIM family members via structural mimicry using an extended binding surface formed by the coiled-coil region. This mode of interaction might render the antagonizing activity less susceptible to

  8. Identification of Proteins in Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) Particles: the HCMV Proteome

    SciTech Connect

    Varnum, Susan M.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Patricia; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Wang, Dai; Camp, David G.; Rodland, Karin D.; Wiley, H S.; Britt, William; Shenk, Thomas; Smith, Richard D.; Nelson, Jay

    2004-10-15

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the herpes virus family, is a large complex enveloped virus composed of both viral and cellular gene products. While the sequence of the HCMV genome has been known for over a decade, the full set of viral and cellular proteins that compose the HCMV virion are unknown. To approach this problem we have utilized gel-free two-dimensional capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance MS to identify and determine the relative abundances of viral and cellular proteins in purified HCMV AD169 virions and dense bodies. Analysis of the proteins from purified HCMV virion preparations has indicated that the particle contains significantly more viral proteins than previously known. In this study, we identified 71 HCMV-encoded proteins that included 12 proteins encoded by known viral open reading frames (ORFs) previously not associated with virions and 12 proteins from novel viral ORFs. Analysis of the relative abundance of HCMV proteins indicated that the predominant virion protein was the pp65 tegument protein and that gM rather than gB was the most abundant glycoprotein. We have also identified over 70 host cellular proteins in HCMV virions, which include cellular structural proteins, enzymes, and chaperones. In addition, analysis of HCMV dense bodies indicated that these viral particles are composed of 29 viral proteins with a reduced quantity of cellular proteins in comparison to HCMV virions. This study provides the first comprehensive quantitative analysis of the viral and cellular proteins that compose infectious particles of a large complex virus.

  9. A Model for HCMV Infection in Immunosuppressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kepler, G.M.; Banks, H.T.; Davidian, M.; Rosenberg, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a model for HCMV infection in healthy and immunosuppressed patients. First, we present the biological model and formulate a system of ordinary differential equations to describe the pathogenesis of primary HCMV infection in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals. We then investigate how clinical data can be applied to this model. Approximate parameter values for the model are derived from data available in the literature and from mathematical and physiological considerations. Simulations with the approximated parameter values demonstrates that the model is capable of describing primary, latent, and secondary (reactivated) HCMV infection. Reactivation simulations with this model provide a window into the dynamics of HCMV infection in (D-R+) transplant situations, where latently-infected recipients (R+) receive transplant tissue from HCMV-naive donors (D-). PMID:20161307

  10. Immediate–Early (IE) gene regulation of cytomegalovirus: IE1- and pp71-mediated viral strategies against cellular defenses

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Lilith; Tang, Qiyi

    2015-01-01

    Three crucial hurdles hinder studies on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV): strict species specificity, differences between in vivo and in vitro infection, and the complexity of gene regulation. Ever since the sequencing of the whole genome was first accomplished, functional studies on individual genes have been the mainstream in the CMV field. Gene regulation has therefore been elucidated in a more detailed fashion. However, viral gene regulation is largely controlled by both cellular and viral components. In other words, viral gene expression is determined by the virus–host interaction. Generally, cells respond to viral infection in a defensive pattern; at the same time, viruses try to counteract the cellular defense or else hide in the host (latency). Viruses evolve effective strategies against cellular defense in order to achieve replicative success. Whether or not they are successful, cellular defenses remain in the whole viral replication cycle: entry, immediate–early (IE) gene expression, early gene expression, DNA replication, late gene expression, and viral egress. Many viral strategies against cellular defense, and which occur in the immediate–early time of viral infection, have been documented. In this review, we will summarize the documented biological functions of IE1 and pp71 proteins, especially with regard to how they counteract cellular intrinsic defenses. PMID:25501994

  11. Identification of a tyrosinase (TYR) exon 4 deletion in albino ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Blaszczyk, W M; Distler, C; Dekomien, G; Arning, L; Hoffmann, K-P; Epplen, J T

    2007-08-01

    Albinism is due to a lack of pigmentation in hair, skin and eye, and has been shown to occur in several animal species. Mutations of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene account for albinism in domestic cats, rabbits, cattle, mice and rats. In this study, we demonstrate that a TYR mutation accounts for albinism in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo). The coding sequence of the five exons of TYR was determined in genomic DNA from wild-type pigmented 'sable' coloured and albino ferrets. It was not possible to amplify TYR exon 4 in albino ferrets originating from different breeds. The deletion of exon 4 in albino ferrets was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization of genomic DNA from albino and pigmented ferrets. This is the first report of a deletion of a TYR exon in a non-human mammal.

  12. Defining the ends of Parkin exon 4 deletions in two different families with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Clarimon, Jordi; Johnson, Janel; Dogu, Okan; Horta, Wagner; Khan, Naheed; Lees, Andrew J; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew

    2005-02-05

    Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP, PARK2) is characterized by an early onset parkinsonism, often presenting with dystonia as an early feature. Mutations in Parkin are a relatively common cause of AR-JP and are estimated to be present in approximately 30% of familial young onset Parkinson disease (PD) [Abbas et al. (1999); Hum Mol Genet 8:567-574]. These mutations include exon rearrangements (deletions and duplications), point mutations, and small deletions. Similar genomic mutations have been described in unrelated patients, thereby indicating independent mutational events or ancient founder effects. We have identified homozygous deletion mutations of exon 4 in Parkin in two unrelated families, one from Brazil and the other from Turkey [Dogu et al. (2004); Mov Dis 9:812-816; Khan et al., Mov Dis, in press]. We have performed molecular analysis of the deletion breakpoints and this data indicates these mutations originated independently. We present here data demonstrating that the mutation responsible for disease in the Brazilian kindred consists of two separate deletions (1,069 and 1,750 bp) surrounding and including exon 4. The deletion removing parkin exon 4 identified in the Turkish family extended 156,203 bp. In addition to demonstrating that disease in these families is not caused by a single founder mutation, these data show that there is no common fragile site between these mutational events.

  13. HHEX: A Crosstalker between HCMV Infection and Proliferation of VSMCs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lingfang; Liu, Meitong; Kang, Leitao; Li, Yifan; Dai, Ziyu; Wang, Bing; Liu, Shuiping; Chen, Liyu; Tan, Yurong; Wu, Guojun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the role of Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection on homebox (HOX) gene expression and the effects of overexpression of HOX genes on proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods: Viral infection was verified by observation of cytopathic effects through inverted microscopy, viral particles by electron microscopy and HCMV IE gene amplification by RT-PCR. cDNA profiling technology was used to screen expression of HOX genes after HCMV infection in VSMCs. Abnormal expression of Haematopoietically-expressed homeobox (HHEX) was selected to construct over-expressed vector and transfected into VSMCs. The effects of over expression of HHEX on cell proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs were assayed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis and proliferation-associated genes were also assayed by RT-PCR. Results: Multiple HOX gene expression levels had obvious changes after HCMV infection, among which expression of HHEX gene increased obviously at 24, 48, and 72 h after infection. Over expression of HHEX can promote VSMCs proliferation by promoting G0/G1 phase cells into S phase and inhibit VSMCs apoptosis. HHEX inhibited the expression of apoptosis-associated caspase 2 and caspase3 and promoted the expression of cell cycle-related genes such as CDK2 and CDK6, CyclinB2 and CyclinD2. Conclusion: HHEX over expression induced by HCMV infection closely associated with vascular proliferative diseases. PMID:27965937

  14. hnRNP F directs formation of an exon 4 minus variant of tumor-associated NADH oxidase (ENOX2).

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Kane, Vanessa D; Morré, Dorothy M; Morré, D James

    2011-11-01

    HUVEC or mouse 3T3 cells infected with SV-40 generate within 3 to 5 days post-infection an ENOX2 species corresponding to the exon-4 minus splice variant of a tumor-associated NADH oxidase (ENOX2 or tNOX) expressed at the cancer cell surface. This study was to seek evidence for splicing factors that might direct formation of the exon 4 minus ENOX2 splice variant. To determine if silencing of ENOX2 exon 4 occurs because of motifs located in exon 4, transfections were performed on MCF-10A (mammary non-cancer), BT-20 (mammary cancer), and HeLa (cervical cancer) cells using a GFP minigene construct containing either a constitutively spliced exon (albumin exon 2) or the alternatively spliced ENOX2 exon 4 between the two GFP halves. Removal of exon 4 from the processed RNA of the GFP minigene construct occurred with HeLa and to a lesser extent with BT-20 but not in non-cancer MCF-10A cells. The Splicing Rainbow Program was used to identify all of the possible hnRNPs binding sites of exon 4 of ENOX2. There are 8 Exonic Splicing Silencers (ESSs) for hnRNP binding in the exon 4 sequences. Each of these sites were mutated by site-directed mutagenesis to test if any were responsible for the splicing skip. Results showed MutG75 ESS mutation changed the GFP expression which is a sign of splicing silence, while other mutations did not. As MutG75 changed the ESS binding site for hnRNP F, this result suggests that hnRNP F directs formation of the exon 4 minus variant of ENOX2.

  15. Baculoviruses deficient in ie1 gene function abrogate viral gene expression in transduced mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Efrose, Rodica; Swevers, Luc; Iatrou, Kostas

    2010-10-25

    One of the newest niches for baculoviruses-based technologies is their use as vectors for mammalian cell transduction and gene therapy applications. However, an outstanding safety issue related to such use is the residual expression of viral genes in infected mammalian cells. Here we show that infectious baculoviruses lacking the major transcriptional regulator, IE1, can be produced in insect host cells stably transformed with IE1 expression constructs lacking targets of homologous recombination that could promote the generation of wt-like revertants. Such ie1-deficient baculoviruses are unable to direct viral gene transcription to any appreciable degree and do not replicate in normal insect host cells. Most importantly, the residual viral gene expression, which occurs in mammalian cells infected with wt baculoviruses is reduced 10 to 100 fold in cells infected with ie1-deficient baculoviruses. Thus, ie1-deficient baculoviruses offer enhanced safety features to baculovirus-based vector systems destined for use in gene therapy applications.

  16. Identification and characterization of a putative baculoviral transcriptional factor IE-1 from Choristoneura fumiferana granulovirus.

    PubMed

    Rashidan, Kianoush Khajeh; Nassoury, Nasha; Merzouki, Abderrazzak; Guertin, Claude

    2002-11-30

    A gene that encodes a protein homologue to baculoviral IE-1 was identified and sequenced in the genome of the Choristoneura fumiferana granulovirus (ChfuGV). The gene has an 1278 nucleotide (nt) open-reading frame (ORF) that encodes 426 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 50.33 kDa. At the nucleotide level, several cis-acting regulatory elements were detected within the promoter region of the ie-1 gene of ChfuGV along with other studied granuloviruses (GVs). Two putative CCAAT elements were detected within the noncoding leader region of this gene; one was located on the opposite strand at -92 and the other at -420 nt from the putative start triplet. Two baculoviral late promoter motifs (TAAG) were also detected within the promoter region of the ie-1 gene of ChfuGV. A single polyadenylation signal, AATAAA, was located 18nt downstream of the putative translational stop codon of ie-1 from ChfuGV. At the protein level, the amino acid sequence data that was derived from the nucleotide sequence in ChfuGV IE-1 was compared to those of the Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV), Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus (XcGV) and Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PxGV). The C-terminal regions of the granuloviral IE-1 sequences appeared to be more conserved when compared to the N-terminal regions. A domain, similar to the basic helix-loop-helix like (bHLH-like) domain in NPVs, was detected at the C-terminal region of IE-1 from ChfuGV (residues 387 to 414). A phylogenetic tree for baculoviral IE-1 was constructed using a maximum parsimony analysis. A phylogenetic estimation demonstrates that ChfuGV IE-1 is most closely related to that of CpGV.

  17. Molecular Genetic Analysis of a Suprasellar Immature Teratoma : Mutation of Exon 4 P53 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Udin, Nujaimin; Ahmad, Ku Asmarina Ku; Ahmad, Farizan; Omar, Effat; Aziz, Mohd Ezanee; Kumar, Raj; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2008-01-01

    We described an intracranial immature teratoma in a 13 year old Malay boy who presented with history of chronic headache and blurring of vision. Physical findings revealed bilateral papilloedema but no other localizing sign. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain revealed a suprasellar well defined lobulated midline heterogenous mass which was intraoperatively described as mainly solid tumour with multiple small cystic component filled with yellowish jelly like material. Histopathological finding confirmed the case as immature teratoma. Molecular genetic analysis of p53 and p27 genes revealed substitution of nucleotide G to C at location nucleotide 12139, exon 4 of gene p53. No alteration was detected at exon 5–6 and 8 of p53 gene and exon 1 and 2 of p27 gene. This is the first case report of an intracranial immature teratoma with genetic mutation occuring in a Malay boy. PMID:22589625

  18. Further genotype-phenotype correlation emerging from two families with PLP1 exon 4 skipping.

    PubMed

    Biancheri, Roberta; Grossi, Serena; Regis, Stefano; Rossi, Andrea; Corsolini, Fabio; Rossi, Daniela Paola; Cavalli, Pietro; Severino, Mariasavina; Filocamo, Mirella

    2014-03-01

    Proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) gene-related disorders due to mutations in the PLP1 include a wide spectrum of X-linked disorders ranging from severe connatal Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) to spastic paraplegia 2 (SPG2). Duplications, deletions or point mutations in coding and noncoding regions of the PLP1 gene may occur. We report the clinical, neuroradiologic and molecular findings in six patients from two unrelated families. The affected males showed severe mental retardation, spastic tetraparesis, inability of walking and pes cavus at onset in early infancy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hypomyelination and brain atrophy. Nystagmus was never observed. The affected females showed adult-onset progressive spastic paraparesis leading to wheel-chair dependency and subtle white matter changes on brain MRI. Molecular studies in the two families identified two different intronic mutations, the novel c.622+2T>C and the known c.622+1G>A, leading to the skipping of PLP1-exon 4. The clinical presentation of the affected males did not consistently fit in any of the PLP1-related disorder subtypes (i.e., connatal or classic PMD, SPG2 and 'PLP1 null syndrome'), and in addition, the carrier females were symptomatic despite the severe clinical picture of their respective probands. This study provides new insight into the genotype-phenotype correlations of patients with PLP1 splice-site mutations.

  19. HCMV infection of humanized mice after transplantation of G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from HCMV-seropositive donors.

    PubMed

    Hakki, Morgan; Goldman, Devorah C; Streblow, Daniel N; Hamlin, Kimberly L; Krekylwich, Craig N; Fleming, William H; Nelson, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, including primary infection resulting from transmission from a seropositive donor to a seronegative recipient (D(+)/R(-)), remains a significant problem in the setting of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). The lack of a suitable animal model for studying HCMV transmission after PBSCT is a major barrier to understanding this process and, consequently, developing novel interventions to prevent HCMV infection. Our previous work demonstrated that human CD34(+) progenitor cell-engrafted NOD-scid IL2Rγc(null) (NSG) mice support latent HCMV infection after direct inoculation and reactivation after treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. To more accurately recapitulate HCMV infection in the D(+)/R(-) PBSCT setting, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from seropositive donors were used to engraft NSG mice. All recipient mice demonstrated evidence of HCMV infection in liver, spleen, and bone marrow. These findings validate the NSG mouse model for studying HCMV transmission during PBSCT.

  20. PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase is necessary for lipogenic activation during HCMV infection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongjun; Pierciey, Francis J; Maguire, Tobi G; Alwine, James C

    2013-01-01

    PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase (PERK) is an ER-associated stress sensor protein which phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) to induce translation attenuation in response to ER stress. PERK is also a regulator of lipogenesis during adipocyte differentiation through activation of the cleavage of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), resulting in the upregulation of lipogenic enzymes. Our recent studies have shown that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in human fibroblasts (HF) induces adipocyte-like lipogenesis through the activation of SREBP1. Here, we report that PERK expression is highly increased in HCMV-infected cells and is necessary for HCMV growth. Depletion of PERK, using short hairpin RNA (shRNA), resulted in attenuation of HCMV growth, inhibition of lipid synthesis and reduction of lipogenic gene expression. Examination of the cleavage of SREBP proteins showed PERK depletion inhibited the cleavage of SREBP1, but not SREBP2, in HCMV-infected cells, suggesting different cleavage regulatory mechanisms for SREBP1 and 2. Further studies showed that the depletion of SREBP1, but not SREBP2, reduced lipid synthesis in HCMV infection, suggesting that activation of SREBP1 is sufficient to induce lipogenesis in HCMV infection. The reduction of lipid synthesis by PERK depletion can be partially restored by expressing a Flag-tagged nuclear form of SREBP1a. Our studies also suggest that the induction of PERK in HCMV-infected cells stimulates SREBP1 cleavage by reducing levels of Insig1 (Insulin inducible gene 1) protein; this occurs independent of the phosphorylation of eIF2α. Introduction of an exogenous Insig1-Myc into HCMV infected cells significantly reduced HCMV growth and lipid synthesis. Our data demonstrate that the induction of PERK during HCMV infection is necessary for full activation of lipogenesis; this effect appears to be mediated by limiting the levels of Insig1 thus freeing SREBP1-SCAP complexes for

  1. Coding region variant 186H/R in Exon 4 of APOBEC3G among individuals of Western India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hariom; Marathe, Shruti; Nain, Sumitra; Nema, Vijay; Angadi, Mansa; Bapat, Shradha; Pawar, Jyoti; Ghate, Manisha; Sahay, Seema; Gangakhedkar, Raman R

    2016-05-01

    The allelic variations in the AIDS restriction genes have been associated with the acquisition of HIV-1 and its progression. The distribution of antiviral gene variants significantly differs between populations. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of variant allele of 186H/R in exon4 of APOBEC3G between HIV infected individuals and healthy controls among western Indian.In the present cross-sectional study, we enrolled a total of 153 HIV-infected patients confirmed and 156 unrelated healthy individuals. Polymorphism for 186H/R in exon4 of APOBEC3G gene was genotyped by PCR-RFLP. With the frequency of 186HR heterozygous genotype of APOBEC3G was found to be 13% in healthy controls and none in HIV infected cases. The frequency of 186HH common genotype of APOBEC3G was observed higher in HIV infected individuals compared with healthy controls (100% vs 91.7%). The variant genotype 186RR in APOBEC3G was not found in both the groups. The frequency of 186R allele of APOBEC3G was found 4.16% in healthy controls and nil in HIV-infected cases. The frequency of 186H allele of APOBEC3G was found to be higher in HIV-infected cases compared with healthy controls (100% vs 95.83%). The frequency of 186R allele in exon4 of APOBEC3G was found to be 4.16% in healthy controls. This observation differs from the previous report published from North India stating the absence of 186R allele of APOBEC3G in the North Indian individuals. The variant 186H/R in exon4 of APOBEC3G was neither associated with risk of acquisition of HIV-1 nor its progression.

  2. Molecular Detection of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) Among Infants with Congenital Anomalies in Khartoum State, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Maha G.; Ali, Aisha S.; Mustafa, Mohamed O.; Musa, Dalal F.; El Hussein, Abdel Rahim M.; Elkhidir, Isam M.; Enan, Khalid A.

    2015-01-01

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection still represents the most common potentially serious viral complication in humans and is a major cause of congenital anomalies in infants. This study is aimed to detect HCMV in infants with congenital anomalies. Study subjects consisted of infants born with neural tube defect, hydrocephalus and microcephaly. Fifty serum specimens (20 males, 30 females) were collected from different hospitals in Khartoum State. The sera were investigated for cytomegalovirus specific immunoglobin M (IgM) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and for Cytomegalovirus DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of the 50 sera tested, one patient’s (2%) sample showed HCMV IgM, but with no detectable DNA, other 4(8.2 %) sera were positive for HCMV DNA but with no detectable IgM. Various diagnostic techniques should be considered to evaluate HCMV disease and routine screening for HCMV should be introduced for pregnant women in this setting. It is vital to initiate further research work with many samples from different area to assess prevalence and characterize HCMV and evaluate its maternal health implications. PMID:26862356

  3. Polymorphism in exon 4 of TP53 gene associated to HPV 16 and 18 in Mexican women with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Hernández-Hernández, Dulce María; Taja-Chayeb, Lucia; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; González-Herrera, Ana Lilia; Rodea-Avila, Carlos; Apresa-García, Teresa; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Vázquez-Ortíz, Guelaguetza; Mendoza-Lorenzo, Patricia; Dueñas-González, Alfonso; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2011-12-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common cancer in Mexican women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary but not sufficient for CC development. Furthermore, genetic factors as polymorphisms could be important susceptibility factors. Controversial results regarding TP53 polymorphisms specifically in codon 72 of CC have been reported. In the present work, the exon 4 sequence of TP53 gene in CC and healthy Mexican-mestizo women were analyzed. A group of 111 women with CC and 126 healthy women (control) were included. Peripheral blood cells for polymorphism analysis and cervical scrape for HPV detection were used. PCR of exon 4 of TP53 were subjected to denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) analysis and sequencing. HPV detection was subjected to PCR and sequencing. The statistical analysis was carried out using the Arlequin software. Codon 72 Arg/Arg was the most common SNP detected, and Hardy-Weinberg analysis showed equilibrium in control and CC samples (P>0.05). Wild type sequence of TP53 exon 4 was detected in 66 and 57% in control and CC samples, respectively. For codon 72 Arg/Arg, differences between control and CC women were found (P=0.043). An association between HPV 16/18 infection and 72 Arg/Arg in woman with CC was found (P=0.026). Haplotype GC (codon 36 and 72) was statistically significantly associated with CC (P=0.011). HPV 16 was the most common viral type. Codon 72 Arg/Arg is the most common polymorphism in the Mexican population and could be associated to HPV 16 and/or HPV 18 infection in CC.

  4. Is HCMV vaccine an unmet need? The state of art of vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Chiurchiu, S; Calo Carducci, F I; Rocchi, F; Simonetti, A; Bonatti, G; Salmaso, S; Melchiorri, D; Pani, L; Rossi, P

    2013-01-01

    Congenital HCMV infection is the most frequent congenital infection, with an incidence of 0.2- 2.5 percent among all live births. About 11 percent of infected newborns show symptoms at birth, including hepato-splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, neurologic involvement, hearing impairment and visual deficit. Moreover, 5-25 percent of the asymptomatic congenital HCMV-infected neonates will develop sequelae over months or even years. The relevant social burden, the economic costs of pre-natal screening, post-natal diagnosis, follow-up and possible therapy, although still limited, are the major factors to be considered. Several types of vaccines have been explored in order to develop an effective and safe HCMV vaccine: live attenuated, subunit, vectored, peptide, DNA, and subviral ones, but none are available for use. This review illustrates the different vaccine types studied to date, focusing on the possible vaccination strategy to be implemented once the HCMV vaccine is available, in terms of target population.

  5. HCMV induces dysregulation of glutamate uptake and transporter expression in human fetal astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Li, Ling; Wang, Bin; Qian, Dong-Meng; Song, Xu-Xia; Hu, Ming

    2014-12-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections are the leading cause of viral induced birth defects, affecting the central nervous system (CNS) primarily. Fetal CNS is especially vulnerable to CMV induced injury. As HCMV permissive cells, astrocytes are responsible for major glutamate transport and regulate extracellular levels of glutamate avoiding its accumulation which is implicated in neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, highly purified astrocytes isolated from human first trimester aborted fetal brain were infected with HCMV AD169, glutamate uptake function was detected by (3)H labeling technic, and the expression level alterations of glutamate transporters (GLAST, GLT-1), glutamine synthetase (GS) and its activity were also investigated. Protein kinases C (PKC) inhibitor treatment was to identify whether PKC signalling involved in regulating glutamate uptake, protein expression of GLAST, GLT-1, GS and GS activity. Results indicated HCMV AD169 infection could modulate glutamate uptake, expression levels of GLAST, GLT-1, GS and it activity through PKC signalling, suggesting a great susceptibility of human fetal astrocytes to HCMV infection, which significantly alters the uptake and metabolism of an important excitatory amino acid, glutamate, may be a potential mechanism for HCMV associated neurological disease, and an effective therapeutic target in neural diseases.

  6. In vivo expression of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) microRNAs during latency.

    PubMed

    Meshesha, Mesfin K; Bentwich, Zvi; Solomon, Semaria A; Avni, Yonat Shemer

    2016-01-01

    Viral encoded microRNAs play key roles in regulating gene expression and the life cycle of human herpes viruses. Latency is one of the hallmarks of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV or HHV5) life cycle, and its control may have immense practical applications. The present study aims to identify HCMV encoded microRNAs during the latency phase of the virus. We used a highly sensitive real time PCR (RTPCR) assay that involves a pre-amplification step before RTPCR. It can detect HCMV encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) during latency in purified monocytes and PBMCs from HCMV IgG positive donors and in latently infected monocytic THP-1 cell lines. During the latency phase, only eight HCMV encoded microRNAs were detected in PBMCs, monocytes and in the THP-1 cells. Five originated from the UL region of the virus genome and three from the US region. Reactivation of the virus from latency, in monocytes obtained from the same donor, using dexamethasone restored the expression of all known HCMV encoded miRNAs including those that were absent during latency. We observed a shift in the abundance of the two arms of mir-US29 between the productive and latency stages of the viral life cycle, suggesting that the star "passenger" form of this microRNA is preferentially expressed during latency. As a whole, our study demonstrates that HCMV expresses during the latency phase, both in vivo and in vitro, only a subset of its microRNAs, which may indicate that they play an important role in maintenance and reactivation of latency.

  7. Altered Striatal Synaptic Function and Abnormal Behaviour in Shank3 Exon4-9 Deletion Mouse Model of Autism.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Thomas C; Speed, Haley E; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M; Liu, Shunan; Powell, Craig M

    2016-03-01

    Shank3 is a multi-domain, synaptic scaffolding protein that organizes proteins in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Clinical studies suggest that ∼ 0.5% of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases may involve SHANK3 mutation/deletion. Patients with SHANK3 mutations exhibit deficits in cognition along with delayed/impaired speech/language and repetitive and obsessive/compulsive-like (OCD-like) behaviors. To examine how mutation/deletion of SHANK3 might alter brain function leading to ASD, we have independently created mice with deletion of Shank3 exons 4-9, a region implicated in ASD patients. We find that homozygous deletion of exons 4-9 (Shank3(e4-9) KO) results in loss of the two highest molecular weight isoforms of Shank3 and a significant reduction in other isoforms. Behaviorally, both Shank3(e4-9) heterozygous (HET) and Shank3(e4-9) KO mice display increased repetitive grooming, deficits in novel and spatial object recognition learning and memory, and abnormal ultrasonic vocalizations. Shank3(e4-9) KO mice also display abnormal social interaction when paired with one another. Analysis of synaptosome fractions from striata of Shank3(e4-9) KO mice reveals decreased Homer1b/c, GluA2, and GluA3 expression. Both Shank3(e4-9) HET and KO demonstrated a significant reduction in NMDA/AMPA ratio at excitatory synapses onto striatal medium spiny neurons. Furthermore, Shank3(e4-9) KO mice displayed reduced hippocampal LTP despite normal baseline synaptic transmission. Collectively these behavioral, biochemical and physiological changes suggest Shank3 isoforms have region-specific roles in regulation of AMPAR subunit localization and NMDAR function in the Shank3(e4-9) mutant mouse model of autism.

  8. Altered Striatal Synaptic Function and Abnormal Behaviour in Shank3 Exon4–9 Deletion Mouse Model of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Thomas C.; Speed, Haley E.; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M.; Liu, Shunan; Powell, Craig M.

    2016-01-01

    Shank3 is a multi-domain, synaptic scaffolding protein that organizes proteins in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Clinical studies suggest that ~0.5% of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases may involve SHANK3 mutation/deletion. Patients with SHANK3 mutations exhibit deficits in cognition along with delayed/impaired speech/language and repetitive and obsessive/compulsive-like (OCD-like) behaviors. To examine how mutation/deletion of SHANK3 might alter brain function leading to ASD, we have independently created mice with deletion of Shank3 exons 4–9, a region implicated in ASD patients. We find that homozygous deletion of exons 4–9 (Shank3e4–9 KO) results in loss of the two highest molecular weight isoforms of Shank3 and a significant reduction in other isoforms. Behaviorally, both Shank3e4–9 heterozygous (HET) and Shank3e4–9 KO mice display increased repetitive grooming, deficits in novel and spatial object recognition learning and memory, and abnormal ultrasonic vocalizations. Shank3e4–9 KO mice also display abnormal social interaction when paired with one another. Analysis of synaptosome fractions from striata of Shank3e4–9 KO mice reveals decreased Homer1b/c, GluA2, and GluA3 expression. Both Shank3e4–9 HET and KO demonstrated a significant reduction in NMDA/AMPA ratio at excitatory synapses onto striatal medium spiny neurons. Furthermore, Shank3e4–9 KO mice displayed reduced hippocampal LTP despite normal baseline synaptic transmission. Collectively these behavioral, biochemical and physiological changes suggest Shank3 isoforms have region-specific roles in regulation of AMPAR subunit localization and NMDAR function in the Shank3e4–9 mutant mouse model of autism. PMID:26559786

  9. 11 CFR 300.62 - Non-Federal elections (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)(B)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-Federal elections (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)(B)). 300.62 Section 300.62 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION BIPARTISAN CAMPAIGN REFORM ACT OF... elections (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)(B)). A person described in 11 CFR 300.60 may solicit, receive,...

  10. 11 CFR 300.61 - Federal elections (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)(A)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal elections (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)(A)). 300.61 Section 300.61 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION BIPARTISAN CAMPAIGN REFORM ACT OF... elections (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)(A)). No person described in 11 CFR 300.60 shall solicit, receive,...

  11. Structure of HCMV glycoprotein B in the postfusion conformation bound to a neutralizing human antibody

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouli, Sumana; Ciferri, Claudio; Nikitin, Pavel A.; Caló, Stefano; Gerrein, Rachel; Balabanis, Kara; Monroe, James; Hebner, Christy; Lilja, Anders E.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Carfi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) poses a significant threat to immunocompromised individuals and neonates infected in utero. Glycoprotein B (gB), the herpesvirus fusion protein, is a target for neutralizing antibodies and a vaccine candidate due to its indispensable role in infection. Here we show the crystal structure of the HCMV gB ectodomain bound to the Fab fragment of 1G2, a neutralizing human monoclonal antibody isolated from a seropositive subject. The gB/1G2 interaction is dominated by aromatic residues in the 1G2 heavy chain CDR3 protruding into a hydrophobic cleft in the gB antigenic domain 5 (AD-5). Structural analysis and comparison with HSV gB suggest the location of additional neutralizing antibody binding sites on HCMV gB. Finally, immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that 1G2 can bind to HCMV virion gB suggesting that its epitope is exposed and accessible on the virus surface. Our data will support the development of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies against HCMV infection. PMID:26365435

  12. Structure of HCMV glycoprotein B in the postfusion conformation bound to a neutralizing human antibody.

    PubMed

    Chandramouli, Sumana; Ciferri, Claudio; Nikitin, Pavel A; Caló, Stefano; Gerrein, Rachel; Balabanis, Kara; Monroe, James; Hebner, Christy; Lilja, Anders E; Settembre, Ethan C; Carfi, Andrea

    2015-09-14

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) poses a significant threat to immunocompromised individuals and neonates infected in utero. Glycoprotein B (gB), the herpesvirus fusion protein, is a target for neutralizing antibodies and a vaccine candidate due to its indispensable role in infection. Here we show the crystal structure of the HCMV gB ectodomain bound to the Fab fragment of 1G2, a neutralizing human monoclonal antibody isolated from a seropositive subject. The gB/1G2 interaction is dominated by aromatic residues in the 1G2 heavy chain CDR3 protruding into a hydrophobic cleft in the gB antigenic domain 5 (AD-5). Structural analysis and comparison with HSV gB suggest the location of additional neutralizing antibody binding sites on HCMV gB. Finally, immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that 1G2 can bind to HCMV virion gB suggesting that its epitope is exposed and accessible on the virus surface. Our data will support the development of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies against HCMV infection.

  13. HCMV Displays a Unique Transcriptome of Immunomodulatory Genes in Primary Monocyte-Derived Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Ellen; Thys, Kim; Tuefferd, Marianne; Van Hove, Carl; Aerssens, Jeroen; Van Loock, Marnix

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus which rarely presents problems in healthy individuals, yet may result in severe morbidity in immunocompromised patients and in immune-naïve neonates. HCMV has a large 235 kb genome with a coding capacity of at least 165 open reading frames (ORFs). This large genome allows complex gene regulation resulting in different sets of transcripts during lytic and latent infection. While latent virus mainly resides within monocytes and CD34+ progenitor cells, reactivation to lytic infection is driven by differentiation towards terminally differentiated myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages. Consequently, it has been suggested that macrophages and dendritic cells contribute to viral spread in vivo. Thus far only limited knowledge is available on the expression of HCMV genes in terminally differentiated myeloid primary cells and whether or not the virus exhibits a different set of lytic genes in primary cells compared with lytic infection in NHDF fibroblasts. To address these questions, we used Illumina next generation sequencing to determine the HCMV transcriptome in macrophages and dendritic cells during lytic infection and compared it to the transcriptome in NHDF fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate unique expression profiles in macrophages and dendritic cells which significantly differ from the transcriptome in fibroblasts mainly by modulating the expression of viral transcripts involved in immune modulation, cell tropism and viral spread. In a head to head comparison between macrophages and dendritic cells, we observed that factors involved in viral spread and virion composition are differentially regulated suggesting that the plasticity of the virion facilitates the infection of surrounding cells. Taken together, this study provides the full transcript expression analysis of lytic HCMV genes in monocyte-derived type 1 and type 2 macrophages as well as in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Thereby underlining the potential

  14. Recombinant HCMV UL128 expression and functional identification of PBMC-attracting activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huihui; Hui-Hui, Gao; Tao, Ran; Ran, Tao; Zheng, Qi; Qi, Zheng; Xu, Jun; Jun, Xu; Shang, Shiqiang; Shi-Qiang, Shang

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has evolved several immune evasion strategies. One strategy is controlling the movement of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by encoding homologues of chemokines. Our aim was to determine whether HCMV open reading frame (ORF) UL128 could encode a protein that attracts PBMCs like a β-chemokine. The recombinant UL128 protein was synthesized by construction of a stably transfected CHO-UL128 cell line, and a chemotaxis assay showed that UL128 was able to attract PBMCs with a potency equal to that of MIP-1α in vitro. We hypothesize that UL128 protein may act as a β-chemokine homologue in viral pathogenesis.

  15. In Vitro Drug Combination Studies of Letermovir (AIC246, MK-8228) with Approved Anti-Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Anti-HIV Compounds in Inhibition of HCMV and HIV Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wildum, Steffen; Zimmermann, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Despite modern prevention and treatment strategies, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) remains a common opportunistic pathogen associated with serious morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals, such as transplant recipients and AIDS patients. All drugs currently licensed for the treatment of HCMV infection target the viral DNA polymerase and are associated with severe toxicity issues and the emergence of drug resistance. Letermovir (AIC246, MK-8228) is a new anti-HCMV agent in clinical development that acts via a novel mode of action and has demonstrated anti-HCMV activity in vitro and in vivo. For the future, drug combination therapies, including letermovir, might be indicated under special medical conditions, such as the emergence of multidrug-resistant virus strains in transplant recipients or in HCMV-HIV-coinfected patients. Accordingly, knowledge of the compatibility of letermovir with other HCMV or HIV antivirals is of medical importance. Here, we evaluated the inhibition of HCMV replication by letermovir in combination with all currently approved HCMV antivirals using cell culture checkerboard assays. In addition, the effects of letermovir on the antiviral activities of selected HIV drugs, and vice versa, were analyzed. Using two different mathematical techniques to analyze the experimental data, (i) additive effects were observed for the combination of letermovir with anti-HCMV drugs and (ii) no interaction was found between letermovir and anti-HIV drugs. Since none of the tested drug combinations significantly antagonized letermovir efficacy (or vice versa), our findings suggest that letermovir may offer the potential for combination therapy with the tested HCMV and HIV drugs. PMID:25779572

  16. C-deletion in exon 4 codon 63 of p53 gene as a molecular marker for oral squamous cell carcinoma: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Sukhija, Hemani; Krishnan, Rajkumar; Balachander, N.; Raghavendhar, Karthik; Ramadoss, Ramya; Sen, Sukanta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exfoliated oral cancer cells in saliva samples from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) can be used to determine the incidence and type of mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene. The purpose of this study was to identify C-deletion mutation in exon 4 codon 63 of p53 gene in the saliva of OSCC patients by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: Saliva samples of 20 newly histopathologically diagnosed OSCC patients and 5 healthy volunteers were subjected to isolation of the total genomic DNA and PCR amplification for C-deletion on exon 4 of p53 gene. The resulting products were resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis, viewed and photographed on ultraviolet-transilluminator. Results: The relationship between the frequencies of genetic alterations was assessed by Chi-square test. Differences with values of P < 0.05 were statistically significant. Conclusion: The study concluded a 100% presence of C-deletion mutation in exon 4 codon 63 of p53 in the saliva of OSCC patients. This study suggests that detection of mutation in exon 4 codon 63 of p53 by PCR is a fast, reliable, accurate, and sensitive molecular method for OSCC diagnosis. PMID:26604578

  17. HCMV Reprogramming of Infected Monocyte Survival and Differentiation: A Goldilocks Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Emily V.; Collins-McMillen, Donna; Kim, Jung Heon; Cieply, Stephen J.; Bentz, Gretchen L.; Yurochko, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    The wide range of disease pathologies seen in multiple organ sites associated with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection results from the systemic hematogenous dissemination of the virus, which is mediated predominately by infected monocytes. In addition to their role in viral spread, infected monocytes are also known to play a key role in viral latency and life-long persistence. However, in order to utilize infected monocytes for viral spread and persistence, HCMV must overcome a number of monocyte biological hurdles, including their naturally short lifespan and their inability to support viral gene expression and replication. Our laboratory has shown that HCMV is able to manipulate the biology of infected monocytes in order to overcome these biological hurdles by inducing the survival and differentiation of infected monocytes into long-lived macrophages capable of supporting viral gene expression and replication. In this current review, we describe the unique aspects of how HCMV promotes monocyte survival and differentiation by inducing a “finely-tuned” macrophage cell type following infection. Specifically, we describe the induction of a uniquely polarized macrophage subset from infected monocytes, which we argue is the ideal cellular environment for the initiation of viral gene expression and replication and, ultimately, viral spread and persistence within the infected host. PMID:24531335

  18. Non-nucleoside structures retain full anti-HCMV potency of the dideoxy furanopyrimidine family.

    PubMed

    Bidet, Olivier; McGuigan, Christopher; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela; De Clercq, Erik; Balzarini, Jan

    2004-11-01

    We have recently reported that 2',3'dideoxy analogues of our exquisitely potent anti-VZV furanopyrimidine deoxynucleosides are shifted to selective anti-HCMV agents. We now find that the fully deoxygenated 2',3',5'-trideoxy analogue is fully antivirally active. This is taken as proof that these agents act by a novel non-nucleoside mechanism of action.

  19. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1), slow (exon 3, 113His) and fast (exon 4, 139Arg) alleles confer susceptibility to squamous cell esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Meenu; Tilak, Anup Raj; Upadhyay, Rohit; Kumar, Ashwani; Mittal, Balraj

    2008-07-15

    Genetic polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes may alter risk of various cancers. Present case-control study evaluated the influence of EPHX1 genetic variations on squamous cell esophageal cancer (ESCC) susceptibility in 107 patients and 320 controls. EPHX1 polymorphic alleles were genotyped by direct sequencing (exon 3, Tyr113His) or PCR-RFLP (exon 4, His139Arg). Patients with exon 3 genotypes (Tyr113His, His113His) and 113His allele were at risk of ESCC (OR{sub Tyr113His} 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.4, p = 0.007; OR{sub His113His} 2.3 95% CI = 1.0-5.2, p = 0.03 and OR{sub His} 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0-2.1, p = 0.01). In contrast, individuals with exon 4, 139Arg allele were at low risk of cancer (OR 0.34, 95% CI = 0.20-0.56, p = 0.001). However, none of haplotype combinations of exon 3 (Tyr113His) and exon 4 (His139Arg) polymorphisms showed modulation of risk for ESCC. Sub-grouping of patients based on anatomical location of tumor predicted that patients with exon 3, His113His and Tyr113His genotypes were at higher risk for developing ESCC tumor at upper and middle third locations (OR 4.4, 95% CI = 1.0-18.5, p = 0.04; OR 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3-5.0, p = 0.005 respectively). The frequency of exon 4, His139Arg genotype was significantly lower in ESCC patients with lower third tumor location as compared to controls (14.8% vs. 36.3%, p = 0.02). In case-only study, gene-environment interaction of EPHX1 genotypes with tobacco, alcohol and occupational exposures did not appear to modulate the cancer susceptibility. In conclusion, exon 3, Tyr113His genotype was associated with higher risk of ESCC particularly at upper and middle-third anatomical locations of tumor. However, His139Arg genotype of exon 4, exhibited low risk for ESCC as well as its clinical characteristics.

  20. Sperm viral infection and male infertility: focus on HBV, HCV, HIV, HPV, HSV, HCMV, and AAV.

    PubMed

    Garolla, Andrea; Pizzol, Damiano; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Menegazzo, Massimo; Barzon, Luisa; Foresta, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    Chronic viral infections can infect sperm and are considered a risk factor in male infertility. Recent studies have shown that the presence of HIV, HBV or HCV in semen impairs sperm parameters, DNA integrity, and in particular reduces forward motility. In contrast, very little is known about semen infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpesviruses (HSV), cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and adeno-associated virus (AAV). At present, EU directives for the viral screening of couples undergoing assisted reproduction techniques require only the evaluation of HIV, HBV, and HCV. However, growing evidence suggests that HPV, HSV, and HCMV might play a major role in male infertility and it has been demonstrated that HPV semen infection has a negative influence on sperm parameters, fertilization, and the abortion rate. Besides the risk of horizontal or vertical transmission, the negative impact of any viral sperm infection on male reproductive function seems to be dramatic. In addition, treatment with antiviral and antiretroviral therapies may further affect sperm parameters. In this review we attempted to focus on the interactions between defined sperm viral infections and their association with male fertility disorders. All viruses considered in this article have a potentially negative effect on male reproductive function and dangerous infections can be transmitted to partners and newborns. In light of this evidence, we suggest performing targeted sperm washing procedures for each sperm infection and to strongly consider screening male patients seeking fertility for HPV, HSV, and HCMV, both to avoid viral transmission and to improve assisted or even spontaneous fertility outcome.

  1. Predictive value of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) T-cell response in the control of HCMV infection by seropositive solid-organ transplant recipients according to different assays and stimuli.

    PubMed

    Gabanti, Elisa; Bruno, Francesca; Scaramuzzi, Lucia; Mangione, Filippo; Zelini, Paola; Gerna, Giuseppe; Lilleri, Daniele

    2016-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is still the most common viral infection in solid-organ transplant recipients (SOTR). Our study aimed to identify the predictive values of the T-cell response able to protect from HCMV disease, according to different assays. Viral DNA was determined by real-time PCR. The T-cell immune response to HCMV infection was investigated in SOTR according to the following assays and stimuli: cytokine flow cytometry (CFC) after peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) stimulation with autologous HCMV-infected dendritic cells (iDC) vs three ELISPOT assays using PBMCs stimulated with: 1. HCMV-infected cell lysate (iCL); 2. a pool of 34 epitopic peptides (PP) from different HCMV proteins; 3. a commercial pp65 peptide pool (CPM). ELISPOT results were normalized to T-cell counts. Overall, 51 SOTR were enrolled: 29 (57%) had low viral load (LVL) self-resolving infections, 19 (37%) high viral load (HVL) infections treated with antiviral drugs, and 3 (6%) tissue-invasive disease (TID). At DNAemia peak, ROC analysis showed that CFC-iDC CD4+ and the ELISPOT-iCL assays yielded overlapping area under the curve (AUC) results. The time needed to reconstitute protective T-cell immunity in SOTR with HVL infections was significantly longer with each assay compared to LVL infections. Using the CFC-iDC assay as a reference test (requiring 7 days to complete), the 24h ELISPOT-iCL assay provides similar results in terms of protection prediction from HCMV infection.

  2. TTV DNA plasma load and its association with age, gender, and HCMV IgG serostatus in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Haloschan, Mats; Bettesch, Rainer; Görzer, Irene; Weseslindtner, Lukas; Kundi, Michael; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Understanding immunosenescence and changes in antimicrobial immune response with age is of high importance. The association of immunosenescence with gender and persistent infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a matter of intensive research. We determined whether replication of another persistent and highly prevalent virus, Torque teno virus (TTV), is related to age, gender, and HCMV IgG serostatus of the host. TTV DNA load in plasma was assessed by real-time PCR in 313 healthy persons: 20-30 years old (young, n = 104), 50-60 years old (middle-aged, n = 101), or >80 years old (elderly, n = 108). TTV DNA loads were further associated with age-groups, gender, and HCMV IgG serostatus. TTV load was significantly higher in the elderly compared to the young group (p < 0.001; Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD)), and the higher TTV DNA levels over age were found to be gender-specific (p = 0.002; ANOVA), with young women showing the lowest TTV load compared to young men (p = 0.009, t test) and compared to the other female age-groups (middle-aged p = 0.005; elderly p < 0.001; Tukey's HSD). TTV load of HCMV IgG-seropositive persons was significantly higher than that of the HCMV IgG seronegative in the young (p = 0.005; t test) and middle-aged (p = 0.016; t test) groups. These results indicate that the host's immune control of TTV replication decreases with age and is gender-specific. Persistent HCMV infection is significantly related to higher TTV DNA loads, especially at a younger age. Therefore, the influence of gender and HCMV on immunosenescence earlier in life should be further explored.

  3. HCMV gB shares structural and functional properties with gB proteins from other herpesviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sapna; Wisner, Todd W.; Johnson, David C.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E.

    2013-01-20

    Glycoprotein B (gB) facilitates HCMV entry into cells by binding receptors and mediating membrane fusion. The crystal structures of gB ectodomains from HSV-1 and EBV are available, but little is known about the HCMV gB structure. Using multiangle light scattering and electron microscopy, we show here that HCMV gB ectodomain is a trimer with the overall shape similar to HSV-1 and EBV gB ectodomains. HCMV gB ectodomain forms rosettes similar to rosettes formed by EBV gB and the postfusion forms of other viral fusogens. Substitution of several bulky hydrophobic residues within the putative fusion loops with more hydrophilic residues reduced rosette formation and abolished cell fusion. We propose that like gB proteins from HSV-1 and EBV, HCMV gB has two internal hydrophobic fusion loops that likely interact with target membranes. Our work establishes structural and functional similarities between gB proteins from three subfamilies of herpesviruses.

  4. Evolution of the ability to modulate host chemokine networks via gene duplication in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV).

    PubMed

    Scarborough, Jessica A; Paul, John R; Spencer, Juliet V

    2017-03-14

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen that is particularly skillful at evading immune detection and defense mechanisms, largely due to extensive co-evolution with its host. One aspect of this co-evolution involves the acquisition of virally encoded G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with homology to the chemokine receptor family. GPCRs are the largest family of cell surface proteins, found in organisms from yeast to humans, and they regulate a variety of cellular processes including development, sensory perception, and immune cell trafficking. The US27 and US28 genes are encoded by human and primate CMVs, but homologs are not found in the genomes of viruses infecting rodents or other species. Phylogenetic analysis was used to investigate the US27 and US28 genes, which are adjacent in the unique short (US) region of the HCMV genome, and their relationship to one another and to human chemokine receptor genes. The results indicate that both US27 and US28 share the same common ancestor with human chemokine receptor CX3CR1, suggesting that a single host gene was captured and a subsequent viral gene duplication event occurred. The US28 gene product (pUS28) has maintained the function of the ancestral gene and has the ability to bind and signal in response to CX3CL1/fractalkine, the natural ligand for CX3CR1. In contrast, pUS27 does not bind to any known chemokine ligand, and the sequence has diverged significantly, highlighted by the fact that pUS27 currently exhibits greater sequence similarity to human CCR1. While the evolutionary advantage of the gene duplication and neofunctionalization event remains unclear, the US27 and US28 genes are highly conserved among different HCMV strains and retained even in laboratory strains that have lost many virulence genes, suggesting that US27 and US28 have each evolved distinct, important functions during virus infection.

  5. Modification of selected anti-HCMV drugs with lipophilic boron cluster modulator.

    PubMed

    Olejniczak, Agnieszka B; Adamska, Anna M; Paradowska, Edyta; Studzinska, Mirosława; Suski, Patrycja; Leśnikowski, Zbigniew J

    2013-01-01

    Methods for the modification of ganciclovir (GCV), acyclovir (ACV), cidofovir (CDV) and valganciclovir (VCDV) with boron cluster have been developed. Toxicity of the new derivatives was evaluated in adherent cells; no cytotoxicity was observed in five different cell lines up to 1000 microM with the exception of modified valganciclovir which was cytotoxic above 300 microM. The compounds were active against HCMV or HSV-1 by cytopathic effect or plaque reduction assays. None of the tested compounds had activity against HPIV-3 or VSV.

  6. Ablation of the Regulatory IE1 Protein of Murine Cytomegalovirus Alters In Vivo Pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha Production during Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmi, Vanessa; Lisnic, Vanda Juranic; Hsieh, Wei Yuan; Blanc, Mathieu; Livingston, Andrew; Busche, Andreas; Tekotte, Hille; Messerle, Martin; Auer, Manfred; Fraser, Iain; Jonjic, Stipan; Angulo, Ana; Reddehase, Matthias J.; Ghazal, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the role of viral genes in modulating host cytokine responses. Here we report a new functional role of the viral encoded IE1 protein of the murine cytomegalovirus in sculpting the inflammatory response in an acute infection. In time course experiments of infected primary macrophages (MΦs) measuring cytokine production levels, genetic ablation of the immediate-early 1 (ie1) gene results in a significant increase in TNFα production. Intracellular staining for cytokine production and viral early gene expression shows that TNFα production is highly associated with the productively infected MΦ population of cells. The ie1- dependent phenotype of enhanced MΦ TNFα production occurs at both protein and RNA levels. Noticeably, we show in a series of in vivo infection experiments that in multiple organs the presence of ie1 potently inhibits the pro-inflammatory cytokine response. From these experiments, levels of TNFα, and to a lesser extent IFNβ, but not the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10, are moderated in the presence of ie1. The ie1- mediated inhibition of TNFα production has a similar quantitative phenotype profile in infection of susceptible (BALB/c) and resistant (C57BL/6) mouse strains as well as in a severe immuno-ablative model of infection. In vitro experiments with infected macrophages reveal that deletion of ie1 results in increased sensitivity of viral replication to TNFα inhibition. However, in vivo infection studies show that genetic ablation of TNFα or TNFRp55 receptor is not sufficient to rescue the restricted replication phenotype of the ie1 mutant virus. These results provide, for the first time, evidence for a role of IE1 as a regulator of the pro-inflammatory response and demonstrate a specific pathogen gene capable of moderating the host production of TNFα in vivo. PMID:22952450

  7. Induction of a subnuclear structure by the simultaneous expression of baculovirus proteins, IE1, LEF3, and P143 in the presence of hr

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamine, Toshihiro . E-mail: tnaga@riken.jp; Kawasaki, Yu; Matsumoto, Shogo

    2006-09-01

    Baculoviruses elicit the formation of a nuclear domain, called the virogenic stroma, in which viral DNA replication and nucleocapsid assembly occur. We had previously reported that nuclear focus formation of a transcriptional activator, IE1, is triggered by its binding to a viral DNA element, hr, and predicted that this hr-induced IE1 focus is an initial scaffold for the virogenic stroma. However, LEF3, a component of the virogenic stroma, did not localize to the IE1 foci. In exploring a mediator for its localization, we found that a baculovirus DNA helicase (P143), in combination with IE1 and hr, induced a subnuclear structure to which LEF3 localized and also that another component of the virogenic stroma, DBP, is able to localize to this structure. These results reveal that only four viral molecules are necessary to establish a nuclear domain which possesses a recruiting ability for a component of the virogenic stroma.

  8. 11 CFR 300.52 - Fundraising by Federal candidates and Federal officeholders (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)&(4)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fundraising by Federal candidates and Federal officeholders (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)&(4)). 300.52 Section 300.52 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION... Fundraising by Federal candidates and Federal officeholders (2 U.S.C. 441i(e)(1)&(4)). A Federal candidate,...

  9. Soluble expression and complex formation of proteins required for HCMV DNA replication using the SFV expression system.

    PubMed

    McCue, L A; Anders, D G

    1998-08-01

    Several of the viral proteins required for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA replication have been difficult to study due to their low abundance in infected cells and low solubility in bacterial or insect-cell expression systems. Therefore we used the Semliki Forest virus expression system to express these proteins in mammalian cells. All of the recombinant proteins were soluble, on the basis of ultracentrifugation properties and their ability to be immunoprecipitated from solution with specific antibodies. Pulse-chase analysis of the 86-kDa major immediate-early protein (IE86) revealed two expressed forms-a precursor and a product-indicating that this recombinant protein, like the native HCMV protein, is posttranslationally processed. The recombinant proteins (polymerase core and accessory as well as the IE86 and pUL84) formed stable complexes similar to those known to form in HCMV-infected cells. The recombinant DNA polymerase holoenzyme also exhibited enzyme activity that was phosphonoformic acid sensitive, as is the infected-cell DNA polymerase activity. This expression system offers many advantages for the expression and study of the HCMV replication proteins, including the expression of soluble, active proteins that are able to interact to form complexes. Additionally, the relative ease with which SFV recombinants can be made lends itself to the construction and evaluation of mutants.

  10. Anti-human cytomegalovirus activity of cytokines produced by CD4+ T-cell clones specifically activated by IE1 peptides in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Davignon, J L; Castanié, P; Yorke, J A; Gautier, N; Clément, D; Davrinche, C

    1996-01-01

    The control of latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections by the immune system is poorly understood. We have previously shown that CD4+ T cells specific for the human CMV major regulatory protein IE1 are frequent in latently infected healthy blood donors. In order to learn about the possible role of these cells, we have developed IE1-specific CD4+ T-cell clones and, in this study, analyzed their epitope specificity and function in vitro. We measured their cytokine production when stimulated with specific IE1 peptides or whole recombinant IE1 protein. Their cytokine profiles, as deduced from gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-6 production, were of the Th0- and Th1-like phenotypes. Supernatants from IE1-specific clones producing IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were shown to inhibit CMV replication in U373 MG cells. This effect was due, as found by using cytokine-specific neutralizing antibodies, mostly to IFN-gamma, which was secreted at higher levels than TNF-alpha. To better assess the anti-CMV activity of cytokines, recombinant IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were used and shown to have a synergistic effect on the inhibition of CMV replication and protein expression. Thus, IE1-specific CD4+ T cells display in vitro anti-CMV activity through cytokine secretion and may play a role in the control of in vivo latent infections. PMID:8642638

  11. Role of Litopenaeus vannamei Yin Yang 1 in the Regulation of the White Spot Syndrome Virus Immediate Early Gene ie1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping-Han; Huang, Ting-Yi; Cai, Pei-Si; Chang, Li-Kwan

    2017-03-15

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional zinc finger transcription factor that regulates many key cellular processes. In this study, we report the cloning of YY1 from Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp (LvYY1). This study shows that LvYY1 is ubiquitously expressed in shrimp tissues, and knockdown of LvYY1 expression by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) injection in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected shrimp reduced both mRNA levels of the WSSV immediate early gene ie1 as well as overall copy numbers of the WSSV genome. The cumulative mortality rate of infected shrimp also declined with LvYY1 dsRNA injection. Using an insect cell model, we observed that LvYY1 activates ie1 expression, and a mutation introduced into the ie1 promoter subsequently repressed this capability. Moreover, reporter assay results suggested that LvYY1 is involved in basal transcriptional regulation via an interaction with L. vannamei TATA-binding protein (LvTBP). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) results further indicated that LvYY1 binds to a YY1-binding site in the region between positions -119 and -126 in the ie1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis also confirmed that LvYY1 binds to the ie1 promoter in WSSV-infected shrimp. Taken together, these results indicate that WSSV uses host LvYY1 to enhance ie1 expression via a YY1-binding site and the TATA box in the ie1 promoter, thereby facilitating lytic activation and viral replication.IMPORTANCE WSSV has long been a scourge of the shrimp industry and remains a serious global threat. Thus, there is a pressing need to understand how the interactions between WSSV and its host drive infection, lytic development, pathogenesis, and mortality. Our successful cloning of L. vannamei YY1 (LvYY1) led to the elucidation of a critical virus-host interaction between LvYY1 and the WSSV immediate early gene ie1 We observed that LvYY1 regulates ie1 expression via a consensus YY1-binding site and TATA box. LvYY1 was also found to interact with L

  12. HCMV pUS28 initiates pro-migratory signaling via activation of Pyk2 kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Vomaske, Jennifer; Varnum, Susan M.; Melnychuk, Ryan; Smith, Patricia; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Streblow, Daniel N.

    2010-12-10

    The HCMV-encoded chemokine receptor US28 mediates smooth muscle cell (SMC) and macrophage motility and this activity has been implicated in the acceleration of vascular disease. US28 induced SMC migration involves the activation of the protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) Src and Focal adhesion kinase as well as the small GTPase RhoA. In the current study, we examined the involvement of the PTK Pyk2 in US28-induced cellular motility. Expression of a Pyk2 lacking the autophosphorylation site (Tyr-402) blocks US28-mediated SMC migration in response to RANTES, while the kinase-inactive mutant failed to elicit the same negative effect on migration. US28 stimulation with RANTES results in ligand-dependent and calcium-dependent phosphorylation of Pyk2 Tyr-402 and induced the formation of an active Pyk2 kinase complex containing several novel Pyk2 binding proteins. Interestingly, expression of the autophosphorylation site mutant Pyk2 F402Y did not abrogate the formation of an active Pyk2 kinase complex, but instead prevented US28-mediated activation of RhoA. These findings represent the first demonstration that US28 signals through Pyk2 and that this PTK participates in US28-mediated cellular motility via activation of RhoA. Additionally, US28 activated RhoA via Pyk2 in the U373 glioblastoma cells. Interestingly, the Pyk2 kinase complex in U373 contained several proteins known to participate in glioma tumorigenesis. These results provide a potential mechanistic link between HCMV-US28 and glioblastoma cell activation and motility.

  13. Controlled crystal dehydration triggers a space-group switch and shapes the tertiary structure of cytomegalovirus immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein.

    PubMed

    Klingl, Stefan; Scherer, Myriam; Stamminger, Thomas; Muller, Yves A

    2015-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein is a key viral effector protein that reprograms host cells. Controlled dehydration experiments with IE1 crystals not only extended their diffraction limit from 2.85 to 2.3 Å resolution but also triggered a monoclinic to tetragonal space-group transition with only minor alterations in the unit-cell parameters. An analysis of the pre-dehydration and post-dehydration crystal structures shows how dehydration rearranges the packing of IE1 molecules to meet the unit-cell constraints of the higher lattice symmetry. The transition from P21 to P43 reduces the number of copies in the asymmetric unit from four to two, and molecules previously related by noncrystallographic symmetry merge into identical crystallographic copies in the tetragonal space group. At the same time, dehydration considerably alters the tertiary structure of one of the two remaining IE1 chains in the asymmetric unit. It appears that this conformational switch is required to compensate for a transition that is assumed to be unfavourable, namely from a highly preferred to a rarely observed space group. At the same time, the dehydration-triggered molecular reshaping could reveal an inherent molecular flexibility that possibly informs on the biological function of IE1, namely on its binding to target proteins from the host cell.

  14. Shrimp STAT was hijacked by white spot syndrome virus immediate-early protein IE1 involved in modulation of viral genes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Defu; Ruan, Lingwei; Lu, Huasong; Shi, Hong; Xu, Xun

    2016-12-01

    STATs are a family of transcription factors that regulate a cascade of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and immune responses. However, they are usually targeted by viruses to assist infection. In this study, we identified that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) immediate-early protein IE1 interacted with Litopenaeus vannamei STAT (LvSTAT) and thereby led to its phosphorylation activation. In addition, we demonstrated that LvSTAT could bind to the promoters of the viral immediate-early genes wsv051 and ie1 through STAT-binding motifs in vitro and vivo, allowing the enhancement of their promoters' activities. Moreover, IE1 could promote the transcriptional activation activity of LvSTAT to augment the transcription of wsv051 and ie1. In conclusion, our findings revealed a novel linkage between WSSV IE1 and shrimp STAT, which was a clue to well understand how WSSV adopted the active strategies to modulate the shrimp signaling pathway.

  15. Late emergence of A594V and L595W mutations related to ganciclovir resistance in a patient with HCMV retinitis and long-term HIV progression

    PubMed Central

    Slavov, S.N.; Vilar, F.C.; Wagatsuma, V.M.D.; Santana, R.C.; Machado, A.A.; da Fonseca, B.A.L.; Kashima, S.; Covas, D.T.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of ganciclovir (GCV) resistance during the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a serious clinical challenge, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In this case report, we describe the emergence of two consecutive mutations (A594V and L595W) related to GCV resistance in a patient with HCMV retinitis and long-term HIV progression after approximately 240 days of GCV use. Following the diagnosis of retinitis, the introduction of GCV did not result in viral load reduction. The detected mutations appeared late in the treatment, and we propose that other factors (high initial HCMV load, previous GCV exposure, low CD4+ cell count), in addition to the presence of resistance mutations, may have contributed to the treatment failure of HCMV infection in this patient. PMID:26270327

  16. Large genomic mutations within the ATM gene detected by MLPA, including a duplication of 41 kb from exon 4 to 20.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, Simona; Funaro, Ada; Pappi, Patrizia; Migone, Nicola; Gatti, Richard A; Brusco, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    Mutation detection remains problematic for large genes, primarily because PCR-based methodology fails to detect heterozygous deletions and any duplication. In the ATM gene only a handful of multi-exon deletions have been described to date, and this type of mutation has been considered rare. To address this issue we tested a new MLPA (Multiplex Ligation Probe Amplification) kit that covers 33 of the 66 ATM exons, using for controls two previously characterized genomic deletions in addition to three A-T patients, taken from a survey of nine, who had missing four mutations unidentified after conventional mutation screening. We identified for the first time: 1) a approximately 41 kb genomic duplication spanning exons 4-20 (c.-30_2816dup41kb)(a.k.a., ATM dup 41 kb); 2) a novel genomic deletion including exon 31, and 3) in hemizygosis a point mutation in the non-deleted exon 31. In this study we extended mutation detection to nine new Italian A-T patients, using a combined approach of haplotype analysis, DHPLC and MLPA. Overall we achieved a mutation detection rate of >97%, and can now define a spectrum of ATM mutations based on twenty-one consecutive Italian families with A-T.

  17. Glucocorticosteroids trigger reactivation of human cytomegalovirus from latently infected myeloid cells and increase the risk for HCMV infection in D+R+ liver transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Ellen; Sauviller, Sarah; Lau, Betty; Kesteleyn, Bart; Griffiths, Paul; Burroughs, Andrew; Emery, Vincent; Sinclair, John

    2015-01-01

    Graft rejection in transplant patients is managed clinically by suppressing T-cell function with immunosuppressive drugs such as prednisolone and methylprednisolone. In such immunocompromised hosts, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important opportunistic pathogen and can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Currently, the effect of glucocorticosteroids (GCSs) on the HCMV life cycle remains unclear. Previous reports showed enhanced lytic replication of HCMV in vitro in the presence of GCSs. In the present study, we explored the implications of steroid exposure on latency and reactivation. We observed a direct effect of several GCSs used in the clinic on the activation of a quiescent viral major immediate-early promoter in stably transfected THP-1 monocytic cells. This activation was prevented by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist Ru486 and by shRNA-mediated knockdown of the GR. Consistent with this observation, prednisolone treatment of latently infected primary monocytes resulted in HCMV reactivation. Analysis of the phenotype of these cells showed that treatment with GCSs was correlated with differentiation to an anti-inflammatory macrophage-like cell type. On the basis that these observations may be pertinent to HCMV reactivation in post-transplant settings, we retrospectively evaluated the incidence, viral kinetics and viral load of HCMV in liver transplant patients in the presence or absence of GCS treatment. We observed that combination therapy of baseline prednisolone and augmented methylprednisolone, upon organ rejection, significantly increased the incidence of HCMV infection in the intermediate risk group where donor and recipient are both HCMV seropositive (D+R+) to levels comparable with the high risk D+R− group. PMID:25312585

  18. Glucocorticosteroids trigger reactivation of human cytomegalovirus from latently infected myeloid cells and increase the risk for HCMV infection in D+R+ liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Ellen; Sauviller, Sarah; Lau, Betty; Kesteleyn, Bart; Griffiths, Paul; Burroughs, Andrew; Emery, Vincent; Sinclair, John; Van Loock, Marnix

    2015-01-01

    Graft rejection in transplant patients is managed clinically by suppressing T-cell function with immunosuppressive drugs such as prednisolone and methylprednisolone. In such immunocompromised hosts, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important opportunistic pathogen and can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Currently, the effect of glucocorticosteroids (GCSs) on the HCMV life cycle remains unclear. Previous reports showed enhanced lytic replication of HCMV in vitro in the presence of GCSs. In the present study, we explored the implications of steroid exposure on latency and reactivation. We observed a direct effect of several GCSs used in the clinic on the activation of a quiescent viral major immediate-early promoter in stably transfected THP-1 monocytic cells. This activation was prevented by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist Ru486 and by shRNA-mediated knockdown of the GR. Consistent with this observation, prednisolone treatment of latently infected primary monocytes resulted in HCMV reactivation. Analysis of the phenotype of these cells showed that treatment with GCSs was correlated with differentiation to an anti-inflammatory macrophage-like cell type. On the basis that these observations may be pertinent to HCMV reactivation in post-transplant settings, we retrospectively evaluated the incidence, viral kinetics and viral load of HCMV in liver transplant patients in the presence or absence of GCS treatment. We observed that combination therapy of baseline prednisolone and augmented methylprednisolone, upon organ rejection, significantly increased the incidence of HCMV infection in the intermediate risk group where donor and recipient are both HCMV seropositive (D+R+) to levels comparable with the high risk D+R- group.

  19. Effect of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US27 on CXCR4 receptor internalization measured by fluorogen-activating protein (FAP) biosensors.

    PubMed

    Boeck, Jordan M; Spencer, Juliet V

    2017-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen and a member of the Herpesviridae family. HCMV has a large genome that encodes many genes that are non-essential for virus replication but instead play roles in manipulation of the host immune environment. One of these is the US27 gene, which encodes a protein with homology to the chemokine receptor family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The US27 protein has no known chemokine ligands but can modulate the signaling activity of host receptor CXCR4. We investigated the mechanism for enhanced CXCR4 signaling in the presence of US27 using a novel biosensor system comprised of fluorogen activating proteins (FAPs). FAP-tagged CXCR4 and US27 were used to explore receptor internalization and recovery dynamics, and the results demonstrate that significantly more CXCR4 internalization was observed in the presence of US27 compared to CXCR4 alone upon stimulation with CXCL12. While ligand-induced endocytosis rates were higher, steady state internalization of CXCR4 was not affected by US27. Additionally, US27 underwent rapid endocytosis at a rate that was independent of either CXCR4 expression or CXCL12 stimulation. These results demonstrate that one mechanism by which US27 can enhance CXCR4 signaling is to alter receptor internalization dynamics, which could ultimately have the effect of promoting virus dissemination by increasing trafficking of HCMV-infected cells to tissues where CXCL12 is highly expressed.

  20. Effect of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US27 on CXCR4 receptor internalization measured by fluorogen-activating protein (FAP) biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Boeck, Jordan M.; Spencer, Juliet V.

    2017-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen and a member of the Herpesviridae family. HCMV has a large genome that encodes many genes that are non-essential for virus replication but instead play roles in manipulation of the host immune environment. One of these is the US27 gene, which encodes a protein with homology to the chemokine receptor family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The US27 protein has no known chemokine ligands but can modulate the signaling activity of host receptor CXCR4. We investigated the mechanism for enhanced CXCR4 signaling in the presence of US27 using a novel biosensor system comprised of fluorogen activating proteins (FAPs). FAP-tagged CXCR4 and US27 were used to explore receptor internalization and recovery dynamics, and the results demonstrate that significantly more CXCR4 internalization was observed in the presence of US27 compared to CXCR4 alone upon stimulation with CXCL12. While ligand-induced endocytosis rates were higher, steady state internalization of CXCR4 was not affected by US27. Additionally, US27 underwent rapid endocytosis at a rate that was independent of either CXCR4 expression or CXCL12 stimulation. These results demonstrate that one mechanism by which US27 can enhance CXCR4 signaling is to alter receptor internalization dynamics, which could ultimately have the effect of promoting virus dissemination by increasing trafficking of HCMV-infected cells to tissues where CXCL12 is highly expressed. PMID:28207860

  1. Autoreactivity of primary human immunoglobulins ancestral to hypermutated human antibodies that neutralize HCMV.

    PubMed

    McLean, Gary R; Cho, Chin-wen; Schrader, John W

    2006-05-01

    The human antibody response to the AD-2S1 epitope of glycoprotein B (gB) of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is dominated by a family of closely related somatically mutated antibodies. These antibodies neutralize viral infectivity and the genes encoding them are derived from two commonly used germ-line variable (V) region genes, IGHV3-30 and IGKV3-11. Recombination of these V genes with the appropriate junctional diversity generates genes that encode primary immunoglobulins that bind to AD-2S1. To further understand the initial primary immunoglobulin response to AD-2S1 we synthesized the germ-line-based ancestor of one such family of antibodies and showed that it bound gB at the AD-2S1 epitope. Here we show that the germ-line ancestor of a second family of antibodies likewise binds to gB. We further show that one of the ancestral primary immunoglobulins, but not the other, also recognized autoantigens. In contrast, the hypermutated derivatives did not demonstrate autoreactivity and minor structural changes in the primary immunoglobulin were sufficient to generate or abolish autoreactivity or to change specificity. Thus, our demonstration that the ancestor of a highly mutated, non-autoreactive antiviral IgG antibody binds nuclear and cell-surface autoantigens indicates for the first time that self-reactivity is not necessarily a barrier to development into a follicular B lymphocyte that undergoes antigen-initiated affinity maturation.

  2. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IE1- and pp65-specific CD8+ T cell responses broaden over time after primary CMV infection in infants.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Laura; Dooley, Sheryl; Trzmielina, Sonia; Somasundaran, Mohan; Fisher, Donna; Revello, Maria Grazia; Luzuriaga, Katherine

    2007-06-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. We have previously shown that CD8+ T cell responses to CMV pp65 or IE1 protein were readily detectable in children with congenital or postnatal CMV infection. Here, we have further characterized the evolution of the peptide specificity of these responses in 7 infants<6 months of age at the start of the study. Thirteen pp65 and 15 IE1 peptides (median, 5 peptides/infant) were targeted, and most (61%) represented sequences not previously reported. Peptide specificity remained stable or broadened over time despite the clearance of CMV viremia. Loss of peptide recognition was not observed. Responses with the highest functional peptide avidity were not necessarily detected earliest. These data provide additional evidence that young infants can generate diverse CMV-specific CD8+ T cell responses but show that early responses may exhibit relatively focused peptide specificity and lower peptide avidity.

  3. White spot syndrome virus IE1 and WSV056 modulate the G1/S transition by binding to the host retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed

    Ran, Xiaozhuo; Bian, Xiaofang; Ji, Yongchang; Yan, Xiumin; Yang, Feng; Li, Fang

    2013-12-01

    DNA viruses often target cellular proteins to modulate host cell cycles and facilitate viral genome replication. However, whether proliferation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) requires regulation of the host cell cycle remains unclear. In the present study, we show that two WSSV paralogs, IE1 and WSV056, can interact with Litopenaeus vannamei retinoblastoma (Rb)-like protein (lv-RBL) through the conserved LxCxE motif. Further investigation revealed that IE1 and WSV056 could also bind to Drosophila retinoblastoma family protein 1 (RBF1) in a manner similar to how they bind to lv-RBL. Using the Drosophila RBF-E2F pathway as a model system, we demonstrated that both IE1 and WSV056 could sequester RBF1 from Drosophila E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) and subsequently activate E2F1 to stimulate the G1/S transition. Our findings provide the first evidence that WSSV may regulate cell cycle progression by targeting the Rb-E2F pathway.

  4. Polymorphism in the exon 4 of β-lactoglobulin variant B precursor gene and its association with milk traits and protein structure in Chinese Holstein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Li, Lian; Liu, Huiling; Cai, Yafei; Wang, Genlin

    2012-04-01

    β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) is the major whey protein in the milk. In order to investigate the polymorphism of β-LG variant B precursor (β-LG B*: GenBank accession no. DQ489319) gene and its effects on the milk traits, the single-strand conformation polymorphism method (PCR-SSCP) were adopted to analyze polymorphism between 5229th and 5476th bp in the β-LG B* gene in Chinese Holstein. Four genotypes were found (AA, AB, AC and ABC) and 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected (g.5239C>A, g.5240A>C, g.5305C>T and mix type g.5305C/T) in the exon 4 of β-LG B* gene. It was also found that the protein contents of AB, AC and ABC dairy cows were higher than AA (P < 0.05), and AC cows were the highest among them. Three SNPs (g.5239C>A, g.5240A>C and g.5305C>T) might affect the milk trait and all of them were high polymorphism (0.5 < PIC < 1.0). In further researches, the three SNPs also caused amino acid change (Asp>Glu, Thr>Pro and Ala>Val) respectively, and the spatial secondary and tertiary structure forecasting result also showed that single amino acid change influence protein spatial structure change in Chinese Holstein. Taken together, it is suggested that these SNPs change β-LG B* gene structure and expression. The polymorphism possibly holds the secret of milk protein and fat contents in the milk of Chinese Holstein.

  5. Structural and biochemical studies of HCMV gH/gL/gO and Pentamer reveal mutually exclusive cell entry complexes.

    PubMed

    Ciferri, Claudio; Chandramouli, Sumana; Donnarumma, Danilo; Nikitin, Pavel A; Cianfrocco, Michael A; Gerrein, Rachel; Feire, Adam L; Barnett, Susan W; Lilja, Anders E; Rappuoli, Rino; Norais, Nathalie; Settembre, Ethan C; Carfi, Andrea

    2015-02-10

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant patients and the leading viral cause of birth defects after congenital infection. The glycoprotein complexes gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131A (Pentamer) are key targets of the human humoral response against HCMV and are required for HCMV entry into fibroblasts and endothelial/epithelial cells, respectively. We expressed and characterized soluble forms of gH/gL, gH/gL/gO, and Pentamer. Mass spectrometry and mutagenesis analysis revealed that gL-Cys144 forms disulfide bonds with gO-Cys351 in gH/gL/gO and with UL128-Cys162 in the Pentamer. Notably, Pentamer harboring the UL128-Cys162Ser/gL-Cys144Ser mutations had impaired syncytia formation and reduced interference of HCMV entry into epithelial cells. Electron microscopy analysis showed that HCMV gH/gL resembles HSV gH/gL and that gO and UL128/UL130/UL131A bind to the same site at the gH/gL N terminus. These data are consistent with gH/gL/gO and Pentamer forming mutually exclusive cell entry complexes and reveal the overall location of gH/gL-, gH/gL/gO-, and Pentamer-specific neutralizing antibody binding sites. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the first structural view of gH/gL/gO and Pentamer supporting the development of vaccines and antibody therapeutics against HCMV.

  6. 3D Analysis of HCMV Induced-Nuclear Membrane Structures by FIB/SEM Tomography: Insight into an Unprecedented Membrane Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Villinger, Clarissa; Neusser, Gregor; Kranz, Christine; Walther, Paul; Mertens, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We show that focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) tomography is an excellent method to analyze the three-dimensional structure of a fibroblast nucleus infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). We found that the previously described infoldings of the inner nuclear membrane, which are unique among its kind, form an extremely complex network of membrane structures not predictable by previous two-dimensional studies. In all cases they contained further invaginations (2nd and 3rd order infoldings). Quantification revealed 5498 HCMV capsids within two nuclear segments, allowing an estimate of 15,000 to 30,000 capsids in the entire nucleus five days post infection. Only 0.8% proved to be enveloped capsids which were exclusively detected in 1st order infoldings (perinuclear space). Distribution of the capsids between 1st, 2nd and 3rd order infoldings is in complete agreement with the envelopment/de-envelopment model for egress of HCMV capsids from the nucleus and we confirm that capsid budding does occur at the large infoldings. Based on our results we propose the pushing membrane model: HCMV infection induces local disruption of the nuclear lamina and synthesis of new membrane material which is pushed into the nucleoplasm, forming complex membrane infoldings in a highly abundant manner, which then may be also used by nucleocapsids for budding. PMID:26556360

  7. HCMV-encoded miR-UL112-3p promotes glioblastoma progression via tumour suppressor candidate 3

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qing; Wang, Kejia; Wang, Bin; Cai, Qiliang

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and lethal type of primary malignant brain tumour. Recent studies suggest that the discovery of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) might play a role in the pathogenesis of diseases, including GBM. In this study, we aimed to analyse the expression and function of HCMV-encoded miRNAs in GBM. We found that miR-UL112-3p expression was significantly elevated in GBM, and its expression levels were highly associated with glioma size, differentiation, WHO stage and the overall and disease-free survival of patients. The overexpression of miR-UL112-3p in the GBM cells promoted cell proliferation, clone formation, migration and invasion. In contrast, the down-regulation of miR-UL112-3p exerted an inverse effects. Tumour suppressor candidate 3 (TUSC3), a potential target gene of miR-UL112-3p, was inversely correlated with miR-UL112-3p expression in GBM tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TUSC3 was directly regulated by miR-UL112-3p, and the ectopic expression of TUSC3 reversed the effects of miR-UL112-3p on GBM progression via the AKT signalling pathway. Taken together, these findings collectively demonstrate that miR-UL112-3p exerts its oncogene function by directly targeting TUSC3 in GBM, indicating a potential novel therapeutic target for GBM. PMID:28303930

  8. Transactivation of cellular genes involved in nucleotide metabolism by the regulatory IE1 protein of murine cytomegalovirus is not critical for viral replicative fitness in quiescent cells and host tissues.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmi, Vanessa; Simon, Christian O; Podlech, Jürgen; Böhm, Verena; Däubner, Torsten; Emde, Simone; Strand, Dennis; Renzaho, Angélique; Lemmermann, Niels A W; Seckert, Christof K; Reddehase, Matthias J; Grzimek, Natascha K A

    2008-10-01

    Despite its high coding capacity, murine CMV (mCMV) does not encode functional enzymes for nucleotide biosynthesis. It thus depends on cellular enzymes, such as ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) and thymidylate synthase (TS), to be supplied with deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) for its DNA replication. Viral transactivation of these cellular genes in quiescent cells of host tissues is therefore a parameter of viral fitness relevant to pathogenicity. Previous work has shown that the IE1, but not the IE3, protein of mCMV transactivates RNR and TS gene promoters and has revealed an in vivo attenuation of the mutant virus mCMV-DeltaIE1. It was attractive to propose the hypothesis that lack of transactivation by IE1 and a resulting deficiency in the supply of dNTPs are the reasons for growth attenuation. Here, we have tested this hypothesis with the mutant virus mCMV-IE1-Y165C expressing an IE1 protein that selectively fails to transactivate RNR and TS in quiescent cells upon transfection while maintaining the capacity to disperse repressive nuclear domains (ND10). Our results confirm in vivo attenuation of mCMV-DeltaIE1, as indicated by a longer doubling time in host organs, whereas mCMV-IE1-Y165C replicated like mCMV-WT and the revertant virus mCMV-IE1-C165Y. Notably, the mutant virus transactivated RNR and TS upon infection of quiescent cells, thus indicating that IE1 is not the only viral transactivator involved. We conclude that transactivation of cellular genes of dNTP biosynthesis is ensured by redundancy and that attenuation of mCMV-DeltaIE1 results from the loss of other critical functions of IE1, with its function in the dispersal of ND10 being a promising candidate.

  9. A Luciferase Gene Driven by an Alphaherpesviral Promoter Also Responds to Immediate Early Antigens of the Betaherpesvirus HCMV, Allowing Comparative Analyses of Different Human Herpesviruses in One Reporter Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Villinger, Clarissa; Schubert, Axel; Walther, Paul; Sinzger, Christian; Lieber, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Widely used methods for quantification of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in cell culture such as immunoblotting or plaque reduction assays are generally restricted to low throughput and require time-consuming evaluation. Up to now, only few HCMV reporter cell lines have been generated to overcome these restrictions and they are afflicted with other limitations because permanently expandable cell lines are normally not fully permissive to HCMV. In this work, a previously existing epithelial cell line hosting a luciferase gene under control of a Varicella-zoster virus promoter was adopted to investigate HCMV infection. The cells were susceptible to different HCMV strains at infection efficiencies that corresponded to their respective degree of epithelial cell tropism. Expression of early and late viral antigens, formation of nuclear inclusions, release of infectious virus progeny, and focal growth indicated productive viral replication. However, viral release and spread occurred at lower levels than in primary cell lines which appears to be due to a malfunction of virion morphogenesis during the nuclear stage. Expression of the luciferase reporter gene was specifically induced in HCMV infected cultures as a function of the virus dose and dependent on viral immediate early gene expression. The level of reporter activity accurately reflected infection efficiencies as determined by viral antigen immunostaining, and hence could discriminate the cell tropism of the tested virus strains. As proof-of-principle, we demonstrate that this cell line is applicable to evaluate drug resistance of clinical HCMV isolates and the neutralization capacity of human sera, and that it allows comparative and simultaneous analysis of HCMV and human herpes simplex virus type 1. In summary, the permanent epithelial reporter cell line allows robust, rapid and objective quantitation of HCMV infection and it will be particularly useful in higher throughput analyses as well as in

  10. AcMNPV AC16 (DA26, BV/ODV-E26) regulates the levels of IE0 and IE1 and binds to both proteins via a domain located within the acidic transcriptional activation domain.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yingchao; Fang, Minggang; Theilmann, David A

    2009-03-15

    IE0 and IE1 are the primary viral regulatory proteins of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) involved in the transactivation of early genes, stimulation of late gene expression, and viral DNA replication. The protein interactions required for IE0 or IE1 to achieve these varied roles are not well defined, so to identify proteins that interact with IE0 and IE1, tandem affinity purification (TAP) and LC-MS/MS was used. Analysis of purified proteins identified AC16 (DA26, BV/ODV-E26) from TAP tagged IE0 virus infected Sf9 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that AC16 interacts with both IE0 and IE1 and yeast 2-hybrid analysis mapped the domain required for interaction with AC16. Mutation of the AC16 binding domain enhanced BV production by viruses expressing only IE0 but had no effect if only IE1 is expressed. An ac16 deletion virus was constructed and was shown not to affect the temporal expression of IE0 and IE1; however the relative level of IE0 to IE1 was significantly increased.

  11. The association of ICAM-1 Exon 6 (E469K) but not of ICAM-1 Exon 4 (G241R) and PECAM-1 Exon 3 (L125V) polymorphisms with the development of differentiation syndrome in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dore, Adriana I; Santana-Lemos, Barbara A A; Coser, Virginia M; Santos, Flávia L S; Dalmazzo, Leandro F; Lima, Ana S G; Jacomo, Rafael H; Elias, Jorge; Falcão, Roberto Passetto; Pereira, Waldir V; Rego, Eduardo M

    2007-11-01

    The use of all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is the basis of treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and represents the paradigm of differentiation therapy. In general, ATRA is well-tolerated but may be associated with a potentially lethal side-effect, referred to as retinoic acid or differentiation syndrome (DS). The cellular and molecular mechanisms of DS are poorly understood and involve changes in the adhesive qualities and cytokine secretion of leukemic cells during ATRA-induced differentiation. As leukocyte extravasation is a key event in DS pathogenesis, we analyzed the association between the polymorphisms at Exon 4 (G241R) and Exon 6 (E469K) of ICAM-1 and Exon 3 (L125V) of PECAM-1 genes with DS development in APL patients treated with ATRA and anthracyclines. DS was diagnosed in 23/127 (18.1%) APL patients at an average of 11.5 days after the start of ATRA. All patients presented respiratory distress associated with increased ground-glass opacity in chest radiographies. Other accompanying symptoms were: fever not attributable to infection (65.2%), generalized edema (37.5%), weight gain (37.5%), and impairment of renal function (8.6%). We detected an association between development of DS and the AA genotype at Codon 469 of ICAM-1 (odds ratio of 3.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-10.2). Conversely, no significant association was detected between G241R or L125V polymorphisms at Exon 4 of ICAM-1 and Exon 3 of PECAM-1, respectively. Our results suggest that susceptibility to DS in APL patients may be influenced by genetic variation in adhesion molecule loci.

  12. Antigenic Characterization of the HCMV gH/gL/gO and Pentamer Cell Entry Complexes Reveals Binding Sites for Potently Neutralizing Human Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ciferri, Claudio; Chandramouli, Sumana; Leitner, Alexander; Donnarumma, Danilo; Cianfrocco, Michael A.; Gerrein, Rachel; Friedrich, Kristian; Aggarwal, Yukti; Palladino, Giuseppe; Aebersold, Ruedi; Norais, Nathalie; Settembre, Ethan C.; Carfi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant patients and in fetuses following congenital infection. The glycoprotein complexes gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131A (Pentamer) are required for HCMV entry in fibroblasts and endothelial/epithelial cells, respectively, and are targeted by potently neutralizing antibodies in the infected host. Using purified soluble forms of gH/gL/gO and Pentamer as well as a panel of naturally elicited human monoclonal antibodies, we determined the location of key neutralizing epitopes on the gH/gL/gO and Pentamer surfaces. Mass Spectrometry (MS) coupled to Chemical Crosslinking or to Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange was used to define residues that are either in proximity or part of neutralizing epitopes on the glycoprotein complexes. We also determined the molecular architecture of the gH/gL/gO- and Pentamer-antibody complexes by Electron Microscopy (EM) and 3D reconstructions. The EM analysis revealed that the Pentamer specific neutralizing antibodies bind to two opposite surfaces of the complex, suggesting that they may neutralize infection by different mechanisms. Together, our data identify the location of neutralizing antibodies binding sites on the gH/gL/gO and Pentamer complexes and provide a framework for the development of antibodies and vaccines against HCMV. PMID:26485028

  13. EBV, HCMV, HHV6, and HHV7 screening in bone marrow samples from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Morales-Sánchez, A; Pompa-Mera, E N; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, A; Alvarez-Rodríguez, F J; Bekker-Méndez, V C; Flores-Chapa, J de Diego; Flores-Lujano, J; Jiménez-Hernández, E; Peñaloza-González, J G; Rodríguez-Zepeda, M C; Torres-Nava, J R; Velázquez-Aviña, M M; Amador-Sánchez, R; Alvarado-Ibarra, M; Reyes-Zepeda, N; Espinosa-Elizondo, R M; Pérez-Saldivar, M L; Núñez-Enríquez, J C; Mejía-Aranguré, J M; Fuentes-Pananá, E M

    2014-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in childhood worldwide and Mexico has reported one of the highest incidence rates. An infectious etiology has been suggested and supported by epidemiological evidences; however, the identity of the involved agent(s) is not known. We considered that early transmitted lymphotropic herpes viruses were good candidates, since transforming mechanisms have been described for them and some are already associated with human cancers. In this study we interrogated the direct role of EBV, HCMV, HHV6, and HHV7 human herpes viruses in childhood ALL. Viral genomes were screened in 70 bone marrow samples from ALL patients through standard and a more sensitive nested PCR. Positive samples were detected only by nested PCR indicating a low level of infection. Our result argues that viral genomes were not present in all leukemic cells, and, hence, infection most likely was not part of the initial genetic lesions leading to ALL. The high statistical power of the study suggested that these agents are not involved in the genesis of ALL in Mexican children. Additional analysis showed that detected infections or coinfections were not associated with prognosis.

  14. EBV, HCMV, HHV6, and HHV7 Screening in Bone Marrow Samples from Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Sánchez, A.; Pompa-Mera, E. N.; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, A.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, F. J.; Bekker-Méndez, V. C.; Flores-Chapa, J. de Diego; Flores-Lujano, J.; Jiménez-Hernández, E.; Peñaloza-González, J. G.; Rodríguez-Zepeda, M. C.; Torres-Nava, J. R.; Velázquez-Aviña, M. M.; Amador-Sánchez, R.; Alvarado-Ibarra, M.; Reyes-Zepeda, N.; Espinosa-Elizondo, R. M.; Pérez-Saldivar, M. L.; Núñez-Enríquez, J. C.; Mejía-Aranguré, J. M.; Fuentes-Pananá, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in childhood worldwide and Mexico has reported one of the highest incidence rates. An infectious etiology has been suggested and supported by epidemiological evidences; however, the identity of the involved agent(s) is not known. We considered that early transmitted lymphotropic herpes viruses were good candidates, since transforming mechanisms have been described for them and some are already associated with human cancers. In this study we interrogated the direct role of EBV, HCMV, HHV6, and HHV7 human herpes viruses in childhood ALL. Viral genomes were screened in 70 bone marrow samples from ALL patients through standard and a more sensitive nested PCR. Positive samples were detected only by nested PCR indicating a low level of infection. Our result argues that viral genomes were not present in all leukemic cells, and, hence, infection most likely was not part of the initial genetic lesions leading to ALL. The high statistical power of the study suggested that these agents are not involved in the genesis of ALL in Mexican children. Additional analysis showed that detected infections or coinfections were not associated with prognosis. PMID:25309913

  15. Identification of NURR1 (Exon 4) and FOXA1 (Exon 3) Haplotypes Associated with mRNA Expression Levels in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Parkinson's Patients in Small Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Tippabathani, Jayakrishna; Radhakrishnan, Vaishnavie; Banik, Somashree; Kapoor, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Here, we study the expression of NURR1 and FOXA1 mRNA in peripheral blood lymphocytes and its haplotypes in coding region in a small Chennai population of India. Thirty cases of Parkinson's patients (PD) with anti-PD medications (20 males aged 65.85 ± 1.19 and 10 females aged 65.7 ± 1.202) and 30 age matched healthy people (20 males aged 68.45 ± 1.282 and 10 females aged 65.8 ± 1.133) were included. The expression of NURR1 and FOXA1 in PBL was detected by Q-PCR and haplotypes were identified by PCR-SSCP. In the 30 PD cases examined, NURR1 and FOXA1 expression was significantly reduced in both male and female PD patients. However, NURR1 (57.631% reduced in males; 28.93% in females) and FOXA1 (64.42% in males; 55.76% in females) mRNA expression did differ greatly between male and female PD patients. Polymorphisms were identified at exon 4 of the NURR1 and at exon 3 of the FOXA1, respectively, in both male and female patients. A near significant difference in SSCP patterns between genders of control and PD population was analyzed suggesting that further investigations of more patients, more molecular markers, and coding regions should be performed. Such studies could potentially reveal peripheral molecular marker of early PD and different significance to the respective genders. PMID:28255498

  16. Monoclonal Antibodies to Different Components of the Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) Pentamer gH/gL/pUL128L and Trimer gH/gL/gO as well as Antibodies Elicited during Primary HCMV Infection Prevent Epithelial Cell Syncytium Formation

    PubMed Central

    Percivalle, Elena; Perez, Laurent; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Lilleri, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) may cause disseminated/end-organ disease in congenitally infected newborns and immunosuppressed transplant recipients. Two glycoprotein complexes, gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/pUL128/pUL130/pUL131 (gH/gL/pUL128L; referred to as the pentamer), are required for HCMV entry into fibroblasts and endothelial/epithelial cells, respectively, in the presence of the viral fusion protein gB. In addition, gH/gL/gO was recently reported to also be required for infection of endothelial/epithelial cells. Virus entry into human fibroblasts involves fusion of the virus envelope with the plasma membrane, whereas entry into endothelial/epithelial cells involves macropinocytosis or endocytosis and low-pH-dependent fusion with endosomes. A large set of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), directed to gH, gB, and multiple components of the pentamer, was developed. In addition, novel anti-gO human monoclonal antibodies were recently isolated. It is known that epithelial cell infection with a wild HCMV strain at a high multiplicity of infection produces a large number of syncytia. Incubation of heavily HCMV VR1814-infected ARPE-19 epithelial cells with neutralizing MAbs to one, two, or three components of the pUL128L portion of the pentamer blocked syncytium formation at an antibody concentration of 10 μg/ml, whereas only a partial inhibitory effect was displayed for MAbs to gO, gH, or gB at the same concentration. A blocking effect was also exhibited by convalescent-phase sera from primary HCMV infections. These findings indicate that the pentamer is required for syncytium formation in epithelial cells. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) mostly infects epithelial and endothelial cells in vivo. Recently, the pentamer protein complex (gH/gL/pUL128L) was identified as being required for infection of these cells, in association with the other protein complex, gH/gL/gO. In primary infections, HCMV migrates to endothelial cells and then to leukocytes

  17. Microgravity Analogues of Herpes Virus Pathogenicity: Human Cytomegalovirus (hCMV) and Varicella Zoster (VZV) Infectivity in Human Tissue Like Assemblies (TLAs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Albrecht, T.; Cohrs, R.

    2009-01-01

    The old adage we are our own worst enemies may perhaps be the most profound statement ever made when applied to man s desire for extraterrestrial exploration and habitation of Space. Consider the immune system protects the integrity of the entire human physiology and is comprised of two basic elements the adaptive or circulating and the innate immune system. Failure of the components of the adaptive system leads to venerability of the innate system from opportunistic microbes; viral, bacteria, and fungal, which surround us, are transported on our skin, and commonly inhabit the human physiology as normal and imunosuppressed parasites. The fine balance which is maintained for the preponderance of our normal lives, save immune disorders and disease, is deregulated in microgravity. Thus analogue systems to study these potential Risks are essential for our progress in conquering Space exploration and habitation. In this study we employed two known physiological target tissues in which the reactivation of hCMV and VZV occurs, human neural and lung systems created for the study and interaction of these herpes viruses independently and simultaneously on the innate immune system. Normal human neural and lung tissue analogues called tissue like assemblies (TLAs) were infected with low MOIs of approximately 2 x 10(exp -5) pfu hCMV or VZV and established active but prolonged low grade infections which spanned .7-1.5 months in length. These infections were characterized by the ability to continuously produce each of the viruses without expiration of the host cultures. Verification and quantification of viral replication was confirmed via RT_PCR, IHC, and confocal spectral analyses of the respective essential viral genomes. All host TLAs maintained the ability to actively proliferate throughout the entire duration of the experiments as is analogous to normal in vivo physiological conditions. These data represent a significant advance in the ability to study the triggering

  18. Replication inhibition by nucleoside analogues of a recombinant Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus harboring the herpes thymidine kinase gene driven by the IE-1(0) promoter: a new way to select recombinant baculoviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Godeau, F; Saucier, C; Kourilsky, P

    1992-01-01

    The expression of the thymidine-thymidylate kinase (HSV1-TK), (ATP: thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1.21) of herpes simplex virus type 1 endows the host cell with a conditional lethal phenotype which depends on the presence of nucleoside analogues metabolized by this enzyme into toxic inhibitors of DNA replication. To generate a recombinant baculovirus that could be selected against by nucleoside analogs, the HSV1-tk coding sequence was placed under the control of the Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) immediate early promoterm IE-1(0), and this construction was introduced via homologous recombination into the polyhedrin locus of AcMNPV. Two recombinant baculoviruses harboring this gene construct at the polyhedrin locus were isolated and tested for their ability to replicate in the presence of various concentrations of the nucleoside analog 9-(1,3-Dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (Ganciclovir). Neither Sf9 lepidopteran cell viability nor replication of wild type or beta-Galactosidase-expressing recombinant AcMNPVs were affected by concentrations of Ganciclovir up to 100 microM. In contrast, replication of the recombinant AcMNPV virus harboring the HSV1-tk gene was inhibited by Ganciclovir in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was detectable at 2 microM and complete at 100 microM. This property was exploited in model isolations aimed at purifying new recombinant viruses having lost this counter-selectable gene marker as a result of homologous recombination at the polyhedrin locus after cotransfection of the viral DNA with a replacement vector. After being propagated in the presence of Ganciclovir, the progeny of such co-transfections contained over 85% recombinant viruses, demonstrating that counter-selection of parental HSV1-tk-containing viruses by Ganciclovir constitutes a novel approach for recombinant baculovirus isolation. Images PMID:1335569

  19. Interaction of HCMV UL84 with C/EBPalpha transcription factor binding sites within oriLyt is essential for lytic DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kagele, Dominique; Gao, Yang; Smallenburg, Kate; Pari, Gregory S

    2009-09-15

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic DNA replication is initiated at the cis-acting oriLyt region and requires six core replication proteins along with UL84 and IE2. Although UL84 is thought to be the replication initiator protein, little is known about its interaction with oriLyt. We have now performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) using antibodies specific to UL84, IE2, UL44, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPalpha) and PCR primers that span the entire oriLyt region to reveal an evaluation of specific protein binding across oriLyt. UL84 interacted with several regions of oriLyt that contain C/EBPalpha transcription factor binding sites. Mutation of either of one of C/EBPalpha (92,526 or 92,535) sites inactivated oriLyt and resulted in the loss of binding of UL84. These data reveal the regions of interaction within oriLyt for several key replication proteins and show that the interaction between UL84 and C/EBPalpha sites within oriLyt is essential for lytic DNA replication.

  20. Structure of the HCMV UL16-MICB Complex Elucidates Select Binding of a Viral Immunoevasin to Diverse NKG2D Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Steffen; Zocher, Georg; Steinle, Alexander; Stehle, Thilo

    2010-01-01

    The activating immunoreceptor NKG2D promotes elimination of infected or malignant cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes through engagement of stress-induced MHC class I-related ligands. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded immunoevasin UL16 subverts NKG2D-mediated immune responses by retaining a select group of diverse NKG2D ligands inside the cell. We report here the crystal structure of UL16 in complex with the NKG2D ligand MICB at 1.8 Å resolution, revealing the molecular basis for the promiscuous, but highly selective, binding of UL16 to unrelated NKG2D ligands. The immunoglobulin-like UL16 protein utilizes a three-stranded β-sheet to engage the α-helical surface of the MHC class I-like MICB platform domain. Intriguingly, residues at the center of this β-sheet mimic a central binding motif employed by the structurally unrelated C-type lectin-like NKG2D to facilitate engagement of diverse NKG2D ligands. Using surface plasmon resonance, we find that UL16 binds MICB, ULBP1, and ULBP2 with similar affinities that lie in the nanomolar range (12–66 nM). The ability of UL16 to bind its ligands depends critically on the presence of a glutamine (MICB) or closely related glutamate (ULBP1 and ULBP2) at position 169. An arginine residue at this position however, as found for example in MICA or ULBP3, would cause steric clashes with UL16 residues. The inability of UL16 to bind MICA and ULBP3 can therefore be attributed to single substitutions at key NKG2D ligand locations. This indicates that selective pressure exerted by viral immunoevasins such as UL16 contributed to the diversification of NKG2D ligands. PMID:20090832

  1. Single Chain Antibodies Against gp55 of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) for Prophylaxis and Treatment of HCMV Infections

    PubMed Central

    Moazen, Bahareh; Ebrahimi, Elahe; Nejatollahi, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Immunotherapy is a promising prospective new treatment for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Neutralizing effects have been reported using monoclonal antibodies. Recombinant single chain antibodies (scFvs) due to their advantages over monoclonal antibodies are potential alternatives and provide valuable clinical agents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to select specific single chain antibodies against gp55 of CMV and to evaluate their neutralizing effects. In the present study, we selected specific single chain antibodies against glycoprotein 55 (gp55) of CMV for their use in treatment and diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Single chain antibodies specific against an epitope located in the C-terminal part of gp55 were selected from a phage antibody display library. After four rounds of panning, twenty clones were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fingerprinted by MvaI restriction enzyme. The reactivities of the specific clones were tested by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the neutralizing effects were evaluated by the plaque reduction assay. Results: Fingerprinting of selected clones revealed three specific single chain antibodies (scFv1, scFv2 and scFv3) with frequencies 25%, 20 and 20%. The clones produced positive ELISA with the corresponding peptide. The percentages of plaque reduction for scFv1, scFv2 and scFv3 were 23.7, 68.8 and 11.6, respectively. Conclusions: Gp55 of human CMV is considered as an important candidate for immunotherapy. In this study, we selected three specific clones against gp55. The scFvs reacted only with the corresponding peptide in a positive ELISA. The scFv2 with 68.8% neutralizing effect showed the potential to be considered for prophylaxis and treatment of CMV infections, especially in solid organ transplant recipients, for whom treatment of CMV is urgently needed. The scFv2 with neutralizing effect of 68.8%, has the potential to be considered for treatment of these patients. The specific scFv1 and scFv3 with lower neutralizing effects can be used for diagnostic purposes. PMID:27217918

  2. Human cytomegalovirus and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands: cell-specific localization of active viral and oncogenic signaling proteins is confirmatory of a causal relationship.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Michael; Sedghizadeh, Parish P; Allen, Carl M; Jaskoll, Tina

    2012-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection is common. Although still controversial, there is growing evidence that active hCMV infection is associated with a variety of malignancies, including brain, breast, lung, colon, and prostate. Given that hCMV is frequently resident in salivary gland (SG) ductal epithelium, we hypothesized that hCMV would be important to the pathogenesis of SG mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). This was initially supported by our finding that purified CMV induces malignant transformation in SG cells in an in vitro mouse model, and utilizes a pathogenic pathway previously reported for human MEC. Here we present the histologic and molecular characterizations of 39 human SG MECs selected randomly from a repository of cases spanning 2004-2011. Serial sections were obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded, tissue blocks from previous incisional or excisional biopsies. Immunohistochemical assays were performed for active hCMV proteins (IE1 and pp65) and the activated COX/AREG/EGFR/ERK signaling pathway. All four prospective causal criteria for viruses and cancer are fully satisfied: (1) protein markers for active hCMV are present in 97% of MECs; (2) markers of active hCMV are absent in non-neoplastic SG tissues; (3) hCMV-specific proteins (IE1, pp65) are in specific cell types and expression is positively correlated with severity; (4) hCMV correlates and colocalizes with an upregulation and activation of an established oncogenic signaling pathway (COX/AREG/EGFR/ERK). Thus, the evidential support reported here and previously in a mouse model is strongly confirmatory of a causal relationship between hCMV and SG mucoepidermoid carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of hCMV's role in human oncogenesis that fully responds to all of Koch's Postulates as revised for viruses and cancer. In the absence of any contrary evidence, hCMV can reasonably be designated an "oncovirus."

  3. Human Cytomegalovirus miR-UL148D Facilitates Latent Viral Infection by Targeting Host Cell Immediate Early Response Gene 5

    PubMed Central

    Li, Limin; Li, Donghai; Liu, Fenyong; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency remain incompletely understood. Here, we showed that a HCMV-encoded miRNA, miR-UL148D, robustly accumulates during late stages of experimental latent HCMV infection in host cells and promotes HCMV latency by modulating the immediate early response gene 5 (IER5)-cell division cycle 25B (CDC25B) axis in host cells. miR-UL148D inhibited IER5 expression by directly targeting the three-prime untranslated region(3’UTR) of IER5 mRNA and thus rescued CDC25B expression during the establishment of viral latency. Infection with NR-1ΔmiR-UL148D, a derivative of the HCMV clinical strain NR-1 with a miR-UL148D knockout mutation, resulted in sustained induction of IER5 expression but decreased CDC25B expression in host cells. Mechanistically, we further showed that CDC25B plays an important role in suppressing HCMV IE1 and lytic gene transcription by activating cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK-1). Both gain-of-function and lose-of-function assays demonstrated that miR-UL148D promotes HCMV latency by helping maintain CDC25B activity in host cells. These results provide a novel mechanism through which a HCMV miRNA regulates viral latency. PMID:27824944

  4. Cytomegalovirus immediate early proteins promote stemness properties in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Soroceanu, Liliana; Matlaf, Lisa; Khan, Sabeena; Akhavan, Armin; Singer, Eric; Bezrookove, Vladimir; Decker, Stacy; Ghanny, Saleena; Hadaczek, Piotr; Bengtsson, Henrik; Ohlfest, John; Luciani-Torres, Maria-Gloria; Harkins, Lualhati; Perry, Arie; Guo, Hong; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Cobbs, Charles S

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive human brain tumor. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early (IE) proteins that are endogenously expressed in GBM cells are strong viral transactivators with onconcogenic properties. Here, we show how HCMV IE are preferentially expressed in glioma stem-like cells (GSC), where they co-localize with the other GBM stemness markers, CD133, Nestin, and Sox2. In patient-derived GSC that are endogenously infected with HCMV, attenuating IE expression by an RNA-i-based strategy, was sufficient to inhibit tumorsphere formation, Sox2 expression, cell cycle progression, and cell survival. Conversely, HCMV infection of HMCV-negative GSC elicited robust self-renewal and proliferation of cells that could be partially reversed by IE attenuation. In HCMV-positive GSC, IE attenuation induced a molecular program characterized by enhanced expression of mesenchymal markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines, resembling the therapeutically-resistant GBM phenotype. Mechanistically, HCMV/IE regulation of Sox2 occurred via inhibition of miRNA-145, a negative regulator of Sox2 protein expression. In a spontaneous mouse model of glioma, ectopic expression of the IE1 gene (UL123) specifically increased Sox2 and Nestin levels in the IE1-positive tumors, upregulating stemness and proliferation markers in vivo. Similarly, human GSC infected with the HCMV strain Towne but not the IE1-deficient strain CR208 showed enhanced growth as tumorspheres and intracranial tumor xenografts, compared to mock-infected human GSC. Overall, our findings offer new mechanistic insights into how HCMV/IE control stemness properties in glioblastoma cells. PMID:26239477

  5. Human Cytomegalovirus Carries a Cell-Derived Phospholipase A2 Required for Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Allal, Cuider; Buisson-Brenac, Claire; Marion, Vincent; Claudel-Renard, Clotilde; Faraut, Thomas; Dal Monte, Paola; Streblow, Daniel; Record, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is known to carry host cell-derived proteins and mRNAs whose role in cell infection is not understood. We have identified a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity borne by HCMV by using an assay based on the hydrolysis of fluorescent phosphatidylcholine. This activity was found in all virus strains analyzed and in purified strains. It was calcium dependent and was sensitive to inhibitors of cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) but not to inhibitors of soluble PLA2 or calcium-independent PLA2. No other phospholipase activity was detected in the virus. Purified virus was found to contain human cellular cPLA2α, as detected by monoclonal antibody. No homology with PLA2 was found in the genome of HCMV, indicating that HCMV does not code for a PLA2. Decreased de novo expression of immediate-early proteins 1 and 2 (IE1 and IE2), tegument phosphoprotein pp65, and virus production was observed when HCMV was treated with inhibitors of cPLA2. Cell entry of HCMV was not altered by those inhibitors, suggesting the action of cPLA2 was postentry. Together, our results indicate a selective sorting of a cell-derived cPLA2 during HCMV maturation, which is further required for infectivity. PMID:15220446

  6. Human Cytomegalovirus Requires Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling To Enter and Initiate the Early Steps in the Establishment of Latency in CD34(+) Human Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Heon; Collins-McMillen, Donna; Buehler, Jason C; Goodrum, Felicia D; Yurochko, Andrew D

    2017-03-01

    The establishment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency and persistence relies on the successful infection of hematopoietic cells, which serve as sites of viral persistence and contribute to viral spread. Here, using blocking antibodies and pharmacological inhibitors, we document that HCMV activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and downstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) mediates viral entry into CD34(+) human progenitor cells (HPCs), resulting in distinct cellular trafficking and nuclear translocation of the virus compared to that in other immune cells, such as we have documented in monocytes. We argue that the EGFR allows HCMV to regulate the cellular functions of these replication-restricted cells via its signaling activity following viral binding. In addition to regulating HCMV entry/trafficking, EGFR signaling may also shape the early steps required for the successful establishment of viral latency in CD34(+) cells, as pharmacological inhibition of EGFR increases the transcription of lytic IE1/IE2 mRNA while curbing the expression of latency-associated UL138 mRNA. EGFR signaling following infection of CD34(+) HPCs may also contribute to changes in hematopoietic potential, as treatment with the EGFR kinase (EGFRK) inhibitor AG1478 alters the expression of the cellular hematopoietic cytokine interleukin 12 (IL-12) in HCMV-infected cells but not in mock-infected cells. These findings, along with our previous work with monocytes, suggest that EGFR likely serves as an important determinant of HCMV tropism for select subsets of hematopoietic cells. Moreover, our new data suggest that EGFR is a key receptor for efficient viral entry and that the ensuing signaling regulates important early events required for successful infection of CD34(+) HPCs by HCMV.IMPORTANCE HCMV establishes lifelong persistence within the majority of the human population without causing overt pathogenesis in healthy individuals. Despite this, reactivation of HCMV

  7. Positive Expression of Human Cytomegalovirus Phosphoprotein 65 in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Mingming; Wang, Xiaojing; Chi, Hongjie; Feng, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is associated with atherosclerosis. However, local vascular atherosclerosis related HCMV infection and protein expression remain unclear. This study aimed to assess the relationship between HCMV infection and atherosclerosis. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded peripheral artery specimens were obtained from 15 patients with atherosclerosis undergoing vascular surgery from 2008 to 2010 at Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University. Pathological analyses were carried out after hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome staining. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry with two different monoclonal antibodies were employed to detect HCMV nucleic acids and proteins, respectively. H&E and Masson trichrome staining showed homogeneous extracellular matrix in femoral artery, while smooth muscle fibers were interlaced with collagen fibers; in carotid artery, inflammatory cell infiltration, foam cell vascular change, cholesterol crystals, and layered collagen fibers were observed. In situ hybridization showed no expression of HCMV nucleic acids in all 15 cases. Immunohistochemical staining for protein immediate-early protein (IE1 72) was negative in all cases, while phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) expression was detected in 14 cases. A high rate of positive pp65 signals was found in patients with atherosclerosis, suggesting that local HCMV infection may be associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Further studies on this relationship are warranted. PMID:27990427

  8. Identification of a novel missense mutation in exon 4 of the human factor VIII gene associated with sever hemophilia A patient.

    PubMed

    Onsori, Habib; Hosseinpour, Mohammad Ali; Montaser-Kouhsari, Sheideh; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Hosseinpour, Abbas Ali

    2007-12-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked congenital bleeding disorder caused by factor VIII deficiency. The factor VIII gene is on the long arm of the X chromosome at Xq28 spans 186 kb and consists of 26 exons. In this study to identify defects in the factor VIII gene, Single-Stranded Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was used. A novel missense mutation due to T --> C transition at codon 153 (TGC) of the factor VIII gene which replace a cysteine with an arginine residue, was found in a patient of North-Western of Iran with sever hemophilia A. Direct sequencing of the amplified fragment was performed to confirm the mutation. This study shows that we can use of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and silver staining of SSCP methods for detecting most of the point mutations causative hemophilia A.

  9. RNA interference-mediated targeting of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early or early gene products inhibits viral replication with differential effects on cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Xiaofei, E; Stadler, Bradford M; Debatis, Michelle; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan; Kowalik, Timothy F

    2012-05-01

    Viral drug toxicity, resistance, and an increasing immunosuppressed population warrant continued research into new avenues for limiting diseases associated with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). In this study, a small interfering RNA (siRNA), siX3, was designed to target coding sequences within shared exon 3 of UL123 and UL122 transcripts encoding IE1 and IE2 immediate-early proteins of HCMV. Pretreatment of cells with siX3 reduced the levels of viral protein expression, DNA replication, and progeny virus production compared to control siRNA. Two siRNAs against UL54 and overlapping transcripts (UL55-57) were compared to siX3 in HCMV infection and were also found to be effective at inhibiting HCMV replication. Further investigation into the effects of the siRNAs on viral replication showed that pretreatment with each of the siRNAs resulted in an inhibition in the formation of mature replication compartments. The ability of these siRNAs to prevent or reduce certain cytopathic effects associated with HCMV infection was also examined. Infected cells pretreated with siX3, but not siUL54, retained promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein in cellular PML bodies, an essential component of this host intrinsic antiviral defense. DNA damage response proteins, which are localized in nuclear viral replication compartments, were reduced in the siX3- and siUL54-treated cells. siX3, but not siUL54, prevented DNA damage response signaling early after infection. Therapeutic efficacy was demonstrated by treating cells with siRNAs after HCMV replication had commenced. Together, these findings suggest that siRNAs targeting exon 3 of the major IE genes or the UL54-57 transcripts be further studied for their potential development into anti-HCMV therapeutics.

  10. Nucleosome maps of the human cytomegalovirus genome reveal a temporal switch in chromatin organization linked to a major IE protein.

    PubMed

    Zalckvar, Einat; Paulus, Christina; Tillo, Desiree; Asbach-Nitzsche, Alexandra; Lubling, Yaniv; Winterling, Carla; Strieder, Nicholas; Mücke, Katrin; Goodrum, Felicia; Segal, Eran; Nevels, Michael

    2013-08-06

    Human CMV (hCMV) establishes lifelong infections in most of us, causing developmental defects in human embryos and life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. During productive infection, the viral >230,000-bp dsDNA genome is expressed widely and in a temporal cascade. The hCMV genome does not carry histones when encapsidated but has been proposed to form nucleosomes after release into the host cell nucleus. Here, we present hCMV genome-wide nucleosome occupancy and nascent transcript maps during infection of permissive human primary cells. We show that nucleosomes occupy nuclear viral DNA in a nonrandom and highly predictable fashion. At early times of infection, nucleosomes associate with the hCMV genome largely according to their intrinsic DNA sequence preferences, indicating that initial nucleosome formation is genetically encoded in the virus. However, as infection proceeds to the late phase, nucleosomes redistribute extensively to establish patterns mostly determined by nongenetic factors. We propose that these factors include key regulators of viral gene expression encoded at the hCMV major immediate-early (IE) locus. Indeed, mutant virus genomes deficient for IE1 expression exhibit globally increased nucleosome loads and reduced nucleosome dynamics compared with WT genomes. The temporal nucleosome occupancy differences between IE1-deficient and WT viruses correlate inversely with changes in the pattern of viral nascent and total transcript accumulation. These results provide a framework of spatial and temporal nucleosome organization across the genome of a major human pathogen and suggest that an hCMV major IE protein governs overall viral chromatin structure and function.

  11. Impact of Persistent Cytomegalovirus Infection on Dynamic Changes in Human Immune System Profile

    PubMed Central

    Vescovini, Rosanna; Telera, Anna Rita; Pedrazzoni, Mario; Abbate, Barbara; Rossetti, Pietro; Verzicco, Ignazio; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Medici, Maria Cristina; Calderaro, Adriana; Volpi, Riccardo; Sansoni, Paolo; Fagnoni, Francesco Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) imprints the immune system after primary infection, however its effect during chronic infection still needs to be deciphered. In this study we report the variation of blood cell count along with anti-HCMV IgG and T cell responses to pp-65 and IE-1 antigens, that occurred after an interval of five years in a cohort of 25 seropositive healthy adults. We found increased anti-viral IgG antibody responses and intracellular interferon-gamma secreting CD8+ T cell responses to pp-65: a result consistent with memory inflation. With the only exception of shortage in naive CD8+ T cells most memory T cell subsets as well as total CD8+ T cells, T cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and leukocytes had increased. By contrast, none of the cell types tested were found to have increased in 14 subjects stably seronegative. Rather, in addition to a shortage in naive CD8+ T cells, also memory T cell subsets and most other cell types decreased, either in a statistically significant or non-significant manner. The trend of T cell pool representation with regard to CD4/CD8 ratio was in the opposing directions depending on HCMV serology. Globally, this study demonstrates different dynamic changes of most blood cell types depending on presence or absence of HCMV infection. Therefore, HCMV plays a continual role in modulating homeostasis of blood T cells and a broader expanding effect on other cell populations of lymphoid and myeloid origin. PMID:26990192

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early 1 Protein Rewires Upstream STAT3 to Downstream STAT1 Signaling Switching an IL6-Type to an IFNγ-Like Response

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, Simone; Zenger, Marion; Reitberger, Tobias; Danzer, Daniela; Übner, Theresa; Munday, Diane C.; Paulus, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) major immediate-early 1 protein (IE1) is best known for activating transcription to facilitate viral replication. Here we present transcriptome data indicating that IE1 is as significant a repressor as it is an activator of host gene expression. Human cells induced to express IE1 exhibit global repression of IL6- and oncostatin M-responsive STAT3 target genes. This repression is followed by STAT1 phosphorylation and activation of STAT1 target genes normally induced by IFNγ. The observed repression and subsequent activation are both mediated through the same region (amino acids 410 to 445) in the C-terminal domain of IE1, and this region serves as a binding site for STAT3. Depletion of STAT3 phenocopies the STAT1-dependent IFNγ-like response to IE1. In contrast, depletion of the IL6 receptor (IL6ST) or the STAT kinase JAK1 prevents this response. Accordingly, treatment with IL6 leads to prolonged STAT1 instead of STAT3 activation in wild-type IE1 expressing cells, but not in cells expressing a mutant protein (IE1dl410-420) deficient for STAT3 binding. A very similar STAT1-directed response to IL6 is also present in cells infected with a wild-type or revertant hCMV, but not an IE1dl410-420 mutant virus, and this response results in restricted viral replication. We conclude that IE1 is sufficient and necessary to rewire upstream IL6-type to downstream IFNγ-like signaling, two pathways linked to opposing actions, resulting in repressed STAT3- and activated STAT1-responsive genes. These findings relate transcriptional repressor and activator functions of IE1 and suggest unexpected outcomes relevant to viral pathogenesis in response to cytokines or growth factors that signal through the IL6ST-JAK1-STAT3 axis in hCMV-infected cells. Our results also reveal that IE1, a protein considered to be a key activator of the hCMV productive cycle, has an unanticipated role in tempering viral replication. PMID:27387064

  13. Consecutive Inhibition of ISG15 Expression and ISGylation by Cytomegalovirus Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Eui; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Kwon, Ki Mun; Kim, Keun Il; Stamminger, Thomas; Ahn, Jin-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) encodes an ubiquitin-like protein that covalently conjugates protein. Protein modification by ISG15 (ISGylation) is known to inhibit the replication of many viruses. However, studies on the viral targets and viral strategies to regulate ISGylation-mediated antiviral responses are limited. In this study, we show that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication is inhibited by ISGylation, but the virus has evolved multiple countermeasures. HCMV-induced ISG15 expression was mitigated by IE1, a viral inhibitor of interferon signaling, however, ISGylation was still strongly upregulated during virus infection. RNA interference of UBE1L (E1), UbcH8 (E2), Herc5 (E3), and UBP43 (ISG15 protease) revealed that ISGylation inhibits HCMV growth by downregulating viral gene expression and virion release in a manner that is more prominent at low multiplicity of infection. A viral regulator pUL26 was found to interact with ISG15, UBE1L, and Herc5, and be ISGylated. ISGylation of pUL26 regulated its stability and inhibited its activities to suppress NF-κB signaling and complement the growth of UL26-null mutant virus. Moreover, pUL26 reciprocally suppressed virus-induced ISGylation independent of its own ISGylation. Consistently, ISGylation was more pronounced in infections with the UL26-deleted mutant virus, whose growth was more sensitive to IFNβ treatment than that of the wild-type virus. Therefore, pUL26 is a viral ISG15 target that also counteracts ISGylation. Our results demonstrate that ISGylation inhibits HCMV growth at multiple steps and that HCMV has evolved countermeasures to suppress ISG15 transcription and protein ISGylation, highlighting the importance of the interplay between virus and ISGylation in productive viral infection. PMID:27564865

  14. Open reading frame UL26 of human cytomegalovirus encodes a novel tegument protein that contains a strong transcriptional activation domain.

    PubMed

    Stamminger, Thomas; Gstaiger, Matthias; Weinzierl, Konstanze; Lorz, Kerstin; Winkler, Michael; Schaffner, Walter

    2002-05-01

    A selection strategy, the activator trap, was used in order to identify genes of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) that encode strong transcriptional activation domains in mammalian cells. This approach is based on the isolation of activation domains from a GAL4 fusion library by means of selective plasmid replication, which is mediated in transfected cells by a GAL4-inducible T antigen gene. With this screening strategy, we were able to isolate two types of plasmids encoding transactivating fusion proteins from a library of random HCMV DNA inserts. One plasmid contained the exon 3 of the HCMV IE-1/2 gene region, which has previously been identified as a strong transcriptional activation domain. In the second type of plasmid, the open reading frame (ORF) UL26 of HCMV was fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain. By quantitative RNA mapping using S1 nuclease analysis, we were able to classify UL26 as a strong enhancer-type activation domain with no apparent homology to characterized transcriptional activators. Western blot analysis with a specific polyclonal antibody raised against a prokaryotic UL26 fusion protein revealed that two protein isoforms of 21 and 27 kDa are derived from the UL26 ORF in both infected and transfected cells. Both protein isoforms, which arise via alternative usage of two in-frame translational start codons, showed a nuclear localization and could be detected as early as 6 h after infection of primary human fibroblasts. By performing Western blot analysis with purified virions combined with fractionation experiments, we provide evidence that pUL26 is a novel tegument protein of HCMV that is imported during viral infection. Furthermore, we observed transactivation of the HCMV major immediate-early enhancer-promoter by pUL26, whereas several early and late promoters were not affected. Our data suggest that pUL26 is a novel tegument protein of HCMV with a strong transcriptional activation domain that could play an important role during initiation of

  15. Functional interaction of nuclear domain 10 and its components with cytomegalovirus after infections: cross-species host cells versus native cells.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Ruth Cruz; Martínez, Francisco Puerta; Tang, Qiyi

    2011-04-28

    Species-specificity is one of the major characteristics of cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) and is the primary reason for the lack of a mouse model for the direct infection of human CMV (HCMV). It has been determined that CMV cross-species infections are blocked at the post-entry level by intrinsic cellular defense mechanisms, but few details are known. It is important to explore how CMVs interact with the subnuclear structure of the cross-species host cell. In our present study, we discovered that nuclear domain 10 (ND10) of human cells was not disrupted by murine CMV (MCMV) and that the ND10 of mouse cells was not disrupted by HCMV, although the ND10-disrupting protein, immediate-early protein 1 (IE1), also colocalized with ND10 in cross-species infections. In addition, we found that the UL131-repaired HCMV strain AD169 (vDW215-BADrUL131) can infect mouse cells to produce immediate-early (IE) and early (E) proteins but that neither DNA replication nor viral particles were detectable in mouse cells. Unrepaired AD169 can express IE1 only in mouse cells. In both HCMV-infected mouse cells and MCMV-infected human cells, the knocking-down of ND10 components (PML, Daxx, and SP100) resulted in significantly increased viral-protein production. Our observations provide evidence to support our hypothesis that ND10 and ND10 components might be important defensive factors against the CMV cross-species infection.

  16. An intein-mediated modulation of protein stability system and its application to study human cytomegalovirus essential gene function

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Deng; Xuan, Baoqin; Sun, Yamei; Huang, Shaowu; Xie, Maorong; Bai, Yadan; Xu, Wenjia; Qian, Zhikang

    2016-01-01

    Functional analysis of the essential proteins encoded by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is hindered by the lack of complementing systems. To overcome this difficulty, we have established a novel approach, termed the intein-mediated modulation of protein stability (imPS), in which a destabilizing domain and part of a split intein are fused to the essential protein. The growth of the mutant virus can then be regulated by the degradation and splicing of the protein. We found that an ultrafast gp41-1 split intein was able to rescue or degrade the protein of interest (POI) by removing or adding a strong degron through protein splicing. As a result, the function of the POI was turned on or off during the process. Using HCMV essential gene IE1/IE2, we confirmed that imPS worked remarkably well in conditionally regulating protein stability during viral infection. This conditional approach is likely to be applicable for dissecting the gene functions of HCMV or other viruses. PMID:27188239

  17. Antiviral activity of a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide complementary to RNA of the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early region.

    PubMed Central

    Azad, R F; Driver, V B; Tanaka, K; Crooke, R M; Anderson, K P

    1993-01-01

    Phosphorothioate oligonucleotides complementary to mRNA of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA polymerase gene or to RNA transcripts of the major immediate-early regions 1 and 2 (IE1 and IE2) of HCMV were evaluated for antiviral activity in a 96-well immunoassay with primary human dermal fibroblasts as host cells. Oligonucleotides complementary to RNA of the IE2 region exhibited the most potent antiviral activity. One of these oligonucleotides, ISIS 2922, was at least 30-fold more potent than the nucleoside analog, ganciclovir, with a 50% effective concentration of 0.37 microM in the 96-well immunoassay. In an infectious virus yield reduction assay, ISIS 2922 and ganciclovir reduced production of infectious virus by 2 log units at concentrations of 2.2 and 36 microM, respectively. A control oligonucleotide showed no inhibition of virus production at concentrations as high as 3 microM. ISIS 2922 reduced IE protein synthesis in HCMV-infected cells in a dose-dependent manner which correlated with antiviral activity. The antiviral activity of ISIS 2922 was not due to oligonucleotide-induced cytotoxicity since effects on cell viability or proliferation were observed only at concentrations well in excess of effective antiviral concentrations. The specificity and potency of ISIS 2922 suggest that it may be useful for the treatment of cytomegalovirus disease in humans. Images PMID:8239610

  18. Multiple phosphorylation sites at the C-terminus regulate nuclear import of HCMV DNA polymerase processivity factor ppUL44

    SciTech Connect

    Alvisi, Gualtiero; Marin, Oriano; Pari, Gregory; Mancini, Manuela; Avanzi, Simone; Loregian, Arianna; Jans, David A.; Ripalti, Alessandro

    2011-09-01

    The processivity factor of human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase, phosphoprotein ppUL44, is essential for viral replication. During viral infection ppUL44 is phosphorylated by the viral kinase pUL97, but neither the target residues on ppUL44 nor the effect of phosphorylation on ppUL44's activity are known. We report here that ppUL44 is phosphorylated when transiently expressed in mammalian cells and coimmunoprecipitates with cellular kinases. Of three potential phosphorylation sites (S413, S415, S418) located upstream of ppUL44's nuclear localization signal (NLS) and one (T427) within the NLS itself, protein kinase CK2 (CK2) specifically phosphorylates S413, to trigger a cascade of phosphorylation of S418 and S415 by CK1 and CK2, respectively. Negative charge at the CK2/CK1 target serine residues facilitates optimal nuclear accumulation of ppUL44, whereas negative charge on T427, a potential cyclin-dependent 1 phosphorylation site, strongly decreases nuclear accumulation. Thus, nuclear transport of ppUL44 is finely tuned during viral infection through complex phosphorylation events.

  19. Impact of recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering on structure-based drug design: case studies of HIV-1 and HCMV proteases.

    PubMed

    Kan, Chen-Chen

    2002-03-01

    Structure-based drug design is an organized, multidisciplinary endeavor undertaken by scientists from many different scientific fields. The success of structure-based drug design was only made possible by advances in structure biology that provides the three-dimensional structure of the drug design target with which small molecular chemical ligands interact. Visualization of the conformation and interactions of a small molecule ligand bound to the protein target in the co-crystal structure of the protein:ligand complex enables the design of new chemical compounds with improved binding affinity and specificity. With the advances in molecular biology, lab automation, and computational science, genomic data have now become available for the human genome, as well as various other organisms. The pharmaceutical industry is currently putting forth tremendous effort in the area of functional genomics and structural genomics in attempts to decipher functions and structures of protein encoded by genes, with the ultimate goal of identifying novel targets for drug discovery and development. This chapter discusses the significant impact made by recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering on structural biology and, more specifically, on structure-based drug design.

  20. NMDA receptor subunit and CaMKII changes in rat hippocampus by congenital HCMV infection: a mechanism for learning and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Wu, De; Yang, Li; Bu, Xiaosong; Tang, Jiulai; Fan, Xiaocheng

    2017-03-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of congenital human cytomegalovirus infection on the expression levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NRs) and Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the hippocampal neurons of neonatal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Pregnant SD rats were divided into an experimental group and a control group (n=10 in each group). Spatial learning and memory of the offspring of SD rats were evaluated using the Morris water-maze test. Pathological studies of hippocampus sections were carried out. The concentration of [Ca] was measured using a dual-wavelength spectrophotometer method. The expression levels of NRs were detected by an immunohistochemical study. Western blot was performed to detect the expression level of CaMKII. In the Morris water-maze test, the rats in the experimental group showed significantly increased escape latency and distance traveled than the control group. Damaged and structural disorders of the dentate granule in the hippocampus were found in the experimental rats. Immunohistochemistry results showed that the expression levels of NR subunits in the hippocampus of the experimental group were significantly decreased. The concentration of [Ca] in the experimental group was significantly increased. In contrast, the level of CaMKII in the experimental group was significantly decreased. The expressions of the NR subunit and CaMKII were decreased in rat hippocampus by human cytomegalovirus congenital infection, which may be associated with the mechanism underlying the impairment of learning and memory function.

  1. Identification of Cellular Proteins that Interact with Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early Protein 1 by Protein Array Assay

    PubMed Central

    Puerta Martínez, Francisco; Tang, Qiyi

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene expression during infection is characterized as a sequential process including immediate-early (IE), early (E), and late (L)-stage gene expression. The most abundantly expressed gene at the IE stage of infection is the major IE (MIE) gene that produces IE1 and IE2. IE1 has been the focus of study because it is an important protein, not only for viral gene expression but also for viral replication. It is believed that IE1 plays important roles in viral gene regulation by interacting with cellular proteins. In the current study, we performed protein array assays and identified 83 cellular proteins that interact with IE1. Among them, seven are RNA-binding proteins that are important in RNA processing; more than half are nuclear proteins that are involved in gene regulations. Tumorigenesis-related proteins are also found to interact with IE1, implying that the role of IE1 in tumorigenesis might need to be reevaluated. Unexpectedly, cytoplasmic proteins, such as Golgi autoantigen and GGA1 (both related to the Golgi trafficking protein), are also found to be associated with IE1. We also employed a coimmunoprecipitation assay to test the interactions of IE1 and some of the proteins identified in the protein array assays and confirmed that the results from the protein array assays are reliable. Many of the proteins identified by the protein array assay have not been previously reported. Therefore, the functions of the IE1-protein interactions need to be further explored in the future. PMID:24385082

  2. Human immune responses to major human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y N; Kari, B; Gehrz, R C

    1988-01-01

    Sera from both human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-seropositive adults and infants with congenital HCMV infection recognized two major HCMV glycoprotein complexes. However, proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to these complexes varied among seropositive adults and were not detected in any of the infants. Thus, these glycoproteins alone may not be sufficient to develop a subviral HCMV vaccine. Images PMID:2828655

  3. Reconstitution of Human Cytomegalovirus-Specific CD4+ T Cells is Critical for Control of Virus Reactivation in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients but Does Not Prevent Organ Infection.

    PubMed

    Gabanti, Elisa; Lilleri, Daniele; Ripamonti, Francesco; Bruno, Francesca; Zelini, Paola; Furione, Milena; Colombo, Anna A; Alessandrino, Emilio P; Gerna, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    The relative contribution of human cytomegalovirus (HMCV)-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to the control of HCMV infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients is still controversial. HCMV reactivation and HCMV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell reconstitution were monitored for 1 year in 63 HCMV-seropositive patients receiving HSCT. HCMV reactivation was detected in all but 2 patients. In 20 of 63 (31.7%) patients (group 1) HCMV infection resolved spontaneously, whereas 32 of 63 (50.8%) patients (group 2) controlled the infection after a single short-course of pre-emptive therapy and the remaining 9 (14.3%) patients (group 3) suffered from relapsing episodes of HCMV infection, requiring multiple courses of antiviral therapy. The kinetics and magnitude of HCMV-specific CD8(+) T cell reconstitution were comparable among the 3 groups, but HCMV-specific CD4(+) T cells were lower in number in patients requiring antiviral treatment. HCMV-seronegative donors, as well as unrelated donors (receiving antithymocyte globulin) and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were associated with both delayed HCMV-specific CD4(+) T cell reconstitution and severity of infection. Conversely, these risk factors had no impact on HCMV-specific CD8(+) T cells. Eight patients with previous GVHD suffered from HCMV gastrointestinal disease, although in the presence of HCMV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) systemic immunity and undetectable HCMV DNA in blood. Reconstitution of systemic HCMV-specific CD4(+) T cell immunity is required for control of HCMV reactivation in adult HSCT recipients, but it may not be sufficient to prevent late-onset organ localization in patients with GVHD. HCMV-specific CD8(+) T cells contribute to control of HCMV infection, but only after HCMV-specific CD4(+) T cell reconstitution.

  4. Discordant humoral and cellular immune responses to Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in glioblastoma patients whose tumors are positive for CMV

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Afsar; Peredo, Inti; Solberg, Nina Wolmer; Taher, Chato; Dzabic, Mensur; Xu, Xinling; Skarman, Petra; Fornara, Olesja; Tammik, Charlotte; Yaiw, Koon; Wilhelmi, Vanessa; Assinger, Alice; Stragliotto, Giuseppe; Söderberg-Naucler, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and is nearly always fatal. Emerging evidence suggests that human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is present in 90–100% of GBMs and that add-on antiviral treatment for HCMV show promise to improve survival. Methods. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of valganciclovir in 42 GBM patients, blood samples were collected for analyses of HCMV DNA, RNA, reactivity against HCMV peptides, IgG, and IgM at baseline and at 3, 12, and 24 weeks of treatment. Results. All 42 tumors were positive for HCMV protein. All patients examined had at least one blood sample positive for HCMV DNA, 63% were HCMV RNA positive, and 21% were IgM positive. However, 29% of GBM patients were IgG negative for HCMV. Five of these samples were positive in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that used antigens derived from a clinical isolate. Blood T cells from 11 of 13 (85%) HCMV IgG-negative GBM patients reacted against HCMV peptides. Valganciclovir did not affect IgG titers, DNA, or RNA levels of the HCMV immediate early (HCMV IE) gene in blood. Conclusion. In GBM patients, HCMV activity is higher than in healthy controls and serology is a poor test to define previous or active HCMV infection in these patients. PMID:25949880

  5. Discordant humoral and cellular immune responses to Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in glioblastoma patients whose tumors are positive for CMV.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Afsar; Peredo, Inti; Solberg, Nina Wolmer; Taher, Chato; Dzabic, Mensur; Xu, Xinling; Skarman, Petra; Fornara, Olesja; Tammik, Charlotte; Yaiw, Koon; Wilhelmi, Vanessa; Assinger, Alice; Stragliotto, Giuseppe; Söderberg-Naucler, Cecilia

    2015-02-01

    Background. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and is nearly always fatal. Emerging evidence suggests that human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is present in 90-100% of GBMs and that add-on antiviral treatment for HCMV show promise to improve survival. Methods. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of valganciclovir in 42 GBM patients, blood samples were collected for analyses of HCMV DNA, RNA, reactivity against HCMV peptides, IgG, and IgM at baseline and at 3, 12, and 24 weeks of treatment. Results. All 42 tumors were positive for HCMV protein. All patients examined had at least one blood sample positive for HCMV DNA, 63% were HCMV RNA positive, and 21% were IgM positive. However, 29% of GBM patients were IgG negative for HCMV. Five of these samples were positive in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that used antigens derived from a clinical isolate. Blood T cells from 11 of 13 (85%) HCMV IgG-negative GBM patients reacted against HCMV peptides. Valganciclovir did not affect IgG titers, DNA, or RNA levels of the HCMV immediate early (HCMV IE) gene in blood. Conclusion. In GBM patients, HCMV activity is higher than in healthy controls and serology is a poor test to define previous or active HCMV infection in these patients.

  6. Proteomic analyses of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 derivatives reveal highly conserved patterns of viral and cellular proteins in infected fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Reyda, Sabine; Büscher, Nicole; Tenzer, Stefan; Plachter, Bodo

    2014-01-07

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) particle morphogenesis in infected cells is an orchestrated process that eventually results in the release of enveloped virions. Proteomic analysis has been employed to reveal the complexity in the protein composition of these extracellular particles. Only limited information is however available regarding the proteome of infected cells preceding the release of HCMV virions. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to address the pattern of viral and cellular proteins in cells, infected with derivatives of the AD169 laboratory strain. Our analyses revealed a remarkable conservation in the patterns of viral and of abundant cellular proteins in cells, infected for 2 hours, 2 days, or 4 days. Most viral proteins increased in abundance as the infection progressed over time. Of the proteins that were reliably detectable by mass spectrometry, only IE1 (pUL123), pTRS1, and pIRS1 were downregulated at 4 days after infection. In addition, little variation of viral proteins in the virions of the different viruses was detectable, independent of the expression of the major tegument protein pp65. Taken together these data suggest that there is little variation in the expression program of viral and cellular proteins in cells infected with related HCMVs, resulting in a conserved pattern of viral proteins ultimately associated with extracellular virions.

  7. Clinical and biologic aspects of human cytomegalovirus resistance to antiviral drugs.

    PubMed

    Baldanti, Fausto; Lurain, Nell; Gerna, Giuseppe

    2004-05-01

    The emergence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) drug resistant strains is a life-threatening condition in immunocompromised individuals with active HCMV infection. HCMV drug resistance represented a major problem in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome until the recent introduction of highly active antiretroviral combination therapy, which dramatically decreased the incidence in this clinical setting. However, HCMV resistance to antiviral drugs is now an emerging problem in the transplantation setting. The molecular mechanisms of HCMV drug resistance have been elucidated and rely on the selection during treatment of HCMV strains harboring mutations in two key viral genes: UL97 coding for a viral phosphotransferase and UL54 coding for the viral DNA polymerase.

  8. Interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human cytomegalovirus in human term syncytiotrophoblast cells coinfected with both viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, F D; Mosborg-Petersen, P; Kiss, J; Aboagye-Mathiesen, G; Hager, H; Juhl, C B; Gergely, L; Zdravkovic, M; Aranyosi, J; Lampé, L

    1995-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) may interact in the pathogenesis of AIDS. The placental syncytiotrophoblast layer serves as the first line of defense of the fetus against viruses. We analyzed the patterns of replication of HIV-1 and HCMV in singly an dually infected human term syncytiotrophoblast cells cultured in vitro. Syncytiotrophoblast cells exhibited restricted permissiveness for HIV-1, while HCMV replication was restricted at the level of immediate-early and early gene products in the singly infected cells. We found that the syncytiotrophoblasts as an overlapping cell population could be coinfected with HIV-1 and HCMV. HIV-1 replication was markedly upregulated by previous or simultaneous infection of the cells with HCMV, whereas prior HIV-1 infection of the cells converted HCMV infection from a nonpermissive to a permissive one. No simultaneous enhancement of HCMV and HIV-1 expression was observed in the dually infected cell cultures. Major immediate-early proteins of HCMV were necessary for enhancement of HIV-1 replication, and interleukin-6 production induced by HCMV and further increased by replicating HIV-1 synergized with these proteins to produce this effect. Permissive replication cycle of HCMV was induced by the HIV-1 tat gene product. We were unable to detect HIV-1 (HCMV) or HCMV (HIV-1) pseudotypes in supernatant fluids from dually infected cell cultures. Our results suggest that interactions between HIV-1 and HCMV in coinfected syncytiotrophoblast cells may contribute to the transplacental transmission of both viruses. PMID:7884869

  9. Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Upregulates the Mitochondrial Transcription and Translation Machineries

    PubMed Central

    Weekes, M. P.; Antrobus, R.; Rorbach, J.; van Haute, L.; Umrania, Y.; Smith, D. L.; Minczuk, M.; Lehner, P. J.; Sinclair, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) profoundly affects cellular metabolism. Like in tumor cells, HCMV infection increases glycolysis, and glucose carbon is shifted from the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle to the biosynthesis of fatty acids. However, unlike in many tumor cells, where aerobic glycolysis is accompanied by suppression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, HCMV induces mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Here, we affinity purified mitochondria and used quantitative mass spectrometry to determine how the mitochondrial proteome changes upon HCMV infection. We found that the mitochondrial transcription and translation systems are induced early during the viral replication cycle. Specifically, proteins involved in biogenesis of the mitochondrial ribosome were highly upregulated by HCMV infection. Inhibition of mitochondrial translation with chloramphenicol or knockdown of HCMV-induced ribosome biogenesis factor MRM3 abolished the HCMV-mediated increase in mitochondrially encoded proteins and significantly impaired viral growth under bioenergetically restricting conditions. Our findings demonstrate how HCMV manipulates mitochondrial biogenesis to support its replication. PMID:27025248

  10. Diagnostic value of amplification of human cytomegalovirus DNA from gastrointestinal biopsies from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed Central

    Cotte, L; Drouet, E; Bissuel, F; Denoyel, G A; Trepo, C

    1993-01-01

    In order to assess the value of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA amplification of gastrointestinal biopsies, we studied 57 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with and without gastrointestinal HCMV diseases. After DNA extraction, a 406-bp fragment from the unique short region of the HCMV genome was amplified by 35 cycles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and semiquantified from 80 to 80,000 HCMV genomic copies. Among 12 non-AIDS patients, the PCR assay was negative for 11 of 12 duodenal and 8 of 8 colorectal samples. It was also negative for 28 of 31 duodenal and 12 of 15 colorectal samples from 31 AIDS patients without gastrointestinal HCMV diseases. Among 14 AIDS patients with gastrointestinal HCMV diseases, the PCR assay was positive for 12 of 12 patients with HCMV duodenitis and for 13 of 13 patients with HCMV colitis. Results were dichotomized between high and low HCMV-DNA copy numbers. For duodenitis, sensitivity was 92% and specificity was 100%. For colitis, sensitivity was 92% and specificity was 93%. Specificity and sensitivity were not influenced by shedding status for HCMV or by other gastrointestinal infections. HCMV DNA amplification of gastrointestinal biopsies is a sensitive and specific tool for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal HCMV diseases in AIDS patients. Images PMID:8396587

  11. Clinical evaluation of a chemiluminescence immunoassay for determination of immunoglobulin g avidity to human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Revello, Maria Grazia; Gorini, Giovanna; Gerna, Giuseppe

    2004-07-01

    Clinical evaluation of a novel fully automated chemiluminescence immunoassay for determination of immunoglobulin G avidity to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) showed 92.8% sensitivity and 84.7% specificity in detecting a recent (< or =90 days) primary HCMV infection. The assay appears useful for accurately diagnosing recent primary HCMV infections.

  12. High frequency of Human Cytomegalovirus DNA in the Liver of Infants with Extrahepatic Neonatal Cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    De Tommaso, Adriana MA; Andrade, Paula D; Costa, Sandra CB; Escanhoela, Cecília AF; Hessel, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Background Biliary atresia (BA) is the most severe hepatic disorder in newborns and its etiopathogenesis remains unknown. Viral involvement has been proposed, including the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The aims of the study were to use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen the liver tissue of infants with extrahepatic cholestasis for HCMV and to correlate the results with serological antibodies against HCMV and histological findings. Methods A retrospective study in a tertiary care setting included 35 patients (31 BA, 1 BA associated with a choledochal cyst, 2 congenital stenosis of the distal common bile duct and 1 hepatic cyst). HCMV serology was determined by ELISA. Liver and porta hepatis were examined histologically. Liver samples from infants and a control group were screened for HCMV DNA. Results Twelve patients had HCMV negative serology, 9 were positive for IgG antibodies and 14 were positive for IgG and IgM. Nine liver and seven porta hepatis samples were positive for HCMV DNA but none of the control group were positive (general frequency of positivity was 34.3% – 12/35). There was no correlation between HCMV positivity by PCR and the histological findings. The accuracy of serology for detecting HCMV antibodies was low. Conclusion These results indicate an elevated frequency of HCMV in pediatric patients with extrahepatic neonatal cholestasis. They also show the low accuracy of serological tests for detecting active HCMV infection and the lack of correlation between HCMV positivity by PCR and the histopathological changes. PMID:16321152

  13. Detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection in Wheezing Infants by Urine DNA and Serum IgG Testing

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhao-cheng; Chang, Qing; Sun, Zhi-wei; Song, Ming-mei; Jin, Xin-ling; Jiang, Shu-ya; Yang, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of CMV infection in wheezing infants and the association between CMV-DNA and immunoglobulins (Igs). Material/Methods A total of 243 wheezing infants and 3,000 parturients were enrolled in this study. The infants were randomly grouped to receive blood HCMV-DNA tests (n=46) or urine HCMV-DNA tests (n=197). Furthermore, all participants had serum CMV-specific IgM and IgG testing. Afterwards, 10 HCMV-IgG positive infants were randomly selected for simultaneous blood and urine HCMV-DNA tests, and 25 HCMV-IgG positive puerperants were randomly selected for urine HCMV-DNA tests. Results The detection rate of urine HCMV-DNA was significantly higher than that of blood HCMV-DNA (67.5% vs. 13.0%, p<0.001). Fifteen (6.2%) and 190 (80.0%) infants showed positive CMV-specific IgM and IgG results (p<0.001), respectively. Among the 10 HCMV-IgG positive infants tested further, only two infants had positive HCMV-DNA blood tests, while all of the 10 infants had positive HCMV-DNA urine tests. However, HCMV-DNA was not detected in the urine of the 25 randomly selected parturients positive for HCMV-IgG. Conclusions CMV infection may be one of the causes of wheezing in infants; CMV infection can be detected by urine-HCMV-DNA and serum HCMV-IgG testing. Infants were more susceptible to CMV infection than parturients. PMID:28283676

  14. Human cytomegalovirus resistance to antiviral drugs: diagnosis, monitoring and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Baldanti, Fausto; Gerna, Giuseppe

    2003-09-01

    The incidence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) disease in AIDS patients decreased dramatically after the introduction, a few years ago, of highly active antiretroviral combination therapy. As a consequence, the emergence of drug-resistant HCMV strains is no longer a major problem in HIV-infected individuals. However, HCMV resistance to antiviral drugs is presently recognized as an emerging problem in transplantation settings. The mechanisms of HCMV drug resistance will be analysed along with the clinical features relevant to the emergence of drug-resistant HCMV strains during antiviral treatment of patients receiving either solid organ or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  15. Absence of human cytomegalovirus infection in childhood brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sardi, Iacopo; Lucchesi, Maurizio; Becciani, Sabrina; Facchini, Ludovica; Guidi, Milena; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Moriondo, Maria; Baroni, Gianna; Stival, Alessia; Farina, Silvia; Genitori, Lorenzo; de Martino, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common human pathogen which induces different clinical manifestations related to the age and the immune conditions of the host. HCMV infection seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of adult glioblastomas. The aim of our study was to detect the presence of HCMV in high grade gliomas and other pediatric brain tumors. This hypothesis might have important therapeutic implications, offering a new target for adjuvant therapies. Among 106 pediatric patients affected by CNS tumors we selected 27 patients with a positive HCMV serology. The serological analysis revealed 7 patients with positive HCMV IGG (≥14 U/mL), whom had also a high HCMV IgG avidity, suggesting a more than 6 months-dated infection. Furthermore, HCMV IGM were positive (≥22 U/mL) in 20 patients. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses were performed in all the 27 samples. Despite a positive HCMV serology, confirmed by ELISA, no viral DNA was shown at the PCR analysis in the patients’ neoplastic cells. At immunohistochemistry, no expression of HCMV antigens was observed in tumoral cells. Our results are in agreement with recent results in adults which did not evidence the presence of HCMV genome in glioblastoma lesions. We did not find any correlation between HCMV infection and pediatric CNS tumors. PMID:26396923

  16. High Human Cytomegalovirus IgG Level is Associated with Increased Incidence of Diabetic Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Sun, Hui-ling; Li, Shan; Xiong, Hai-rong; Yang, Zhan-qiu; Xiang, Guang-da; Jiang, Xiao-jing

    2015-01-01

    Background At present, whether human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is debatable. The effect of active HCMV infection on glucose regulation has been poorly studied. Although HCMV infection is correlated with atherosclerosis in cardiovascular disease, the role of HCMV infection in the development of diabetic atherosclerosis in T2DM is unclear and is usually neglected by endocrinologists. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of HCMV infection on glucose regulation and the development of diabetic atherosclerosis in T2DM patients. Material/Methods A total of 222 hospitalized T2DM patients were enrolled. Nested polymerase chain reactions were used to detect HCMV DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine viral load. HCMV IgG antibody concentrations were analyzed by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results HCMV active infection, viral load, and HCMV IgG titers were not correlated with glucose regulation. Binary logistic regression demonstrated that the highest quartile of HCMV IgG concentration (>500 U/ml) was correlated with the incidence of diabetic atherosclerosis (OR: 8.0, 95%CI: 2.3–27.2), and that titer >127U/ml of HCMV IgG is an independent predictor for the development of diabetic atherosclerosis in T2DM patients (OR: 4.6, 95%CI: 1.9–11.3) after adjustment for all potential confounding factors. Conclusions Active HCMV infection is unlikely to influence glucose regulation in T2DM. However, HCMV IgG titers are associated with the incidence of diabetic atherosclerosis, and titer >127U/ml of HCMV IgG might be an independent risk factor for the development of diabetic atherosclerosis in T2DM patients. PMID:26717490

  17. Human cytomegalovirus function inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Cockley, K.D.; Shiraki, K.; Rapp, F.

    1988-01-01

    Human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 h as well as a consistent, almost 3 log inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 h after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. Treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells with cycloheximide (100 ..mu..g/ml) for 3 or 24 h was demonstrated effective in blocking HCMV protein synthesis, as shown by immunoprecipitation with HCMV antibody-positive polyvalent serum. Cycloheximide treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells and removal of the cycloheximide block before superinfection inhibited HSV-1 replication more efficiently than non-drug-treated superinfected controls. HCMV DNA-negative temperature-sensitive mutants restricted HSV as efficiently as wild-type HCMV suggesting that immediate-early and/or early events which occur before viral DNA synthesis are sufficient for inhibition of HSV. Inhibition of HSV-1 in HCMV-infected HEL cells was unaffected by elevated temperature (40.5/sup 0/C). However, prior UV irradiation of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HSV-2 replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Superinfection of HCMV-infected HEL cells with HSV-1 labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine provided evidence that the labeled virus could penetrate to the nucleus of cells after superinfection. Evidence for penetration of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was also provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in cells infected with HSV alone versus superinfected cell cultures at 0 and 48 h after superinfection.

  18. Two novel human cytomegalovirus NK cell evasion functions target MICA for lysosomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Ceri A; Aicheler, Rebecca; Stanton, Richard J; Wang, Eddie C Y; Han, Song; Seirafian, Sepehr; Davies, James; McSharry, Brian P; Weekes, Michael P; Antrobus, P Robin; Prod'homme, Virginie; Blanchet, Fabien P; Sugrue, Daniel; Cuff, Simone; Roberts, Dawn; Davison, Andrew J; Lehner, Paul J; Wilkinson, Gavin W G; Tomasec, Peter

    2014-05-01

    NKG2D plays a major role in controlling immune responses through the regulation of natural killer (NK) cells, αβ and γδ T-cell function. This activating receptor recognizes eight distinct ligands (the MHC Class I polypeptide-related sequences (MIC) A andB, and UL16-binding proteins (ULBP)1-6) induced by cellular stress to promote recognition cells perturbed by malignant transformation or microbial infection. Studies into human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) have aided both the identification and characterization of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs). HCMV immediate early (IE) gene up regulates NKGDLs, and we now describe the differential activation of ULBP2 and MICA/B by IE1 and IE2 respectively. Despite activation by IE functions, HCMV effectively suppressed cell surface expression of NKGDLs through both the early and late phases of infection. The immune evasion functions UL16, UL142, and microRNA(miR)-UL112 are known to target NKG2DLs. While infection with a UL16 deletion mutant caused the expected increase in MICB and ULBP2 cell surface expression, deletion of UL142 did not have a similar impact on its target, MICA. We therefore performed a systematic screen of the viral genome to search of addition functions that targeted MICA. US18 and US20 were identified as novel NK cell evasion functions capable of acting independently to promote MICA degradation by lysosomal degradation. The most dramatic effect on MICA expression was achieved when US18 and US20 acted in concert. US18 and US20 are the first members of the US12 gene family to have been assigned a function. The US12 family has 10 members encoded sequentially through US12-US21; a genetic arrangement, which is suggestive of an 'accordion' expansion of an ancestral gene in response to a selective pressure. This expansion must have be an ancient event as the whole family is conserved across simian cytomegaloviruses from old world monkeys. The evolutionary benefit bestowed by the combinatorial effect of US18 and US20 on MICA

  19. Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in the cell cycle modulation and required for effective human cytomegalovirus infection in THP-1 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Arcangeletti, Maria-Cristina; Germini, Diego; Rodighiero, Isabella; Mirandola, Prisco; De Conto, Flora; Medici, Maria-Cristina; Gatti, Rita; Chezzi, Carlo; Calderaro, Adriana

    2013-05-25

    Suitable host cell metabolic conditions are fundamental for the effective development of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic cycle. Indeed, several studies have demonstrated the ability of this virus to interfere with cell cycle regulation, mainly by blocking proliferating cells in G1 or G1/S. In the present study, we demonstrate that HCMV deregulates the cell cycle of THP-1 macrophages (a cell line irreversibly arrested in G0) by pushing them into S and G2 phases. Moreover, we show that HCMV infection of THP-1 macrophages leads to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Since various studies have indicated TLR4 to be involved in promoting cell proliferation, here we investigate the possible role of TLR4 in the observed HCMV-induced cell cycle perturbation. Our data strongly support TLR4 as a mediator of HCMV-triggered cell cycle activation in THP-1 macrophages favouring, in turn, the development of an efficient viral lytic cycle. - Highlights: ► We studied HCMV infection impact on THP-1 macrophage cell cycle. ► We analysed the role played by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 upon HCMV infection. ► HCMV pushes THP-1 macrophages (i.e. resting cells) to re-enter the cell cycle. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition strongly affects the effectiveness of HCMV replication. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition significantly decreases HCMV-induced cell cycle re-entry.

  20. Comparison of Real-time PCR to ELISA for the detection of human cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to detect human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IgG and IgM antibodies using an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in renal transplant patients in Khartoum state, Sudan and to improve the diagnosis of HCMV through the introduction of Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing. A total of 98 plasma samples were collected randomly from renal transplant patients at Ibin Sina Hospital and Salma Centre for Transplantation and Haemodialysis during the period from August to September 2006. Results Among the 98 renal transplant patients, 65 were males and 33 females. The results revealed that HCMV IgG was present in all patients' plasma 98/98 (100%), while only 6/98 (6.1%) had IgM antibodies in their plasma. HCMV DNA viral loads were detected in 32 patients 32/98 (32.7%) using Real-time PCR. Conclusions The HCMV IgG results indicate a high prevalence of past HCMV infection in all tested groups, while the finding of IgM may reflect a recent infection or reactivation. HCMV detection by real-time PCR in the present study indicated a high prevalence among renal transplant patients in Khartoum. In conclusion, the prevalence of HCMV in Khartoum State was documented through detection of HCMV-specific antibodies. Further study using various diagnostic methods should be considered to determine the prevalence of HCMV disease at the national level. PMID:21569506

  1. Glucocorticoids facilitate the transcription from the human cytomegalovirus major immediate early promoter in glucocorticoid receptor- and nuclear factor-I-like protein-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue-Toyoda, Maki; Kato, Kohsuke; Nagata, Kyosuke; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-27

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common and usually asymptomatic virus agent in healthy individuals. Initiation of HCMV productive infection depends on expression of the major immediate early (MIE) genes. The transcription of HCMV MIE genes is regulated by a diverse set of transcription factors. It was previously reported that productive HCMV infection is triggered probably by elevation of the plasma hydroxycorticoid level. However, it is poorly understood whether the transcription of MIE genes is directly regulated by glucocorticoid. Here, we found that the dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, facilitates the transcription of HCMV MIE genes through the MIE promoter and enhancer in a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent manner. By competitive EMSA and reporter assays, we revealed that an NF-I like protein is involved in DEX-mediated transcriptional activation of the MIE promoter. Thus, this study supports a notion that the increased level of hydroxycorticoid in the third trimester of pregnancy reactivates HCMV virus production from the latent state. - Highlights: • DEX facilitates the transcription from the HCMV MIE promoter. • GR is involved in DEX-dependent transcription from the HCMV MIE promoter. • A 17 bp repeat is responsible for the HCMV MIE promoter activation by DEX. • An NF-I-like protein is involved in the HCMV MIE promoter activation by DEX.

  2. The multi-targeted kinase inhibitor sorafenib inhibits human cytomegalovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Martin; Paulus, Christina; Löschmann, Nadine; Dauth, Stephanie; Stange, Elisabeth; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Nevels, Michael; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2011-03-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Here, non-toxic concentrations of the anti-cancer kinase inhibitor sorafenib were shown to inhibit replication of different HCMV strains (including a ganciclovir-resistant strain) in different cell types. In contrast to established anti-HCMV drugs, sorafenib inhibited HCMV major immediate early promoter activity and HCMV immediate early antigen (IEA) expression. Sorafenib is known to inhibit Raf. Comparison of sorafenib with the MEK inhibitor U0126 suggested that sorafenib inhibits HCMV IEA expression through inhibition of Raf but independently of signaling through the Raf downstream kinase MEK 1/2. In concordance, siRNA-mediated depletion of Raf but not of MEK-reduced IEA expression. In conclusion, sorafenib diminished HCMV replication in clinically relevant concentrations and inhibited HCMV IEA expression, a pathophysiologically relevant event that is not affected by established anti-HCMV drugs. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that Raf activation is involved in HCMV IEA expression.

  3. Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Protein pp65 Is Detected in All Intra- and Extra-Axial Brain Tumours Independent of the Tumour Type or Grade

    PubMed Central

    Libard, Sylwia; Popova, Svetlana N.; Amini, Rose-Marie; Kärjä, Vesa; Pietiläinen, Timo; Hämäläinen, Kirsi M.; Sundström, Christer; Hesselager, Göran; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Zetterling, Maria; Smits, Anja; Nilsson, Pelle; Pfeifer, Susan; de Ståhl, Teresita Diaz; Enblad, Gunilla; Ponten, Fredrik; Alafuzoff, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been indicated being a significant oncomodulator. Recent reports have suggested that an antiviral treatment alters the outcome of a glioblastoma. We analysed the performance of commercial HCMV-antibodies applying the immunohistochemical (IHC) methods on brain sample obtained from a subject with a verified HCMV infection, on samples obtained from 14 control subjects, and on a tissue microarray block containing cores of various brain tumours. Based on these trials, we selected the best performing antibody and analysed a cohort of 417 extra- and intra-axial brain tumours such as gliomas, medulloblastomas, primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and meningiomas. HCMV protein pp65 immunoreactivity was observed in all types of tumours analysed, and the IHC expression did not depend on the patient's age, gender, tumour type, or grade. The labelling pattern observed in the tumours differed from the labelling pattern observed in the tissue with an active HCMV infection. The HCMV protein was expressed in up to 90% of all the tumours investigated. Our results are in accordance with previous reports regarding the HCMV protein expression in glioblastomas and medulloblastomas. In addition, the HCMV protein expression was seen in primary brain lymphomas, low-grade gliomas, and in meningiomas. Our results indicate that the HCMV protein pp65 expression is common in intra- and extra-axial brain tumours. Thus, the assessment of the HCMV expression in tumours of various origins and pathologically altered tissue in conditions such as inflammation, infection, and even degeneration should certainly be facilitated. PMID:25268364

  4. Inhibition of ganciclovir-resistant human cytomegalovirus replication by Kampo (Japanese herbal medicine).

    PubMed

    Murayama, Tsugiya; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Iwamoto, Kozo; Eizuru, Yoshito

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effect of Kampo on the replication of ganciclovir (GCV)-resistant human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the human embryonic fibroblast cell line MRC-5. Treatment of HCMV-infected cells with Sho-seiryu-to (SST; Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang in Chinese) resulted in the inhibition of viral replication without affecting the cell growth. SST treatment decreased the synthesis of viral DNA, but had no virucidal effect on cell-free HCMV. However, the inhibitory effect of SST on HCMV replication was ablated by anti-interferon-beta (IFN-beta) antibody suggesting that SST inhibits the replication of GCV-resistant HCMV through the induction of IFN-beta. These results suggest that SST is a novel compund with potential as an anti-HCMV.

  5. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a target for cytomegalovirus infection: Implications for hematopoiesis, self-renewal and differentiation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Sergey V.; Harbacheuski, Ryhor; Lewis-Antes, Anita; Zhu Hua; Rameshwar, Pranela; Kotenko, Sergei V. . E-mail: kotenkse@umdnj.edu

    2007-03-30

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in bone marrow (BM) regulate the differentiation and proliferation of adjacent hematopoietic precursor cells and contribute to the regeneration of mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat and connective tissue. BM is an important site for the pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) where the virus establishes latency in hematopoietic progenitors and can transmit after reactivation to neighboring cells. Here we demonstrate that BM-MSCs are permissive to productive HCMV infection, and that HCMV alters the function of MSCs: (i) by changing the repertoire of cell surface molecules in BM-MSCs, HCMV modifies the pattern of interaction between BM-MSCs and hematopoietic cells; (ii) HCMV infection of BM-MSCs undergoing adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation impaired the process of differentiation. Our results suggest that by altering BM-MSC biology, HCMV may contribute to the development of various diseases.

  6. Glucocorticoids facilitate the transcription from the human cytomegalovirus major immediate early promoter in glucocorticoid receptor- and nuclear factor-I-like protein-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Inoue-Toyoda, Maki; Kato, Kohsuke; Nagata, Kyosuke; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-27

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common and usually asymptomatic virus agent in healthy individuals. Initiation of HCMV productive infection depends on expression of the major immediate early (MIE) genes. The transcription of HCMV MIE genes is regulated by a diverse set of transcription factors. It was previously reported that productive HCMV infection is triggered probably by elevation of the plasma hydroxycorticoid level. However, it is poorly understood whether the transcription of MIE genes is directly regulated by glucocorticoid. Here, we found that the dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, facilitates the transcription of HCMV MIE genes through the MIE promoter and enhancer in a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent manner. By competitive EMSA and reporter assays, we revealed that an NF-I like protein is involved in DEX-mediated transcriptional activation of the MIE promoter. Thus, this study supports a notion that the increased level of hydroxycorticoid in the third trimester of pregnancy reactivates HCMV virus production from the latent state.

  7. Sequestration of human cytomegalovirus by human renal and mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Twite, Nicolas; Andrei, Graciela; Kummert, Caroline; Donner, Catherine; Perez-Morga, David; De Vos, Rita; Snoeck, Robert; Marchant, Arnaud

    2014-07-15

    Urine and breast milk represent the main routes of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) transmission but the contribution of renal and mammary epithelial cells to viral excretion remains unclear. We observed that kidney and mammary epithelial cells were permissive to HCMV infection and expressed immediate early, early and late antigens within 72 h of infection. During the first 24 h after infection, high titers of infectious virus were measured associated to the cells and in culture supernatants, independently of de novo synthesis of virus progeny. This phenomenon was not observed in HCMV-infected fibroblasts and suggested the sequestration and the release of HCMV by epithelial cells. This hypothesis was supported by confocal and electron microscopy analyses. The sequestration and progressive release of HCMV by kidney and mammary epithelial cells may play an important role in the excretion of the virus in urine and breast milk and may thereby contribute to HCMV transmission. - Highlights: • Primary renal and mammary epithelial cells are permissive to HCMV infection. • HCMV is sequestered by epithelial cells and this phenomenon does not require viral replication. • HCMV sequestration by epithelial cells is reduced by antibodies and IFN-γ.

  8. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

    MedlinePlus

    CMV mononucleosis; Cytomegalovirus; CMV; Human cytomegalovirus; HCMV ... infection is spread by: Blood transfusions Organ transplants ... viruses remain in your body for the rest of your life. If your ...

  9. Roles of host and viral microRNAs in human cytomegalovirus biology

    PubMed Central

    Dhuruvasan, Kavitha; Sivasubramanian, Geetha; Pellett, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has a relatively large and complex genome, a protracted lytic replication cycle, and employs a strategy of replicational latency as part of its lifelong persistence in the infected host. An important form of gene regulation in plants and animals revolves around a type of small RNA known as microRNA (miRNA). miRNAs can serve as major regulators of key developmental pathways, as well as provide subtle forms of regulatory control. The human genome encodes over 900 miRNAs, and miRNAs are also encoded by some viruses, including HCMV, which encodes at least 14 miRNAs. Some of the HCMV miRNAs are known to target both viral and cellular genes, including important immunomodulators. In addition to expressing their own miRNAs, infections with some viruses, including HCMV, can result in changes in the expression of cellular miRNAs that benefit virus replication. In this review, we summarize the connections between miRNAs and HCMV biology. We describe the nature of miRNA genes, miRNA biogenesis and modes of action, methods for studying miRNAs, HCMV-encoded miRNAs, effects of HCMV infection on cellular miRNA expression, roles of miRNAs in HCMV biology, and possible HCMV-related diagnostic and therapeutic applications of miRNAs. PMID:20969901

  10. Active human cytomegalovirus infection and glycoprotein b genotypes in brazilian pediatric renal or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients

    PubMed Central

    de Campos Dieamant, Débora; Bonon, Sandra Helena Alves; Prates, Liliane Cury; Belangelo, Vera Maria Santoro; Pontes, Erika R.; Costa, Sandra Cecília Botelho

    2010-01-01

    A prospective analysis of active Human Cytomegalovirus infection (HCMV) was conducted on 33 pediatric renal or hematopoietic stem cell post-transplant patients. The HCMV-DNA positive samples were evaluated for the prevalence of different gB subtypes and their subsequent correlation with clinical signs. The surveillance of HCMV active infection was based on the monitoring of antigenemia (AGM) and on a nested polymerase chain reaction (N-PCR) for the detection of HCMV in the patients studied. Using restriction analysis of the gB gene sequence by PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism), different HCMV strains could be detected and classified in at least four HCMV genotypes. Thirty-three pediatric recipients of renal or bone marrow transplantation were monitored. Twenty out of thirty-three (60.6%) patients demonstrated active HCMV infection. gB1 and gB2 genotypes were more frequent in this population. In this study, we observed that gB2 had correlation with reactivation of HCMV infection and that patients with mixture of genotypes did not show any symptoms of HCMV disease. Future studies has been made to confirm this. PMID:24031463

  11. Human cytomegalovirus-induced NKG2C(hi) CD57(hi) natural killer cells are effectors dependent on humoral antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zeguang; Sinzger, Christian; Frascaroli, Giada; Reichel, Johanna; Bayer, Carina; Wang, Li; Schirmbeck, Reinhold; Mertens, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies indicate that expansion of NKG2C-positive natural killer (NK) cells is associated with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV); however, their activity in response to HCMV-infected cells remains unclear. We show that NKG2C(hi) CD57(hi) NK cells gated on CD3(neg) CD56(dim) cells can be phenotypically identified as HCMV-induced NK cells that can be activated by HCMV-infected cells. Using HCMV-infected autologous macrophages as targets, we were able to show that these NKG2C(hi) CD57(hi) NK cells are highly responsive to HCMV-infected macrophages only in the presence of HCMV-specific antibodies, whereas they are functionally poor effectors of natural cytotoxicity. We further demonstrate that NKG2C(hi) CD57(hi) NK cells are intrinsically responsive to signaling through CD16 cross-linking. Our findings show that the activity of pathogen-induced innate immune cells can be enhanced by adaptive humoral immunity. Understanding the activity of NKG2C(hi) CD57(hi) NK cells against HCMV-infected cells will be of relevance for the further development of adoptive immunotherapy.

  12. Bacterial Muramyl Dipeptide (MDP) Restricts Human Cytomegalovirus Replication via an IFN-β-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Arun; Fan, Yi-Hsin; Arav-Boger, Ravit

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that induction of NOD2 by human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) resulted in virus inhibition and upregulation of antiviral and inflammatory cytokines. Here we investigated the effects of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), a bacterial cell wall component that activates NOD2, on HCMV replication and antiviral responses. HCMV infection of human foreskin fibroblasts induced NOD2, the downstream receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIPK2), resulting in phosphorylation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). MDP treatment following infection at low multiplicity (MOI = 0.1 PFU/cell) inhibited HCMV in a dose-dependent manner and further induced phosphorylation of TBK1, IRF3 and expression of IFN-β. None of these effects of MDP were observed following infection at multiplicity of 1. In infected NOD2 knocked-down cells MDP did not induce IFN-β, irrespective of MOI. Treatment with MDP before infection also inhibited HCMV, an effect augmented with treatment duration. Treatment with an IFN-β receptor blocking antibody or knockdown of IFN-β significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of MDP on HCMV. MDP treatment before or after infection with herpesvirus 1 did not inhibit its replication. Summarized, NOD2 activation exerts anti-HCMV activities predominantly via IFN-β. Since MDP is a bacterial cell wall component, ongoing microbial exposure may influence HCMV replication. PMID:26830977

  13. Presence of antibodies to human cytomegalovirus in patients with different forms of cancer and in other categories of subjects.

    PubMed

    Stoian, M; Hozoc, M; Iosipenco, M; Bolocan, J; Nastac, E

    1982-01-01

    Complement fixing (CF) antibodies to the AD--129 strain of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) were detected in patients with different forms of cancer, as well as in blood donors, in a proportion of 16.6% and 73.2%, respectively. The prevalence of CF antibodies to HCMV, strain AT--129, in the population of Romania is similar to that reported in other countries.

  14. The effect of human cytomegalovirus on the formation of CFU-MK in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junxia; Song, Sanjun; Hu, Lihua

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism and the suppressive effect of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) on colony forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-MK), semi-solid culture system was used to observe the effect of HCMV AD169 strain on CFU-MK's growth of 18 cord blood samples. HCMV DNA and immediate early (IE) protein mRNA in CFU-MK was detected by PCR and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our results showed that HCMV AD169 significantly suppressed the formation of CFU-MK in vitro. Compared with the mock group, the CFU-MK colonies decreased by 21.6%, 33.8% and 46.3%, respectively, in all the 3 infected groups (P<0.05), suggesting the suppression and the titer of the virus was dose-dependent. Both HCMV DNA and the expression of HCMV IE protein mRNA were positively detected in the colony cells of viral infected group. It is concluded that HCMV AD169 strain could inhibit the differentiation and proliferation of CFU-MK by directly infecting their progenitors. There was early transcription of HCMV IE protein in CFU-MK infected by virus.

  15. Bacterial Muramyl Dipeptide (MDP) Restricts Human Cytomegalovirus Replication via an IFN-β-Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Arun; Fan, Yi-Hsin; Arav-Boger, Ravit

    2016-02-02

    We recently reported that induction of NOD2 by human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) resulted in virus inhibition and upregulation of antiviral and inflammatory cytokines. Here we investigated the effects of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), a bacterial cell wall component that activates NOD2, on HCMV replication and antiviral responses. HCMV infection of human foreskin fibroblasts induced NOD2, the downstream receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIPK2), resulting in phosphorylation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). MDP treatment following infection at low multiplicity (MOI = 0.1 PFU/cell) inhibited HCMV in a dose-dependent manner and further induced phosphorylation of TBK1, IRF3 and expression of IFN-β. None of these effects of MDP were observed following infection at multiplicity of 1. In infected NOD2 knocked-down cells MDP did not induce IFN-β, irrespective of MOI. Treatment with MDP before infection also inhibited HCMV, an effect augmented with treatment duration. Treatment with an IFN-β receptor blocking antibody or knockdown of IFN-β significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of MDP on HCMV. MDP treatment before or after infection with herpesvirus 1 did not inhibit its replication. Summarized, NOD2 activation exerts anti-HCMV activities predominantly via IFN-β. Since MDP is a bacterial cell wall component, ongoing microbial exposure may influence HCMV replication.

  16. Human cytomegalovirus renders cells non-permissive for replication of herpes simplex viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Cockley, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome during production infection in vitro may be subject to negative regulation which results in modification of the cascade of expression of herpes virus macromolecular synthesis leading to establishment of HSV latency. In the present study, human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of HSV type-1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 hr as well as a consistent, almost 1000-fold inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 hr after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. HSV type-2 (HSV-2) replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Prior ultraviolet-irradiation (UV) of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) negative temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants inhibited HSV replications as efficiently as wild-type (wt) HCMV at the non-permissive temperature. Evidence for penetration and replication of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in HSV-superinfected cell cultures and by cesium chloride density gradient analysis of ({sup 3}H)-labeled HSV-1-superinfected cells.

  17. Diagnostic significance and clinical impact of quantitative assays for diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus infection/disease in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Gerna, G; Percivalle, E; Baldanti, F; Sarasini, A; Zavattoni, M; Furione, M; Torsellini, M; Revello, M G

    1998-07-01

    In recent years several assays have been developed for quantitation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in blood of immunocompromised (transplanted and AIDS) patients. It is currently agreed that the only reliable indication of the degree of dissemination of HCMV infection/disease is the measurement of HCMV in blood. Diagnosis of HCMV end-organ disease (organ localizations) often does not benefit from quantitation of virus in blood, but requires detection and quantification of virus in samples taken locally. The most important and clinically useful diagnostic assays for HCMV quantitation in blood are: i) viremia, quantifying infectious HCMV carried by peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL); ii) pp65-antigenemia, quantifying the number of PBL positive for HCMV pp65 in the nucleus; iii) circulating cytomegalic endothelial cell (CEC) viremia (CEC-viremia) measuring the number of circulating CEC carrying infectious HCMV (during the antigenemia assay); iv) leuko- and plasma-DNAemia, quantifying the number of HCMV genome equivalents present in PBL or plasma, respectively, by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Other less widely used assays are: i) determination of immediate early and late gene transcripts (mRNA) to detect active viral infection; ii) in situ hybridization to detect viral nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) in tissue sections or cell smears; iii) in situ PCR to detect a low DNA copy number in single cells. Monitoring of HCMV infection/disease in transplant recipients and AIDS patients has established threshold values for different assays above which HCMV-related clinical symptoms are likely to appear. These values are approximately 10 for viremia, 100 for antigenemia and 1,000 GE for leukoDNAemia, and are valid for both solid organ and bone marrow transplant recipients as well as AIDS patients, whereas presence of even a single circulating CEC is sufficient to suggest the presence of a disseminated HCMV infection with potential organ involvement. Monitoring of

  18. Human cytomegalovirus: propagation, quantification, and storage.

    PubMed

    Britt, William J

    2010-08-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the largest and perhaps the most structurally complex member of the family of human herpesviruses. It is the prototypic virus of the beta-herpesvirus subfamily. As with other cytomegaloviruses, HCMV is exquisitely species specific and undergoes lytic replication only in cells of human origin. In addition, its replication is limited almost entirely to primary cells and a limited number of transformed cell lines. Together with its prolonged replicative cycle of approximately 48 hr, the propagation and quantification of HCMV can present technical challenges. In this brief set of protocols, the propagation of laboratory strains of HCMV and their quantitation is described. In a third series of protocols, the concentration and gradient purification of HCMV for more specialized downstream applications is described.

  19. Human cytomegalovirus detection in gastric cancer and its possible association with lymphatic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Guo, Gangqiang; Xu, Jianfeng; Sun, Xiangwei; Chen, Wenjing; Jin, Jinji; Hu, Changyuan; Zhang, Peichen; Shen, Xian; Xue, Xiangyang

    2017-02-08

    Increasing evidence suggests that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is associated with many human malignancies. However, its prevalence in gastric cancer (GC) and clinical association remain unknown. HCMV IgG and IgM antibodies in the sera of 80 GC patients and 80 healthy controls were detected using a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. The prevalence of HCMV UL47, UL55, UL56, and UL77 genes among 102 GC tumor tissues and adjacent normal specimens was measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or nested PCR. Quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) was used to determine viral load. Virus localization in neoplastic tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. No significant difference of HCMV IgG and IgM seropositivity was found between GC patients and the healthy group. However, the overall HCMV DNA positivity rate was significantly higher in GC cancerous tissue compared with in paired normal tissue (P<0.01). HCMV infection was mainly localized in the tumorous epithelium. Q-PCR in HCMV-positive specimens indicated that the viral copy number was notably higher in GC tissues than in adjacent normal specimens (P<0.001). Clinical statistical analysis indicated that HCMV load in GC tumor tissue was positively associated with lymphatic metastasis (P=0.043), the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.6638. Our data clearly provide the prevalence of HCMV in GC patients. We conclude that HCMV infection in malignant tissues might be associated with carcinogenesis or progression of GC and possibly relates to lymphatic metastasis.

  20. Natural Killer Cells Can Inhibit the Transmission of Human Cytomegalovirus in Cell Culture by Using Mechanisms from Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zeguang; Sinzger, Christian; Reichel, Johanna Julia; Just, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) transmission within the host is important for the pathogenesis of HCMV diseases. Natural killer (NK) cells are well known to provide a first line of host defense against virus infections. However, the role of NK cells in the control of HCMV transmission is still unknown. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that NK cells can efficiently control HCMV transmission in different cell types. NK cells engage different mechanisms to control the HCMV transmission both via soluble factors and by cell contact. NK cell-produced interferon gamma (IFN-γ) suppresses HCMV production and induces resistance of bystander cells to HCMV infection. The UL16 viral gene contributes to an immune evasion from the NK cell-mediated control of HCMV transmission. Furthermore, the efficacy of the antibody-dependent NK cell-mediated control of HCMV transmission is dependent on a CD16-158V/F polymorphism. Our findings indicate that NK cells may have a clinical relevance in HCMV infection and highlight the need to consider potential therapeutic strategies based on the manipulation of NK cells. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects 40% to 100% of the human population worldwide. After primary infection, mainly in childhood, the virus establishes a lifelong persistence with possible reactivations. Most infections remain asymptomatic; however, HCMV represents a major health problem since it is the most frequent cause of infection-induced birth defects and is responsible for high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The immune system normally controls the infection by antibodies and immune effector cells. One type of effector cells are the natural killer (NK) cells, which provide a rapid response to virus-infected cells. NK cells participate in viral clearance by inducing the death of infected cells. NK cells also secrete antiviral cytokines as a consequence of the interaction with an infected cell. In this study, we

  1. Bioactive Molecules Released From Cells Infected with the Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Luganini, Anna; Terlizzi, Maria E.; Gribaudo, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Following primary infection in humans, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) persists in a latent state throughout the host’s lifetime despite a strong and efficient immune response. If the host experiences some form of immune dysregulation, such as immunosuppression or immunodeficiency, HCMV reactivates, thereby emerging from latency. Thus, in the absence of effective functional immune responses, as occurs in immunocompromised or immunoimmature individuals, both HCMV primary infections and reactivations from latency can cause significant morbidity and mortality. However, even in immunocompetent hosts, HCMV represents a relevant risk factor for the development of several chronic inflammatory diseases and certain forms of neoplasia. HCMV infection may shift between the lytic and latent state, regulated by a delicate and intricate balance between virus-mediated immunomodulation and host immune defenses. Indeed, HCMV is a master in manipulating innate and adaptive host defense pathways, and a large portion of its genome is devoted to encoding immunomodulatory proteins; such proteins may thus represent important virulence determinants. However, the pathogenesis of HCMV-related diseases is strengthened by the activities of bioactive molecules, of both viral and cellular origin, that are secreted from infected cells and collectively named as the secretome. Here, we review the state of knowledge on the composition and functions of HCMV-derived secretomes. In lytic infections of fibroblasts and different types of endothelial cells, the majority of HCMV-induced secreted proteins act in a paracrine fashion to stimulate the generation of an inflammatory microenvironment around infected cells; this may lead to vascular inflammation and angiogenesis that, in turn, foster HCMV replication and its dissemination through host tissues. Conversely, the HCMV secretome derived from latently infected hematopoietic progenitor cells induces an immunosuppressive extracellular environment that

  2. Detection of Human Cytomegalovirus pp67 Late Gene Transcripts in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients by Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Tetali, Surya; Wang, Xue Ping; Kaplan, Mark H.; Cromme, Frans V.; Ginocchio, Christine C.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the clinical correlation between the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pp67 mRNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and active HCMV central nervous system (CNS) disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In total, 76 CSF specimens collected from 65 HIV-1-positive patients diagnosed with HCMV CNS disease, other non-HCMV-related CNS diseases, or no CNS disease were tested for the presence of HCMV pp67 mRNA using the NucliSens cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp67 assay (Organon Teknika, Durham, N.C.). The results were compared to those of a nested PCR for the detection of HCMV glycoprotein B DNA and to those obtained by viral culture (54 samples). CSF specimens collected from patients without HCMV CNS disease yielded the following results: pp67 assay negative, 62 of 62 specimens; culture negative, 41 of 41 specimens; and PCR negative, 56 of 62 specimens (6 specimens were positive). CSF specimens collected from patients with HCMV CNS disease yielded the following results: pp67 assay positive, 9 of 13 specimens; PCR positive, 13 of 13 specimens; and culture positive, 2 of 13 specimens. After resolution of the discordant results, the following positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) for the diagnosis of HCMV CNS disease were determined. The PPV for PCR, pp67 assay, and culture were 68.4, 100, and 100%, respectively, and the NPV for PCR, pp67 assay, and culture were 100, 97.0, and 82.7%, respectively. The sensitivities for DNA PCR, pp67 assay, and culture for the detection of HCMV were 100, 84.6, and 18%, respectively, and the clinical specificities were 90.5, 100, and 100%, respectively. This study indicates that the detection of HCMV pp67 mRNA in CSF has good correlation with active HCMV CNS disease, whereas CSF culture is insensitive and qualitative DNA PCR may detect latent nonreplicating virus in CSF from patients without HCMV CNS disease. PMID:10790122

  3. Detection of human cytomegalovirus pp67 late gene transcripts in cerebrospinal fluid of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, F; Tetali, S; Wang, X P; Kaplan, M H; Cromme, F V; Ginocchio, C C

    2000-05-01

    This study examined the clinical correlation between the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pp67 mRNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and active HCMV central nervous system (CNS) disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In total, 76 CSF specimens collected from 65 HIV-1-positive patients diagnosed with HCMV CNS disease, other non-HCMV-related CNS diseases, or no CNS disease were tested for the presence of HCMV pp67 mRNA using the NucliSens cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp67 assay (Organon Teknika, Durham, N.C.). The results were compared to those of a nested PCR for the detection of HCMV glycoprotein B DNA and to those obtained by viral culture (54 samples). CSF specimens collected from patients without HCMV CNS disease yielded the following results: pp67 assay negative, 62 of 62 specimens; culture negative, 41 of 41 specimens; and PCR negative, 56 of 62 specimens (6 specimens were positive). CSF specimens collected from patients with HCMV CNS disease yielded the following results: pp67 assay positive, 9 of 13 specimens; PCR positive, 13 of 13 specimens; and culture positive, 2 of 13 specimens. After resolution of the discordant results, the following positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) for the diagnosis of HCMV CNS disease were determined. The PPV for PCR, pp67 assay, and culture were 68.4, 100, and 100%, respectively, and the NPV for PCR, pp67 assay, and culture were 100, 97.0, and 82. 7%, respectively. The sensitivities for DNA PCR, pp67 assay, and culture for the detection of HCMV were 100, 84.6, and 18%, respectively, and the clinical specificities were 90.5, 100, and 100%, respectively. This study indicates that the detection of HCMV pp67 mRNA in CSF has good correlation with active HCMV CNS disease, whereas CSF culture is insensitive and qualitative DNA PCR may detect latent nonreplicating virus in CSF from patients without HCMV CNS disease.

  4. Induction of Pluripotent Protective Immunity Following Immunisation with a Chimeric Vaccine against Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jie; Rist, Michael; Cooper, Leanne; Smith, Corey; Khanna, Rajiv

    2008-01-01

    Based on the life-time cost to the health care system, the Institute of Medicine has assigned the highest priority for a vaccine to control human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) disease in transplant patients and new born babies. In spite of numerous attempts successful licensure of a HCMV vaccine formulation remains elusive. Here we have developed a novel chimeric vaccine strategy based on a replication-deficient adenovirus which encodes the extracellular domain of gB protein and multiple HLA class I & II-restricted CTL epitopes from HCMV as a contiguous polypeptide. Immunisation with this chimeric vaccine consistently generated strong HCMV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells which co-expressed IFN-γ and TNF-α, while the humoral response induced by this vaccine showed strong virus neutralizing capacity. More importantly, immunization with adenoviral chimeric vaccine also afforded protection against challenge with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding HCMV antigens and this protection was associated with the induction of a pluripotent antigen-specific cellular and antibody response. Furthermore, in vitro stimulation with this adenoviral chimeric vaccine rapidly expanded multiple antigen-specific human CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells from healthy virus carriers. These studies demonstrate that the adenovirus chimeric HCMV vaccine provides an excellent platform for reconstituting protective immunity to prevent HCMV diseases in different clinical settings. PMID:18806877

  5. Novel human cytomegalovirus viral chemokines, vCXCL-1s, display functional selectivity for neutrophil signaling and function

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jinho; Dogra, Pranay; Masi, Tom J.; Pitt, Elisabeth A.; de Kruijf, Petra; Smit, Martine J.; Sparer, Tim E.

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) uses members of the hematopoietic system including neutrophils for dissemination throughout the body. HCMV encodes a viral chemokine, vCXCL-1, that is postulated to attract neutrophils for dissemination within the host. The gene encoding vCXCL-1, UL146, is one of the most variable genes in the HCMV genome. Why HCMV has evolved this hypervariability and how this affects the virus’ dissemination/pathogenesis is unknown. Because the vCXCL-1 hypervariability maps to important binding and activation domains, we hypothesized that vCXCL-1s differentially activate neutrophils, which could contribute to HCMV dissemination and/or pathogenesis. In order to test whether these viral chemokines affect neutrophil function, we generated vCXCL-1 proteins from 11 different clades from clinical isolates from HCMV-congenitally infected infants. All vCXCL-1s were able to induce calcium flux at a concentration of 100 nM and integrin expression on human peripheral blood neutrophils (PBNs) in spite of differences in affinity for the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors. In fact their affinity for CXCR1 or CXCR2 did not directly correlate with chemotaxis, G protein-dependent and independent (β-arrestin2) activation, or secondary chemokine (CCL22) expression. Our data suggest that vCXCL-1 polymorphisms impact the binding affinity, receptor usage, and differential PBN activation that could contribute to HCMV dissemination and/or pathogenesis. PMID:25987741

  6. Limits and patterns of cytomegalovirus genomic diversity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Renzette, Nicholas; Pokalyuk, Cornelia; Gibson, Laura; Bhattacharjee, Bornali; Schleiss, Mark R.; Hamprecht, Klaus; Yamamoto, Aparecida Y.; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Britt, William J.; Jensen, Jeffrey D.; Kowalik, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) exhibits surprisingly high genomic diversity during natural infection although little is known about the limits or patterns of HCMV diversity among humans. To address this deficiency, we analyzed genomic diversity among congenitally infected infants. We show that there is an upper limit to HCMV genomic diversity in these patient samples, with ∼25% of the genome being devoid of polymorphisms. These low diversity regions were distributed across 26 loci that were preferentially located in DNA-processing genes. Furthermore, by developing, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide mutation and recombination rate maps for HCMV, we show that genomic diversity is positively correlated with these two rates. In contrast, median levels of viral genomic diversity did not vary between putatively single or mixed strain infections. We also provide evidence that HCMV populations isolated from vascular compartments of hosts from different continents are genetically similar and that polymorphisms in glycoproteins and regulatory proteins are enriched in these viral populations. This analysis provides the most highly detailed map of HCMV genomic diversity in human hosts to date and informs our understanding of the distribution of HCMV genomic diversity within human hosts. PMID:26150505

  7. Control of human cytomegalovirus gene expression by differential histone modifications during lytic and latent infection of a monocytic cell line.

    PubMed

    Ioudinkova, Elena; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Rynditch, Alla; De Conto, Flora; Motta, Federica; Covan, Silvia; Pinardi, Federica; Razin, Sergey V; Chezzi, Carlo

    2006-12-15

    Non-differentiated THP-1 cells can be infected by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) Towne strain, which persists in these cells in a non-active (latent) form without undergoing a productive cycle. The same cells become permissive for HCMV lytic infection after induction of cell differentiation by treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. We used this cellular model to study the possible role of histone modifications in the control of HCMV latency. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation with antibodies against histone H3 acetylated or dimethylated in position K9, we demonstrated that in lytically infected cells the HCMV enhancer was associated with heavy acetylated but not dimethylated H3. In the case of latent infection, the HCMV enhancer was associated with neither acetylated nor dimethylated H3. HCMV genes encoding DNA polymerase (early), pp65 (early-late) and pp150 (late) proteins were associated preferentially with acetylated H3 in lytically infected cells and with dimethylated H3 in latently infected cells. These data strongly suggest that K9 methylation of H3 is involved in HCMV gene repression, while association of the above genes with acetylated histones is likely to be necessary for active transcription. It can be postulated that the same histone modifications are used to mark active and repressed genes in both cellular and viral chromatin.

  8. Human cytomegalovirus miR-US33-5p inhibits viral DNA synthesis and viral replication by down-regulating expression of the host Syntaxin3.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Qi, Ying; Huang, Yujing; Liu, Zhongyang; Ma, Yanping; Shao, Yaozhong; Jiang, Shujuan; Sun, Zhengrong; Ruan, Qiang

    2015-02-13

    During infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), overexpression of hcmv-miR-US33 can inhibit the lytic viral replication and down-regulate US29 mRNA. However, it remains unknown whether inhibition of viral replication by miR-US33 is mediated by down-regulation of expression of US29 or another host gene. Here, we identified the host gene Syntaxin3 (STX3) to be a direct target of hcmv-miR-US33-5p using Hybrid-PCR and luciferase-reporter assays. It was further demonstrated that the levels of STX3 protein were down-regulated in hcmv-miR-US33-5p-overexpressing cells. Experiments with STX3-specific siRNA, or with an inhibitor of hcmv-miR-US33-5p confirmed that hcmv-miR-US33-5p-mediated inhibition of HCMV DNA synthesis and of viral replication are specifically mediated by down-regulation of STX3 expression.

  9. A novel flow cytometry-based tool for determining the efficiency of human cytomegalovirus infection in THP-1 derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Huifen; Mao, Genxiang; Carlson, Joshua; Leng, Sean X

    2015-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) is a ubiquitous pathogen that causes congenital infection and severe infections in immunocompromised patients. Chronic hCMV infection may also play an important role in immunosenescence and adverse health outcomes in older adults. THP-1, a human monocytic cell line and its derived macrophages serve as a useful cell culture model for mechanistic studies of hCMV infection and its underlying biology. A major methodological challenge is the lack of a quick and reliable tool to accurately determine the efficiency of hCMV infection in THP-1 derived macrophages. In this study, we developed a flow cytometry based method using commercially available monoclonal antibody (MAb) against hCMV immediate early (IE) antigen that can accurately determine infection efficiency. We used 0.5% formaldehyde for fixation, 90% methanol for permeabilization, and incubation with FITC conjugated MAb at 37°C. The method was tested by hCMV infection with laboratory Towne strain in the presence or absence of hydrocortisone. It was also compared with the routine flow cytometry protocol using Cytofix/Cytoperm solution and with immunofluorescence. The results indicate that this new method is reliable and time saving for accurate determination of infection efficiency. It may facilitate further investigations into the underlying biological mechanisms of hCMV infection.

  10. Enhanced capacity of DNA repair in human cytomegalovirus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Y.; Rapp, F.

    1981-04-01

    Plaque formation in Vero cells by UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus was enhanced by infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), UV irradiation, or treatment with methylmethanesulfonate. Preinfection of Vero cells with HCMV enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus more significantly than did treatment with UV or methylmethanesulfonate alone. A similar enhancement by HCMV was observed in human embryonic fibroblasts, but not in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP12BE) cells. It was also found that HCMV infection enhanced hydroxyurea-resistant DNA synthesis induced by UV light or methylmethanesulfonate. Alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation analysis revealed an enhanced rate of synthesis of all size classes of DNA in UV-irradiated HCMV-infected Vero cells. However, HCMV infection did not induce repairable lesions in cellular DNA and did not significantly inhibit host cell DNA synthesis, unlike UV or methylmethanesulfonate. These results indicate that HCMV enhanced DNA repair capacity in the host cells without producing detectable lesions in cellular DNA and without inhibiting DNA synthesis. This repair appeared to be error proof for UV-damaged herpes simplex virus DNA when tested with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase-negative mutants.

  11. Role of human cytomegalovirus in the proliferation and invasion of extravillous cytotrophoblasts isolated from early placentae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Zheng, Xiaofei; Li, Qin; Chen, Juanjuan; Yin, Zongzhi; Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Dandan; Li, Wei; Qiao, Yuan; Chen, Suhua

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and its mechanism in extravillous cytotrophoblast (EVT) proliferation and invasion in vitro. Methods: Differential enzymatic digestion combined with gradient centrifugation, was used to isolate primary EVT from human chorionic villi collected from early placentae of healthy pregnant women. HCMV infection was determined by immunofluorescence staining of HCMVpp65 antigen expression. An MTT assay was used to examine the role of HCMV in the proliferation of EVT. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunocytochemical staining and Western blots were carried out in a control group (EVT) and a virus group (EVT+HCMV) to examine the expression of major genes and protein in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways in EVT 48 h after inoculation with HCMV. An in vitro cell invasion assay was performed to analyze the influence of HCMV on EVT invasion. Results: HCMV significantly inhibited the proliferation of EVT 48 h after viral infection (P < 0.05). The expression of TGF-β1, Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and Smad5 genes was significantly increased (P < 0.05), but that of TGF-β2, TGF-β3, TGFβRI, TGFβRII, Smad7, MMP2, and MMP9 was significantly decreased in the virus group 48 h after HCMV infection (P < 0.05). Smad7, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels were significantly decreased and the TGF-β1 protein level was significantly increased in infected EVT (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: HCMV may act on multiple steps of the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway to impede EVT proliferation and invasion. PMID:26770317

  12. Human cytomegalovirus and human umbilical vein endothelial cells: restriction of primary isolation to blood samples and susceptibilities of clinical isolates from other sources to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Gerna, Giuseppe; Percivalle, Elena; Sarasini, Antonella; Revello, M Grazia

    2002-01-01

    In immunocompromised patients with disseminated infection, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is widespread in the microvascular endothelium of multiple organs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used in parallel to human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELF) to recover HCMV from blood samples of immunocompromised patients. Using the shell vial technique, comparable median numbers of p72-positive HUVEC and HELF cells were found with the 26 HCMV-positive buffy coat samples out of 150 examined. Analysis of other clinical samples inoculated as controls revealed, in the presence of highly infected HELF monolayers, either the presence of very few infected HUVEC with urine specimens (n = 10 samples) or the lack of infected HUVEC with throat washes (n = 3) or amniotic fluid samples (n = 2). Thus, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) appear essential for primary isolation of HCMV in HUVEC. In this respect, HCMV strains, recovered from clinical samples other than buffy coats in HELF only, could be readily adapted to growth in HUVEC by coculturing PBL from healthy blood donors with infected HELF and then inoculating infected PBL onto HUVEC. Recently elucidated mechanisms of interaction of leukocytes and HUVEC with bidirectional transfer of virus seem to provide the basis for the restriction of HCMV primary isolation in HUVEC to blood samples. However, virus strains recovered from only HELF could be adapted to growth in HUVEC when inoculated with HELF-derived (either cell-associated or cell-free) HCMV strains upon primary isolation. In conclusion, due to the in vitro selection of virus variants provided with both PBL tropism and HUVEC tropism, HCMV recovery in HUVEC is PBL mediated and substantially restricted to blood samples. Lack of HCMV recovery in HUVEC from clinical samples other than blood leads to the assumption that epithelial cells, such as urinary, amniotic, or pharyngeal cells, do not possess adequate adhesion molecules to establish close contacts with HUVEC.

  13. Human cytomegalovirus decreases constitutive transcription of MHC class II genes in mature Langerhans cells by reducing CIITA transcript levels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew W; Wang, Nan; Hornell, Tara M C; Harding, James J; Deshpande, Chetan; Hertel, Laura; Lacaille, Vashti; Pashine, Achal; Macaubas, Claudia; Mocarski, Edward S; Mellins, Elizabeth D

    2011-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) productively infects CD34(+) progenitor-derived, mature Langerhans-type dendritic cells (matLC) and reduces surface expression of MHC class II complexes (MHC II) by increasing intracellular retention of these molecules. To determine whether HCMV also inhibits MHC II expression by other mechanisms, we assessed mRNA levels of the class II transcriptional regulator, CIITA, and several of its target genes in infected matLC. Levels of CIITA, HLA-DRA (DRA) and DRB transcripts, and new DR protein synthesis were compared in mock-infected and HCMV-infected cells by quantitative PCR and pulse-chase immunoprecipitation analyses, respectively. CIITA mRNA levels were significantly lower in HCMV-infected matLC as compared to mock-infected cells. When assessed in the presence of Actinomycin D, the stability of CIITA transcripts was not diminished by HCMV. Analysis of promoter-specific CIITA isoforms revealed that types I, III and IV all were decreased by HCMV, a result that differs from changes after incubation of these cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure to UV-inactivated virus failed to reduce CIITA mRNA levels, implicating de novo viral gene expression in this effect. HCMV-infected matLC also expressed lower levels of DR transcripts and reduced DR protein synthesis rates compared to mock-infected matLC. In summary, we demonstrate that HCMV infection of a human dendritic cell subset inhibits constitutive CIITA expression, most likely at the transcriptional level, resulting in reduced MHC II biosynthesis. We suggest this represents a new mechanism of modulation of mature LC by HCMV.

  14. Human Cytomegalovirus Promotes Survival of Infected Monocytes via a Distinct Temporal Regulation of Cellular Bcl-2 Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Collins-McMillen, Donna; Kim, Jung Heon; Nogalski, Maciej T.; Stevenson, Emily V.; Caskey, Joshua R.; Cieply, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Monocytes play a key role in the hematogenous dissemination of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to target organ systems. To infect monocytes and reprogram them to deliver infectious virus, HCMV must overcome biological obstacles, including the short life span of monocytes and their antiviral proapoptotic response to infection. We have shown that virally induced upregulation of cellular Mcl-1 promotes early survival of HCMV-infected monocytes, allowing cells to overcome an early apoptotic checkpoint at around 48 h postinfection (hpi). Here, we demonstrate an HCMV-dependent shift from Mcl-1 as the primary antiapoptotic player to the related protein, Bcl-2, later during infection. Bcl-2 was upregulated in HCMV-infected monocytes beginning at 48 hpi. Treatment with the Bcl-2 antagonist ABT-199 only reduced the prosurvival effects of HCMV in target monocytes beginning at 48 hpi, suggesting that Mcl-1 controls survival prior to 48 hpi, while Bcl-2 promotes survival after 48 hpi. Although Bcl-2 was upregulated following viral binding/signaling through cellular integrins (compared to Mcl-1, which is upregulated through binding/activation of epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]), it functioned similarly to Mcl-1, adopting the early role of Mcl-1 in preventing caspase-3 cleavage/activation. This distinct, HCMV-induced shift from Mcl-1 to Bcl-2 occurs in response to a cellular upregulation of proapoptotic Bax, as small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of Bax reduced the upregulation of Bcl-2 in infected monocytes and rescued the cells from the apoptotic effects of Bcl-2 inhibition. Our data demonstrate a distinct survival strategy whereby HCMV induces a biphasic regulation of cellular Bcl-2 proteins to promote host cell survival, leading to viral dissemination and the establishment of persistent HCMV infection. IMPORTANCE Hematogenous dissemination of HCMV via infected monocytes is a crucial component of the viral survival strategy and is required for the

  15. Human Cytomegalovirus Stimulates the Synthesis of Select Akt-Dependent Antiapoptotic Proteins during Viral Entry To Promote Survival of Infected Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Peppenelli, Megan A.; Arend, Kyle C.; Cojohari, Olesea; Moorman, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Primary peripheral blood monocytes are responsible for the hematogenous dissemination of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) following a primary infection. To facilitate viral spread, we have previously shown HCMV to extend the short 48-h life span of monocytes. Mechanistically, HCMV upregulated two specific cellular antiapoptotic proteins, myeloid leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1) and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), to block the two proteolytic cleavages necessary for the formation of fully active caspase 3 and the subsequent initiation of apoptosis. We now show that HCMV more robustly upregulated Mcl-1 than normal myeloid growth factors and that Mcl-1 was the only myeloid survival factor to rapidly induce HSP27 prior to the 48-h cell fate checkpoint. We determined that HCMV glycoproteins gB and gH signal through the cellular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and αvβ3 integrin, respectively, during viral entry in order to drive the increase of Mcl-1 and HSP27 in an Akt-dependent manner. Although Akt is known to regulate protein stability and transcription, we found that gB- and gH-initiated signaling preferentially and cooperatively stimulated the synthesis of Mcl-1 and HSP27 through mTOR-mediated translation. Overall, these data suggest that the unique signaling network generated during the viral entry process stimulates the upregulation of select antiapoptotic proteins allowing for the differentiation of short-lived monocytes into long-lived macrophages, a key step in the viral dissemination strategy. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is endemic within the human population. Although primary infection is generally asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals, HCMV is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised. The multiorgan inflammatory diseases associated with symptomatic HCMV infection are a direct consequence of the monocyte-mediated systemic spread of the virus. In order for peripheral blood monocytes to

  16. Diverse immune evasion strategies by human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Vanessa; Redmann, Veronika; Gardner, Thomas; Tortorella, Domenico

    2012-12-01

    Members of the Herpesviridae family have the capacity to undergo both lytic and latent infection to establish a lifelong relationship with their host. Following primary infection, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can persist as a subclinical, recurrent infection for the lifetime of an individual. This quiescent portion of its life cycle is termed latency and is associated with periodic bouts of reactivation during times of immunosuppression, inflammation, or stress. In order to exist indefinitely and establish infection, HCMV encodes a multitude of immune modulatory mechanisms devoted to escaping the host antiviral response. HCMV has become a paradigm for studies of viral immune evasion of antigen presentation by both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules. By restricting the presentation of viral antigens during both productive and latent infection, HCMV limits elimination by the human immune system. This review will focus on understanding how the virus manipulates the pathways of antigen presentation in order to modulate the host response to infection.

  17. Use of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine labelling and flow cytometry to study cell cycle-dependent regulation of human cytomegalovirus gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wiebusch, Lüder; Hagemeier, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cell cycle position at the time of infection has a profound influence on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene expression and therefore needs consideration in the design and control of HCMV experiments. While G0/G1 cells support the immediate onset of viral transcription, cells progressing through the S and G2 cell cycle phases prevent HCMV from entering the lytic replication cycle. Here, we provide two fast and reliable protocols that allow one to determine the cell cycle distribution of the designated host cells and monitor viral protein expression as a function of the cell cycle state. Both protocols make use of the thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine and "click" chemistry to label HCMV-non-permissive S phase cells in a gentle and sensitive way.

  18. Use of recombination-mediated genetic engineering for construction of rescue human cytomegalovirus bacterial artificial chromosome clones.

    PubMed

    Dulal, Kalpana; Silver, Benjamin; Zhu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology has contributed immensely to manipulation of larger genomes in many organisms including large DNA viruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The HCMV BAC clone propagated and maintained inside E. coli allows for accurate recombinant virus generation. Using this system, we have generated a panel of HCMV deletion mutants and their rescue clones. In this paper, we describe the construction of HCMV BAC mutants using a homologous recombination system. A gene capture method, or gap repair cloning, to seize large fragments of DNA from the virus BAC in order to generate rescue viruses, is described in detail. Construction of rescue clones using gap repair cloning is highly efficient and provides a novel use of the homologous recombination-based method in E. coli for molecular cloning, known colloquially as recombineering, when rescuing large BAC deletions. This method of excising large fragments of DNA provides important prospects for in vitro homologous recombination for genetic cloning.

  19. Human Cytomegalovirus Vaccine Based on the Envelope gH/gL Pentamer Complex

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Joy; Campo, John; Johnson, Erica; Flechsig, Christin; Newell, Maegan; Tran, Elaine; Ortiz, Jose; La Rosa, Corinna; Herrmann, Andreas; Longmate, Jeff; Chakraborty, Rana; Barry, Peter A.; Diamond, Don J.

    2014-01-01

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) utilizes two different pathways for host cell entry. HCMV entry into fibroblasts requires glycoproteins gB and gH/gL, whereas HCMV entry into epithelial and endothelial cells (EC) requires an additional complex composed of gH, gL, UL128, UL130, and UL131A, referred to as the gH/gL-pentamer complex (gH/gL-PC). While there are no established correlates of protection against HCMV, antibodies are thought to be important in controlling infection. Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) that prevent gH/gL-PC mediated entry into EC are candidates to be assessed for in vivo protective function. However, these potent NAb are predominantly directed against conformational epitopes derived from the assembled gH/gL-PC. To address these concerns, we constructed Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viruses co-expressing all five gH/gL-PC subunits (MVA-gH/gL-PC), subsets of gH/gL-PC subunits (gH/gL or UL128/UL130/UL131A), or the gB subunit from HCMV strain TB40/E. We provide evidence for cell surface expression and assembly of complexes expressing full-length gH or gB, or their secretion when the corresponding transmembrane domains are deleted. Mice or rhesus macaques (RM) were vaccinated three times with MVA recombinants and serum NAb titers that prevented 50% infection of human EC or fibroblasts by HCMV TB40/E were determined. NAb responses induced by MVA-gH/gL-PC blocked HCMV infection of EC with potencies that were two orders of magnitude greater than those induced by MVA expressing gH/gL, UL128-UL131A, or gB. In addition, MVA-gH/gL-PC induced NAb responses that were durable and efficacious to prevent HCMV infection of Hofbauer macrophages, a fetal-derived cell localized within the placenta. NAb were also detectable in saliva of vaccinated RM and reached serum peak levels comparable to NAb titers found in HCMV hyperimmune globulins. This vaccine based on a translational poxvirus platform co-delivers all five HCMV gH/gL-PC subunits to achieve robust humoral

  20. Human Cytomegalovirus Infant Infection Adversely Affects Growth and Development in Maternally HIV-Exposed and Unexposed Infants in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Larke, N.; Sanz-Ramos, M.; Bates, M.; Musonda, K.; Manno, D.; Siame, J.; Monze, M.; Filteau, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) coinfections have been shown to increase infant morbidity, mortality, and AIDS progression. In HIV-endemic regions, maternal HIV-exposed but HIV-uninfected infants, which is the majority of children affected by HIV, also show poor growth and increased morbidity. Although nutrition has been examined, the effects of HCMV infection have not been evaluated. We studied the effects of HCMV infection on the growth, development, and health of maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia. Methods. Infants were examined in a cohort recruited to a trial of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods. HIV-infected mothers and infants had received perinatal antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. Growth, development, and morbidity were analyzed by linear regression analyses in relation to maternal HIV exposure and HCMV infection, as screened by sera DNA for viremia at 6 months of age and by antibody for infection at 18 months. Results. All HCMV-seropositive infants had decreased length-for-age by 18 months compared with seronegative infants (standard deviation [z]-score difference: −0.44 [95% confidence interval {CI}, −.72 to −.17]; P = .002). In HIV-exposed infants, those who were HCMV positive compared with those who were negative, also had reduced head size (mean z-score difference: −0.72 [95% CI, −1.23 to −.22]; P = .01) and lower psychomotor development (Bayley test score difference: −4.1 [95% CI, −7.8 to −.5]; P = .03). HIV-exposed, HCMV-viremic infants were more commonly referred for hospital treatment than HCMV-negative infants. The effects of HCMV were unaffected by micronutrient fortification. Conclusion. HCMV affects child growth, development, and morbidity of African infants, particularly in those maternally exposed to HIV. HCMV is therefore a risk factor for child health in this region. PMID:22247303

  1. Cytomegalovirus-Infected Cells Resist T Cell Mediated Killing in an HLA-Recognition Independent Manner.

    PubMed

    Proff, Julia; Walterskirchen, Christian; Brey, Charlotte; Geyeregger, Rene; Full, Florian; Ensser, Armin; Lehner, Manfred; Holter, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the potential of HLA-independent T cell therapy for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, we developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) directed against the HCMV encoded glycoprotein B (gB), which is expressed at high levels on the surface of infected cells. T cells engineered with this anti-gB CAR recognized HCMV-infected cells and released cytokines and cytotoxic granules. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to analogous approaches for HIV, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C virus, we found that HCMV-infected cells were resistant to killing by the CAR-modified T cells. In order to elucidate whether this phenomenon was restricted to the use of CARs, we extended our experiments to T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated recognition of infected cells. To this end we infected fibroblasts with HCMV-strains deficient in viral inhibitors of antigenic peptide presentation and targeted these HLA-class I expressing peptide-loaded infected cells with peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). Despite strong degranulation and cytokine production by the T cells, we again found significant inhibition of lysis of HCMV-infected cells. Impairment of cell lysis became detectable 1 day after HCMV infection and gradually increased during the following 3 days. We thus postulate that viral anti-apoptotic factors, known to inhibit suicide of infected host cells, have evolved additional functions to directly abrogate T cell cytotoxicity. In line with this hypothesis, CAR-T cell cytotoxicity was strongly inhibited in non-infected fibroblasts by expression of the HCMV-protein UL37x1, and even more so by additional expression of UL36. Our data extend the current knowledge on Betaherpesviral evasion from T cell immunity and show for the first time that, beyond impaired antigen presentation, infected cells are efficiently protected by direct blockade of cytotoxic effector functions through viral proteins.

  2. Detection of human cytomegalovirus in normal and neoplastic breast epithelium

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes a persistent life-long infection, and can cause severe pathology in the fetus and the immunocompromised host[1]. Breast milk is the primary route of transmission in humans worldwide, and breast epithelium is thus a likely site of persistent infection and/or reactivation, though this phenomenon has not previously been demonstrated. Increasing evidence indicates HCMV infection can modulate signaling pathways associated with oncogenesis. We hypothesized that persistent HCMV infection occurs in normal adult breast epithelium and that persistent viral expression might be associated with normal and neoplastic ductal epithelium. Methods Surgical biopsy specimens of normal breast (n = 38) breast carcinoma (n = 39) and paired normal breast from breast cancer patients (n = 21) were obtained. Specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, PCR and DNA sequencing for evidence of HCMV antigens and nucleic acids. Results We detected HCMV expression specifically in glandular epithelium in 17/27 (63%) of normal adult breast cases evaluated. In contrast, HCMV expression was evident in the neoplastic epithelium of 31/32 (97%) patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) cases evaluated (p = 0.0009). Conclusions These findings are the first to demonstrate that persistent HCMV infection occurs in breast epithelium in a significant percentage of normal adult females. HCMV expression was also evident in neoplastic breast epithelium in a high percentage of normal and neoplastic breast tissues obtained from breast cancer patients, raising the possibility that viral infection may be involved in the neoplastic process. PMID:21429243

  3. Comparative magnitude and kinetics of human cytomegalovirus-specific CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cell responses in pregnant women with primary versus remote infection and in transmitting versus non-transmitting mothers: Its utility for dating primary infection in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fornara, Chiara; Furione, Milena; Arossa, Alessia; Gerna, Giuseppe; Lilleri, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    To discriminate between primary (PI) and remote (RI) human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, several immunological parameters were monitored for a 2-year period in 53 pregnant women with PI, and 33 pregnant women experiencing HCMV PI at least 5 years prior. Cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-2) production by and phenotype (effector/memory CD45RA(+)) of HCMV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells as well as the lymphoproliferative responses (LPR) were evaluated, with special reference to the comparison between a group of women transmitting (T) and a group of non-transmitting (NT) the infection to fetus. While HCMV-specific CD4(+) T-cells reached at 90 days post-infection (p.i.) values comparable to RI, CD8(+) T-cells reached at 60 days p.i. levels significantly higher and persisting throughout the entire follow-up. Instead, IL-2 production and lymphoproliferative responses were lower in PI than RI for the entire follow-up period. Effector memory CD45RA(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) HCMV-specific T-cells increased until 90 days p.i., reaching and maintaining levels higher than RI. The comparison between T and NT women showed that, at 30 days p.i., in NT women there was a significantly higher IL-2 production by HCMV-specific CD4(+) T-cells, and at 60 days p.i. a significantly higher frequency of both specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) CD45RA(+) T-cells. HCMV T-cell response appears to correlate with virus transmission to fetus and some parameters (CD4(+) lymphoproliferation, and frequency of HCMV-specific CD8(+) IL2(+) T-cells) may help in dating PI during pregnancy.

  4. TLR9 -1486T/C and 2848C/T SNPs Are Associated with Human Cytomegalovirus Infection in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Paradowska, Edyta; Jabłońska, Agnieszka; Studzińska, Mirosława; Skowrońska, Katarzyna; Suski, Patrycja; Wiśniewska-Ligier, Małgorzata; Woźniakowska-Gęsicka, Teresa; Nowakowska, Dorota; Gaj, Zuzanna; Wilczyński, Jan; Leśnikowski, Zbigniew J.

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes non-methylated viral CpG-containing DNA and serves as a pattern recognition receptor that signals the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Here, we present the genotype distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TLR9 gene in infants and the relationship between TLR9 polymorphisms and HCMV infection. Four polymorphisms (-1237T/C, rs5743836; -1486T/C, rs187084; 1174G/A, rs352139; and 2848C/T, rs352140) in the TLR9 gene were genotyped in 72 infants with symptomatic HCMV infection and 70 healthy individuals. SNP genotyping was performed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Digested fragments were separated and identified by capillary electrophoresis. The HCMV DNA copy number was measured by a quantitative real-time PCR assay. We found an increased frequency of heterozygous genotypes TLR9 -1486T/C and 2848C/T in infants with HCMV infection compared with uninfected cases. Heterozygous variants of these two SNPs increased the risk of HCMV disease in children (P = 0.044 and P = 0.029, respectively). In infants with a mutation present in at least one allele of -1486T/C and 2848C/T SNPs, a trend towards increased risk of cytomegaly was confirmed after Bonferroni’s correction for multiple testing (Pc = 0.063). The rs352139 GG genotype showed a significantly reduced relative risk for HCMV infection (Pc = 0.006). In contrast, the -1237T/C SNP was not related to viral infection. We found no evidence for linkage disequilibrium with the four examined TLR9 SNPs. The findings suggest that the TLR9 -1486T/C and 2848C/T polymorphisms could be a genetic risk factor for the development of HCMV disease. PMID:27105145

  5. Insertion of core CpG island element into human CMV promoter for enhancing recombinant protein expression stability in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Mariati; Yeo, Jessna H M; Koh, Esther Y C; Ho, Steven C L; Yang, Yuansheng

    2014-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus promoter (hCMV) is susceptible to gene silencing in CHO cells, most likely due to epigenetic events, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. The core CpG island element (IE) from the hamster adenine phosphoribosyltransferase gene has been shown to prevent DNA methylation. A set of modified hCMV promoters was developed by inserting one or two copies of IE in either forward or reverse orientations either upstream of the hCMV enhancer, between the enhancer and core promoter (CP), or downstream of the CP. The modified hCMV with one copy of IE inserted between the enhancer and core promoter in reverse orientation (MR1) was most effective at enhancing expression stability without compromising expression level when compared with the wild-type (WT) hCMV. A third of 18 EGFP expressing clones generated using MR1 retained 70% of their starting expression level after 8 weeks of culture in the absence of selection pressure, while none of 18 WT hCMV generated clones had expression above 50%. MR1 also improved antibody expression stability of methotrexate (MTX) amplified CHO cell lines. Stably transfected pools generated using MR1 maintained 62% of their original monoclonal antibody titer after 8 weeks of culture in the absence of MTX, compared to only 37% for WT hCMV pools. Low levels of CpG methylation within both WT hCMV and MR1 were observed in all the analyzed cell lines and the methylation levels did not correlate to the expression stability, suggesting IE enhances expression stability by other mechanisms other than preventing methylation.

  6. Association between human cytomegalovirus and onset of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hong-Yan; Yang, Dai-Qun; Li, Yu-Xin; Wang, Li-Quan; Zheng, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the association between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and epilepsy. Methods: Epilepsy patients (n = 112) in neurology clinic of our hospital during January 2012 and December 2014 were allocated to the case groups, including intractable epilepsy group (n = 96) and non-intractable epilepsy group (n = 16). Healthy individual (n = 120) who received physical examination during the same period were allocated to the control group. The expression of serum HCMV late gene pp67-RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expressions of serum HCMV immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum hypersensitive c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was detected by latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetry. The electroencephalogram (EEG) of refractory epilepsy group, non-refractory epilepsy group and control group were recorded. Results: The expression of pp67-mRNA was significantly higher in intractable epilepsy group than non-intractable epilepsy group (P < 0.05) and control group (P < 0.001). The HCMV-IgG positive rate and HCMV-IgM positive rate were significantly higher in intractable epilepsy group than control group (both P < 0.001). The HCMV-IgM positive rate was significantly higher in intractable epilepsy group than non-intractable epilepsy group (P < 0.001). The HCMV-IgM positive rate was significantly higher in non-intractable epilepsy group than control group (P < 0.001). The hs-CRP and IL-6 levels presented descending trends respectively in intractable epilepsy group, non-intractable epilepsy group and control group (all P < 0.001). Conclusion: HCMV was prominently expressed in epilepsy and might contribute to the development of epilepsy. PMID:26884973

  7. High-Resolution Profiling and Analysis of Viral and Host Small RNAs during Human Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Thomas J.; Arnold, Justin D.; Spector, Deborah H.

    2012-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) contributes its own set of microRNAs (miRNAs) during lytic infection of cells, likely fine-tuning conditions important for viral replication. To enhance our understanding of this component of the HCMV-host transcriptome, we have conducted deep-sequencing analysis of small RNAs (smRNA-seq) from infected human fibroblast cells. We found that HCMV-encoded miRNAs accumulate to ∼20% of the total smRNA population at late stages of infection, and our analysis led to improvements in viral miRNA annotations and identification of two novel HCMV miRNAs, miR-US22 and miR-US33as. Both of these miRNAs were capable of functionally repressing synthetic targets in transient transfection experiments. Additionally, through cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) of Argonaute (Ago)-bound RNAs from infected cells, followed by high-throughput sequencing, we have obtained direct evidence for incorporation of all HCMV miRNAs into the endogenous host silencing machinery. Surprisingly, three HCMV miRNA precursors exhibited differential incorporation of their mature miRNA arms between Ago2 and Ago1 complexes. Host miRNA abundances were also affected by HCMV infection, with significant upregulation observed for an miRNA cluster containing miR-96, miR-182, and miR-183. In addition to miRNAs, we also identified novel forms of virus-derived smRNAs, revealing greater complexity within the smRNA population during HCMV infection. PMID:22013051

  8. cGAS Senses Human Cytomegalovirus and Induces Type I Interferon Responses in Human Monocyte-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paijo, Jennifer; Döring, Marius; Spanier, Julia; Grabski, Elena; Nooruzzaman, Mohammed; Schmidt, Tobias; Witte, Gregor; Messerle, Martin; Hornung, Veit; Kaever, Volkhard; Kalinke, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections of healthy individuals are mostly unnoticed and result in viral latency. However, HCMV can also cause devastating disease, e.g., upon reactivation in immunocompromised patients. Yet, little is known about human immune cell sensing of DNA-encoded HCMV. Recent studies indicated that during viral infection the cyclic GMP/AMP synthase (cGAS) senses cytosolic DNA and catalyzes formation of the cyclic di-nucleotide cGAMP, which triggers stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and thus induces antiviral type I interferon (IFN-I) responses. We found that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) as well as monocyte-derived DC and macrophages constitutively expressed cGAS and STING. HCMV infection further induced cGAS, whereas STING expression was only moderately affected. Although pDC expressed particularly high levels of cGAS, and the cGAS/STING axis was functional down-stream of STING, as indicated by IFN-I induction upon synthetic cGAMP treatment, pDC were not susceptible to HCMV infection and mounted IFN-I responses in a TLR9-dependent manner. Conversely, HCMV infected monocyte-derived cells synthesized abundant cGAMP levels that preceded IFN-I production and that correlated with the extent of infection. CRISPR/Cas9- or siRNA-mediated cGAS ablation in monocytic THP-1 cells and primary monocyte-derived cells, respectively, impeded induction of IFN-I responses following HCMV infection. Thus, cGAS is a key sensor of HCMV for IFN-I induction in primary human monocyte-derived DC and macrophages. PMID:27058035

  9. Early CMV-replication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation is associated with a reduced relapse risk in lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Koldehoff, Michael; Ross, Stefan R; Dührsen, Ulrich; Beelen, Dietrich W; Elmaagacli, Ahmet H

    2017-04-01

    A preventive effect of early human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication was evaluated in 136 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients with mature B-cell NHLs (n = 94), and mature T- and NK-cell NHLs (n = 42) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). Most study-patients (85%) had received at least 2 cycles of chemotherapy and 60% had also received an autograft prior to alloSCT. First detection of CMV-replication by HCMV antigenemia/viremia was found at a median of day +33 after alloSCT. The cumulative incidence of relapse at 5 years after alloSCT was 38% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 26-49) in 82 patients without compared to 22% (95%CI: 8-37) in 54 patients with HCMV antigenemia/viremia (p = .013). A decreased relapse risk of HCMV replication was confirmed by multivariate analysis for HCMV antigenemia/viremia (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.29, 95%CI: 0.11-0.76, p < .014). This report demonstrated a possible improvement of relapse incidence after replicative HCMV infection in patients with NHL after alloSCT.

  10. Adenovirus E1A/E1B Transformed Amniotic Fluid Cells Support Human Cytomegalovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Krömmelbein, Natascha; Wiebusch, Lüder; Schiedner, Gudrun; Büscher, Nicole; Sauer, Caroline; Florin, Luise; Sehn, Elisabeth; Wolfrum, Uwe; Plachter, Bodo

    2016-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replicates to high titers in primary human fibroblast cell cultures. A variety of primary human cells and some tumor-derived cell lines do also support permissive HCMV replication, yet at low levels. Cell lines established by transfection of the transforming functions of adenoviruses have been notoriously resistant to HCMV replication and progeny production. Here, we provide first-time evidence that a permanent cell line immortalized by adenovirus type 5 E1A and E1B (CAP) is supporting the full HCMV replication cycle and is releasing infectious progeny. The CAP cell line had previously been established from amniotic fluid cells which were likely derived from membranes of the developing fetus. These cells can be grown under serum-free conditions. HCMV efficiently penetrated CAP cells, expressed its immediate-early proteins and dispersed restrictive PML-bodies. Viral DNA replication was initiated and viral progeny became detectable by electron microscopy in CAP cells. Furthermore, infectious virus was released from CAP cells, yet to lower levels compared to fibroblasts. Subviral dense bodies were also secreted from CAP cells. The results show that E1A/E1B expression in transformed cells is not generally repressive to HCMV replication and that CAP cells may be a good substrate for dense body based vaccine production. PMID:26848680

  11. Controversies in the natural history of congenital human cytomegalovirus infection: the paradox of infection and disease in offspring of women with immunity prior to pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Britt, William

    2015-06-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common virus infection in the developing fetus. A fraction of infants infected in utero develop significant life-threatening and organ-threatening disease with over 90% of infected infants exhibiting no clinical evidence of infection in the newborn period. However, about 10% of all infected infants will develop long-term sequelae. Early studies stressed the importance of primary maternal HCMV infection during pregnancy as a critical determinant of intrauterine transmission and outcome. This concept serves as the foundation for the development of prophylactic vaccines and biologics such as HCMV immune globulins. More recently, studies in maternal populations with high HCMV seroprevalence have challenged the concept of protective maternal immunity. Findings from multiple studies suggest that preexisting maternal HCMV immunity provides at best, partial protection from disease in the infected offspring and similarly may have limited impact on intrauterine transmission. This brief review will provide some considerations about the apparent paradox of maternal HCMV immunity and congenital infection.

  12. Recombinant human monoclonal antibodies to human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B neutralize virus in a complement-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Akane; Fujita, Ayano; Murayama, Tsugiya; Iba, Yoshitaka; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Asano, Yoshizo

    2009-11-01

    Human antibodies specific for HCMV are currently considered as potential anti-HCMV therapeutic agents. In this study, we used a combinatorial human antibody library to isolate and characterize complete human monoclonal antibodies that effectively neutralize HCMV in a complement-dependent manner. One hundred and six clones were isolated in two independent screens using HCMV virions and recombinant glycoprotein B, gB654, as antigens. All of the clones recognized the same molecule gB and were classified into 14 groups based on the amino acid sequence of the V(H) region. Seven representative clones from these 14 groups had a strong gB654 binding affinity by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). A pairwise binding competition analysis suggested that there were three groups based on differences in the gB recognition sites. Although Fab fragments of the seven groups showed strong affinity for gB, none of the Fab fragments neutralized HCMV infectivity in vitro. In contrast, complete human IgG(1) antibodies of at least three groups neutralized HCMV in a complement-dependent manner. These data suggest that potent therapeutic antibodies can be obtained from a human antibody library, including most of the functional antibodies that mediate humoral immunity to the selected pathogen.

  13. A collaborative study to establish the 1st WHO International Standard for human cytomegalovirus for nucleic acid amplification technology.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Jacqueline F; Heath, Alan B; Minor, Philip D

    2016-07-01

    Variability in the performance of nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT)-based assays presents a significant problem in the diagnosis and management of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. Here we describe a collaborative study to evaluate the suitability of candidate reference materials to harmonize HCMV viral load measurements in a wide range of NAT assays. Candidate materials comprised lyophilized Merlin virus, liquid Merlin virus, liquid AD169 virus, and purified HCMV Merlin DNA cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome. Variability in the laboratory mean HCMV concentrations determined for virus samples across the different assays was 2 log10. Variability for the purified DNA sample was higher (>3 log10). The agreement between laboratories was markedly improved when the potencies of the liquid virus samples were expressed relative to the lyophilized virus candidate. In contrast, the agreement between laboratories for the purified DNA sample was not improved. Results indicated the suitability of the lyophilized Merlin virus preparation as the 1st WHO International Standard for HCMV for NAT. It was established in October 2010, with an assigned potency of 5 × 10(6) International Units (IU) (NIBSC code 09/162). It is intended to be used to calibrate secondary references, used in HCMV NAT assays, in IU.

  14. Sequence and transcription analysis of the human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzarides, T.; Bankier, A.T.; Satchwell, S.C.; Weston, K.; Tomlinson, P.; Barrell, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    DNA sequence analysis has revealed that the gene coding for the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA polymerase is present within the long unique region of the virus genome. Identification is based on extensive amino acid homology between the predicted HCMV open reading frame HFLF2 and the DNA polymerase of herpes simplex virus type 1. The authors present here a 5280 base-pair DNA sequence containing the HCMV pol gene, along with the analysis of transcripts encoded within this region. Since HCMV pol also shows homology to the predicted Epstein-Barr virus pol, they were able to analyze the extent of homology between the DNA polymerases of three distantly related herpes viruses, HCMV, Epstein-Barr virus, and herpes simplex virus. The comparison shows that these DNA polymerases exhibit considerable amino acid homology and highlights a number of highly conserved regions; two such regions show homology to sequences within the adenovirus type 2 DNA polymerase. The HCMV pol gene is flanked by open reading frames with homology to those of other herpes viruses; upstream, there is a reading frame homologous to the glycoprotein B gene of herpes simplex virus type I and Epstein-Barr virus, and downstream there is a reading frame homologous to BFLF2 of Epstein-Barr virus.

  15. Activation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity by a Recombinant Human Cytomegalovirus Strain Expressing an NKG2D Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Tomić, Adriana; Varanasi, Pavankumar R.; Golemac, Mijo; Malić, Suzana; Riese, Peggy; Borst, Eva M.; Guzmán, Carlos A.; Krmpotić, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Development of an effective vaccine against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a need of utmost medical importance. Generally, it is believed that a live attenuated vaccine would best provide protective immunity against this tenacious pathogen. Here, we propose a strategy for an HCMV vaccine that aims at the simultaneous activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. An HCMV strain expressing the host ligand ULBP2 for the NKG2D receptor was found to be susceptible to control by natural killer (NK) cells, and preserved the ability to stimulate HCMV-specific T cells. Infection with the ULBP2-expressing HCMV strain caused diminished cell surface levels of MHC class I molecules. While expression of the NKG2D ligand increased the cytolytic activity of NK cells, NKG2D engagement in CD8+ T cells provided co-stimulation and compensated for lower MHC class I expression. Altogether, our data indicate that triggering of both arms of the immune system is a promising approach applicable to the generation of a live attenuated HCMV vaccine. PMID:27907183

  16. Development and optimization of a sensitive TaqMan® real-time PCR with synthetic homologous extrinsic control for quantitation of Human cytomegalovirus viral load.

    PubMed

    Slavov, Svetoslav Nanev; Otaguiri, Katia Kaori; de Figueiredo, Glauciane Garcia; Yamamoto, Aparecida Yulie; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa Marcia; Kashima, Simone; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2016-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (Human herpesvirus 5, HCMV) causes frequent asymptomatic infections in the general population. However, in immunosuppressed patients or congenitally infected infants, HCMV is related to high morbidity and mortality. In such cases, a rapid viral detection is crucial for monitoring the clinical outcome and the antiviral treatment. In this study, we optimized a sensitive biplex TaqMan® real-time PCR for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of a partial HCMV UL97 sequence and homologous extrinsic control (HEC) in the same tube. HEC was represented by a plasmid containing a modified HCMV sequence retaining the original primer binding sites, while the probe sequence was substituted by a phylogenetically divergent one (chloroplast CF0 subunit plant gene). It was estimated that the optimal HEC concentration, which did not influence the HCMV amplification is 1,000 copies/reaction. The optimized TaqMan® PCR demonstrated high analytical sensitivity (6.97 copies/reaction, CI = 95%) and specificity (100%). Moreover, the reaction showed adequate precision (repeatability, CV = 0.03; reproducibility, CV = 0.0027) and robustness (no carry-over or cross-contamination). The diagnostic sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97.8%) were adequate for the clinical application of the molecular platform. The optimized TaqMan® real-time PCR is suitable for HCMV detection and quantitation in predisposed patients and monitoring of the applied antiviral therapy. J. Med. Virol. 88:1604-1612, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Partial deletion in the JK locus causing a Jk(null) phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lucien, Nicole; Chiaroni, Jacques; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Bailly, Pascal

    2002-02-01

    A new alteration of the blood group JK*A allele was identified in a Jk(null) patient from Tunisia with an allo-anti-Jk3 in her serum. Southern blot and exon mapping analyses revealed an internal deletion within the Kidd (JK) locus encompassing exons 4 and 5. Sequence analysis of the Jk transcript showed that exons 4 and 5 were missing but were replaced by a 136-base-pair (bp) intron 3 sequence located 315 bp and 179 bp upstream from exon 4. This sequence is flanked by typical donor-acceptor cryptic splice sites used in the mutant but not in the normal JK gene. Because the translation initiation codon is located in exon 4, the Jk protein is not produced.

  18. Regulatory Interaction between the Cellular Restriction Factor IFI16 and Viral pp65 (pUL83) Modulates Viral Gene Expression and IFI16 Protein Stability

    PubMed Central

    Pautasso, Sara; von Einem, Jens; Marschall, Manfred; Plachter, Bodo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A key player in the intrinsic resistance against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the interferon-γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16), which behaves as a viral DNA sensor in the first hours postinfection and as a repressor of viral gene transcription in the later stages. Previous studies on HCMV replication demonstrated that IFI16 binds to the viral protein kinase pUL97, undergoes phosphorylation, and relocalizes to the cytoplasm of infected cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the tegument protein pp65 (pUL83) recruits IFI16 to the promoter of the UL54 gene and downregulates viral replication, as shown by use of the HCMV mutant v65Stop, which lacks pp65 expression. Interestingly, at late time points of HCMV infection, IFI16 is stabilized by its interaction with pp65, which stood in contrast to IFI16 degradation, observed in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-infected cells. Moreover, we found that its translocation to the cytoplasm, in addition to pUL97, strictly depends on pp65, as demonstrated with the HCMV mutant RV-VM1, which expresses a form of pp65 unable to translocate into the cytoplasm. Thus, these data reveal a dual role for pp65: during early infection, it modulates IFI16 activity at the promoter of immediate-early and early genes; subsequently, it delocalizes IFI16 from the nucleus into the cytoplasm, thereby stabilizing and protecting it from degradation. Overall, these data identify a novel activity of the pp65/IFI16 interactome involved in the regulation of UL54 gene expression and IFI16 stability during early and late phases of HCMV replication. IMPORTANCE The DNA sensor IFI16, a member of the PYHIN proteins, restricts HCMV replication by impairing viral DNA synthesis. Using a mutant virus lacking the tegument protein pp65 (v65Stop), we demonstrate that pp65 recruits IFI16 to the early UL54 gene promoter. As a putative counteraction to its restriction activity, pp65 supports the nucleocytoplasmic export of IFI16, which was demonstrated with the

  19. High-Throughput Small Interfering RNA Screening Identifies Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Class II Alpha as Important for Production of Human Cytomegalovirus Virions

    PubMed Central

    Polachek, William S.; Moshrif, Hanan F.; Franti, Michael; Coen, Donald M.; Sreenu, Vattipally B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT High-throughput small interfering RNA (siRNA) screening is a useful methodology to identify cellular factors required for virus replication. Here we utilized a high-throughput siRNA screen based on detection of a viral antigen by microscopy to interrogate cellular protein kinases and phosphatases for their importance during human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication and identified the class II phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class II alpha (PI3K-C2A) as being involved in HCMV replication. Confirming this observation, infected cells treated with either pooled or individual siRNAs targeting PI3K-C2A mRNA produced approximately 10-fold less infectious virus than the controls. Western blotting and quantitative PCR analysis of infected cells treated with siRNAs indicated that depletion of PI3K-C2A slightly reduced the accumulation of late but not immediate early or early viral antigens and had no appreciable effect on viral DNA synthesis. Analysis of siRNA-treated cells by electron microscopy and Western blotting indicated that PI3K-C2A was not required for the production of viral capsids but did lead to increased numbers of enveloped capsids in the cytoplasm that had undergone secondary envelopment and a reduction in the amount of viral particles exiting the cell. Therefore, PI3K-C2A is a factor important for HCMV replication and has a role in the production of HCMV virions. IMPORTANCE There is limited information about the cellular factors required for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication. Therefore, to identify proteins involved in HCMV replication, we developed a methodology to conduct a high-throughput siRNA screen of HCMV-infected cells. From our screening data, we focused our studies on the top hit from our screen, the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class II alpha (PI3K-C2A), as its role in HCMV replication was unknown. Interestingly, we found that PI3K-C2A is important for the production of HCMV virions and is involved in virion production

  20. Association of TLR3 L412F Polymorphism with Cytomegalovirus Infection in Children

    PubMed Central

    Studzińska, Mirosława; Jabłońska, Agnieszka; Wiśniewska-Ligier, Małgorzata; Nowakowska, Dorota; Gaj, Zuzanna; Leśnikowski, Zbigniew J.; Woźniakowska-Gęsicka, Teresa; Wilczyński, Jan; Paradowska, Edyta

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and activates antiviral immune responses through the production of type I interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory cytokines. This receptor binds to dsRNA molecules produced during human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication. TLR7 senses viral single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) in endosomes, and it can interact with endogenous RNAs. We determined the genotype distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the TLR3 and TLR7 genes in children with HCMV infection and the relationship between TLR polymorphisms and viral infection. We genotyped 59 children with symptomatic HCMV infection and 78 healthy individuals for SNPs in the TLR3 (rs3775290, c.1377C>T, F459F; rs3775291, c.1234C>T, L412F; rs3775296, c.-7C>A) and TLR7 (rs179008, c.32A>T, Q11L; rs5741880, c.3+1716G>T) genes. SNP genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and capillary electrophoresis. The HCMV DNA load was quantified by real-time PCR. We found an increased frequency of the heterozygous genotype TLR3 L412F in children with HCMV infection compared with uninfected cases. In individuals with a mutation present in at least one allele of the L412F SNP, an increased risk of HCMV disease was found, and this result remained highly significant after Bonferroni’s correction for multiple testing (Pc < 0.001). The heterozygous genotype of this SNP was associated with the increased risk of HCMV disease in an adjusted model that included the HCMV DNA copy number in whole blood and urine (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively). Moreover, those with a heterozygous genotype of rs3775296 showed an increased relative risk of HCMV infection (P = 0.042), but this association did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple testing. In contrast, the rs3775290 SNP of TLR3 and TLR7 SNPs were not related to viral infection. A moderate linkage

  1. Vaccine-Derived Neutralizing Antibodies to the Human Cytomegalovirus gH/gL Pentamer Potently Block Primary Cytotrophoblast Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chiuppesi, Flavia; Wussow, Felix; Johnson, Erica; Bian, Chao; Zhuo, Meng; Rajakumar, Augustine; Barry, Peter A.; Britt, William J.; Chakraborty, Rana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) elicits neutralizing antibodies (NAb) of various potencies and cell type specificities to prevent HCMV entry into fibroblasts (FB) and epithelial/endothelial cells (EpC/EnC). NAb targeting the major essential envelope glycoprotein complexes gB and gH/gL inhibit both FB and EpC/EnC entry. In contrast to FB infection, HCMV entry into EpC/EnC is additionally blocked by extremely potent NAb to conformational epitopes of the gH/gL/UL128/130/131A pentamer complex (PC). We recently developed a vaccine concept based on coexpression of all five PC subunits by a single modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector, termed MVA-PC. Vaccination of mice and rhesus macaques with MVA-PC resulted in a high titer and sustained NAb that blocked EpC/EnC infection and lower-titer NAb that inhibited FB entry. However, antibody function responsible for the neutralizing activity induced by the MVA-PC vaccine is uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate that MVA-PC elicits NAb with cell type-specific neutralization potency and antigen recognition pattern similar to human NAb targeting conformational and linear epitopes of the UL128/130/131A subunits or gH. In addition, we show that the vaccine-derived PC-specific NAb are significantly more potent than the anti-gH NAb to prevent HCMV spread in EpC and infection of human placental cytotrophoblasts, cell types thought to be of critical importance for HCMV transmission to the fetus. These findings further validate MVA-PC as a clinical vaccine candidate to elicit NAb that resembles those induced during HCMV infection and provide valuable insights into the potency of PC-specific NAb to interfere with HCMV cell-associated spread and infection of key placental cells. IMPORTANCE As a consequence of the leading role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in causing permanent birth defects, developing a vaccine against HCMV has been assigned a major public health priority. We have recently introduced a vaccine strategy based

  2. UL69 of human cytomegalovirus, an open reading frame with homology to ICP27 of herpes simplex virus, encodes a transactivator of gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, M; Rice, S A; Stamminger, T

    1994-01-01

    The UL69 open reading frame of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is homologous to the immediate-early protein ICP27 of herpes simplex virus, an essential viral regulatory protein involved in the transition from early to late gene expression. Genes with homology to ICP27 have been detected in all subclasses of herpesviruses so far. While the respective proteins in alpha- and gammaherpesviruses have been defined as trans-regulatory molecules, nothing is known about these genes in betaherpesviruses. This study was therefore undertaken in order to investigate expression from the UL69 gene locus of HCMV. Northern (RNA) blot experiments revealed a complex pattern of transcripts that changed during the time course of the HCMV replicative cycle: two transcripts of 2.7 and 3.5 kb that were regulated differentially could be detected as early as 7 h after infection. However, these transcripts could not be detected in the presence of cycloheximide. Additional, larger transcripts were present exclusively at late times after infection. To analyze protein expression from the UL69 gene region, the UL69 open reading frame was expressed as a histidine-tagged protein in Escherichia coli. A specific antiserum was generated and used to detect the UL69 protein in HCMV-infected cells which revealed its localization within the intranuclear inclusions that are characteristic for HCMV infection. In cotransfection experiments, an HCMV true late promoter could not be activated by UL69, whereas an early promoter and several heterologous promoters were stimulated about 10-fold. Complementation studies showed that the UL69 protein cannot substitute for ICP27 in the context of the HSV infection, suggesting functional differences between these two proteins. In summary, these experiments define a novel regulatory protein encoded by HCMV that is expressed as an early-late gene and appears to exert a broad stimulatory effect on gene expression. Images PMID:8189530

  3. Human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein complex gH/gL/gO uses PDGFR-α as a key for entry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiquan; Prager, Adrian; Boos, Simone; Resch, Moritz; Brizic, Ilija; Mach, Michael; Wildner, Sabrina; Scrivano, Laura; Adler, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Herpesvirus gH/gL envelope glycoprotein complexes are key players in virus entry as ligands for host cell receptors and by promoting fusion of viral envelopes with cellular membranes. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has two alternative gH/gL complexes, gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128,130,131A which both shape the HCMV tropism. By studying binding of HCMV particles to fibroblasts, we could for the first time show that virion gH/gL/gO binds to platelet-derived growth factor-α (PDGFR-α) on the surface of fibroblasts and that gH/gL/gO either directly or indirectly recruits gB to this complex. PDGFR-α functions as an entry receptor for HCMV expressing gH/gL/gO, but not for HCMV mutants lacking the gH/gL/gO complex. PDGFR-α-dependent entry is not dependent on activation of PDGFR-α. We could also show that the gH/gL/gO-PDGFR-α interaction starts the predominant entry pathway for infection of fibroblasts with free virus. Cell-associated virus spread is either driven by gH/gL/gO interacting with PDGFR-α or by the gH/gL/UL128,130,131A complex. PDGFR-α-positive cells may thus be preferred first target cells for infections with free virus which might have implications for the design of future HCMV vaccines or anti-HCMV drugs.

  4. The eIF4AIII RNA helicase is a critical determinant of human cytomegalovirus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Ziehr, Ben; Lenarcic, Erik; Cecil, Chad; Moorman, Nathaniel J.

    2016-02-15

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was recently shown to encode a large number of spliced mRNAs. While the nuclear export of unspliced viral transcripts has been extensively studied, the role of host mRNA export factors in HCMV mRNA trafficking remains poorly defined. We found that the eIF4AIII RNA helicase, a component of the exon junction complex, was necessary for efficient virus replication. Depletion of eIF4AIII limited viral DNA accumulation, export of viral mRNAs from the nucleus, and the production of progeny virus. However eIF4AIII was dispensable for the association of viral transcripts with ribosomes. We found that pateamine A, a natural compound that inhibits both eIF4AI/II and eIF4AIII, has potent antiviral activity and inhibits HCMV replication throughout the virus lytic cycle. Our results demonstrate that eIF4AIII is required for efficient HCMV replication, and suggest that eIF4A family helicases may be a new class of targets for the development of host-directed antiviral therapeutics. - Highlights: • The host eIF4AIII RNA helicase is required for efficient HCMV replication. • Depleting eIF4AIII inhibited the nuclear export of HCMV mRNAs. • HCMV mRNAs did not require eIF4AIII to associate with polyribosomes. • The eIF4A family helicases may be new targets for host-directed antiviral drugs.

  5. The Major Immediate-Early Protein IE2 of Human Cytomegalovirus Is Sufficient to Induce Proteasomal Degradation of CD83 on Mature Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Heilingloh, Christiane S.; Grosche, Linda; Kummer, Mirko; Mühl-Zürbes, Petra; Kamm, Lisa; Scherer, Myriam; Latzko, Melanie; Stamminger, Thomas; Steinkasserer, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the prototypic beta-herpesvirus and widespread throughout the human population. While infection is asymptomatic in healthy individuals, it can lead to high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised persons. Importantly, HCMV evolved multiple strategies to interfere with immune cell function in order to establish latency in infected individuals. As mature DCs (mDCs) are antigen-presenting cells able to activate naïve T cells they play a crucial role during induction of effective antiviral immune responses. Interestingly, earlier studies demonstrated that the functionally important mDC surface molecule CD83 is down-regulated upon HCMV infection resulting in a reduced T cell stimulatory capacity of the infected cells. However, the viral effector protein and the precise mechanism of HCMV-mediated CD83 reduction remain to be discovered. Using flow cytometric analyses, we observed significant down-modulation of CD83 surface expression becoming significant already 12 h after HCMV infection. Moreover, Western bot analyses revealed that, in sharp contrast to previous studies, loss of CD83 is not restricted to the membrane-bound molecule, but also occurs intracellularly. Furthermore, inhibition of the proteasome almost completely restored CD83 surface expression during HCMV infection. Results of infection kinetics and cycloheximide-actinomycin D-chase experiments, strongly suggested that an HCMV immediate early gene product is responsible for the induction of CD83 down-modulation. Consequently, we were able to identify the major immediate early protein IE2 as the viral effector protein that induces proteasomal CD83 degradation. PMID:28203230

  6. Human cytomegalovirus tropism for endothelial/epithelial cells: scientific background and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Revello, M Grazia; Gerna, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been routinely isolated from and propagated in vitro in human embryonic lung fibroblast (HELF) cell cultures, while in vivo it is known to infect predominantly endothelial and epithelial cells. In recent years, genetic determinants of the HCMV tropism for endothelial/epithelial cells were identified in the UL131A/UL130/UL128 locus of HCMV genome of wild-type strains. UL131A-UL128 gene products form a complex with glycoprotein H (gH) and L (gL) resulting in a gH/gL/UL131A-UL128 complex that is required for HCMV entry into endothelial/epithelial cells. In contrast, virus entry into fibroblasts has its genetic determinants in the complex gH/gL/gO (or gH/gL). During primary HCMV infection, the neutralising antibody response measured in endothelial cells (EC) is potent, occurs very early and is directed mostly against combinations of two or three gene products of the UL131A-128 locus. On the contrary, neutralising antibodies measured in fibroblasts appear late, are relatively weak in potency and are directed against gH and gB. The T-cell immune response to UL131A-UL128 gene products remains to be investigated. Recently, a role has been proposed for neutralising antibody in conferring prevention/protection against HCMV infection/disease in pregnant women with primary HCMV infection. However, the level of cooperation between humoral immunity and the well-established T-cell protection remains to be defined.

  7. Detection of Low Frequency Multi-Drug Resistance and Novel Putative Maribavir Resistance in Immunocompromised Pediatric Patients with Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Houldcroft, Charlotte J.; Bryant, Josephine M.; Depledge, Daniel P.; Margetts, Ben K.; Simmonds, Jacob; Nicolaou, Stephanos; Tutill, Helena J.; Williams, Rachel; Worth, Austen J. J.; Marks, Stephen D.; Veys, Paul; Whittaker, Elizabeth; Breuer, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a significant pathogen in immunocompromised individuals, with the potential to cause fatal pneumonitis and colitis, as well as increasing the risk of organ rejection in transplant patients. With the advent of new anti-HCMV drugs there is therefore considerable interest in using virus sequence data to monitor emerging resistance to antiviral drugs in HCMV viraemia and disease, including the identification of putative new mutations. We used target-enrichment to deep sequence HCMV DNA from 11 immunosuppressed pediatric patients receiving single or combination anti-HCMV treatment, serially sampled over 1–27 weeks. Changes in consensus sequence and resistance mutations were analyzed for three ORFs targeted by anti-HCMV drugs and the frequencies of drug resistance mutations monitored. Targeted-enriched sequencing of clinical material detected mutations occurring at frequencies of 2%. Seven patients showed no evidence of drug resistance mutations. Four patients developed drug resistance mutations a mean of 16 weeks after starting treatment. In two patients, multiple resistance mutations accumulated at frequencies of 20% or less, including putative maribavir and ganciclovir resistance mutations P522Q (UL54) and C480F (UL97). In one patient, resistance was detected 14 days earlier than by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis suggested recombination or superinfection in one patient. Deep sequencing of HCMV enriched from clinical samples excluded resistance in 7 of 11 subjects and identified resistance mutations earlier than conventional PCR-based resistance testing in 2 patients. Detection of multiple low level resistance mutations was associated with poor outcome. PMID:27667983

  8. Innate Nuclear Sensor IFI16 Translocates into the Cytoplasm during the Early Stage of In Vitro Human Cytomegalovirus Infection and Is Entrapped in the Egressing Virions during the Late Stage

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Oste, Valentina; Gatti, Deborah; Gugliesi, Francesca; De Andrea, Marco; Bawadekar, Mandar; Lo Cigno, Irene; Biolatti, Matteo; Vallino, Marta; Marschall, Manfred; Gariglio, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intrinsic immune mechanisms mediated by constitutively expressed proteins termed “restriction factors” provide frontline antiviral defense. We recently demonstrated that the DNA sensor IFI16 restricts human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication by downregulating viral early and late but not immediate-early mRNAs and their protein expression. We show here that at an early time point during the in vitro infection of low-passage-number human embryonic lung fibroblasts, IFI16 binds to HCMV DNA. However, during a later phase following infection, IFI16 is mislocalized to the cytoplasmic virus assembly complex (AC), where it colocalizes with viral structural proteins. Indeed, upon its binding to pUL97, IFI16 undergoes phosphorylation and relocalizes to the cytoplasm of HCMV-infected cells. ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery regulates the translocation of IFI16 into the virus AC by sorting and trafficking IFI16 into multivesicular bodies (MVB), as demonstrated by the interaction of IFI16 with two MVB markers: Vps4 and TGN46. Finally, IFI16 becomes incorporated into the newly assembled virions as demonstrated by Western blotting of purified virions and electron microscopy. Together, these results suggest that HCMV has evolved mechanisms to mislocalize and hijack IFI16, trapping it within mature virions. However, the significance of this IFI16 trapping following nuclear mislocalization remains to be established. IMPORTANCE Intracellular viral DNA sensors and restriction factors are critical components of host defense, which alarm and sensitize immune system against intruding pathogens. We have recently demonstrated that the DNA sensor IFI16 restricts human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication by downregulating viral early and late but not immediate-early mRNAs and their protein expression. However, viruses are known to evolve numerous strategies to cope and counteract such restriction factors and neutralize the first line of host

  9. Clinical significance of expression of human cytomegalovirus pp67 late transcript in heart, lung, and bone marrow transplant recipients as determined by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Gerna, G; Baldanti, F; Middeldorp, J M; Furione, M; Zavattoni, M; Lilleri, D; Revello, M G

    1999-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection was monitored retrospectively by qualitative determination of pp67 mRNA (a late viral transcript) by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) in a series of 50 transplant recipients, including 26 solid-organ (11 heart and 15 lung) transplant recipients (SOTRs) and 24 bone marrow transplant recipients (BMTRs). NASBA results were compared with those obtained by prospective quantitation of HCMV viremia and antigenemia and retrospective quantitation of DNA in leukocytes (leukoDNAemia). On the whole, 29 patients were NASBA positive, whereas 10 were NASBA negative, and the blood of 11 patients remained HCMV negative. NASBA detected HCMV infection before quantitation of viremia did but after quantitation of leukoDNAemia and antigenemia did. In NASBA-positive blood samples, median levels of viremia, antigenemia, and leukoDNAemia were significantly higher than the relevant levels detected in NASBA-negative HCMV-positive blood samples. By using the quantitation of leukoDNAemia as the "gold standard," the analytical sensitivity (47.3%), as well as the negative predictive value (68. 3%), of NASBA for the diagnosis of HCMV infection intermediate between that of antigenemia quantitation (analytical sensitivity, 72. 3%) and that of viremia quantitation (analytical sensitivity, 28.7%), while the specificity and the positive predictive value were high (90 to 100%). However, with respect to the clinically relevant antigenemia cutoff of >/=100 used in this study for the initiation of preemptive therapy in SOTRs with reactivated HCMV infection, the clinical sensitivity of NASBA reached 100%, with a specificity of 68. 9%. Upon the initiation of antigenemia quantitation-guided treatment, the actual median antigenemia level was 158 (range, 124 to 580) in SOTRs who had reactivated infection and who presented with NASBA positivity 3.5 +/- 2.6 days in advance and 13.5 (range, 1 to 270) in the group that included BMTRs and SOTRs who had primary

  10. Kissing as an evolutionary adaptation to protect against Human Cytomegalovirus-like teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hendrie, C A; Brewer, G

    2010-02-01

    Mouth to mouth sexual kissing is seen in more than 90% of human cultures. Various theories have been put forward to account for this but none offer a full explanation within an evolutionary framework. As mouth to mouth sexual kissing exposes each participant to the diseases of the other, it must confer significant benefit. Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous infection that carries a severe teratogenic risk if primary infection is acquired during certain critical periods. As HCMV is present in salivary gland epithelial cells and sheds from periodontitis induced lesions, female inoculation with a specific male's HCMV is most efficiently achieved through mouth to mouth contact and saliva exchange, particularly where the flow of saliva is from the male to the typically shorter female. The current hypothesis proposes that mouth to mouth sexual kissing enables females to control when they become infected with a particular male's HCMV and so protect their offspring from the threat of teratogenesis from primary infection during vulnerable times in their development. Females only gain this benefit if they also avoid becoming infected by other males. Hence HCMV induced teratogenesis is a strong viral pressure towards the development of monogamy as well as kissing as a behavioural strategy to protect against it.

  11. Analysis of the complete DNA sequence of murine cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Rawlinson, W D; Farrell, H E; Barrell, B G

    1996-01-01

    The complete DNA sequence of the Smith strain of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) was determined from virion DNA by using a whole-genome shotgun approach. The genome has an overall G+C content of 58.7%, consists of 230,278 bp, and is arranged as a single unique sequence with short (31-bp) terminal direct repeats and several short internal repeats. Significant similarity to the genome of the sequenced human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain AD169 is evident, particularly for 78 open reading frames encoded by the central part of the genome. There is a very similar distribution of G+C content across the two genomes. Sequences toward the ends of the MCMV genome encode tandem arrays of homologous glycoproteins (gps) arranged as two gene families. The left end encodes 15 gps that represent one family, and the right end encodes a different family of 11 gps. A homolog (m144) of cellular major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes is located at the end of the genome opposite the HCMV MHC class I homolog (UL18). G protein-coupled receptor (GCR) homologs (M33 and M78) occur in positions congruent with two (UL33 and UL78) of the four putative HCMV GCR homologs. Counterparts of all of the known enzyme homologs in HCMV are present in the MCMV genome, including the phosphotransferase gene (M97), whose product phosphorylates ganciclovir in HCMV-infected cells, and the assembly protein (M80). PMID:8971012

  12. Interaction of the human cytomegalovirus particle with the host cell induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Steven; Nicholl, Mary Jane; Sutherland, Jane S.; Preston, Chris M.

    2011-05-25

    The cellular protein hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) was induced after infection of human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). HCMV irradiated with ultraviolet light (uv-HCMV) also elicited the effect, demonstrating that the response was provoked by interaction of the infecting virion with the cell and that viral gene expression was not required. Although induction of HIF-1{alpha} was initiated by an early event, accumulation of the protein was not detected until 9 hours post infection, with levels increasing thereafter. Infection with uv-HCMV resulted in increased abundance of HIF-1{alpha}-specific RNA, indicating stimulation of transcription. In addition, greater phosphorylation of the protein kinase Akt was observed, and the activity of this enzyme was required for induction of HIF-1{alpha} to occur. HIF-1{alpha} controls the expression of many cellular gene products; therefore the findings reveal new ways in which interaction of the HCMV particle with the host cell may cause significant alterations to cellular physiology.

  13. Host protein Snapin interacts with human cytomegalovirus pUL130 and affects viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guili; Ren, Gaowei; Cui, Xin; Lu, Zhitao; Ma, Yanpin; Qi, Ying; Huang, Yujing; Liu, Zhongyang; Sun, Zhengrong; Ruan, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The interplay between the host and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) plays a pivotal role in the outcome of an infection. HCMV growth in endothelial and epithelial cells requires expression of viral proteins UL128, UL130, and UL131 proteins (UL128-131), of which UL130 is the largest gene and the only one that is not interrupted by introns.Mutation of the C terminus of the UL130 protein causes reduced tropism of endothelial cells (EC). However, very few host factors have been identified that interact with the UL130 protein. In this study, HCMV UL130 protein was shown to directly interact with the human protein Snapin in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells by Yeast two-hybrid screening, in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally, heterologous expression of protein UL130 revealed co-localization with Snapin in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of HEK293 cells using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Furthermore, decreasing the level of Snapin via specific small interfering RNAs decreased the number of viral DNA copies and titer inHCMV-infected U373-S cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Snapin, the pUL130 interacting protein, has a role in modulating HCMV DNA synthesis.

  14. The immunology of human cytomegalovirus latency: could latent infection be cleared by novel immunotherapeutic strategies?

    PubMed

    Wills, Mark R; Poole, Emma; Lau, Betty; Krishna, Ben; Sinclair, John H

    2015-03-01

    While the host immune response following primary human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is generally effective at stopping virus replication and dissemination, virus is never cleared by the host and like all herpesviruses, persists for life. At least in part, this persistence is known to be facilitated by the ability of HCMV to establish latency in myeloid cells in which infection is essentially silent with, importantly, a total lack of new virus production. However, although the viral transcription programme during latency is much suppressed, a number of viral genes are expressed during latent infection at the protein level and many of these have been shown to have profound effects on the latent cell and its environment. Intriguingly, many of these latency-associated genes are also expressed during lytic infection. Therefore, why the same potent host immune responses generated during lytic infection to these viral gene products are not recognized during latency, thereby allowing clearance of latently infected cells, is far from clear. Reactivation from latency is also a major cause of HCMV-mediated disease, particularly in the immune compromised and immune naive, and is also likely to be a major source of virus in chronic subclinical HCMV infection which has been suggested to be associated with long-term diseases such as atherosclerosis and some neoplasias. Consequently, understanding latency and why latently infected cells appear to be immunoprivileged is crucial for an understanding of the pathogenesis of HCMV and may help to design strategies to eliminate latent virus reservoirs, at least in certain clinical settings.

  15. Detection of human cytomegalovirus in plasma of AIDS patients during acute visceral disease by DNA amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Spector, S A; Merrill, R; Wolf, D; Dankner, W M

    1992-01-01

    By using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification procedure, 19 (83%) of 23 plasma specimens obtained from individuals with AIDS and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) visceral disease were found to be positive for plasma viremia as detected by PCR (PV-PCR), whereas 78% of cultures of peripheral blood leukocytes from the same samples were found to be positive. All 11 specimens prospectively obtained from individuals with acute HCMV disease were positive by PV-PCR. Plasma specimens from patients who received ganciclovir therapy rapidly became both culture and PV-PCR negative, and there was an excellent correlation between the two procedures. DNA detected by PV-PCR was unaffected by filtering plasma through a 0.2-microns-pore-size filter, although a conserved cellular gene, HLA-DQ alpha, was undetectable by PCR following filtration. HCMV DNA in plasma could be quantitated by PV-PCR by using endpoint serial dilutions, with detectable virus being present in 10(1) to 10(-2) microliters of plasma. A low titer of infectious virus could be detected in 2 of 11 plasma samples. The detection of HCMV DNA in plasma by PV-PCR promises to be a useful procedure for monitoring patients with AIDS suspected of having impending, acute, or recurrent HCMV visceral disease and suggests an additional route by which virus may disseminate in the immunocompromised host. Images PMID:1328287

  16. Preliminary exploration of HLA-A 1101-restricted human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B-specific CD8⁺ T cells in allogeneic stem-cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Anbing; Hu, Jianhua; Wu, Wei; Huang, Yaping; Liang, Hanying; Wang, Huiqi; Yang, Rong; Fan, Jun

    2014-08-08

    T-cell responses directed against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) glycoprotein B (gB) contribute to protective immunity against HCMV infection in both animal models and humans. However, the gB-specific human CD8(+) T cell responses remain poorly understood. gB antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells were stained with seven major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide pentamers in 16 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A 1101-positive, HCMV-seropositive patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of these seven pentamers, the most frequent CD8(+) T-cell responses were directed against the gB332-340 peptide. These gB332-340-specific CD8(+) T cells were strongly associated with the presence of plasma HCMV immunoglobulin M in all HSCT recipients and exhibited a probable causal relationship with the level of pp65 antigenemia. Together, these data suggest a role for gB332-340-specific CD8(+) T cells in HCMV reactivation after HSCT. Furthermore, the pentamer assay may be valuable in detecting antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells.

  17. Human embryonic stem cell lines model experimental human cytomegalovirus latency.

    PubMed

    Penkert, Rhiannon R; Kalejta, Robert F

    2013-05-28

    Herpesviruses are highly successful pathogens that persist for the lifetime of their hosts primarily because of their ability to establish and maintain latent infections from which the virus is capable of productively reactivating. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a betaherpesvirus, establishes latency in CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells during natural infections in the body. Experimental infection of CD34(+) cells ex vivo has demonstrated that expression of the viral gene products that drive productive infection is silenced by an intrinsic immune defense mediated by Daxx and histone deacetylases through heterochromatinization of the viral genome during the establishment of latency. Additional mechanistic details about the establishment, let alone maintenance and reactivation, of HCMV latency remain scarce. This is partly due to the technical challenges of CD34(+) cell culture, most notably, the difficulty in preventing spontaneous differentiation that drives reactivation and renders them permissive for productive infection. Here we demonstrate that HCMV can establish, maintain, and reactivate in vitro from experimental latency in cultures of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), for which spurious differentiation can be prevented or controlled. Furthermore, we show that known molecular aspects of HCMV latency are faithfully recapitulated in these cells. In total, we present ESCs as a novel, tractable model for studies of HCMV latency.

  18. Examination of brains of AIDS cases for human immunodeficiency virus and human cytomegalovirus nucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D G; Itagaki, S; Berry, K; McGeer, P L

    1989-01-01

    The role of direct virus infection as a determining factor in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia was investigated using in situ hybridisation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Four of the five AIDS dementia patients in this series demonstrated HIV infected cells distributed in widely different parts of the brain, but only one case showed HCMV infected cells. The greater abundance of HIV was in subcortical white matter in nodular areas consisting of monocyte/macrophage infiltrates. The cells were occasionally arranged as a multinucleated syncitium. In two cases, a few large cells with the appearance of neurons were positive for HIV hybridisation. By appropriate treatment with ribonuclease, it was shown that hybridisation was primarily to HIV RNA. HCMV infected cells were observed in small numbers in only one of the positive cases, suggesting that HCMV is not a determining factor in AIDS dementia. HCMV positive cells were located in the grey matter, with an appearance suggestive of neurons. Cells expressing the MHC-class II antigen HLA-DR, a marker of reactive microglia and macrophages, were observed to be extensive in affected brain sections in the one case examined. These cells were present in greater number than HIV infected cells. In this case, extensive numbers of HIV infected cells were noticed along the peripheral margin of the substantia innominata. This could indicate infection in this case of a critical brain region from the cerebrospinal fluid. Images PMID:2543795

  19. Genomic localization, sequence analysis, and transcription of the putative human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Heilbronn, R; Jahn, G; Bürkle, A; Freese, U K; Fleckenstein, B; zur Hausen, H

    1987-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-induced DNA polymerase has been well characterized biochemically and functionally, but its genomic location has not yet been assigned. To identify the coding sequence, cross-hybridization with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) polymerase gene was used, as suggested by the close similarity of the herpes group virus-induced DNA polymerases to the HCMV DNA polymerase. A cosmid and plasmid library of the entire HCMV genome was screened with the BamHI Q fragment of HSV-1 at different stringency conditions. One PstI-HincII restriction fragment of 850 base pairs mapping within the EcoRI M fragment of HCMV cross-hybridized at Tm - 25 degrees C. Sequence analysis revealed one open reading frame spanning the entire sequence. The amino acid sequence showed a highly conserved domain of 133 amino acids shared with the HSV and putative Epstein-Barr virus polymerase sequences. This domain maps within the C-terminal part of the HSV polymerase gene, which has been suggested to contain part of the catalytic center of the enzyme. Transcription analysis revealed one 5.4-kilobase early transcript in the sense orientation with respect to the open reading frame identified. This transcript appears to code for the 140-kilodalton HCMV polymerase protein. Images PMID:3023689

  20. Toward stable gene expression in CHO cells

    PubMed Central

    Mariati; Koh, Esther YC; Yeo, Jessna HM; Ho, Steven CL; Yang, Yuansheng

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining high gene expression level during long-term culture is critical when producing therapeutic recombinant proteins using mammalian cells. Transcriptional silencing of promoters, most likely due to epigenetic events such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, is one of the major mechanisms causing production instability. Previous studies demonstrated that the core CpG island element (IE) from the hamster adenine phosphoribosyltransferase gene is effective to prevent DNA methylation. We generated one set of modified human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) promoters by insertion of one or two copies of IE in either forward or reverse orientations into different locations of the hCMV promoter. The modified hCMV with one copy of IE inserted between the hCMV enhancer and core promoter in reverse orientation (MR1) was most effective at enhancing expression stability in CHO cells without comprising expression level when compared with the wild type hCMV. We also found that insertion of IE into a chimeric murine CMV (mCMV) enhancer and human elongation factor-1α core (hEF) promoter in reverse orientation did not enhance expression stability, indicating that the effect of IE on expression stability is possibly promoter specific. PMID:25482237

  1. A novel TaqMAMA assay for allelic discrimination of TLR9 rs352140 polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Bergallo, Massimiliano; Montanari, Paola; Mareschi, Katia; Rassu, Marco; Galliano, Ilaria; Ravanini, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    TaqMAMA is an allele-specific PCR-based (ASPCR) method that may be suitable for broad and cost-effective genotyping applications in all types of laboratories. There is evidence that interactions between some toll like receptors (TLRs) with viruses influence both the immune response and outcome of HCMV infection. We developed a TaqMAMA genotyping assay for the detection of rs352140 TLR9 polymorphism in transplant recipients with and without HCMV infections. Performance parameters to ensure a solid pre-validation protocol have been here argued. We analysed a population of 74 kidney transplants recipients subdivided in 58 HCMV PCR positive and 16 HCMV PCR negative in the post-transplant routine control. All 74 samples were tested with 31/74 (41.9%) homozygotes (11 CC and 20 TT) and 43/74 (58.1%) heterozygotes (CT). Our preliminary data suggest that there is no correlation between TLR9 rs352140 polymorphism and frequency of HCMV infection.

  2. ACSS2-mediated acetyl-CoA synthesis from acetate is necessary for human cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Vysochan, Anna; Sengupta, Arjun; Weljie, Aalim M; Alwine, James C; Yu, Yongjun

    2017-02-21

    Recent studies have shown that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can induce a robust increase in lipid synthesis which is critical for the success of infection. In mammalian cells the central precursor for lipid biosynthesis, cytosolic acetyl CoA (Ac-CoA), is produced by ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) from mitochondria-derived citrate or by acetyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2) from acetate. It has been reported that ACLY is the primary enzyme involved in making cytosolic Ac-CoA in cells with abundant nutrients. However, using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we have shown that ACLY is not essential for HCMV growth and virally induced lipogenesis. Instead, we found that in HCMV-infected cells glucose carbon can be used for lipid synthesis by both ACLY and ACSS2 reactions. Further, the ACSS2 reaction can compensate for the loss of ACLY. However, in ACSS2-KO human fibroblasts both HCMV-induced lipogenesis from glucose and viral growth were sharply reduced. This reduction suggests that glucose-derived acetate is being used to synthesize cytosolic Ac-CoA by ACSS2. Previous studies have not established a mechanism for the production of acetate directly from glucose metabolism. Here we show that HCMV-infected cells produce more glucose-derived pyruvate, which can be converted to acetate through a nonenzymatic mechanism.

  3. Evaluating Human T-Cell Therapy of Cytomegalovirus Organ Disease in HLA-Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Simone; Klobuch, Sebastian; Podlech, Jürgen; Plachter, Bodo; Hoffmann, Petra; Renzaho, Angelique; Theobald, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause severe disease in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although preclinical research in murine models as well as clinical trials have provided 'proof of concept' for infection control by pre-emptive CD8 T-cell immunotherapy, there exists no predictive model to experimentally evaluate parameters that determine antiviral efficacy of human T cells in terms of virus control in functional organs, prevention of organ disease, and host survival benefit. We here introduce a novel mouse model for testing HCMV epitope-specific human T cells. The HCMV UL83/pp65-derived NLV-peptide was presented by transgenic HLA-A2.1 in the context of a lethal infection of NOD/SCID/IL-2rg-/- mice with a chimeric murine CMV, mCMV-NLV. Scenarios of HCMV-seropositive and -seronegative human T-cell donors were modeled by testing peptide-restimulated and T-cell receptor-transduced human T cells, respectively. Upon transfer, the T cells infiltrated host tissues in an epitope-specific manner, confining the infection to nodular inflammatory foci. This resulted in a significant reduction of viral load, diminished organ pathology, and prolonged survival. The model has thus proven its potential for a preclinical testing of the protective antiviral efficacy of HCMV epitope-specific human T cells in the evaluation of new approaches to an immunotherapy of CMV disease. PMID:26181057

  4. Upregulation of functionally active vascular endothelial growth factor by human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Barbara; Schaarschmidt, Peter; Bossert, Andrea; Lüske, Anke; Finkenzeller, Günter; Mertens, Thomas; Michel, Detlef

    2005-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is known to modulate host gene expression and has been linked to the pathogenesis of vasculopathies; however, relevant pathomechanisms are still unclear. It was shown that HCMV infection leads to upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human foreskin fibroblasts and coronary artery smooth muscle cells (SMC). Activation of VEGF transcription by HCMV infection was confirmed by transient-expression experiments, which revealed that a short promoter fragment, pLuc135 (-85 to +50), is sufficient for activation. Site-directed mutagenesis of Sp1-recognition sites within this fragment abolished the upregulation of transcription. Functional VEGF protein is released into the culture supernatant of infected SMC. Incubation of endothelial cells with supernatants from HCMV-infected SMC cultures induced upregulation of VEGF receptor-2 expression on endothelial cells, as well as a significant upregulation of DNA synthesis, implicating cell proliferation. The mean incline of DNA synthesis at 48 and 72 h post-infection was 148 and 197 %, respectively. Addition of neutralizing antibodies against VEGF completely abolished this effect. Supernatants from SMC cultures incubated with UV-inactivated virus induced a comparable effect. This virus-induced paracrine effect may represent a molecular mechanism for HCMV-induced pathogenesis, such as inflammatory vasculopathies, by inducing a proatherogenic phenotype in SMC.

  5. Genomic localization, sequence analysis, and transcription of the putative human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Heilbronn, T.; Jahn, G.; Buerkle, A.; Freese, U.K.; Fleckenstein, B.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1987-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-induced DNA polymerase has been well characterized biochemically and functionally, but its genomic location has not yet been assigned. To identify the coding sequence, cross-hybridization with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) polymerase gene was used, as suggested by the close similarity of the herpes group virus-induced DNA polymerases to the HCMV DNA polymerase. A cosmid and plasmid library of the entire HCMV genome was screened with the BamHI Q fragment of HSF-1 at different stringency conditions. One PstI-HincII restriction fragment of 850 base pairs mapping within the EcoRI M fragment of HCMV cross-hybridized at T/sub m/ - 25/degrees/C. Sequence analysis revealed one open reading frame spanning the entire sequence. The amino acid sequence showed a highly conserved domain of 133 amino acids shared with the HSV and putative Esptein-Barr virus polymerase sequences. This domain maps within the C-terminal part of the HSV polymerase gene, which has been suggested to contain part of the catalytic center of the enzyme. Transcription analysis revealed one 5.4-kilobase early transcript in the sense orientation with respect to the open reading frame identified. This transcript appears to code for the 140-kilodalton HCMV polymerase protein.

  6. Mechanisms Underlying T Cell Immunosenescence: Aging and Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Wenjuan; Rao, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the human immune system to protect against infectious disease declines with age and efficacy of vaccination reduces significantly in the elderly. Aging of the immune system, also termed as immunosenescence, involves many changes in human T cell immunity that is characterized by a loss in naïve T cell population and an increase in highly differentiated CD28- memory T cell subset. There is extensive data showing that latent persistent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is also associated with age-related immune dysfunction in the T cells, which might enhance immunosenescence. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related and HCMV-related immunosenescence is critical for the development of effective age-targeted vaccines and immunotherapies. In this review, we will address the role of both aging and HCMV infection that contribute to the T cell senescence and discuss the potential molecular mechanisms in aged T cells. PMID:28082969

  7. Expression of human cytomegalovirus pp150 gene in transgenic Vicia faba L. and immunogenicity of pp150 protein in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hua; Yan, Huishen; Li, Guocai; Gong, Weijuan; Jiao, Hongmei; Chen, Hongju; Ji, Mingchun

    2010-03-01

    The pp150 gene of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was transferred into Vicia faba plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Three of five hygromycin resistant V. faba plants were identified as positive by PCR and dot-blot hybridization. The ELISA results indicated that pp150 protein from three plants of transformed V. faba leaves and seeds made up 0.005-0.015% of the total soluble protein. The results of detection by immunoblot and inhibition of immunofluorescent assay (IFA) showed that pp150 soluble protein had immunity activity. HCMV pp150-specific antibody (IgG, IgA) and IFN-gamma producing T cells were detected in 100% of the mice immunized with pp150 transgenic V. faba seeds by ELISA and intracellular staining and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The transgenic V. faba plants will provide new material for the development of edible vaccination against HCMV infection.

  8. Systems-level metabolic flux profiling identifies fatty acid synthesis as a target for antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Munger, Joshua; Bennett, Bryson D; Parikh, Anuraag; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; McArdle, Jessica; Rabitz, Herschel A; Shenk, Thomas; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2010-01-01

    Viruses rely on the metabolic network of their cellular hosts to provide energy and building blocks for viral replication. We developed a flux measurement approach based on liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to quantify changes in metabolic activity induced by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). This approach reliably elucidated fluxes in cultured mammalian cells by monitoring metabolome labeling kinetics after feeding cells 13C-labeled forms of glucose and glutamine. Infection with HCMV markedly upregulated flux through much of the central carbon metabolism, including glycolysis. Particularly notable increases occurred in flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and its efflux to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis suppressed the replication of both HCMV and influenza A, another enveloped virus. These results show that fatty acid synthesis is essential for the replication of two divergent enveloped viruses and that systems-level metabolic flux profiling can identify metabolic targets for antiviral therapy. PMID:18820684

  9. Detection of human cytomegalovirus by slot-blot hybridization assay employing oligo-primed /sup 32/P-labelled probe

    SciTech Connect

    Agha, S.A.; Coleman, J.C.; Selwyn, S.; Mahmound, L.A.; Abd-Elaal, A.M.; Archard, L.C.

    1988-12-01

    A /sup 32/P-labelled Hind III-0 DNA fragment (nine Kilobases; Kb) from human cytomegalovirus AD-169 (HCMV) was used in slot-blot hybridization assay for the detection of HCMV in clinical samples. The results obtained with DNA hybridization assay (DNA HA) were compared with virus isolation using conventional tube cell culture (CTC) and centrifugation vial culture (CVC), immunofluorescence (IF), and complement fixation test (CFT). Of 15 CTC-positive samples, 13 were positive with DNA HA (sensitivity 86.7%). Also, 14 additional samples were DNA HA-positive but CTC-negative. CVC and/or IF confirmed the diagnosis in nine of 14; the remaining five samples were from three patients who showed fourfold rising antibody titre by CFT. Although DNA HA using /sup 32/P-labelled probes is relatively cumbersome and expensive, it is a valuable test for quantitation of viral shedding in patients with HCMV infections who may benefit from antiviral therapy.

  10. Multiplex PCR for identification of herpes virus infections in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Durzyńska, Julia; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Maria; Hanć, Tomasz; Durda, Magdalena; Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a multiplex PCR (mPCR) for a rapid and simultaneous detection of herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2), and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA in squamous oral cells obtained from adolescents. Accuracy of the method was tested in a group of 513 adolescents, almost 11% of subjects were positive for infection with herpes viruses. Correlations with gender, age, and place of residence were sought. A similar incidence of HSV-2 and HCMV was found (4.3% and 5.4%, respectively) and the incidence of HSV-1 was the lowest (1%) in the study group. Conversely to HSV-2, HCMV was detected mostly in the youngest individuals. The same occurrence of all viruses was observed in boys and girls. The mPCR method described is suggested as a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of active herpes infections.

  11. Human cytomegalovirus US3 modulates destruction of MHC class I molecules.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Vanessa M; Hesse, Julia; Gardner, Thomas J; Besold, Katrin; Plachter, Bodo; Tortorella, Domenico

    2012-06-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is proficient at establishing lifelong persistence within the host in part due to immune modulating genes that limit immune recognition. HCMV encodes at least five glycoproteins within its unique short (US) genomic region that interfere with MHC class I antigen presentation, thus hindering viral clearance by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Specifically, US3 retains class I within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while US2 and US11 induce class I heavy chain destruction. A cooperative effect on class I down-regulation during stable expression of HCMV US2 and US3 has been established. To address the impact of US3 on US11-mediated MHC class I down-regulation, the fate of class I molecules was examined in US3/US11-expressing cells and virus infection studies. Co-expression of US3 and US11 resulted in a decrease of surface expression of class I molecules. However, the class I molecules in US3/US11 cells were mostly retained in the ER with an attenuated rate of proteasome destruction. Analysis of class I levels from virus-infected cells using HCMV variants either expressing US3 or US11 revealed efficient surface class I down-regulation upon expression of both viral proteins. Cells infected with both US3 and US11 expressing viruses demonstrate enhanced retention of MHC class I complexes within the ER. Collectively, the data suggests a paradigm where HCMV-induced surface class I down-regulation occurs by diverse mechanisms dependent on the expression of specific US genes. These results validate the commitment of HCMV to limiting the surface expression of class I levels during infection.

  12. Quantitative analysis of human herpesvirus-6 and human cytomegalovirus in blood and saliva from patients with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nefzi, Faten; Ben Salem, Nabil Abid; Khelif, Abderrahim; Feki, Salma; Aouni, Mahjoub; Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès

    2015-03-01

    Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNAs were quantified by real-time PCR assays in blood and saliva obtained from 50 patients with acute leukemia at the time of diagnosis (50 of each matrix), aplasia (65 of each matrix), remission (55 of each matrix), and relapse (20 of each matrix) to evaluate which biological matrix was more suitable to identify a viral reactivation, search for a possible link between HHV-6 and HCMV reactivations, and evaluate the relations between viral loads and count of different leukocyte types in blood. The median HHV-6 loads were 136; 219; 226, and 75 copies/million cells in blood at diagnosis, aplasia, remission and relapse, respectively. The HCMV loads were 193 and 317 copies/million cells in blood at diagnosis and remission. In the saliva samples, the HHV-6 loads were 22,165; 15,238; 30,214, and 17,454 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission, and relapse, respectively. The HCMV loads were 8,991; 1,461; 2,980, and 4,283 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission, and relapse, respectively. The HHV-6 load in the blood was correlated to the counts of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (R(2)  = 0.5; P < 0.0001) and lymphocytes (R(2)  = 0.4; P = 0.001) and was not correlated to the monocyte counts (R(2)  = 0.07; P = 0.7). Saliva appears to be a more sensitive biological matrix than whole blood in the detection of HHV-6 or HCMV reactivations. The HHV-6 and HCMV reactivations were linked only in saliva.

  13. Human cytomegalovirus UL7, a homologue of the SLAM-family receptor CD229, impairs cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Engel, Pablo; Pérez-Carmona, Natàlia; Albà, M Mar; Robertson, Kevin; Ghazal, Peter; Angulo, Ana

    2011-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), the β-herpesvirus prototype, has evolved a wide spectrum of mechanisms to counteract host immunity. Among them, HCMV uses cellular captured genes encoding molecules capable of interfering with the original host function or of fulfilling new immunomodulatory tasks. Here, we report on UL7, a novel HCMV heavily glycosylated transmembrane protein, containing an Ig-like domain that exhibits remarkable amino acid similarity to CD229, a cell-surface molecule of the signalling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM) family involved in leukocyte activation. The UL7 Ig-like domain, which is well-preserved in all HCMV strains, structurally resembles the SLAM-family N-terminal Ig-variable domain responsible for the homophilic and heterophilic interactions that trigger signalling. UL7 is transcribed with early-late kinetics during the lytic infectious cycle. Using a mAb generated against the viral protein, we show that it is constitutively shed, through its mucine-like stalk, from the cell-surface. Production of soluble UL7 is enhanced by PMA and reduced by a broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor. Although UL7 does not hold the ability to interact with CD229 or other SLAM-family members, it shares with them the capacity to mediate adhesion to leukocytes, specifically to monocyte-derived DCs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that UL7 expression attenuates the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-8 and IL-6 in DCs and myeloid cell lines. Thus, the ability of UL7 to interfere with cellular proinflammatory responses may contribute to viral persistence. These results enhance our understanding of those HCMV-encoded molecules involved in sustaining the balance between HCMV and the host immune system.

  14. Human cytomegalovirus alters localization of MHC class II and dendrite morphology in mature Langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew W; Hertel, Laura; Louie, Ryan K; Burster, Timo; Lacaille, Vashti; Pashine, Achal; Abate, Davide A; Mocarski, Edward S; Mellins, Elizabeth D

    2006-09-15

    Hemopoietic stem cell-derived mature Langerhans-type dendritic cells (LC) are susceptible to productive infection by human CMV (HCMV). To investigate the impact of infection on this cell type, we examined HLA-DR biosynthesis and trafficking in mature LC cultures exposed to HCMV. We found decreased surface HLA-DR levels in viral Ag-positive as well as in Ag-negative mature LC. Inhibition of HLA-DR was independent of expression of unique short US2-US11 region gene products by HCMV. Indeed, exposure to UV-inactivated virus, but not to conditioned medium from infected cells, was sufficient to reduce HLA-DR on mature LC, implicating particle binding/penetration in this effect. Reduced surface levels reflected an altered distribution of HLA-DR because total cellular HLA-DR was not diminished. Accumulation of HLA-DR was not explained by altered cathepsin S activity. Mature, peptide-loaded HLA-DR molecules were retained within cells, as assessed by the proportion of SDS-stable HLA-DR dimers. A block in egress was implicated, as endocytosis of surface HLA-DR was not increased. Immunofluorescence microscopy corroborated the intracellular retention of HLA-DR and revealed markedly fewer HLA-DR-positive dendritic projections in infected mature LC. Unexpectedly, light microscopic analyses showed a dramatic loss of the dendrites themselves and immunofluorescence revealed that cytoskeletal elements crucial for the formation and maintenance of dendrites are disrupted in viral Ag-positive cells. Consistent with these dendrite effects, HCMV-infected mature LC exhibit markedly reduced chemotaxis in response to lymphoid chemokines. Thus, HCMV impedes MHC class II molecule trafficking, dendritic projections, and migration of mature LC. These changes likely contribute to the reduced activation of CD4+ T cells by HCMV-infected mature LC.

  15. The Smallest Capsid Protein Mediates Binding of the Essential Tegument Protein pp150 to Stabilize DNA-Containing Capsids in Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xinghong; Yu, Xuekui; Gong, Hao; Jiang, Xiaohong; Abenes, Gerrado; Liu, Hongrong; Shivakoti, Sakar; Britt, William J.; Zhu, Hua; Liu, Fenyong; Zhou, Z. Hong

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that causes birth defects in newborns and life-threatening complications in immunocompromised individuals. Among all human herpesviruses, HCMV contains a much larger dsDNA genome within a similarly-sized capsid compared to the others, and it was proposed to require pp150, a tegument protein only found in cytomegaloviruses, to stabilize its genome-containing capsid. However, little is known about how pp150 interacts with the underlying capsid. Moreover, the smallest capsid protein (SCP), while dispensable in herpes simplex virus type 1, was shown to play essential, yet undefined, role in HCMV infection. Here, by cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM), we determine three-dimensional structures of HCMV capsid (no pp150) and virion (with pp150) at sub-nanometer resolution. Comparison of these two structures reveals that each pp150 tegument density is composed of two helix bundles connected by a long central helix. Correlation between the resolved helices and sequence-based secondary structure prediction maps the tegument density to the N-terminal half of pp150. The structures also show that SCP mediates interactions between the capsid and pp150 at the upper helix bundle of pp150. Consistent with this structural observation, ribozyme inhibition of SCP expression in HCMV-infected cells impairs the formation of DNA-containing viral particles and reduces viral yield by 10,000 fold. By cryoEM reconstruction of the resulting “SCP-deficient” viral particles, we further demonstrate that SCP is required for pp150 functionally binding to the capsid. Together, our structural and biochemical results point to a mechanism whereby SCP recruits pp150 to stabilize genome-containing capsid for the production of infectious HCMV virion. PMID:23966856

  16. Cytomegalovirus protease targeted prodrug development.

    PubMed

    Sabit, Hairat; Dahan, Arik; Sun, Jing; Provoda, Chester J; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Hilfinger, John H; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a prevalent virus that infects up to 90% of the population. The goal of this research is to determine if small molecular prodrug substrates can be developed for a specific HCMV encoded protease and thus achieve site-specific activation. HCMV encodes a 256 amino acid serine protease that is responsible for capsid assembly, an essential process for herpes virus production. The esterase activity of the more stable HCMV A143T/A144T protease mutant was evaluated with model p-nitrophenol (ONp) esters, Boc-Xaa-ONp (Ala, Leu, Ile, Val, Gln, Phe at the Xaa position). We demonstrate that the A143T/A144T mutant has esterase activity toward specific small ester compounds, e.g., Boc-L-Ala-ONp. Mono amino acid and dipeptide prodrugs of ganciclovir (GCV) were also synthesized and evaluated for hydrolysis by the A143T/A144T protease mutant in solution. Hydrolysis of these prodrugs was also evaluated in Caco-2 cell homogenates, human liver microsomes (HLMs), and rat and human plasma. For the selectivity potential of the prodrugs, the hydrolysis ratio was evaluated as a percentage of prodrug hydrolyzed by the HCMV protease over the percentages of prodrug hydrolyses by Caco-2 cell homogenates, HLMs, and human/rat plasma. A dipeptide prodrug of ganciclovir, Ac-l-Gln-l-Ala-GCV, emerged as a potential selective prodrug candidate. The results of this research demonstrate that targeting prodrugs for activation by a specific protease encoded by the infectious HCMV pathogen may be achievable.

  17. Human cytomegalovirus maturational proteinase: expression in Escherichia coli, purification, and enzymatic characterization by using peptide substrate mimics of natural cleavage sites.

    PubMed Central

    Burck, P J; Berg, D H; Luk, T P; Sassmannshausen, L M; Wakulchik, M; Smith, D P; Hsiung, H M; Becker, G W; Gibson, W; Villarreal, E C

    1994-01-01

    The proteolytic processing of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) assembly protein, resulting in truncation of its C terminus, is an essential step in virion maturation. The proteinase responsible for this cleavage is the amino-terminal half of the protein encoded by the UL80a open reading fame. We have obtained high expression levels of this 256-amino-acid HCMV proteinase, assemblin, in Escherichia coli. In addition to the 28-kDa proteinase, a 15-kDa protein comprising the first 143 amino acids and a 13-kDa protein comprising the last 113 amino acids of the 28-kDa HCMV proteinase were present. Both the 28-kDa proteinase and the 15-kDa protein were purified by a two-step chromatographic procedure utilizing anion exchange in urea and dithiothreitol and size exclusion in NaSCN and dithiothreitol. Activation of the purified 28-kDa proteinase required denaturation in urea as well as complete reduction of all five cysteine residues in the molecule. Removal of the urea by dialysis with retention of the reducing agent yielded an active proteinase. Addition of glycerol to 50% enhanced the activity. The HCMV proteinase cleaved the peptides RGVVNASSRLAK and SYVKASVSPE, which are mimics of the maturational (M)- and release (R)-site sequences, respectively, in the UL80a-encoded protein. The cleavage site in the peptides was at the same Ala-Ser scissile bond as observed in the UL80a protein. The Km value for the cleavage of RGVVNASSRLAK (M-site mimic) by the proteinase was similar to that for SYVKASVSPE (R-site mimic), but the turnover (kcat) of the M-site peptide mimic substrate by the proteinase was six to eight times faster. The peptide homologs of the herpes simplex virus type 1 M- and R-site sequences in the UL26-encoded protein were also cleaved by the HCMV proteinase, although at rates slower than those for the HCMV substrates. The HCMV proteinase was inhibited by Zn2+ and by alkylating agents, but only at very high inhibitor concentrations. The purified 15-kDa protein

  18. Human Cytomegalovirus miR-UL112-3p Targets TLR2 and Modulates the TLR2/IRAK1/NFκB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Landais, Igor; Pelton, Chantel; Streblow, Daniel; DeFilippis, Victor; McWeeney, Shannon; Nelson, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) whose functions are just beginning to be uncovered. Using in silico approaches, we identified the Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) innate immunity pathway as a possible target of HCMV miRNAs. Luciferase reporter assay screens further identified TLR2 as a target of HCMV miR-UL112-3p. TLR2 plays a major role in innate immune response by detecting both bacterial and viral ligands, including HCMV envelope proteins gB and gH. TLR2 activates a variety of signal transduction routes including the NFκB pathway. Furthermore, TLR2 plays an important role in controlling CMV infection both in humans and in mice. Immunoblot analysis of cells transfected with a miR-UL112-3p mimic revealed that endogenous TLR2 is down-regulated by miR-UL112-3p with similar efficiency as a TLR2-targeting siRNA (siTLR2). We next found that TLR2 protein level decreases at late times during HCMV infection and correlates with miR-UL112-3p accumulation in fibroblasts and monocytic THP1 cells. Confirming direct miR-UL112-3p targeting, down-regulation of endogenous TLR2 was not observed in cells infected with HCMV mutants deficient in miR-UL112-3p expression, but transfection of miR-UL112-3p in these cells restored TLR2 down-regulation. Using a NFκB reporter cell line, we found that miR-UL112-3p transfection significantly inhibited NFκB-dependent luciferase activity with similar efficiency as siTLR2. Consistent with this observation, miR-UL112-3p transfection significantly reduced the expression of multiple cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8) upon stimulation with a TLR2 agonist. Finally, miR-UL112-3p transfection significantly inhibited the TLR2-induced post-translational activation of IRAK1, a kinase located in the upstream section of the TLR2/NFκB signaling axis. To our knowledge, this is the first identified mechanism of TLR2 modulation by HCMV and is the first report of functional targeting of TLR2 by a viral miRNA. These results provide a

  19. Detection of Human Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus in Coronary Atherosclerotic Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Imbronito, Ana Vitória; Marcelino, Silvia Linardi; Grande, Sabrina Rosa; Nunes, Fabio Daumas; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that patients with atherosclerosis are predominantly infected by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), but rarely infected by type 1 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-1). In this study, atheromas of 30 patients who underwent aortocoronary bypass surgery with coronary endartherectomy were tested for the presence of these two viruses. HCMV occurred in 93.3% of the samples and EBV-1 was present in 50% of them. Concurrent presence of both pathogens was detected in 43.3% of the samples. PMID:24031529

  20. The DNA damage response induced by infection with human cytomegalovirus and other viruses.

    PubMed

    Xiaofei, E; Kowalik, Timothy F

    2014-05-23

    Viruses use different strategies to overcome the host defense system. Recent studies have shown that viruses can induce DNA damage response (DDR). Many of these viruses use DDR signaling to benefit their replication, while other viruses block or inactivate DDR signaling. This review focuses on the effects of DDR and DNA repair on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication. Here, we review the DDR induced by HCMV infection and its similarities and differences to DDR induced by other viruses. As DDR signaling pathways are critical for the replication of many viruses, blocking these pathways may represent novel therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of certain infectious diseases. Lastly, future perspectives in the field are discussed.

  1. Pseudoneoplastic appearance of cytomegalovirus-associated colitis in nonimmunocompromised patients: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Maiorana, Antonio; Torricelli, Pietro; Giusti, Federica; Bellini, Nicola

    2003-09-01

    Two cases of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) colitis with pseudoneoplastic appearance are described. Patients presented with abdominal pain, fever, and diarrhea. Colonoscopy revealed a stenosing lesion in one patient and a broad-based, vegetant mass in the other patient, and histopathological examination of colectomy specimens revealed exuberant inflammatory masses with infiltration of mononuclear cells and ulcers with granulation tissue. Typical intranuclear HCMV inclusions were numerous. Peculiar to both patients was the lack of any apparent causes of immunodeficiency, such as human immunodeficiency virus infection or previous organ transplantation.

  2. Human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection in inflammatory bowel disease: Need for mucosal viral load measurement

    PubMed Central

    Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Racca, Francesca; Paolucci, Stefania; Campanini, Giulia; Pozzi, Lodovica; Betti, Elena; Riboni, Roberta; Vanoli, Alessandro; Baldanti, Fausto; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the best diagnostic technique and risk factors of the human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: A cohort of 40 IBD patients (17 refractory) and 40 controls underwent peripheral blood and endoscopic colonic mucosal sample harvest. Viral infection was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, and correlations with clinical and endoscopic indexes of activity, and risk factors were investigated. RESULTS: All refractory patients carried detectable levels of HCMV and/or EBV mucosal load as compared to 13/23 (56.5%) non-refractory and 13/40 (32.5%) controls. The median DNA value was significantly higher in refractory (HCMV 286 and EBV 5.440 copies/105 cells) than in non-refractory (HCMV 0 and EBV 6 copies/105 cells; P < 0.05 and < 0.001) IBD patients and controls (HCMV and EBV 0 copies/105 cells; P < 0.001 for both). Refractory patients showed DNA peak values ≥ 103 copies/105 cells in diseased mucosa in comparison to non-diseased mucosa (P < 0.0121 for HCMV and < 0.0004 for EBV), while non-refractory patients and controls invariably displayed levels below this threshold, thus allowing us to differentiate viral colitis from mucosal infection. Moreover, the mucosal load positively correlated with the values found in the peripheral blood, whilst no correlation with the number of positive cells at immunohistochemistry was found. Steroid use was identified as a significant risk factor for both HCMV (P = 0.018) and EBV (P = 0.002) colitis. Finally, a course of specific antiviral therapy with ganciclovir was successful in all refractory patients with HCMV colitis, whilst refractory patients with EBV colitis did not show any improvement despite steroid tapering and discontinuation of the other medications. CONCLUSION: Viral colitis appeared to contribute to mucosal lesions in refractory IBD, and its correct diagnosis and management require

  3. Visualization of the dynamic multimerization of human Cytomegalovirus pp65 in punctuate nuclear foci

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Zongqiang; Zhang Ke; Zhang Zhiping; Liu Yalan; Zhou Yafeng; Wei Hongping; Zhang Xian-En

    2009-09-30

    The phosphorylated protein pp65 of human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the predominant virion protein and the major tegument constituent. It plays important roles in HCMV infection and virion assembly. Live cell imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis showed that HCMV pp65 accumulated dynamically in punctuate nuclear foci when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging disclosed that pp65 can self-interact in its localization foci. Yeast two-hybrid assay verified that pp65 is a self-associating protein, and the N-terminal amino acids 14-22 were determined to be essential for pp65 self-association. However, these amino acids were not related to pp65 localization in the specific nuclear foci. The interaction of pp65 and ppUL97 was also studied by FRET microscopy, and the result suggested that there is another signal sequence in pp65, being the ppUL97 phosphorylation site, that is responsible for localization of pp65 in nuclear foci. These results help to understand the function of pp65 in HCMV infection and virion morphogenesis.

  4. RNase P Ribozymes Inhibit the Replication of Human Cytomegalovirus by Targeting Essential Viral Capsid Proteins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu; Reeves, Michael; Ye, Jun; Trang, Phong; Zhu, Li; Sheng, Jingxue; Wang, Yu; Zen, Ke; Wu, Jianguo; Liu, Fenyong

    2015-06-24

    An engineered RNase P-based ribozyme variant, which was generated using the in vitro selection procedure, was used to target the overlapping mRNA region of two proteins essential for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication: capsid assembly protein (AP) and protease (PR). In vitro studies showed that the generated variant, V718-A, cleaved the target AP mRNA sequence efficiently and its activity was about 60-fold higher than that of wild type ribozyme M1-A. Furthermore, we observed a reduction of 98%-99% in AP/PR expression and an inhibition of 50,000 fold in viral growth in cells with V718-A, while a 75% reduction in AP/PR expression and a 500-fold inhibition in viral growth was found in cells with M1-A. Examination of the antiviral effects of the generated ribozyme on the HCMV replication cycle suggested that viral DNA encapsidation was inhibited and as a consequence, viral capsid assembly was blocked when the expression of AP and PR was inhibited by the ribozyme. Thus, our study indicates that the generated ribozyme variant is highly effective in inhibiting HCMV gene expression and blocking viral replication, and suggests that engineered RNase P ribozyme can be potentially developed as a promising gene-targeting agent for anti-HCMV therapy.

  5. Dynamics of the Emergence of a Human Cytomegalovirus UL97 Mutant Strain Conferring Ganciclovir Resistance in a Pediatric Stem-Cell Transplant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Göhring, Katharina; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Mikeler, Elfriede; Lang, Peter; Jahn, Gerhard; Handgretinger, Rupert; Hamprecht, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Stem-cell transplant recipients are at risk of developing ganciclovir-resistant human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection caused by mutations in the viral UL97 gene. Knowledge of the relative proportions of coexisting HCMV wild-type and mutant strains may contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of in vivo mutant strain selection under ganciclovir. Currently, genotype resistance screening for UL97 is routinely performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism detection and sequencing. We present here the longitudinal course of a pediatric recipient of an allogeneic stem-cell transplant infected with a ganciclovir-resistant HCMV strain. EDTA-treated blood samples were analyzed longitudinally. The patient acquired a primary HCMV infection shortly before transplantation and reactivated the virus following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, thus receiving an intensive antiviral treatment schedule. Three different methods for UL97 mutation analysis, restriction fragment length polymorphism detection, sequencing, and a new, real-time PCR approach were performed. In conclusion, for our pediatric patient, during peak viral load, the UL97 wild-type strain predominates, while during clinical deterioration with low viral load, the predominant mutant strain persists. PMID:19477945

  6. Antibody Treatment Promotes Compensation for Human Cytomegalovirus-Induced Pathogenesis and a Hypoxia-Like Condition in Placentas with Congenital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Maidji, Ekaterina; Nigro, Giovanni; Tabata, Takako; McDonagh, Susan; Nozawa, Naoki; Shiboski, Stephen; Muci, Stefania; Anceschi, Maurizio M.; Aziz, Natali; Adler, Stuart P.; Pereira, Lenore

    2010-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the major viral cause of birth defects worldwide. Affected infants can have temporary symptoms that resolve soon after birth, such as growth restriction, and permanent disabilities, including neurological impairment. Passive immunization of pregnant women with primary HCMV infection is a promising treatment to prevent congenital disease. To understand the effects of sustained viral replication on the placenta and passive transfer of protective antibodies, we performed immunohistological analysis of placental specimens from women with untreated congenital infection, HCMV-specific hyperimmune globulin treatment, and uninfected controls. In untreated infection, viral replication proteins were found in trophoblasts and endothelial cells of chorionic villi and uterine arteries. Associated damage included extensive fibrinoid deposits, fibrosis, avascular villi, and edema, which could impair placental functions. Vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1) were up-regulated, and amniotic fluid contained elevated levels of soluble Flt1 (sFlt1), an antiangiogenic protein, relative to placental growth factor. With hyperimmune globulin treatment, placentas appeared uninfected, vascular endothelial growth factor and Flt1 expression was reduced, and sFlt1 levels in amniotic fluid were lower. An increase in the number of chorionic villi and blood vessels over that in controls suggested compensatory development for a hypoxia-like condition. Taken together the results indicate that antibody treatment can suppress HCMV replication and prevent placental dysfunction, thus improving fetal outcome. PMID:20651234

  7. Preparation and identification of HLA-A*1101 tetramer loading with human cytomegalovirus pp65 antigen peptide.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengyao; Xu, Lihui; Zha, Qingbing; Chi, Xiaoyun; Jia, Qiantao; He, Xianhui

    2007-04-01

    MHC/peptide tetramer technology has been widely used to study antigen-specific T cells, especially for identifying virus-specific CD8+ T cells in humans. The tetramer molecule is composed of HLA heavy chain, beta2-microglobulin (beta2m), an antigenic peptide, and fluorescent-labeled streptavidin. To further investigate the HLA-A*1101-restricted CD8+ T cell responses against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), we established an approach to prepare HLA-A*1101 tetramer complexed with a peptide from HCMV. The cDNA encoding HLA-A*1101 heavy chain was cloned and the prokaryotic expression vector for the ectodomain of HLA-A*1101 fused with a BirA substrate peptide (HLA-A*1101-BSP) at its carboxyl terminus was constructed. The fusion protein was highly expressed as inclusion bodies under optimized conditions in Escherichia coli. Moreover, HLA-A*1101-BSP protein was refolded in the presence of beta2m and an HCMV peptide pp65(16-24) (GPISGHVLK, GPI). Soluble HLA-A*1101-GPI monomer was biotinylated and purified to a purity of 95%, which was subsequently combined with streptavidin to form tetramers at a yield of > 80%. The HLA-A*1101-GPI tetramers could bind to virus-specific CD8+ T cells, suggesting soluble HLA-A*1101-GPI tetramers were biologically functional. This study provides the basis for further evaluation of HLA-A*1101-restricted CD8+ T cell responses against HCMV infection.

  8. Synthetic lethal mutations in the cyclin A interface of human cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Generally, the antagonism between host restriction factors and viral countermeasures decides on cellular permissiveness or resistance to virus infection. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has evolved an additional level of self-imposed restriction by the viral tegument protein pp150. Depending on a cyclin A-binding motif, pp150 prevents the onset of viral gene expression in the S/G2 cell cycle phase of otherwise fully permissive cells. Here we address the physiological relevance of this restriction during productive HCMV infection by employing a cyclin A-binding deficient pp150 mutant virus. One consequence of unrestricted viral gene expression in S/G2 was the induction of a G2/M arrest. G2-arrested but not mitotic cells supported viral replication. Cyclin A destabilization by the viral gene product pUL21a was required to maintain the virus-permissive G2-arrest. An HCMV double-point mutant where both pp150 and pUL21a are disabled in cyclin A interaction forced mitotic entry of the majority of infected cells, with a severe negative impact on cell viability and virus growth. Thus, pp150 and pUL21a functionally cooperate, together building a cell cycle synchronization strategy of cyclin A targeting and avoidance that is essential for productive HCMV infection. PMID:28129404

  9. Human cytomegalovirus UL49 encodes an early, virion-associated protein essential for virus growth in human foreskin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Yuan, Jian; Li, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Zhi-Feng; Luo, Zhi-Wen; Li, Shi-Qian; He, Chi-Qiang; Jia, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Xin; Zuo, Hui; Liu, Yi-Min; Chang, Martin; Li, Yue-Qin; Zhou, Tian-Hong

    2016-05-01

    Despite recent results of deletion experiments showing that open reading frame (ORF) UL49 of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is essential, the expression, function and functional location of its encoded protein remain unknown. We generated an antibody specific for pUL49 to investigate the protein product encoded by the UL49 ORF and identified its function in HCMV-infected host foreskin fibroblasts. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) of HCMV strain Towne (pRV-Towne) and the UL49-deleted mutant pRV-delUL49Towne were used to observe virus growth by plaque assay. Using a UL49-protein-binding antibody, we located pUL49 in the fibroblast cytoplasm. pUL49 exhibited expression kinetics resembling those of the class β-2 proteins and was detected in the virion tegument. Following deletion of UL49 ORF, the virus failed to replicate, but it could be recovered by addition of pUL49 from pCDNA3.1 (+)-UL49. Our findings indicate that UL49 ORF is essential for HCMV replication in host foreskin fibroblasts.

  10. Human cytomegalovirus infection and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bingjun; Wang, Xingxing; Chen, Engeng; Zhu, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus infection (HCMV) has been recently considered as a factor for tumorigenesis. The current study used meta-analytical techniques to explore the prevalence of HCMV in tumor tissues and the relationship between human cytomegalovirus and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. 11 studies detecting HCMV DNA in tumor tissues were included in meta-analysis. The prevalence rate and odds ratio (OR) were two main parameters. The overall prevalence of human cytomegalovirus DNA in tumor tissues were 27.5% (95% CI = 17.2%−37.8%). Binary logistic regression showed that the studies reported before 2010 involving formalin-fixed specimens from patients in developed region represented a lower proportion of HCMV. The tumor tissues had a significantly higher rate of virus infection compared with normal tissues (OR = 6.59, 95% CI = 4.48−9.69, I2 = 0%, P = 0.71). Subgroup analysis revealed the prevalence of the virus didn't differ in patients with different tumor stages, in tumor cells with different histologic grades, also in different kinds of specimen (polyp and adenocarcinoma). The results of current study suggested a statistically association between the virus infection and an increased risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:27732934

  11. Recombinant mouse cytomegalovirus expressing a ligand for the NKG2D receptor is attenuated and has improved vaccine properties

    PubMed Central

    Slavuljica, Irena; Busche, Andreas; Babić, Marina; Mitrović, Maja; Gašparović, Iva; Cekinović, Đurđica; Markova Car, Elitza; Pernjak Pugel, Ester; Ciković, Ana; Lisnić, Vanda Juranić; Britt, William J.; Koszinowski, Ulrich; Messerle, Martin; Krmpotić, Astrid; Jonjić, Stipan

    2010-01-01

    Human CMV (HCMV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both congenitally infected and immunocompromised individuals. Development of an effective HCMV vaccine would help protect these vulnerable groups. NK group 2, member D (NKG2D) is a potent activating receptor expressed by cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Its importance in HCMV immune surveillance is indicated by the elaborative evasion mechanisms evolved by the virus to avoid NKG2D. In order to study this signaling pathway, we engineered a recombinant mouse CMV expressing the high-affinity NKG2D ligand RAE-1γ (RAE-1γMCMV). Expression of RAE-1γ by MCMV resulted in profound virus attenuation in vivo and lower latent viral DNA loads. RAE-1γMCMV infection was efficiently controlled by immunodeficient hosts, including mice lacking type I interferon receptors or immunosuppressed by sublethal γ-irradiation. Features of MCMV infection in neonates were also diminished. Despite tight innate immune control, RAE-1γMCMV infection elicited strong and long-lasting protective immunity. Maternal RAE-1γMCMV immunization protected neonatal mice from MCMV disease via placental transfer of antiviral Abs. Despite strong selective pressure, the RAE-1γ transgene did not exhibit sequence variation following infection. Together, our results indicate that use of a recombinant virus encoding the ligand for an activating NK cell receptor could be a powerful approach to developing a safe and immunogenic HCMV vaccine. PMID:21099111

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus Secretome Contains Factors That Induce Angiogenesis and Wound Healing

    SciTech Connect

    Dumortier, Jerome; Streblow, Daniel N.; Moses, Ashlee V.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Kreklywich, Craig N.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Orloff, Susan L.; Nelson, Jay

    2008-07-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is implicated in the acceleration of a number of vascular diseases including transplant vascular sclerosis (TVS), the lesion associated with chronic rejection (CR) of solid organ transplants. Although the virus persists in the allograft throughout the course of disease, few cells are directly infected by CMV. This observation is in contrast to the global effects that CMV has on the acceleration of TVS/CR, suggesting that CMV infection indirectly promotes the vascular disease process. Recent transcriptome analysis of CMV-infected heart allografts indicates that the virus induces cytokines and growth factors associated with angiogenesis (AG) and wound healing (WH), suggesting that CMV may accelerate TVS/CR through the induction and secretion of AG/WH factors from infected cells. We analyzed virus-free supernatants from HCMV-infected cells (HCMV secretomes) for growth factors, by mass spectrometry and immunoassays, and found that the HCMV secretome contains over 1,000 cellular proteins, many of which are involved in AG/WH. Importantly, functional assays demonstrated that CMV but not herpes simplex virus secretomes not only induce AG/WH but also promote neovessel stabilization and endothelial cell survival for 2 weeks. These findings suggest that CMV acceleration of TVS occurs through virus-induced growth factors and cytokines in the CMV secretome.

  13. The eIF4AIII RNA helicase is a critical determinant of human cytomegalovirus replication

    PubMed Central

    Ziehr, Ben; Lenarcic, Erik; Cecil, Chad; Moorman, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was recently shown to encode a large number of spliced mRNAs. While the nuclear export of unspliced viral transcripts has been extensively studied, the role of host mRNA export factors in HCMV mRNA trafficking remains poorly defined. We found that the eIF4AIII RNA helicase, a component of the exon junction complex, was necessary for efficient virus replication. Depletion of eIF4AIII limited viral DNA accumulation, export of viral mRNAs from the nucleus, and the production of progeny virus. However eIF4AIII was dispensable for the association of viral transcripts with ribosomes. We found that pateamine A, a natural compound that inhibits both eIF4AI/II and eIF4AIII, has potent antiviral activity and inhibits HCMV replication throughout the virus lytic cycle. Our results demonstrate that eIF4AIII is required for efficient HCMV replication, and suggest that eIF4A family helicases may be a new class of targets for the development of host-directed antiviral therapeutics. PMID:26773380

  14. Developmental analysis of the cytomegalovirus enhancer in transgenic animals.

    PubMed

    Baskar, J F; Smith, P P; Ciment, G S; Hoffmann, S; Tucker, C; Tenney, D J; Colberg-Poley, A M; Nelson, J A; Ghazal, P

    1996-05-01

    The major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) of human, cytomegalovirus (HCMV) constitutes a primary genetic switch for viral activation. In this study, regulation of the enhancer-containing segment (nucleotides -670 to +54) of the HCMV MIEP attached to the 1acZ reporter gene was examined in the developing embryos of transgenic mice to identify temporal and tissue-specific expression. We find that the transgene reporter is first detected as a dorsal stripe of expression in the neural folds of embryos at day 8.5 postcoitum (p.c.). A broad expression pattern is exhibited in embryos at day 9.5 p.c. This pattern becomes more restricted by day 10.5 p.c. as organogenesis progresses. By day 14.5 p.c., prominent expression is observed in a subpopulation of central nervous system cells and spinal ganglia, endothelial cells, muscle, skin, thyroid, parathyroid, kidney, lung, liver, and gut cells, and the pancreas and submandibular and pituitary glands. This distribution pattern is discussed in relation to human congenital HCMV infection. These results suggest that the transcriptional activity of the HCMV MIEP may determine in part, the ability of the virus to specifically target developing fetal tissues in utero.

  15. Human cytomegalovirus TRS1 protein associates with the 7-methylguanosine mRNA cap and facilitates translation.

    PubMed

    Ziehr, Benjamin; Lenarcic, Erik; Vincent, Heather A; Cecil, Chad; Garcia, Benjamin; Shenk, Thomas; Moorman, Nathaniel J

    2015-06-01

    Viruses rely on the host translation machinery for the synthesis of viral proteins. Human cells have evolved sensors that recognize viral RNAs and inhibit mRNA translation in order to limit virus replication. Understanding how viruses manipulate the host translation machinery to gain access to ribosomes and disable the antiviral response is therefore a critical aspect of the host/pathogen interface. In this study, we used a proteomics approach to identify human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) proteins that might contribute to viral mRNA translation. The HCMV TRS1 protein (pTRS1) associated with the 7-methylguanosine mRNA cap, increased the total level of protein synthesis, and colocalized with mRNAs undergoing translation initiation during infection. pTRS1 stimulated translation of a nonviral reporter gene and increased the translation of a reporter containing an HCMV 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) to a greater extent. The preferential effect of pTRS1 on translation of an mRNA containing a viral 5'UTR required the pTRS1 RNA and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-binding domains, and was likely the result of PKR inhibition. However, pTRS1 also stimulated the total level of protein synthesis and translation directed by an HCMV 5'UTR in cells lacking PKR. Thus our results demonstrate that pTRS1 stimulates translation through both PKR-dependent and PKR-independent mechanisms.

  16. Comparative analysis of NK cell receptor repertoire in adults and very elderly subjects with cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Vega, Guillermo; Rangel-Ramírez, Velia; Monsiváis-Urenda, Adriana; Niño-Moreno, Perla; Garcia-Sepúlveda, Christian; Noyola, Daniel E; González-Amaro, Roberto

    2017-01-16

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in children and young adults has been associated with changes in the innate immune system. We herein analyzed the possible effect of very long term HCMV infection on the expression of several NK cell receptors. Ninety HCMV-seropositive individuals were included and classified as young adults (n=30), elderly (n=30) and very elderly subjects (n=30). A peripheral blood sample was obtained and the expression of NK cell receptors (NKG2A, NKG2C, ILT2, CD161, KIR2DL1, KIR3DL1, and KIR3DL2) by NK and other lymphocyte subsets was assessed by flow cytometry. In addition, the frequency of the sixteen KIR genes was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. We found a significant increase in the number of NKG2C+ NK and T cells in elderly individuals compared to young adults accompanied by an opposite trend in the number of NKG2A+ lymphocytes, and ILT2+ cells were also increased in elderly individuals. A significant increase in the levels of CD3-CD56+NKG2C+CD57+ cells was also detected in the elderly groups. Finally, KIR gene analysis revealed that the KIR genotype 2 was significantly less frequent in the elderly individuals. Our results support that long-term infection by HCMV exerts a significant progressive effect on the innate immune system.

  17. Human Cytomegalovirus DNA Quantification and Gene Expression in Gliomas of Different Grades.

    PubMed

    Stangherlin, Lucas Matheus; Castro, Fabiane Lucy Ferreira; Medeiros, Raphael Salles Scortegagna; Guerra, Juliana Mariotti; Kimura, Lidia Midori; Shirata, Neuza Kazumi; Nonogaki, Suely; Dos Santos, Claudia Januário; Carlan Silva, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumors. The most aggressive type, Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is one of the deadliest human diseases, with an average survival at diagnosis of about 1 year. Previous evidence suggests a link between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and gliomas. HCMV has been shown to be present in these tumors and several viral proteins can have oncogenic properties in glioma cells. Here we have investigated the presence of HCMV DNA, RNA and proteins in fifty-two gliomas of different grades of malignancy. The UL83 viral region, the early beta 2.7 RNA and viral protein were detected in 73%, 36% and 57% by qPCR, ISH and IHC, respectively. Positivity of the viral targets and viral load was independent of tumor type or grade suggesting no correlation between viral presence and tumor progression. Our results demonstrate high prevalence of the virus in gliomas from Brazilian patients, contributing to a better understanding of the association between HCMV infection and gliomas worldwide and supporting further investigations of the virus oncomodulatory properties.

  18. Isolation of human cytomegalovirus intranuclear capsids, characterization of their protein constituents, and demonstration that the B-capsid assembly protein is also abundant in noninfectious enveloped particles.

    PubMed Central

    Irmiere, A; Gibson, W

    1985-01-01

    Two types of intranuclear capsids have been recovered from human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, strain AD169)-infected cells. By analogy with strain Colburn (simian CMV) particles, these have been designated as A- and B-capsids. Both types of capsids are composed of proteins with molecular weights of 153,000 (major capsid protein), 34,000 (minor capsid protein), 28,000, and 11,000 (smallest capsid protein). In addition to these species, B-capsids contain a 36,000-molecular-weight (36K) protein which has been designated as the HCMV "assembly protein," based on its similarities to counterparts in strain Colburn CMV (i.e., 37K protein) and herpes simplex virus (i.e., VP22a/p40/NC-3/ICP35e). Peptide comparisons established that the assembly protein of HCMV B-capsids and the 36K protein that distinguishes HCMV noninfectious enveloped particles from virions are the same, providing direct evidence that noninfectious enveloped particles are enveloped B-capsids. Images PMID:2993655

  19. Human Cytomegalovirus DNA Quantification and Gene Expression in Gliomas of Different Grades

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Raphael Salles Scortegagna; Guerra, Juliana Mariotti; Kimura, Lidia Midori; Shirata, Neuza Kazumi; Nonogaki, Suely; dos Santos, Claudia Januário; Carlan Silva, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumors. The most aggressive type, Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is one of the deadliest human diseases, with an average survival at diagnosis of about 1 year. Previous evidence suggests a link between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and gliomas. HCMV has been shown to be present in these tumors and several viral proteins can have oncogenic properties in glioma cells. Here we have investigated the presence of HCMV DNA, RNA and proteins in fifty-two gliomas of different grades of malignancy. The UL83 viral region, the early beta 2.7 RNA and viral protein were detected in 73%, 36% and 57% by qPCR, ISH and IHC, respectively. Positivity of the viral targets and viral load was independent of tumor type or grade suggesting no correlation between viral presence and tumor progression. Our results demonstrate high prevalence of the virus in gliomas from Brazilian patients, contributing to a better understanding of the association between HCMV infection and gliomas worldwide and supporting further investigations of the virus oncomodulatory properties. PMID:27458810

  20. Divergent effects of human cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus-1 on cellular metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vastag, Livia; Koyuncu, Emre; Grady, Sarah L; Shenk, Thomas E; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2011-07-01

    Viruses rely on the metabolic network of the host cell to provide energy and macromolecular precursors to fuel viral replication. Here we used mass spectrometry to examine the impact of two related herpesviruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), on the metabolism of fibroblast and epithelial host cells. Each virus triggered strong metabolic changes that were conserved across different host cell types. The metabolic effects of the two viruses were, however, largely distinct. HCMV but not HSV-1 increased glycolytic flux. HCMV profoundly increased TCA compound levels and flow of two carbon units required for TCA cycle turning and fatty acid synthesis. HSV-1 increased anapleurotic influx to the TCA cycle through pyruvate carboxylase, feeding pyrimidine biosynthesis. Thus, these two related herpesviruses drive diverse host cells to execute distinct, virus-specific metabolic programs. Current drugs target nucleotide metabolism for treatment of both viruses. Although our results confirm that this is a robust target for HSV-1, therapeutic interventions at other points in metabolism might prove more effective for treatment of HCMV.

  1. Regulation and Gene Expression Profiling of NKG2D Positive Human Cytomegalovirus-Primed CD4+ T-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Helle; Folkersen, Lasse; Skov, Søren

    2012-01-01

    NKG2D is a stimulatory receptor expressed by natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T-cells, and γδ T-cells. NKG2D expression is normally absent from CD4+ T-cells, however recently a subset of NKG2D+ CD4+ T-cells has been found, which is specific for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). This particular subset of HCMV-specific NKG2D+ CD4+ T-cells possesses effector-like functions, thus resembling the subsets of NKG2D+ CD4+ T-cells found in other chronic inflammations. However, the precise mechanism leading to NKG2D expression on HCMV-specific CD4+ T-cells is currently not known. In this study we used genome-wide analysis of individual genes and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to investigate the gene expression profile of NKG2D+ CD4+ T-cells, generated from HCMV-primed CD4+ T-cells. We show that the HCMV-primed NKG2D+ CD4+ T-cells possess a higher differentiated phenotype than the NKG2D– CD4+ T-cells, both at the gene expression profile and cytokine profile. The ability to express NKG2D at the cell surface was primarily determined by the activation or differentiation status of the CD4+ T-cells and not by the antigen presenting cells. We observed a correlation between CD94 and NKG2D expression in the CD4+ T-cells following HCMV stimulation. However, knock-down of CD94 did not affect NKG2D cell surface expression or signaling. In addition, we show that NKG2D is recycled at the cell surface of activated CD4+ T-cells, whereas it is produced de novo in resting CD4+ T-cells. These findings provide novel information about the gene expression profile of HCMV-primed NKG2D+ CD4+ T-cells, as well as the mechanisms regulating NKG2D cell surface expression. PMID:22870231

  2. Inhibition of IKKα by BAY61-3606 Reveals IKKα-Dependent Histone H3 Phosphorylation in Human Cytomegalovirus Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Catherine M. K.; Donovan-Banfield, I’ah Z.; Tan, Li; Zhang, Tinghu; Gray, Nathanael S.; Strang, Blair L.

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors can be used as tools to identify proteins and pathways required for virus replication. Using virus replication assays and western blotting we found that the widely used protein kinase inhibitor BAY61-3606 inhibits replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain AD169 and the accumulation of HCMV immediate-early proteins in AD169 infected cells, but has no effect on replication of HCMV strain Merlin. Using in vitro kinase assays we found that BAY61-3606 is a potent inhibitor of the cellular kinase IKKα. Infection of cells treated with siRNA targeting IKKα indicated IKKα was required for efficient AD169 replication and immediate-early protein production. We hypothesized that IKKα was required for AD169 immediate-early protein production as part of the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway. However, although BAY61-3606 inhibited phosphorylation of the IKKα substrate IκBα, we found no canonical or non-canonical NF-κB signaling in AD169 infected cells. Rather, we observed that treatment of cells with BAY61-3606 or siRNA targeting IKKα decreased phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 (H3S10p) in western blotting assays. Furthermore, we found treatment of cells with BAY61-3606, but not siRNA targeting IKKα, inhibited the accumulation of histone H3 acetylation (H3K9ac, H3K18ac and H3K27ac) and tri-methylation (H3K27me3 and H3K36me3) modifications. Therefore, the requirement for IKKα in HCMV replication was strain-dependent and during replication of an HCMV strain requiring IKKα, IKKα-dependent H3S10 phosphorylation was associated with efficient HCMV replication and immediate-early protein production. Plus, inhibition of HCMV replication by BAY61-3606 is associated with acetylation and tri-methylation modifications of histone H3 that do not involve IKKα. PMID:26930276

  3. Human Cytomegalovirus Can Procure Deoxyribonucleotides for Viral DNA Replication in the Absence of Retinoblastoma Protein Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kuny, Chad V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viral DNA replication requires deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). These molecules, which are found at low levels in noncycling cells, are generated either by salvage pathways or through de novo synthesis. Nucleotide synthesis utilizes the activity of a series of nucleotide-biosynthetic enzymes (NBEs) whose expression is repressed in noncycling cells by complexes between the E2F transcription factors and the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor. Rb-E2F complexes are dissociated and NBE expression is activated during cell cycle transit by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-mediated Rb phosphorylation. The DNA virus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes a viral Cdk (v-Cdk) (the UL97 protein) that phosphorylates Rb, induces the expression of cellular NBEs, and is required for efficient viral DNA synthesis. A long-held hypothesis proposed that viral proteins with Rb-inactivating activities functionally similar to those of UL97 facilitated viral DNA replication in part by inducing the de novo production of dNTPs. However, we found that dNTPs were limiting even in cells infected with wild-type HCMV in which UL97 is expressed and Rb is phosphorylated. Furthermore, we revealed that both de novo and salvage pathway enzymes contribute to viral DNA replication during HCMV infection and that Rb phosphorylation by cellular Cdks does not correct the viral DNA replication defect observed in cells infected with a UL97-deficient virus. We conclude that HCMV can obtain dNTPs in the absence of Rb phosphorylation and that UL97 can contribute to the efficiency of DNA replication in an Rb phosphorylation-independent manner. IMPORTANCE Transforming viral oncoproteins, such as adenovirus E1A and papillomavirus E7, inactivate Rb. The standard hypothesis for how Rb inactivation facilitates infection with these viruses is that it is through an increase in the enzymes required for DNA synthesis, which include nucleotide-biosynthetic enzymes. However, HCMV UL97, which functionally

  4. Protein-Protein Interactions Suggest Novel Activities of Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Protein pUL103

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Daniel A.; Glassbrook, James E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that causes severe disease in newborns and immunocompromised patients. During infection, the host cell endosecretory system is remodeled to form the cytoplasmic virion assembly complex (cVAC). We and others previously identified the conserved, multifunctional HCMV virion tegument protein pUL103 as important for cVAC biogenesis and efficient secondary envelopment. To help define its mechanisms of action and predict additional functions, we used two complementary methods, coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) and proximity biotinylation (BioID), to identify viral and cellular proteins that interact with pUL103. By using the two methods in parallel and applying stringent selection criteria, we identified potentially high-value interactions of pUL103 with 13 HCMV and 18 cellular proteins. Detection of the previously identified pUL103-pUL71 interaction, as well as verification of several interactions by reverse co-IP, supports the specificity of our screening process. As might be expected for a tegument protein, interactions were identified that suggest distinct roles for pUL103 across the arc of lytic infection, including interactions with proteins involved in cellular antiviral responses, nuclear activities, and biogenesis and transport of cytoplasmic vesicles. Further analysis of some of these interactions expands our understanding of the multifunctional repertoire of pUL103: we detected HCMV pUL103 in nuclei of infected cells and identified an ALIX-binding domain within the pUL103 sequence. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is able to reconfigure the host cell machinery to establish a virion production factory, the cytoplasmic virion assembly complex (cVAC). cVAC biogenesis and operation represent targets for development of novel HCMV antivirals. We previously showed that the HCMV tegument protein pUL103 is required for cVAC biogenesis. Using pUL103 as bait, we investigated viral and

  5. Human cytomegalovirus infection leads to elevated levels of transplant arteriosclerosis in a humanized mouse aortic xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Abele-Ohl, S; Leis, M; Wollin, M; Mahmoudian, S; Hoffmann, J; Müller, R; Heim, C; Spriewald, B M; Weyand, M; Stamminger, T; Ensminger, S M

    2012-07-01

    Recent findings emphasized an important role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a human peripheral blood lymphocyte (hu-PBL)/Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mouse-xenograft-model to investigate both immunological as well as viral effector mechanisms in the progression of transplant arteriosclerosis. For this, sidebranches from the internal mammary artery were recovered during coronary artery bypass graft surgery, tissue-typed and infected with HCMV. Then, size-matched sidebranches were implanted into the infrarenal aorta of Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mice. The animals were reconstituted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) 7 days after transplantation. HCMV-infection was confirmed by Taqman-PCR and immunofluorescence analyses. Arterial grafts were analyzed by histology on day 40 after transplantation. PBMC-reconstituted Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) animals showed splenic chimerism levels ranging from 1-16% human cells. After reconstitution, Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) mice developed human leukocyte infiltrates in their grafts and vascular lesions that were significantly elevated after infection. Cellular infiltration revealed significantly increased ICAM-1 and PDGF-R-β expression after HCMV-infection of the graft. Arterial grafts from unreconstituted Rag-2(-/-) γc(-/-) recipients showed no vascular lesions. These data demonstrate a causative relationship between HCMV-infection as an isolated risk factor and the development of transplant-arteriosclerosis in a humanized mouse arterial-transplant-model possibly by elevated ICAM-1 and PDGF-R-β expression.

  6. Rapid detection and quantitation of ganciclovir resistance in cytomegalovirus quasispecies.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Carrascoso, Guillermo; Romero-Gómez, María Pilar; Plaza, Diego; Mingorance, Jesús

    2013-07-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) may cause severe or fatal disease among immunocompromised patients. The first line prophylaxis and systemic HCMV disease therapy is ganciclovir (GCV). The presence of GCV-resistant virus has been linked to fatal HCMV disease. The implementation of rapid and sensitive techniques for the early detection and monitoring of GCV-resistance may be helpful to support antiviral therapy management. A pyrosequencing assay for the detection and quantitation of the most frequent mutations conferring moderate- and high-grade GCV resistance was implemented. The pyrosequencing achieved an analytical sensitivity for adequate interpretation of ≥10(3)  copies/ml. The assay was validated with 18 whole blood samples taken over a 6-month period from an umbilical cord blood recipient infected persistently with HCMV and allowed the detection and monitoring of the M460I and A594V GCV-resistant mutations. The percentage of resistant quasispecies ranged from 7.9% to 55.2% for the M460I mutation and from 19.8% to 43% for the A594V mutation. Clearance of the M460I mutation occurred in parallel with a decrease in the HCMV viremia, while the A594V mutation persisted. The pyrosequencing method for detection of GCV is sensitive enough to be used directly on clinical samples for the early identification of resistance mutations and allows the quantitation of resistant and wild type virus quasispecies within hours. The quantitation of minor resistant variants is an important issue to understand their relationship with viral load modification, and potentially anticipate treatment adjustment.

  7. Human cytomegalovirus inhibits apoptosis by proteasome-mediated degradation of Bax at endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrion contacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aiping; Hildreth, Richard L; Colberg-Poley, Anamaris M

    2013-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes the UL37 exon 1 protein (pUL37x1), which is the potent viral mitochondrion-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA), to increase survival of infected cells. HCMV vMIA traffics from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to ER subdomains, which are physically linked to mitochondria known as mitochondrion-associated membranes (MAM), and to mitochondria. The antiapoptotic function of vMIA is thought to primarily result from its ability to inhibit Bax-mediated permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here, we establish that vMIA retargets Bax to the MAM as well as to the OMM from immediate early through late times of infection. However, MAM localization of Bax results in its increased ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Surprisingly, HCMV infection does not increase OMM-associated degradation (OMMAD) of Bax, even though the ER and mitochondria are physically connected at the MAM. It was recently found that lipid rafts at the plasma membrane can connect extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways and can serve as sites of apoptosome assembly. In transfected permissive human fibroblasts, vMIA mediates, through its cholesterol affinity, association of Bax and apoptosome components with MAM lipid rafts. While Bax association with MAM lipid rafts was detected in HCMV-infected cells, association of apoptosome components was not. These results establish that Bax recruitment to the MAM and its MAM-associated degradation (MAMAD) are a newly described antiapoptotic mechanism used by HCMV infection to increase cell survival for its growth.

  8. Soluble Human Cytomegalovirus gH/gL/pUL128-131 Pentameric Complex, but Not gH/gL, Inhibits Viral Entry to Epithelial Cells and Presents Dominant Native Neutralizing Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Loughney, John W; Rustandi, Richard R; Wang, Dai; Troutman, Matthew C; Dick, Lawrence W; Li, Guanghua; Liu, Zhong; Li, Fengsheng; Freed, Daniel C; Price, Colleen E; Hoang, Van M; Culp, Timothy D; DePhillips, Pete A; Fu, Tong-Ming; Ha, Sha

    2015-06-26

    Congenital infection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the leading causes of nongenetic birth defects, and development of a prophylactic vaccine against HCMV is of high priority for public health. The gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex mediates HCMV entry into endothelial and epithelial cells, and it is a major target for neutralizing antibody responses. To better understand the mechanism by which antibodies interact with the epitopes of the gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex resulting in viral neutralization, we expressed and purified soluble gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex and gH/gL from Chinese hamster ovary cells to >95% purity. The soluble gH/gL, which exists predominantly as (gH/gL)2 homodimer with a molecular mass of 220 kDa in solution, has a stoichiometry of 1:1 and a pI of 6.0-6.5. The pentameric complex has a molecular mass of 160 kDa, a stoichiometry of 1:1:1:1:1, and a pI of 7.4-8.1. The soluble pentameric complex, but not gH/gL, adsorbs 76% of neutralizing activities in HCMV human hyperimmune globulin, consistent with earlier reports that the most potent neutralizing epitopes for blocking epithelial infection are unique to the pentameric complex. Functionally, the soluble pentameric complex, but not gH/gL, blocks viral entry to epithelial cells in culture. Our results highlight the importance of the gH/gL/pUL128-131 pentameric complex in HCMV vaccine design and emphasize the necessity to monitor the integrity of the pentameric complex during the vaccine manufacturing process.

  9. Murine cytomegalovirus resistant to antivirals has genetic correlates with human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Scott, G M; Ng, H-L; Morton, C J; Parker, M W; Rawlinson, W D

    2005-08-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) resistance to antivirals is a significant clinical problem. Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection of mice is a well-described animal model for in vivo studies of CMV pathogenesis, although the mechanisms of MCMV antiviral susceptibility need elucidation. Mutants resistant to nucleoside analogues aciclovir, adefovir, cidofovir, ganciclovir, penciclovir and valaciclovir, and the pyrophosphate analogue foscarnet were generated by in vitro passage of MCMV (Smith) in increasing concentrations of antiviral. All MCMV antiviral resistant mutants contained DNA polymerase mutations identical or similar to HCMV DNA polymerase mutations known to confer antiviral resistance. Mapping of the mutations onto an MCMV DNA polymerase three-dimensional model generated using the Thermococcus gorgonarius Tgo polymerase crystal structure showed that the DNA polymerase mutations potentially confer resistance through changes in regions surrounding a catalytic aspartate triad. The ganciclovir-, penciclovir- and valaciclovir-resistant isolates also contained mutations within MCMV M97 identical or similar to recognized GCV-resistant mutations of HCMV UL97 protein kinase, and demonstrated cross-resistance to antivirals of the same class. This strongly suggests that MCMV M97 has a similar role to HCMV UL97 in the phosphorylation of nucleoside analogue antivirals. All MCMV mutants demonstrated replication-impaired phenotypes, with the lowest titre and plaque size observed for isolates containing mutations in both DNA polymerase and M97. These findings indicate DNA polymerase and protein kinase regions of potential importance for antiviral susceptibility and replication. The similarities between MCMV and HCMV mutations that arise under antiviral selective pressure increase the utility of MCMV as a model for in vivo studies of CMV antiviral resistance.

  10. Human Cytomegalovirus MicroRNAs miR-US5-1 and miR-UL112-3p Block Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Response to NF-κB-Activating Factors through Direct Downregulation of IKKα and IKKβ

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Meaghan H.; Hook, Lauren M.; Mitchell, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Emerging evidence indicates that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) manipulates host cell signaling pathways using both proteins and noncoding RNAs. Several studies have shown that HCMV induces NF-κB signaling early in infection, resulting in the induction of antiviral proinflammatory cytokines with a subsequent reduction of these cytokines late in infection. The mechanism for late cytokine reduction is unknown. In this study, we show that HCMV microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-US5-1 and miR-UL112-3p target the IκB kinase (IKK) complex components IKKα and IKKβ to limit production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Transfection of miR-UL112-3p and miR-US5-1 mimics reduced endogenous IKKα and IKKβ protein levels, and site-directed mutagenesis of the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) identified the binding sites for each miRNA. Infection with mutant viruses lacking these miRNAs resulted in increased levels of IKKα and IKKβ proteins, an impaired ability to control NF-κB signaling at late times of lytic infection, and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines compared to wild-type virus in cell types relevant to HCMV infection in vivo. These phenotypes were rescued by preexpression of miR-US5-1 and miR-UL112-3p in infected cells or by a miR-US5-1/miR-UL112-3p double mutant virus that expresses short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting IKKα and IKKβ, demonstrating the gene specificity of the miRNAs. These observations describe a mechanism through which HCMV miRNAs expressed late in the infectious cycle downregulate proinflammatory cytokine production to create a cellular proviral environment. PMID:28270578

  11. Genomic Sequencing and Characterization of Cynomolgus Macaque Cytomegalovirus▿

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Angie K.; Willer, David O.; Ambagala, Aruna P. N.; Dzamba, Misko; Chan, Jacqueline K.; Pilon, Richard; Fournier, Jocelyn; Sandstrom, Paul; Brudno, Michael; MacDonald, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed individuals, such as transplant recipients or people living with HIV/AIDS, and congenital CMV is the leading viral cause of developmental disabilities in infants. Due to the highly species-specific nature of CMV, animal models that closely recapitulate human CMV (HCMV) are of growing importance for vaccine development. Here we present the genomic sequence of a novel nonhuman primate CMV from cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis; CyCMV). CyCMV (Ottawa strain) was isolated from the urine of a healthy, captive-bred, 4-year-old cynomolgus macaque of Philippine origin, and the viral genome was sequenced using next-generation Illumina sequencing to an average of 516-fold coverage. The CyCMV genome is 218,041 bp in length, with 49.5% G+C content and 84% protein-coding density. We have identified 262 putative open reading frames (ORFs) with an average coding length of 789 bp. The genomic organization of CyCMV is largely colinear with that of rhesus macaque CMV (RhCMV). Of the 262 CyCMV ORFs, 137 are homologous to HCMV genes, 243 are homologous to RhCMV 68.1, and 200 are homologous to RhCMV 180.92. CyCMV encodes four ORFs that are not present in RhCMV strain 68.1 or 180.92 but have homologies with HCMV (UL30, UL74A, UL126, and UL146). Similar to HCMV, CyCMV does not produce the RhCMV-specific viral homologue of cyclooxygenase-2. This newly characterized CMV may provide a novel model in which to study CMV biology and HCMV vaccine development. PMID:21994460

  12. Poor survival in glioblastoma patients is associated with early signs of immunosenescence in the CD4 T-cell compartment after surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fornara, Olesja; Odeberg, Jenny; Wolmer Solberg, Nina; Tammik, Charlotte; Skarman, Petra; Peredo, Inti; Stragliotto, Giuseppe; Rahbar, Afsar; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are immunosuppressed and have a broad range of immunological defects in both innate and adaptive immune responses. GBMs are frequently infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a virus capable of causing immunosuppression. In 42 HCMV-positive GBM patients in a clinical trial (VIGAS), we investigated T-cell phenotypes in the blood and assessed their relation to survival. Blood was collected before and 3, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery, and the frequency of T-cell subsets was compared with that in 26 age-matched healthy controls. GBM patients had lower levels of CD3 cells than the controls, but had significantly higher levels of CD4+CD28− T cells before and 3 and 12 weeks after surgery and increased levels of CD4+CD57+ and CD4+CD57+CD28+ T cells at all-time points. These T-cell subsets were associated with both immunosenescence and HCMV infection. GBM patients also had higher levels of γδ T cells at all-times after surgery and lower levels of CD4+CD25+ cells before and 3 weeks after surgery than healthy controls. Overall survival was significantly shorter in patients with higher levels of CD4+CD28− T cells (p = 0.025), CD4+CD57+ T (p = 0.025) cells, and CD4+CD28−CD57+CD28− T cells (p < 0.0004) at 3 weeks after surgery. Our findings indicate that signs of immunosenescence in the CD4+ compartment are associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCMV-positive GBMs and may reflect the HCMV activity in their tumors. PMID:26405601

  13. Poor survival in glioblastoma patients is associated with early signs of immunosenescence in the CD4 T-cell compartment after surgery.

    PubMed

    Fornara, Olesja; Odeberg, Jenny; Wolmer Solberg, Nina; Tammik, Charlotte; Skarman, Petra; Peredo, Inti; Stragliotto, Giuseppe; Rahbar, Afsar; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia

    2015-09-01

    Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are immunosuppressed and have a broad range of immunological defects in both innate and adaptive immune responses. GBMs are frequently infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a virus capable of causing immunosuppression. In 42 HCMV-positive GBM patients in a clinical trial (VIGAS), we investigated T-cell phenotypes in the blood and assessed their relation to survival. Blood was collected before and 3, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery, and the frequency of T-cell subsets was compared with that in 26 age-matched healthy controls. GBM patients had lower levels of CD3 cells than the controls, but had significantly higher levels of CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells before and 3 and 12 weeks after surgery and increased levels of CD4(+)CD57(+) and CD4(+)CD57(+)CD28(+) T cells at all-time points. These T-cell subsets were associated with both immunosenescence and HCMV infection. GBM patients also had higher levels of γδ T cells at all-times after surgery and lower levels of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells before and 3 weeks after surgery than healthy controls. Overall survival was significantly shorter in patients with higher levels of CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells (p = 0.025), CD4(+)CD57(+) T (p = 0.025) cells, and CD4(+)CD28(-)CD57(+)CD28(-) T cells (p < 0.0004) at 3 weeks after surgery. Our findings indicate that signs of immunosenescence in the CD4(+) compartment are associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCMV-positive GBMs and may reflect the HCMV activity in their tumors.

  14. A viral regulator of glycoprotein complexes contributes to human cytomegalovirus cell tropism.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Nguyen, Christopher C; Ryckman, Brent J; Britt, William J; Kamil, Jeremy P

    2015-04-07

    Viral glycoproteins mediate entry of enveloped viruses into cells and thus play crucial roles in infection. In herpesviruses, a complex of two viral glycoproteins, gH and gL (gH/gL), regulates membrane fusion events and influences virion cell tropism. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gH/gL can be incorporated into two different protein complexes: a glycoprotein O (gO)-containing complex known as gH/gL/gO, and a complex containing UL128, UL130, and UL131 known as gH/gL/UL128-131. Variability in the relative abundance of the complexes in the virion envelope correlates with differences in cell tropism exhibited between strains of HCMV. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying such variability have remained unclear. We have identified a viral protein encoded by the UL148 ORF (UL148) that influences the ratio of gH/gL/gO to gH/gL/UL128-131 and the cell tropism of HCMV virions. A mutant disrupted for UL148 showed defects in gH/gL/gO maturation and enhanced infectivity for epithelial cells. Accordingly, reintroduction of UL148 into an HCMV strain that lacked the gene resulted in decreased levels of gH/gL/UL128-131 on virions and, correspondingly, decreased infectivity for epithelial cells. UL148 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, but not to the cytoplasmic sites of virion envelopment. Coimmunoprecipitation results indicated that gH, gL, UL130, and UL131 associate with UL148, but that gO and UL128 do not. Taken together, the findings suggest that UL148 modulates HCMV tropism by regulating the composition of alternative gH/gL complexes.

  15. Human cytomegalovirus gene UL21a encodes a short-lived cytoplasmic protein and facilitates virus replication in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Anthony R; Yu, Dong

    2010-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene UL21a was recently annotated by its conservation in chimpanzee cytomegalovirus. Two large-scale mutagenic analyses showed that mutations in overlapping UL21a/UL21 resulted in a severe defect of virus growth in fibroblasts. Here, we characterized UL21a and demonstrated its role in HCMV infection. We mapped a UL21a-specific transcript of approximately 600 bp that was expressed with early kinetics. UL21a encoded pUL21a, a protein of approximately 15 kDa, which was unstable and localized predominantly to the cytoplasm during HCMV infection or when expressed alone. Interestingly, pUL21a was drastically stabilized in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG132, but its instability was independent of a functional ubiquitin-mediated pathway, suggesting that pUL21a underwent proteasome-dependent, ubiquitin-independent degradation. A UL21a deletion virus was attenuated in primary human newborn foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and embryonic lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), whereas a marker-rescued virus and mutant viruses lacking the neighboring or overlapping genes UL20, UL21, or UL21.5-UL23 replicated at wild-type levels. The growth defect of UL21a-deficient virus in MRC-5 cells was more pronounced than that in HFFs. At a high multiplicity of infection, the UL21a deletion virus synthesized viral proteins with wild-type kinetics but had a two- to threefold defect in viral DNA replication. More importantly, although pUL21a was not detected in the virion, progeny virions produced by the mutant virus were approximately 10 times less infectious than wild-type virus, suggesting that UL21a is required for HCMV to establish efficient productive infection. We conclude that UL21a encodes a short-lived cytoplasmic protein and facilitates HCMV replication in fibroblasts.

  16. Channel properties of the splicing isoforms of the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel Anoctamin 2.

    PubMed

    Ponissery Saidu, Samsudeen; Stephan, Aaron B; Talaga, Anna K; Zhao, Haiqing; Reisert, Johannes

    2013-06-01

    Anoctamin (ANO)2 (or TMEM16B) forms a cell membrane Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel that is present in cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, vomeronasal microvilli, and photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Alternative splicing of Ano2 transcripts generates multiple variants with the olfactory variants skipping exon 14 and having alternative splicing of exon 4. In the present study, 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis was conducted to characterize the 5' end of olfactory Ano2 transcripts, which showed that the most abundant Ano2 transcripts in the olfactory epithelium contain a novel starting exon that encodes a translation initiation site, whereas transcripts of the publically available sequence variant, which has an alternative and longer 5' end, were present in lower abundance. With two alternative starting exons and alternative splicing of exon 4, four olfactory ANO2 isoforms are thus possible. Patch-clamp experiments in transfected HEK293T cells expressing these isoforms showed that N-terminal sequences affect Ca(2+) sensitivity and that the exon 4-encoded sequence is required to form functional channels. Coexpression of the two predominant isoforms, one with and one without the exon 4 sequence, as well as coexpression of the two rarer isoforms showed alterations in channel properties, indicating that different isoforms interact with each other. Furthermore, channel properties observed from the coexpression of the predominant isoforms better recapitulated the native channel properties, suggesting that the native channel may be composed of two or more splicing isoforms acting as subunits that together shape the channel properties.

  17. Agouti sequence polymorphisms in coyotes, wolves and dogs suggest hybridization.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Sheila M; Berryere, Thomas G; Barta, Jodi L; Reddick, Kimberley D; Schmutz, Josef K

    2007-01-01

    Domestic dogs have been shown to have multiple alleles of the Agouti Signal Peptide (ASIP) in exon 4 and we wished to determine the level of polymorphism in the common wild canids of Canada, wolves and coyotes, in comparison. All Canadian coyotes and most wolves have banded hairs. The ASIP coding sequence of the wolf did not vary from the domestic dog but one variant was detected in exon 4 of coyotes that did not alter the arginine at this position. Two other differences were found in the sequence flanking exon 4 of coyotes compared with the 45 dogs and 1 wolf. The coyotes also demonstrated a relatively common polymorphism in the 3' UTR sequence that could be used for population studies. One of the ASIP alleles (R96C) in domestic dogs causes a solid black coat color in homozygotes. Although some wolves are melanistic, this phenotype does not appear to be caused by this same mutation. However, one wolf, potentially a dog-wolf hybrid or descendant thereof, was heterozygous for this allele. Likewise 2 coyotes, potentially dog-coyote or wolf-coyote hybrid descendants, were heterozygous for the several polymorphisms in and flanking exon 4. We could conclude that these were coyote-dog hybrids because both were heterozygous for 2 mutations causing fawn coat color in dogs.

  18. Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early mRNA Detection by Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification as a New Parameter for Preemptive Therapy in Bone Marrow Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Gerna, Giuseppe; Baldanti, Fausto; Lilleri, Daniele; Parea, Maurizio; Alessandrino, Emilio; Pagani, Ambrogio; Locatelli, Franco; Middeldorp, Jaap; Revello, M. Grazia

    2000-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection was monitored retrospectively by qualitative determination of immediate-early (IE) mRNA by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) in a series of 51 bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. The qualitative results for IE mRNA obtained by NASBA were compared with those obtained by prospective quantitation of HCMV viremia and antigenemia and retrospective quantitation of DNA in blood (DNAemia) by PCR as well as by qualitative determination of late pp67 mRNA by NASBA. On the whole, of the 39 HCMV-positive patients (all asymptomatic), HCMV was detected in 14 (35.9%) by quantitation of viremia, 15 (38.5%) by detection of pp67 mRNA by NASBA, 32 (82.1%) by quantitation of DNAemia, and 33 (84.6%) by quantitation of antigenemia, while HCMV was detected in 38 (97.4%) patients by detection of IE mRNA by NASBA. In the immunocompetent host, IE mRNA was not detected by NASBA in 100 blood donors or during reactivated infections in 30 breast-feeding mothers. Likewise, NASBA did not detect IE mRNA in 56 solid-organ transplant recipients in the first 21 days after transplantation. By using NASBA for detection of IE mRNA as the reference standard for detection of HCMV infection in blood samples, the diagnostic sensitivities were 67.7% for quantitation of DNAemia, 59.0% for quantitation of antigenemia, 18.3% for detection of pp67 mRNA by NASBA, and 16.0% for quantitation of viremia. Specificities and negative and positive predictive values were >90.0, >70.0, and >80.0%, respectively, for all four assays. The mean times to first HCMV detection after bone marrow transplantation were 37.7 ± 15.4 days for detection of IE mRNA by NASBA, 39.6 ± 15.6 days for quantitation of antigenemia, 40.9 ± 15.2 days for quantitation of DNAemia, and 43.7 ± 16.3 or 43.7 ± 17.5 days for quantitation of viremia and detection of pp67 mRNA by NASBA, respectively. On the whole, 31 BMT recipients received preemptive therapy by using confirmed antigenemia

  19. Neutralization of Diverse Human Cytomegalovirus Strains Conferred by Antibodies Targeting Viral gH/gL/pUL128-131 Pentameric Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sha; Li, Fengsheng; Troutman, Matthew C.; Freed, Daniel C.; Tang, Aimin; Loughney, John W.; Wang, I-Ming; Vlasak, Josef; Nickle, David C.; Rustandi, Richard R.; Hamm, Melissa; DePhillips, Pete A.; Zhang, Ningyan; McLellan, Jason S.; Zhu, Hua; Adler, Stuart P.; McVoy, Michael A.; An, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of congenital viral infection, and developing a prophylactic vaccine is of high priority to public health. We recently reported a replication-defective human cytomegalovirus with restored pentameric complex glycoprotein H (gH)/gL/pUL128-131 for prevention of congenital HCMV infection. While the quantity of vaccine-induced antibody responses can be measured in a viral neutralization assay, assessing the quality of such responses, including the ability of vaccine-induced antibodies to cross-neutralize the field strains of HCMV, remains a challenge. In this study, with a panel of neutralizing antibodies from three healthy human donors with natural HCMV infection or a vaccinated animal, we mapped eight sites on the dominant virus-neutralizing antigen—the pentameric complex of glycoprotein H (gH), gL, and pUL128, pUL130, and pUL131. By evaluating the site-specific antibodies in vaccine immune sera, we demonstrated that vaccination elicited functional antiviral antibodies to multiple neutralizing sites in rhesus macaques, with quality attributes comparable to those of CMV hyperimmune globulin. Furthermore, these immune sera showed antiviral activities against a panel of genetically distinct HCMV clinical isolates. These results highlighted the importance of understanding the quality of vaccine-induced antibody responses, which includes not only the neutralizing potency in key cell types but also the ability to protect against the genetically diverse field strains. IMPORTANCE HCMV is the leading cause of congenital viral infection, and development of a preventive vaccine is a high public health priority. To understand the strain coverage of vaccine-induced immune responses in comparison with natural immunity, we used a panel of broadly neutralizing antibodies to identify the immunogenic sites of a dominant viral antigen—the pentameric complex. We further demonstrated that following vaccination of a replication

  20. Novel Method Based on Real-Time Cell Analysis for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Herpes Simplex Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Piret, Jocelyne; Goyette, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The plaque reduction assay (PRA) is the gold standard phenotypic method to determine herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) susceptibilities to antiviral drugs. However, this assay is subjective and labor intensive. Here, we describe a novel antiviral phenotypic method based on real-time cell analysis (RTCA) that measures electronic impedance over time. The effective drug concentrations that reduced by 50% (EC50s) the cytopathic effects induced by HSV-1 and HCMV were evaluated by both methods. The EC50s of acyclovir and foscarnet against a reference wild-type (WT) HSV-1 strain in Vero cells were, respectively, 0.5 μM and 32.6 μM by PRA and 0.8 μM and 93.6 μM by RTCA. The EC50 ratios for acyclovir against several HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) mutants were 101.8×, 73.4×, 28.8×, and 35.4× (PRA) and 18.0×, 52.0×, 5.5×, and 87.8× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. The EC50 ratios for acyclovir and foscarnet against the HSV-1 TK/DNA polymerase mutant were 182.8× and 9.7× (PRA) and >125.0× and 10.8× (RTCA) compared to the WT. The EC50s of ganciclovir and foscarnet against WT HCMV strain AD169 in fibroblasts were, respectively, 1.6 μM and 27.8 μM by PRA and 5.0 μM and 111.4 μM by RTCA. The EC50 ratios of ganciclovir against the HCMV UL97 mutant were 3.8× (PRA) and 8.2× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. The EC50 ratios of ganciclovir and foscarnet against the HCMV UL97/DNA polymerase mutant were 17.1× and 12.1× (PRA) and 14.7× and 4.6× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. RTCA allows objective drug susceptibility testing of HSV and HCMV and could permit high-throughput screening of new antivirals. PMID:27252463

  1. Cytomegalovirus-targeted immunotherapy and glioblastoma: hype or hope?

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherise D; Srinivasan, Visish M; Ghali, Michael Gz; Heimberger, Amy B

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma (GBM), are the most common primary brain tumors. Despite extensive research only modest gains have been made in long-term survival. Standard of care involves maximizing safe surgical resection followed by concurrent chemoradiation with temozolomide. Immunotherapy for GBM is an area of intense research in recent years. New immunotherapies, although promising, have not been integrated into standard practice. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a DNA virus of the family Herpesviridae. Human seroprevalence is approximately 80%, and in most cases, is associated with asymptomatic infection. HCMV may be an important agent in the initiation, promotion and/or progression of tumorigenesis. Regardless of a possible etiologic role in GBM, interest has centered on exploiting this association for development of immunomodulatory therapies.

  2. Polyhydroxylated steroids from the bamboo coral Isis hippuris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hua; Wang, Shang-Kwei; Duh, Chang-Yih

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies on the secondary metabolites of the Taiwanese octocoral Isis hippuris, specimens have always been collected at Green Island. In the course of our studies on bioactive compounds from marine organisms, the acetone-solubles of the Taiwanese octocoral I. hippuris collected at Orchid Island have led to the isolation of five new polyoxygenated steroids: hipposterone M-O (1-3), hipposterol G (4) and hippuristeroketal A (5). The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic and physical data. The anti-HCMV (human cytomegalovirus) activity of 1-5 and their cytotoxicity against selected cell lines were evaluated. Compound 2 exhibited inhibitory activity against HCMV, with an EC(50) value of 6.0 μg/mL.

  3. Screening of Australian medicinal plants for antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Semple, S J; Reynolds, G D; O'Leary, M C; Flower, R L

    1998-03-01

    Extracts of 40 different plant species used in the traditional medicine of the Australian Aboriginal people have been investigated for antiviral activity. The extracts have been tested for activity against one DNA virus, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and two RNA viruses, Ross River virus (RRV) and poliovirus type 1, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The most active extracts were the aerial parts of Pterocaulon sphacelatum (Asteraceae) and roots of Dianella longifolia var. grandis (Liliaceae), which inhibited poliovirus at concentrations of 52 and 250 microg/ml, respectively. The extracts of Euphorbia australis (Euphorbiaceae) and Scaevola spinescens (Goodeniaceae) were the most active against HCMV. Extracts of Eremophila latrobei subsp. glabra (Myoporaceae) and Pittosporum phylliraeoides var. microcarpa (Pittosporaceae) exhibited antiviral activity against RRV.

  4. Characteristics and functions of human cytomegalovirus UL128 gene/protein.

    PubMed

    Tao, R; Xu, J; Gao, H -H; Zhao, W -T; Shang, S -Q

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) ORF UL128 protein is highly conserved among viral field isolates and functions in two different molecular forms, monomeric UL128 protein and in a complex with glycoproteins gH, gL, UL130, and UL131A protein. Monomeric UL128 protein works as soluble chemokine analogue to attract peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and selectively induces expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in PBMCs. The gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131A complex is indispensable for entry into both endothelial and epithelial cells. In conclusion, UL128 plays an important role in HCMV infection.

  5. Phenotypic characterization of two naturally occurring human Cytomegalovirus sequence polymorphisms located in a distinct region of ORF UL56 known to be involved in in vitro resistance to letermovir.

    PubMed

    Goldner, Thomas; Zimmermann, Holger; Lischka, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Letermovir is a new drug in Phase 3 clinical development for the prevention of human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections in hematopoietic-stem-cell transplant recipients (HSCT). In contrast to marketed anti-HCMV drugs which all target the viral DNA polymerase, letermovir's novel mode of action targets the UL56 subunit of the viral terminase complex. Consistently letermovir resistance has mapped in vitro to a distinct region within ORF UL56 (amino acid 230-370). Here we used marker transfer to demonstrate that two naturally occurring UL56 sequence variants within this region, located directly adjacent to sites known to mediate letermovir resistance in vitro (D242G and A327V) represent normal interstrain polymorphisms unrelated to drug-resistance.

  6. Δγ₁134.5 herpes simplex viruses encoding human cytomegalovirus IRS1 or TRS1 induce interferon regulatory factor 3 phosphorylation and an interferon-stimulated gene response.

    PubMed

    Cassady, Kevin A; Saunders, Ute; Shimamura, Masako

    2012-01-01

    The chimeric herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are Δγ₁34.5 vectors encoding the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IRS1 or TRS1 genes. They are capable of late viral protein synthesis and are superior to Δγ₁34.5 HSVs in oncolytic activity. The interferon (IFN) response limits efficient HSV gene expression and replication. HCMV TRS1 and IRS1 restore one γ₁34.5 gene function: evasion of IFN-inducible protein kinase R, allowing late viral protein synthesis. Here we show that, unlike wild-type HSV, the chimeric HSV do not restore another γ₁34.5 function, the suppression of early IFN signaling mediated by IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3).

  7. The Human Cytomegalovirus MHC Class I Homolog UL18 Inhibits LIR-1+ but Activates LIR-1− NK Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Prod’homme, Virginie; Griffin, Cora; Aicheler, Rebecca J.; Wang, Eddie C. Y.; McSharry, Brian P.; Rickards, Carole R.; Stanton, Richard J.; Borysiewicz, Leszek K.; López-Botet, Miguel; Wilkinson, Gavin W. G.; Tomasec, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The inhibitory leukocyte Ig-like receptor 1 (LIR-1, also known as ILT2, CD85j, or LILRB1) was identified by its high affinity for the human CMV (HCMV) MHC class I homolog gpUL18. The role of this LIR-1-gpUL18 interaction in modulating NK recognition during HCMV infection has previously not been clearly defined. In this study, LIR-1+ NKL cell-mediated cytotoxicity was shown to be inhibited by transduction of targets with a replication-deficient adenovirus vector encoding UL18 (RAd-UL18). Fibroblasts infected with an HCMV UL18 mutant (ΔUL18) also exhibited enhanced susceptibility to NKL killing relative to cells infected with the parental virus. In additional cytolysis assays, UL18-mediated protection was also evident in the context of adenovirus vector transduction and HCMV infection of autologous fibroblast targets using IFN-α-activated NK bulk cultures derived from a donor with a high frequency of LIR-1+ NK cells. A single LIR-1high NK clone derived from this donor was inhibited by UL18, while 3 of 24 clones were activated. CD107 mobilization assays revealed that LIR-1+ NK cells were consistently inhibited by UL18 in all tested donors, but this effect was often masked in the global response by UL18-mediated activation of a subset of LIR-1− NK cells. Although Ab-blocking experiments support UL18 inhibition being induced by a direct interaction with LIR-1, the UL18-mediated activation is LIR-1 independent. PMID:17372005

  8. Roles of polypyrimidine tract binding proteins in major immediate-early gene expression and viral replication of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Ruth S Cruz; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Tang, Qiyi

    2009-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the beta subgroup of the family Herpesviridae, causes serious health problems worldwide. HCMV gene expression in host cells is a well-defined sequential process: immediate-early (IE) gene expression, early-gene expression, DNA replication, and late-gene expression. The most abundant IE gene, major IE (MIE) gene pre-mRNA, needs to be spliced before being exported to the cytoplasm for translation. In this study, the regulation of MIE gene splicing was investigated; in so doing, we found that polypyrimidine tract binding proteins (PTBs) strongly repressed MIE gene production in cotransfection assays. In addition, we discovered that the repressive effects of PTB could be rescued by splicing factor U2AF. Taken together, the results suggest that PTBs inhibit MIE gene splicing by competing with U2AF65 for binding to the polypyrimidine tract in pre-mRNA. In intron deletion mutation assays and RNA detection experiments (reverse transcription [RT]-PCR and real-time RT-PCR), we further observed that PTBs target all the introns of the MIE gene, especially intron 2, and affect gene splicing, which was reflected in the variation in the ratio of pre-mRNA to mRNA. Using transfection assays, we demonstrated that PTB knockdown cells induce a higher degree of MIE gene splicing/expression. Consistently, HCMV can produce more viral proteins and viral particles in PTB knockdown cells after infection. We conclude that PTB inhibits HCMV replication by interfering with MIE gene splicing through competition with U2AF for binding to the polypyrimidine tract in MIE gene introns.

  9. A Homolog Pentameric Complex Dictates Viral Epithelial Tropism, Pathogenicity and Congenital Infection Rate in Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    In human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), tropism to epithelial and endothelial cells is dependent upon a pentameric complex (PC). Given the structure of the placenta, the PC is potentially an important neutralizing antibody target antigen against congenital infection. The guinea pig is the only small animal model for congenital CMV. Guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) potentially encodes a UL128-131 HCMV PC homolog locus (GP128-GP133). In transient expression studies, GPCMV gH and gL glycoproteins interacted with UL128, UL130 and UL131 homolog proteins (designated GP129 and GP131 and GP133 respectively) to form PC or subcomplexes which were determined by immunoprecipitation reactions directed to gH or gL. A natural GP129 C-terminal deletion mutant (aa 107–179) and a chimeric HCMV UL128 C-terminal domain swap GP129 mutant failed to form PC with other components. GPCMV infection of a newly established guinea pig epithelial cell line required a complete PC and a GP129 mutant virus lacked epithelial tropism and was attenuated in the guinea pig for pathogenicity and had a low congenital transmission rate. Individual knockout of GP131 or 133 genes resulted in loss of viral epithelial tropism. A GP128 mutant virus retained epithelial tropism and GP128 was determined not to be a PC component. A series of GPCMV mutants demonstrated that gO was not strictly essential for epithelial infection whereas gB and the PC were essential. Ectopic expression of a GP129 cDNA in a GP129 mutant virus restored epithelial tropism, pathogenicity and congenital infection. Overall, GPCMV forms a PC similar to HCMV which enables evaluation of PC based vaccine strategies in the guinea pig model. PMID:27387220

  10. The Memory Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte (CTL) Response to Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Contains Individual Peptide-Specific CTL Clones That Have Undergone Extensive Expansion In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Weekes, Michael P.; Wills, Mark R.; Mynard, Kim; Carmichael, Andrew J.; Sissons, J. G. Patrick

    1999-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) appear to play an important role in the control of virus replication and in protection against HCMV-related disease. We have previously reported high frequencies of memory CTL precursors (CTLp) specific to the HCMV tegument protein pp65 in the peripheral blood of healthy virus carriers. In some individuals, the CTL response to this protein is focused on only a single epitope, whereas in other virus carriers CTL recognized multiple epitopes which we identified by using synthetic peptides. We have analyzed the clonal composition of the memory CTL response to four of these pp65 epitopes by sequencing the T-cell receptors (TCR) of multiple independently derived epitope-specific CTL clones, which were derived by formal single-cell cloning or from clonal CTL microcultures. In all cases, we have observed a high degree of clonal focusing: the majority of CTL clones specific to a defined pp65 peptide from any one virus carrier use only one or two different TCRs at the level of the nucleotide sequence. Among virus carriers who have the same major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele, we observed that CTL from different donors that recognize the same peptide-MHC complex often used the same Vβ segment, although other TCR gene segments and CDR3 length were not in general conserved. We have also examined the clonal composition of CTL specific to pp65 peptides in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. We have observed a similarly focused peptide-specific CTL response. Thus, the large population of circulating HCMV peptide-specific memory CTLp in virus carriers in fact contains individual CTL clones that have undergone extensive clonal expansion in vivo. PMID:9971792

  11. Palmitoylation Strengthens Cholesterol-dependent Multimerization and Fusion Activity of Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B (gB)*

    PubMed Central

    Patrone, Marco; Coroadinha, Ana Sofia; Teixeira, Ana P.; Alves, Paula M.

    2016-01-01

    Herpesviruses are a large order of animal enveloped viruses displaying a virion fusion mechanism of unusual complexity. Their multipartite machinery has a conserved core made of the gH/gL ancillary complexes and the homo-trimeric fusion protein glycoprotein B (gB). Despite its essential role in starting the viral infection, gB interaction with membrane lipids is still poorly understood. Here, evidence is provided demonstrating that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gB depends on the S-palmitoylation of its endodomain for an efficient interaction with cholesterol-rich membrane patches. We found that, unique among herpesviral gB proteins, the HCMV fusion factor has a Cys residue in the C-terminal region that is palmitoylated and mediates methyl-β-cyclodextrin-sensitive self-association of purified gB. A cholesterol-dependent virus-like particle trap assay, based on co-expression of the HIV Gag protein, confirmed that this post-translational modification is functional in the context of cellular membranes. Mutation of the palmitoylated Cys residue to Ala or inhibition of protein palmitoylation decreased HCMV gB export via Gag particles. Moreover, purified gBC777A showed an increased kinetic sensitivity in a cholesterol depletion test, demonstrating that palmitoyl-gB limits outward cholesterol diffusion. Finally, gB palmitoylation was required for full fusogenic activity in human epithelial cells. Altogether, these results uncover the palmitoylation of HCMV gB and its role in gB multimerization and activity. PMID:26694613

  12. Dual Role of Natural Killer Cells on Graft Rejection and Control of Cytomegalovirus Infection in Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    López-Botet, Miguel; Vilches, Carlos; Redondo-Pachón, Dolores; Muntasell, Aura; Pupuleku, Aldi; Yélamos, José; Pascual, Julio; Crespo, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Allograft rejection constitutes a major complication of solid organ transplantation requiring prophylactic/therapeutic immunosuppression, which increases susceptibility of patients to infections and cancer. Beyond the pivotal role of alloantigen-specific T cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of rejection, natural killer (NK) cells may display alloreactive potential in case of mismatch between recipient inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and graft HLA class I molecules. Several studies have addressed the impact of this variable in kidney transplant with conflicting conclusions; yet, increasing evidence supports that alloantibody-mediated NK cell activation via FcγRIIIA (CD16) contributes to rejection. On the other hand, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection constitutes a risk factor directly associated with the rate of graft loss and reduced host survival. The levels of HCMV-specific CD8+ T cells have been reported to predict the risk of posttransplant infection, and KIR-B haplotypes containing activating KIR genes have been related with protection. HCMV infection promotes to a variable extent an adaptive differentiation and expansion of a subset of mature NK cells, which display the CD94/NKG2C-activating receptor. Evidence supporting that adaptive NKG2C+ NK cells may contribute to control the viral infection in kidney transplant recipients has been recently obtained. The dual role of NK cells in the interrelation of HCMV infection with rejection deserves attention. Further phenotypic, functional, and genetic analyses of NK cells may provide additional insights on the pathogenesis of solid organ transplant complications, leading to the development of biomarkers with potential clinical value. PMID:28261220

  13. Human cytomegalovirus induces the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP through increased transcription and activation of translation by using the BiP internal ribosome entry site.

    PubMed

    Buchkovich, Nicholas J; Yu, Yongjun; Pierciey, Francis J; Alwine, James C

    2010-11-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone BiP (immunoglobulin binding protein) plays a major role in the control of the unfolded protein response. We have previously shown that BiP levels are dramatically increased during human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, where BiP performs unique roles in viral assembly and egress. We show that BiP mRNA levels increase during infection due to activation of the BiP promoter by the major immediate-early (MIE) proteins. The BiP promoter, like other ER stress-activated promoters, contains endoplasmic reticulum stress elements (ERSEs), which are activated by unfolded protein response (UPR)-induced transcription factors. However, these elements are not needed for MIE protein-mediated transcriptional activation; thus, a virus-specific transcriptional activation mechanism is used. Transcriptional activation results in only a 3- to 4-fold increase in BiP mRNA, suggesting that additional mechanisms for BiP production are utilized. The BiP mRNA contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) which increases the level of BiP mRNA translation. We show that utilization of the BiP IRES is dramatically increased in HCMV-infected cells. Utilization of the BiP IRES can be activated by the La autoantigen, also called Sjögren's syndrome antigen B (SSB). We show that SSB/La levels are significantly increased during HCMV infection, and SSB/La depletion causes the loss of BiP IRES utilization and lowers endogenous BiP levels in infected cells. Our data show that BiP levels increase in HCMV-infected cells through the combination of increased BiP gene transcription mediated by the MIE proteins and increased BiP mRNA translation due to SSB/La-induced utilization of the BiP IRES.

  14. The Transcription Factor Hobit Identifies Human Cytotoxic CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oja, Anna E.; Vieira Braga, Felipe A.; Remmerswaal, Ester B. M.; Kragten, Natasja A. M.; Hertoghs, Kirsten M. L.; Zuo, Jianmin; Moss, Paul A.; van Lier, René A. W.; van Gisbergen, Klaas P. J. M.; Hombrink, Pleun

    2017-01-01

    The T cell lineage is commonly divided into CD4-expressing helper T cells that polarize immune responses through cytokine secretion and CD8-expressing cytotoxic T cells that eliminate infected target cells by virtue of the release of cytotoxic molecules. Recently, a population of CD4+ T cells that conforms to the phenotype of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells has received increased recognition. These cytotoxic CD4+ T cells display constitutive expression of granzyme B and perforin at the protein level and mediate HLA class II-dependent killing of target cells. In humans, this cytotoxic profile is found within the human cytomegalovirus (hCMV)-specific, but not within the influenza- or Epstein–Barr virus-specific CD4+ T cell populations, suggesting that, in particular, hCMV infection induces the formation of cytotoxic CD4+ T cells. We have previously described that the transcription factor Homolog of Blimp-1 in T cells (Hobit) is specifically upregulated in CD45RA+ effector CD8+ T cells that arise after hCMV infection. Here, we describe the expression pattern of Hobit in human CD4+ T cells. We found Hobit expression in cytotoxic CD4+ T cells and accumulation of Hobit+ CD4+ T cells after primary hCMV infection. The Hobit+ CD4+ T cells displayed highly overlapping characteristics with Hobit+ CD8+ T cells, including the expression of cytotoxic molecules, T-bet, and CX3CR1. Interestingly, γδ+ T cells that arise after hCMV infection also upregulate Hobit expression and display a similar effector phenotype as cytotoxic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These findings suggest a shared differentiation pathway in CD4+, CD8+, and γδ+ T cells that may involve Hobit-driven acquisition of long-lived cytotoxic effector function. PMID:28392788

  15. Diagnosis and Management of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection in the Mother, Fetus, and Newborn Infant

    PubMed Central

    Revello, Maria Grazia; Gerna, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of congenital viral infection and mental retardation. HCMV infection, while causing asymptomatic infections in most immunocompetent subjects, can be transmitted during pregnancy from the mother with primary (and also recurrent) infection to the fetus. Hence, careful diagnosis of primary infection is required in the pregnant woman based on the most sensitive serologic assays (immunoglobulin M [IgM] and IgG avidity assays) and conventional virologic and molecular procedures for virus detection in blood. Maternal prognostic markers of fetal infection are still under investigation. If primary infection is diagnosed in a timely manner, prenatal diagnosis can be offered, including the search for virus and virus components in fetal blood and amniotic fluid, with fetal prognostic markers of HCMV disease still to be defined. However, the final step for definite diagnosis of congenital HCMV infection is detection of virus in the blood or urine in the first 1 to 2 weeks of life. To date, treatment of congenital infection with antiviral drugs is only palliative both prior to and after birth, whereas the only efficacious preventive measure seems to be the development of a safe and immunogenic vaccine, including recombinant, subunit, DNA, and peptide-based vaccines now under investigation. The following controversial issues are discussed in the light of the most recent advances in the field: the actual perception of the problem; universal serologic screening before pregnancy; the impact of correct counseling on decision making by the couple involved; the role of prenatal diagnosis in ascertaining transmission of virus to the fetus; the impact of preconceptional and periconceptional infections on the prevalence of congenital infection; and the prevalence of congenitally infected babies born to mothers who were immune prior to pregnancy compared to the number born to mothers undergoing primary infection during pregnancy. PMID

  16. Quantification of Epstein-Barr Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus in Chronic Periodontal Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khosropanah, Hengameh; Karandish, Maryam; Ziaeyan, Mazyar; Jamalidoust, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although studies focused mainly on the identification of periopathogenic bacteria, recent reports have suggested that various herpes viruses may also be involved in the occurrence and progression of different forms of periodontal diseases. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the prevalence and load of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in subgingival tissue specimens between chronic periodontitis and healthy sites. Patients and Methods: A total of 60 samples from the systematically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis participated in this study (mean age, 35 ± 7). Clinical periodontal evaluation included the plaque index (PI) (Loe and Silness), bleeding on probing (BOP) (O’Leary), bleeding index, periodontal pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level measurement. Tissue specimens harvested from > 6 mm periodontal pockets and from ≤ 3 mm sulcus depth in a quadrant of the same patient using periodontal curettes. Moreover, the unstimulated whole saliva was gathered as a shedding medium. A Taq-man Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction assay was used to identify genomic copies of periodontal HCMV and EBV. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon-signed ranks and Friedman tests using the SPSS 16 software. Results: Out of 60 samples of subgingival tissues taken from the patients with chronic periodontitis, EBV count was the highest in saliva and the least in the tissue sample with PD < 3 mm (P < 0.05). The highest HCMV count was in saliva and tissue samples with PD > 6 mm (P < 0.05). Conclusions: According to the results of this study, quantification of HCMV and EBV observed in this study is high in periodontal tissue samples of severe chronic periodontitis. PMID:26322203

  17. A Novel CDK7 Inhibitor of the Pyrazolotriazine Class Exerts Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Activity at Nanomolar Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Hutterer, Corina; Eickhoff, Jan; Milbradt, Jens; Korn, Klaus; Zeitträger, Isabel; Bahsi, Hanife; Wagner, Sabrina; Zischinsky, Gunther; Wolf, Alexander; Degenhart, Carsten; Unger, Anke; Baumann, Matthias; Klebl, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent central and multifunctional regulators of a balanced virus-host interaction. Cyclin-dependent protein kinase 7 (CDK7) plays crucial regulatory roles in cell cycle and transcription, both connected with the replication of many viruses. Previously, we developed a CDK7 inhibitor, LDC4297, that inhibits CDK7 in vitro in the nano-picomolar range. Novel data from a kinome-wide evaluation (>330 kinases profiled in vitro) demonstrate a kinase selectivity. Importantly, we provide first evidence for the antiviral potential of the CDK7 inhibitor LDC4297, i.e., in exerting a block of the replication of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in primary human fibroblasts at nanomolar concentrations (50% effective concentration, 24.5 ± 1.3 nM). As a unique feature compared to approved antiherpesviral drugs, inhibition occurred already at the immediate-early level of HCMV gene expression. The mode of antiviral action was considered multifaceted since CDK7-regulated cellular factors that are supportive of HCMV replication were substantially affected by the inhibitors. An effect of LDC4297 was identified in the interference with HCMV-driven inactivation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb), a regulatory step generally considered a hallmark of herpesviral replication. In line with this finding, a broad inhibitory activity of the drug could be demonstrated against a selection of human and animal herpesviruses and adenoviruses, whereas other viruses only showed intermediate drug sensitivity. Summarized, the CDK7 inhibitor LDC4297 is a promising candidate for further antiviral drug development, possibly offering new options for a comprehensive approach to antiviral therapy. PMID:25624324

  18. Cyclin A degradation by primate cytomegalovirus protein pUL21a counters its innate restriction of virus replication.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Nicolas; Fehr, Anthony R; Yu, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin A is critical for cellular DNA synthesis and S phase progression of the cell cycle. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can reduce cyclin A levels and block cellular DNA synthesis, and cyclin A overexpression can repress HCMV replication. This interaction has only been previously observed in HCMV as murine CMV does not downregulate cyclin A, and the responsible viral factor has not been identified. We previously reported that the HCMV protein pUL21a disrupted the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), but a point mutant abrogating this activity did not phenocopy a UL21a-deficient virus, suggesting that pUL21a has an additional function. Here we identified a conserved arginine-x-leucine (RxL) cyclin-binding domain within pUL21a, which allowed pUL21a to interact with cyclin A and target it for proteasome degradation. Homologous pUL21a proteins from both chimpanzee and rhesus CMVs also contained the RxL domain and similarly degraded cyclin A, indicating that this function is conserved in primate CMVs. The RxL point mutation disabled the virus' ability to block cellular DNA synthesis and resulted in a growth defect similar to pUL21a-deficient virus. Importantly, knockdown of cyclin A rescued growth of UL21a-deficient virus. Together, these data show that during evolution, the pUL21a family proteins of primate CMVs have acquired a cyclin-binding domain that targets cyclin A for degradation, thus neutralizing its restriction on virus replication. Finally, the combined proteasome-dependent degradation of pUL21a and its cellular targets suggests that pUL21a may act as a novel suicide protein, targeting its protein cargos for destruction.

  19. Production of Cytomegalovirus Dense Bodies by Scalable Bioprocess Methods Maintains Immunogenicity and Improves Neutralizing Antibody Titers.

    PubMed

    Schneider-Ohrum, Kirsten; Cayatte, Corinne; Liu, Yi; Wang, Zhaoti; Irrinki, Alivelu; Cataniag, Floro; Nguyen, Nga; Lambert, Stacie; Liu, Hui; Aslam, Shahin; Duke, Greg; McCarthy, Michael P; McCormick, Louise

    2016-11-15

    With the goal of developing a virus-like particle-based vaccine based on dense bodies (DB) produced by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, we evaluated scalable culture, isolation, and inactivation methods and applied technically advanced assays to determine the relative purity, composition, and immunogenicity of DB particles. Our results increase our understanding of the benefits and disadvantages of methods to recover immunogenic DB and inactivate contaminating viral particles. Our results indicate that (i) HCMV strain Towne replicates in MRC-5 fibroblasts grown on microcarriers, (ii) DB particles recovered from 2-bromo-5,6-dichloro-1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl benzimidazole riboside (BDCRB)-treated cultures and purified by tangential flow filtration (TFF-DB) or glycerol tartrate gradient sedimentation (GT-DB) constitute 92% or 98%, respectively, of all particles in the final product, (iii) epithelial cell-tropic DB particles are recovered from a single round of coinfection by AD169 and Towne strain viruses, consistent with complementation between the UL130 and UL131A expressed by these strains and restoration of gH/gL/UL128-UL131A (gH pentamer), (iv) equivalent neutralizing antibody titers are induced in mice following immunization with epithelial cell-tropic DB or gH pentamer-deficient DB preparations, (v) UV-inactivated residual virus in GT-DB or TFF-DB preparations retained immunogenicity and induced neutralizing antibody, preventing viral entry into epithelial cells, and (vi) GT-DB and TFF-DB induced cellular immune responses to multiple HCMV peptides. Collectively, this work provides a foundation for future development of DB as an HCMV-based particle vaccine.

  20. Novel Chemokine-Based Immunotoxins for Potent and Selective Targeting of Cytomegalovirus Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Spiess, Katja; Jeppesen, Mads G.; Malmgaard-Clausen, Mikkel; Krzywkowski, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Immunotoxins as antiviral therapeutics are largely unexplored but have promising prospective due to their high selectivity potential and their unparalleled efficiency. One recent example targeted the virus-encoded G protein-coupled receptor US28 as a strategy for specific and efficient treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. US28 is expressed on virus-infected cells and scavenge chemokines by rapid internalization. The chemokine-based fusion-toxin protein (FTP) consisted of a variant (F49A) of CX3CL1 specifically targeting US28 linked to the catalytic domain of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE). Here, we systematically seek to improve F49A-FTP by modifications in its three structural domains; we generated variants with (1) altered chemokine sequence (K14A, F49L, and F49E), (2) shortened and elongated linker region, and (3) modified toxin domain. Only F49L-FTP displayed higher selectivity in its binding to US28 versus CX3CR1, the endogenous receptor for CX3CL1, but this was not matched by a more selective killing of US28-expressing cells. A longer linker and different toxin variants decreased US28 affinity and selective killing. Thereby, F49A-FTP represents the best candidate for HCMV treatment. Many viruses encode internalizing receptors suggesting that not only HCMV but also, for instance, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus may be targeted by FTPs. PMID:28251165

  1. Contribution of the Major ND10 Proteins PML, hDaxx and Sp100 to the Regulation of Human Cytomegalovirus Latency and Lytic Replication in the Monocytic Cell Line THP-1

    PubMed Central

    Wagenknecht, Nadine; Reuter, Nina; Scherer, Myriam; Reichel, Anna; Müller, Regina; Stamminger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, also termed nuclear domain 10 (ND10), have emerged as nuclear protein accumulations mediating an intrinsic cellular defense against viral infections via chromatin-based mechanisms, however, their contribution to the control of herpesviral latency is still controversial. In this study, we utilized the monocytic cell line THP-1 as an in vitro latency model for human cytomegalovirus infection (HCMV). Characterization of THP-1 cells by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis confirmed the expression of all major ND10 components. THP-1 cells with a stable, individual knockdown of PML, hDaxx or Sp100 were generated. Importantly, depletion of the major ND10 proteins did not prevent the terminal cellular differentiation of THP-1 monocytes. After construction of a recombinant, endotheliotropic human cytomegalovirus expressing IE2-EYFP, we investigated whether the depletion of ND10 proteins affects the onset of viral IE gene expression. While after infection of differentiated, THP-1-derived macrophages as well as during differentiation-induced reactivation from latency an increase in the number of IE-expressing cells was readily detectable in the absence of the major ND10 proteins, no effect was observed in non-differentiated monocytes. We conclude that PML, hDaxx and Sp100 primarily act as cellular restriction factors during lytic HCMV replication and during the dynamic process of reactivation but do not serve as key determinants for the establishment of HCMV latency. PMID:26057166

  2. Analysis of the role of autophagy inhibition by two complementary human cytomegalovirus BECN1/Beclin 1-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Mouna, Lina; Hernandez, Eva; Bonte, Dorine; Brost, Rebekka; Amazit, Larbi; Delgui, Laura R; Brune, Wolfram; Geballe, Adam P; Beau, Isabelle; Esclatine, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is activated early after human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection but, later on, the virus blocks autophagy. Here we characterized 2 HCMV proteins, TRS1 and IRS1, which inhibit autophagy during infection. Expression of either TRS1 or IRS1 was able to block autophagy in different cell lines, independently of the EIF2S1 kinase, EIF2AK2/PKR. Instead, TRS1 and IRS1 interacted with the autophagy protein BECN1/Beclin 1. We mapped the BECN1-binding domain (BBD) of IRS1 and TRS1 and found it to be essential for autophagy inhibition. Mutant viruses that express only IRS1 or TRS1 partially controlled autophagy, whereas a double mutant virus expressing neither protein stimulated autophagy. A mutant virus that did not express IRS1 and expressed a truncated form of TRS1 in which the BBD was deleted, failed to control autophagy. However, this mutant virus had similar replication kinetics as wild-type virus, suggesting that autophagy inhibition is not critical for viral replication. In fact, using pharmacological modulators of autophagy and inhibition of autophagy by shRNA knockdown, we discovered that stimulating autophagy enhanced viral replication. Conversely, inhibiting autophagy decreased HCMV infection. Thus, our results demonstrate a new proviral role of autophagy for a DNA virus.

  3. Phosphorylation of Golgi Peripheral Membrane Protein Grasp65 Is an Integral Step in the Formation of the Human Cytomegalovirus Cytoplasmic Assembly Compartment.

    PubMed

    Rebmann, G Michael; Grabski, Robert; Sanchez, Veronica; Britt, William J

    2016-10-04

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the largest member of the Herpesviridae and represents a significant cause of disease. During virus replication, HCMV alters cellular functions to facilitate its replication, including significant reorganization of the secretory and endocytic pathways of the infected cell. A defining morphologic change of the infected cell is the formation of a membranous structure in the cytoplasm that is designated the virion assembly compartment (AC), which consists of virion structural proteins surrounded by cellular membranes. The loss of normal Golgi compartment morphology and its relocalization from a juxtanuclear ribbonlike structure to a series of concentric rings on the periphery of the AC represents a readily recognized reorganization of cellular membranes in the HCMV-infected cell. Although trafficking of viral proteins to this compartment is required for the assembly of infectious virions, the functional significance of the reorganization of intracellular membranes like the Golgi membranes into the AC in the assembly of infectious virus remains understudied. In this study, we determined that Golgi membrane ribbon fragmentation increased during the early cytoplasmic phase of virion assembly and that Golgi membrane fragmentation in infected cells was dependent on the phosphorylation of an integral cis-Golgi protein, Grasp65. Inhibition of Golgi membrane fragmentation and of its reorganization into the AC resulted in decreased production of infectious particles and alteration of the incorporation of an essential protein into the envelope of the mature virion. These results demonstrated the complexity of the virus-host cell interactions required for efficient assembly of this large DNA virus.

  4. The Transcription and Translation Landscapes during Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Reveal Novel Host-Pathogen Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shitrit, Alina; Shani, Odem; Le-Trilling, Vu Thuy Khanh; Trilling, Mirko; Friedlander, Gilgi; Tanenbaum, Marvin; Stern-Ginossar, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are by definition fully dependent on the cellular translation machinery, and develop diverse mechanisms to co-opt this machinery for their own benefit. Unlike many viruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) does suppress the host translation machinery, and the extent to which translation machinery contributes to the overall pattern of viral replication and pathogenesis remains elusive. Here, we combine RNA sequencing and ribosomal profiling analyses to systematically address this question. By simultaneously examining the changes in transcription and translation along HCMV infection, we uncover extensive transcriptional control that dominates the response to infection, but also diverse and dynamic translational regulation for subsets of host genes. We were also able to show that, at late time points in infection, translation of viral mRNAs is higher than that of cellular mRNAs. Lastly, integration of our translation measurements with recent measurements of protein abundance enabled comprehensive identification of dozens of host proteins that are targeted for degradation during HCMV infection. Since targeted degradation indicates a strong biological importance, this approach should be applicable for discovering central host functions during viral infection. Our work provides a framework for studying the contribution of transcription, translation and degradation during infection with any virus. PMID:26599541

  5. Analysis of the role of autophagy inhibition by two complementary human cytomegalovirus BECN1/Beclin 1-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mouna, Lina; Hernandez, Eva; Bonte, Dorine; Brost, Rebekka; Amazit, Larbi; Delgui, Laura R.; Brune, Wolfram; Geballe, Adam P.; Beau, Isabelle; Esclatine, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy is activated early after human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection but, later on, the virus blocks autophagy. Here we characterized 2 HCMV proteins, TRS1 and IRS1, which inhibit autophagy during infection. Expression of either TRS1 or IRS1 was able to block autophagy in different cell lines, independently of the EIF2S1 kinase, EIF2AK2/PKR. Instead, TRS1 and IRS1 interacted with the autophagy protein BECN1/Beclin 1. We mapped the BECN1-binding domain (BBD) of IRS1 and TRS1 and found it to be essential for autophagy inhibition. Mutant viruses that express only IRS1 or TRS1 partially controlled autophagy, whereas a double mutant virus expressing neither protein stimulated autophagy. A mutant virus that did not express IRS1 and expressed a truncated form of TRS1 in which the BBD was deleted, failed to control autophagy. However, this mutant virus had similar replication kinetics as wild-type virus, suggesting that autophagy inhibition is not critical for viral replication. In fact, using pharmacological modulators of autophagy and inhibition of autophagy by shRNA knockdown, we discovered that stimulating autophagy enhanced viral replication. Conversely, inhibiting autophagy decreased HCMV infection. Thus, our results demonstrate a new proviral role of autophagy for a DNA virus. PMID:26654401

  6. Dual-color bioluminescent assay using infected HepG2 cells sheds new light on Chlamydia pneumoniae and human cytomegalovirus effects on human cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) transcription.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Elisa; Donati, Manuela; Aldini, Rita; Cevenini, Luca; Mezzanotte, Laura; Nardini, Paola; Foschi, Claudio; Zvi, Ido Ben; Cevenini, Monica; Montagnani, Marco; Marangoni, Antonella; Roda, Aldo; Cevenini, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are intracellular pathogens able to infect hepatocytes, causing an increase in serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels due to the production of inflammatory cytokines. We investigated whether these pathogens could interfere with cholesterol metabolism by affecting activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) promoter. CYP7A1 is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, which represents the main route of cholesterol catabolism. A straightforward dual-reporter bioluminescent assay was developed to simultaneously monitor CYP7A1 transcriptional regulation and cell viability in infected human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. C. pneumoniae and HCMV infection significantly decreased CYP7A1 promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner, with maximal inhibitions of 33±10% and 32±4%, respectively, at a multiplicity of infection of 1. To support in vitro experiments, serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were also measured in Balb/c mice infected with C. pneumoniae. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides also increased in infected mice compared with controls. Although further investigation is required, this work presents the first experimental evidence that C. pneumoniae and HCMV inhibit CYP7A1 gene transcription in the cultured human hepatoblastoma cell line.

  7. Resistance to antivirals in human cytomegalovirus: mechanisms and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J L

    1997-09-01

    Long term therapies needed for managing human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections in immunosupressed patients provided the background for the emergence of the resistance to antivirals active against HCMV. In addition, laboratory selected mutants have also been readily achieved. Both clinical and laboratory resistant strains share the same determinants of resistance. Ganciclovir resistance may be due to a few mutations in the HCMV UL97 gene and/or viral DNA pol gene, the former being responsible for about 70% of clinical resistant isolates. Among them, V464, V594, S595 and F595 are the most frequent mutations. Because of their less extensive clinical use, much less is known about resistance to foscarnet and cidofovir (formerly, HPMPC) but in both cases, it has been associated to mutations in the DNA pol. Ganciclovir resistant strains showing DNA pol mutations are cross-resistant to cidofovir and their corresponding IC50 are normally higher than those from strains harboring only mutations at the UL97 gene. To date, foscarnet resistance seems to be independent of both ganciclovir and cidofovir resistance.

  8. Murine cytomegalovirus regulation of NKG2D ligands.

    PubMed

    Lenac, Tihana; Arapović, Jurica; Traven, Luka; Krmpotić, Astrid; Jonjić, Stipan

    2008-06-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous pathogen that causes morbidity risk in immunologically suppressed and immunodeficient patients including congenital infections. Approaches to curb the consequences of HCMV infections are restricted by a lack of complete understanding of viral pathogenesis. The infection of mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) as a model of HCMV infection has been particularly useful in elucidating the role of innate and adaptive immune response mechanisms. A large number of cytomegalovirus genes modulate the innate and the adaptive host immune response. The products of several MCMV genes are involved in subverting the natural killer (NK) cell response by down-modulating cellular ligands for the NKG2D receptor expressed on NK cells and CD8(+) T cells. Mutant viruses lacking these immunoevasion genes are attenuated with respect to virus growth in vivo. Given the importance of the NKG2D receptor in controlling both NK- and T cell-mediated immunity, it is of tremendous importance to understand the molecular mechanisms and consequences of viral regulation of the NKG2D ligands.

  9. Mutations in the UL97 ORF of ganciclovir-resistant clinical cytomegalovirus isolates differentially affect GCV phosphorylation as determined in a recombinant vaccinia virus system.

    PubMed

    Baldanti, Fausto; Michel, Detlef; Simoncini, Lavinia; Heuschmid, Maria; Zimmermann, Albert; Minisini, Rosalba; Schaarschmidt, Peter; Schmid, Thomas; Gerna, Giuseppe; Mertens, Thomas

    2002-04-01

    Mutations in the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL97 phosphotransferase have been associated with ganciclovir (GCV) resistance due to an impairment of GCV monophosphorylation. Vaccinia virus recombinants (rVV) were generated that encoded different HCMV UL97 proteins (pUL97) with mutations previously detected in resistant HCMV clinical isolates at codons 460, 520, 592, 594, 595, 598 and 607. These rVVs allowed quantification of GCV phosphorylation catalyzed by the different mutated pUL97s. When compared to rVV-UL97 wild type, mean levels of residual intracellular GCV phosphorylation differed by a factor of 10 for the mutated UL97 proteins ranging from 5.2 to 51.8%. Mutations M460V (located in a UL97 region homologous to domain VIb of protein kinases) and H520Q (located in a cytomegalovirus-specific, functionally critical domain) were responsible for the lowest levels of residual GCV phosphorylation (9.3 and 5.2%). Mutations in a region homologous to the domain IX had a lower impact on GCV phosphorylation (15.8-51.8%). The relevance of pUL97 mutation G598S in inducing GCV resistance was demonstrated for the first time.

  10. Access of viral proteins to mitochondria via mitochondria-associated membranes.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Chad D; Colberg-Poley, Anamaris M

    2009-05-01

    By exploiting host cell machineries, viruses provide powerful tools for gaining insight into cellular pathways. Proteins from two unrelated viruses, human CMV (HCMV) and HCV, are documented to traffic sequentially from the ER into mitochondria, probably through the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) compartment. The MAM are sites of ER-mitochondrial contact enabling the direct transfer of membrane bound lipids and the generation of high calcium (Ca2+) microdomains for mitochondria signalling and responses to cellular stress. Both HCV core protein and HCMV UL37 proteins are associated with Ca2+ regulation and apoptotic signals. Trafficking of viral proteins to the MAM may allow viruses to manipulate a variety of fundamental cellular processes, which converge at the MAM, including Ca2+ signalling, lipid synthesis and transfer, bioenergetics, metabolic flow, and apoptosis. Because of their distinct topologies and targeted MAM sub-domains, mitochondrial trafficking (albeit it through the MAM) of the HCMV and HCV proteins predictably involves alternative pathways and, hence, distinct targeting signals. Indeed, we found that multiple cellular and viral proteins, which target the MAM, showed no apparent consensus primary targeting sequences. Nonetheless, these viral proteins provide us with valuable tools to access the poorly characterised MAM compartment, to define its cellular constituents and describe how virus infection alters these to its own end. Furthermore, because proper trafficking of viral proteins is necessary for their function, discovering the requirements for MAM to mitochondrial trafficking of essential viral proteins may provide novel targets for the rational design of anti-viral drugs.

  11. The Expression of Human Cytomegalovirus MicroRNA MiR-UL148D during Latent Infection in Primary Myeloid Cells Inhibits Activin A-triggered Secretion of IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Betty; Poole, Emma; Krishna, Benjamin; Sellart, Immaculada; Wills, Mark R.; Murphy, Eain; Sinclair, John

    2016-01-01

    The successful establishment and maintenance of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency is dependent on the expression of a subset of viral genes. Whilst the exact spectrum and functions of these genes are far from clear, inroads have been made for protein-coding genes. In contrast, little is known about the expression of non-coding RNAs. Here we show that HCMV encoded miRNAs are expressed de novo during latent infection of primary myeloid cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-UL148D, one of the most highly expressed viral miRNAs during latent infection, directly targets the cellular receptor ACVR1B of the activin signalling axis. Consistent with this, we observed upregulation of ACVR1B expression during latent infection with a miR-UL148D deletion virus (ΔmiR-UL148D). Importantly, we observed that monocytes latently infected with ΔmiR-UL148D are more responsive to activin A stimulation, as demonstrated by their increased secretion of IL-6. Collectively, our data indicates miR-UL148D inhibits ACVR1B expression in latently infected cells to limit proinflammatory cytokine secretion, perhaps as an immune evasion strategy or to postpone cytokine-induced reactivation until conditions are more favourable. This is the first demonstration of an HCMV miRNA function during latency in primary myeloid cells, implicating that small RNA species may contribute significantly to latent infection. PMID:27491954

  12. Novel Chemokine-Based Immunotoxins for Potent and Selective Targeting of Cytomegalovirus Infected Cells.

    PubMed

    Spiess, Katja; Jeppesen, Mads G; Malmgaard-Clausen, Mikkel; Krzywkowski, Karen; Kledal, Thomas N; Rosenkilde, Mette M

    2017-01-01

    Immunotoxins as antiviral therapeutics are largely unexplored but have promising prospective due to their high selectivity potential and their unparalleled efficiency. One recent example targeted the virus-encoded G protein-coupled receptor US28 as a strategy for specific and efficient treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. US28 is expressed on virus-infected cells and scavenge chemokines by rapid internalization. The chemokine-based fusion-toxin protein (FTP) consisted of a variant (F49A) of CX3CL1 specifically targeting US28 linked to the catalytic domain of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE). Here, we systematically seek to improve F49A-FTP by modifications in its three structural domains; we generated variants with (1) altered chemokine sequence (K14A, F49L, and F49E), (2) shortened and elongated linker region, and (3) modified toxin domain. Only F49L-FTP displayed higher selectivity in its binding to US28 versus CX3CR1, the endogenous receptor for CX3CL1, but this was not matched by a more selective killing of US28-expressing cells. A longer linker and different toxin variants decreased US28 affinity and selective killing. Thereby, F49A-FTP represents the best candidate for HCMV treatment. Many viruses encode internalizing receptors suggesting that not only HCMV but also, for instance, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus may be targeted by FTPs.

  13. [The validation of kit of reagents for quantitative detection of DNA of human cytomegalovirus in biological material using polymerase chain reaction technique in real time operation mode].

    PubMed

    Sil'veĭstrova, O Iu; Domonova, É A; Shipulina, O Iu

    2014-04-01

    The validation of kit of reagents destined to detection and quantitative evaluation of DNA of human cytomegalovirus in biological material using polymerase chain reaction technique in real time operation mode was implemented. The comparison was made against international WHO standard--The first WHO international standard for human cytomegalovirus to implement measures the kit of reagents "AmpliSens CMV-screen/monitor-FL" and standard sample of enterprise DNA HCMV (The central research institute of epidemiology of Rospotrebnadzor) was applied. The fivefold dilution of international WHO standard and standard sample of enterprise were carried out in concentrations of DNA HCMV from 106 to 102. The arrangement of polymerase chain reaction and analysis of results were implemented using programed amplifier with system of detection of fluorescent signal in real-time mode "Rotor-Gene Q" ("Qiagen", Germany). In the total of three series of experiments, all stages of polymerase chain reaction study included, the coefficient of translation of quantitative evaluation of DNA HCMV from copy/ml to ME/ml equal to 0.6 was introduced for this kit of reagents.

  14. Factors affecting the detection of cytomegalovirus in urine by sandwich enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    el-Mekki, A; Al-Nakib, W; Bibi, R

    1987-01-01

    Some factors influencing the detection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in urine were investigated employing 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs); one utilised anti-CMV DNA polymerase while the other anti-CMV mouse monoclonals as the detecting antibodies. The use of anti-CMV DNA polymerase was found to be superior in detecting HCMV in both urine and tissue culture fluids than anti-CMV monoclonals. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase conjugates produced much lower background than did peroxidase conjugates. In reconstruction experiments, the extremes of pH in the urine clearly had an adverse effect on the detection rate of extracellular virus. pH correction of urines to neutrality improved the detection rate considerably. On the other hand, pH correction had little effect on the detection rate of intracellular HCMV in urine, although it was improved when specimens were subjected to repeated cycles of freeze-thawing, ultrasonication, and storage at 4 degrees C. It was concluded that, in addition to the factors investigated which all appear to affect virus detection rate, there may well be additional factors that interfere with CMV detection in the urine by ELISA particularly with intracellular virus.

  15. EXONIC SINE INSERTION IN STK38L CAUSES CANINE EARLY RETINAL DEGENERATION (erd)

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Kukekova, Anna V.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    Fine mapping followed by candidate gene analysis of erd - a canine hereditary retinal degeneration characterized by aberrant photoreceptor development - established that the disease cosegregates with a SINE insertion in exon 4 of the canine STK38L/NDR2 gene. The mutation removes exon 4 from STK38L transcripts and is predicted to remove much of the N-terminus from the translated protein, including binding sites for S100B and Mob Proteins, part of the protein kinase domain, and a Thr-75 residue critical for autophosphorylation. Although known to have roles in neuronal cell function, the STK38L pathway has not previously been implicated in normal or abnormal photoreceptor development. Loss of STK38L function in erd provides novel potential insights into the role of the STK38L pathway in neuronal and photoreceptor cell function, and suggests that genes in this pathway need to be considered as candidate genes for hereditary retinal degenerations. PMID:20887780

  16. Exonic SINE insertion in STK38L causes canine early retinal degeneration (erd).

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Orly; Kukekova, Anna V; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2010-12-01

    Fine mapping followed by candidate gene analysis of erd - a canine hereditary retinal degeneration characterized by aberrant photoreceptor development - established that the disease cosegregates with a SINE insertion in exon 4 of the canine STK38L/NDR2 gene. The mutation removes exon 4 from STK38L transcripts and is predicted to remove much of the N terminus from the translated protein, including binding sites for S100B and Mob proteins, part of the protein kinase domain, and a Thr-75 residue critical for autophosphorylation. Although known to have roles in neuronal cell function, the STK38L pathway has not previously been implicated in normal or abnormal photoreceptor development. Loss of STK38L function in erd provides novel potential insights into the role of the STK38L pathway in neuronal and photoreceptor cell function, and suggests that genes in this pathway need to be considered as candidate genes for hereditary retinal degenerations.

  17. Improved molecular diagnosis of the common recurrent intragenic deletion mutation in IKBKG in a Filipino family with incontinentia pigmenti.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Bryan Edgar K; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Liu, Lu; Feast, Alice; Alabado, Karen Lee P; Lacuesta, Maricarr Pamela M; Lee, Julia Yu-Yun; McGrath, John A

    2016-05-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is a rare, multisystem X-linked dominant genetic disorder caused by mutations in IKBKG, the encoding inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells. Almost 80% of all cases result from a recurrent intragenic deletion mutation that removes exon 4-10. At present, this mutation can be detected by a multi-primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique although current protocols may preferentially amplify the wild-type allele and miss the deletion. Here, we report a female infant with incontinentia pigmenti that also affected her mother and sister, and two spontaneously aborted male siblings. We developed a modified PCR amplification method that provides more robust detection of the exon 4-10 deletion mutation, which was demonstrated in all affected females in this pedigree.

  18. An intron capture strategy used to identify and map a lysyl oxidase-like gene on chromosome 9 in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Wydner, K.S.; Passmore, H.C.; Kim, Houngho; Csiszar, K.; Boyd, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    An intron capture strategy involving use of polymerase chain reaction was used to identify and map the mouse homologue of a human lysyl oxidase-like gene (LOXL). Oligonucleotides complementary to conserved domains within exons 4 and 5 of the human lysyl oxidase-like gene were used to amplify the corresponding segment from mouse genomic DNA. Sequencing of the resulting mouse DNA fragment of approximately 1 kb revealed that the exon sequences at the ends of the amplified fragment are highly homologous (90% nucleotide identity) to exons 4 and 5 of the human lysyl oxidase-like gene. An AluI restriction site polymorphism within intron 4 was used to map the mouse lysyl oxidase-like gene (Loxl) to mouse Chromosome 9 in a region that shares linkage conservation with human chromosome 15q24, to which the LOXL was recently mapped. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Polymorphisms in the kappa casein (CSN3) gene in horse and comparative analysis of its promoter and coding region.

    PubMed

    Hobor, S; Kunej, T; Dovc, P

    2008-10-01

    The major parts of the coding region and promoter of the equine kappa casein (CSN3) gene were sequenced and compared among several species. Four SNPs were identified in the CSN3 gene: two in exon 1 and two in exon 4. The SNPs were genotyped in six Slovenian horse breeds using RFLP and two different PCR-based methods. The highest variation in genotype frequencies was found in the Slovenian cold-blood breed. The SNPs in exon 4 may cause a change in the amino acid sequence and may alter chemical/functional properties of the protein. Using horse-specific primers, we obtained 400 bp of exon 4 sequence from zebra and donkey. Two SNPs within the zebra exon 4 sequence were discovered; both presumably caused amino acid substitutions. Within the equine promoter sequence, 15 SNPs were found and 12 of them could be involved in the gain/loss of potential transcription factor (TF) binding sites. Using a comparative genomics approach, we obtained 1482 bp of the promoter sequence from zebra and donkey. Sequence alignment revealed highly conserved blocks of promoter sequence among nine species (sheep, goat, cow, zebra, donkey, horse, chimp, macaque and human) and clustered these species in three distinct groups. Consensus binding sites for TFs STAT5, C/EBP, NF1 and STAT6, previously demonstrated to be associated with expression, were located within conserved regions. Four promoter regions were tested for specific binding of TFs using electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Predicted binding sites for C/EBP and NF1 were confirmed and one conserved region was specifically detected by a yet-uncharacterized TF.

  20. A novel CYP27B1 mutation causes a feline vitamin D-dependent rickets type IA

    PubMed Central

    Grahn, Robert A; Ellis, Melanie R; Grahn, Jennifer C; Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-01-01

    A 12-week-old domestic cat presented at a local veterinary clinic with hypocalcemia and skeletal abnormalities suggestive of rickets. Osteomalacia (rickets) is a disease caused by impaired bone mineralization leading to an increased prevalence of fractures and deformity. Described in a variety of species, rickets is most commonly caused by vitamin D or calcium deficiencies owing to both environmental and or genetic abnormalities. Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR-1A) is a result of the enzymatic pathway defect caused by mutations in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-alpha-hydroxylase gene [cytochrome P27 B1 (CYP27B1)]. Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D3, regulates calcium homeostasis, which requires sufficient dietary calcium availability and correct hormonal function for proper bone growth and maintenance. Patient calcitriol concentrations were low while calcidiol levels were normal suggestive of VDDR-1A. The entire DNA coding sequencing of CYP27B1 was evaluated. The affected cat was wild type for previously identified VDDR-1A causative mutations. However, six novel mutations were identified, one of which was a nonsense mutation at G637T in exon 4. The exon 4 G637T nonsense mutation results in a premature protein truncation, changing a glutamic acid to a stop codon, E213X, likely causing the clinical presentation of rickets. The previously documented genetic mutation resulting in feline VDDR-1A rickets, as well as the case presented in this research, result from novel exon 4 CYP27B1 mutations, thus exon 4 should be the initial focus of future sequencing efforts. PMID:22553308

  1. Genomic organization and mapping of the gene (SLC25A19) encoding the human mitochondrial deoxynucleotide carrier (DNC).

    PubMed

    Iacobazzi, V; Ventura, M; Fiermonte, G; Prezioso, G; Rocchi, M; Palmieri, F

    2001-01-01

    The deoxynucleotide carrier (DNC) transports deoxynucleotides into mitochondria and is therefore essential for mtDNA synthesis. The human DNC gene (SLC25A19) spans about 16.5 kb and consists of nine exons with the translation start site in exon 4. It is located on chromosome 17q25.3. Three transcripts, which differ in their 5' ends and are generated by alternative splicing, have been identified.

  2. Scavenger Receptors and Resistance to Inhaled Allergens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    allergic asthma Keywords: Dendritic cell migration, allergic asthma, scavenger receptors Arredouani et al. 2 Abstract The class A scavenger...dendritic cells, MARCO (Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure), and SR-AI/ II (1, 2 , 4). MARCO, like SR-AI/ II , binds acetylated LDL and...backcrossed for at least ten generations to the C57BL/6 background. SR-AI/ II -/- mice were generated by disrupting exon 4 of the SR-A gene, which is

  3. Novel PLA2G6 mutations associated with an exonic deletion due to non-allelic homologous recombination in a patient with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Shimojima, Keiko; Shibata, Takashi; Akiyama, Mari; Oka, Makio; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Novel PLA2G6 mutations associated with p.Asp283Asn and a unique intragenic deletion of exons 4 and 5 due to non-allelic homologous recombination were identified in a Japanese female patient with typical infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. The patient showed progressive tetraplegia beginning at 9 months. An electroencephalogram showed a diffuse increase in fast waves, and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed progressive brain atrophy and T2 hypointensity in the globus pallidus. PMID:27081553

  4. Channel properties of the splicing isoforms of the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel Anoctamin 2

    PubMed Central

    Ponissery Saidu, Samsudeen; Stephan, Aaron B.; Talaga, Anna K.

    2013-01-01

    Anoctamin (ANO)2 (or TMEM16B) forms a cell membrane Ca2+-activated Cl− channel that is present in cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, vomeronasal microvilli, and photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Alternative splicing of Ano2 transcripts generates multiple variants with the olfactory variants skipping exon 14 and having alternative splicing of exon 4. In the present study, 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis was conducted to characterize the 5′ end of olfactory Ano2 transcripts, which showed that the most abundant Ano2 transcripts in the olfactory epithelium contain a novel starting exon that encodes a translation initiation site, whereas transcripts of the publically available sequence variant, which has an alternative and longer 5′ end, were present in lower abundance. With two alternative starting exons and alternative splicing of exon 4, four olfactory ANO2 isoforms are thus possible. Patch-clamp experiments in transfected HEK293T cells expressing these isoforms showed that N-terminal sequences affect Ca2+ sensitivity and that the exon 4–encoded sequence is required to form functional channels. Coexpression of the two predominant isoforms, one with and one without the exon 4 sequence, as well as coexpression of the two rarer isoforms showed alterations in channel properties, indicating that different isoforms interact with each other. Furthermore, channel properties observed from the coexpression of the predominant isoforms better recapitulated the native channel properties, suggesting that the native channel may be composed of two or more splicing isoforms acting as subunits that together shape the channel properties. PMID:23669718

  5. A Molecular Connection Between Cancer Proliferation and Metastasis Mediated by Akt Kinase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Tcf-4. Cancer Res. 61:5619–5629. 20 . El-Tanani, M. K., R. Barraclough, M. C. Wilkinson, and P. S. Rudland. 2001. Regulatory region of metastasis...translated exons ( exons 4 or 5, because exon 1 is untranslated (Behrend et al., 1993)). Other invasive cell lines tested, including cancers of diverse...02-1-0510 TITLE: A Molecular Connection between Breast Cancer Proliferation and Metastasis Mediated by Akt Kinase PRINCIPAL

  6. Detection and sequence analysis of the DNA repair gene RAD51 in the Korean spider Callobius koreanus (Amaurobiidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Park, Y C

    2015-11-19

    We identified a partial sequence (483 bp) of the RAD51 gene from the Korean spider Callobius koreanus. Sequence variation was found at one position during alignment with the human RAD51 gene sequence. This partial sequence included the region corresponding to exon 4 in the human RAD51 gene, which encodes 39 amino acids. These results show that the RAD51 gene is highly conserved between human and spiders.

  7. Identification of a novel nonsense mutation in RP1 that causes autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in an Indonesian family

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatkowska, Anna M.; Astuti, Galuh D.N.; Arimadyo, Kentar; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Faradz, Sultana M.H.; Cremers, Frans P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify the underlying molecular genetic defect in an Indonesian family with three affected individuals who had received a diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods Clinical evaluation of the family members included measuring visual acuity and fundoscopy, and assessing visual field and color vision. Genomic DNA of the three affected individuals was analyzed with Illumina 700k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, and homozygous regions were identified using PLINK software. Mutation analysis was performed with sequence analysis of the retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1) gene that resided in one of the homozygous regions. The frequency of the identified mutation in the Indonesian population was determined with TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results A novel homozygous nonsense mutation in exon 4 of the RP1 gene, c.1012C>T (p.R338*), was identified in the proband and her two affected sisters. Unaffected family members either carried two wild-type alleles or were heterozygous carriers of the mutation. The mutation was not present in 184 Indonesian control samples. Conclusions Most of the previously reported RP1 mutations are inherited in an autosomal dominant mode, and appear to cluster in exon 4. Here, we identified a novel homozygous p.R338* mutation in exon 4 of RP1, and speculate on the mutational mechanisms of different RP1 mutations underlying dominant and recessive RP. PMID:23077400

  8. NAB2-STAT6 Gene Fusion in Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma and Solitary Fibrous Tumor.

    PubMed

    Fritchie, Karen J; Jin, Long; Rubin, Brian P; Burger, Peter C; Jenkins, Sarah M; Barthelmeß, Sarah; Moskalev, Evgeny A; Haller, Florian; Oliveira, Andre M; Giannini, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Meningeal solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) and hemangiopericytoma (HPC) are considered to be distinct entities in the WHO Classification of CNS Tumours (2007). They harbor NAB2-STAT6 fusions similar to their soft tissue counterparts, supporting the view that they are part of a tumor continuum. We examined 30 meningeal-based tumors originally diagnosed as either SFT or HPC. These showed a spectrum of morphologic features and were diagnosed as SFTs, malignant SFTs, HPCs, or tumors with "intermediate" features. All of the tumors showed nuclear expression of STAT6. SFTs consistently expressed diffuse CD34, while HPCs and intermediate tumors had heterogeneous staining. NAB2-STAT6 fusions were identified in 20 cases, including 7 with exon 4-exon 3, 9 with exon 6-exon 17, and 4 with exon 6-exon 18 fusions. NAB2 exon 4-STAT6 exon 3 fusion correlated with classic SFT morphology and older age and showed a trend toward less mitotic activity; there was also a trend toward more aggressive behavior in tumors lacking NAB2 exon 4-STAT6 exon 3. Thus, despite their clinical and morphologic differences, meningeal-based SFTs, HPCs, and tumors with intermediate features, similar to their soft tissue counterparts, form a histopathologic spectrum unified by STAT6 immunoexpression and NAB2-STAT6 fusion.

  9. A point mutation in transthyretin increases affinity for thyroxine and produces euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Moses, A C; Rosen, H N; Moller, D E; Tsuzaki, S; Haddow, J E; Lawlor, J; Liepnieks, J J; Nichols, W C; Benson, M D

    1990-01-01

    In a family expressing euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia, an increased association of plasma thyroxine (T4) with transthyretin (TTR) is transmitted by autosomal dominant inheritance and is secondary to a mutant TTR molecule with increased affinity for T4. Eight individuals spanning three generations exhibited the abnormality. Although five of eight individuals had elevated total T4 concentrations, all affected individuals were clinically euthyroid and all had normal free T4 levels. Purified TTR from the propositus had an affinity for 125I-T4 three times that of control TTR. Exons 2, 3, and 4 (representing greater than 97% of the coding sequence) of the TTR gene of DNA prepared from the propositus' peripheral blood leukocytes were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were sequenced after subcloning. Exons 2 and 3 were indistinguishable from normal. In 50% of clones amplified from exon 4, a substitution of adenine (ACC) for guanine (GCC) in codon 109 resulted in the replacement of threonine-for-alanine, a mutation confirmed by amino acid sequencing of tryptic peptides derived from purified plasma TTR. The adenine-for-guanine substitution abolishes one of two Fnu 4H I restriction sites in exon 4. PCR amplification of exon 4 of TTR and restriction digestion with Fnu 4H I confirmed that five affected family members with increased binding of 125I-T4 to TTR are heterozygous for the threonine 109 substitution that increases the affinity of this abnormal TTR for T4. Images PMID:1979335

  10. Molecular nature of spontaneous mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) locus in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Yu, Y; Schwartz, J L; Meltz, M L; Hsie, A W

    1995-01-01

    The hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) locus has been widely used as a selectable genetic marker for studies of mammalian cell mutagenesis. We report here the spontaneous mutation spectrum at the hprt locus in 64 independently isolated mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. All nine hprt exons were simultaneously analyzed via multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rapid detection of gene deletions or insertions. Structural point mutations were identified by direct sequence analysis of the PCR amplified cDNA. The molecular nature of RNA splicing errors and insertions was analyzed by solid-phase direct exon sequencing. Single base substitutions were found in 24 mutants (38%), of which 21 were missense and 3 were nonsense mutations. Transversions were about twice as frequent as transitions. Fifteen mutants (23%) had deletions involving either intragenic small fragments (2), single exons (9), or multiple exons (4). The majority of deletion breakpoints (71%) were located in regions surrounding exons 4, 5, and 6. RNA splicing mutations were observed in 15 mutants (23%) and affected exons 3-8; most (6/15) resulted in the loss of exon 7. Two insertion mutants, one with a 209 bp insert in exon 4 and the other with a 88 bp insert accompanied by a 24 bp deletion in exon 6, represent novel mutations reported for the first time in spontaneous mutants of the mammalian hprt gene.

  11. Absence of COCH mutations in patients with Meniere disease.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Elena; López-Escámez, Jose A; López-Nevot, Miguel A; López-Nevot, Alicia; Cortes, Rosario; Martin, Javier

    2004-01-01

    Missense mutations in the coagulation factor C homology (COCH) gene (14q12-q13) cause the autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular disorder DFNA9 (OMIM 603196), and a high prevalence of symptoms of Meniere disease (MD) has been described in families with a mutation in the COCH gene. In this study, we search for mutations in the COCH gene in peripheral blood from patients with definite MD. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells of 30 individuals with MD and 30 controls. Exons 4 and 5 of the COCH gene were amplified by PCR reaction, using primer pairs flanking both exons. Sequences were analysed by a DNA sequencing system and compared with the published COCH cDNA sequence. No differences were found in the nucleotide sequences of exons 4 and 5 in the COCH gene in patients with definite sporadic MD when they were compared with the control group. Patients with definite MD have a low prevalence of mutations in exons 4 and 5 of the COCH gene.

  12. Deciphering the mechanism of Q145H SFTPC mutation unmasks a splicing defect and explains the severity of the phenotype.

    PubMed

    Delestrain, Céline; Simon, Stéphanie; Aissat, Abdel; Medina, Rachel; Decrouy, Xavier; Nattes, Elodie; Tarze, Agathe; Costes, Bruno; Fanen, Pascale; Epaud, Ralph

    2017-03-15

    Mutations in the gene encoding surfactant protein C (SFTPC) have led to a broad range of phenotypes from neonatal respiratory distress syndrome to adult interstitial lung disease. We previously identified the c.435G>C variant in the SFTPC gene associated with fatal neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in an infant girl. Although this variation is predicted to change glutamine (Q) at position 145 to histidine (H), its position at the last base of exon 4 and the severity of the phenotype suggested that it might also induce a splicing defect. To test this hypothesis, we used hybrid minigene, biochemical and immunofluorescence tools to decipher the molecular mechanism of the mutation. Immunoblotting and confocal imaging showed similar maturation and localization of wild-type and Q145H proteins, but hybrid minigene analysis showed complete exon 4 skipping. Since the exon 4 is in frame, a putative truncated protein of 160 amino acids would be produced. We have shown that this truncated protein had an altered intracellular trafficking and maturation. The c.435G>C mutation is deleterious not because of its amino acid substitution but because of its subsequent splicing defect and should be referred to as r.325_435del and p.Leu109_Gln145del. The absence of residual full-length transcripts fully explained the severity of the phenotype we observed in the infant.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 15 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.36.

  13. Viral Glycoprotein Complex Formation, Essential Function and Immunogenicity in the Guinea Pig Model for Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Maddux, Sarah; Choi, K. Yeon; McGregor, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Development of a cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine is a major public health priority due to the risk of congenital infection. A key component of a vaccine is thought to be an effective neutralizing antibody response against the viral glycoproteins necessary for cell entry. Species specificity of human CMV (HCMV) precludes direct studies in an animal model. The guinea pig is the only small animal model for congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Analysis of the guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) genome indicates that it potentially encodes homologs to the HCMV glycoproteins (including gB, gH, gL, gM, gN and gO) that form various cell entry complexes on the outside of the virus: gCI (gB); gCII (gH/gL/gO); gCIII (gM/gN). The gB homolog (GP55) has been investigated as a candidate subunit vaccine but little is known about the other homolog proteins. GPCMV glycoproteins were investigated by transient expression studies which indicated that homolog glycoproteins to gN and gM, or gH, gL and gO were able to co-localize in cells and generate respective homolog complexes which could be verified by immunoprecipitation assays. ELISA studies demonstrated that the individual complexes were highly immunogenic in guinea pigs. The gO (GP74) homolog protein has 13 conserved N-glycosylation sites found in HCMV gO. In transient expression studies, only the glycosylated protein is detected but in virus infected cells both N-glycosylated and non-glycosylated gO protein were detected. In protein interaction studies, a mutant gO that lacked N-glycosylation sites had no impact on the ability of the protein to interact with gH/gL which indicated a potential alternative function associated with these sites. Knockout GPCMV BAC mutagenesis of the respective glycoprotein genes (GP55 for gB, GP75 for gH, GP115 for gL, GP100 for gM, GP73 for gN and GP74 for gO) in separate reactions was lethal for virus regeneration on fibroblast cells which demonstrated the essential nature of the GPCMV glycoproteins. The gene

  14. Human Cytomegalovirus gH/gL Forms a Stable Complex with the Fusion Protein gB in Virions.

    PubMed

    Vanarsdall, Adam L; Howard, Paul W; Wisner, Todd W; Johnson, David C

    2016-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that is a major pathogen in newborns and immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients. HCMV infects a wide variety of cell types using distinct entry pathways that involve different forms of the gH/gL glycoprotein: gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 as well as the viral fusion glycoprotein, gB. However, the minimal or core fusion machinery (sufficient for cell-cell fusion) is just gH/gL and gB. Here, we demonstrate that HCMV gB and gH/gL form a stable complex early after their synthesis and in the absence of other viral proteins. gH/gL can interact with gB mutants that are unable to mediate cell-cell fusion. gB-gH/gL complexes included as much as 16-50% of the total gH/gL in HCMV virus particles. In contrast, only small amounts of gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 complexes were found associated with gB. All herpesviruses express gB and gH/gL molecules and most models describing herpesvirus entry suggest that gH/gL interacts with gB to mediate membrane fusion, although there is no direct evidence for this. For herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) it has been suggested that after receptor binding gH/gL binds to gB either just before, or coincident with membrane fusion. Therefore, our results have major implications for these models, demonstrating that HCMV gB and gH/gL forms stable gB-gH/gL complexes that are incorporated virions without receptor binding or membrane fusion. Moreover, our data is the best support to date for the proposal that gH/gL interacts with gB.

  15. Human cytomegalovirus pUL79 is an elongation factor of RNA polymerase II for viral gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Perng, Yi-Chieh; Campbell, Jessica A; Lenschow, Deborah J; Yu, Dong

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we have identified a unique mechanism in which human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) protein pUL79 acts as an elongation factor to direct cellular RNA polymerase II for viral transcription during late times of infection. We and others previously reported that pUL79 and its homologues are required for viral transcript accumulation after viral DNA synthesis. We hypothesized that pUL79 represented a unique mechanism to regulate viral transcription at late times during HCMV infection. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the proteome associated with pUL79 during virus infection by mass spectrometry. We identified both cellular transcriptional factors, including multiple RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) subunits, and novel viral transactivators, including pUL87 and pUL95, as protein binding partners of pUL79. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) followed by immunoblot analysis confirmed the pUL79-RNAP II interaction, and this interaction was independent of any other viral proteins. Using a recombinant HCMV virus where pUL79 protein is conditionally regulated by a protein destabilization domain ddFKBP, we showed that this interaction did not alter the total levels of RNAP II or its recruitment to viral late promoters. Furthermore, pUL79 did not alter the phosphorylation profiles of the RNAP II C-terminal domain, which was critical for transcriptional regulation. Rather, a nuclear run-on assay indicated that, in the absence of pUL79, RNAP II failed to elongate and stalled on the viral DNA. pUL79-dependent RNAP II elongation was required for transcription from all three kinetic classes of viral genes (i.e. immediate-early, early, and late) at late times during virus infection. In contrast, host gene transcription during HCMV infection was independent of pUL79. In summary, we have identified a novel viral mechanism by which pUL79, and potentially other viral factors, regulates the rate of RNAP II transcription machinery on viral transcription during late stages of HCMV infection.

  16. Viral Glycoprotein Complex Formation, Essential Function and Immunogenicity in the Guinea Pig Model for Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Stewart; Hornig, Julia; Maddux, Sarah; Choi, K Yeon; McGregor, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Development of a cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine is a major public health priority due to the risk of congenital infection. A key component of a vaccine is thought to be an effective neutralizing antibody response against the viral glycoproteins necessary for cell entry. Species specificity of human CMV (HCMV) precludes direct studies in an animal model. The guinea pig is the only small animal model for congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Analysis of the guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) genome indicates that it potentially encodes homologs to the HCMV glycoproteins (including gB, gH, gL, gM, gN and gO) that form various cell entry complexes on the outside of the virus: gCI (gB); gCII (gH/gL/gO); gCIII (gM/gN). The gB homolog (GP55) has been investigated as a candidate subunit vaccine but little is known about the other homolog proteins. GPCMV glycoproteins were investigated by transient expression studies which indicated that homolog glycoproteins to gN and gM, or gH, gL and gO were able to co-localize in cells and generate respective homolog complexes which could be verified by immunoprecipitation assays. ELISA studies demonstrated that the individual complexes were highly immunogenic in guinea pigs. The gO (GP74) homolog protein has 13 conserved N-glycosylation sites found in HCMV gO. In transient expression studies, only the glycosylated protein is detected but in virus infected cells both N-glycosylated and non-glycosylated gO protein were detected. In protein interaction studies, a mutant gO that lacked N-glycosylation sites had no impact on the ability of the protein to interact with gH/gL which indicated a potential alternative function associated with these sites. Knockout GPCMV BAC mutagenesis of the respective glycoprotein genes (GP55 for gB, GP75 for gH, GP115 for gL, GP100 for gM, GP73 for gN and GP74 for gO) in separate reactions was lethal for virus regeneration on fibroblast cells which demonstrated the essential nature of the GPCMV glycoproteins. The gene

  17. Human Cytomegalovirus gH/gL Forms a Stable Complex with the Fusion Protein gB in Virions

    PubMed Central

    Vanarsdall, Adam L.; Howard, Paul W.; Wisner, Todd W.; Johnson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that is a major pathogen in newborns and immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients. HCMV infects a wide variety of cell types using distinct entry pathways that involve different forms of the gH/gL glycoprotein: gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 as well as the viral fusion glycoprotein, gB. However, the minimal or core fusion machinery (sufficient for cell-cell fusion) is just gH/gL and gB. Here, we demonstrate that HCMV gB and gH/gL form a stable complex early after their synthesis and in the absence of other viral proteins. gH/gL can interact with gB mutants that are unable to mediate cell-cell fusion. gB-gH/gL complexes included as much as 16–50% of the total gH/gL in HCMV virus particles. In contrast, only small amounts of gH/gL/gO and gH/gL/UL128-131 complexes were found associated with gB. All herpesviruses express gB and gH/gL molecules and most models describing herpesvirus entry suggest that gH/gL interacts with gB to mediate membrane fusion, although there is no direct evidence for this. For herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) it has been suggested that after receptor binding gH/gL binds to gB either just before, or coincident with membrane fusion. Therefore, our results have major implications for these models, demonstrating that HCMV gB and gH/gL forms stable gB-gH/gL complexes that are incorporated virions without receptor binding or membrane fusion. Moreover, our data is the best support to date for the proposal that gH/gL interacts with gB. PMID:27082872

  18. The Essential Human Cytomegalovirus Proteins pUL77 and pUL93 Are Structural Components Necessary for Viral Genome Encapsidation

    PubMed Central

    Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Binz, Anne; Stephan, Thomas Min; Neuber, Sebastian; Wagner, Karen; Steinbrück, Lars; Sodeik, Beate; Lenac Roviš, Tihana; Jonjić, Stipan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several essential viral proteins are proposed to participate in genome encapsidation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), among them pUL77 and pUL93, which remain largely uncharacterized. To gain insight into their properties, we generated an HCMV mutant expressing a pUL77-monomeric enhanced green fluorescent protein (mGFP) fusion protein and a pUL93-specific antibody. Immunoblotting demonstrated that both proteins are incorporated into capsids and virions. Conversely to data suggesting internal translation initiation sites within the UL93 open reading frame (ORF), we provide evidence that pUL93 synthesis commences at the first start codon. In infected cells, pUL77-mGFP was found in nuclear replication compartments and dot-like structures, colocalizing with capsid proteins. Immunogold labeling of nuclear capsids revealed that pUL77 is present on A, B, and C capsids. Pulldown of pUL77-mGFP revealed copurification of pUL93, indicating interaction between these proteins, which still occurred when capsid formation was prevented. Correct subnuclear distribution of pUL77-mGFP required pUL93 as well as the major capsid protein (and thus probably the presence of capsids), but not the tegument protein pp150 or the encapsidation protein pUL52, demonstrating that pUL77 nuclear targeting occurs independently of the formation of DNA-filled capsids. When pUL77 or pUL93 was missing, generation of unit-length genomes was not observed, and only empty B capsids were produced. Taken together, these results show that pUL77 and pUL93 are capsid constituents needed for HCMV genome encapsidation. Therefore, the task of pUL77 seems to differ from that of its alphaherpesvirus orthologue pUL25, which exerts its function subsequent to genome cleavage-packaging. IMPORTANCE The essential HCMV proteins pUL77 and pUL93 were suggested to be involved in viral genome cleavage-packaging but are poorly characterized both biochemically and functionally. By producing a monoclonal antibody against

  19. A mechanism for negative gene regulation in Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leisy, D.J.; Rasmussen, C.; Owusu, E.O.; Rohrmann, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) ie-1 gene product (IE-1) is thought to play a central role in stimulating early viral transcription. IE-1 has been demonstrated to activate several early viral gene promoters and to negatively regulate the promoters of two other AcMNPV regulatory genes, ie-0 and ie-2. Our results indicate that IE-1 negatively regulates the expression of certain genes by binding directly, or as part of a complex, to promoter regions containing a specific IE-1-binding motif (5'-ACBYGTAA-3') near their mRNA start sites. The IE-1 binding motif was also found within the palindromic sequences of AcMNPV homologous repeat (hr) regions that have been shown to bind IE-1. The role of this IE-1 binding motif in the regulation of the ie-2 and pe-38 promoters was examined by introducing mutations in these promoters in which the central 6 bp were replaced with Bg/II sites. GUS reporter constructs containing ie-2 and pe-38 promoter fragments with and without these specific mutations were cotransfected into Sf9 cells with various amounts of an ie-1-containing plasmid (ple-1). Comparisons of GUS expression produced by the mutant and wild-type constructs demonstrated that the IE-1 binding motif mediated a significant decrease in expression from the ie-2 and pe-38 promoters in response to increasing pIe-1 concentrations. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with pIe-1-transfected cell extracts and supershift assays with IE-1- specific antiserum demonstrated that IE-1 binds to promoter fragments containing the IE-1 binding motif but does not bind to promoter fragments lacking this motif.

  20. CMV-Specific CD8 T Cell Differentiation and Localization: Implications for Adoptive Therapies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Corinne J; Quinn, Michael; Snyder, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that causes chronic infection and, thus, is one of the most common infectious complications of immune suppression. Adoptive transfer of HCMV-specific T cells has emerged as an effective method to reduce the risk for HCMV infection and/or reactivation by restoring immunity in transplant recipients. However, the CMV-specific CD8(+) T cell response is comprised of a heterogenous mixture of subsets with distinct functions and localization, and it is not clear if current adoptive immunotherapy protocols can reconstitute the full spectrum of CD8(+) T cell immunity. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize the role of these T cell subsets in CMV immunity and to describe how current adoptive immunotherapy practices might affect their reconstitution in patients. The bulk of the CMV-specific CD8(+) T cell population is made up of terminally differentiated effector T cells with immediate effector function and a short life span. Self-renewing memory T cells within the CMV-specific population retain the capacity to expand and differentiate upon challenge and are important for the long-term persistence of the CD8(+) T cell response. Finally, mucosal organs, which are frequent sites of CMV reactivation, are primarily inhabited by tissue-resident memory T cells, which do not recirculate. Future work on adoptive transfer strategies may need to focus on striking a balance between the formation of these subsets to ensure the development of long lasting and protective immune responses that can access the organs affected by CMV disease.

  1. Intracellular Trafficking of the Human Cytomegalovirus-Encoded 7-trans-Membrane Protein Homologs pUS27 and pUL78 during Viral Infection: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, Ina; Reichel, Anna; Stamminger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes four G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) homologs, termed pUS27, pUS28, pUL33, and pUL78. In contrast to the extensively characterized vGPCRs pUS28 and pUL33, knowledge concerning pUS27 and pUL78 is limited. Previous studies already demonstrated constitutive internalization of pUS27 and pUL78, as well as an association with the endosomal machinery, however, these results were mainly obtained using transiently transfected cells. To explore the subcellular localization of both receptors during viral infection, we constructed recombinant HCMVs expressing tagged vGPCRs. Colocalization analyses revealed a predominant association of pUS27 or pUL78 with the trans-Golgi network or the endoplasmic reticulum, respectively. Intriguingly, our data emphasize that protein sorting is highly regulated by viral functions as we detected dramatic changes in the colocalization of pUS27 and pUL78 with endosomal markers during progression of HCMV replication. Furthermore, we observed cell type-dependent differences in trafficking of both vGPCRs between fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Most importantly, infection experiments with a recombinant HCMV carrying tagged versions of pUS27 and pUL78 simultaneously, revealed that these two proteins do not colocalize during viral infection. This contrasts to results of transient expression experiments. In conclusion, our results highlight the importance to investigate vGPCR trafficking in a viral context. PMID:24517969

  2. Structure of human cytomegalovirus UL141 binding to TRAIL-R2 reveals novel, non-canonical death receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Nemčovičová, Ivana; Benedict, Chris A; Zajonc, Dirk M

    2013-03-01

    The TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) death receptors (DRs) of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) can promote apoptosis and regulate antiviral immunity by maintaining immune homeostasis during infection. In turn, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses immunomodulatory proteins that down-regulate cell surface expression of TNFRSF members as well as poliovirus receptor-related proteins in an effort to inhibit host immune effector pathways that would lead to viral clearance. The UL141 glycoprotein of human cytomegalovirus inhibits host defenses by blocking cell surface expression of TRAIL DRs (by retention in ER) and poliovirus receptor CD155, a nectin-like Ig-fold molecule. Here we show that the immunomodulatory function of HCMV UL141 is associated with its ability to bind diverse proteins, while utilizing at least two distinct binding sites to selectively engage TRAIL DRs or CD155. Binding studies revealed high affinity interaction of UL141 with both TRAIL-R2 and CD155 and low affinity binding to TRAIL-R1. We determined the crystal structure of UL141 bound to TRAIL-R2 at 2.1 Å resolution, which revealed that UL141 forms a homodimer that engages two TRAIL-R2 monomers 90° apart to form a heterotetrameric complex. Our structural and biochemical data reveal that UL141 utilizes its Ig-domain to facilitate non-canonical death receptor interactions while UL141 partially mimics the binding site of TRAIL on TRAIL-R2, which we found to be distinct from that of CD155. Moreover, UL141 also binds to an additional surface patch on TRAIL-R2 that is distinct from the TRAIL binding site. Therefore, the breadth of UL141-mediated effects indicates that HCMV has evolved sophisticated strategies to evade the immune system by modulating multiple effector pathways.

  3. Human cytomegalovirus interleukin-10 polarizes monocytes toward a deactivated M2c phenotype to repress host immune responses.

    PubMed

    Avdic, Selmir; Cao, John Z; McSharry, Brian P; Clancy, Leighton E; Brown, Rebecca; Steain, Megan; Gottlieb, David J; Abendroth, Allison; Slobedman, Barry

    2013-09-01

    Several human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genes encode products that modulate cellular functions in a manner likely to enhance viral pathogenesis. This includes UL111A, which encodes homologs of human interleukin-10 (hIL-10). Depending upon signals received, monocytes and macrophages become polarized to either classically activated (M1 proinflammatory) or alternatively activated (M2 anti-inflammatory) subsets. Skewing of polarization toward an M2 subset may benefit the virus by limiting the proinflammatory responses to infection, and so we determined whether HCMV-encoded viral IL-10 influenced monocyte polarization. Recombinant viral IL-10 protein polarized CD14(+) monocytes toward an anti-inflammatory M2 subset with an M2c phenotype, as demonstrated by high expression of CD163 and CD14 and suppression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Significantly, in the context of productive HCMV infection, viral IL-10 produced by infected cells polarized uninfected monocytes toward an M2c phenotype. We also assessed the impact of viral IL-10 on heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), which is an enzyme linked with suppression of inflammatory responses. Polarization of monocytes by viral IL-10 resulted in upregulation of HO-1, and inhibition of HO-1 function resulted in a loss of capacity of viral IL-10 to suppress tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-1β, implicating HO-1 in viral IL-10-induced suppression of proinflammatory cytokines by M2c monocytes. In addition, a functional consequence of monocytes polarized with viral IL-10 was a decreased capacity to activate CD4(+) T cells. This study identifies a novel role for viral IL-10 in driving M2c polarization, which may limit virus clearance by restricting proinflammatory and CD4(+) T cell responses at sites of infection.

  4. Revelation of Viral – Bacterial Interrelationship in Aggressive Periodontitis via Polymerase Chain Reaction: A Microbiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sumit; Tapashetti, Roopali P; Patil, Sudhir R; Kalra, Sonali Medsinge; Bhat, Geetha K; Guvva, Sowjanya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Periodontal disease is one of the most common and complex disease affecting mankind. Being multifactorial in etiology it encompasses a variety of infectious entities with various unique microbial constellations and immune responses. A bacteriologic cause alone seems insufficient in explaining several clinical features of the periodontal disease. Recent studies suggest that periodontal herpes viruses comprise an important source of triggering periodontal tissue destruction. The following study aims to assess human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-I) interaction with the established periodontopathic bacteriae, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) in pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis (AgP) using Hotstart polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects, 15 with AgP and 15 healthy controls contributed random subgingival plaque samples. PCR methodology was used to identify the subgingival herpesviruses, Pg, and Aa. Yates corrected Chi-square test was employed to identify a statistical association between herpesviruses and periodontopathic bacteriae. Results: Findings suggested that viruses may be pertinent to disease progression. The prevalence of the periodontopathic bacteria Aa was found in 53.33% (P = 0.0168, S) and Pg in 40% (P = 0.2155, NS) of the AgP patients. Herpesviruses, HCMV and EBV-I were found to have a prevalence of 46.67% (P = 0.039, S) and 40% (P = 0.084, NS). The viral and bacterial co-infection was found to be 77.78% (P = 0.0002, S) with Aa and HCMV. Conclusion: The present data reveals, viruses may exert periodontopathic effect by causing local immunosupression which may set a stage for the subgingival colonization and multiplication of periodontal bacteriae. Further studies are needed to develop an understanding into the significance of herpesviruses in human periodontitis which, may allow for improved diagnosis, more specific therapy and

  5. Glucocortiocoid Treatment of MCMV Infected Newborn Mice Attenuates CNS Inflammation and Limits Deficits in Cerebellar Development

    PubMed Central

    Kosmac, Kate; Bantug, Glenn R.; Pugel, Ester P.; Cekinovic, Djurdjica; Jonjic, Stipan; Britt, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Infection of the developing fetus with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major cause of central nervous system disease in infants and children; however, mechanism(s) of disease associated with this intrauterine infection remain poorly understood. Utilizing a mouse model of HCMV infection of the developing CNS, we have shown that peripheral inoculation of newborn mice with murine CMV (MCMV) results in CNS infection and developmental abnormalities that recapitulate key features of the human infection. In this model, animals exhibit decreased granule neuron precursor cell (GNPC) proliferation and altered morphogenesis of the cerebellar cortex. Deficits in cerebellar cortical development are symmetric and global even though infection of the CNS results in a non-necrotizing encephalitis characterized by widely scattered foci of virus-infected cells with mononuclear cell infiltrates. These findings suggested that inflammation induced by MCMV infection could underlie deficits in CNS development. We investigated the contribution of host inflammatory responses to abnormal cerebellar development by modulating inflammatory responses in infected mice with glucocorticoids. Treatment of infected animals with glucocorticoids decreased activation of CNS mononuclear cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-β and IFNγ) in the CNS while minimally impacting CNS virus replication. Glucocorticoid treatment also limited morphogenic abnormalities and normalized the expression of developmentally regulated genes within the cerebellum. Importantly, GNPC proliferation deficits were normalized in MCMV infected mice following glucocorticoid treatment. Our findings argue that host inflammatory responses to MCMV infection contribute to deficits in CNS development in MCMV infected mice and suggest that similar mechanisms of disease could be responsible for the abnormal CNS development in human infants infected in-utero with HCMV. PMID:23505367

  6. Reevaluation of the Coding Potential and Proteomic Analysis of the BAC Derived Rhesus Cytomegalovirus Strain 68-1

    SciTech Connect

    Malouli, Daniel; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Camp, David G.; Chang, W. L.; Barry, Peter A.; Smith, Richard D.; Fruh, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are highly host restricted resulting in co-speciation with their hosts. As a natural pathogen of rhesus macaques (RM), Rhesus Cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) has therefore emerged as a highly relevant experimental model for pathogenesis and vaccine development due to its close evolutionary relationship to human CMV (HCMV). To date, most in vivo experiments performed with RhCMV employed strain 68-1 cloned as bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). However, the complete genome sequence of the 68-1 BAC has not been determined. Furthermore, the gene content of the RhCMV genome is unknown and previous open reading frame (ORF) predictions relied solely on uninterrupted ORFs with an arbitrary cutoff of 300bp. To obtain a more precise picture of the actual proteins encoded by the most commonly used molecular clone of RhCMV we re-evaluated the RhCMV 68-1 BAC-genome by whole genome shotgun sequencing and determined the protein content of the resulting RhCMV virions by proteomics. By additionally comparing the RhCMV genome to that of several closely related Old World Monkey (OWM) CMVs we were able to filter out many unlikely ORFs and obtain a simplified map of the RhCMV genome. This comparative genomics analysis eliminated many genes previously characterized as RhCMV-specific while consolidating a high conservation of ORFs among OWM-CMVs and between RhCMV and HCMV. Moreover, virion proteomics independently validated the revised ORF predictions since only proteins encoded by predicted ORFs could be detected. Taken together these data suggest a much higher conservation of genome and virion structure between CMVs of humans, apes and OWMs than previously assumed. Remarkably, BAC-derived RhCMV is able to establish and maintain persistent infection despite the lack of multiple genes homologous to HCMV genes involved in tissue tropism.

  7. Phosphorylation of Golgi Peripheral Membrane Protein Grasp65 Is an Integral Step in the Formation of the Human Cytomegalovirus Cytoplasmic Assembly Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Rebmann, G. Michael; Grabski, Robert; Sanchez, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the largest member of the Herpesviridae and represents a significant cause of disease. During virus replication, HCMV alters cellular functions to facilitate its replication, including significant reorganization of the secretory and endocytic pathways of the infected cell. A defining morphologic change of the infected cell is the formation of a membranous structure in the cytoplasm that is designated the virion assembly compartment (AC), which consists of virion structural proteins surrounded by cellular membranes. The loss of normal Golgi compartment morphology and its relocalization from a juxtanuclear ribbonlike structure to a series of concentric rings on the periphery of the AC represents a readily recognized reorganization of cellular membranes in the HCMV-infected cell. Although trafficking of viral proteins to this compartment is required for the assembly of infectious virions, the functional significance of the reorganization of intracellular membranes like the Golgi membranes into the AC in the assembly of infectious virus remains understudied. In this study, we determined that Golgi membrane ribbon fragmentation increased during the early cytoplasmic phase of virion assembly and that Golgi membrane fragmentation in infected cells was dependent on the phosphorylation of an integral cis-Golgi protein, Grasp65. Inhibition of Golgi membrane fragmentation and of its reorganization into the AC resulted in decreased production of infectious particles and alteration of the incorporation of an essential protein into the envelope of the mature virion. These results demonstrated the complexity of the virus-host cell interactions required for efficient assembly of this large DNA virus. PMID:27703074

  8. Open reading frames carried on UL/b' are implicated in shedding and horizontal transmission of rhesus cytomegalovirus in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Oxford, Kristie L; Strelow, Lisa; Yue, Yujuan; Chang, W L William; Schmidt, Kimberli A; Diamond, Don J; Barry, Peter A

    2011-05-01

    Implicit with the use of animal models to test human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) vaccines is the assumption that the viral challenge of vaccinated animals reflects the anticipated virus-host interactions following exposure of vaccinated humans to HCMV. Variables of animal vaccine studies include the route of exposure to and the titer of challenge virus, as well as the genomic coding content of the challenge virus. This study was initiated to provide a better context for conducting vaccine trials with nonhuman primates by determining whether the in vivo phenotype of culture-passaged strains of rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) is comparable to that of wild-type RhCMV (RhCMV-WT), particularly in relation to the shedding of virus into bodily fluids and the potential for horizontal transmission. Results of this study demonstrate that two strains containing a full-length UL/b' region of the RhCMV genome, which encodes proteins involved in epithelial tropism and immune evasion, were persistently shed in large amounts in bodily fluids and horizontally transmitted, whereas a strain lacking a complete UL/b' region was not shed or transmitted to cagemates. Shedding patterns exhibited by strains encoding a complete UL/b' region were consistent with patterns observed in naturally infected monkeys, the majority of whom persistently shed high levels of virus in saliva for extended periods of time after seroconversion. Frequent viral shedding contributed to a high rate of infection, with RhCMV-infected monkeys transmitting virus to one naïve animal every 7 weeks after introduction of RhCMV-WT into an uninfected cohort. These results demonstrate that the RhCMV model can be designed to rigorously reflect the challenges facing HCMV vaccine trials, particularly those related to horizontal transmission.

  9. A Role for Nuclear F-Actin Induction in Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Adrian R.; Lawler, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpesviruses, which include important pathogens, remodel the host cell nucleus to facilitate infection. This remodeling includes the formation of structures called replication compartments (RCs) in which herpesviruses replicate their DNA. During infection with the betaherpesvirus, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), viral DNA synthesis occurs at the periphery of RCs within the nuclear interior, after which assembled capsids must reach the inner nuclear membrane (INM) for translocation to the cytoplasm (nuclear egress). The processes that facilitate movement of HCMV capsids to the INM during nuclear egress are unknown. Although an actin-based mechanism of alphaherpesvirus capsid trafficking to the INM has been proposed, it is controversial. Here, using a fluorescently-tagged, nucleus-localized actin-binding peptide, we show that HCMV, but not herpes simplex virus 1, strongly induced nuclear actin filaments (F-actin) in human fibroblasts. Based on studies using UV inactivation and inhibitors, this induction depended on viral gene expression. Interestingly, by 24 h postinfection, nuclear F-actin formed thicker structures that appeared by super-resolution microscopy to be bundles of filaments. Later in infection, nuclear F-actin primarily localized along the RC periphery and between the RC periphery and the nuclear rim. Importantly, a drug that depolymerized nuclear F-actin caused defects in production of infectious virus, capsid accumulation in the cytoplasm, and capsid localization near the nuclear rim, without decreasing capsid accumulation in the nucleus. Thus, our results suggest that for at least one herpesvirus, nuclear F-actin promotes capsid movement to the nuclear periphery and nuclear egress. We discuss our results in terms of competing models for these processes. PMID:27555312

  10. Inactivation of retinoblastoma protein does not overcome the requirement for human cytomegalovirus UL97 in lamina disruption and nuclear egress.

    PubMed

    Reim, Natalia I; Kamil, Jeremy P; Wang, Depeng; Lin, Alison; Sharma, Mayuri; Ericsson, Maria; Pesola, Jean M; Golan, David E; Coen, Donald M

    2013-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes one conventional protein kinase, UL97. During infection, UL97 phosphorylates the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) on sites ordinarily phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), inactivating the ability of pRb to repress host genes required for cell cycle progression to S phase. UL97 is important for viral DNA synthesis in quiescent cells, but this function can be replaced by human papillomavirus type 16 E7, which targets pRb for degradation. However, viruses in which E7 replaces UL97 are still defective for virus production. UL97 is also required for efficient nuclear egress of viral nucleocapsids, which is associated with disruption of the nuclear lamina during infection, and phosphorylation of lamin A/C on serine 22, which antagonizes lamin polymerization. We investigated whether inactivation of pRb might overcome the requirement of UL97 for these roles, as pRb inactivation induces CDK1, and CDK1 phosphorylates lamin A/C on serine 22. We found that lamin A/C serine 22 phosphorylation during HCMV infection correlated with expression of UL97 and was considerably delayed in UL97-null mutants, even when E7 was expressed. E7 failed to restore gaps in the nuclear lamina seen in wild-type but not UL97-null virus infections. In electron microscopy analyses, a UL97-null virus expressing E7 was as impaired as a UL97-null mutant in cytoplasmic accumulation of viral nucleocapsids. Our results demonstrate that pRb inactivation is insufficient to restore efficient viral nuclear egress of HCMV in the absence of UL97 and instead argue further for a direct role of UL97 in this stage of the infectious cycle.

  11. Enhanced neutrophil activity is associated with shorter time to tumor progression in glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Afsar; Cederarv, Madeleine; Wolmer-Solberg, Nina; Tammik, Charlotte; Stragliotto, Giuseppe; Peredo, Inti; Fornara, Olesja; Xu, Xinling; Dzabic, Mensur; Taher, Chato; Skarman, Petra; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant tumor with a poor outcome that is often positive for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). GBM patients often have excessive numbers of neutrophils and macrophages near and within the tumor. Here, we characterized the cytokine patterns in the blood of GBM patients with and without Valganciclovir treatment. Furthermore, we determined whether neutrophil activation is related to HCMV status and patient outcome. Blood samples for analyses of cytokines and growth factors were collected from 42 GBM patients at the time of diagnosis (n = 42) and at weeks 12 and 24 after surgery. Blood neutrophils of 28 GBM patients were examined for CD11b expression. The levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines—including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interferon-γ, interferon-α, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1were analyzed with a bead-based flow cytometry assay. During the first six months after surgery, neutrophil activity was increased in 12 patients and was unchanged or decreased in 16. Patients with increased neutrophil activity had enhanced IL-12p70, high grade HCMV and a shorter time to tumor progression (TTP) than patients without or decreased neutrophil activity (median TTP; 5.4 vs. 12 months, 95% confidence interval; 1.6–10 vs. 0.1–0.6, hazard ratio = 3 vs. 0.4, p = 0.004). The levels of IL-12p70 were significantly decreased in Valganciclovir treated patients (n = 22, T 12W vs. T 24W, p = 0.03). In conclusion, our findings suggest that neutrophil activation is an early sign of tumor progression in GBM patients. PMID:27057448

  12. CMV-Specific CD8 T Cell Differentiation and Localization: Implications for Adoptive Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Corinne J.; Quinn, Michael; Snyder, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that causes chronic infection and, thus, is one of the most common infectious complications of immune suppression. Adoptive transfer of HCMV-specific T cells has emerged as an effective method to reduce the risk for HCMV infection and/or reactivation by restoring immunity in transplant recipients. However, the CMV-specific CD8+ T cell response is comprised of a heterogenous mixture of subsets with distinct functions and localization, and it is not clear if current adoptive immunotherapy protocols can reconstitute the full spectrum of CD8+ T cell immunity. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize the role of these T cell subsets in CMV immunity and to describe how current adoptive immunotherapy practices might affect their reconstitution in patients. The bulk of the CMV-specific CD8+ T cell population is made up of terminally differentiated effector T cells with immediate effector function and a short life span. Self-renewing memory T cells within the CMV-specific population retain the capacity to expand and differentiate upon challenge and are important for the long-term persistence of the CD8+ T cell response. Finally, mucosal organs, which are frequent sites of CMV reactivation, are primarily inhabited by tissue-resident memory T cells, which do not recirculate. Future work on adoptive transfer strategies may need to focus on striking a balance between the formation of these subsets to ensure the development of long lasting and protective immune responses that can access the organs affected by CMV disease. PMID:27695453

  13. Contribution of herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells to anti-viral T cell response in humans.

    PubMed

    Sandalova, Elena; Laccabue, Diletta; Boni, Carolina; Tan, Anthony T; Fink, Katja; Ooi, Eng Eong; Chua, Robert; Shafaeddin Schreve, Bahar; Ferrari, Carlo; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2010-08-19

    Herpesviruses infect most humans. Their infections can be associated with pathological conditions and significant changes in T cell repertoire but evidences of symbiotic effects of herpesvirus latency have never been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that HCMV and EBV-specific CD8 T cells contribute to the heterologous anti-viral immune response. Volume of activated/proliferating virus-specific and total CD8 T cells was evaluated in 50 patients with acute viral infections: 20 with HBV, 12 with Dengue, 12 with Influenza, 3 with Adenovirus infection and 3 with fevers of unknown etiology. Virus-specific (EBV, HCMV, Influenza) pentamer+ and total CD8 T cells were analyzed for activation (CD38/HLA-DR), proliferation (Ki-67/Bcl-2(low)) and cytokine production. We observed that all acute viral infections trigger an expansion of activated/proliferating CD8 T cells, which differs in size depending on the infection but is invariably inflated by CD8 T cells specific for persistent herpesviruses (HCMV/EBV). CD8 T cells specific for other non-related non persistent viral infection (i.e. Influenza) were not activated. IL-15, which is produced during acute viral infections, is the likely contributing mechanism driving the selective activation of herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells. In addition we were able to show that herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells displayed an increased ability to produce the anti-viral cytokine interferon-gamma during the acute phase of heterologous viral infection. Taken together, these data demonstrated that activated herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells inflate the activated/proliferating CD8 T cells population present during acute viral infections in human and can contribute to the heterologous anti-viral T cell response.

  14. Complexity of Host Micro-RNA Response to Cytomegalovirus Reactivation After Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Egli, A; Lisboa, L F; O'Shea, D; Asberg, A; Mueller, T; Emery, V; Kumar, D; Humar, A

    2016-02-01

    Human (Homo sapiens) micro-RNAs (hsa-miRNAs) regulate virus and host-gene translation, but the biological impact in patients with human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection is not well defined in a clinically relevant model. First, we compared hsa-miRNA expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 35 transplant recipients with and without CMV viremia by using a microarray chip covering 847 hsa-miRNAs. This approach demonstrated a set of 142 differentially expressed hsa-miRNAs. Next, we examined the effect of each of these miRNAs on viral growth by using human fibroblasts (human foreskin fibroblast-1) infected with the hCMV Towne strain, identifying a subset of proviral and antiviral hsa-miRNAs. miRNA-target prediction software indicated potential binding sites within the hCMV genome (e.g., hCMV-UL52 and -UL100 [UL = unique long]) and host-genes (e.g., interleukin-1 receptor, IRF1). Luciferase-expressing plasmid constructs and immunoblotting confirmed several predicted miRNA targets. Finally, we determined the expression of selected proviral and antiviral hsa-miRNAs in 242 transplant recipients with hCMV-viremia. We measured hsa-miRNAs before and after antiviral therapy and correlated hsa-miRNA expression levels to hCMV-replication dynamics. One of six antiviral hsa-miRNAs showed a significant increase during treatment, concurrent with viral decline. In contrast, six of eight proviral hsa-miRNAs showed a decrease during viral decline. Our results indicate that a complex and multitargeted hsa-miRNA response occurs during CMV replication in immunosuppressed patients. This study provides mechanistic insight and potential novel biomarkers for CMV replication.

  15. Understanding and Targeting Cell Growth Networks in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    indicated   durations.   Plasmid   expressing   CMV -­‐driven   Renilla   luciferase   (Rluc)   was  used  as   an   internal...with 10% fetal bovine serum, 2 mM glutamine, 0.1 mM nones- sential amino acids, 2 g/ml gentamicin. Etoposide ( Sigma , St. Louis, MO) and rapamycin (LC...cells were cotransfected using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) with pHCMV.G, CMV R8.2, and pLKO.1-puro constructs. Viral supernatants

  16. Diagnosis of children’s attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its association with cytomegalovirus infection with ADHD: a historical review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rui; Xia, Qun; Shen, Huaiyun; Yang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yongli; Xu, Jiali

    2015-01-01

    As the most common mental disorder identified in children and teenagers, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects millions of children and their families, making it a critical health issue worldwide. This article reviewed the historical opinions about the diagnosis of ADHD and defined different subtypes of this disorder. It also summarized the current diagnostic criteria and available medications. After re-visiting the etiology of ADHD in the sense of both genetic and environment factors, it was further hypothesized that viral infection might be involved in ADHD pathogenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may be associated with ADHD, although both clinical observations and animal studies need to be performed for validation. PMID:26550354

  17. Human cytomegalovirus capsid assembly protein precursor (pUL80.5) interacts with itself and with the major capsid protein (pUL86) through two different domains.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, L J; Baxter, M K; Plafker, S M; Gibson, W

    1997-01-01

    We have used the yeast GAL4 two-hybrid system to examine interactions between the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major capsid protein (MCP, encoded by UL86) and the precursor assembly protein (pAP, encoded by UL80.5 and cleaved at its carboxyl end to yield AP) and found that (i) the pAP interacts with the MCP through residues located within the carboxy-terminal 21 amino acids of the pAP, called the carboxyl conserved domain (CCD); (ii) the pAP interacts with itself through a separate region, called the amino conserved domain (ACD), located between amino acids His34 and Arg52 near the amino end of the molecule; (iii) the simian CMV (SCMV) pAP and AP can interact with or replace their HCMV counterparts in these interactions, whereas the herpes simplex virus pAP and AP homologs cannot; and (iv) the HCMV and SCMV maturational proteinase precursors (ACpra, encoded by UL80a and APNG1, respectively) can interact with the pAP and MCP. The ACD and CCD amino acid sequences are highly conserved among members of the betaherpesvirus group and appear to have counterparts in the alpha- and gammaherpesvirus pAP homologs. Deleting the ACD from the HCMV pAP, or substituting Ala for a conserved Leu in the ACD, eliminated detectable pAP self-interaction and also substantially reduced MCP binding in the two-hybrid assay. This finding indicates that the pAP self-interaction influences the pAP-MCP interaction. Immunofluorescence studies corroborated the pAP-MCP interaction detected in the GAL4 two-hybrid experiments and showed that nuclear transport of the MCP was mediated by pAP but not AP. We conclude that the pAP interacts with the MCP, that this interaction is mediated by the CCD and is influenced by pAP self-interaction, and that one function of the pAP-MCP interaction may be to provide a controlled mechanism for transporting the MCP into the nucleus. PMID:8985337

  18. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Recruitment of Inflammatory Mononuclear Cells Leads to Inflammation and Altered Brain Development in Murine Cytomegalovirus-Infected Newborn Mice.

    PubMed

    Seleme, Maria C; Kosmac, Kate; Jonjic, Stipan; Britt, William J

    2017-04-15

    Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a significant cause of abnormal neurodevelopment and long-term neurological sequelae in infants and children. Resident cell populations of the developing brain have been suggested to be more susceptible to virus-induced cytopathology, a pathway thought to contribute to the clinical outcomes following intrauterine HCMV infection. However, recent findings in a newborn mouse model of the infection in the developing brain have indicated that elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators leading to mononuclear cell activation and recruitment could underlie the abnormal neurodevelopment. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-neutralizing antibodies decreased the frequency of CD45(+) Ly6C(hi) CD11b(+) CCR2(+) activated myeloid mononuclear cells (MMCs) and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the blood and the brains of murine CMV-infected mice. This treatment also normalized neurodevelopment in infected mice without significantly impacting the level of virus replication. These results indicate that TNF-α is a major component of the inflammatory response associated with altered neurodevelopment that follows murine CMV infection of the developing brain and that a subset of peripheral blood myeloid mononuclear cells represent a key effector cell population in this model of virus-induced inflammatory disease of the developing brain.IMPORTANCE Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the most common viral infection of the developing human fetus and can result in neurodevelopmental sequelae. Mechanisms of disease leading to neurodevelopmental deficits in infected infants remain undefined, but postulated pathways include loss of neuronal progenitor cells, damage to the developing vascular system of the brain, and altered cellular positioning. Direct virus-mediated cytopathic effects cannot explain the phenotypes of brain damage in most infected infants. Using a

  19. Latent infection of myeloid progenitors by human cytomegalovirus protects cells from FAS-mediated apoptosis through the cellular IL-10/PEA-15 pathway.

    PubMed

    Poole, Emma; Lau, Jonathan C H; Sinclair, John

    2015-08-01

    Latent infection of primary CD34(+) progenitor cells by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) results in their increased survival in the face of pro-apoptotic signals. For instance, we have shown previously that primary myeloid cells are refractory to FAS-mediated killing and that cellular IL-10 (cIL-10) is an important survival factor for this effect. However, how cIL-10 mediates this protection is unclear. Here, we have shown that cIL-10 signalling leading to upregulation of the cellular factor PEA-15 mediates latency-associated protection of CD34(+) progenitor cells from the extrinsic death pathway.

  20. Human Cytomegalovirus UL97 Phosphorylates the Viral Nuclear Egress Complex

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mayuri; Bender, Brian J.; Kamil, Jeremy P.; Lye, Ming F.; Pesola, Jean M.; Reim, Natalia I.; Hogle, James M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpesvirus nucleocapsids exit the host cell nucleus in an unusual process known as nuclear egress. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL97 protein kinase is required for efficient nuclear egress, which can be explained by its phosphorylation of the nuclear lamina component lamin A/C, which disrupts the nuclear lamina. We found that a dominant negative lamin A/C mutant complemented the replication defect of a virus lacking UL97 in dividing cells, validating this explanation. However, as complementation was incomplete, we investigated whether the HCMV nuclear egress complex (NEC) subunits UL50 and UL53, which are required for nuclear egress and recruit UL97 to the nuclear rim, are UL97 substrates. Using mass spectrometry, we detected UL97-dependent phosphorylation of UL50 residue S216 (UL50-S216) and UL53-S19 in infected cells. Moreover, UL53-S19 was specifically phosphorylated by UL97 in vitro. Notably, treatment of infected cells with the UL97 inhibitor maribavir or infection with a UL97 mutant led to a punctate rather than a continuous distribution of the NEC at the nuclear rim. Alanine substitutions in both UL50-S216 and UL53-S19 resulted in a punctate distribution of the NEC in infected cells and also decreased virus production and nuclear egress in the absence of maribavir. These results indicate that UL97 phosphorylates the NEC and suggest that this phosphorylation modulates nuclear egress. Thus, the UL97-NEC interaction appears to recruit UL97 to the nuclear rim both for disruption of the nuclear lamina and phosphorylation of the NEC. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes birth defects and it can cause life-threatening diseases in immunocompromised patients. HCMV assembles in the nucleus and then translocates to the cytoplasm in an unusual process termed nuclear egress, an attractive target for antiviral therapy. A viral enzyme, UL97, is important for nuclear egress. It has been proposed that this is due to its role in disruption of the

  1. Characterization of a splicing mutation in group A xeroderma pigmentosum

    SciTech Connect

    Satokata, Ichiro; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Miura, Naoyuki; Miyamoto, Iwai; Okada, Yoshio ); Satoh, Yoshiaki Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. ); Kondo, Seiji )

    1990-12-01

    The molecular basis of group A xeroderma pigmentosum (WP) was investigated by comparison of the nucleotide sequences of multiple clones of the XP group A complementing gene (XPAC) from a patient with group A XP with that of a normal gene. The clones showed a G {r arrow} C substitution at the 3{prime} splice acceptor site of intron 3, which altered the obligatory AG acceptor dinucleotide to AC. Nucleotide sequencing of cDNAs amplified by the polymerase chain reaction revealed that this single base substitution abolishes the canonical 3{prime} splice site, thus creating two abnormally spliced mRNA forms. The larger form is identical with normal mRNA except for a dinucleotide deletion at the 5{prime} end of exon 4. This deletion results in a frameshift with premature translation termination in exon 4. The smaller form has a deletion of the entire exon 3 and the dinucleotide at the 5{prime} end of exon 4. The result of a transfection study provided additional evidence that this single base substitution is the disease-causing mutation. This single base substitution creates a new cleavage site for the restriction nuclease AlwNI. Analysis of AlwNI restriction fragment length polymorphism showed a high frequency of this mutation in Japanese patients with group A XP: 16 of 21 unrelated Japanese patients were homozygous and 4 were heterozygous for this mutation. However, 11 Caucasians and 2 Blacks with group A XP did not have this mutant allele. The polymorphic AlwNI restriction fragments are concluded to be useful for diagnosis of group A XP in Japanese subjects, including prenatal cases and carriers.

  2. Distinct expression patterns of the immunogenic differentiation antigen NY-BR-1 in normal breast, testis and their malignant counterparts.

    PubMed

    Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Zürrer-Härdi, Ursina; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Barghorn, André; Saller, Elisabeth; Frei, Claudia; Storz, Martina; Behnke, Silvia; Seifert, Burkhardt; Fehr, Mathias; Fink, Daniel; Rageth, Christoph; Linsenmeier, Claudia; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Chen, Yao-Tseng; Knuth, Alexander; Jäger, Dirk; Moch, Holger

    2008-04-01

    NY-BR-1 is a differentiation antigen and a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. Its mRNA expression is restricted to breast, testis, prostate and breast cancer by RT-PCR. In this study, we correlated NY-BR-1 protein and mRNA expression on tissue microarrays of mammary, prostatic and testicular malignancies using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization with probes for exon 4-7 and 30-33. NY-BR-1 mRNA was confined to primary spermatocytes, suggesting a role in spermatogenesis. Exon 4-7 and 30-33 were equally expressed this cell type. However, NY-BR-1 was absent in all germ cell tumours analyzed (n = 475) and present in one of 56 (2%) prostate carcinomas. In breast, NY-BR-1 mRNA expression was detected in 307 of 442 (70%) primary carcinomas, with strong correlation to its protein expression (p < 0.0001). mRNA expression was significantly stronger and more frequently detected by the exon 30-33 probe than by the exon 4-7 probe (70% vs. 35%, p < 0.0001), indicating the presence of alternative splice variants that lack 5-prime sequences. A similar restricted mRNA pattern was also observed in the normal breast epithelium. NY-BR-1 protein and mRNA correlated significantly with estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) protein expression (p < 0.0001), with stronger association to NY-BR-1 mRNA than protein (odds ratio 7.7 compared to 4.6). We identified 4 estrogen response elements (ERE)-like sequences nearby the promoter region, suggesting that NY-BR-1 transcription might be controlled by ER alpha. Accordingly, analysis of matching pairs of primary tumors with their recurrences showed a marked decrease of NY-BR-1 expression in recurrences after tamoxifen treatment (p < 0.0001).

  3. Mutations in the human adenosine deaminase gene that affect protein structure and RNA splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Akeson, A.L.; Wiginton, D.A.; States, C.J.; Perme, C.M.; Dusing, M.R.; Hutton, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    Adenosine deaminase deficiency is one cause of the genetic disease severe combined immunodeficiency. To identify mutations responsible for ADA deficiency, the authors synthesized cDNAs to ADA mRNAs from two cell lines, GM2756 and GM2825A, derived from ADA-deficient immunodeficient patients. Sequence analysis of GM2756 cDNA clones revealed a different point mutation in each allele that causes amino acid changes of alanine to valine and arginine to histidine. One allele of GM2825A also has a point mutation that causes an alanine to valine substitution. The other allele of GM2825A was found to produce an mRNA in which exon 4 had been spliced out but had no other detrimental mutations. S1 nuclease mapping of GM2825A mRNA showed equal abundance of the full-length ADA mRNA and the ADA mRNA that was missing exon 4. Several of the ADA cDNA clones extended 5' of the major initiation start site, indicating multiple start sites for ADA transcription. The point mutations in GM2756 and GM2825A and the absence of exon 4 in GM2825A appear to be directly responsible for the ADA deficiency. Comparison of a number of normal and mutant ADA cDNA sequences showed a number of changes in the third base of codons. These change do not affect the amino acid sequence. Analyses of ADA cDNAs from different cell lines detected aberrant RNA species that either included intron 7 or excluded exon 7. Their presence is a result of aberrant splicing of pre-mRNAs and is not related to mutations that cause ADA deficiency.

  4. Novel mutations in the CLN6 gene causing a variant late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Carla A; Espinola, Janice; Huo, Liang; Kohlschütter, Johannes; Persaud Sawin, Dixie-Ann; Minassian, Berge; Bessa, Carlos J P; Guimarães, A; Stephan, Dietrich A; Sá Miranda, Maria Clara; MacDonald, Marcy E; Ribeiro, Maria Gil; Boustany, Rose-Mary N

    2003-05-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative diseases comprising Batten and other related diseases plus numerous variants. They are characterized by progressive neuronal cell death. The CLN6 gene was recently identified, mutations in which cause one of the variant late infantile forms of NCL (vLINCL). We describe four novel mutations in the CLN6 gene. This brings the total number of CLN6 mutations known to 11 in 38 families. This suggests that the CLN6 gene may be highly mutable. An American patient of Irish/French/Native American origin was heterozygous for a 4-bp insertion (c.267_268insAACG) in exon 3. The other allele had a point mutation (c.898T>C) in exon 7 resulting in a W300R amino acid change. Two Trinidadian siblings of Indian origin were homozygous for a mutation at the 5' donor splice site of exon 4 (IVS4+1G>T), affecting the first base of the invariant GT at the beginning of intron 4. The fourth novel mutation, a double deletion of 4 bp and 1 bp in exon 7 (c.829_832delGTCG;c.837delG), was identified in a Portuguese patient heterozygous for the I154del Portuguese CLN6 mutation. Four of the 11 mutations identified are in exon 4. Three Portuguese patients with clinical profiles similar to CLN6 patients without defects in CLN6 or other known NCL genes are described. We conclude the following: 1) the CLN6 gene may be a highly mutable gene; 2) exon 4 must code for a segment of the protein crucial for function; 3) vLINCL disease in Portugal is genetically heterogeneous; 4) the I154del accounts for 81.25% of affected CLN6 Portuguese alleles; and 5) three vLINCL Portuguese patients may have defects in a new NCL gene.

  5. Zinc-induced modulation of SRSF6 activity alters Bim splicing to promote generation of the most potent apoptotic isoform BimS.

    PubMed

    Hara, Hirokazu; Takeda, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Furuya, Keisuke; Hirose, Kazuya; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2013-07-01

    Bim is a member of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 family of proteins. Bim gene undergoes alternative splicing to produce three predominant splicing variants (BimEL, BimL and BimS). The smallest variant BimS is the most potent inducer of apoptosis. Zinc (Zn(2+)) has been reported to stimulate apoptosis in various cell types. In this study, we examined whether Zn(2+) affects the expression of Bim in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Zn(2+) triggered alterations in Bim splicing and induced preferential generation of BimS, but not BimEL and BimL, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Other metals (cadmium, cobalt and copper) and stresses (oxidative, endoplasmic reticulum and genotoxic stresses) had little or no effect on the expression of BimS. To address the mechanism of Zn(2+)-induced preferential generation of BimS, which lacks exon 4, we developed a Bim mini-gene construct. Deletion analysis using the Bim mini-gene revealed that predicted binding sites of the SR protein SRSF6, also known as SRp55, are located in the intronic region adjacent to exon 4. We also found that mutations in the predicted SRSF6-binding sites abolished generation of BimS mRNA from the mutated Bim mini-gene. In addition, a UV cross-linking assay followed by Western blotting showed that SRSF6 directly bound to the predicted binding site and Zn(2+) suppressed this binding. Moreover, Zn(2+) stimulated SRSF6 hyper-phosphorylation. TG003, a cdc2-like kinase inhibitor, partially prevented Zn(2+)-induced generation of BimS and SRSF6 hyper-phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings suggest that Zn(2+) inhibits the activity of SRSF6 and promotes elimination of exon 4, leading to preferential generation of BimS.

  6. Identification and Characterization of a New Protein Isoform of Human 5-Lipoxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, Ann-Kathrin; Beilstein, Kim; Graab, Philipp; Ball, Ann-Katrin; Saul, Meike J.; Hofmann, Bettina; Steinhilber, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are inflammatory mediators that play a pivotal role in many diseases like asthma bronchiale, atherosclerosis and in various types of cancer. The key enzyme for generation of LTs is the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO). Here, we present a novel putative protein isoform of human 5-LO that lacks exon 4, termed 5-LOΔ4, identified in cells of lymphoid origin, namely the Burkitt lymphoma cell lines Raji and BL41 as well as primary B and T cells. Deletion of exon 4 does not shift the reading frame and therefore the mRNA is not subjected to non-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). By eliminating exon 4, the amino acids Trp144 until Ala184 are omitted in the corresponding protein. Transfection of HEK293T cells with a 5-LOΔ4 expression plasmid led to expression of the corresponding protein which suggests that the 5-LOΔ4 isoform is a stable protein in eukaryotic cells. We were also able to obtain soluble protein after expression in E. coli and purification. The isoform itself lacks canonical enzymatic activity as it misses the non-heme iron but it still retains ATP-binding affinity. Differential scanning fluorimetric analysis shows two transitions, corresponding to the two domains of 5-LO. Whilst the catalytic domain of 5-LO WT is destabilized by calcium, addition of calcium has no influence on the catalytic domain of 5-LOΔ4. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of 5-LOΔ4 on the activity of 5-LO WT and proved that it stimulates 5-LO product formation at low protein concentrations. Therefore regulation of 5-LO by its isoform 5-LOΔ4 might represent a novel mechanism of controlling the biosynthesis of lipid mediators. PMID:27855198

  7. Acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome: report of a child with phenotypic overlap with ulnar-mammary syndrome and a new mutation in TP63.

    PubMed

    Slavotinek, Anne M; Tanaka, June; Winder, Alison; Vargervik, Karin; Haggstrom, Anita; Bamshad, Michael

    2005-10-01

    We report on a new patient with clinical findings consistent with acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. The child had sparse hair, extensive freckling, lacrimal duct stenosis, oligodontia, dystrophic nails, reduced sweating, and bilateral athelia. Examination of his hands showed ulnar ray hypoplasia with bilateral fifth finger brachydactyly and camptodactyly. He also had surgical repair of an imperforate anus. Mutation analysis of TP63 showed a single nucleotide substitution, c.G518A, predicting a novel missense mutation, p.V114M in exon 4. This is the third mutation to be reported in TP63 in ADULT syndrome.

  8. Application of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to detect DNA sequence differences encoding apolipoprotein E isoforms

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.; Angelico, M.C.; Laffel, L.; Krolewski, A.S. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1993-04-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in plasma lipid metabolism. Three common isoforms of this protein have been identified by the isoelectric focusing method. In this report the authors describe a new method for distinguishing these isoforms. Their method employs PCR amplification of the DNA sequence of exon 4 in the apoE gene followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to distinguish its different melting characteristics. Identification of the ApoE isoforms through DNA melting behavior rather than protein charge differences eliminates the problems associated with isoelectric focusing and facilitates screening for additional mutations at the apoE locus. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  9. CELF Family RNA–Binding Protein UNC-75 Regulates Two Sets of Mutually Exclusive Exons of the unc-32 Gene in Neuron-Specific Manners in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kuroyanagi, Hidehito; Watanabe, Yohei; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    An enormous number of alternative pre–mRNA splicing patterns in multicellular organisms are coordinately defined by a limited number of regulatory proteins and cis elements. Mutually exclusive alternative splicing should be strictly regulated and is a challenging model for elucidating regulation mechanisms. Here we provide models of the regulation of two sets of mutually exclusive exons, 4a–4c and 7a–7b, of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated (unc)-32 gene, encoding the a subunit of V0 complex of vacuolar-type H+-ATPases. We visualize selection patterns of exon 4 and exon 7 in vivo by utilizing a trio and a pair of symmetric fluorescence splicing reporter minigenes, respectively, to demonstrate that they are regulated in tissue-specific manners. Genetic analyses reveal that RBFOX family RNA–binding proteins ASD-1 and FOX-1 and a UGCAUG stretch in intron 7b are involved in the neuron-specific selection of exon 7a. Through further forward genetic screening, we identify UNC-75, a neuron-specific CELF family RNA–binding protein of unknown function, as an essential regulator for the exon 7a selection. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays specify a short fragment in intron 7a as the recognition site for UNC-75 and demonstrate that UNC-75 specifically binds via its three RNA recognition motifs to the element including a UUGUUGUGUUGU stretch. The UUGUUGUGUUGU stretch in the reporter minigenes is actually required for the selection of exon 7a in the nervous system. We compare the amounts of partially spliced RNAs in the wild-type and unc-75 mutant backgrounds and raise a model for the mutually exclusive selection of unc-32 exon 7 by the RBFOX family and UNC-75. The neuron-specific selection of unc-32 exon 4b is also regulated by UNC-75 and the unc-75 mutation suppresses the Unc phenotype of the exon-4b-specific allele of unc-32 mutants. Taken together, UNC-75 is the neuron-specific splicing factor and regulates both sets of the mutually exclusive exons of

  10. An ARMS-based technique for sex determination of red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Li, Yuzhi; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhihe; Shen, Fujun; Zhang, Wenping; Yue, Bisong

    2011-03-01

    Molecular sexing is a key component in the investigation of wild populations. In this study, we developed a fast, accurate and reliable amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) technique for sex determination of red panda based on the exon 4 of the ZFX/ZFY gene. The amplicons were distinguished simply by agarose gel electrophoresis, exhibiting one fragment in females (X: 300 bp) and two in males (X: 300 bp, Y: 166 bp). Robustness of this ARMS system was confirmed by testing both 43 captive red pandas using DNA samples with known-sex and 10 wild red pandas using faecal DNA samples with unknown sex.

  11. Mutations of the p53 gene in human functional adrenal neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Shiu-Ru Lin; Yau-Jiunn Lee; Juei-Hsiung Tsai

    1994-02-01

    To clarify gene alterations in functional human adrenal tumors, the authors performed molecular analysis for p53 abnormalities in 23 cases with adrenal neoplasms. The immunohistochemical study with anti-p53 monoclonal antibody pAb1801 demonstrated that 10 of 23 (43.5%) cases overexpressed p53 protein in the tumor cells. Using a polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism study, 5 of 6 (83.3%) pheochromocytoma tissues (1 malignant and 5 benign) and 11 of 15 (73.3%) adrenocortical adenomas (2 with Cushing`s syndrome and 13 with primary aldosteronism, all benign) showed an apparent electrophoretic mobility shift between the tumor and its paired adjacent normal adrenal tissue. Such differences were detected in exon 4 (12 cases), exon 5 (2 cases), and exon 7 (3 cases). The types of these mutations in exon 4 were a substitution from threonine (ACC) to isoleucine (ATC) at codon 102 in 5 cases, from glutamine (CAG) to histidine (CAC) at codon 104 in 1 case, from glycine (GGG) to alanine (CGG) at codon 117 in 1 case, from glutamate (GAG) to glutamine (CAG) at codon 68 in 1 case, and single base changes resulting in a premature stop codon at codon 100 in 2 cases. A 2-basepair deletion at codon 175 in exon 5 resulting in a frame shift was identified in 1 case. A single point mutation was identified, resulting in the substitution of glutamine (CAG) for arginine (CGG) at codon 248 of exon 7 in 1 case. A single basepair deletion at codon 249 resulted in a frame shift in 2 cases. There was 1 case with malignant pheochromocytoma that combined a single point mutation in exon 4 and a single base deletion in exon 7. Only 2 of 23 cases showed a loss of a normal allele encoding in the p53 gene. Northern blot analysis with 1.8-kilobase p53 cDNA revealed that p53 mRNA was overexpressed in 6 cases. The results indicate that high frequencies of p53 gene mutation, especially in exon 4, exist in functional adrenal tumors. 39 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Development of a Novel Therapeutic Paradigm Utilizing a Mammary Gland-Targeted, Bin1-Knockout Mouse Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    following immunotherapy with major histocompatibility complex class II and B7.1 cell-based tumor vaccines. Cancer Res. 1998;58(7):1486-93. [9] D.Y. Hou...deletion of exon 3 leads to exon 2 to 4 splicing, producing an out-of-frame stop codon in exon 4 that abolishes protein expression from all alternately...cells in presenting MHC class I-restricted tumor antigens. Science 1994;264:961–5. 39. Aslakson CJ, Miller FR. Selective events in the metastatic process

  13. Mechanisms of KAI1/CD82-Induced Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    recruited to the phagosomal surface prior to CD63 and is coincident to class II MHC arrival. CD82-/- DCs loaded with ovalbumin failed to stimulate Ova...GM2, GM3 Membrane associated Tetraspanins: CD9, CD81, CD151, CD63 Integrins: α3β1, α6β1, α5β1, α4β1 Type I TM: EWI- 2 , GGT, MHC II Receptors: EGFR, c-Met...understanding of CD82 function in mammalian cells. CMV-Cre driven recombination and deletion of either exons 2 +3 or exons 4+5 generates mice that

  14. Biotinidase deficiency: novel mutations in Algerian patients.

    PubMed

    Tiar, A; Mekki, A; Nagara, M; Rhouma, F Ben; Messaoud, O; Halim, N Ben; Kefi, R; Hamlaoui, M T; Lebied, A; Abdelhak, S

    2014-02-15

    Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of biotin metabolism leading to varying degrees of neurologic and cutaneous symptoms when untreated. In the present study, we report the clinical features and the molecular investigation of biotinidase deficiency in four unrelated consanguineous Algerian families including five patients with profound biotinidase deficiency and one child characterized as partial biotinidase deficiency. Mutation analysis revealed three novel mutations, c.del631C and c.1557T>G within exon 4 and c.324-325insTA in exon 3. Since newborn screening is not available in Algeria, cascade screening in affected families would be very helpful to identify at risk individuals.

  15. Classical phenotype of Laron syndrome in a girl with a heterozygous mutation and heterozygous polymorphism of the growth hormone receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Shevah, Orit; Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Rubinstein, Menachem; Nousia-Arvanitakis, Sanda; Laron, Zvi

    2004-03-01

    We describe here a 19 month-old girl with classical Laron syndrome (LS). Molecular analysis of the GH receptor gene in the patient and her parents was performed. The patient was found to be heterozygous for a mutation in exon 4 (R43X) and heterozygous for a polymorphism in exon 6 (Gly168Gly). Her mother was also heterozygous for R43X but homozygous for the polymorphism. In the father, a heterozygous polymorphism was found. Contrary to previous assumptions that only homozygous patients express the typical phenotype, this patient shows all the classical features of LS, despite being a heterozygote for a pathological defect.

  16. Gene conversion between red and defective green opsin gene in blue cone monochromacy

    SciTech Connect

    Reyniers, E.; Van Thienen, M.N.; De Boulle, K.; Willems, P.J.

    1995-09-20

    Blue cone monochromacy is an X-linked condition in which the function of both the red pigment gene (RCP) and the green pigment gene (GCP) is impaired. Blue cone monochromacy can be due to a red/green gene array rearrangement existing of a single red/green hybrid gene and an inactivating C203R point mutation in both RCP and GCP. The flanking sequences of the C230R mutation in exon 4 of RCP were characteristic for GCP, indicating that this mutation was transferred from GCP into RCP by gene conversion. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Polymorphisms of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are associated with warfarin sensitivity in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Jia, LiQun; Wang, Zanxin; Men, Jianlong; Cai, Heng; Wei, Minxin

    2017-01-01

    Objective Warfarin is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant for prevention of thromboembolic events. Wide inter-individual dose variation, narrow therapeutic range and risk of serious bleeding result in difficulties in achieving the therapeutic effect. The present study was designed to clarify the real biological significance of the polymorphisms of VKORC1 and cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) in warfarin metabolism. Methods A total of 214 patients with warfarin anticoagulant therapy were selected. During follow-up of anticoagulation, warfarin dosage and associated international normalized ratio values were recorded. Genetic polymorphisms of VKORC1 promoter and from exon 1 to exon 3 and CYP2C9 exon 4 sequence were detected by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing. Results Five polymorphisms were identified in this research, which were VKORC1 1173C>T (intron 1), 1542G>C (intron 2), 2255C>T (intron 2), 3730C>T (3′-downstream) and CYP2C9 exon 4 −65G>C. VKORC1 1173CT, 1542GC, 2255CT and 3730CT polymorphisms were detected in same patients, but CYP2C9 exon 4 −65GC carriers were different from them. VKORC1 1173CT, 1542GC, 2255CT, 3730CT carriers and CYP2C9 exon 4 −65GC carriers had significantly higher warfarin daily dosage than others (3.2±0.6 vs 3.1±1.1 vs 2.6±0.8 mg/day). Logistic regression analysis revealed VKORC1 1173CT, 1542GC, 2255CT, 3730CT carrier status (odds ratio [OR] =3.233, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.259–8.303, P=0.015) and obesity with body mass index >27 kg/m2 (OR =1.223, 95% CI: 1.097–1.363, P<0.001) to have independent and statistically significant contributions to high warfarin dosage. Conclusion In general, in VKORC1 1173CT, 1542GC, 2255CT and 3730CT carriers and in obese patients, warfarin maintenance doses were significantly higher than in the others.

  18. Spi2 gene polymorphism is not associated with recurrent airway obstruction and inflammatory airway disease in thoroughbred horses

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Aline Correa; Brass, Karin Erica; da Silva Loreto, Elgion; Vinocur, Myriam Elizabeth; Pozzobon, Ricardo; da Silva Azevedo, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to detect the presence of polymorphisms at exons 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the Spi2 gene, and evaluate a possible association between them and recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) or inflammatory airway disease (IAD) in thoroughbred horses, through single-strand conformational-polymorphism (SSCP) screening. Although polymorphism was not detected in exons 1, 2 and 3, three alleles and six genotypes were identified in exon 4. The frequencies of allele A (0.6388) and genotype AA (0.3888) were higher in horses affected by RAO, although no association was found between polymorphism and horses with either RAO or IAD. PMID:21931519

  19. Human cytomegalovirus US28 facilitates cell-to-cell viral dissemination.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Vanessa M; Gardner, Thomas J; Redmann, Veronika; Bongers, Gerold; Lira, Sergio A; Tortorella, Domenico

    2014-03-12

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes a number of viral proteins with homology to cellular G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These viral GPCRs, including US27, US28, UL33, and UL78, have been ascribed numerous functions during infection, including activating diverse cellular pathways, binding to immunomodulatory chemokines, and impacting virus dissemination. To investigate the role of US28 during virus infection, two variants of the clinical isolate TB40/E were generated: TB40/E-US28(YFP) expressing a C-terminal yellow fluorescent protein tag, and TB40/E-FLAG(YFP) in which a FLAG-YFP cassette replaces the US28 coding region. The TB40/E-US28(YFP) protein localized as large perinuclear fluorescent structures at late times post-infection in fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells. Interestingly, US28(YFP) is a non-glycosylated membrane protein throughout the course of infection. US28 appears to impact cell-to-cell spread of virus, as the DUS28 virus (TB40/E-FLAG(YFP)) generated a log-greater yield of extracellular progeny whose spread could be significantly neutralized in fibroblasts. Most strikingly, in epithelial cells, where dissemination of virus occurs exclusively by the cell-to-cell route, TB40/E-FLAG(YFP) (DUS28) displayed a significant growth defect. The data demonstrates that HCMV US28 may contribute at a late stage of the viral life cycle to cell-to-cell dissemination of virus.

  20. Structure of a herpesvirus nuclear egress complex subunit reveals an interaction groove that is essential for viral replication.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Kendra E; Sharma, Mayuri; Mansueto, My Sam; Boeszoermenyi, Andras; Filman, David J; Hogle, James M; Wagner, Gerhard; Coen, Donald M; Arthanari, Haribabu

    2015-07-21

    Herpesviruses require a nuclear egress complex (NEC) for efficient transit of nucleocapsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The NEC orchestrates multiple steps during herpesvirus nuclear egress, including disruption of nuclear lamina and particle budding through the inner nuclear membrane. In the important human pathogen human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), this complex consists of nuclear membrane protein UL50, and nucleoplasmic protein UL53, which is recruited to the nuclear membrane through its interaction with UL50. Here, we present an NMR-determined solution-state structure of the murine CMV homolog of UL50 (M50; residues 1-168) with a strikingly intricate protein fold that is matched by no other known protein folds in its entirety. Using NMR methods, we mapped the interaction of M50 with a highly conserved UL53-derived peptide, corresponding to a segment that is required for heterodimerization. The UL53 peptide binding site mapped onto an M50 surface groove, which harbors a large cavity. Point mutations of UL50 residues corresponding to surface residues in the characterized M50 heterodimerization interface substantially decreased UL50-UL53 binding in vitro, eliminated UL50-UL53 colocalization, prevented disruption of nuclear lamina, and halted productive virus replication in HCMV-infected cells. Our results provide detailed structural information on a key protein-protein interaction involved in nuclear egress and suggest that NEC subunit interactions can be an attractive drug target.

  1. Identification by Mass Spectrometry and Immune Response Analysis of Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) Pentameric Complex Proteins GP129, 131 and 133

    PubMed Central

    Gnanandarajah, Josephine S.; Gillis, Peter A.; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd W.; Sung, Heungsup; Lumley, Sheila; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Development of a vaccine against congenital infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major public health priority. A potential vaccine target receiving considerable recent attention is the pentameric complex (PC) of HCMV proteins consisting of gL, gH, UL128, UL130, and UL131, since some antibodies against these target proteins are capable of potently neutralizing virus at epithelial and endothelial cell surfaces. Recently, homologous proteins have been described for guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV), consisting of gH, gL, and the GPCMV proteins GP129, GP131, and GP133. To investigate these proteins as potential vaccine targets, expression of GP129-GP133 transcripts was confirmed by reverse-transcriptase PCR. Mass spectrometry combined with western blot assays demonstrated the presence of GP129, GP131, and GP133 proteins in virus particles. Recombinant proteins corresponding to these PC proteins were generated in baculovirus, and as GST fusion proteins. Recombinant proteins were noted to be immunoreactive with convalescent sera from infected animals, suggesting that these proteins are recognized in the humoral immune response to GPCMV infection. These analyses support the study of PC-based recombinant vaccines in the GPCMV congenital infection model. PMID:24531333

  2. Rationally designed chemokine-based toxin targeting the viral G protein-coupled receptor US28 potently inhibits cytomegalovirus infection in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Spiess, Katja; Jeppesen, Mads G.; Malmgaard-Clausen, Mikkel; Krzywkowski, Karen; Dulal, Kalpana; Cheng, Tong; Hjortø, Gertrud M.; Larsen, Olav; Burg, John S.; Jarvis, Michael A.; Christopher Garcia, K.; Zhu, Hua; Kledal, Thomas N.; Rosenkilde, Mette M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of receptor–ligand interactions to direct toxins to kill diseased cells selectively has shown considerable promise for treatment of a number of cancers and, more recently, autoimmune disease. Here we move the fusion toxin protein (FTP) technology beyond cancer/autoimmune therapeutics to target the human viral pathogen, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), on the basis of its expression of the 7TM G protein-coupled chemokine receptor US28. The virus origin of US28 provides an exceptional chemokine-binding profile with high selectivity and improved binding for the CX3C chemokine, CX3CL1. Moreover, US28 is constitutively internalizing by nature, providing highly effective FTP delivery. We designed a synthetic CX3CL1 variant engineered to have ultra-high affinity for US28 and greater specificity for US28 than the natural sole receptor for CX3CL1, CX3CR1, and we fused the synthetic variant with the cytotoxic domain of Pseudomonas Exotoxin A. This novel strategy of a rationally designed FTP provided unparalleled anti-HCMV efficacy and potency in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26080445

  3. Unsuitability of exhaled breath condensate for the detection of herpesviruses DNA in the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristina; Bucca, Caterina; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Solidoro, Paolo; Rolla, Giovanni; Cavallo, Rossana

    2011-05-01

    Exhaled breath condensate is a non-invasive method for detecting a wide number of molecules as well as genomic DNA in the airways. No study investigated the detection of viral DNA in exhaled breath condensate, while only one study excluded its usefulness for detection of influenza virus RNA. In this study, the suitability of exhaled breath condensate for detecting herpesviruses infection or reactivation in the respiratory tract of lung transplant recipients was evaluated. Twenty-four matched samples (exhaled breath condensate, bronchoalveolar lavage, whole blood, transbronchial biopsy) were evaluated for the detection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus (HHV-6 and -7), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA by real-time PCR. Eighteen bronchoalveolar lavages (75%), six whole blood samples (25%), and two transbronchial biopsies (8.3%) were positive for at least one herpesvirus. Only one exhaled breath condensate specimen was positive for HCMV DNA (and positive also in the bronchoalveolar lavage, with low viral load in both specimens); while no other patient, irrespective of the viral load in any specimen or the presence of clinical symptoms and signs, had a positive exhaled breath condensate. These findings seem to exclude the suitability of exhaled breath condensate for non-invasive detection of viral DNA in the respiratory tract of lung transplant recipients.

  4. Structural changes in human cytomegalovirus cytoplasmic assembly sites in the absence of UL97 kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Azzeh, Maysa; Honigman, Alik; Taraboulos, Albert; Rouvinski, Alexander; Wolf, Dana G. . E-mail: wolfd@md.huji.ac.il

    2006-10-10

    Studies of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL97 kinase deletion mutant ({delta}UL97) indicated a multi-step role for this kinase in early and late phases of the viral life cycle, namely, in DNA replication, capsid maturation and nuclear egress. Here, we addressed its possible involvement in cytoplasmic steps of HCMV assembly. Using the {delta}UL97 and the UL97 kinase inhibitor NGIC-I, we demonstrate that the absence of UL97 kinase activity results in a modified subcellular distribution of the viral structural protein assembly sites, from compact structures impacting upon the nucleus to diffuse perinuclear structures punctuated by large vacuoles. Infection by either wild type or {delta}UL97 viruses induced a profound reorganization of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-positive Golgi-related structures. Importantly, the viral-induced Golgi remodeling along with the reorganization of the nuclear architecture was substantially altered in the absence of UL97 kinase activity. These findings suggest that UL97 kinase activity might contribute to organization of the viral cytoplasmic assembly sites.

  5. Nuclear body formation and PML body remodeling by the human cytomegalovirus protein UL35

    SciTech Connect

    Salsman, Jayme; Wang Xueqi; Frappier, Lori

    2011-06-05

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL35 gene encodes two proteins, UL35 and UL35a. Expression of UL35 in transfected cells results in the formation of UL35 nuclear bodies that associate with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein. PML forms the basis for PML nuclear bodies that are important for suppressing viral lytic gene expression. Given the important relationship between PML and viral infection, we have further investigated the association of UL35 with PML bodies. We demonstrate that UL35 bodies form independently of PML and subsequently recruit PML, Sp100 and Daxx. In contrast, UL35a did not form bodies; however, it could bind UL35 and inhibit the formation of UL35 bodies. The HCMV tegument protein pp71 promoted the formation of UL35 bodies and the cytoplasmic localization of UL35a. Similarly, UL35a shifted pp71 to the cytoplasm. These results indicate that the interplay between UL35, UL35a and pp71 affects their subcellular localization and likely their functions throughout infection.

  6. US28, a Virally-Encoded GPCR as an Antiviral Target for Human Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungjin; Chung, Yoon Hee; Lee, Choongho

    2017-01-01

    Viruses continue to evolve a new strategy to take advantage of every aspect of host cells in order to maximize their survival. Due to their central roles in transducing a variety of transmembrane signals, GPCRs seem to be a prime target for viruses to pirate for their own use. Incorporation of GPCR functionality into the genome of herpesviruses has been demonstrated to be essential for pathogenesis of many herpesviruses-induced diseases. Here, we introduce US28 of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as the best-studied example of virally-encoded GPCRs to manipulate host GPCR signaling. In this review, we wish to summarize a number of US28-related topics including its regulation of host signaling pathways, its constitutive internalization, its structural and functional analysis, its roles in HCMV biology and pathogenesis, its proliferative activities and role in oncogenesis, and pharmacological modulation of its biological activities. This review will aid in our understanding of how pathogenic viruses usurp the host GPCR signaling for successful viral infection. This kind of knowledge will enable us to build a better strategy to control viral infection by normalizing the virally-dysregulated host GPCR signaling. PMID:28035083

  7. Developing a Vaccine against Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection: What Have We Learned from Animal Models? Where Should We Go Next?

    PubMed

    Schleiss, Mark R

    2013-12-01

    Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can lead to long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae, including mental retardation and sensorineural hearing loss. Unfortunately, CMVs are highly adapted to their specific species, precluding the evaluation of HCMV vaccines in animal models prior to clinical trials. Several species-specific CMVs have been characterized and developed in models of pathogenesis and vaccine-mediated protection against disease. These include the murine CMV (MCMV), the porcine CMV (PCMV), the rhesus macaque CMV (RhCMV), the rat CMV (RCMV), and the guinea pig CMV (GPCMV). Because of the propensity of the GPCMV to cross the placenta, infecting the fetus in utero, it has emerged as a model of particular interest in studying vaccine-mediated protection of the fetus. In this paper, a review of these various models, with particular emphasis on the value of the model in the testing and evaluation of vaccines against congenital CMV, is provided. Recent exciting developments and advances in these various models are summarized, and recommendations offered for high-priority areas for future study.

  8. Distribution and effects of amino acid changes in drug-resistant α and β herpesviruses DNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Topalis, D.; Gillemot, S.; Snoeck, R.; Andrei, G.

    2016-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistance to all FDA-approved antiherpesvirus agents is an increasing concern in immunocompromised patients. Herpesvirus DNA polymerase (DNApol) is currently the target of nucleos(t)ide analogue-based therapy. Mutations in DNApol that confer resistance arose in immunocompromised patients infected with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and to lesser extent in herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). In this review, we present distinct drug-resistant mutational profiles of herpesvirus DNApol. The impact of specific DNApol amino acid changes on drug-resistance is discussed. The pattern of genetic variability related to drug-resistance differs among the herpesviruses. Two mutational profiles appeared: one favoring amino acid changes in the Palm and Finger domains of DNApol (in α-herpesviruses HSV-1, HSV-2 and VZV), and another with mutations preferentially in the 3′-5′ exonuclease domain (in β-herpesvirus HCMV and HHV-6). The mutational profile was also related to the class of compound to which drug-resistance emerged. PMID:27694307

  9. The highly conserved human cytomegalovirus UL136 ORF generates multiple Golgi-localizing protein isoforms through differential translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Huanan; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kondo, Rikita; Katata, Marei; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Miyado, Kenji; Inoue, Naoki; Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-22

    The UL133-UL138 locus in the unique long b' (ULb') region of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome is considered to play certain roles in viral replication, dissemination and latency in a host cell type-dependent manner. Here we characterized the proteins encoded by UL136, one of the open reading frames (ORFs) in the locus. Comparative sequence analysis of UL136 among clinical isolates and laboratory strains indicates that its predicted amino-acid sequence is highly conserved. A polyclonal antibody against UL136 proteins (pUL136s) was raised against its carboxy-terminal region and this antibody specifically recognized at least five UL136-encoded protein isoforms of 29-17 kDa both in HCMV-infected cells and in cells transfected with a construct expressing pUL136. Immunofluorescence analysis with this antibody revealed localization of pUL136 in the Golgi apparatus. Analysis of several pUL136 mutants indicated that the putative transmembrane domain of pUL136 is required for its Golgi localization. Mutational analysis of multiple AUG codons in UL136 demonstrated that translation initiation from these AUG codons contributes in the generation of pUL136 isoforms.

  10. A toolkit for graded expression of green fluorescent protein fusion proteins in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Nalaskowski, Marcus M; Ehm, Patrick; Giehler, Susanne; Mayr, Georg W

    2012-09-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and GFP-like proteins of different colors are important tools in cell biology. In many studies, the intracellular targeting of proteins has been determined by transiently expressing GFP fusion proteins and analyzing their intracellular localization by fluorescence microscopy. In most vectors, expression of GFP is driven by the enhancer/promoter cassette of the immediate early gene of human cytomegalovirus (hCMV). This cassette generates high levels of protein expression in most mammalian cell lines. Unfortunately, these nonphysiologically high protein levels have been repeatedly reported to artificially alter the intracellular targeting of proteins fused to GFP. To cope with this problem, we generated a multitude of attenuated GFP expression vectors by modifying the hCMV enhancer/promoter cassette. These modified vectors were transiently expressed, and the expression levels of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) alone and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) fused to another protein were determined by fluorescence microscopy and/or Western blotting. As shown in this study, we were able to (i) clearly reduce the expression of EGFP alone and (ii) reduce expression of an EYFP fusion protein down to the level of the endogenous protein, both in a graded manner.

  11. Natural Killer Cell Evasion Is Essential for Infection by Rhesus Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Sturgill, Elizabeth R.; Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Burwitz, Benjamin J.; Schneider, Christine L.; Womack, Jennie L.; Verweij, Marieke C.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Bhusari, Amruta; Jeffries, Krystal M.; Legasse, Alfred W.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Hudson, Amy W.; Sacha, Jonah B.; Picker, Louis J.; Früh, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The natural killer cell receptor NKG2D activates NK cells by engaging one of several ligands (NKG2DLs) belonging to either the MIC or ULBP families. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL16 and UL142 counteract this activation by retaining NKG2DLs and US18 and US20 act via lysomal degradation but the importance of NK cell evasion for infection is unknown. Since NKG2DLs are highly conserved in rhesus macaques, we characterized how NKG2DL interception by rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) impacts infection in vivo. Interestingly, RhCMV lacks homologs of UL16 and UL142 but instead employs Rh159, the homolog of UL148, to prevent NKG2DL surface expression. Rh159 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum and retains several NKG2DLs whereas UL148 does not interfere with NKG2DL expression. Deletion of Rh159 releases human and rhesus MIC proteins, but not ULBPs, from retention while increasing NK cell stimulation by infected cells. Importantly, RhCMV lacking Rh159 cannot infect CMV-naïve animals unless CD8+ cells, including NK cells, are depleted. However, infection can be rescued by replacing Rh159 with HCMV UL16 suggesting that Rh159 and UL16 perform similar functions in vivo. We therefore conclude that cytomegaloviral interference with NK cell activation is essential to establish but not to maintain chronic infection. PMID:27580123

  12. Isolation of Endoplasmic Reticulum, Mitochondria, and Mitochondria-Associated Membrane and Detergent Resistant Membrane Fractions from Transfected Cells and from Human Cytomegalovirus-Infected Primary Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Chad D; Wong, Daniel S; Bozidis, Petros; Zhang, Aiping; Colberg-Poley, Anamaris M

    2015-09-01

    Increasingly mechanistic virology studies require dependable and sensitive methods for isolating purified organelles containing functional cellular sub-domains. The mitochondrial network is, in part, closely apposed to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) fraction provides direct physical contact between the ER and mitochondria. Characterization of the dual localization and trafficking of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL37 proteins required establishing protocols in which the ER and mitochondria could be reliably separated. Because of its documented role in lipid and ceramide transfer from the ER to mitochondria, a method to purify MAM from infected cells was also developed. Two robust procedures were developed to efficiently isolate mitochondria, ER, and MAM fractions while providing substantial protein yields from HCMV-infected primary fibroblasts and from transfected HeLa cells. Furthermore, this unit includes protocols for isolation of detergent resistant membranes from subcellular fractions as well as techniques that allow visualization of the mitochondrial network disruption that occurs in permissively infected cells by their optimal resolution in Percoll gradients.

  13. Novel [2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-D-ribofuranosyl]- 3'-spiro-5''-(4''-amino-1'',2''-oxathiole-2'',2" -dioxide) derivatives with anti-HIV-1 and anti-human-cytomegalovirus activity.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Sonia; Lobatón, Esther; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús; San-Félix, Ana; Cordeiro, Alessandra; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert; De Clercq, Erik; Balzarini, Jan; Camarasa, María-José; Velázquez, Sonsoles

    2005-02-24

    New [2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-d-ribofuranosyl]-3'-spiro-5' '-(4''-amino-1'',2''-oxathiole-2'',2''-dioxide) (TSAO) derivatives substituted at the 4' '-amino group of the spiro moiety with different carbonyl functionalities have been designed and synthesized. Various synthetic procedures, on the scarcely studied reactivity of the 3'-spiroaminooxathioledioxide moiety, have been explored. The compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on both wild-type and TSAO-resistant HIV-1 strains, in cell culture. The presence of a methyl ester (10) or amide groups (12) at the 4''-position conferred the highest anti-HIV-1 activity, while the free oxalyl acid derivative (11) was 10- to 20-fold less active against the virus. In contrast, the presence at this position of (un)substituted ureido or acyl groups markedly diminished or annihilated the anti-HIV-1 activity. Surprisingly, some of the target compounds also showed inhibition of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication at subtoxic concentrations. This has never been observed previously for TSAO derivatives. In particular, compound 26 represents the first TSAO derivative with dual anti-HIV-1 and -HCMV activity.

  14. Human cytomegalovirus encoded chemokine receptor US28 activates the HIF-1α/PKM2 axis in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    van Senten, Jeffrey R.; Fraile-Ramos, Alberto; Siderius, Marco; Smit, Martine J.

    2016-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encoded chemokine receptor US28 promotes tumorigenesis through activation of various proliferative and angiogenic signaling pathways. Upon infection, US28 displays constitutive activity and signals in a G protein-dependent manner, hijacking the host's cellular machinery. In tumor cells, the hypoxia inducible factor-1α/pyruvate kinase M2 (HIF-1α/PKM2) axis plays an important role by supporting proliferation, angiogenesis and reprogramming of energy metabolism. In this study we show that US28 signaling results in activation of the HIF-1α/PKM2 feedforward loop in fibroblasts and glioblastoma cells. The constitutive activity of US28 increases HIF-1 protein stability through a Gαq-, CaMKII- and Akt/mTOR-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, we found that VEGF and lactate secretion are increased and HIF-1 target genes, glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), involved in glucose metabolism, are upregulated in US28 expressing cells. In addition, PKM2 is phosphorylated and found to be in a tumor-associated dimeric state upon US28 expression. Also in HCMV-infected cells HIF-1 activity is enhanced, which in part is US28-dependent. Finally, increased proliferation of cells expressing US28 is abolished upon inhibition of the HIF-1α/PKM2 cascade. These data highlight the importance of HIF-1α and PKM2 in US28-induced proliferation, angiogenesis and metabolic reprogramming. PMID:27602585

  15. Isolation of Endoplasmic Reticulum, Mitochondria, and Mitochondria-Associated Membrane and Detergent Resistant Membrane Fractions from Transfected Cells and from Human Cytomegalovirus-Infected Primary Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Chad D.; Wong, Daniel S.; Bozidis, Petros; Zhang, Aiping; Colberg-Poley, Anamaris M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly mechanistic virology studies require dependable and sensitive methods for isolating purified organelles containing functional cellular sub-domains. The mitochondrial network is, in part, closely apposed to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) fraction provides direct physical contact between the ER and mitochondria. Characterization of the dual localization and trafficking of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL37 proteins required establishing protocols in which the ER and mitochondria could be reliably separated. Because of its documented role in lipid and ceramide transfer from the ER to mitochondria, a method to purify MAM from infected cells was also developed. Two robust procedures were developed to efficiently isolate mitochondria, ER, and MAM fractions while providing substantial protein yields from HCMV-infected primary fibroblasts and from transfected HeLa cells. Furthermore, this unit includes protocols for isolation of detergent resistant membranes from subcellular fractions as well as techniques that allow visualization of the mitochondria network disruption that occurs in permissively infected cells by their optimal resolution in Percoll gradients. PMID:26331984

  16. Targeting the latent cytomegalovirus reservoir with an antiviral fusion toxin protein

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, B. A.; Spiess, K.; Poole, E. L.; Lau, B.; Voigt, S.; Kledal, T. N.; Rosenkilde, M. M.; Sinclair, J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in transplant recipients can cause life-threatening disease. Consequently, for transplant recipients, killing latently infected cells could have far-reaching clinical benefits. In vivo, myeloid cells and their progenitors are an important site of HCMV latency, and one viral gene expressed by latently infected myeloid cells is US28. This viral gene encodes a cell surface G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that binds chemokines, triggering its endocytosis. We show that the expression of US28 on the surface of latently infected cells allows monocytes and their progenitor CD34+ cells to be targeted and killed by F49A-FTP, a highly specific fusion toxin protein that binds this viral GPCR. As expected, this specific targeting of latently infected cells by F49A-FTP also robustly reduces virus reactivation in vitro. Consequently, such specific fusion toxin proteins could form the basis of a therapeutic strategy for eliminating latently infected cells before haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:28148951

  17. The antiviral restriction factors IFITM1, 2 and 3 do not inhibit infection of human papillomavirus, cytomegalovirus and adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Warren, Cody J; Griffin, Laura M; Little, Alexander S; Huang, I-Chueh; Farzan, Michael; Pyeon, Dohun

    2014-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-α and β) induce dynamic host defense mechanisms to inhibit viral infections. It has been recently recognized that the interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITM) 1, 2 and 3 can block entry of a broad spectrum of RNA viruses. However, no study to date has focused on the role of IFITM proteins in DNA virus restriction. Here, we demonstrate that IFN-α or -β treatment of keratinocytes substantially decreases human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) infection while robustly inducing IFITM1, 2 and 3 expression. However, IFITM1, 2 and 3 overexpression did not inhibit HPV16 infection; rather, IFITM1 and IFITM3 modestly enhanced HPV16 infection in various cell types including primary keratinocytes. Moreover, IFITM1, 2 and 3 did not inhibit infection by two other DNA viruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). Taken together, we reveal that the entry of several DNA viruses, including HPV, HCMV, and Ad5 is not affected by IFITM1, 2 and 3 expression. These results imply that HPV, and other DNA viruses, may bypass IFITM restriction during intracellular trafficking.

  18. Complete Sequence and Genomic Analysis of Rhesus Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Scott G.; Strelow, Lisa I.; Franchi, David C.; Anders, David G.; Wong, Scott W.

    2003-01-01

    The complete DNA sequence of rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) strain 68-1 was determined with the whole-genome shotgun approach on virion DNA. The RhCMV genome is 221,459 bp in length and possesses a 49% G+C base composition. The genome contains 230 potential open reading frames (ORFs) of 100 or more codons that are arranged colinearly with counterparts of previously sequenced betaherpesviruses such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Of the 230 RhCMV ORFs, 138 (60%) are homologous to known HCMV proteins. The conserved ORFs include the structural, replicative, and transcriptional regulatory proteins, immune evasion elements, G protein-coupled receptors, and immunoglobulin homologues. Interestingly, the RhCMV genome also contains sequences with homology to cyclooxygenase-2, an enzyme associated with inflammatory processes. Closer examination identified a series of candidate exons with the capacity to encode a full-length cyclooxygenase-2 protein. Counterparts of cyclooxygenase-2 have not been found in other sequenced herpesviruses. The availability of the complete RhCMV sequence along with the ability to grow RhCMV in vitro will facilitate the construction of recombinant viral strains for identifying viral determinants of CMV pathogenicity in the experimentally infected rhesus macaque and to the development of CMV as a vaccine vector. PMID:12767982

  19. Chemically engineered sulfated glucans from rice bran exert strong antiviral activity at the stage of viral entry.

    PubMed

    Ray, Bimalendu; Hutterer, Corina; Bandyopadhyay, Shruti S; Ghosh, Kanika; Chatterjee, Udipta R; Ray, Sayani; Zeitträger, Isabel; Wagner, Sabrina; Marschall, Manfred

    2013-12-27

    Attachment and entry of many viruses are mediated by their affinity for polysaccharides present on the surface of target cells. In this paper, we demonstrate that sulfated glucans isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) can be utilized as experimental drugs exerting strong antiviral activity. In particular, oleum-DMF-based extraction is described as a procedure for the generation of chemically engineered glucans from commercially available rice bran. The one-step procedure has the potential to provide a spectrum of related glucans with varying molecular masses and modifications, including sulfation. The sulfated glucans P444, P445, and P446 possess increased antiviral activity compared to a previously described glucan (S1G). P444, P445, and P446 were highly active against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), moderately active against other members of the family Herpesviridae, while not active against unrelated viruses. Specific experimentation with HCMV-infected cells provided evidence that antiviral activity was based on inhibition of viral entry and that inhibition occurred in the absence of drug-induced cytotoxicity. These findings underline the high potential of sulfated glucans for antiviral research and drug development. In addition, the procedure described for the efficient transformation of glucan hydroxy groups to sulfate groups may be similarly beneficial for the chemical alteration of other natural products.

  20. RNA-binding protein CPEB1 remodels host and viral RNA landscapes.

    PubMed

    Batra, Ranjan; Stark, Thomas J; Clark, Elizabeth; Belzile, Jean-Philippe; Wheeler, Emily C; Yee, Brian A; Huang, Hui; Gelboin-Burkhart, Chelsea; Huelga, Stephanie C; Aigner, Stefan; Roberts, Brett T; Bos, Tomas J; Sathe, Shashank; Donohue, John Paul; Rigo, Frank; Ares, Manuel; Spector, Deborah H; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-12-01

    Host and virus interactions occurring at the post-transcriptional level are critical for infection but remain poorly understood. Here, we performed comprehensive transcriptome-wide analyses revealing that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection results in widespread alternative splicing (AS), shortening of 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) and lengthening of poly(A)-tails in host gene transcripts. We found that the host RNA-binding protein CPEB1 was highly induced after infection, and ectopic expression of CPEB1 in noninfected cells recapitulated infection-related post-transcriptional changes. CPEB1 was also required for poly(A)-tail lengthening of viral RNAs important for productive infection. Strikingly, depletion of CPEB1 reversed infection-related cytopathology and post-transcriptional changes, and decreased productive HCMV titers. Host RNA processing was also altered in herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2)-infected cells, thereby indicating that this phenomenon might be a common occurrence during herpesvirus infections. We anticipate that our work may serve as a starting point for therapeutic targeting of host RNA-binding proteins in herpesvirus infections.

  1. Developing a Vaccine against Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection: What Have We Learned from Animal Models? Where Should We Go Next?

    PubMed Central

    Schleiss, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can lead to long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae, including mental retardation and sensorineural hearing loss. Unfortunately, CMVs are highly adapted to their specific species, precluding the evaluation of HCMV vaccines in animal models prior to clinical trials. Several species-specific CMVs have been characterized and developed in models of pathogenesis and vaccine-mediated protection against disease. These include the murine CMV (MCMV), the porcine CMV (PCMV), the rhesus macaque CMV (RhCMV), the rat CMV (RCMV), and the guinea pig CMV (GPCMV). Because of the propensity of the GPCMV to cross the placenta, infecting the fetus in utero, it has emerged as a model of particular interest in studying vaccine-mediated protection of the fetus. In this paper, a review of these various models, with particular emphasis on the value of the model in the testing and evaluation of vaccines against congenital CMV, is provided. Recent exciting developments and advances in these various models are summarized, and recommendations offered for high-priority areas for future study. PMID:24523827

  2. Inhibition of UL54 and UL97 genes of human cytomegalovirus by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Shin, M-C; Hong, S-K; Yoon, J-S; Park, S-S; Lee, S-G; Lee, D-G; Min, W-S; Shin, W-S; Paik, S-Y

    2006-01-01

    Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), namely siUL54-1 and siU54-2 targeting UL54 (DNA polymerase) gene, and siUL97-1 and siUL97-2 targeting UL97 (phosphotransferase) gene, were used to inhibit respective genes of Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and consequently the virus infection process in human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cultures. The virus infection was monitored by cell morphology (CPE), levels of UL83 and IE86 mRNAs, and virus antigen. The results showed that siUL97-2 remarkably inhibited viral CPE while other siRNAs were less inhibitory. The siRNAs reduced the levels of UL83 mRNA but not that of IE86 mRNA; again, siUL97-2 was most inhibitory. Particularly, siUL97-2 reduced the UL83 mRNA level 14, 19, 203, and 37 times at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs post infection (p.i.), respectively. When tested for the effect on viral antigen by immunofluorescent assay (IFA), UL97-2 exerted a marked inhibition. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of siRNAs against experimental HCMV infection and indicate their therapeutic potential.

  3. Characterization of a de novo 43-bp deletion of the Gs[alpha] gene (GNAS1) in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Luttikhuis, M.E.M.O.; Trembath, R.C. ); Wilson, L.C. Institute of Child Health, London ); Leonard, J.V. )

    1994-05-15

    Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, obesity, mental retardation, subcutaneous calcification, and brachy-metaphalangia. Two distinct forms of AHO exist; pseudohypoparathyroidism type I (PHPI) and pseudopseudohypoparathyrodism (PPHP). The classification is dependent upon the presence or absence, respectively, of resistance to parathyroid and other hormones that bind to Gs-protein-coupled membrane receptors stimulating adenylyl cyclase. Gs is a heterotrimeric protein comprising [alpha], [beta], and [gamma]-subunits encoded by separate genes. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral leukocytes from 13 unrelated AHO patients. Exon 4 and flanking intronic sequence of GNAS1 were PCR amplified. A single PCR product corresponding to the expected 159-bp fragment was identified in 12 affected individuals with either PHPIa or PPHP. In patient 10285 an additional smaller fragment was detected but was not present in either of the unaffected parents. These two fragments were isolated from a 2% agarose gel. Direct sequencing of the smaller fragment revealed a 43-bp deletion comprising at least 35 hp of the 3[prime] end of exon 4 and the donor splice site of intron 4 and extending into the following intro. The 43-bp deletion would lead to a premature stop codon, 62 codons downstream of the deletion. The de novo mutation reported here is the largest deletion in the Gs[alpha] gene described so far for AHO patients.

  4. An XPA gene splicing mutation resulting in trace protein expression in an elderly xeroderma pigmentosum group A patient without neurological abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Endo, Y; Kusaka, A; Nakamaura, S; Nakazawa, Y; Ogi, T; Uryu, M; Tsuji, M; Furue, M; Moriwaki, S

    2016-09-07

    A certain relationship between XPA gene mutations and the severity of symptoms has been observed in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XP-A). Patients with mutations within the DNA-binding domain usually exhibit severe symptoms, whereas splicing mutations in the same domain sometimes cause very mild symptoms. This inconsistency can be explained by a small amount of functional XPA protein produced from normally spliced transcripts. We herein report the case of an adult Japanese XP-A patient with unusually mild symptoms. We identified a homozygous c.529G>A mutation in exon 4 of the XPA gene, which resulted in aberrant splicing with a 29-bp deletion in exon 4 causing a frameshift. Intact mRNA was observable, but a Western blot analysis failed to detect any normal XPA protein. We therefore evaluated the DNA repair capacity in normal cells in which the XPA expression was artificially diminished. The repair capacity was still present in cells with trace levels of the XPA protein. The repair capacity of the cells derived from our patient with mild symptoms was poor by comparison, but still significant compared to that of the cells derived from an XP-A patient with severe symptoms. These results provide strong evidence that a trace level of XPA protein can still exert a relatively strong repair capacity, resulting in only a mild phenotype. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. A 20 bp Duplication in Exon 2 of the Aristaless-Like Homeobox 4 Gene (ALX4) Is the Candidate Causative Mutation for Tibial Hemimelia Syndrome in Galloway Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brenig, Bertram; Schütz, Ekkehard; Hardt, Michael; Scheuermann, Petra; Freick, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (ALX4) gene is an important transcription regulator in skull and limb development. In humans and mice ALX4 mutations or loss of function result in a number of skeletal and organ malformations, including polydactyly, tibial hemimelia, omphalocele, biparietal foramina, impaired mammary epithelial morphogenesis, alopecia, coronal craniosynostosis, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge and ridge, bifid nasal tip, hypogonadism, and body agenesis. Here we show that a complex skeletal malformation of the hind limb in Galloway cattle together with other developmental anomalies is a recessive autosomal disorder most likely caused by a duplication of 20 bp in exon 2 of the bovine ALX4 gene. A second duplication of 34 bp in exon 4 of the same gene has no known effect, although both duplications result in a frameshift and premature stop codon leading to a truncated protein. Genotyping of 1,688 Black/Red/Belted/Riggit Galloway (GA) and 289 White Galloway (WGA) cattle showed that the duplication in exon 2 has allele frequencies of 1% in GA and 6% in WGA and the duplication in exon 4 has frequencies of 23% in GA and 38% in WGA. Both duplications were not detected in 876 randomly selected German Holstein Friesian and 86 cattle of 21 other breeds. Hence, we have identified a candidate causative mutation for tibial hemimelia syndrome in Galloway cattle and selection against this mutation can be used to eliminate the mutant allele from the breed. PMID:26076463

  6. Cdk5rap2 regulates centrosome function and chromosome segregation in neuronal progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Sofia B.; Margossian, Steven P.; Harris, Marian H.; Campagna, Dean R.; Han, An-Ping; Blevins, Sherika; Mudbhary, Raksha; Barker, Jane E.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Fleming, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Microcephaly affects ∼1% of the population and is associated with mental retardation, motor defects and, in some cases, seizures. We analyzed the mechanisms underlying brain size determination in a mouse model of human microcephaly. The Hertwig's anemia (an) mutant shows peripheral blood cytopenias, spontaneous aneuploidy and a predisposition to hematopoietic tumors. We found that the an mutation is a genomic inversion of exon 4 of Cdk5rap2, resulting in an in-frame deletion of exon 4 from the mRNA. The finding that CDK5RAP2 human mutations cause microcephaly prompted further analysis of Cdk5rap2an/an mice and we demonstrated that these mice exhibit microcephaly comparable to that of the human disease, resulting from striking neurogenic defects that include proliferative and survival defects in neuronal progenitors. Cdk5rap2an/an neuronal precursors exit the cell cycle prematurely and many undergo apoptosis. These defects are associated with impaired mitotic progression coupled with abnormal mitotic spindle pole number and mitotic orientation. Our findings suggest that the reduction in brain size observed in humans with mutations in CDK5RAP2 is associated with impaired centrosomal function and with changes in mitotic spindle orientation during progenitor proliferation. PMID:20460369

  7. A novel exon in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene activated by the nonsense mutation E92X in airway epithelial cells of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Will, K; Dörk, T; Stuhrmann, M; Meitinger, T; Bertele-Harms, R; Tümmler, B; Schmidtke, J

    1994-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. We report on a novel nonsense mutation that leads to exon skipping and the activation of a cryptic exon. Screening of genomic DNA from 700 German patients with CF uncovered four cases with the nonsense mutation E92X, a G-->T transversion that creates a termination codon and affects the first base of exon 4 of the CFTR gene. Lymphocyte RNA of two CF patients heterozygous for E92X was found to contain the wild type sequence and a differentially spliced isoform lacking exon 4. In RNA derived from nasal epithelial cells of E92X patients, a third fragment of longer size was observed. Sequencing revealed the presence of E92X and an additional 183-bp fragment, inserted between exons 3 and 4. The 183-bp sequence was mapped to intron 3 of the CFTR gene. It is flanked by acceptor and donor splice sites. We conclude that the 183-bp fragment in intron 3 is a cryptic CFTR exon that can be activated in epithelial cells by the presence of the E92X mutation. E92X abolishes correctly spliced CFTR mRNA and leads to severe cystic fibrosis. Images PMID:7512993

  8. Effect of Genetic Diversity in Swine Leukocyte Antigen-DRA Gene on Piglet Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Qiaoli; Yuan, Junhu; Liu, Lixia; Sun, Wenyang; Jiang, Yingdi; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Shengwei; Huang, Wangzhou; Gun, Shuangbao

    2016-01-01

    The swine leukocyte antigens (SLAs) are the multigene families related to immune responses. Little is known about the effect of the DRA gene on diarrheal disease. This study reported the genetic diversity of the DRA gene in exons 1, 3 and 4 in 290 Chinese Yantai black pigs. No variation was identified in exon 3. In exon 1, three genotypes and two alleles were identified, generated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In exon 4, there were eight genotypes and five alleles containing seven SNPs were detected with four SNPs being novel SNPs. The low polymorphism found in swine DRA is consistent with the concept that the DRA gene is highly conserved among all mammalian species. Statistical analyses indicated that the genotypes of exon 1 were not significantly associated with piglet diarrhea (p > 0.05); however, genotypes C4C4 (1.80 ± 0.33) and A4E4 (1.66 ± 0.25) of exon 4 were significantly susceptible to diarrhea (p < 0.01). These indicate that the particular genotypes of the DRA gene are susceptible to diarrheal disease, which provides valuable information for disease-resistance breeding in swine. PMID:27429004

  9. An identical, complex TP53 mutation arising independently in two unrelated families with diverse cancer profiles: the complexity of interpreting cancer risk in carriers

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, E M; Ribeiro, R C; Li, J; Taja-Chayeb, L; Carrasco, L F; de Lourdes Peña-Torres, M; Vidal-Millán, S; Maldonado-Mtz, H; Dueñas-González, A; McGregor, L; Zambetti, G P

    2012-01-01

    Most inherited TP53 mutations have been identified in individuals with a family cancer predisposition syndrome, in which the activity of p53 mutants is severely reduced. However, germline p53 mutants in children with ‘sporadic' adrenocortical or choroid plexus tumors exhibit a wide range of functional activity. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of a complex germline TP53 mutation in two unrelated families with different cancer phenotypes, neither fulfilling the classic criteria for Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The TP53 mutation consists of a duplication of 7 bp in exon 4, resulting in a frame shift and premature stop signal. Haplotype analysis indicated that the mutation arose independently in the two families. Analysis of the DNA secondary structure predicts the TP53 mutation occurred within a hairpin loop. Additional germline complex mutations occurring within the same region of exon 4 have been identified in the IARC database. Our findings suggest that certain TP53 regions are prone to intrinsic genetic alterations, possibly through defects in DNA replication or repair. Further, carriers of the same TP53 mutation can have diverse cancer profiles, illustrating the complexity of genetic counseling and risk prediction. PMID:23552518

  10. The genetic spectrum and the evaluation of CADASIL screening scale in Chinese patients with NOTCH3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Zuo, Yuehuan; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Lv, He; Huang, Yining; Xiao, Jiangxi; Yuan, Yun; Wang, Zhaoxia

    2015-07-15

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited small artery disease caused by NOTCH3 gene mutation. Here we report clinical, pathological and genetic profiles of 29 newly-diagnosed CADASIL patients, evaluation of the CADASIL scale in Chinese CADASIL patients, and reanalysis of all reported mainland Chinese patients with identified NOTCH3 gene mutation. We found two novel mutations (p.C134G and p.C291Y) and 13 reported NOTCH3 mutations in the newly-diagnosed group. CADASIL scale score was less than the cutoff score in 19 of 53 Chinese patients with NOTCH3 mutation, generating only a sensitivity of 64.1%. At the time of study, the total number of genetically confirmed CADASIL cases reached 158 from 97 unrelated mainland Chinese families, with 9/97 (9.3%) sporadic patients. The NOTCH3 gene mutation profile showed 43 mutations, with hotspots in exon 4, followed by exon 3. The considerable variability in onset age and CADASIL scale score in patients carrying the same NOTCH3 missense mutation suggested no obvious phenotype-genotype correlation. In conclusion, we report two novel mutations which expand the NOTCH3 mutational spectrum. Exons 4 and 3 are hotspots in mainland Chinese patients with NOTCH3 mutation. The low sensitivity of CADASIL scale in our patients group indicated that the CADASIL scale should be refined according to the clinical characteristics of Chinese CADASIL patients when used in Chinese populations.

  11. Properdin deficiency in a large Swiss family: identification of a stop codon in the properdin gene, and association of meningococcal disease with lack of the IgG2 allotype marker G2m(n)

    PubMed Central

    Späth, P J; Sjöholm, A G; Nordin Fredrikson, G; Misiano, G; Scherz, R; Schaad, U B; Uhring-Lambert, B; Hauptmann, G; Westberg, J; Uhlén, M; Wadelius, C; Truedsson, L

    1999-01-01

    Properdin deficiency was demonstrated in three generations of a large Swiss family. The concentration of circulating properdin in affected males was < 0.1 mg/l, indicating properdin deficiency type I. Two of the nine properdin-deficient males in the family had survived meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B without sequel. Two point mutations were identified when the properdin gene in one of the properdin-deficient individuals was investigated by direct solid-phase sequencing of overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. The critical mutation was found at base 2061 in exon 4, where the change of cytosine to thymine had generated the stop codon TGA. The other mutation was positioned at base 827 in intron 3. The stop codon in exon 4 was also demonstrated by standard dideoxy sequencing in three additional family members. The question was asked if genetic factors such as partial C4 deficiency and IgG allotypes could have influenced susceptibility to meningococcal disease in the family. No relationship was found between C4 phenotypes and infection. Interestingly, the two properdin-deficient males with meningitis differed from the other properdin-deficient persons in that they lacked the G2m(n) allotype, a marker known to be associated with poor antibody responses to T-independent antigens. This implies that the consequences of properdin deficiency might partly be determined by independent factors influencing the immune response. PMID:10540191

  12. Functional consequences of EpCam mutation in mice and men.

    PubMed

    Mueller, James L; McGeough, Matthew D; Peña, Carla A; Sivagnanam, Mamata

    2014-02-15

    Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is a severe diarrheal disease of infancy characterized by villous changes and epithelial tufts. We previously identified mutations in epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) as the cause of CTE. We developed an in vivo mouse model of CTE based on EpCAM mutations found in patients with the aim to further elucidate the in vivo role of EpCAM and allow for a direct comparison to human CTE. Using Cre-LoxP recombination technology, we generated a construct lacking exon 4 in Epcam. Epcam(Δ4/Δ4) mice and CTE patient intestinal tissue integrity was analyzed by histology using both light immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Epcam(Δ4/Δ4) mice demonstrate neonatal lethality and growth retardation with pathological features, including epithelial tufts, enterocyte crowding, altered desmosomes, and intercellular gaps, similar to human CTE patients. Mutant EpCAM protein is present at low levels and is mislocalized in the intestine of Epcam(Δ4/Δ4) mice and CTE patients. Deletion of exon 4 was found to decrease expression of both EpCAM and claudin-7 causing a loss of colocalization, functionally disrupting the EpCAM/claudin-7 complex, a finding for the first time confirmed in CTE patients. Furthermore, compared with unaffected mice, mutation of Epcam leads to enhanced permeability and intestinal cell migration, uncovering underlying disease mechanisms.

  13. Novel germline PALB2 truncating mutations in African-American breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yonglan; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Qun; Huo, Dezheng; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that PALB2 acts as a bridging molecule between the BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins and is responsible for facilitating BRCA2-mediated DNA repair. Truncating mutations in the PALB2 gene have been reported to be enriched in Fanconi anemia and breast cancer patients in various populations. Methods We evaluated the contribution of PALB2 germline mutations in 279 African-American breast cancer patients including 29 patients with a strong family history, 29 patients with a moderate family history, 75 patients with a weak family history, and 146 non-familial or sporadic breast cancer cases. Results After direct sequencing of all the coding exons, exon/intron boundaries, 5′UTR and 3′UTR of PALB2, three (1.08%; 3 in 279) novel monoallelic truncating mutations were identified: c.758dupT (exon4), c.1479delC (exon4) and c.3048delT (exon 10); together with 50 sequence variants, 27 of which are novel. None of the truncating mutations were found in 262 controls from the same population. Conclusions PALB2 mutations are present in both familial and non-familial breast cancer among African-Americans. Rare PALB2 mutations account for a small but substantial proportion of breast cancer patients. PMID:21932393

  14. An Activin Receptor IA/Activin-Like Kinase-2 (R206H) Mutation in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Esparza, Rafael; Pacheco-Tovar, Deyanira; Bollain-Y-Goytia, Juan José; Torres Del Muro, Felipe; Ramírez-Sandoval, Roxana; Pacheco-Tovar, María Guadalupe; Castañeda-Ureña, María; Avalos-Díaz, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an exceptionally rare genetic disease that is characterised by congenital malformations of the great toes and progressive heterotopic ossification (HO) in specific anatomical areas. This disease is caused by a mutation in activin receptor IA/activin-like kinase-2 (ACVR1/ALK2). A Mexican family with one member affected by FOP was studied. The patient is a 19-year-old female who first presented with symptoms of FOP at 8 years old; she developed spontaneous and painful swelling of the right scapular area accompanied by functional limitation of movement. Mutation analysis was performed in which genomic DNA as PCR amplified using primers flanking exons 4 and 6, and PCR products were digested with Cac8I and HphI restriction enzymes. The most informative results were obtained with the exon 4 flanking primers and the Cac8I restriction enzyme, which generated a 253 bp product that carries the ACVR1 617G>A mutation, which causes an amino acid substitution of histidine for arginine at position 206 of the glycine-serine (GS) domain, and its mutation results in the dysregulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling that causes FOP.

  15. Identification of a Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1 Recognition Motif in the Apolipoprotein E Variant APOE4 linked to Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Urfer-Buchwalder, Anne; Urfer, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease affects tens of millions of people worldwide and its prevalence continues to rise. It is caused by a combination of a subject’s heredity, environment, lifestyle, and medical condition. The most significant genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer’s disease is a variant of the apolipoprotein E gene, APOE4. Here we show that the single nucleotide polymorphism rs429358 that defines APOE4 is located in a short sequence motif repeated several times within exon 4 of apolipoprotein E, reminiscent of the structure of transcriptional enhancers. A JASPAR database search predicts that the T to C transition in rs429358 generates a binding motif for nuclear respiratory factor NRF1. This site appears to be part of a binding site cluster for this transcription factor on exon 4 of APOE. This de novo NRF1 binding site has therefore the potential to affect the expression of multiple genes in its genomic vicinity. Our in silico analysis, suggesting a novel function for APOE4 at the DNA level, offers a potential mechanism for the observed tissue specific neurodegeneration and the role of environmental factors in Alzheimer’s disease etiology. PMID:28094792

  16. A specific isoform of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix by a N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Whatcott, Clifford J.; Meyer-Ficca, Mirella L.; Meyer, Ralph G.; Jacobson, Myron K.

    2009-12-10

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) convert NAD to polymers of ADP-ribose that are converted to free ADP-ribose by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). The activation of the nuclear enzyme PARP-1 following genotoxic stress has been linked to release of apoptosis inducing factor from the mitochondria, but the mechanisms by which signals are transmitted between nuclear and mitochondrial compartments are not well understood. The study reported here has examined the relationship between PARG and mitochondria in HeLa cells. Endogenous PARG associated with the mitochondrial fraction migrated in the range of 60 kDa. Transient transfection of cells with PARG expression constructs with amino acids encoded by exon 4 at the N-terminus was targeted to the mitochondria as demonstrated by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy of whole cells. Deletion and missense mutants allowed identification of a canonical N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence consisting of the first 16 amino acids encoded by PARG exon 4. Sub-mitochondrial localization experiments indicate that this mitochondrial PARG isoform is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. The identification of a PARG isoform as a component of the mitochondrial matrix raises several interesting possibilities concerning mechanisms of nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk involved in regulation of cell death pathways.

  17. Natural antisense RNAs are involved in the regulation of CD45 expression in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Rong, J; Yin, J; Su, Z

    2015-03-01

    CD45 is a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic cells and can initiate signal transduction via the dephosphorylation of tyrosine. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encode distinct isoforms, which indicate different functional states of CD45. Among these variants, CD45RO, which contains neither exon 4, 5, or 6, is over-expressed in lymphocytes in autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and type I diabetes. The CD45 RO serves as a marker of the immune response activity and lymphocyte development. Previous studies have indicated that exon splicing is generally correlated with local hypermethylated DNA and acetylated histone modification, while autoimmune diseases are commonly associated with global hypomethylation and histone deacetylation in lymphocytes. Thus, the question arises of how exons 4, 5, and 6 of CD45RO are excluded under the status of global DNA hypomethylation and histone deacetylation in these autoimmune diseases. On the basis of the analyses of the context sequence of CD45 and its natural antisense RNA in GenBank, we proposed that the long noncoding RNA encoded by the natural antisense gene of CD45 contributes to the expressional regulation of the CD45RO splicing variant via recruitment of DNA methyltransferase and histone modification modulators specific to the sense gene CD45; thus, it is associated with the over-expression of CD45RO and the functional regulation of lymphocytes in the pathogenic development of autoimmune diseases.

  18. A 20 bp Duplication in Exon 2 of the Aristaless-Like Homeobox 4 Gene (ALX4) Is the Candidate Causative Mutation for Tibial Hemimelia Syndrome in Galloway Cattle.

    PubMed

    Brenig, Bertram; Schütz, Ekkehard; Hardt, Michael; Scheuermann, Petra; Freick, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (ALX4) gene is an important transcription regulator in skull and limb development. In humans and mice ALX4 mutations or loss of function result in a number of skeletal and organ malformations, including polydactyly, tibial hemimelia, omphalocele, biparietal foramina, impaired mammary epithelial morphogenesis, alopecia, coronal craniosynostosis, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge and ridge, bifid nasal tip, hypogonadism, and body agenesis. Here we show that a complex skeletal malformation of the hind limb in Galloway cattle together with other developmental anomalies is a recessive autosomal disorder most likely caused by a duplication of 20 bp in exon 2 of the bovine ALX4 gene. A second duplication of 34 bp in exon 4 of the same gene has no known effect, although both duplications result in a frameshift and premature stop codon leading to a truncated protein. Genotyping of 1,688 Black/Red/Belted/Riggit Galloway (GA) and 289 White Galloway (WGA) cattle showed that the duplication in exon 2 has allele frequencies of 1% in GA and 6% in WGA and the duplication in exon 4 has frequencies of 23% in GA and 38% in WGA. Both duplications were not detected in 876 randomly selected German Holstein Friesian and 86 cattle of 21 other breeds. Hence, we have identified a candidate causative mutation for tibial hemimelia syndrome in Galloway cattle and selection against this mutation can be used to eliminate the mutant allele from the breed.

  19. Naturally- and experimentally-designed restorations of the Parkin gene deficit in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Asai, Hirohide; Hirano, Makito; Kiriyama, Takao; Ikeda, Masanori; Ueno, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Intranuclear events due to mutations in the Parkin gene remain elusive in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (ARJP). We identified a mutant PARKIN protein in fibroblast cultures from a pair of siblings with ARJP who were homozygous for the exon 4-deleted Parkin gene. Disease was mild in one patient and debilitating in the other. The detected mutant, encoded by a transcript lacking exon 3 as well as exon 4, is an in-frame deletion that removes 121 aa, resulting in a 344-aa protein (PaDel3,4). Cell culture and transfection studies revealed negative correlations between expression levels of PaDel3,4 and those of cell cycle proteins, including cyclin E, CDK2, ppRb, and E2F-1, and demonstrated that GFP-PaDel3,4 entered nucleus and ubiquitinated cyclin E as a part of SCF(hSel-10) ligase complex in the patient cells. In addition, nuclear localization signal-tagged PaDel3,4 expressed in the transfected patient cells most effectively ubiquitinated cyclin E and reduced DNA damage, protecting cells from oxidative stress. Antisense-oligonucleotide treatment promoted skipping of exon 3 and thus generated PaDel3,4, increasing cell survival. Collectively, we propose that naturally- and experimentally-induced exon skipping at least partly restores the mutant Parkin gene deficit, providing a molecular basis for the development of therapeutic exon skipping.

  20. Naturally- and experimentally-designed restorations of the Parkin gene deficit in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, Hirohide; Hirano, Makito; Kiriyama, Takao; Ikeda, Masanori; Ueno, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Intranuclear events due to mutations in the Parkin gene remain elusive in autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (ARJP). We identified a mutant PARKIN protein in fibroblast cultures from a pair of siblings with ARJP who were homozygous for the exon 4-deleted Parkin gene. Disease was mild in one patient and debilitating in the other. The detected mutant, encoded by a transcript lacking exon 3 as well as exon 4, is an in-frame deletion that removes 121 aa, resulting in a 344-aa protein (PaDel3,4). Cell culture and transfection studies revealed negative correlations between expression levels of PaDel3,4 and those of cell cycle proteins, including cyclin E, CDK2, ppRb, and E2F-1, and demonstrated that GFP-PaDel3,4 entered nucleus and ubiquitinated cyclin E as a part of SCF{sup hSel-10} ligase complex in the patient cells. In addition, nuclear localization signal-tagged PaDel3,4 expressed in the transfected patient cells most effectively ubiquitinated cyclin E and reduced DNA damage, protecting cells from oxidative stress. Antisense-oligonucleotide treatment promoted skipping of exon 3 and thus generated PaDel3,4, increasing cell survival. Collectively, we propose that naturally- and experimentally-induced exon skipping at least partly restores the mutant Parkin gene deficit, providing a molecular basis for the development of therapeutic exon skipping.

  1. Insertion of long interspersed element-1 in the Mitf gene is associated with altered neurobehavior of the black-eyed white Mitf(mi-bw) mouse.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kazuhisa; Hozumi, Hiroki; Nakai, Kunihiko; Yoshizawa, Miki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2014-02-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) is required for the differentiation of melanoblasts of the neural crest origin. The mouse homozygous for the black-eyed white (Mitf(mi-bw) ) allele is characterized by white-coat color and deafness with black eye, due to the loss of melanoblasts during embryonic development. The Mitf(mi-bw) allele carries an insertion of long interspersed element-1 (L1) in intron 3 of the Mitf gene, which may cause the deficiency of melanocyte-specific Mitf-M. Here, we show that the L1 insertion results in the generation of alternatively spliced Mitf-M mRNA species, such as Mitf-M mRNA lacking exon 3, exon 4 or both exons 3 and 4, each of which encodes Mitf-M protein with an internal deletion. Transient expression assays showed the loss of or reduction in function of each aberrant Mitf-M protein and the dominant negative effect of Mitf-M lacking exon 4 that encodes an activation domain. Thus, the L1 insertion may decrease the expression level of functional Mitf-M. Importantly, Mitf-M mRNA is expressed in the wild-type mouse brain, with the highest expression level in the hypothalamus. Likewise, aberrant Mitf-M mRNAs are expressed in the bw mouse brain. The bw mice show the altered neurobehavior under a stressful environment, suggesting the role of Mitf-M in sensory perception.

  2. Massive expansions of Dscam splicing diversity via staggered homologous recombination during arthropod evolution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher; Kim, Namshin; Roy, Meenakshi; Graveley, Brenton R

    2010-01-01

    The arthropod Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene can generate tens of thousands of protein isoforms via combinatorial splicing of numerous alternative exons encoding immunoglobulin variable domains organized into three clusters referred to as the exon 4, 6, and 9 clusters. Dscam protein diversity is important for nervous system development and immune functions. We have performed extensive phylogenetic analyses of Dscam from 20 arthropods (each containing between 46 and 96 alternative exons) to reconstruct the detailed history of exon duplication and loss events that built this remarkable system over 450 million years of evolution. Whereas the structure of the exon 4 cluster is ancient, the exon 6 and 9 clusters have undergone massive, independent expansions in each insect lineage. An analysis of nearly 2000 duplicated exons enabled detailed reconstruction of the timing, location, and boundaries of these duplication events. These data clearly show that new Dscam exons have arisen continuously throughout arthropod evolution and that this process is still occurring in the exon 6 and 9 clusters. Recently duplicated regions display boundaries corresponding to a single exon and the adjacent intron. The boundaries, homology, location, clustering, and relative frequencies of these duplication events strongly suggest that staggered homologous recombination is the major mechanism by which new Dscam exons evolve. These data provide a remarkably detailed picture of how complex gene structure evolves and reveal the molecular mechanism behind this process.

  3. A 3' splice site mutation in the thyroglobulin gene responsible for congenital goiter with hypothyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Ieiri, T; Cochaux, P; Targovnik, H M; Suzuki, M; Shimoda, S; Perret, J; Vassart, G

    1991-01-01

    A case of congenital goiter with defective thyroglobulin synthesis has been studied in molecular terms. The patient is the fifth of a kindred of six, three of which have a goiter. The parents are first cousins. Segregation of thyroglobulin alleles in the family was studied by Southern blotting with a probe revealing a diallelic restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The results demonstrated that the three affected siblings were homozygous for the RFLP. Northern blotting analysis of the goiter RNA with a thyroglobulin probe suggested that thyroglobulin mRNA size was slightly reduced. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 8.5-kb thyroglobulin mRNA as overlapping cDNA fragments demonstrated that a 200-bp segment was missing from the 5' region of the goiter mRNA. Subcloning and sequencing of the cDNA fragments, and of the patient genomic DNA amplified from this region, revealed that exon 4 is missing from the major thyroglobulin transcript in the goiter, and that this aberrant splicing is due to a C to G transversion at position minus 3 in the acceptor splice site of intron 3. The presence in exon 4 of a putative donor tyrosine residue (Tyrosine nr 130) involved in thyroid hormone formation provides a coherent explanation to the hypothyroid status of the patient. Images PMID:1752952

  4. Genetic polymorphisms and protein structures in growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor 1 and leptin in Mehraban sheep.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, A; Behzadi, Sh; Miraei-Ashtiani, S R; Roh, S-G; Katoh, K

    2013-09-15

    The somatotropic axis, the control system for growth hormone (GH) secretion and its endogenous factors involved in the regulation of metabolism and energy partitioning, has promising potentials for producing economically valuable traits in farm animals. Here we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the genes of factors involved in the somatotropic axis for growth hormone (GH1), growth hormone receptor (GHR), ghrelin (GHRL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) and leptin (LEP), using polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods in 452 individual Mehraban sheep. A nonradioactive method to allow SSCP detection was used for genomic DNA and PCR amplification of six fragments: exons 4 and 5 of GH1; exon 10 of GH receptor (GHR); exon 1 of ghrelin (GHRL); exon 1 of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and exon 3 of leptin (LEP). Polymorphisms were detected in five of the six PCR products. Two electrophoretic patterns were detected for GH1 exon 4. Five conformational patterns were detected for GH1 exon 5 and LEP exon 3, and three for IGF-I exon 1. Only GHR and GHRL were monomorphic. Changes in protein structures due to variable SNPs were also analyzed. The results suggest that Mehraban sheep, a major breed that is important for the animal industry in Middle East countries, has high genetic variability, opening interesting prospects for future selection programs and preservation strategies.

  5. Silent exonic mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene that cause familial hypercholesterolemia by affecting mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Defesche, J C; Schuurman, E J M; Klaaijsen, L N; Khoo, K L; Wiegman, A; Stalenhoef, A F H

    2008-06-01

    In a large group of patients with the clinical phenotype of familial hypercholesterolemia, such as elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and premature atherosclerosis, but without functional mutations in the genes coding for the LDL receptor and apolipoprotein B, we examined the effect of 128 seemingly neutral exonic and intronic DNA variants, discovered by routine sequencing of these genes. Two variants, G186G and R385R, were found to be associated with altered splicing. The nucleotide change leading to G186G resulted in the generation of new 3'-splice donor site in exon 4 and R385R was associated with a new 5'-splice acceptor site in exon 9 of the LDL receptor gene. Splicing of these alternate splice sites leads to an in-frame 75-base pair deletion in a stable mRNA of exon 4 in case of G186G and R385R resulted in a 31-base pair frame-shift deletion in exon 9 and non-sense-mediated mRNA decay.

  6. Functional consequences of EpCam mutation in mice and men

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, James L.; McGeough, Matthew D.; Peña, Carla A.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is a severe diarrheal disease of infancy characterized by villous changes and epithelial tufts. We previously identified mutations in epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) as the cause of CTE. We developed an in vivo mouse model of CTE based on EpCAM mutations found in patients with the aim to further elucidate the in vivo role of EpCAM and allow for a direct comparison to human CTE. Using Cre-LoxP recombination technology, we generated a construct lacking exon 4 in Epcam. EpcamΔ4/Δ4 mice and CTE patient intestinal tissue integrity was analyzed by histology using both light immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. EpcamΔ4/Δ4 mice demonstrate neonatal lethality and growth retardation with pathological features, including epithelial tufts, enterocyte crowding, altered desmosomes, and intercellular gaps, similar to human CTE patients. Mutant EpCAM protein is present at low levels and is mislocalized in the intestine of EpcamΔ4/Δ4 mice and CTE patients. Deletion of exon 4 was found to decrease expression of both EpCAM and claudin-7 causing a loss of colocalization, functionally disrupting the EpCAM/claudin-7 complex, a finding for the first time confirmed in CTE patients. Furthermore, compared with unaffected mice, mutation of Epcam leads to enhanced permeability and intestinal cell migration, uncovering underlying disease mechanisms. PMID:24337010

  7. TK{sup {minus}} mutants attributable to localized gene conversion in a human cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Giver, C.R.; Grosovsky, A.J.

    1995-11-01

    The human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6 is heterozygous at the tk gene, carrying an inactivating frameshift near the end of the coding sequence, within exon 7 of the functional allele. Here, we describe our use of sequence analyses at these polymorphic sites to identify 8 x-ray induced mutations, out of 184 examined, which exhibit partial conversion of the tk functional allele to the non-functional sequence. These mutants are characterized by loss of heterozygosity at the exon 4 frameshift polymorphism, and remain heterozgousity at exon 7. No restriction fragment length alterations were observed by Southern blotting, and sequencing of the tk cDNA in these mutants revealed the presence of two full length tk transcripts, both having the sequence of the non-functional allele in exon 4, but representing the two different sequences in exon 7. Therefore, the results cannot be explained by a partial deletion of the functional tk allele. Polymorphic microsatellite markers located both proximally and distally to tk on the q arm of chromosome 17 were found to remain heterozygous, ruling out the possibility of a single homologous exchange event. These mutants may be explained by single strand invasion coupled with mismatch repair of the resultant heteroduplex, or by recombinationally mediated repair of a double strand break or gap. We also present microsatellite mapping data which localizes the human tk gene to a 1cM region between markers D17S802 and D17S937.

  8. Site-specific glycosylation of the human cytomegalovirus tegument basic phosphoprotein (UL32) at serine 921 and serine 952.

    PubMed Central

    Greis, K D; Gibson, W; Hart, G W

    1994-01-01

    The virion basic phosphoprotein (BPP), UL32, of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a 149-kDa tegument protein that represents about 15% of the virion protein mass and is modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). O-GlcNAc has been postulated to mediate subunit-subunit interaction in many different types of intracellular protein complexes, while BPP may play a role in viral assembly and/or envelopment. This report describes the identification of the major O-GlcNAc attachment sites on the HCMV (AD169) BPP. Because the amount of BPP isolated from infectious virions was insufficient to determine the site(s) of glycosylation, the full-length protein has been characterized following overexpression in recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. The recombinant protein (rBPP) was electrophoretically (by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and immunologically (by Western immunoassaying) indistinguishable from the BPP isolated from HCMV virions. In addition, the rBPP was modified by O-GlcNAc, and a comparison of the tryptic glycopeptides from the rBPP and native virion BPP indicated that their O-GlcNAc sites are the same. Furthermore, the major sites of O-GlcNAc attachment to the rBPP were mapped on high-performance liquid chromatography-purified glycopeptides by gas phase microsequencing, manual Edman degradation, and electrospray-mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate that the major sites of O-GlcNAc attachment to the BPP are Ser-921 and Ser-952. Identification of these sites will now enable mutagenesis studies to determine the influence of O-GlcNAc on the intracellular location, protein-protein interaction, and biological function of BPP. Finally, the fidelity of the addition of O-GlcNAc to rBPP in insect cells compared with native virion BPP is documented to demonstrate the possible general applicability of the baculovirus expression system to study O-GlcNAc on other low-abundance proteins. Images PMID:7966627

  9. Dynamic and Nucleolin-Dependent Localization of Human Cytomegalovirus UL84 to the Periphery of Viral Replication Compartments and Nucleoli

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions within subcellular compartments are required for viral genome replication. To understand the localization of the human cytomegalovirus viral replication factor UL84 relative to other proteins involved in viral DNA synthesis and to replicating viral DNA in infected cells, we created a recombinant virus expressing a FLAG-tagged version of UL84 (UL84FLAG) and used this virus in immunofluorescence assays. UL84FLAG localization differed at early and late times of infection, transitioning from diffuse distribution throughout the nucleus to exclusion from the interior of replication compartments, with some concentration at the periphery of replication compartments with newly labeled DNA and the viral DNA polymerase subunit UL44. Early in infection, UL84FLAG colocalized with the viral single-stranded DNA binding protein UL57, but colocalization became less prominent as infection progressed. A portion of UL84FLAG also colocalized with the host nucleolar protein nucleolin at the peripheries of both replication compartments and nucleoli. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nucleolin resulted in a dramatic elimination of UL84FLAG from replication compartments and other parts of the nucleus and its accumulation in the cytoplasm. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation of viral proteins from infected cell lysates revealed association of UL84, UL44, and nucleolin. These results indicate that UL84 localization during infection is dynamic, which is likely relevant to its functions, and suggest that its nuclear and subnuclear localization is highly dependent on direct or indirect interactions with nucleolin. IMPORTANCE The protein-protein interactions among viral and cellular proteins required for replication of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA genome are poorly understood. We sought to understand how an enigmatic HCMV protein critical for virus replication, UL84, localizes relative to other viral and

  10. Association between Herpesviruses and Chronic Periodontitis: A Meta-Analysis Based on Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, May. Chun. Mei; Feng, Xi-Ping; Lu, Hai-Xia; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Numerous studies have investigated the associations between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis; however, the results remain controversial. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis on all available studies was performed to identify the association between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis. Methods A computerized literature search was conducted in December 2014 to identify eligible case-control studies from the PUBMED and EMBASE databases according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association between herpesviruses and risk of chronic periodontitis. A fixed or random effects model was determined based on a heterogeneity test. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate stability and reliability. Publication bias was investigated using the Begg rank correlation test and Egger's funnel plot. Results Ten eligible studies were included to investigate the association between Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and chronic periodontitis. The results showed that EBV has a significant association with chronic periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy group (OR = 5.74, 95% CI = 2.53–13.00, P<0.001). The association between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and chronic periodontitis was analyzed in 10 studies. The pooled result showed that HCMV also has a significant association with chronic periodontitis (OR = 3.59, 95% CI = 1.41–9.16, P = 0.007). Similar results were found in the sensitivity analyses. No significant publication bias was observed. Two eligible studies were included to investigate the association between herpes simplex virus (HSV) and chronic periodontitis risk. The association between HSV and chronic periodontitis was inconclusive (OR = 2.81 95% CI = 0.95–8.27, P = 0.06). Only one included study investigated the association between human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and chronic periodontitis risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0

  11. Cytomegalovirus pp65 limits dissemination but is dispensable for persistence

    SciTech Connect

    Malouli, Daniel; Hansen, Scott G.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Marshall, Emily E.; Hughes, Colette M.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Lewis, Matthew S.; Xu, Guangwu; Kreklywich, Craig; Whizin, Nathan; Fischer, Miranda; Legasse, Alfred W.; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Siess, Don; Camp, David G.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Kahl, Christoph; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Smith, Richard D.; Streblow, Daniel N.; Picker, Louis J.; Früh, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    The tegument phosphoprotein pp65 (UL83) is the most abundant virion protein in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Since pp65 is immunodominant in persistently infected individuals, subunit vaccines against HCMV often include pp65 as T cell stimulatory component. Although HCMV pp65 is non-essential for viral growth in vitro it is thought to have an important role in primary and persistent infection since pp65 displays multiple immunomodulatory functions. To determine whether pp65 is required for infection and to evaluate its role in natural and vaccination-induced immunity we generated a rhesus CMV lacking both homologues, pp65a (Rh111) and pp65b (Rh112). Lack of pp65 resulted in a slight growth defect in vitro and an increase of defective particle formation. However, most pp65-deleted virions in the supernatant were phenotypically normal and proteomics analysis revealed that the ratios of the remaining viral proteins were largely unchanged. RhCMV Δpp65ab was able to persistently infect CMV-negative rhesus macaques (RM) and to super-infect RM previously infected with CMV. To determine whether T cells against pp65 are essential for protection against CMV, we challenged Δpp65ab-infected animals with RhCMV ΔUS2-11, a viral recombinant that lacks inhibitors of MHC-I antigen presentation and is thus unable to overcome CMV-specific T cell immunity. Despite a complete lack of pp65-specific T cells, Δpp65ab protected against ΔUS2-11 challenge suggesting that pp65-specific T cells are not essential for T cell immunity against CMV. Using the same approach we further demonstrate that pp65b-specific T cells, induced by heterologous prime/boost vaccination, are not sufficient to protect against ΔUS2-11 challenge. Our data provides a new approach to test the efficacy of subunit vaccine candidates and suggest that pp65 vaccines are insufficient to induce a T cell response that recapitulates the protective effect of natural infection.

  12. Fluorescence lifetime biosensing with DNA microarrays and a CMOS-SPAD imager

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, Gerard; Schulze, Holger; Li, Day-Uei; Bachmann, Till T.; Crain, Jason; Tyndall, David; Richardson, Justin; Walker, Richard; Stoppa, David; Charbon, Edoardo; Henderson, Robert; Arlt, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime of dye molecules is a sensitive reporter on local microenvironment which is generally independent of fluorophores concentration and can be used as a means of discrimination between molecules with spectrally overlapping emission. It is therefore a potentially powerful multiplexed detection modality in biosensing but requires extremely low light level operation typical of biological analyte concentrations, long data acquisition periods and on-chip processing capability to realize these advantages. We report here fluorescence lifetime data obtained using a CMOS-SPAD imager in conjunction with DNA microarrays and TIRF excitation geometry. This enables acquisition of single photon arrival time histograms for a 320 pixel FLIM map within less than 26 seconds exposure time. From this, we resolve distinct lifetime signatures corresponding to dye-labelled HCV and quantum-dot-labelled HCMV nucleic acid targets at concentrations as low as 10 nM. PMID:21258550

  13. Human Cytomegalovirus-Encoded Human Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Homolog Amplifies Its Immunomodulatory Potential by Upregulating Human IL-10 in Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Avdic, Selmir; McSharry, Brian P.; Steain, Megan; Poole, Emma; Sinclair, John; Abendroth, Allison

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene UL111A encodes cytomegalovirus-encoded human interleukin-10 (cmvIL-10), a homolog of the potent immunomodulatory cytokine human interleukin 10 (hIL-10). This viral homolog exhibits a range of immunomodulatory functions, including suppression of proinflammatory cytokine production and dendritic cell (DC) maturation, as well as inhibition of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II. Here, we present data showing that cmvIL-10 upregulates hIL-10, and we identify CD14+ monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages and DCs as major sources of hIL-10 secretion in response to cmvIL-10. Monocyte activation was not a prerequisite for cmvIL-10-mediated upregulation of hIL-10, which was dose dependent and controlled at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, cmvIL-10 upregulated expression of tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2), which is a regulator of the positive hIL-10 feedback loop, whereas expression of a negative regulator of the hIL-10 feedback loop, dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), remained unchanged. Engagement of the hIL-10 receptor (hIL-10R) by cmvIL-10 led to upregulation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), an enzyme linked with suppression of inflammatory responses, and this upregulation was required for cmvIL-10-mediated upregulation of hIL-10. We also demonstrate an important role for both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and STAT3 in the upregulation of HO-1 and hIL-10 by cmvIL-10. In addition to upregulating hIL-10, cmvIL-10 could exert a direct immunomodulatory function, as demonstrated by its capacity to upregulate expression of cell surface CD163 when hIL-10 was neutralized. This study identifies a mechanistic basis for cmvIL-10 function, including the capacity of this viral cytokine to potentially amplify its immunosuppressive impact by upregulating hIL-10 expression. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that causes significant human disease

  14. Ribosome profiling reveals pervasive translation outside of annotated protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Ingolia, Nicholas T; Brar, Gloria A; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Harris, Michael S; Talhouarne, Gaëlle J S; Jackson, Sarah E; Wills, Mark R; Weissman, Jonathan S

    2014-09-11

    Ribosome profiling suggests that ribosomes occupy many regions of the transcriptome thought to be noncoding, including 5' UTRs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Apparent ribosome footprints outside of protein-coding regions raise the possibility of artifacts unrelated to translation, particularly when they occupy multiple, overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). Here, we show hallmarks of translation in these footprints: copurification with the large ribosomal subunit, response to drugs targeting elongation, trinucleotide periodicity, and initiation at early AUGs. We develop a metric for distinguishing between 80S footprints and nonribosomal sources using footprint size distributions, which validates the vast majority of footprints outside of coding regions. We present evidence for polypeptide production beyond annotated genes, including the induction of immune responses following human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Translation is pervasive on cytosolic transcripts outside of conserved reading frames, and direct detection of this expanded universe of translated products enables efforts at understanding how cells manage and exploit its consequences.

  15. Increased Viral Dissemination in the Brain and Lethality in MCMV-Infected, Dicer-Deficient Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Eleonore; Macquin, Cécile; Krezel, Wojciech; Bahram, Seiamak; Georgel, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among Herpesviruses, Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV or HHV-5) represents a major threat during congenital or neonatal infections, which may lead to encephalitis with serious neurological consequences. However, as opposed to other less prevalent pathogens, the mechanisms and genetic susceptibility factors for CMV encephalitis are poorly understood. This lack of information considerably reduces the prognostic and/or therapeutic possibilities. To easily monitor the effects of genetic defects on brain dissemination following CMV infection we used a recently developed in vivo mouse model based on the neonatal inoculation of a MCMV genetically engineered to express Luciferase. Here, we further validate this protocol for live imaging, and demonstrate increased lethality associated with viral infection and encephalitis in mutant mice lacking Dicer activity. Our data indicate that miRNAs are important players in the control of MCMV pathogenesis and suggest that miRNA-based endothelial functions and integrity are crucial for CMV encephalitis. PMID:25955106

  16. Control of immune ligands by members of a cytomegalovirus gene expansion suppresses natural killer cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, Ceri A; Weekes, Michael P; Nobre, Luis V; Ruckova, Eva; Wilkie, Gavin S; Paulo, Joao A; Chang, Chiwen; Suárez, Nicolás M; Davies, James A; Antrobus, Robin; Stanton, Richard J; Aicheler, Rebecca J; Nichols, Hester; Vojtesek, Borek; Trowsdale, John; Davison, Andrew J; Gygi, Steven P

    2017-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US12 family consists of ten sequentially arranged genes (US12-21) with poorly characterized function. We now identify novel natural killer (NK) cell evasion functions for four members: US12, US14, US18 and US20. Using a systematic multiplexed proteomics approach to quantify ~1300 cell surface and ~7200 whole cell proteins, we demonstrate that the US12 family selectively targets plasma membrane proteins and plays key roles in regulating NK ligands, adhesion molecules and cytokine receptors. US18 and US20 work in concert to suppress cell surface expression of the critical NKp30 ligand B7-H6 thus inhibiting NK cell activation. The US12 family is therefore identified as a major new hub of immune regulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22206.001 PMID:28186488

  17. Xenotransplantation and porcine cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Denner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Porcine microorganisms may be transmitted to the human recipient when xenotransplantation with pig cells, tissues, and organs will be performed. Most of such microorganisms can be eliminated from the donor pig by specified or designated pathogen-free production of the animals. As human cytomegalovirus causes severe transplant rejection in allotransplantation, considerable concern is warranted on the potential pathogenicity of porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) in the setting of xenotransplantation. On the other hand, despite having a similar name, PCMV is different from HCMV. The impact of PCMV infection on pigs is known; however, the influence of PCMV on the human transplant recipient is unclear. However, first transplantations of pig organs infected with PCMV into non-human primates were associated with a significant reduction of the survival time of the transplants. Sensitive detection methods and strategies for elimination of PCMV from donor herds are required.

  18. Generation of Complex Azabicycles and Carbobicycles from Two Simple Compounds in a Single Operation through a Metal-Free Six-Step Domino Reaction.

    PubMed

    Bock, Christina M; Parameshwarappa, Gangajji; Bönisch, Simon; Neiss, Christian; Bauer, Walter; Hampel, Frank; Görling, Andreas; Tsogoeva, Svetlana B

    2016-04-04

    Aza- and carbobicyclic compounds possess favorable pharmaceutical properties, but they are difficult to access. Herein, we demonstrate an unprecedented organocatalytic two component six-step chemodivergent domino reaction, which provides a straightforward, sustainable and atom economical route to difficult-to-access complex bicyclic architectures: azabicycles and carbobicycles, whose ratios can be controlled by the applied electrophiles and catalysts. Detailed NMR and X-ray studies on the structures and relative stereochemistry of selected compounds are presented. Mechanistic investigations of the chemoselective branching step have been carried out with DFT methods in conjunction with semiempirical van der Waals interactions. This new domino reaction opens up a new vista of generating, in a single operation, new bioactive compounds with strong antiviral properties (EC50 up to 0.071 μM for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)) outperforming clinically used ganciclovir (EC50 2.6 μM).

  19. Antiviral and immunostimulating effects of lignin-carbohydrate-protein complexes from Pimpinella anisum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Bum; Yamagishi, Chihiro; Hayashi, Kyoko; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2011-01-01

    Three antiviral and immunostimulating substances (LC1, LC2 and LC3) were isolated from a hot water extract of seeds of Pimpinella anisum by combination of anion-exchange, gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction column chromatographies. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses revealed them to be lignin-carbohydrate-protein complexes. These lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCs) showed antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and measles virus. LCs were also found to interfere with virus adsorption to the host cell surface and directly inactivate viruses. Furthermore, they enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production by inducing iNOS mRNA and protein expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. The induced mRNA expression of cytokines including IL-1β and IL-10 was also apparent. These results suggest that the lignin-carbohydrate-protein complexes from P. anisum possessed potency as functional food ingredients against infectious diseases.

  20. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing of Herpesviruses Limits Productive and Latent Infections

    PubMed Central

    van Diemen, Ferdy R.; Bruggeling, Carlijn E.; Schürch, Anita C.; van Ham, Petra M.; Imhof, Saskia M.; Nijhuis, Monique; Wiertz, Emmanuel J. H. J.; Lebbink, Robert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Herpesviruses infect the majority of the human population and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 causes cold sores and herpes simplex keratitis, whereas HSV-2 is responsible for genital herpes. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common viral cause of congenital defects and is responsible for serious disease in immuno-compromised individuals. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with infectious mononucleosis and a broad range of malignancies, including Burkitt’s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin’s disease, and post-transplant lymphomas. Herpesviruses persist in their host for life by establishing a latent infection that is interrupted by periodic reactivation events during which replication occurs. Current antiviral drug treatments target the clinical manifestations of this productive stage, but they are ineffective at eliminating these viruses from the infected host. Here, we set out to combat both productive and latent herpesvirus infections by exploiting the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target viral genetic elements important for virus fitness. We show effective abrogation of HCMV and HSV-1 replication by targeting gRNAs to essential viral genes. Simultaneous targeting of HSV-1 with multiple gRNAs completely abolished the production of infectious particles from human cells. Using the same approach, EBV can be almost completely cleared from latently infected EBV-transformed human tumor cells. Our studies indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be effectively targeted to herpesvirus genomes as a potent prophylactic and therapeutic anti-viral strategy that may be used to impair viral replication and clear latent virus infection. PMID:27362483

  1. Zika Virus Infects Early- and Midgestation Human Maternal Decidual Tissues, Inducing Distinct Innate Tissue Responses in the Maternal-Fetal Interface.

    PubMed

    Weisblum, Yiska; Oiknine-Djian, Esther; Vorontsov, Olesya M; Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Zakay-Rones, Zichria; Meir, Karen; Shveiky, David; Elgavish, Sharona; Nevo, Yuval; Roseman, Moshe; Bronstein, Michal; Stockheim, David; From, Ido; Eisenberg, Iris; Lewkowicz, Aya A; Yagel, Simcha; Panet, Amos; Wolf, Dana G

    2017-02-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a cause of congenital brain anomalies and a range of placenta-related abnormalities, highlighting the need to unveil the modes of maternal-fetal transmission. The most likely route of vertical ZIKV transmission is via the placenta. The earliest events of ZIKV transmission in the maternal decidua, representing the maternal uterine aspect of the chimeric placenta, have remained unexplored. Here, we show that ZIKV replicates in first-trimester human maternal-decidual tissues grown ex vivo as three-dimensional (3D) organ cultures. An efficient viral spread in the decidual tissues was demonstrated by the rapid upsurge and continued increase of tissue-associated ZIKV load and titers of infectious cell-free virus progeny, released from the infected tissues. Notably, maternal decidual tissues obtained at midgestation remained similarly susceptible to ZIKV, whereas fetus-derived chorionic villi demonstrated reduced ZIKV replication with increasing gestational age. A genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that ZIKV substantially upregulated the decidual tissue innate immune responses. Further comparison of the innate tissue response patterns following parallel infections with ZIKV and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) revealed that unlike HCMV, ZIKV did not induce immune cell activation or trafficking responses in the maternal-fetal interface but rather upregulated placental apoptosis and cell death molecular functions. The data identify the maternal uterine aspect of the human placenta as a likely site of ZIKV transmission to the fetus and further reveal distinct patterns of innate tissue responses to ZIKV. Our unique experimental model and findings could further serve to study the initial stages of congenital ZIKV transmission and pathogenesis and evaluate the effect of new therapeutic interventions.

  2. Analysis and Characterization of the Complete Genome of Tupaia (Tree Shrew) Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, Udo; Darai, Gholamreza

    2001-01-01

    The tupaia herpesvirus (THV) was isolated from spontaneously degenerating tissue cultures of malignant lymphoma, lung, and spleen cell cultures of tree shrews (Tupaia spp.). The determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of the THV strain 2 genome resulted in a 195,857-bp-long, linear DNA molecule with a G+C content of 66.5%. The terminal regions of the THV genome and the loci of conserved viral genes were found to be G+C richer. Furthermore, no large repetitive DNA sequences could be identified. This is in agreement with the previous classification of THV as the prototype species of herpesvirus genome group F. The search for potential coding regions resulted in the identification of 158 open reading frames (ORFs) regularly distributed on both DNA strands. Seventy-six out of the 158 ORFs code for proteins that are significantly homologous to known herpesvirus proteins. The highest homologies found were to primate and rodent cytomegaloviruses. Biological properties, protein homologies, the arrangement of conserved viral genes, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that THV is a member of the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. The evolutionary lineages of THV and the cytomegaloviruses seem to have branched off from a common ancestor. In addition, it was found that the arrangements of conserved genes of THV and murine cytomegalovirus strain Smith, both of which are not able to form genomic isomers, are colinear with two different human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strain AD169 genomic isomers that differ from each other in the orientation of the long unique region. The biological properties and the high degree of relatedness of THV to the mammalian cytomegaloviruses allow the consideration of THV as a model system for investigation of HCMV pathogenicity. PMID:11312357

  3. Fcγ receptor antigen targeting potentiates cross-presentation by human blood and lymphoid tissue BDCA-3+ dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Flinsenberg, Thijs W H; Compeer, Ewoud B; Koning, Dan; Klein, Mark; Amelung, Femke J; van Baarle, Debbie; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Boes, Marianne

    2012-12-20

    The reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) poses a serious health threat to immune compromised individuals. As a treatment strategy, dendritic cell (DC) vaccination trials are ongoing. Recent work suggests that BDCA-3(+) (CD141(+)) subset DCs may be particularly effective in DC vaccination trials. BDCA-3(+) DCs had however been mostly characterized for their ability to cross-present antigen from necrotic cells. We here describe our study of human BDCA-3(+) DCs in elicitation of HCMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell clones. We show that Fcgamma-receptor (FcγR) antigen targeting facilitates antigen cross-presentation in several DC subsets, including BDCA-3(+) DCs. FcγR antigen targeting stimulates antigen uptake by BDCA-1(+) rather than BDCA-3(+) DCs. Conversely, BDCA-3(+) DCs and not BDCA-1(+) DCs show improved cross-presentation by FcγR targeting, as measured by induced release of IFNγ and TNF by antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. FcγR-facilitated cross-presentation requires antigen processing in both an acidic endosomal compartment and by the proteasome, and did not induce substantial DC maturation. FcγRII is the most abundantly expressed FcγR on both BDCA-1(+) and BDCA-3(+) DCs. Furthermore we show that BDCA-3(+) DCs express relatively more stimulatory FcγRIIa than inhibitory FcγRIIb in comparison with BDCA-1(+) DCs. These studies support the exploration of FcγR antigen targeting to BDCA-3(+) DCs for human vaccination purposes.

  4. Direct inhibitory effects of Ganciclovir on ICAM-1 expression and proliferation in human coronary vascular cells (SI/MPL-ratio: >1)

    PubMed Central

    Voisard, Rainer; Münder, Ulrike; von Müller, Lutz; Baur, Regine; Hombach, Vinzenz

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Treatment of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection with ganciclovir has beneficial indirect effects on the complex interactions of HCMV with restenosis, atherosclerosis, and transplant vascular sclerosis. The current study reports on direct effects of ganciclovir on expression of ICAM-1 and cell proliferation, key events of coronary atherosclerosis/restenosis. A potential clinical relevance of the data will be evaluated with the help of SI/MPL-ratio’s. Material/Methods Definition of the SI/MPL-ratio: relation between significant inhibitory effects in vitro/ex vivo and the maximal plasma level after systemic administration in vivo (ganciclovir: 9 μg/ml). Part I of the study investigated in cytoflow studies the effect of ganciclovir (0.05–5000 μg/mL) on TNF-a induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in endothelial cells derived from umbilical veins (HUVEC), human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC), and human coronary smooth muscle cells (HCMSMC). Part II of the study analysed the effect of ganciclovir (0.05–5000 μg/mL) on cell proliferation (HUVEC, HCAEC, and HCMSMC). In part III cytotoxic effects of ganciclovir (0.05–5000 μg/mL) were studied (HUVEC, HCAEC, and HCMSMC). Results Ganciclovir caused slight but significant inhibitory effects on expression of ICAM-1 in HUVEC, HCAEC, and HCMSMC. In all three cell types studied strong dose depending significant antiproliferative effects of ganciclovir were detected. Partially, the antiproliferative effects of ganciclovir were caused by cytotoxic effects. Conclusions SI/MPL-ratio’s >1 in HCAEC and HCMSMC indicate that the inhibitory effects of gancliclovir on ICAM-1-expression and cell proliferation may only be expected in vivo following local high dose administration e.g. in drug eluting stents (DES). PMID:21169918

  5. Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Human Adenovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus Infections in Tonsillar Lymphocytes Isolated from Patients Diagnosed with Tonsillar Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Assadian, Farzaneh; Sandström, Karl; Bondeson, Kåre; Laurell, Göran; Lidian, Adnan; Svensson, Catharina; Akusjärvi, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Surgically removed palatine tonsils provide a conveniently accessible source of T and B lymphocytes to study the interplay between foreign pathogens and the host immune system. In this study we have characterised the distribution of human adenovirus (HAdV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in purified tonsillar T and B cell-enriched fractions isolated from three patient age groups diagnosed with tonsillar hypertrophy and chronic/recurrent tonsillitis. HAdV DNA was detected in 93 out of 111 patients (84%), while EBV DNA was detected in 58 patients (52%). The most abundant adenovirus type was HAdV-5 (68%). None of the patients were positive for HCMV. Furthermore, 43 patients (39%) showed a co-infection of HAdV and EBV. The majority of young patients diagnosed with tonsillar hypertrophy were positive for HAdV, whereas all adult patients diagnosed with chronic/recurrent tonsillitis were positive for either HAdV or EBV. Most of the tonsils from patients diagnosed with either tonsillar hypertrophy or chronic/recurrent tonsillitis showed a higher HAdV DNA copy number in T compared to B cell-enriched fraction. Interestingly, in the majority of the tonsils from patients with chronic/recurrent tonsillitis HAdV DNA was detected in T cells only, whereas hypertrophic tonsils demonstrated HAdV DNA in both T and B cell-enriched fractions. In contrast, the majority of EBV positive tonsils revealed a preference for EBV DNA accumulation in the B cell-enriched fraction compared to T cell fraction irrespective of the patients' age. PMID:27136093

  6. Nuclear import of isoforms of the cytomegalovirus kinase pUL97 is mediated by differential activity of NLS1 and NLS2 both acting through classical importin-α binding.

    PubMed

    Webel, Rike; Solbak, Sara M Ø; Held, Christian; Milbradt, Jens; Groß, Andrea; Eichler, Jutta; Wittenberg, Thomas; Jardin, Christophe; Sticht, Heinrich; Fossen, Torgils; Marschall, Manfred

    2012-08-01

    The multifunctional protein kinase pUL97 of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strongly determines the efficiency of virus replication. Previously, the existence of two pUL97 isoforms that arise from alternative translational initiation and show a predominant nuclear localization was described. Two bipartite nuclear localization sequences, NLS1 and NLS2, were identified in the N terminus of the large isoform, whilst the small isoform exclusively contained NLS2. The current study found the following: (i) pUL97 nuclear localization in HCMV-infected primary fibroblasts showed accumulations in virus replication centres and other nuclear sections; (ii) in a quantitative evaluation system for NLS activity, the large isoform showed higher efficiency of nuclear translocation than the small isoform; (iii) NLS1 was mapped to aa 6-35 and NLS2 to aa 190-213; (iv) using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, the binding of both NLS1 and NLS2 to human importin-α was demonstrated, stressing the importance of individual arginine residues in the bipartite consensus motifs; (v) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of pUL97 peptides confirmed an earlier statement about the functional requirement of NLS1 embedding into an intact α-helical structure; and (vi) a bioinformatics investigation of the solvent-accessible surface suggested a high accessibility of NLS1 and an isoform-specific, variable accessibility of NLS2 for interaction with importin-α. Thus, the nucleocytoplasmic transport mechanism of the isoforms appeared to be differentially regulated, and this may have consequences for isoform-dependent functions of pUL97 during virus replication.

  7. Identification of persistent RNA-DNA hybrid structures within the origin of replication of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Prichard, M N; Jairath, S; Penfold, M E; St Jeor, S; Bohlman, M C; Pari, G S

    1998-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic-phase DNA replication initiates at the cis-acting origin of replication, oriLyt. oriLyt is a structurally complex region containing repeat elements and transcription factor binding sites. We identified two site-specific alkali-labile regions within oriLyt which flank an alkali-resistant DNA segment. These alkali-sensitive regions were the result of the degradation of two RNA species embedded within oriLyt and covalently linked to viral DNA. The virus-associated RNA, vRNA, was identified by DNase I treatment of HCMV DNA obtained from sucrose gradient purified virus. This heterogeneous population of vRNA was end labeled and used as a hybridization probe to map the exact location of vRNAs within oriLyt. vRNA-1 is localized between restriction endonuclease sites XhoI at nucleotide (nt) 93799 and SacI at nt 94631 and is approximately 500 bases long. The second vRNA, vRNA-2, lies within a region which exhibits a heterogeneous restriction pattern located between the SphI (nt 92636) and BamHI (nt 93513) and is approximately 300 bases long. This region was previously shown to be required for oriLyt replication (D. G. Anders, M. A. Kacica, G. S. Pari, and S. M. Punturieri, J. Virol. 66:3373-3384, 1992). RNase H analysis determined that vRNA-2 forms a persistent RNA-DNA hybrid structure in the context of the viral genome and in an oriLyt-containing plasmid used in the transient-replication assay.

  8. Three-Dimensional Structure of the Human Herpesvirus 8 Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lijun; Lo, Pierrette; Yu, Xuekui; Stoops, James K.; Forghani, B.; Zhou, Z. Hong

    2000-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), or Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, is a gammaherpesvirus implicated in all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma and certain lymphomas. HHV-8 has been extensively characterized, both biochemically and immunologically, since its first description in 1994. However, its three-dimensional (3D) structure remained heretofore undetermined largely due to difficulties in viral purification. We have used log-phase cultures of body cavity-based lymphoma 1 cells induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to obtain HHV-8 capsids for electron cryomicroscopy and computer reconstruction. The 3D structure of the HHV-8 capsids revealed a capsid shell composed of 12 pentons, 150 hexons, and 320 triplexes arranged on a T=16 icosahedral lattice. This structure is similar to those of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), which are prototypical members of alpha- and betaherpesviruses, respectively. The inner radius of the HHV-8 capsid is identical to that of the HSV-1 capsid but is smaller than that of the HCMV capsid, which is consistent with the relative sizes of the genomes they enclose. While the HHV-8 capsid exhibits many structural similarities to the HSV-1 capsid, our reconstruction shows two major differences: its hexons lack the “horn-shaped” VP26 densities bound to the HSV-1 hexon subunits, and the HHV-8 triplexes appear smaller and less elongated than those of HSV-1. These differences are in excellent agreement with our sequence comparisons of HHV-8 and HSV-1 capsid proteins. This gammaherpesvirus capsid structure complements previous structural studies on alpha- and betaherpesviruses in providing an account of structural similarities and differences among capsids representing all human herpesvirus subfamilies. PMID:11000237

  9. Opposing Regulation of the EGF Receptor: A Molecular Switch Controlling Cytomegalovirus Latency and Replication.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Jason; Zeltzer, Sebastian; Reitsma, Justin; Petrucelli, Alex; Umashankar, Mahadevaiah; Rak, Mike; Zagallo, Patricia; Schroeder, Joyce; Terhune, Scott; Goodrum, Felicia

    2016-05-01

    Herpesviruses persist indefinitely in their host through complex and poorly defined interactions that mediate latent, chronic or productive states of infection. Human cytomegalovirus (CMV or HCMV), a ubiquitous β-herpesvirus, coordinates the expression of two viral genes, UL135 and UL138, which have opposing roles in regulating viral replication. UL135 promotes reactivation from latency and virus replication, in part, by overcoming replication-suppressive effects of UL138. The mechanism by which UL135 and UL138 oppose one another is not known. We identified viral and host proteins interacting with UL138 protein (pUL138) to begin to define the mechanisms by which pUL135 and pUL138 function. We show that pUL135 and pUL138 regulate the viral cycle by targeting that same receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR is a major homeostatic regulator involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival, making it an ideal target for viral manipulation during infection. pUL135 promotes internalization and turnover of EGFR from the cell surface, whereas pUL138 preserves surface expression and activation of EGFR. We show that activated EGFR is sequestered within the infection-induced, juxtanuclear viral assembly compartment and is unresponsive to stress. Intriguingly, these findings suggest that CMV insulates active EGFR in the cell and that pUL135 and pUL138 function to fine-tune EGFR levels at the cell surface to allow the infected cell to respond to extracellular cues. Consistent with the role of pUL135 in promoting replication, inhibition of EGFR or the downstream phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) favors reactivation from latency and replication. We propose a model whereby pUL135 and pUL138 together with EGFR comprise a molecular switch that regulates states of latency and replication in HCMV infection by regulating EGFR trafficking to fine tune EGFR signaling.

  10. Importance of Highly Conserved Peptide Sites of Human Cytomegalovirus gO for Formation of the gH/gL/gO Complex.

    PubMed

    Stegmann, Cora; Abdellatif, Mohamed E A; Laib Sampaio, Kerstin; Walther, Paul; Sinzger, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The glycoprotein O (gO) is betaherpesvirus specific. Together with the viral glycoproteins H and L, gO forms a covalent trimeric complex that is part of the viral envelope. This trimer is crucial for cell-free infectivity of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) but dispensable for cell-associated spread. We hypothesized that the amino acids that are conserved among gOs of different cytomegaloviruses are important for the formation of the trimeric complex and hence for efficient virus spread. In a mutational approach, nine peptide sites, containing all 13 highly conserved amino acids, were analyzed in the context of HCMV strain TB40-BAC4 with regard to infection efficiency and formation of the gH/gL/gO complex. Mutation of amino acids (aa) 181 to 186 or aa 193 to 198 resulted in the loss of the trimer and a complete small-plaque phenotype, whereas mutation of aa 108 or aa 249 to 254 caused an intermediate phenotype. While individual mutations of the five conserved cysteines had little impact, their relevance was revealed in a combined mutation, which abrogated both complex formation and cell-free infectivity. C343 was unique, as it was sufficient and necessary for covalent binding of gO to gH/gL. Remarkably, however, C218 together with C167 rescued infectivity in the absence of detectable covalent complex formation. We conclude that all highly conserved amino acids contribute to the function of gO to some extent but that aa 181 to 198 and cysteines 343, 218, and 167 are particularly relevant. Surprisingly, covalent binding of gO to gH/gL is required neither for its incorporation into virions nor for proper function in cell-free infection.

  11. Viral DNA Sensors IFI16 and Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase Possess Distinct Functions in Regulating Viral Gene Expression, Immune Defenses, and Apoptotic Responses during Herpesvirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Diner, Benjamin A.; Lum, Krystal K.; Toettcher, Jared E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human interferon-inducible protein IFI16 is an important antiviral factor that binds nuclear viral DNA and promotes antiviral responses. Here, we define IFI16 dynamics in space and time and its distinct functions from the DNA sensor cyclic dinucleotide GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Live-cell imaging reveals a multiphasic IFI16 redistribution, first to viral entry sites at the nuclear periphery and then to nucleoplasmic puncta upon herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. Optogenetics and live-cell microscopy establish the IFI16 pyrin domain as required for nuclear periphery localization and oligomerization. Furthermore, using proteomics, we define the signature protein interactions of the IFI16 pyrin and HIN200 domains and demonstrate the necessity of pyrin for IFI16 interactions with antiviral proteins PML and cGAS. We probe signaling pathways engaged by IFI16, cGAS, and PML using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated knockouts in primary fibroblasts. While IFI16 induces cytokines, only cGAS activates STING/TBK-1/IRF3 and apoptotic responses upon HSV-1 and HCMV infections. cGAS-dependent apoptosis upon DNA stimulation requires both the enzymatic production of cyclic dinucleotides and STING. We show that IFI16, not cGAS or PML, represses HSV-1 gene expression, reducing virus titers. This indicates that regulation of viral gene expression may function as a greater barrier to viral replication than the induction of antiviral cytokines. Altogether, our findings establish coordinated and distinct antiviral functions for IFI16 and cGAS against herpesviruses. PMID:27935834

  12. Identification of Pathogen Signatures in Prostate Cancer Using RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunqin; Wei, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Infections of the prostate by bacteria, human papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related gammaretroviruses, human cytomegaloviruses and other members of the herpesvirus family have been widely researched. However, many studies have yielded conflicting and controversial results. In this study, we systematically investigated the transcriptomes of human prostate samples for the unique genomic signatures of these pathogens using RNA-seq data from both western and Chinese patients. Human and nonhuman RNA-seq reads were mapped onto human and pathogen reference genomes respectively using alignment tools Bowtie and BLAT. Pathogen infections and integrations were analyzed in adherence with the standards from published studies. Among the nine pathogens (Propionibacterium acnes, HPV, HCMV, XMRV, BKV, JCV, SV40, EBV, and HBV) we analyzed, Propionibacterium acnes genes were detected in all prostate tumor samples and all adjacent samples, but not in prostate samples from healthy individuals. SV40, HCMV, EBV and low-risk HPVs transcripts were detected in one tumor sample and two adjacent samples from Chinese prostate cancer patients, but not in any samples of western prostate cancer patients; XMRV, BKV and JCV sequences were not identified in our work; HBV, as a negative control, was absent from any samples. Moreover, no pathogen integration was identified in our study. While further validation is required, our analysis provides evidence of Propionibacterium acnes infections in human prostate tumors. Noted differences in viral infections across ethnicity remain to be confirmed with other large prostate cancer data sets. The effects of bacterial and viral infections and their contributions to prostate cancer pathogenesis will require continuous research on associated pathogens.

  13. Features of Memory-Like and PD-1(+) Human NK Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Della Chiesa, Mariella; Pesce, Silvia; Muccio, Letizia; Carlomagno, Simona; Sivori, Simona; Moretta, Alessandro; Marcenaro, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Human NK cells are distinguished into CD56(bright)CD16(-) cells and CD56(dim)CD16(+) cells. These two subsets are conventionally associated with differential functional outcomes and are heterogeneous with respect to the expression of KIR and CD94/NKG2 heterodimers that represent the two major types of HLA-class I-specific receptors. Recent studies indicated that immature CD56(bright) NK cells, homogeneously expressing the inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptor, are precursors of CD56(dim) NK cells that, in turn, during their process of differentiation, lose expression of CD94/NKG2A and subsequentially acquire inhibitory KIRs and LIR-1. The terminally differentiated phenotype of CD56(dim) cells is marked by the expression of the CD57 molecule that is associated with poor responsiveness to cytokine stimulation, but retained cytolytic capacity. Remarkably, this NKG2A(-)KIR(+)LIR-1(+)CD57(+)CD56(dim) NK cell subset when derived from individuals previously exposed to pathogens, such as human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), may contain "memory-like" NK cells. These cells are generally characterized by an upregulation of the activating receptor CD94/NKG2C and a downregulation of the inhibitory receptor Siglec-7. The "memory-like" NK cells are persistent over time and display some hallmarks of adaptive immunity, i.e., clonal expansion, more effective antitumor and antiviral immune responses, longevity, as well as given epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, unknown cofactors associated with HCMV infection may induce the onset of a recently identified fully mature NK cell subset, characterized by marked downregulation of the activating receptors NKp30 and NKp46 and by the unexpected expression of the inhibitory PD-1 receptor. This phenotype correlates with an impaired antitumor NK cell activity that can be partially restored by antibody-mediated disruption of PD-1/PD-L interaction.

  14. Requirement of the N-terminal residues of human cytomegalovirus UL112-113 proteins for viral growth and oriLyt-dependent DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Eui; Park, Mi Young; Kang, Kyeong Jin; Han, Tae Hee; Lee, Chan Hee; Ahn, Jin-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The UL112-113 region of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome encodes four phosphoproteins of 34, 43, 50, and 84 kDa that promote viral DNA replication. Co-transfection assays have demonstrated that self-interaction of these proteins via the shared N-termini is necessary for their intranuclear distribution as foci and for the efficient relocation of a viral DNA polymerase processivity factor (UL44) to the viral replication sites. However, the requirement of UL112-113 N-terminal residues for viral growth and DNA replication has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of deletion of the N-terminal regions of UL112-113 proteins on viral growth and oriLyt-dependent DNA replication. A deletion of the entire UL112 region or the region encoding the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues from the HCMV (Towne strain) bacmid impaired viral growth in bacmid-transfected human fibroblast cells, indicating their requirement for viral growth. In co-immunoprecipitation assays using the genomic gene expressing the four UL112-113 proteins together, the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues were found to be necessary for stable expression of UL112-113 proteins and their self-interaction. These residues were also required for efficient binding to and relocation of UL44, but not for interaction with IE2, an origin-binding transcription factor. In co-transfection/replication assays, replication of the oriLyt-containing plasmid was promoted by expression of intact UL112-113 proteins, but not by the expression of 25-amino-acid residue-deleted proteins. Our results demonstrate that the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues of UL112-113 proteins that mediate self-interaction contribute to viral growth by promoting their binding to UL44 and the initiation of oriLyt-dependent DNA replication.

  15. A complex intragenic rearrangement of ERCC8 in Chinese siblings with Cockayne syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hua; Li, Xiaoyan; Peng, Jiping; Chen, Qian; Gao, ZhiJie; Song, Xiaozhen; Li, WeiYu; Xiao, Jianqiu; Li, Caihua; Zhang, Ting; Gusella, James F.; Zhong, Jianmin; Chen, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder principally characterized by postnatal growth failure and progressive neurological dysfunction, due primarily to mutations in ERCC6 and ERCC8. Here, we report our diagnostic experience for two patients in a Chinese family suspected on clinical grounds to have Cockayne syndrome. Using multiple molecular techniques, including whole exome sequencing, array comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we identified compound heterozygosity for a maternal splicing variant (chr5:60195556, NM_000082:c.618-2A > G) and a paternal complex deletion/inversion/deletion rearrangement removing exon 4 of ERCC8, confirming the suspected pathogenesis in these two subjects. Microhomology (TAA and AGCT) at the breakpoints indicated that microhomology-mediated FoSTeS events were involved in this complex ERCC8 rearrangement. This diagnostic experience illustrates the value of high-throughput genomic technologies combined with detailed phenotypic assessment in clinical genetic diagnosis. PMID:28333167

  16. Characterization of six novel mutations in CYBA: the gene causing autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Teimourian, Shahram; Zomorodian, Elham; Badalzadeh, Mohsen; Pouya, Alireza; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Mansouri, Davood; Cheraghi, Taher; Parvaneh, Nima

    2008-06-01

    One of the rarest forms of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is caused by mutations in CYBA, which encodes the p22-phox subunit of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, leading to defective intracellular killing. This study investigated eight patients (six males and two females) from seven consanguineous, unrelated families with clinical CGD, positive family history and p22-phox deficiency. Mutation analysis of CYBA showed six different novel mutations: deletion of exons 3, 4 and 5; a missense mutation in exon 6 (c.373G>A); a splice site mutation in intron 5 (c.369+1G>A); a frameshift in exon 6 (c.385delGAGC); a frameshift in exon 3 (c.174delG); and a frameshift in exon 4 (c.223delC).

  17. Hereditary Angioedema with Recurrent Abdominal Pain in a Patient with a Novel Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, Hiromasa; Kaji, Arito; Suzuki, Keitarou; Yamada, Motohiro; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Sinozaki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a patient with hereditary angioedema type I. The patient had experienced recurrent abdominal pain around the time of her menstrual period for 13 years. A laboratory examination showed reduced functional and antigenic levels of C4 and C1 inhibitor (C1-INH). To establish a diagnosis, we carried out a DNA analysis of the patient's C1-INH gene. We determined that the patient was heterozygous for a single base pair transposition of T to C at nucleotide 4429 in exon 4, which had not been reported in the literature. As the patient had no family history of hereditary diseases, it was considered to be a de novo mutation. PMID:27725554

  18. Parkin disease in a Brazilian kindred: Manifesting heterozygotes and clinical follow-up over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naheed L; Horta, Wagner; Eunson, Louise; Graham, Elizabeth; Johnson, Janel O; Chang, Shannon; Davis, Mary; Singleton, Andrew; Wood, Nicholas W; Lees, Andrew J

    2005-04-01

    We report on a large Brazilian kindred with young-onset parkinsonism due to either a homozygous or heterozygous mutation in parkin. A total of 6 members were affected: 5 were homozygous and 1 heterozygous for a deletion in exon 4. Two other heterozygotes also had extrapyramidal signs. All affected subjects showed characteristic features of parkin disease with foot dystonia and an excellent response to levodopa complicated by motor fluctuations and dyskinesia within 3 years of therapy. Careful clinical follow-up over 10 years showed the phenotype was similar in all the homozygotes with asymmetrical limb bradykinesia and early walking difficulties. Some acceleration of disability was observed in some of the cases as they entered the third decade of illness, but dementia was absent.

  19. Analysis of RP2 and RPGR Mutations in Five X-Linked Chinese Families with Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingjing; Wu, Xiaofei; Shen, Di; Dong, Lijin; Jiao, Xiaodong; Hejtmancik, J Fielding; Li, Ningdong

    2017-03-15

    Mutations in RP2 and RPGR genes are responsible for the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP). In this study, we analyzed the RP2 and RPGR gene mutations in five Han Chinese families with XLRP. An approximately 17Kb large deletion including the exon 4 and exon 5 of RP2 gene was found in an XLRP family. In addition, four frameshift mutations including three novel mutations of c.1059 + 1 G > T, c.2002dupC and c.2236_2237del CT, as well as a previously reported mutation of c.2899delG were detected in the RPGR gene in the other four families. Our study further expands the mutation spectrum of RP2 and RPGR, and will be helpful for further study molecular pathogenesis of XLRP.

  20. Characterization of splice variants of the genes encoding human mitochondrial HMG-CoA lyase and HMG-CoA synthase, the main enzymes of the ketogenesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Puisac, Beatriz; Ramos, Mónica; Arnedo, María; Menao, Sebastián; Gil-Rodríguez, María Concepción; Teresa-Rodrigo, María Esperanza; Pié, Angeles; de Karam, Juan Carlos; Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; Giménez, Ignacio; Ramos, Feliciano J; Casals, Nuria; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Hegardt, Fausto G; Pié, Juan

    2012-04-01

    The genes HMGCS2 and HMGCL encode the two main enzymes for ketone-body synthesis, mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase and HMG-CoA lyase. Here, we identify and describe possible splice variants of these genes in human tissues. We detected an alternative transcript of HMGCS2 carrying a deletion of exon 4, and two alternative transcripts of HMGCL with deletions of exons 5 and 6, and exons 5, 6 and 7, respectively. All splice variants maintained the reading frame. However, Western blot studies and overexpression measurements in eukaryotic or prokaryotic cell models did not reveal HL or mHS protein variants. Both genes showed a similar distribution of the inactive variants in different tissues. Surprisingly, the highest percentages were found in tissues where almost no ketone bodies are synthesized: heart, skeletal muscle and brain. Our results suggest that alternative splicing might coordinately block the two main enzymes of ketogenesis in specific human tissues.

  1. A Novel Mutation in Helical Domain 2 of NOD2 in Sporadic Blau Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jain, Lubhani; Gupta, Namrata; Reddy, Mamatha M; Mittal, Ruchi; Barik, Manas Ranjan; Panigrahi, Bharat; Monie, Tom; Basu, Soumyava

    2016-09-13

    We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with bilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis accompanied by boggy arthritis of knee and ankle joints, intermittent fever, and nodular skin rash. She was diagnosed with sporadic Blau syndrome (early-onset sarcoidosis) based on above clinical signs and presence of non-necrotising granuloma on iris biopsy. DNA sequencing revealed a previously unreported heterozygous mutation consisting of a G>A transition in exon 4 of the NOD2 gene. This resulted in a glutamic acid to lysine substitution in helical domain 2 of the nucleotide binding and oligomerization (NACHT) region, possibly reducing efficiency of auto-inhibition in NOD2 signaling. Interestingly, the ocular inflammation resolved completely following therapeutic vitrectomy in both eyes whereas the systemic symptoms of fever and arthritis continued to wax and wane while on treatment with oral methotrexate and corticosteroids.

  2. A mild case of abetalipoproteinaemia in association with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahdili, Huda A; Hooper, Amanda J; Sullivan, David R; Stewart, Peter M; Burnett, John R

    2006-11-01

    Abetalipoproteinaemia (ABL), an extremely rare recessive disorder, is characterized by exceptionally low or undetectable concentrations of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins. ABL results from mutations in the gene encoding microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), a chaperone that facilitates the transfer of lipids onto apoB. Patients with ABL often present in childhood with a range of symptoms including fat malabsorption and manifestations of fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies. We describe a patient with sub-clinical hypothyroidism and ABL found to be compound heterozygous for a novel splice site mutation of intron 1 (c.61 + 2T > C) and a single adenine insertion in MTP exon 4 (c.419-420insA) that results in a frameshift and a protein truncated at 140 amino acids.

  3. Neuroferritinopathy: From ferritin structure modification to pathogenetic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Sonia; Rovida, Ermanna

    2015-01-01

    Neuroferritinopathy is a rare, late-onset, dominantly inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in L-ferritin gene. It is characterized by iron and ferritin aggregate accumulation in brain, normal or low serum ferritin levels and high variable clinical feature. To date, nine causative mutations have been identified and eight of them are frameshift mutations determined by nucleotide(s) insertion in the exon 4 of L-ferritin gene altering the structural conformation of the C-terminus of the L-ferritin subunit. Acting in a dominant negative manner, mutations are responsible for an impairment of the iron storage efficiency of ferritin molecule. Here, we review the main characteristics of neuroferritinopathy and present a computational analysis of some representative recently defined mutations with the purpose to gain new information about the pathogenetic mechanism of the disorder. This is particularly important as neuroferritinopathy can be considered an interesting model to study the relationship between iron, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. PMID:25772441

  4. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration in two Chinese children: identification of a novel PANK2 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Chan, K Y; Lam, C W; Lee, L P; Tong, S F; Yuen, Y P

    2008-02-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (formerly Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome), the most prevalent form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, is a rare degenerative brain disease characterised by predominantly extrapyramidal dysfunction resulting from mutations in the PANK2 (pantothenate kinase 2) gene. Using DNA mutation analysis, the authors identified a novel missense mutation (P354L) in exon 4 of the PANK2 gene in an adolescent with classic pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. DNA-based diagnosis of pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegenerat