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Sample records for head metal-on-metal cementless

  1. Increased risk of revision of cementless stemmed total hip arthroplasty with metal-on-metal bearings

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Alma B; Mäkelä, Keijo; Eskelinen, Antti; Havelin, Leif Ivar; Furnes, Ove; Kärrholm, Johan; Garellick, Göran; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Data from the national joint registries in Australia and England and Wales have revealed inferior medium-term survivorship for metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) than for metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THA. Based on data from the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA), we compared the revision risk of cementless stemmed THA with MoM and MoP bearings and we also compared MoM THA to each other. Patients and methods We identified 32,678 patients who were operated from 2002 through 2010 with cementless stemmed THA with either MoM bearings (11,567 patients, 35%) or MoP bearings (21,111 patients, 65%). The patients were followed until revision, death, emigration, or the end of the study period (December 31, 2011), and median follow-up was 3.6 (interquartile range (IQR): 2.4–4.8) years for MoM bearings and 3.4 (IQR: 2.0–5.8) years for MoP bearings. Multivariable regression in the presence of competing risk of death was used to assess the relative risk (RR) of revision for any reason (with 95% confidence interval (CI)). Results The cumulative incidence of revision at 8 years of follow-up was 7.0% (CI: 6.0–8.1) for MoM bearings and 5.1% (CI: 4.7–5.6) for MoP bearings. At 6 years of follow-up, the RR of revision for any reason was 1.5 (CI: 1.3–1.7) for MoM bearings compared to MoP bearings. The RR of revision for any reason was higher for the ASR (adjusted RR = 6.4, CI: 5.0–8.1), the Conserve Plus (adjusted RR = 1.7, CI: 1.1–2.5) and “other” acetabular components (adjusted RR = 2.4, CI: 1.5–3.9) than for MoP THA at 6 years of follow-up. Interpretation At medium-term follow-up, the survivorship for cementless stemmed MoM THA was inferior to that for MoP THA, and metal-related problems may cause higher revision rates for MoM bearings with longer follow-up. PMID:25715878

  2. Early results of large head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Kostensalo, I; Seppänen, M; Mäkelä, K; Mokka, J; Virolainen, P; Hirviniemi, J

    2012-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty significantly improves patient's life quality. However, total joint replacement is associated with possible complications, such as dislocations, infections, fractures and periprosthetic osteolysis. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties and analyse short term complications related to them. Between 9/2005 and 6/2009, a total of 691 hip replacements were performed on 635 patients with the use of Magnum M2 large head cementless metal-on-metal prosthesis in Turku University Hospital. All patients had a scheduled follow-up at two to three months, and at one year. The results were evaluated using X-rays, Harris Hip Score (HHS), and evaluating post-operative complications and reasons for re-operations. During our follow-up the HHS median raised from its preoperative value of 59.8 to 86.4 two to three months after the operation, and to 93.9 one year after the operation. As a complication we had five infections requiring single open debridement (early infection) or a two stage revision. Seven patients had a periprosthetic femoral fracture that was operated and 11 patients were reoperated because of acetabular component malposition, fracture or early loosening. We did not observe any dislocations, n. ischiadicus damages, squeeking or complications related to high metal ion release (ALVAL-reactions (Aseptic Lymphocyte-dominated Vasculitis-Associated Lesion) or pseudotumours). The metal-on-metal bearing pair allows large femoral head size, which decreases the risk for dislocation. It may also decrease the risk for osteolysis and aseptic loosening in a long run. Early complication rate related to the bearing surface is minimal. Metal-on-metal prosthesis is a good choice for young and active patients with good bone quality.

  3. Distributed analysis of hip implants using six national and regional registries: comparing metal-on-metal with metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene bearings in cementless total hip arthroplasty in young patients.

    PubMed

    Furnes, Ove; Paxton, Elizabeth; Cafri, Guy; Graves, Stephen; Bordini, Barbara; Comfort, Thomas; Rivas, Moises Coll; Banerjee, Samprit; Sedrakyan, Art

    2014-12-17

    The regulation of medical devices has attracted controversy recently because of problems related to metal-on-metal hip implants. There is growing evidence that metal-on-metal implants fail early and cause local and systemic complications. However, the failure associated with metal-on-metal head size is not consistently documented and needs to be communicated to patients and surgeons. The purpose of this study is to compare implant survival of metal on metal with that of metal on highly cross-linked polyethylene. Using a distributed health data network, primary total hip arthroplasties were identified from six national and regional total joint arthroplasty registries (2001 to 2010). Inclusion criteria were patient age of forty-five to sixty-four years, cementless total hip arthroplasties, primary osteoarthritis diagnosis, and exclusion of the well-known outlier implant ASR (articular surface replacement). The primary outcome was revision for any reason. A meta-analysis of survival probabilities was performed with use of a fixed-effects model. Metal-on-metal implants with a large head size of >36 mm were compared with metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene implants. Metal-on-metal implants with a large head size of >36 mm were used in 5172 hips and metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene implants were used in 14,372 hips. Metal-on-metal total hip replacements with a large head size of >36 mm had an increased risk of revision compared with metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene total hip replacements with more than two years of follow-up, with no difference during the first two years after implantation. The results of the hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) from the multivariable model at various durations of follow-up were 0.95 (0.74 to 1.23) at zero to two years (p = 0.698), 1.42 (1.16 to 1.75) at more than two years to four years (p = 0.001), 1.78 (1.45 to 2.19) at more than four years to six years (p < 0.001), and 2.15 (1.63 to 2.83) at more than

  4. Distributed Analysis of Hip Implants Using Six National and Regional Registries: Comparing Metal-on-Metal with Metal-on-Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Bearings in Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty in Young Patients

    PubMed Central

    Furnes, Ove; Paxton, Elizabeth; Cafri, Guy; Graves, Stephen; Bordini, Barbara; Comfort, Thomas; Rivas, Moises Coll; Banerjee, Samprit; Sedrakyan, Art

    2014-01-01

    Background: The regulation of medical devices has attracted controversy recently because of problems related to metal-on-metal hip implants. There is growing evidence that metal-on-metal implants fail early and cause local and systemic complications. However, the failure associated with metal-on-metal head size is not consistently documented and needs to be communicated to patients and surgeons. The purpose of this study is to compare implant survival of metal on metal with that of metal on highly cross-linked polyethylene. Methods: Using a distributed health data network, primary total hip arthroplasties were identified from six national and regional total joint arthroplasty registries (2001 to 2010). Inclusion criteria were patient age of forty-five to sixty-four years, cementless total hip arthroplasties, primary osteoarthritis diagnosis, and exclusion of the well-known outlier implant ASR (articular surface replacement). The primary outcome was revision for any reason. A meta-analysis of survival probabilities was performed with use of a fixed-effects model. Metal-on-metal implants with a large head size of >36 mm were compared with metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene implants. Results: Metal-on-metal implants with a large head size of >36 mm were used in 5172 hips and metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene implants were used in 14,372 hips. Metal-on-metal total hip replacements with a large head size of >36 mm had an increased risk of revision compared with metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene total hip replacements with more than two years of follow-up, with no difference during the first two years after implantation. The results of the hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) from the multivariable model at various durations of follow-up were 0.95 (0.74 to 1.23) at zero to two years (p = 0.698), 1.42 (1.16 to 1.75) at more than two years to four years (p = 0.001), 1.78 (1.45 to 2.19) at more than four years to six years (p < 0.001), and 2

  5. Sequelae of large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    van Lingen, Christiaan P.; Zagra, Luigi M.; Ettema, Harmen B.; Verheyen, Cees C.

    2016-01-01

    Large-head metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings were re-popularised in the late 1990s with the introduction of modern hip resurfacing (HR), followed closely by large metal head total hip arthroplasty (THA). A worldwide increase in the use of MoM hip arthroplasty subsequently saw a sharp decline, due to serious complications. MoM was rapidly adopted in the early 2000s until medical device alerts were issued by government regulatory agencies and national and international organisations, leading to post-marketing surveillance and discontinuation of these implants. Guidelines for MoM hip implant follow-up differ considerably between regulatory authorities worldwide; this can in part be attributed to missing or conflicting evidence. The authors consider that the use of large-head MoM THA should be discontinued. MoM HR should be approached with caution and, when considered, should be used only in patients who meet all of the recommended selection criteria, which limits its indications considerably. The phased introduction of new prostheses should be mandatory in future. Close monitoring of outcomes and long-term follow-up is also necessary for the introduction of new prostheses. Cite this article: van Lingen CP, Zagra LM, Ettema HB, Verheyen CC. Sequelae of large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties: current status and future prospects. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:345-353. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.160014. PMID:28461912

  6. The John Charnley Award: Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing versus large-diameter head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Garbuz, Donald S; Tanzer, Michael; Greidanus, Nelson V; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P

    2010-02-01

    Resurfacing arthroplasty has become an attractive option for young patients who want to maintain a high activity level. One recent study reported modestly increased activity levels for patients with resurfacing compared to standard total hip arthroplasty (THA). We conducted a prospective randomized clinical trial to compare clinical outcomes of resurfacing versus large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. We randomized 107 patients deemed eligible for resurfacing arthroplasty to have either resurfacing or standard THA. Patients were assessed for quality-of-life outcomes using the PAT-5D index, WOMAC, SF-36, and UCLA activity score. The minimum followup was 0.8 years (mean, 1.1 years; range, 0.8-2.2 years). Of the 73 patients followed at least one year, both groups reported improvement in quality of life on all outcome measures. There was no difference in quality of life between the two arms in the study. Serum levels of cobalt and chromium were measured in a subset of 30 patients. In both groups cobalt and chromium was elevated compared to baseline. Patients receiving a large-head metal-on-metal total hip had elevated ion levels compared to the resurfacing arm of the study. At 1 year, the median serum cobalt increased 46-fold from baseline in patients in the large-head total hip group, while the median serum chromium increased 10-fold. At 1 year, serum cobalt was 10-fold higher and serum chromium 2.6-fold higher than in the resurfacing arm. Due to these excessively high metal ion levels, the authors recommend against further use of this particular large-head total hip arthroplasty. Level I, randomized clinical trial. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  7. Blood levels of cobalt and chromium are inversely correlated to head size after metal-on-metal resurfacing arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Parry, Michael C; Eastaugh-Waring, Steve; Bannister, Gordon C; Learmonth, Ian D; Case, Charles Patrick; Blom, Ashley W

    2013-01-01

    Resurfacing arthroplasty has fallen out of favour in recent years due to unfavourable survivorship in joint registries and alarming reports of soft tissue reactions around metal on metal prostheses. Our aim was to assess the effect of head size, implant design and component positioning on metal production by resurfacing arthroplasties. We measured whole blood cobalt and chromium and component position in matched populations implanted with two designs of resurfacing arthroplasty over a two-year period. Both implants resulted in a significant increase in blood metal levels (p<0.001) though the ASR design generated significantly higher metal levels (p = 0.041). A significant inverse correlation was seen between component size and blood cobalt levels (p = 0.032) and blood chromium levels (p<0.001). No correlation was identified between component position and blood metal levels. Small diameter metal resurfacing components result in increased metal generation compared with larger components. As increased metal generation has been correlated to wear and therefore failure, caution must be used on implantation of smaller components and indeed, in those who require smaller components, alternative bearing materials should be considered. These results contrast with recent findings which have demonstrated early failure for larger diameter stemmed metal-on-metal prostheses.

  8. Pseudotumour incidence, cobalt levels and clinical outcome after large head metal-on-metal and conventional metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty: mid-term results of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, H C; Reininga, I H F; Zijlstra, W P; Boomsma, M F; Bulstra, S K; van Raay, J J A M

    2015-11-01

    We compared the incidence of pseudotumours after large head metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) with that after conventional metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THA and assessed the predisposing factors to pseudotumour formation. From a previous randomised controlled trial which compared large head (38 mm to 60 mm) cementless MoM THA with conventional head (28 mm) cementless MoP THA, 93 patients (96 THAs: 41 MoM (21 males, 20 females, mean age of 64 years, standard deviation (sd) 4) and 55 MoP (25 males, 30 females, mean age of 65 years, sd 5) were recruited after a mean follow-up of 50 months (36 to 64). The incidence of pseudotumours, measured using a standardised CT protocol was 22 (53.7%) after MoM THA and 12 (21.8%) after MoP THA. Women with a MoM THA were more likely to develop a pseudotumour than those with a MoP THA (15 vs 7, odds ratio (OR) = 13.4, p < 0.001). There was a similar incidence of pseudotumours in men with MoM THAs and those with MoP THAs (7 vs 5, OR = 2.1, p = 0.30). Elevated cobalt levels (≥ 5 microgram/L) were only associated with pseudotumours in women with a MoM THA. There was no difference in mean Oxford and Harris hip scores between patients with a pseudotumour and those without. Contrary to popular belief, pseudotumours occur frequently around MoP THAs. Women with a MoM THA and an elevated cobalt level are at greatest risk. In this study, pseudotumours had no effect on the functional outcome after either large head MoM or conventional MoP THA.

  9. Metal ion levels in the blood of patients after hip resurfacing: a comparison between twenty-eight and thirty-six-millimeter-head metal-on-metal prostheses.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, John; Zukor, David J; Mwale, Fackson; Minarik, William; Petit, Alain; Huk, Olga L

    2008-08-01

    Metal ion toxicity, metal hypersensitivity, and metal carcinogenicity are causes for concern for patients with metal-on-metal hip replacements. Thus, understanding the biological fate of metal ions, and consequently their long-term systemic effects, is of great interest to patients and surgeons alike. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure the levels of cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum ions in the blood of control patients (preoperative control pre-resurfacing patients), patients with a metal-on-polyethylene total hip prosthesis, patients with a metal-on-metal total hip prosthesis with either a 28 or 36-mm femoral head, and patients with a hip resurfacing prosthesis. Since cobalt and chromium ions have the potential to induce oxidative stress through irreversible biochemical damage to macromolecules, the levels of ions were correlated to the concentration of three oxidative stress markers in the plasma of these patients. The median cobalt level was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in the 36-mm metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty group (1.8 parts per billion [1.8 microg/L]) compared with the 28-mm metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty group (2.5 parts per billion [2.5 microg/L]) and the hip resurfacing group (2.3 parts per billion [2.3 microg/L]) at six months postoperatively. The median chromium level was also significantly lower (p < 0.01) in the 36-mm metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty group (0.25 parts per billion [0.25 microg/L]) compared with the 28-mm metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty group (0.35 parts per billion [0.35 microg/L]) and the hip resurfacing group (0.50 parts per billion [0.50 microg/L]) at six months postoperatively. However, neither the median cobalt levels nor the median chromium levels were significantly different among the three metal-on-metal groups at one year. The median levels of molybdenum were not significantly different among the three groups at either six months or one year. In addition, there was no

  10. Wear of surface-engineered metal-on-metal bearings for hip prostheses under adverse conditions with the head loading on the rim of the cup.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Ian; Williams, Sophie; Isaac, Graham; Hatto, Peter; Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John

    2013-04-01

    Clinical studies have found high wear rates, elevated ion levels and high revision rates of large-diameter metal-on-metal surface replacement bearings in some patients, which have been associated with edge loading of the head on the rim of the cup. We have simulated increased wear and ion levels in metal-on-metal bearings in vitro by introducing variations in translational and rotational positioning of the components, which reproduces stripe wear on the femoral head, cup rim wear and clinically relevant large as well as small wear particles. There is interest in technologies such as surface engineering, which might reduce metal wear and the release of wear particles and ions. Reduced wear with surface-engineered surface replacements compared to metal-on-metal controls has been reported under standard walking conditions with correctly aligned and concentric components. In this in vitro study, the wear of chromium nitride surface-engineered metal-on-metal bearings under conditions of microseparation associated with translational and rotational malpositioning of the components was investigated and the results were compared with a previously reported study of metal-on-metal bearings under the same conditions. Simulations were conducted using our unique hip simulation microseparation methodologies, which reproduce accelerated wear in metal-on-metal bearings and have previously been clinically validated with ceramic-on-ceramic bearings. Four of the six surface-engineered bearings had evidence of head contact on the rim of the cup, which produced stripe wear on the femoral head. Four of the six surface-engineered bearings (two without stripe and two with stripe wear) had lower wear than the previously reported high wearing metal-on-metal bearings. At 2 million cycles, two of the surface-engineered bearings had substantially increased wear rates, four times higher than the high wear rates previously reported for metal-on-metal bearings under the same conditions. There was

  11. CT-based quantification of bone stock in large head metal-on-metal unilateral total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Martijn F; Slouwerhof, Inge; van Lingen, Christiaan; Pakvis, Dean F M; van Dalen, Jorn A; Edens, Mireille A; Ettema, Harmen B; Verheyen, Cees C P M; Maas, Mario

    2016-04-01

    To explore ipsilateral and contralateral acetabular roof bone stock density in unilateral large head MoM THA whether there is a significant lower acetabular bone stock in the hip with a metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip replacement compared to the contralateral side. Second part of this study is to examine if there are any associates with regard to potential bone stock density difference. A database of 317 patients with unilateral metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip replacements was set up retrospectively for this study. On computed tomography scans, conducted after a relative short in situ time period averaging 2.8 years, regions-of-interests were drawn in the trabecular bone of the acetabulum to measure average Hounsfield Units (HU). HU differences were calculated and tested by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Univariate analysis was conducted to examine associates of potential bone loss. In a population of 317 patients (156 male, 161 female) with an average age of 61.9 ± 7.8, the median HU on the side of the MoM replacement was 123.3 (7.6-375.4). On the contralateral side, median HU was 144.7 (-0.4 to 332.8). The median HU difference was 21.4 after a mean post-operative in situ time of 2.8 years. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test proved a significant difference (p<0.001). Univariate analyses show that the in situ time of the MoM THA has a significant correlation with the bone density difference. Results show a significant lower bone density at the acetabular roof at the side of the prosthesis compared with the contralateral side after short in situ time of the MoM THA in patients with unilateral MoM total hip replacements. In our patient population, the in situ time showed a significant association with the acetabular bone density difference. As acetabular roof bone stock measurements are feasible and show temporal decline this could become an important parameter to be used in orthopedic decision making for revision surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  12. Revision of Metal-on-metal Hip Arthroplasty with Well Fixed and Positioned Acetabular Component Using a Dual-mobility Head and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Figueras, Guillem; Planell, Ramón Vives; Fernàndez, Ramón Serra; Biayna, Joan Camí

    2016-01-01

    Background: As a consequence of use of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties some patients have precised revision for pain or metal hipersensivity reactions among other causes. We propose to salvage monoblock acetabular component and femoral component using a dual-mobility head and perform a lower morbidity operation in young patients preserving host bone stock in cases with well fixed and positioned components. Objective: (1) What clinical problems have been reported in patients with Metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties? (2) Could the tribocorrosion potentially cause a fracture of neck femoral component? (3) Can be the dual-mobility head a recourse in metal-on-metal hip revision? Methods: Ten patients were revised for pain or/and raised Cobalt/Chromium levels between August 2012 and December 2015. In three cases femoral neck component was fractured and femoral revision was necessary. In four hips, acetabular and femoral components could be maintained. Age, body index mass, ion levels, acetabular position, size of acetabular component and femoral head, approach, blood transfunsion and time of hospitalization were analized. Results: At a mean follow-up of 25,6 months (6 to 45) the mean postoperative HHS was 92. It was not statistically significant because several patients were low sintomatic before surgery, but had raised Cobalt/Chromium levels in the blood. All patients had near-normal levels of Cobalt/Chromium during the first 6 months after revision surgery. No relevant complications were reported. Conclusion: The use of dual-mobility head can be an acceptable option to revise metal-on-metal arthroplasties correctly oriented with abscence of loosening or infection signs and keeping bone stock in young patients. PMID:27857822

  13. No association between serum metal ions and implant fixation in large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Søballe, Kjeld; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Lorenzen, Nina Dyrberg; Mechlenburg, Inger; Stilling, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanism of failure of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been related to a high rate of metal wear debris, which is partly generated from the head-trunnion interface. However, it is not known whether implant fixation is affected by metal wear debris. Patients and methods 49 cases of MoM THA in 41 patients (10 women) with a mean age of 52 (28–68) years were followed with stereoradiographs after surgery and at 1, 2, and 5 years to analyze implant migration by radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Patients also participated in a 5- to 7-year follow-up with measurement of serum metal ions, questionnaires (Oxford hip score (OHS) and Harris hip score (HHS)), and measurement of cup and stem positions and systemic bone mineral density. Results At 1–2 years, mean total translation (TT) was 0.04 mm (95% CI: –0.07 to 0.14; p = 0.5) for the stems; at 2–5 years, mean TT was 0.13 mm (95% CI: –0.25 to –0.01; p = 0.03), but within the precision limit of the method. For the cups, there was no statistically significant TT or total rotation (TR) at 1–2 and 2–5 years. At 2–5 years, we found 4 cups and 5 stems with TT migrations exceeding the precision limit of the method. There was an association between cup migration and total OHS < 40 (4 patients, 4 hips; p = 0.04), but there were no statistically significant associations between cup or stem migration and T-scores < –1 (n = 10), cup and stem positions, or elevated serum metal ion levels (> 7µg/L (4 patients, 6 hips)). Interpretation Most cups and stems were well-fixed at 1–5 years. However, at 2–5 years, 4 cups and 5 stems had TT migrations above the precision limits, but these patients had serum metal ion levels similar to those of patients without measurable migrations, and they were pain-free. Patients with serum metal ion levels > 7 µg/L had migrations similar to those in patients with serum metal ion levels < 7 µg/L. Metal wear debris does not appear to influence the

  14. Does bearing size influence metal ion levels in large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty? A comparison of three total hip systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was twofold: first, to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference in the metal ion levels among three different large-head metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip systems. The second objective was to assess whether position of the implanted prostheses, patient demographics or factors such as activity levels influence overall blood metal ion levels and whether there is a difference in the functional outcomes between the systems. Methods In a cross-sectional cohort study, three different metal-on-metal total hip systems were assessed: two monoblock heads, the Durom socket (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN, USA) and the Birmingham socket (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA), and one modular metal-on-metal total hip system (Pinnacle, Depuy Orthopedics, Warsaw, IN, USA). Fifty-four patients were recruited, with a mean age of 59.7 years and a mean follow-up time of 41 months (12 to 60). Patients were evaluated clinically, radiologically and biochemically. Statistical analysis was performed on all collected data to assess any differences between the three groups in terms of overall blood metal ion levels and also to identify whether there was any other factor within the group demographics and outcomes that could influence the mean levels of Co and Cr. Results Although the functional outcome scores were similar in all three groups, the blood metal ion levels in the larger monoblock large heads (Durom, Birmingham sockets) were significantly raised compared with those of the Pinnacle group. In addition, the metal ion levels were not found to have a statistically significant relationship to the anteversion or abduction angles as measured on the radiographs. Conclusions When considering a MOM THR, the use of a monoblock large-head system leads to higher elevations in whole blood metal ions and offers no advantage over a smaller head modular system. PMID:24472283

  15. MRI Findings in Patients After Small-Head Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty with a Minimum Follow-up of 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Tobias; Do, Thuy D; Klot, Matthias C; Hertzsch, Fabian; Seelmann, Kirsten; Gaida, Matthias M; Weber, Marc-André; Gotterbarm, Tobias

    2017-09-20

    Concern has been raised about the late onset of adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) in patients with a small-head metal-on-metal total hip replacement. The aims of this study were to assess the frequency and characteristic appearance of ARMD in patients with a small-head (28-mm) metal-on-metal total hip replacement and elevated blood ion levels (>1 μg/L) after a minimum follow-up of 10 years and to analyze the possible risk factors associated with the prevalence of these lesions. In the present study, we used metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MARS MRI) to investigate the cases of 53 patients (66 hips) with a small-head (28-mm) metal-on-metal total hip replacement and elevated blood ion levels at a mean follow-up interval of 15.5 years (range, 10.6 to 19.3 years). Whole blood metal ion levels (cobalt and chromium), clinical outcome scores (Harris hip score), and radiographs were obtained for each patient. Tissue samples from patients who had revision surgery were histologically examined. MARS MRI revealed ARMD in 27 hips (41%). Most hips with ARMD (67%) were asymptomatic. ARMD were generally small, with a median lesion size of 2.3 cm (range, 0.3 to 71.4 cm) and predominantly cystic in nature. Multivariate regression analysis revealed positive correlation between cobalt ion levels and the presence of ARMD. In this case series, the risk for the development of ARMD was 2.87 times higher for every 1 μg/L increase of blood cobalt ion concentration (95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 8.17; p = 0.048). In this case series, ARMD were seen in 41% of the hips following small-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty at long-term follow-up, and most patients with ARMD were asymptomatic. Blood cobalt ion levels could be identified as a risk factor for ARMD. However, ARMD also occurred in patients with low metal ion levels. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of ARMD in asymptomatic patients with this bearing type. Therapeutic

  16. Importance of head diameter, clearance, and cup wall thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prostheses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongmin; Roberts, P; Grigoris, P

    2006-08-01

    The main design features of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip resurfacing prostheses in promoting elastohydrodynamic lubrication were investigated in the present study, including the femoral head diameter, the clearance, and the cup wall thickness. Simplified conceptual models were developed, based on equivalent uniform wall thicknesses for both the cup and the head as well as the support materials representing bone and cement, and subsequently used for elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis. Both typical first- and second-generation MOM hip resurfacing prostheses with different clearances and cup wall thicknesses were considered with a fixed large bearing diameter of 50 mm, as well as a 28 mm diameter MOM total hip replacement bearing for the purpose of comparison. The importance of the head diameter and the clearance in promoting elastohydrodynamic lubrication was confirmed. Furthermore, it was also predicted that a relatively thin acetabular cup in the more recently introduced second-generation MOM hip resurfacing prostheses would be capable of improving elastohydrodynamic lubrication even further.

  17. Modular to Monoblock: Difficulties of Detaching the M(2)a-Magnum(TM) Head Are Common in Metal-on-metal Revisions.

    PubMed

    Mäntymäki, Heikki; Mäkelä, Keijo T; Vahlberg, Tero; Hirviniemi, Joni; Niinimäki, Tuukka

    2016-09-01

    Modern hip implants typically feature modular heads, which allow for easy exchange and removal from the femoral stem at the time of revision. However, owing to fretting, corrosion, or cold welding, the modular head may be difficult or impossible to separate from the underlying trunnion, especially if the implant has titanium interfaces between the head and the stem. We have repeatedly encountered difficulty removing the titanium sleeve adapter in the M(2)a-Magnum(TM) implant. Although the manufacturer warns about this complication and cases with these difficulties have been reported to the United States FDA, we believed this topic is important to study, because the frequency of difficulties in head removal is unknown and the complications related to this event have not been characterized. We asked: (1) Do revisions of M(2)a-Magnum(TM) implants differ from those of M(2)a-38(TM) implants in terms of ease of removal of the femoral head? (2) In cases where difficulty with M(2)a-Magnum(TM) head removal occurred, was the operative time, bleeding, risk of periprosthetic fracture, or joint infection increased compared with cases where the M(2)a-Magnum(TM) head was removed without difficulties? Between 2004 and 2014, we revised 296 THAs with metal-on-metal implants that involved M(2)a-Magnum(TM) (123) or M(2)a-38(TM) heads (88); of those, 84 were planned to include a femoral stem revision and insufficient data were available for three operations, so they were excluded from this analysis, leaving 124 THAs in the current retrospective study (70 THAs with M(2)a-Magnum(TM) and 54 THAs with M(2)a-38(TM) heads).The method of modular head removal, any difficulties removing the femoral head from the trunnion, operation time, and complications were recorded based on chart review. All the observed problems of detaching the head or taper adapter were among M(2)a-Magnum(TM) heads; there were no problems detaching the head in revisions of the M(2)a-38(TM) implant. In 29% (20 of 70) of

  18. Revising the well-fixed, painful resurfacing using a double-mobility head: a new strategy to address metal-on-metal complications.

    PubMed

    Verhelst, Luk A; Van der Bracht, Hans; Vanhegan, Ivor S; Van Backlé, Bart; De Schepper, Jo

    2012-12-01

    Isolated revision of the femoral component of hip resurfacings to metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasties has shown inferior results. We present a case series of well-fixed, painful MoM hips with elevated chromium and cobalt levels. An isolated femoral revision using a noncemented femoral component and a double-mobility head was performed. Patients were followed up for 6 months and showed excellent improvements in visual analog score and Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS). Cobalt and chromium levels dropped at 6 weeks and were normal at 6 months. Although our follow-up is short, we feel that it is important to highlight this as a potential treatment strategy. This revision is less aggressive than traditional methods, eliminates the concerns from MoM bearings, and results in a stable construct. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of head size on the development of metallic wear and on the characteristics of carbon layers in metal-on-metal hip joints

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Christoph M; Wimmer, Markus A; Milz, Stefan; Taeger, Georg

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Particles originating from the articulating surfaces of hip endoprostheses often induce an inflammatory response, which can be related to implant failure. We therefore analyzed the metal content in capsular tissue from 44 McKee-Farrar metal-on-metal hip prostheses (with 3 different head sizes) and we also analyzed the morphological structure of layers located on articulating surfaces. Methods Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used to analyze the metal content in capsular tissue. Visually detectable carbon layers located on the articulating surfaces were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive Xray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results Metallic debris was detected in all capsular tissue samples but no statistically significant differences in metal content were found in relation to implant head size. The morphological characteristics of the different layer zones allowed an exact analysis of contact and non-contact areas. Furthermore, surface layers appear to have a protective function because they can prevent sharp-edged particles from damaging the prostheses surface. Interpretation The implant head size does not appear to influence the amount of metallic debris. The layers obviously act like a lubricating agent because the protection function does not occur in regions without layers where the metal surface often shows numerous scratches. As layers are not generated immediately after the implantation of hip prostheses, these findings may at least partially explain the high amount of wear early after implantation. PMID:19421914

  20. The Correlation of Serum Metal Ions with Functional Outcome Scores at Three-to-Six Years following Large Head Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Patange Subbarao, Sheethal Prasad; Malek, Ibrahim A.; Mohanty, Khitish; Thomas, Phillip; John, Alun

    2013-01-01

    Based on success of hip resurfacing, large head Metal on Metal (MoM) hip arthroplasty has gained significant popularity in recent years. There are growing concerns about metal ions related soft tissue abnormalities. The aim of this study was to define a correlation of metal ions with various functional outcome scores following large head MoM hip arthroplasty. Consecutive cohort of 70 patients (76 hips) with large head MoM hip arthroplasty using SL-Plus femoral stem and Cormet acetabular component were prospectively followed up. An independent observer assessed the patients which included serology for metal ion levels and collection of Oxford Hip, Harris hip, WOMAC, SF-36 & modified UCLA scores. Median serum cobalt and chromium levels were 3.10 μg/L (0.35–62.92) and 4.21 μg/L (0.73–69.27) with total of median 7.30 μg/L (2.38–132.19). The median Oxford, Harris, WOMAC, SF-36 and modified UCLA scores were 36 (6–48), 87 (21–100), 36 (24–110), 104 (10–125), and 3 (1–9), respectively. Seventeen patients had elevated serum cobalt and chromium levels ≥7 μg/L. There was no significant correlation between serum metal ion levels with any of these outcome scores. We recommend extreme caution during follow up of these patients with large head MoM arthroplasty. PMID:24959353

  1. The Relationship Between Cobalt/Chromium Ratios and the High Prevalence of Head-Stem Junction Corrosion in Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hothi, Harry S; Berber, Reshid; Whittaker, Robert K; Blunn, Gordon W; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2016-05-01

    The size of the clinical impact of corrosion of the taper junction of metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties (MOM-THAs) is unclear. Examination of a large number of retrieved MOM resurfacings and total hip arthroplasties can help us understand the role of taper corrosion in metal ion release. We graded the severity of corrosion at the taper junction of 395 MOM-THAs and compared the prerevision whole blood metal ion levels of these hips with 529 failed MOM hip resurfacings. Virtually all MOM-THA hips (n = 388) had evidence of corrosion of the head-stem taper junction and graded as severe in 31% (n = 124). The median cobalt/chromium (Co/Cr) ratio was 1.58 (0.01-13.82) and 1.08 (0-4.86) for MOM-THA and MOM hip resurfacing, respectively; this difference was significant (P < .001). THA hips with severely corroded tapers had the highest median Co/Cr ratio of 1.86 (0.01-10). This study demonstrates the high prevalence of severe taper corrosion, which may be related to an elevated Co/Cr ratio before revision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of femoral head size on the wear of metal on metal bearings in total hip replacements under adverse edge-loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Hajjar, Mazen; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie; Tipper, Joanne L; Jennings, Louise M

    2013-02-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have shown low-wear rates under standard hip simulator conditions; however, retrieval studies have shown large variations in wear rates and mechanisms. High-wear in vivo has caused catastrophic complications and has been associated with steep cup-inclination angle (rotational malpositioning). However, increasing the cup-inclination angle in vitro has not replicated the increases in wear to the same extent as those observed in retrievals. Clinically relevant wear rates, patterns, and particles were observed in vitro for ceramic-on-ceramic bearings when microseparation (translational malpositioning) conditions were introduced into the gait cycle. In the present study, 28 and 36-mm MoM bearings were investigated under adverse conditions. Increasing the cup angle from 45° to 65° resulted in a significant increase in the wear rate of the 28 mm bearings. However, for the 36 mm bearings, head-rim contact did not occur under the steep cup-angle condition, and the wear rate did not increase. The introduction of microseparation to the gait cycle significantly increased the wear rate of the MoM bearings. Cup angle and head size did not influence the wear rate under microseparation conditions. This study indicated that high-in vivo wear rates were associated with edge loading due to rotational malpositioning such as high-cup-inclination angle and translational malpositioning that could occur due to several surgical factors. Translational malpositioning had a more dominant effect on the wear rate. Preclinical simulation testing should be undertaken with translational and rotational malpositioning conditions as well as standard walking cycle conditions defined by the ISO standard.

  3. Effect of femoral head size on the wear of metal on metal bearings in total hip replacements under adverse edge-loading conditions

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hajjar, Mazen; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie; Tipper, Joanne L; Jennings, Louise M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have shown low-wear rates under standard hip simulator conditions; however, retrieval studies have shown large variations in wear rates and mechanisms. High-wear in vivo has caused catastrophic complications and has been associated with steep cup-inclination angle (rotational malpositioning). However, increasing the cup-inclination angle in vitro has not replicated the increases in wear to the same extent as those observed in retrievals. Clinically relevant wear rates, patterns, and particles were observed in vitro for ceramic-on-ceramic bearings when microseparation (translational malpositioning) conditions were introduced into the gait cycle. In the present study, 28 and 36-mm MoM bearings were investigated under adverse conditions. Increasing the cup angle from 45° to 65° resulted in a significant increase in the wear rate of the 28 mm bearings. However, for the 36 mm bearings, head-rim contact did not occur under the steep cup-angle condition, and the wear rate did not increase. The introduction of microseparation to the gait cycle significantly increased the wear rate of the MoM bearings. Cup angle and head size did not influence the wear rate under microseparation conditions. This study indicated that high-in vivo wear rates were associated with edge loading due to rotational malpositioning such as high-cup-inclination angle and translational malpositioning that could occur due to several surgical factors. Translational malpositioning had a more dominant effect on the wear rate. Preclinical simulation testing should be undertaken with translational and rotational malpositioning conditions as well as standard walking cycle conditions defined by the ISO standard. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2013. PMID:23281164

  4. Quantitative analysis of orthopedic metal artefact reduction in 64-slice computed tomography scans in large head metal-on-metal total hip replacement, a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Martijn F; Warringa, Niek; Edens, Mireille A; Mueller, Dirk; Ettema, Harmen B; Verheyen, Cees C P M; Maas, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of the effect of O-MAR on decreasing metal artefacts caused by large head metal on metal total hip arthroplasty (MoM THA) in a dedicated phantom setup of the hip. Pathological reactions of the hip capsule on Computed tomography (CT) can be difficult to diagnose due to different metal artefacts. The O-MAR algorithm deploys an iterative loop where the metal sinogram is identified, extracted, and subsequently serves as a mask to correct the measured sinogram. Main goal of this study is to quantify the ability of the O-MAR technique to correct deviation in medullary bone attenuation caused by streak artefacts from the large-head MoM THA embedded in a phantom. Secondary goal is to evaluate the influence of O-MAR on CNR. The phantom was designed as a Perspex box (PMMA) containing water and a supplementary MOM THA surrounded by Perspex columns comprising calibrated calcium pellets. Each column contains 200 mg of hydroxyapatite/calcium carbonate to simulate healthy bone tissue. Scans were obtained with and without a MoM THA at different dose levels. Different reconstructions were made with filter A, iDose(4) level 5 and with and without O-MAR. The scans without the prosthesis were used as the baseline. Information about the attenuation in Hounsfield units, image noise in standard deviation within the ROI's were extracted and the CNR was calculated. Pellet L0 and R0 (proximal of the MoM THA) were defined as reference, lacking any disturbance by metal artefacts; L5, L6 and L8 were respectively visually categorized as 'light' 'medium' and 'heavy disturbance'. Significant improvements in attenuation deviation caused by metal artefact were 43, 68 and 32 %, for respectively pellet L5, L6 and L8 (p < 0.001). Significant CNR improvements were present for L5 and L6 and were respectively 72 and 52 % (p < 0.001). O-MAR showed no improvement on CNR for L8. This phantom study significantly increases image quality by the use of O-MAR in the presence of metal

  5. Comparison of Whole-Blood Metal Ion Levels Among Four Types of Large-Head, Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty Implants: A Concise Follow-up, at Five Years, of a Previous Report.

    PubMed

    Hutt, Jonathan; Lavigne, Martin; Lungu, Eugen; Belzile, Etienne; Morin, François; Vendittoli, Pascal-André

    2016-02-17

    Few studies of total hip arthroplasty (THA) implants with a large-diameter femoral head and metal-on-metal design have directly compared the progression of metal ion levels over time and the relationship to complications. As we previously reported, 144 patients received one of four types of large-diameter-head, metal-on-metal THA designs (Durom, Birmingham, ASR XL, or Magnum implants). Cobalt, chromium, and titanium ion levels were measured over five years. We compared ion levels and clinical results over time. The Durom group showed the highest levels of cobalt (p ≤ 0.002) and titanium ions (p ≤ 0.03). Both the Durom and Birmingham groups demonstrated significant ongoing cobalt increases up to five years. Eight patients (seven with a Durom implant and one with a Birmingham implant) developed adverse local tissue reaction. Six Durom implants and one Birmingham implant required revision, with one pseudotumor under surveillance at the time of the most recent follow-up. We found that ion generation and related complications varied among designs. More concerning was that, for some designs, ion levels continued to increase. Coupling a cobalt-chromium adapter sleeve to an unmodified titanium femoral trunnion along with a large metal-on-metal bearing may explain the poor performances of two of the designs in the current study.

  6. Residual groin pain at a minimum of two years after metal-on-metal THA with a twenty-eight-millimeter femoral head, THA with a large-diameter femoral head, and hip resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Martin; Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Ganapathi, Muthu; Girard, Julien; Vendittoli, Pascal

    2011-05-01

    Groin pain may persist in up to 4.3% of patients after total hip arthroplasty and up to 18% of patients one year after hip resurfacing. The incidence of this problem after total hip arthroplasty with a large-diameter femoral head is unknown. We analyzed the natural history of groin pain and its clinical consequences during the first two years after three types of hip arthroplasty. Data were collected prospectively on 279 patients. Eighty-five patients had a polyethylene sandwich metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty with a 28-mm-diameter femoral head, 105 had hip resurfacing, and eighty-nine had a total hip arthroplasty with a large-diameter femoral head component with three other cup designs (forty-nine in this group had the same monoblock acetabular cup design as those who had hip resurfacing). At the twenty-four-month follow-up evaluation, seventy-seven patients (28%) reported at least one painful area around the hip and thirty-four patients (12.2%) had pain at more than one location. At three months, the incidence of groin discomfort was significantly increased in those who had hip resurfacing (30.5%) and in those who had total hip arthroplasty with a large-diameter femoral head (30%) compared with those who had total hip arthroplasty with a 28-mm femoral head (18.3%). This incidence decreased at two years (14.9%, 16.9%, and 12.9%, respectively). At twenty-four months postoperatively, eleven (four who had hip resurfacing, six who had total hip arthroplasty with the large-diameter head, and one who had total hip arthroplasty with the 28-mm head) of forty-one patients who had groin pain had not reported groin pain at previous follow-up evaluations. Of the forty-one patients reporting groin pain at the time of the last follow-up, twenty-three patients (56%) did not seek further evaluation or treatment, nine had revision surgery (22%), and the remaining nine patients thought the pain was substantial enough to warrant further evaluation and treatment. When the exact

  7. Comparison of synovial fluid, urine, and serum ion levels in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty at a minimum follow-up of 18 years.

    PubMed

    Lass, Richard; Grübl, Alexander; Kolb, Alexander; Stelzeneder, David; Pilger, Alexander; Kubista, Bernd; Giurea, Alexander; Windhager, Reinhard

    2014-09-01

    Diagnosis of adverse reactions to metal debris in metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty is a multifactorial process. Systemic ion levels are just one factor in the evaluation and should not be relied upon solely to determine the need for revision surgery. Furthermore, the correlation between cobalt or chromium serum, urine, or synovial fluid levels and adverse local tissue reactions is still incompletely understood. The hypothesis was that elevated serum and urine metal-ion concentrations are associated with elevated local metal-ion concentrations in primary total hip arthroplasties (THA) and with failure of metal-on-metal articulations in the long-term. In our present study, we evaluated these concentrations in 105 cementless THA with metal-on-metal articulating surfaces with small head diameter at a minimum of 18 years postoperatively. Spearman correlation showed a high correlation between the joint fluid aspirate concentration of cobalt and chromium with the serum cobalt (r = 0.81) and chromium level (r = 0.77) in patients with the THA as the only source of metal-ions. In these patients serum metal-ion analysis is a valuable method for screening. In patients with more than one source of metal or renal insufficiency additional investigations, like joint aspirations are an important tool for evaluation of wear and adverse tissue reactions in metal-on-metal THA.

  8. Effect of head size on wear properties of metal-on-metal bearings of hip prostheses, and comparison with wear properties of metal-on-polyethylene bearings using hip simulator.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yoshimitsu

    2014-03-01

    The effects of articular head size on the wear losses of the metal insert and articular head for a metal-on-metal bearing were examined using a hip simulator manufactured to satisfy ISO 14242-1. The wear properties of metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene bearings were also compared under the same conditions. The total wear losses of the metal insert and articular head decreased with increasing diameter of the metal insert in the range from 28 to 44mm. The total wear loss was greater for a diameter of 48mm than for a diameter of 44mm. When the articular metal insert diameter was smaller than 44mm, the wear loss was reduced because the contact surface pressure increased with increasing metal insert diameter. However, the increase in wear loss observed for the 48-mm-diameter insert might have been due to the considerable increase in the rotation moment with increasing insert diameter. The tendency of decreasing contact pressure calculated using the Hertzian contact stress equation nearly conformed to the change in wear loss. On the other hand, the wear loss of an artificial hip joint consisting of a cross-linked ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene insert (UHMWPE) and a Co-Cr-Mo articular head was small.

  9. Metal-on-metal hip joint tribology.

    PubMed

    Dowson, D; Jin, Z M

    2006-02-01

    The basic tribological features of metal-on-metal total hip replacements have been reviewed to facilitate an understanding of the engineering science underpinning the renaissance of these hard-on-hard joints. Metal-on-polymer hip replacements operate in the boundary lubrication regime, thus leading to the design guidance to reduce the femoral head diameter as much as is feasible to minimize frictional torque and volumetric wear. This explains why the gold-standard implant of this form from the past half-century had a diameter of only 22.225 mm (7/8 in). Metal-on-metal implants can operate in the mild mixed lubrication regime in which much of the applied load is supported by elastohydrodynamic films. Correct tribological design leads to remarkably low steady state wear rates. Promotion of the most effective elastohydrodynamic films calls for the largest possible head diameters and the smallest clearances that can reasonably be adopted, consistent with fine surface finishes, good sphericity and minimal structural elastic deformation of the cup on its foundations. This guidance, which is opposite in form to that developed for metal-on-polymer joints, is equally valid for solid (monolithic) metallic heads on metallic femoral stems and surface replacement femoral shells. Laboratory measurements of friction and wear in metal-on-metal joints have confirmed their potential to achieve a very mild form of mixed lubrication. The key lies in the generation of effective elastohydrodynamic lubricating films of adequate thickness compared with the composite roughness of the head and cup. The calculation of the film thickness is by no means easy, but the full procedure is outlined and the use of an empirical formula that displays good agreement with calculations based upon the full numerical solutions is explained. The representation of the lambda ratio, lambda, embracing both film thickness and composite roughness, is described.

  10. Block-step asymmetry 5 years after large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty is related to lower muscle mass and leg power on the implant side.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, M H; Stilling, M; Lorenzen, N D; Jakobsen, S S; Soballe, K; Mechlenburg, I

    2014-06-01

    Metal-on-metal articulations mimic the human hip anatomy, presumably lower dislocation rates and increase the range-of-motion. This study aims to measure the muscle mass and power of both legs in patients with unilateral metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty, and to investigate their effect on block-step test, spatio-temporal gait parameters and self-reported function. Twenty-eight patients (7 women), mean age 50 (28-68) years, participated in a 5-7 year follow-up. Patients had received one type unilateral large-head metal-on-metal total hip articulation, all of which were well-functioning at follow-up. Mean muscle mass was measured by the total-body Dual energy X-ray Absorption scans, and muscle power was measured in a leg extensor power rig. Block-step test and spatio-temporal gait parameters were measured with an inertial measurement unit. Self-reported function was assessed by the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. We found a significant difference between the mean muscle mass of the implant-side leg and the non-implant-side leg in hip, thigh and calf areas (P<0.008) and in mean muscle power (P=0.025). Correlations between mean muscle mass and mean muscle power were significant for both the implant-side leg (r=0.45, P=0.018) and the non-implant-side leg (r=0.51, P=0.007). The difference in mean muscle power between legs correlated with block-step test asymmetry during ascending (r=0.40, P=0.047) and descending (r=0.53, P=0.006). Correlations between self-reported function and power of the implant-side leg were not significant. Young patients have not fully regained muscle mass, muscle power and function 5-7 years after metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The relation between titanium taper corrosion and cobalt-chromium bearing wear in large-head metal-on-metal total hip prostheses: a retrieval study.

    PubMed

    Witt, F; Bosker, B H; Bishop, N E; Ettema, H B; Verheyen, C C P M; Morlock, M M

    2014-09-17

    Revision of hip implants due to adverse tissue reactions to metal debris has been associated with wear and corrosion of the metal-on-metal bearing articulation and the modular taper interface. Bearing articulation wear is increased in conditions of poor lubrication, which can also lead to high friction moments that may cause corrosion at the taper interface. This suggests that wear of the bearing and increased corrosion of the taper interface should occur simultaneously, which was investigated in this study. Forty-three large-diameter cobalt-chromium bearings of the same design, implanted with a titanium stem using a titanium adapter, were retrieved at revision at a single center. Retrievals were grouped according to visual inspection of the female taper surface of the adapter into slight and severe corrosion groups. Volume change of bearing and taper surfaces was assessed using a coordinate measurement machine. Serum ion concentrations were determined for forty-three patients, whereas tissue metal concentration was measured for twelve patients. Severe taper corrosion was observed in 30% of the retrievals. Corrosion was observed either as material deposition or wear. The overall bearing wear rate was significantly higher in the group with severe taper corrosion than in the group with slight corrosion (7.2 ± 9.0 mm(3)/yr versus 3.1 ± 6.8 mm(3)/yr, respectively; p = 0.023) as were the serum cobalt (40.5 ± 44.9 μg/L versus 15.2 ± 23.9 μg/L, respectively; p = 0.024) and chromium ion concentrations (32.7 ± 32.7 μg/L versus 12.0 ± 15.1 μg/L, respectively; p = 0.019). Serum metal ion concentrations were more consistent indicators of wear than tissue metal concentrations. The increased bearing articulation wear and serum metal ion concentrations in cases with taper interface corrosion support the hypothesis that increased friction in the joint articulation is one of the factors responsible for simultaneous articulation and taper damage. However, independent taper

  12. Explant analysis of the Biomet Magnum/ReCap metal-on-metal hip joint

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, B. J.; Richardson, V. M.; Langton, D. J.; Smith, E.; Joyce, T. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The high revision rates of the DePuy Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) and the DePuy ASR XL (the total hip arthroplasty (THA) version) have led to questions over the viability of metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joints. Some designs of MoM hip joint do, however, have reasonable mid-term performance when implanted in appropriate patients. Investigations into the reasons for implant failure are important to offer help with the choice of implants and direction for future implant designs. One way to assess the performance of explanted hip prostheses is to measure the wear (in terms of material loss) on the joint surfaces. Methods In this study, a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) was used to measure the wear on five failed cementless Biomet Magnum/ReCap/ Taperloc large head MoM THAs, along with one Biomet ReCap resurfacing joint. Surface roughness measurements were also taken. The reason for revision of these implants was pain and/or adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) and/or elevated blood metal ion levels. Results The mean wear rate of the articulating surfaces of the heads and acetabular components of all six joints tested was found to be 6.1 mm3/year (4.1 to 7.6). The mean wear rate of the femoral head tapers of the five THAs was 0.054 mm3/year (0.021 to 0.128) with a mean maximum wear depth of 5.7 µm (4.3 to 8.5). Conclusion Although the taper wear was relatively low, the wear from the articulating surfaces was sufficient to provide concern and was potentially large enough to have been the cause of failure of these joints. The authors believe that patients implanted with the ReCap system, whether the resurfacing prosthesis or the THA, should be closely monitored. Cite this article: S. C. Scholes, B. J. Hunt, V. M. Richardson, D. J. Langton, E. Smith, T. J. Joyce. Explant analysis of the Biomet Magnum/ReCap metal-on-metal hip joint. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:113–122. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.62.BJR-2016-0130.R2. PMID:28246095

  13. Explant analysis of the Biomet Magnum/ReCap metal-on-metal hip joint.

    PubMed

    Scholes, S C; Hunt, B J; Richardson, V M; Langton, D J; Smith, E; Joyce, T J

    2017-02-01

    The high revision rates of the DePuy Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) and the DePuy ASR XL (the total hip arthroplasty (THA) version) have led to questions over the viability of metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joints. Some designs of MoM hip joint do, however, have reasonable mid-term performance when implanted in appropriate patients. Investigations into the reasons for implant failure are important to offer help with the choice of implants and direction for future implant designs. One way to assess the performance of explanted hip prostheses is to measure the wear (in terms of material loss) on the joint surfaces. In this study, a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) was used to measure the wear on five failed cementless Biomet Magnum/ReCap/ Taperloc large head MoM THAs, along with one Biomet ReCap resurfacing joint. Surface roughness measurements were also taken. The reason for revision of these implants was pain and/or adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) and/or elevated blood metal ion levels. The mean wear rate of the articulating surfaces of the heads and acetabular components of all six joints tested was found to be 6.1 mm(3)/year (4.1 to 7.6). The mean wear rate of the femoral head tapers of the five THAs was 0.054 mm(3)/year (0.021 to 0.128) with a mean maximum wear depth of 5.7 µm (4.3 to 8.5). Although the taper wear was relatively low, the wear from the articulating surfaces was sufficient to provide concern and was potentially large enough to have been the cause of failure of these joints. The authors believe that patients implanted with the ReCap system, whether the resurfacing prosthesis or the THA, should be closely monitored.Cite this article: S. C. Scholes, B. J. Hunt, V. M. Richardson, D. J. Langton, E. Smith, T. J. Joyce. Explant analysis of the Biomet Magnum/ReCap metal-on-metal hip joint. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:113-122. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.62.BJR-2016-0130.R2. © 2017 Scholes et al.

  14. No association between pseudotumors, high serum metal-ion levels and metal hypersensitivity in large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty at 5-7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Mette Holm; Stilling, Maiken; Soballe, Kjeld; Bolvig, Lars Hans; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Mechlenburg, Inger; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between metal wear debris, pseudotumor formation and metal hypersensitivity is complex and not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pseudotumor formation in a consecutive series of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) and to investigate its relationship to serum metal-ion levels and hypersensitivity to metal. Forty-one patients (31 males), mean age 52 (28-68) years, with a total of 49 large-head MoM THA participated in a 5-7-year follow-up study. Patients underwent ultrasonography, serum metal-ion concentrations were measured, metal allergy and atopic dermatitis were evaluated, and the questionnaires of the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were completed. Pseudotumors were found in eight patients, but they were asymptomatic and their serum metal-ion levels were similar to those observed in patients with no pseudotumors (p > 0.36). The capsule-stem distance of mean 8.6 mm (SD 3.82, 95% CI: 5.40-11.79) was wider (p = 0.02) in patients with pseudotumours than in patients without pseudotumors of mean 5.6 mm (SD 2.89, 95% CI: 4.68-6.58). Positive patch test reactions were seen in three patients. Higher serum metal-ion levels of chromium and cobalt were significantly correlated with steeper cup inclination and smaller femoral head sizes, and were associated with female gender (p < 0.04). We found no association between pseudotumor formation, serum metal-ion levels, metal patch test reactivity, and atopic dermatitis. However, clinicians should be aware of asymptomatic pseudotumors, and we advise further exploration into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of pseudotumors.

  15. Acetabular screw head-induced ceramic acetabular liner fracture in cementless ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Chan; Jung, Kwang Am; Nam, Chang Hyun; Kim, Tea Ho; Ahn, Nong Kyoum; Hwang, Seung Hyun

    2010-05-12

    Ceramic liner fractures are rare after ceramic-on-ceramic THA. This article describes a case of an early ceramic liner fracture caused by impingement with a tilted acetabular screw head 2 months after cementless ceramic-on-ceramic THA. A 59-year-old man underwent primary THA for avascular necrosis of his right femoral head. The implant used was an Osteonics Secur-Fit HA ceramic-on-ceramic bearing system. The metal shell was fixed with 1 cancellous bone screw. During the index procedure, the acetabular screw seemed tilted in the metal shell hole, but the liner was fully seated in the metal shell without difficulty. However, 2 months later he re-presented due to pain and crepitation in the right hip. Radiographs showed that the ceramic acetabular insert had fractured. At revision, ceramic insert had fractured into large and numerous comminuted fragments, and the acetabular screw head was slightly tilted and protruded over the inner surface of the metal shell, which had worn eccentrically. The ceramic inner head and metal shell were visibly intact. Because the metal shell-bone fixation was firm, a new identical design ceramic liner and head were fitted, and no adverse event has occurred since. This case suggests that a complete check of the inside of the shell should be made when using an acetabular screw and ceramic liner. In particular, the screw head must not be tilted or left proud of the inside surface of the shell. Correct acetabular screw direction and seating are essential to avoid detrimental clinical consequences. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. [Update on metal-on-metal hip joints].

    PubMed

    Günther, K-P; Lützner, J; Hannemann, F; Schmitt, J; Kirschner, S; Goronzy, J; Stiehler, M; Lohmann, C; Hartmann, A

    2013-05-01

    Increasing data are available describing risk factors for the development of local and systemic adverse events following operations using metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants. The prevalence and clinical relevance of metal-associated problems are, however, still under debate. They can be influenced by type and position of implant as well as patient-specific factors. Patients with small MoM heads (maximum diameter 32 mm) and subgroups of resurfacing arthroplasty can achieve good long-term survival. The use of large head MoM implants (diameters greater than 36 mm), however, is currently not advised due to the unsatisfactory results.

  17. Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sehatzadeh, S; Kaulback, K; Levin, L

    2012-01-01

    Background Metal-on-metal (MOM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is in clinical use as an appropriate alternative to total hip arthroplasty in young patients. In this technique, a metal cap is placed on the femoral head to cover the damaged surface of the bone and a metal cup is placed in the acetabulum. Objectives The primary objective of this analysis was to compare the revision rates of MOM HRA using different implants with the benchmark set by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE). The secondary objective of this analysis was to review the literature regarding adverse biological effects associated with implant material. Review Methods A literature search was performed on February 13, 2012, to identify studies published from January 1, 2009, to February 13, 2012. Results The revision rates for MOM HRA using 6 different implants were reviewed. The revision rates for MOM HRA with 3 implants met the NICE criteria, i.e., a revision rate of 10% or less at 10 years. Two implants had short-term follow-ups and MOM HRA with one of the implants failed to meet the NICE criteria. Adverse tissue reactions resulting in failure of the implants have been reported by several studies. With a better understanding of the factors that influence the wear rate of the implants, adverse tissue reactions and subsequent implant failure can be minimized. Many authors have suggested that patient selection and surgical technique affect the wear rate and the risk of tissue reactions. The biological effects of high metal ion levels in the blood and urine of patients with MOM HRA implants are not known. Studies have shown an increase in chromosomal aberrations in patients with MOM articulations, but the clinical implications and long-term consequences of this increase are still unknown. Epidemiological studies have shown that patients with MOM HRA implants did not have an overall increase in mortality or risk of cancer. There is insufficient clinical data to confirm the

  18. Cementless total hip arthroplasty using Biolox®delta ceramic-on-ceramic bearing in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Jae; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Dong-Wook; Moon, Young-Wan; Park, Youn-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a 32 mm or larger Biolox®delta ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearing in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head after a minimum of 5 years of follow-up. We retrospectively analysed 44 patients (53 hips) who underwent cementless THA using Biolox®delta CoC bearing. There were 33 men (40 hips) and 11 women (13 hips) with the mean age of 49 years. A 36 mm head was used in 42 (79%) of 53 hips and a 32 mm head was used in 11 hips with smaller acetabular shells. The mean duration of follow-up was 5.3 years (range 5-6 years). The mean Harris Hip Score improved from 50 points preoperatively to 97 points at final follow-up (p<0.001). All acetabular and femoral components showed radiographic evidence of osseointegration. No osteolysis was observed. No patients sustained ceramic fracture. An audible hip noise was identified in 2 (4%) of the 53 hips (1 squeaking and 1 clicking). Survivorship with revision for any reason at a minimum of 5 years was 100% in the best-case scenario and 95 % in the worst-case scenario. The minimum 5-year results of cementless THA using a 32 mm or larger Biolox®delta CoC bearing in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head were encouraging with excellent survivorship. However, it was also found that the risk of noise development remains even for the new alumina matrix composite ceramic.

  19. Crowe Type I and II DDH managed by large diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Nadir; Kilicarslan, Kasim; Cicek, Hakan; Kayaalp, Cetin; Yildirim, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Large bearing metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) may offer advantages relating to stability and range of motion in patients with Crowe Type I and II developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The purpose of this study was to provide an analysis of the clinical and radiological results of MOM THA in this context and compare the results with a cohort of patients treated with metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) bearing surfaces. 75 hips in 65 patients were treated with cementless MOM THA using large femoral heads (36-56 mm). The mean age of the patients was 47.4 years (29 to 59) and 54 were female. A group of 47 hips (41 patients) treated with conventional THA (screwed cup-polyethylene insert-28 mm head) was used for comparison. The study group was followed up for a mean of 62.1 months (32 to 76). No difference was found between the two groups in relation to improvement in Harris hip score (HHS) (43.1 to 90.3 points in the study group, 42.6 to 89.5 points in the control group, p>0.05). Although the preoperative range of motion in all planes were similar in both groups, the large head group demonstrated greater motion in all planes postoperatively, which was significant (all p=0.001). Additionally, there was a significant difference between groups in relation to the necessity for acetabular structural graft (8% and 31.9%, respectively; p=0.001). No major complications or adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) were observed in the study group. The results of large head MOM THA in young and active patients with DDH are similar to conventional THA at early follow-up, but the former offers the advantages of secure acetabular fixation without screws, greater range of motion, and lower risk of dislocation.

  20. Cementless total hip arthroplasty with ceramic-on-ceramic bearing in patients younger than 45 years with femoral-head osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Choi, Yoowang; Kim, Jun-Shik

    2010-12-01

    Despite improvements in the quality of alumina ceramics, osteolysis has been reported anecdotally after total hip arthroplasty (THA) with use of a contemporary alumina-on-alumina ceramic bearing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of THA using alumina-on-alumina ceramic bearing and to determine osteolysis using radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans in young patients. Consecutive primary cementless THA using alumina-on-alumina ceramic bearing were performed in 64 patients (93 hips) who were younger than 45 years of age with femoral-head osteonecrosis. There were 55 men (84 hips) and nine women (nine hips). Average age was 38.2 (range 24-45) years. Average follow-up was 11.1 (range 10-13) years. Preoperative Harris Hip Score was 52.9 (range 22-58) points, which improved to 96 (range 85-100) points at the final follow-up examination. Two of 93 hips (2%) had clicking or squeaking sound. No hip had revision or aseptic loosening. Radiographs and CT scans demonstrated that no acetabular or femoral osteolysis was detected in any hip at the latest follow-up. Contemporary cementless acetabular and femoral components with alumina-on-alumina ceramic bearing couples function well with no osteolysis at a ten year minimum and average of 11.1-year follow-up in this series of young patients with femoral-head osteonecrosis.

  1. Mechanical failure of metal-polyethylene sandwich liner in metal-on-metal total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yasushi; Fetto, Joseph F

    2015-01-01

    Metal-on-metal had been proposed as an optimal articulation in THRs, however, many monoblock prostheses have been recalled in the USA because of significant high rates of early failure. Metal-on-metal prostheses had been implanted in our institution, and this is a case history of a single patient, in whom metal-on-metal THRs with different femoral sizes of heads were implanted. A 57-year-old female patient underwent bilateral total hip replacements with metal-on-metal prostheses using metal-polyethylene "sandwich" liners 9 years ago on the right side and 7 years ago on the left side respectively. The only difference in both sides was the femoral head diameter of 28 mm in right and 34 mm in left. Seven years after the left surgery, the acetabular liner was dissociated, however, metallosis was not detected. Although the larger femoral head was thought to increase hip joint stability, it dictated a reduction in polyethylene thickness in this prosthesis design, and it was 4 mm in the left hip. Recently, metal-on-metal articulations are thought not to be optimal for hip joint bearing surface, however, this clinical failure was due to the polyethylene thickness and quality.

  2. Present state of metal-on-metal hybrid hip resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Amstutz, Harlan C

    2008-01-01

    Bone conservation and preservation, joint stability, and low wear of the large metal-on-metal resurfacing bearings have been convincingly demonstrated in the current literature. The clinical results of 600 MM Hybrid Conserve Plus Resurfacing in 519 patients with an average follow-up of 6.9 years (range, 4.0-10.4 years) have been excellent. The average age was 48.9 years, 74% of the patients were male, and the study included all etiologies of the young with arthritis. The complication rates other than dislocation and fracture of the femoral neck are comparable between resurfacing and conventional total hip replacement. The incidence of femoral neck fracture is low (1.2% worldwide) with less than 0.6% in this series and none occurring in the last 5 years due to proper patient selection and improved surgical technique. Component loosening after metal-on-metal resurfacing has been significantly reduced and acetabular component loosening is uncommon and has not happened in this series. Femoral bone preparation and optimal cementing techniques are paramount to prevention of femoral loosening. Clearance between the cylindrically reamed part of the head and the component varies in different designs, and the surgeon must note the need for different cementing strategies for different recommended clearances. The learning curve of a surgeon undertaking resurfacing can be greatly reduced by observation and hands-on training in specialized centers with surgeons experienced in resurfacing.

  3. Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to assess the safety and effectiveness of metal on metal (MOM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty for young patients compared with that of total hip replacement (THR) in the same population. Clinical Need Total hip replacement has proved to be very effective for late middle-aged and elderly patients with severe degenerative diseases of the hips. As indications for THR began to include younger patients and those with a more active life style, the longevity of the implant became a concern. Evidence suggests that these patients experience relatively higher rates of early implant failure and the need for revision. The Swedish hip registry, for example, has demonstrated a survival rate in excess of 80% at 20 years for those aged over 65 years, whereas this figure was 33% by 16 years in those aged under 55 years. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a bone-conserving alternative to THR that restores normal joint biomechanics and load transfer. The technique has been used around the world for more than 10 years, specifically in the United Kingdom and other European countries. The Technology Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty is an alternative procedure to conventional THR in younger patients. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is less invasive than THR and addresses the problem of preserving femoral bone stock at the initial operation. This means that future hip revisions are possible with THR if the initial MOM arthroplasty becomes less effective with time in these younger patients. The procedure involves the removal and replacement of the surface of the femoral head with a hollow metal hemisphere, which fits into a metal acetabular cup. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a technically more demanding procedure than is conventional THR. In hip resurfacing, the femoral head is retained, which makes it much more difficult to access the acetabular cup. However, hip resurfacing arthroplasty has several advantages over a

  4. Small diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty at 13 years - a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tardy, N; Maqdes, A; Boisrenoult, P; Beaufils, P; Oger, P

    2015-12-01

    Theoretically, the properties of second-generation metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings are better for wear, osteolysis and longevity. However, follow-up studies of more than 10 years are rare, in particular with hybrid fixation (cemented stainless steel stems and cementless cup), therefore we evaluated the results of this combination after a mean follow-up of 12.8 years: (1) to analyze the survival rate, (2) to compare it with the survival rate in the same series after 6.4 years (95.8% cup, 94.8% stem), (3) to evaluate clinical and radiographic outcome and (4) to analyze these failures. The number of revisions would increase after 10 years. We evaluated 106 total hip arthroplasties (THA) (Cedior™ press-fit cup with cemented Acora™ (n=50) and Exafit™ (n=56) stems and 28mm Metasul™ bearings performed between January 1999 and December 2002. The survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The clinical assessment included the Postel Merle d'Aubigné (PMA) and Oxford scores. The radiographic assessment evaluated radiolucencies and osteolysis on standard X-rays. A histological analysis was only performed during revision THA. After a mean 12.8 years of follow-up (10-16), 53 THA were reviewed in 48 patients. Thirteen THA revisions (14%) were performed including 11 aseptic revisions (5 stem fractures, 2 cases of impingement and 3 loosenings [1 bipolar and 3 cups] and one case of osteolysis). Overall survival, taking into account revision for aseptic loosening, was 87.6% (CI 95%=77.3 to 99.3%). The mean PMA and Oxford scores at the final follow-up were 17.6±0.8 points (16-18) and 16.5±5.2 points (12-38) respectively. The radiological follow-up mainly identified radiolucencies around the stem in Gruen zones 1 and 7 (17 and 21% respectively). The survival rate of hybrid MoM THA in this series decreased after 10 years and is lower than studies evaluating cementless THA with the 28-mm Metasul™ bearings (90.9 to 100% survival). Although the clinical results are

  5. [Second-generation metal bearings in cementless primary total hip arthroplasty: rationale, French homologation and preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Delaunay, C

    2000-12-01

    Long-term outcome of Charnley low-friction arthroplasty in young active patients is impaired worldwide due to wear of the polyethylene (PE) component and osteolysis. In the late eighties, reports of possible low wear with some former metal on metal total hip arthroplasties led to the reintroduction of metallic bearings. The aims of this work were to examine the rationale for using metal on metal bearings in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and report preliminary results obtained with cementless Metasul -Alloclassic hips. From January 1994 to March 1997, 64 cementless primary Alloclassic-THA (grit-blasted titanium SL stems and CSF treaded cups) with 28 mm Metasul bearings were performed. Mean age at surgery was 60 years (range, 36-73). Diagnoses were usual, mainly primary osteoarthrosis in 70 p. 100 of the hips. Two bearing surfaces were exchanged for late dislocation at 2.6 and 2.9 years. Thus, 62 hips in 58 active patients (4 bilateral) were reviewed after a minimum 2-year follow-up (mean 3.2 years, range 24-66 months). Clinical results according to the Merle d'Aubigne and Charnley rating system were graded excellent or good in all 62 hips. Radiologically, calcar, atrophy and spot welds were noted in 93 p. 100 and 82 p. 100 of hips respectively. Proximal reactive and lucent lines and mild proximal stress shielding were observed in 8 p. 100 and 4.8 p. 100 of hips respectively. No osteolysis granuloma has thus far been observed in the vicinity of any component. Cobalt blood level remained normal, except in 6 cases due to occupational exposure (n=1), possible impingement (n=1) or an unknown cause (n=4). All elevated cobalt levels (range 7 to 25 microg/l) were nevertheless far below the toxic limit. Dislocation may be due either to the posterolateral surgical approach and/or early impingement with the first Metasul bearing design (head sleeve). Metasul acetabular component fixation is not restricted to only cementless metal-backing, unlike alumina-ceramic cups

  6. The Role of Metal-on-Metal Bearings in Total Hip Arthroplasty and Hip Resurfacing: Review Article.

    PubMed

    Sands, David; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2017-02-01

    The current role of metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings in hip arthroplasty remains controversial. The low wear offered by MoM bearings compared to metal-on-polyethylene and the possibility of a lower risk of dislocation with larger head sizes, encouraged a trend towards the re-introduction of the MoM bearing couple. However, recent evidence has shown that not all designs of the MoM bearing have been successful. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the use of MoM bearings and address the following issues: (1) the reintroduction of metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasty, (2) the failure of metal-on-metal bearings in stemmed total hip arthroplasty, (3) the role of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing in modern orthopaedics and (4) metal-on-metal hip resurfacing versus total hip arthroplasty. A literature search strategy was conducted using various search terms in MEDLINE and Embase. The highest quality articles that met the inclusion criteria and best answered the topics of focus of this review were selected. Key search terms included 'metal-on-metal', 'total hip arthroplasty' and 'hip resurfacing'. The initial search retrieved 1240 articles. Twenty-two articles were selected and used in the review. Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing is still a suitable treatment option in specific patient populations with the appropriate implant design and surgical skill, while stemmed metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty should be avoided in all patient populations. Continued follow-up of patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing is critical in order to further understand the long-term outcomes of these patients and why certain complications tend to occur with this procedure.

  7. Predictivity and fate of metal ion release from metal-on-metal total hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Nicolli, Annamaria; Bisinella, Gianluca; Padovani, Giovanni; Vitella, Antonio; Chiara, Federica; Trevisan, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Blood metal ion levels in 72 patients with large head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty were studied to determine the correlation between the values measured in whole blood and urine. Urinary cobalt and chromium levels of 30μg and 21μg, respectively, adjusted to creatinine were found to correspond to the 7μg/l cut-off value that has been accepted in whole blood. Cobalt and chromium levels in whole blood and urine both significantly correlated with increased acetabular component inclination angle over 50 degrees and pain scores. There was no correlation with socket anteversion angle or femoral head diameter. The data support the use of urinary measurement of metal ions adjusted to creatinine to monitor patients with large head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Groin pain after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Sevillano, Ramon; de la Flor-García, Maria Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Total hip replacement continues to be a widely successful operation, but persistent groin pain following a metal-on-metal hip resurfacing remains a problem for some patients. The concern regarding the safety and efficacy of metal-on-metal total hip replacements has been rising. We present the case of a 47-year-old man with groin pain after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing. We observed high metal ion levels detected in blood analytical studies and a pseudotumor in magnetic resonance imaging. Our patient was treated with a revision surgery. The progressive elevation of blood and urine metal levels in the presence of periarticular cysts and/or groin pain is a complication of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty and needs revision surgery. PMID:27489648

  9. Heart failure after conventional metal-on-metal hip replacements

    PubMed Central

    Gillam, Marianne H; Pratt, Nicole L; Inacio, Maria C S; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Shakib, Sepehr; Nicholls, Stephen J; Graves, Stephen E

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — It is unclear whether metal particles and ions produced by mechanical wear and corrosion of hip prostheses with metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have systemic adverse effects on health. We compared the risk of heart failure in patients with conventional MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA) and in those with metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THA. Patients and methods — We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the Australian Government Department of Veterans’ Affairs health claims database on patients who received conventional THA for osteoarthritis between 2004 and 2012. The MoM THAs were classified into groups: Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) XL Acetabular System, other large-head (LH) (> 32 mm) MoM, and small-head (SH) (≤ 32 mm) MoM. The primary outcome was hospitalization for heart failure after THA. Results — 4,019 patients with no history of heart failure were included (56% women). Men with an ASR XL THA had a higher rate of hospitalization for heart failure than men with MoP THA (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.6–6.5). No statistically significant difference in the rate of heart failure was found with the other LH MoM or SH MoM compared to MoP in men. There was no statistically significant difference in heart failure rate between exposure groups in women. Interpretation — An association between ASR XL and hospitalization for heart failure was found in men. While causality between ASR XL and heart failure could not be established in this study, it highlights an urgent need for further studies to investigate the possibility of systemic effects associated with MoM THA. PMID:27759468

  10. Transient elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis of metal-on-metal hip implant under simulated walking conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; Jin, Z M; Hirt, F; Rieker, C; Roberts, P; Grigoris, P

    2006-01-01

    The transient elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) analysis was performed in this study for a typical metal-on-metal bearing employing a polyethylene backing underneath a metallic cup inlay under dynamic operating conditions of load and speed representative of normal walking. A ball-in-socket configuration was adopted to represent the articulation between the femoral head and the acetabular cup. The governing Reynolds and elasticity equations were solved simultaneously by using both finite difference and finite element methods. The predicted transient film thickness from the present study was compared with the estimation based on the quasi-static analysis. It was found that the polyethylene backing employed in the typical metal-on-metal hip bearing, combined with dynamic squeeze-film action, significantly improved the transient lubricant film thickness under cyclic walking and consequently a fluid film lubrication regime was possible for smooth bearing surfaces with an average roughness less than 0.005 microm.

  11. Metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty in patients thirty years of age or younger.

    PubMed

    Girard, Julien; Bocquet, Donatien; Autissier, Guillaume; Fouilleron, Nicolas; Fron, Damien; Migaud, Henri

    2010-10-20

    Total hip arthroplasty in patients younger than thirty years of age represents a long-term challenge. As polyethylene wear secondary to a high activity level could be problematic, hard-on-hard bearings have been proposed to reduce wear. The aim of this retrospective case series was to assess the clinical and radiographic results of primary metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty in patients thirty years of age or younger. We retrospectively studied thirty-four patients (forty-seven hips) who had undergone metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty and analyzed the radiographic and clinical measurements after a mean duration of follow-up of 108 months (range, 62.4 to 153.6 months). The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was twenty-five years (range, fifteen to thirty years). The diameter of the head of the femoral component was 28 mm in all hips except five, in which it was 32 mm. The metal-on-metal bearing was the same in all patients. The mean Merle d'Aubigné score increased from 10.6 (range, 1 to 14) to 17.1 (range, 12 to 18). No wear was found on the latest radiograph, but osteolysis was noted in three femora and two acetabula. Two revisions were performed, one because of impingement secondary to cup malorientation and the other because of acetabular loosening with osteolysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis with revision of either component as the end point revealed a ten-year survival rate of 94.5% (95% confidence interval, 80% to 98.6%). The survival rate of the femoral stem was 100%. These encouraging intermediate-term results indicate that hip arthroplasty with metal-on-metal bearing components may be a suitable solution for young and active patients with hip osteoarthritis or osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

  12. Analysis of mixed lubrication mechanism in metal-on-metal hip joint replacements.

    PubMed

    Jin, Z M

    2002-01-01

    A simple mixed lubrication model has been developed to predict the asperity contact and wear for the metal-on-metal bearing couple for total hip joint replacements. It has been shown that the femoral head radius has a large effect on the predicted asperity contact and wear depending on the lubrication regime. An increase in the femoral head radius can lead to an increase in wear under a predominantly boundary lubrication regime, but this trend can be reversed under a mixed lubrication regime towards fluid film lubrication. These observations are consistent with the recent experimental findings from hip simulator studies by Smith and co-workers.

  13. Metal-on-metal surface replacement: a triumph of hope over reason: opposes.

    PubMed

    Su, Edwin P; Su, Sherwin L

    2011-09-09

    Hip resurfacing has been performed for over a decade but still raises controversy as an alternative to traditional total hip arthroplasty (THA). Concerns exist about the potential complications of hip resurfacing, including femoral neck fracture and osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Recently, attention has been given to the metal-on-metal bearing of hip resurfacing with regard to production of metal ions, possible tissue necrosis, and rare instances of metal hypersensitivity. Given the success of the gold-standard THA, it is understandable why some surgeons believe metal-on-metal surface replacement to be "a triumph of hope over reason." However, this article opposes that viewpoint, demonstrating that data exist to justify the practice of preserving bone in younger patients. Hip resurfacing can maintain femoral bone without the expense of removing additional acetabular bone by using modern implants with incremental sizing. Furthermore, many of the problems cited with the bearing couple (such as excess metal production) have been due to poor implant designs, which have now been removed from the market. Finally, we now realize that the metal-on-metal articulation is more sensitive to malposition; thus, good surgical technique and experience can solve many of the problems that have been cited in the past. National registry results confirm that in a select population, hip resurfacing performs comparably to THA, while fulfilling the goal of bone preservation.

  14. Effect of simplifications of bone and components inclination on the elastohydrodynamic lubrication modeling of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingen; Liu, Feng; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2013-05-01

    It is important to study the lubrication mechanism of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prosthesis in order to understand its overall tribological performance, thereby minimize the wear particles. Previous elastohydrodynamic lubrication studies of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prosthesis neglected the effects of the orientations of the cup and head. Simplified pelvic and femoral bone models were also adopted for the previous studies. These simplifications may lead to unrealistic predictions. For the first time, an elastohydrodynamic lubrication model was developed and solved for a full metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty. The effects of the orientations of components and the realistic bones on the lubrication performance of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prosthesis were investigated by comparing the full model with simplified models. It was found that the orientation of the head played a very important role in the prediction of pressure distributions and film profiles of the metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prosthesis. The inclination of the hemispherical cup up to 45° had no appreciable effect on the lubrication performance of the metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prosthesis. Moreover, the combined effect of material properties and structures of bones was negligible. Future studies should focus on higher inclination angles, smaller coverage angle and microseparation related to the occurrences of edge loading.

  15. Analysis of elastohydrodynamic lubrication in McKee-Farrar metal-on-metal hip joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Yew, A; Udofia, I; Jagatia, M; Jin, Z M

    2004-01-01

    An elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) analysis was carried out in this study for a typical McKee-Farrar metal-on-metal hip prosthesis under a simple steady state rotation. The finite element method was used initially to investigate the effect of the cement and bone on the predicted contact pressure distribution between the two articulating surfaces under dry conditions, and subsequently to determine the elastic deformation of both the femoral and the acetabular components required for the lubrication analysis. Both Reynolds equation and the elasticity equation were coupled and solved numerically using the finite difference method. Important features in reducing contact stresses and promoting fluid-film lubrication associated with the McKee-Farrar metal-on-metal hip implant were identified as the large femoral head and the thin acetabular cup. For the typical McKee-Farrar metal-on-metal hip prosthesis considered under typical walking conditions, an increase in the femoral head radius from 14 to 17.4 mm (for a fixed radial clearance of 79 microm) was shown to result in a 25 per cent decrease in the maximum dry contact pressure and a 60 per cent increase in the predicted minimum film thickness. Furthermore, the predicted maximum contact pressure considering both the cement and the bone was found to be decreased by about 80 per cent, while the minimum film thickness was predicted to be increased by 50 per cent. Despite a significant increase in the predicted minimum lubricating film thickness due to the large femoral head and the thin acetabular cup, a mixed lubrication regime was predicted for the McKee-Farrar metal-on-metal hip implant under estimated in vivo steady state walking conditions, depending on the surface roughness of the bearing surfaces. This clearly demonstrated the important influences of the material, design and manufacturing parameters on the tribological performance of these hard-on-hard hip prostheses. Furthermore, in the present contact

  16. The tribology of metal-on-metal total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Scholes, S C; Unsworth, A

    2006-02-01

    Total hip surgery is an effective way of alleviating the pain and discomfort caused by diseased or damaged joints. However, in the majority of cases, these joints have a finite life. The main reason for failure is osteolysis (bone resorption). It is well documented that an important cause of osteolysis, and therefore the subsequent loosening and failure of conventional metal- or ceramic-on-ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene joints, is the body's immunological response to the polyethylene wear particles. To avoid this, interest has been renewed in metal-on-metal joints. The intention of this paper is to review the studies that have taken place within different laboratories to determine the tribological performance of new-generation metal-on-metal total hip replacements. These types of joint offer a potential solution to enhance the longevity of prosthetic hip systems; however, problems may arise owing to the effects of metal ion release, which are, as yet, not fully understood.

  17. CoCrMo metal-on-metal hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yifeng; Hoffman, Emily; Wimmer, Markus; Fischer, Alfons; Jacobs, Joshua; Marks, Laurence

    2013-01-21

    After the rapid growth in the use of CoCrMo metal-on-metal hip replacements since the second generation was introduced circa 1990, metal-on-metal hip replacements have experienced a sharp decline in the last two years due to biocompatibility issues related to wear and corrosion products. Despite some excellent clinical results, the release of wear and corrosion debris and the adverse response of local tissues have been of great concern. There are many unknowns regarding how CoCrMo metal bearings interact with the human body. This perspective article is intended to outline some recent progresses in understanding wear and corrosion of metal-on-metal hip replacement both in vivo and in vitro. The materials, mechanical deformation, corrosion, wear-assisted corrosion, and wear products will be discussed. Possible adverse health effects caused by wear products will be briefly addressed, as well as some of the many open questions such as the detailed chemistry of corrosion, tribochemical reactions and the formation of graphitic layers. Nowadays we design almost routinely for high performance materials and lubricants for automobiles; humans are at least as important. It is worth remembering that a hip implant is often the difference between walking and leading a relatively normal life, and a wheelchair.

  18. CoCrMo Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yifeng; Hoffman, Emily; Wimmer, Markus; Fischer, Alfons; Jacobs, Joshua; Marks, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    After the rapid growth in the use of CoCrMo metal-on-metal hip replacements since the second generation was introduced circa 1990, metal-on-metal hip replacements have experienced a sharp decline in the last two years due to biocompatibility issues related to wear and corrosion products. Despite some excellent clinical results, the release of wear and corrosion debris and the adverse response of local tissues have been of great concern. There are many unknowns regarding how CoCrMo metal bearings interact with the human body. This perspective article is intended to outline some recent progresses in understanding wear and corrosion of metal-on-metal hip replacement both in-vivo and in-vitro. The materials, mechanical deformation, corrosion, wear-assisted corrosion, and wear products will be discussed. Possible adverse health effects caused by wear products will be briefly addressed, as well as some of the many open questions such as the detailed chemistry of corrosion, tribochemical reactions and the formation of graphitic layers. Nowadays we design almost routinely for high performance materials and lubricants for automobiles; humans are at least as important. It is worth remembering that a hip implant is often the difference between walking and leading a relatively normal life, and a wheelchair. PMID:23196425

  19. Lubrication and friction prediction in metal-on-metal hip implants.

    PubMed

    Wang, F C; Brockett, C; Williams, S; Udofia, I; Fisher, J; Jin, Z M

    2008-03-07

    A general methodology of mixed lubrication analysis and friction prediction for a conforming spherical bearing in hip implants was developed, with particular reference to a typical metal-on-metal hip replacement. Experimental measurement of frictional torque for a similar implant was carried out to validate the theoretical prediction. A ball-in-socket configuration was adopted to represent the articulation between the femoral head and the acetabular cup under cyclic operating conditions of representative load and motion. The mixed lubrication model presented in this study was first applied to identify the contact characteristics on the bearing surfaces, consisting of both fluid-film and boundary lubricated regions. The boundary lubricated contact was assumed to occur when the predicted fluid film thickness was less than a typical boundary protein layer absorbed on the bearing surfaces. Subsequently, the friction was predicted from the fluid-film lubricated region with viscous shearing due to both Couette and Poiseuille flows and the boundary protein layer contact region with a constant coefficient of friction. The predicted frictional torque of the typical metal-on-metal hip joint implant was compared with the experimental measurement conducted in a functional hip simulator and a reasonably good agreement was found. The mixed lubrication regime was found to be dominant for the conditions considered. Although the percentage of the boundary lubricated region was quite small, the corresponding contribution to friction was quite large and the resultant friction factor was quite high.

  20. Metal on metal surface replacement of the hip. Experience of the McMinn prothesis.

    PubMed

    McMinn, D; Treacy, R; Lin, K; Pynsent, P

    1996-08-01

    The historical failure of surface replacement has been due to the production of wear debris with subsequent bone resorption, loosening, and failure. To avoid these problems, a surface replacement using a metal on metal bearing allowing thin components and femoral design and instrumentation to avoid varus alignment has been designed. Two hundred thirty-five joints have been resurfaced with this prosthesis in almost 5 years. There have been no femoral neck fractures and no dislocations. There have been 4 designs differing in the method of fixation. In the press fit group, 6 of 70 hips had to be revised for aseptic loosening. In the cemented group, debonding of the cup occurred in 3 of 43 cases. Six patients had hydroxyapatite coated components and have had excellent clinical outcomes. The current design uses a peripherally expanded hydroxyapatite coated cup and a cemented metal head; 116 of this design have been implanted during a 19-month period with excellent outcome. Despite short followup the authors are hopeful that the combination of a polar metal on metal bearing with appropriate fixation will yield a method of preserving bone stock in the younger patient requiring arthroplasty.

  1. Cementless acetabular revision arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rina; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Waddell, James P.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of clinical factors on outcome after acetabular revision with a cementless beaded cup. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Tertiary care referral centre. Patients Forty-one patients who underwent acetabular revision with a cementless cup were followed up for a mean of 3.4 years. Interventions Acetabular revision with a beaded cementless cup in all patients. A morcellized allograft was used in 10 patients. Outcome measures A modified Harris hip score (range of motion measurement omitted), the SF-36 health survey, and the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the effects of age, gender, morcellized allografting, time to revision from the previous operation, acetabular screw fixation and concurrent femoral revision on outcome. Results Gender accounted for a significant portion of the variation seen in the SF-36 physical component scores (r = 0.36, p = 0.02), with women tending to have worse results. Increasing age was associated with lower WOMAC index function scores (r = 0.36, p = 0.03), whereas concurrent femoral revision tended to have a positive effect on WOMAC index function (r = 0.39, p = 0.01). None of the potential clinical predictors had any significant effect on the SF-36 mental component scores, or WOMAC index pain and stiffness scores. Conclusions In cementless acetabular revision arthroplasty, physical function, as measured by generic and limb-specific scales, may be affected by gender, age and the presence of a concurrent femoral revision. Time to revision from the previous operation, morcellized allografting and screw fixation of the acetabulum did not affect outcomes. This information may provide some prognostic value for patients’ expectations. PMID:10948687

  2. Systems view of optimizing metal on metal bearings.

    PubMed

    Schey, J A

    1996-08-01

    Metal on metal hip prostheses are critically reviewed as examples of a tribologic system. Because the inputs (load, velocity, fluid) are given, the designer has relatively few options, which can be exploited only if operative lubrication and wear mechanisms are known. Nothing can he done about the fluid, but film thickness can he influenced by macrogeometry (diameter and clearance) and by provision of film enhancing features. Microgeometry (surface topography, including asperity geometry and spacing) is a powerful contributor, but has not been sufficiently characterized or controlled. Compared with metal/polymer bearings, the total knowledge is small, and extensive research is called for. The high cost and long duration of hip joint simulation tests makes them more suitable to evaluate devices and to validate findings from bench tests. A particularly important task is to establish which experimental fluid adequately simulates the fluid formed around an all metal prosthesis. Much basic work can he conducted in bench tests, particularly in a form of oscillating twist compression test with cyclic loading, which induces squeeze film and mixed film lubrication. There is need for friction and wear studies with different metals and coatings, with controlled surface topography, and with lubricants specially formulated to clarify the roles played by various constituents of the fluid formed in metal on metal joints.

  3. Wear evaluation of cobalt-chromium alloy for use in a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis.

    PubMed

    St John, Kenneth R; Zardiackas, Lyle D; Poggie, Robert A

    2004-01-15

    Wear of the polyethylene in total joint prostheses has been a source of morbidity and early device failure, which has been extensively reported in the last 20 years. Although research continues to attempt to reduce the wear of polyethylene joint-bearing surfaces by modifications in polymer processing, there is a renewed interest in the use of metal-on-metal bearing couples for hip prostheses. Wear testing of total hip replacement systems involving the couple of metal or ceramic heads on polymeric acetabular components has been performed and reported, but, until recently, there has been little data published for pin-on-disk or hip-simulator wear studies involving the combination of a metallic femoral head component with an acetabular cup composed of the same or a dissimilar metal. This study investigated the in vitro wear resistance of two cobalt/chromium/molybdenum alloys, which differed primarily in the carbon content, as potential alloys for use in a metal-on-metal hip-bearing couple. The results of pin-on-disk testing showed that the alloy with the higher (0.25%) carbon content was more wear resistant, and this alloy was therefore chosen for testing in a hip-simulator system, which modeled the loads and motions that might be exerted clinically. Comparison of the results of metal-on-polyethylene samples to metal-on-metal samples showed that the volumetric wear of the metal-on-polyethylene bearing couple after 5,000,000 cycles was 110-180 times that for the metal-bearing couple. Polyethylene and metal particles retrieved from either the lubricant for pin-on-disk testing or hip simulator testing were characterized and compared with particles retrieved from periprosthetic tissues by other researchers, and found to be similar. Based upon the results of this study, metal-on-metal hip prostheses manufactured from the high carbon cobalt/chromium alloy that was investigated hold sufficient promise to justify human clinical trials.

  4. Corrosion on the acetabular liner taper from retrieved modular metal-on-metal total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Gascoyne, Trevor C; Dyrkacz, Richard M; Turgeon, Thomas R; Burnell, Colin D; Wyss, Urs P; Brandt, Jan-M

    2014-10-01

    Eight retrieved metal-on-metal total hip replacements displayed corrosion damage along the cobalt-chromium alloy liner taper junction with the Ti alloy acetabular shell. Scanning electron microscopy indicated the primary mechanism of corrosion to be grain boundary and associated crevice corrosion, which was likely accelerated through mechanical micromotion and galvanic corrosion resulting from dissimilar alloys. Coordinate measurements revealed up to 4.3mm(3) of the cobalt-chromium alloy taper surface was removed due to corrosion, which is comparable to previous reports of corrosion damage on head-neck tapers. The acetabular liner-shell taper appears to be an additional source of metal corrosion products in modular total hip replacements. Patients with these prostheses should be closely monitored for signs of adverse reaction towards corrosion by-products.

  5. Large-diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties: a page in orthopedic history?

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurpal; Meyer, Heiko; Ruetschi, Marcel; Chamaon, Kathrin; Feuerstein, Bernd; Lohmann, Christoph H

    2013-11-01

    Large-diameter metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings evolved from the success of hip resurfacing. These implants were used in revision surgery in cases with well-fixed acetabular cups but loose or failed femoral stems, to avoid cup revision. Early data showed low rates of dislocation and potentially low wear profiles due to better fluid film lubrication. The risk of impingement was also thought to be low due to the increased head-neck ratio. Subsequently large-diameter MoM heads gained popularity in primary hip replacement. Recent data has emerged on the unacceptably high revision rates among patients with large-diameter MoM total hip arthroplasties (THAs), high blood levels of metal ions, and adverse tissue reactions. The head-neck (cone-taper) modular interface probably represents the weak link in large metal heads that have been used on conventional tapers. Increased torque of the large head, micromotion, and instability at the cone-taper interface, synergistic interactions between corrosion and wear, edge loading, low clearance, and psoas impingement are the likely causes for early failure of these prostheses. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Microseparation, fluid pressure and flow in failures of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewski, B. M.; Siney, P. D.; Fleming, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacing was introduced into clinical practice because it was perceived to be a better alternative to conventional total hip replacement for young and active patients. However, an increasing number of reports of complications have arisen focusing on design and orientation of the components, the generation of metallic wear particles and serum levels of metallic ions. The procedure introduced a combination of two elements: large-dimension components and hard abrasive particles of metal wear. The objective of our study was to investigate the theory that microseparation of the articular surfaces draws in a high volume of bursal fluid and its contents into the articulation, and at relocation under load would generate high pressures of fluid ejection, resulting in an abrasive water jet. Methods This theoretical concept using MoM resurfacing components (head diameter 55 mm) was modelled mathematically and confirmed experimentally using a material-testing machine that pushed the head into the cup at a rate of 1000 mm/min until fully engaged. Results The mathematical model showed the pattern but not the force of fluid ejection, the highest pressures were expected when the separation of the components was only a fraction of one millimetre. The experimental work confirmed the results; with the mean peak ejection pressure of 43 763 N/m2 equivalent to 306 mmHg or 5 psi. Conclusions The mechanical effect of the high-pressure abrasive water jet is the likely cause of the spectrum of complications reported with metal-on-metal resurfacing. Investigating serum levels of metallic elements may not be the best method for assessing the local mechanical effects of the abrasive water jet. PMID:23610667

  7. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis of metal-on-metal hip-resurfacing prostheses.

    PubMed

    Udofia, I J; Jin, Z M

    2003-04-01

    The elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis was carried out in this study for a typical metal-on-metal hip-resurfacing prosthesis under a simple steady-state rotation. Both the Reynolds equation and the elasticity equation were coupled and solved numerically by the finite difference method. The finite element method was used to determine the elastic deformation of both the femoral and the acetabular components required for the lubrication analysis. The effect of the radial clearance between the femoral head and the acetabular cup on the predicted film thickness and pressure distribution was investigated. The predicted minimum lubricating film thickness was found to compare favourably with the prediction using the Hamrock and Dowson [J. Lubrication Technol. 100 (1978) 236] formula based on the assumption of ball-on-plane semi-infinite solids. This implies that the non-metallic materials such as bone and cement underlying the metallic components have a small effect on the predicted lubrication performance for the particular metal-on-metal hip-resurfacing prosthesis considered in this study. Under realistic physiological walking conditions, a decrease in the radial clearance from 150 to 50 microm resulted in a 137% increase in the predicted minimum film thickness from 19 to 45 nm. Consequently, given a surface roughness of 0.01 microm for both the metallic femoral and acetabular bearing surfaces, the predicted mixed lubrication regime for the larger clearance was changed to a full fluid film lubrication regime for the smaller clearance. This clearly highlighted the importance of the design and manufacturing parameters on the tribological performance of these hard-on-hard hip prostheses.

  8. Arthroplasty in Femoral Head Osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Dong Cheol; Jung, Kwangyoung

    2014-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a destructive joint disease requiring early hip arthroplasty. The polyethylene-metal design using a 22-mm femoral head component, introduced by Charnley in 1950, has been widely used for over half a century. Since then, different materials with the capacity to minimize friction between bearing surfaces and various cement or cementless insert fixations have been developed. Although the outcome of second and third generation designs using better bearing materials and technologies has been favorable, less favorable results are seen with total hip arthroplasty in young patients with osteonecrosis. Selection of appropriate materials for hip arthroplasty is important for any potential revisions that might become inevitable due to the limited durability of a prosthetic hip joint. Alternative hip arthroplasties, which include hemiresurfacing arthroplasty and bipolar hemiarthroplasty, have not been found to have acceptable outcomes. Metal-on-metal resurfacing has recently been suggested as a feasible option for young patients with extra physical demands; however, concerns about complications such as hypersensitivity reaction or pseudotumor formation on metal bearings have emerged. To ensure successful long-term outcomes in hip arthroplasty, factors such as insert stabilization and surfaces with less friction are essential. Understanding these aspects in arthroplasty is important to selection of proper materials and to making appropriate decisions for patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. PMID:27536561

  9. Comparative study of material loss at the taper interface in retrieved metal-on-polyethylene and metal-on-metal femoral components from a single manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Bills, Paul; Racasan, Radu; Bhattacharya, Saugatta; Blunt, Liam; Isaac, Graham

    2017-08-01

    There have been a number of reports on the occurrence of taper corrosion and/or fretting and some have speculated on a link to the occurrence of adverse local tissue reaction specifically in relation to total hip replacement which have a metal-on-metal bearing. As such a study was carried out to compare the magnitude of material loss at the taper in a series of retrieved femoral heads used in metal-on-polyethylene bearings with that in a series of retrieved heads used in metal-on-metal bearings. A total of 36 metal-on-polyethylene and 21 metal-on-metal femoral components were included in the study all of which were received from a customer complaint database. Furthermore, a total of nine as-manufactured femoral components were included to provide a baseline for characterisation. All taper surfaces were assessed using an established corrosion scoring method and measurements were taken of the female taper surface using a contact profilometry. In the case of metal-on-metal components, the bearing wear was also assessed using coordinate metrology to determine whether or not there was a relationship between bearing and taper material loss in these cases. The study found that in this cohort the median value of metal-on-polyethylene taper loss was 1.25 mm(3) with the consequent median value for metal-on-metal taper loss being 1.75 mm(3). This study also suggests that manufacturing form can result in an apparent loss of material from the taper surface determined to have a median value of 0.59 mm(3). Therefore, it is clear that form variability is a significant confounding factor in the measurement of material loss from the tapers of femoral heads retrieved following revision surgery.

  10. Transient elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis of a novel metal-on-metal hip prosthesis with a non-spherical femoral bearing surface.

    PubMed

    Meng, Q E; Liu, F; Fisher, J; Jin, Z M

    2011-01-01

    Effective lubrication performance of metal-on-metal hip implants only requires optimum conformity within the main loaded area, while it is advantageous to increase the clearance in the equatorial region. Such a varying clearance can be achieved by using non-spherical bearing surfaces for either acetabular or femoral components. An elastohydrodynamic lubrication model of a novel metal-on-metal hip prosthesis using a non-spherical femoral bearing surface against a spherical cup was solved under loading and motion conditions specified by ISO standard. A full numerical methodology of considering the geometric variation in the rotating non-spherical head in elastohydrodynamic lubrication solution was presented, which is applicable to all non-spherical head designs. The lubrication performance of a hip prosthesis using a specific non-spherical femoral head, Alpharabola, was analysed and compared with those of spherical bearing surfaces and a non-spherical Alpharabola cup investigated in previous studies. The sensitivity of the lubrication performance to the anteversion angle of the Alpharabola head was also investigated. Results showed that the non-spherical head introduced a large squeeze-film action and also led to a large variation in clearance within the loaded area. With the same equatorial clearance, the lubrication performance of the metal-on-metal hip prosthesis using an Alpharabola head was better than that of the conventional spherical bearings but worse than that of the metal-on-metal hip prosthesis using an Alpharabola cup. The reduction in the lubrication performance caused by the initial anteversion angle of the non-spherical head was small, compared with the improvement resulted from the non-spherical geometry.

  11. Failure rates of stemmed metal-on-metal hip replacements: analysis of data from the National Joint Registry of England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alison J; Dieppe, Paul; Vernon, Kelly; Porter, Martyn; Blom, Ashley W

    2012-03-31

    Total hip replacement (THR) is extremely common. Some prostheses fail, particularly in younger patients, and need to be revised, most commonly for loosening secondary to wear or dislocation. Surgeons have tried to address these problems by implanting large diameter metal-on-metal bearing surfaces. Our aim was to assess if metal-on-metal bearing surfaces lead to increased implant survival compared with other bearing surfaces in stemmed THR and, additionally, if larger head sizes result in improved implant survival. We analysed the National Joint Registry of England and Wales for primary hip replacements (402,051, of which 31,171 were stemmed metal-on-metal) undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Our analysis was with a multivariable flexible parametric survival model to estimate the covariate-adjusted cumulative incidence of revision adjusting for the competing risk of death. Metal-on-metal THR failed at high rates. Failure was related to head size, with larger heads failing earlier (3·2% cumulative incidence of revision [95% CI 2·5-4·1] for 28 mm and 5·1% [4·2-6·2] for 52 mm head at 5 years in men aged 60 years). 5 year revision rates in younger women were 6·1% (5·2-7·2) for 46 mm metal-on-metal compared with 1·6% (1·3-2·1) for 28 mm metal-on-polyethylene. By contrast, for ceramic-on-ceramic articulations larger head sizes were associated with improved survival (5 year revision rate of 3·3% [2·6-4·1] with 28 mm and 2·0% [1·5-2·7] with 40 mm for men aged 60 years). Metal-on-metal stemmed articulations give poor implant survival compared with other options and should not be implanted. All patients with these bearings should be carefully monitored, particularly young women implanted with large diameter heads. Since large diameter ceramic-on-ceramic bearings seem to do well we support their continued use. National Joint Registry of England and Wales. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Muscle atrophy and metal-on-metal hip implants

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Reshid; Khoo, Michael; Cook, Erica; Guppy, Andrew; Hua, Jia; Miles, Jonathan; Carrington, Richard; Skinner, John; Hart, Alister

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Muscle atrophy is seen in patients with metal-on-metal (MOM) hip implants, probably because of inflammatory destruction of the musculo-tendon junction. However, like pseudotumors, it is unclear when atrophy occurs and whether it progresses with time. Our objective was to determine whether muscle atrophy associated with MOM hip implants progresses with time. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 74 hips in 56 patients (32 of them women) using serial MRI. Median age was 59 (23–83) years. The median time post-implantation was 83 (35–142) months, and the median interval between scans was 11 months. Hip muscles were scored using the Pfirrmann system. The mean scores for muscle atrophy were compared between the first and second MRI scans. Blood cobalt and chromium concentrations were determined. Results The median blood cobalt was 6.84 (0.24–90) ppb and median chromium level was 4.42 (0.20–45) ppb. The median Oxford hip score was 34 (5–48). The change in the gluteus minimus mean atrophy score between first and second MRI was 0.12 (p = 0.002). Mean change in the gluteus medius posterior portion (unaffected by surgical approach) was 0.08 (p = 0.01) and mean change in the inferior portion was 0.10 (p = 0.05). Mean pseudotumor grade increased by 0.18 (p = 0.02). Interpretation Worsening muscle atrophy and worsening pseudotumor grade occur over a 1-year period in a substantial proportion of patients with MOM hip implants. Serial MRI helps to identify those patients who are at risk of developing worsening soft-tissue pathology. These patients should be considered for revision surgery before irreversible muscle destruction occurs. PMID:25588091

  13. Tribological performance of various CoCr microstructures in metal-on-metal bearings: the development of a more physiological protocol in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kamali, A; Hussain, A; Li, C; Pamu, J; Daniel, J; Ziaee, H; Daniel, J; McMinn, D J W

    2010-05-01

    Hip simulators have been used for ten years to determine the tribological performance of large-head metal-on-metal devices using traditional test conditions. However, the hip simulator protocols were originally developed to test metal-on-polyethylene devices. We have used patient activity data to develop a more physiologically relevant test protocol for metal-on-metal devices. This includes stop/start motion, a more appropriate walking frequency, and alternating kinetic and kinematic profiles. There has been considerable discussion about the effect of heat treatments on the wear of metal-on-metal cobalt chromium molybdenum (CoCrMo) devices. Clinical studies have shown a higher rate of wear, levels of metal ions and rates of failure for the heat-treated metal compared to the as-cast metal CoCrMo devices. However, hip simulator studies in vitro under traditional testing conditions have thus far not been able to demonstrate a difference between the wear performance of these implants. Using a physiologically relevant test protocol, we have shown that heat treatment of metal-on-metal CoCrMo devices adversely affects their wear performance and generates significantly higher wear rates and levels of metal ions than in as-cast metal implants.

  14. Clinical and Wear Analyses of 9 Large Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Mathijssen, N. M. C.; Witt, F.; Morlock, M. M.; Vehmeijer, S. B. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Metal-on-Metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasties (THA) are associated with pseudotumor formation and high revision rates. This prospective study analysed the clinical and wear analyses of 9 large Metal-on-Metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasties (THA) to understand the underlying mechanisms of failure. The MoM bearings were revised for multiple reasons; the main reason was pseudotumor formation. Materials and Methods From 2006 till 2010 the Reinier de Graaf Hospital implanted 160 large head M2a-Magnum™ (Biomet Inc. Warsaw, Indiana, USA) THAs in 150 patients. The first year, 9 bearings were revised and analysed at the Biomechanics Section, Hamburg University of Technology, Germany. We performed clinical (Harris Hip Score, radiographic analysis, blood cobalt and chromium) and wear analysis (implant, tissue and fluid) of the 9 bearings. Since this study did not fall under the scope of the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act in The Netherlands, no ethical approval was necessary. In this prospective study all patient details were anonymized by the corresponding author, all other authors were blinded during the research and wear analyses. Patients with bilateral MoM implants were excluded. Results The 9 bearings had a median (IQR) survival of 41.0 (25) months in situ. From these bearings, three showed no noticeable wear. The median (IQR) head wear volume was 3.2 (3.6) mm3 and maximum wear depth 0.02 (0.02) mm. For the cup the median (IQR) wear volume was 0.23 (0.3) mm3 with a maximum wear depth of 0.03 (0.05) mm. Conclusion An early identification of parameters related to failure of the MoM THA, such as pain, decreased range of motion, radiographic changes and high levels of blood cobalt and chromium is of great importance for patient’s quality of life. Especially now patients and surgeons face the long term effects of all these bearings still in situ. This study reports the clinical and wear analyses of 9 MoM THA. In the majority of this group the

  15. [Metal on metal bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty: a survey of material incidents].

    PubMed

    Passuti, N; Terver, S

    2007-05-01

    This study is dedicated to the problems met with metal-metal bearing prostheses. We have analysed the results of the reports sent to the AFSSAPS relating incidents described with this interface. Only 11 incidents were reported during the last 4 years by surgeons from different centers in France. At a mean follow-up of 7 years, we collected 2614 total hip arthroplasties with metal-metal bearings and among them only 5 cases of unusual osteolysis and 10 cases of impingement. The bibliographic analysis did not show any severe specific complication due to the release of Cobalt or Chromium ions. The increased levels of Co an Cr in the patients' blood is now a well established notion (with more than 10 years follow up) and no special carcinogenetic effect has been correlated with the metal-metal bearings. Small diameter cemented cups can provide complications with high rates of acetabular loosening and metallosis; the same is true for some cementless cups also with loosening and a high revision rate. Among 143 hip prosthesis with a cemented polyethylene cup, at a mean follow-up of 42 months there were 22% of evolutive radiolucencies around the cups concerning all three De Lee and Charnley zones. Furthermore there was a statistically significant difference between small and large diameter cups (loosening of cups less than 46 mm in diameter). The same problem has been described for some cementless cups with loosening at the metal-bone interface due to a failure of osteointegration at the implant surface. However no failures were observed with an hydroxyapatite coating on the same cup. An other matter of concern is the skirted metal head: this design is responsible for a high rate of impingement and of prosthetic revision (2.3% among 642 THA). In these cases the increase of Cobalt serum levels was well correlated with the failure of the metal-metal interface. Large diameter heads decrease significantly the risks of dislocation. This is correlated with the increase in size

  16. (v) Simulation and measurement of wear in metal-on-metal bearings in vitro- understanding the reasons for increased wear

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, John; Al Hajjar, Mazen; Williams, Sophie; Tipper, Joanne; Ingham, Eileen; Jennings, Louise

    2012-01-01

    A new Stratified Approach For Enhanced Reliability (SAFER) pre-clinical simulation testing of joint prostheses has been described in a preceding paper in this volume. The application of SAFER in vitro simulation and testing to metal-on-metal bearings is described in this review paper. The review aims to provide further understanding of the reasons for, and causes of, increased wear in metal-on-metal hips in a proportion of patients. Variation in positioning (mal-positioning) of the head and cup in hip prostheses results in the head contacting the rim of the cup and producing increased wear. Variation in both translational and rotational positioning has been investigated. Variation in translational positioning of the centres of the head and cup, which is not detected on radiographs, is a frequent occurrence clinically and can result in a substantial increase in wear rate. The variation in translational positioning acts synergistically with variation in rotational positioning to produce substantial increases in wear. These recent findings are consistent with the wear mechanisms and formation of stripe wear reported for ceramic-on-ceramic bearings over a decade ago, and provide insight into the reasons for the variation and increases in the wear rate found clinically in metal-on-metal hips in specific patients, which may cause premature failure. PMID:23335950

  17. Large diameter metal on metal total hip replacement for femoral neck fractures with neurological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Jinzhu; Liu, Denghui; Xu, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with Parkinson's disease and poliomyelitis can have a femoral neck fracture; yet, the optimal methods of treatment for these hips remains controversial. Many constrained or semi-constrained prostheses, using constrained liners (CLs) with a locking mechanism to capture the femoral head, were used to treat femoral neck fractures in patients with neurological disorders. We retrospectively studied a group of patients with Parkinson's disease and poliomyelitis who sustained femoral neck fractures and were treated by total hip arthroplasty using an L-MoM prosthesis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 12 hips in 12 patients who underwent large-diameter metal-on-metal (L-MoM) total hip replacement between May 2007 and October 2009. Eight of the 12 patients (8 hips; 66.7%) had Parkinson's disease and 4 patients (4 hips; 33.3%) were affected with poliomyelitis. Results: The followup time was 5.2 years (range 3.6-6.0 years). At the latest followup, all the patients showed satisfactory clinical and radiographic results, with pain relief. No complications, such as dislocation or aseptic loosening occurred. Conclusion: We believe the use of L-MoM can diminish the rate of instability or dislocation, after operation. The L-MoM is an option for patients with Parkinson's disease and poliomyelitis with femoral neck fracture. PMID:25404774

  18. Bearing surfaces for hip arthroplasty - is metal-on-metal a passing fancy?

    PubMed

    Lee, Reginald K; Nevelos, Jim; Vigdorchik, Jonathan; Markel, David C

    2012-12-01

    Metal-on-metal bearings have had popularity that has waxed and waned over the years. The advantages realized relative to wear resistance and strength had been offset by early failures, manufacturing difficulty, and most recently by adverse soft tissue responses to the metallic debris. The bearing's history, evolution, advantages and disadvantages will be discussed in attempt to answer the question: is metal-on-metal a passing fancy?

  19. Contact mechanics and elastohydrodynamic lubrication in a novel metal-on-metal hip implant with an aspherical bearing surface.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingen; Gao, Leiming; Liu, Feng; Yang, Peiran; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2010-03-22

    Diameter and diametral clearance of the bearing surfaces of metal-on-metal hip implants and structural supports have been recognised as key factors to reduce the dry contact and hydrodynamic pressures and improve lubrication performance. On the other hand, application of aspherical bearing surfaces can also significantly affect the contact mechanics and lubrication performance by changing the radius of the curvature of a bearing surface and consequently improving the conformity between the head and the cup. In this study, a novel metal-on-metal hip implant employing a specific aspherical bearing surface, Alpharabola, as the acetabular surface was investigated for both contact mechanics and elastohydrodynamic lubrication under steady-state conditions. When compared with conventional spherical bearing surfaces, a more uniform pressure distribution and a thicker lubricant film thickness within the loaded conjunction were predicted for this novel Alpharabola hip implant. The effects of the geometric parameters of this novel acetabular surface on the pressure distribution and lubricant thickness were investigated. A significant increase in the predicted lubricant film thickness and a significant decrease in the dry contact and hydrodynamic pressures were found with appropriate combinations of these geometric parameters, compared with the spherical bearing surface.

  20. Microstructure and Surface Damage in Retrieved Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fairen, Mariano; Punset, Miquel; Murcia-Asensio, Antonio; Ferrero-Manzanal, Francisco; Sueiro, José; Gil, Javier

    2017-07-08

    Besides promising results of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip arthroplasty (HA), frequent failures have been reported even in the short term. Many host, surgical, design, metallurgical, and processing factors have been evoked in the base of these events. We have tried to characterize and to evaluate metallurgical and processing features present in this type of implants. The acetabular and femoral components of 20 MOM HAs collected from a multicenter retrieval program were examined. All the specimens were inspected with naked eye, with confocal microscopy and vertical scanning interferometry, scanning electron microscopy, back-scattered electron imaging, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, in 25 zones of each articular component. Gas pores, shrinkage voids and holes of detached carbides, carbides on surface, embedded particles, scratches and marks of wear, surface discoloration, surface deposits, and tribochemical reaction layers were widely dispersed through a substantial percentage of the total bearing surface in all the implanted components. Surface cup and head voids, and cup scratches showed significant correlation with the clearance of pair. A higher surface damage of the cup and head was observed mainly in the low clearance prostheses. There was no other significant correlation or difference in the incidence and importance of any of these defects between resurfacing hip arthroplasties and total hip arthroplasties, or according to the pair diameter. Some metallurgical features and surface damage were significantly present in the retrieved implants of MoM HAs. It would be desirable to improve the structure and metallurgical characteristics of these implants to avoid those effects and optimize their performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Causes of failure of ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Porat, Manny; Parvizi, Javad; Sharkey, Peter F; Berend, Keith R; Lombardi, Adolph V; Barrack, Robert L

    2012-02-01

    Few large series of hard bearing surfaces have reported on reasons for early failure. A number of unique mechanisms of failure, including fracture, squeaking, and adverse tissue reactions, have been reported with these hard bearing surfaces. However, the incidence varies among the published studies. To confirm the incidences, we identified the etiologies of early failures of hard-on-hard bearing surfaces for ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal THAs. We retrospectively reviewed records of 2907 THAs with hard-on-hard bearing surfaces implanted between 1996 and 2009; 1697 (58%) had ceramic-on-ceramic and 1210 (42%) had metal-on-metal bearing surfaces. We recorded bearing-related complications and compared them to nonspecific reasons for revision THA. The minimum followup of the ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal cohorts was 6 months (mean, 48 months; range, 6-97 months) and 24 months (mean, 60 months; range, 24-178 months), respectively. The overall revision rate for ceramic-on-ceramic THA was 2.2% (38 of 1697), with aseptic loosening accounting for 55% of revisions (femur or acetabulum). The bearing accounted for 13% of the revisions in the ceramic-on-ceramic THA cohort. The overall metal-on-metal revision rate was 5.4% (65 of 1210), 17 involving adverse tissue reactions related to the metal-on-metal bearing surface (17 of 1210, 1.4% of cases; 17 of 65, 26% of revisions). Twenty-six percent of the revisions from metal-on-metal and 13% of ceramic-on ceramic were bearing related. The overall short- to medium-term revision rate was 2.2% and 5.4% for ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal, respectively. The most common etiology of failure was loosening of the femoral or acetabular components. Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of level of evidence.

  2. Prevalence of pseudotumor in asymptomatic patients after metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Williams, Daniel H; Greidanus, Nelson V; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P; Garbuz, Donald S

    2011-12-07

    The cause of recently reported pseudotumor formation in patients with metal-on-metal hip replacements is unknown. It has been postulated that there is an association between elevated levels of serum metal ions and pseudotumor formation. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pseudotumor formation in asymptomatic patients with a metal-on-metal total hip replacement after a minimum duration of follow-up of two years. A secondary purpose was to assess whether a correlation exists between elevated serum metal ion levels and pseudotumor formation. In the present study, the prevalence of pseudotumor formation, as detected with ultrasound, was evaluated for thirty-one asymptomatic patients with a metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty, twenty-four asymptomatic patients with a metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty, and twenty asymptomatic patients with a metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Serum levels of cobalt and chromium were measured in the metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty and hip resurfacing arthroplasty groups. Ten patients (32%) in the metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty group had a solid or cystic mass, with another three patients (10%) having a substantial fluid collection. Five patients (25%) in the hip resurfacing arthroplasty group had a solid or cystic mass, with another patient (5%) having a fluid collection. Pseudotumor formation was significantly more frequent in the metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty group compared with the metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty group (p = 0.015). We did not detect a significant correlation between the serum metal ion levels and the size of pseudotumor abnormality. The median serum metal ion level was greater in patients with pseudotumor formation than it was in those without pseudotumor formation, but the difference was not significant. We recommend high-resolution ultrasound surveillance of all asymptomatic patients with a metal-on-metal implant that is known to

  3. Cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda; Gracia, Luis

    2015-01-01

    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  4. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality. PMID:25802848

  5. Surface Characterization of Retrieved Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Implants from Patients with Adverse Reaction to Metal Debris

    PubMed Central

    Burbano, Maria; Russell, Robert; Huo, Michael; Welch, Robert; Roy, Diana; Rodrigues, Danieli C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip implants has decreased recently due to reports of high failure rates and adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR). It has been hypothesized that wear metal debris released from CoCr bearing surfaces may provoke delayed hypersensitivity reactions. The goal of this study is to evaluate the microscopic bearing surface characteristics of implants revised due to evidence of ALTR. The bearing surface of each head and cup was analyzed using multiple microscopy techniques for characterization of the surface features. The presence of severe mechanical scratching was a common characteristic found in all of the implants evaluated. Mechanical factors seemed to be the prevalent failure mode related to the appearance of ALTR with this particular set of retrieved implants. PMID:28788544

  6. Three metal-on-metal hip replacement devices from the same manufacturer--a short- to mid-term survival.

    PubMed

    Kostensalo, Inari; Junnila, Mika; Mokka, Jari; Virolainen, Petri; Vahlberg, Tero; Mäkelä, Keijo T

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate short- to mid-term results of three different metal-on-metal hip devices from the same manufacturer. A total of 329 hip operations were performed in a single academic unit between 2004 and 2010 using either Birmingham hip resurfacing or Synergy--Birmingham and Synergy--R3 total hip arthroplasty. The overall survival rate at the end of the follow-up time for Birmingham hip resurfacing was 88%, for Synergy--Birmingham total hip arthroplasty 95%, and for Synergy--R3 total hip arthroplasty 81% (p = 0.036). Five revision operations were performed due to adverse reaction to metal debris. Head sizes > 50 mm had lower revision rates compared to smaller ones. Synergy--R3 had a poor survival already at short-term. The mid-term survival of Birmingham hip resurfacing arthroplasty was inferior compared to previous studies.

  7. Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty Involving Trochanteric Osteotomy without Subtrochanteric Shortening for High Hip Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soong Joon; Kim, Hee Joong

    2017-01-01

    Background Total hip arthroplasty with subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy is widely performed for high hip dislocation. However, suboptimal leg length discrepancy correction and nonunion of the osteotomy site remain concerns. Although total hip arthroplasty using trochanteric osteotomy without subtrochanteric osteotomy was introduced, cemented implants have been more commonly used than contemporary cementless implants in this procedure. We evaluated the long-term results of cementless total hip arthroplasty with trochanteric osteotomy without subtrochanteric osteotomy for high hip dislocation. Methods From 1990 to 2002, 27 cementless total hip arthroplasties using trochanteric osteotomy without subtrochanteric osteotomy were performed in 26 patients with Crowe III or IV high hip dislocation and a mean age of 36.4 ± 12.9 years. Seven ceramic-on-ceramic, 8 ceramic-on-polyethylene, 10 metal-on-polyethylene, and 2 metal-on-metal bearings were inserted. Mean follow-up was 15.1 ± 3.7 years. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and radiographic data and evaluated the clinical and radiological results including the Harris hip score, implant survival, correction of leg length discrepancy, and occurrence of complications. Results The mean Harris hip score and leg length discrepancy improved significantly from 73.3 to 94.9 points and from 4.3 cm to 1.0 cm, respectively. With revision for loosening set as the end point, implant survival rates at 10 and 15 years postoperatively were 96.0% and 90.9% for stems and 74.1% and 52.3% for cups. In 8 of 10 hips with the metal-on-polyethylene bearing and 4 of 8 hips with the ceramic-on-polyethylene bearing, revision surgery was performed for aseptic loosening. However, no revision was performed in hips with the ceramic-on-ceramic bearing or the metal-on-metal bearing. Implant survival was significantly different by the type of bearing surface. Two permanent neurologic complications occurred in patients with a limb lengthening

  8. Analysis of elastohydrodynamic lubrication in a novel metal-on-metal hip joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Jagatia, M; Jin, Z M

    2002-01-01

    Elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) analysis was carried out in this study for a novel metal-on-metal hip prosthesis, which consists of a cobalt-chrome alloy femoral head articulating against a cobalt-chrome alloy acetabular insert connected to a titanium fixation shell through a taper. Finite element models were developed to investigate the effect of the pelvic bone and the load on the predicted contact pressure distribution between the two bearing surfaces under dry conditions. The finite element method was used to develop elasticity models for both the femoral and the acetabular components; it was found that the elastic deformation of the acetabular insert was mainly dependent on the load, rather than the detailed pressure distribution. A modified solution methodology was accordingly developed to couple the elasticity models for both the femoral and the acetabular surfaces with the Reynolds equation and to solve these numerically by the finite difference method. It was found that a load increase from 500 to 2500 N had a negligible effect on the predicted maximum contact pressure and the minimum film thickness, due to the relatively flexible and accommodating structure of the acetabular insert. Furthermore, the predicted minimum film thickness was shown to be significantly greater than the simple estimation based on the assumption of semi-infinite solids (mono-block design) using the Hamrock and Dowson formula. The effects of the viscosity of the lubricant and the radial clearance between the femoral and the acetabular components on the predicted lubricating film thickness were investigated under both in vitro simulator testing and in vivo walking conditions.

  9. [Dissociation of the acetabular metallic inlay of a metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Cazenave, A

    2008-06-01

    Total hip arthroplasty was performed in November 2001 in a 30-year-old active patient with degenerative hip disease. A metal-on-metal bearing was used. Follow-up was considered excellent until the development of pain and squeaking at hip mobilization, leading to revision in March 2006. The acetabular metallic inlay of the metal-on-metal insert was found detached from the polyethylene insert; half of the diameter of the neck of the femoral stem was sectioned. Complete revision was performed with an acetabular graft. At one year follow-up, anatomic and functional outcome has been excellent. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this kind of mechanical failure of a metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty.

  10. Implant Design in Cementless Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Taek

    2016-01-01

    When performing cementless hip arthroplasty, it is critical to achieve firm primary mechanical stability followed by biological fixation. In order to achieve this, it is essential to fully understand characteristics of implant design. In this review, the authors review fixation principles for a variety of implants used for cementless hip replacement and considerations for making an optimal selection. PMID:27536647

  11. Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty: Quality of Online Patient Information.

    PubMed

    Crozier-Shaw, Geoff; Queally, Joseph M; Quinlan, John F

    2017-03-01

    Metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA) has generated much attention in the media because of early failure of certain implant systems. This study assessed the quality, accuracy, and readability of online information on metal-on-metal THA. The search terms "metal-on-metal hip replacement" and "metal hip replacement" were entered into the 3 most popular search engines. Information quality was assessed with the DISCERN score and a specific metal-on-metal THA content score. Accuracy of information was assessed with a customized score. Readability of the websites was assessed with the Flesch-Kincaid grade level score. A total of 61 unique websites were assessed. For 56% of websites, the target audience was patients. Media or medicolegal sources accounted for 44% of websites. As assessed by DISCERN (range, 16-80) and metal-on-metal THA (range, 0-25) scores, quality of the websites was moderate at best (47.1 and 9.6, respectively). Accuracy (range, 0-8) of the information presented also was moderate, with a mean score of 6.6. Media and medicolegal websites had the lowest scores for both quality and accuracy, despite making up the greatest proportion of sites assessed. Only 1 website (2%) had a Flesch-Kincaid grade level at or less than the recommended level of 8th grade. This study found that online information on metal-on-metal THA was of poor quality, often was inaccurate, and was presented at an inappropriately high reading level, particularly for media and medicolegal websites. Health care providers should counsel patients on the quality of information available and recommend appropriate online resources. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e262-e268.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Long-term outcome of a metal-on-polyethylene cementless hip resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Timothy L; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Campbell, Patricia A; Al-Hamad, Mariam; Amstutz, Harlan C

    2014-04-01

    Due to the well-documented problems surrounding metal-on-metal bearings, the use of hip resurfacing has declined. Since the potential benefits of hip resurfacing remain desirable, it may be beneficial to investigate the long-term outcome of hip resurfacings using metal-on-polyethylene in the 1980's. We report the long-term survivorship and modes of failure of a cementless metal-on-polyethylene resurfacing (n = 178) with different porous ingrowth surfaces. While acetabular loosening was absent, a high incidence of femoral failures (femoral loosening = 18.1%, osteolytic neck fracture = 21%) occurred despite using the same ingrowth surface for both components. Ongoing developments using the lessons learned from these previous generation components and utilizing modern low wear materials, e.g., cross-linked polyethylene, may lead to improved implants for future hip resurfacings. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Midterm results of 36 mm metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Akrawi, Hawar; Hossain, Fahad S; Niculescu, Stefan; Hashim, Zaid; Ng, Arron Biing; Shetty, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the many perceived benefits of metal-on-metal (MoM) articulation in total hip arthroplasty (THA), there have been growing concerns about metallosis and adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD). Analysis of size 36 mm MoM articulation THAs is presented. These patients were evaluated for patient characteristics, relationship between blood metal ions levels and the inclination as well as the version of acetabular component, cumulative survival probability at final followup and functional outcome at final followup. Materials and Methods: 288, size 36 mm MoM THAs implanted in 269 patients at our institution from 2004 to 2010 were included in this retrospective study. These patients were assessed clinically for hip symptoms, perioperative complications and causes of revision arthroplasty were analysed. Biochemically, blood cobalt and chromium metal ions level were recorded and measurements of acetabular inclination and version were examined. Radiological evaluation utilizing Metal Artefact Reduction Sequence (MARS) MRI was undertaken and implant cumulative survivorship was evaluated. Results: The mean followup was 5 years (range 2–7 years), mean age was 73 years and the mean Oxford hip score was 36.9 (range 5–48). Revision arthroplasty was executed in 20 (7.4%) patients, of which 15 patients underwent single-stage revision THA. The causes of revision arthroplasty were: ARMD changes in 6 (2.2%) patients, infection in 5 (1.9%) patients and aseptic loosening in 5 (1.9%) patients. Three (1.1%) patients had their hips revised for instability, 1 (0.3%) for raised blood metal ions levels. The implant cumulative survival rate, with revision for any reason, was 68.9% at 7 years. Conclusions: Although medium-sized MoM THA with a 36 mm head has a marginally better survivorship at midterm followup, compared to larger size head MoM articulating THA, our findings nonetheless are still worryingly poor in comparison to what has been quoted in the literature

  14. New Insights into Wear and Biological Effects of Metal-on-Metal Bearings

    PubMed Central

    Catelas, Isabelle; Wimmer, Markus A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the renewed interest in metal-on-metal implants in the past two decades, the underlying wear mechanisms and biological effects are still not fully understood. Methods: This paper first reviews the tribology of metal-on-metal bearings, bringing new insights into the interaction of wear and corrosion, and putting the characteristics and the potential origin of wear particles in perspective with the proposed wear mechanisms. It then summarizes the current knowledge on the biological effects of particles and metal ions in relation to these wear mechanisms. Results: Tribochemical reactions play an important role in the wear of metal-on-metal joints. The generated tribomaterial, which progressively forms by mechanical mixing of the uppermost nanocrystalline zone of the metal surface with proteins from the synovial fluid, governs the wear rate and influences the corrosive behavior of the bearing. Nanometer-sized wear particles may initially originate from the passivation layer covering the implant surface and then detach from this tribolayer. The inflammatory response observed surrounding metal-on-metal implants appears to be lower than that around metal-on-polyethylene implants. However, metallic byproducts, which can complex with proteins, may lead to a T lymphocyte-mediated hypersensitivity response. Conclusions: The tribolayer appears to have beneficial effects on the wear rate. Much information has been gained on wear particle characteristics, but the exact mechanisms of particle detachment remain to be further elucidated. Excessive wear along with a hypersensitivity response may be at the origin of the early adverse tissue reactions that have been recently reported in some patients with metal-on-metal implants. Clinical Relevance: Future development of new methods to improve the tribolayer retention and optimize the tribocorrosive properties of the implant may minimize the clinical impact of implant wear and immune responses. PMID:21543694

  15. Unicondylar knee arthroplasty: a cementless perspective

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Michael E.; Englund, Roy E.; Leighton, Ross K.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To compare the results of cementless unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) with those already reported in a similar study on cemented UKA. Design A case-series cross-sectional study. Setting The Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax. Patients Fifty-one patients who underwent a total of 57 UKAs between May 1989 and May 1997. Inclusion criteria were osteoarthritis involving the predominantly the medial compartment of the knee, relative sparing of the other compartments, less than 15° of varus, minimal knee instability, and attendance at the postoperative clinical visit. Intervention Cementless UKA. Main outcome measures Clinical parameters that included pain, range of motion and the Knee Society Clinical Knee Score. Roentgenographic parameters that included α, β, γ and σ angles and the presence of periprosthetic radiolucency or loose beads. Results Age, weight, gender and follow-up interval did not significantly affect the clinical results in terms of pain, range of motion or knee score. Knees with more than 1 mm of radiolucency had significantly lower knee scores than those with no radiolucency. Knees that radiologically had loose beads also had significantly lower knee scores. The clinical outcomes of cementless UKA were comparable to those already reported on cemented UKA. Cementless femurs had less radiolucency than the cemented femurs, whereas cementless tibias had more radiolucency than their cemented counterparts. Conclusions Cementless UKA seems to be as efficacious as cemented UKA. However, there is some concern about the amount of radiolucency in the cementless tibial components. A randomized clinical trial comparing both cementless and cemented tibial components with a cementless femur (hybrid knee) is needed to further assess this controversial issue in UKA. PMID:11129829

  16. Cemented and cementless fixation: results and techniques.

    PubMed

    Silverton, Craig D

    2006-01-01

    There are multiple reports of successful cemented and cementless total knee arthroplasty in the current literature. Although technically more demanding to implant, selected cementless designs, with nearly 20 years of follow-up, demonstrate near-equal success compared with cemented implants, the gold standard. Far more important than the decision to use a cemented or cementless implant is the use of precise technique, adequate balancing of the soft tissues, and proper overall alignment. Failure to achieve these basic principles can lead to early failure in any total knee replacement system.

  17. Breast milk metal ion levels in a young and active patient with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Nelis, Raymond; de Waal Malefijt, Jan; Gosens, Taco

    2013-01-01

    Metal-on-metal resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip has been used increasingly over the last 10 years in younger active patients. The dissolution of the metal wear particles results in measurable increases in cobalt and chromium ions in the serum and urine of patients with a metal-on-metal bearing. We measured the cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum ion levels in urine; serum; and breast milk in a young and active patient with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis after a pathologic fracture of the femoral neck. Metal-on-metal hip prosthesis leads to increasing levels of molybdenum in breast milk in the short-term follow-up. There are no increasing levels of chromium and cobalt ions in breast milk. Besides the already known elevated concentrations in serum of chromium and cobalt after implantation of a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis, we found no increasing levels of chromium and cobalt in urine.

  18. Effect of wear of bearing surfaces on elastohydrodynamic lubrication of metal-on-metal hip implants.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; Jin, Z M; Hirt, F; Rieker, C; Roberts, P; Grigoris, P

    2005-09-01

    The effect of geometry change of the bearing surfaces owing to wear on the elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip bearings has been investigated theoretically in the present study. A particular MOM Metasul bearing (Zimmer GmbH) was considered, and was tested in a hip simulator using diluted bovine serum. The geometry of the worn bearing surface was measured using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and was modelled theoretically on the assumption of spherical geometries determined from the maximum linear wear depth and the angle of the worn region. Both the CMM measurement and the theoretical calculation were directly incorporated into the elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis. It was found that the geometry of the original machined bearing surfaces, particularly of the femoral head with its out-of-roundness, could lead to a large reduction in the predicted lubricant film thickness and an increase in pressure. However, these non-spherical deviations can be expected to be smoothed out quickly during the initial running-in period. For a given worn bearing surface, the predicted lubricant film thickness and pressure distribution, based on CMM measurement, were found to be in good overall agreement with those obtained with the theoretical model based on the maximum linear wear depth and the angle of the worn region. The gradual increase in linear wear during the running-in period resulted in an improvement in the conformity and consequently an increase in the predicted lubricant film thickness and a decrease in the pressure. For the Metasul bearing tested in an AMTI hip simulator, a maximum total linear wear depth of approximately 13 microm was measured after 1 million cycles and remained unchanged up to 5 million cycles. This resulted in a threefold increase in the predicted average lubricant film thickness. Consequently, it was possible for the Metasul bearing to achieve a fluid film lubrication regime during this period, and this was

  19. Predictive role of the lambda ratio in the evaluation of metal-on-metal total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Affatato, S; Spinelli, M; Zavalloni, M; Leardini, W; Viceconti, M

    2008-07-01

    The wear of metal-on-metal bearings is affected by various design parameters, such as the clearance or surface roughness. It would be very useful to have a significant indicator of wear according to these design parameters, such as the lambda ratio. Three different batches of cast high- and low-carbon cobalt-chromium hip implants (28 mm, 32 mm, and 36 mm diameters) were tested in a hip joint simulator for 2 x 10(6) cycles. Bovine calf serum was used as lubricant, and the samples were weighed at regular intervals during the test. The predictive role of the lambda ratio on the wear behaviour was investigated. Three different configurations were tested to explore the wear rate for a broad range of lambda ratios. The results of these studies clearly showed that the femoral heads of 36 mm diameter had the best wear behaviour with respect to the other two smaller configurations tested. From a predictive point of view, the lambda ratios associated with the configurations tested could clearly indicate that the femoral heads of 36 mm diameter worked in the mixed-lubrication regime (lambda > 1); all the smallest configurations (28mm size) had lambda < 1, thus showing their aptitude to work in the boundary lubrication regime, with substantially higher volume depletion due to wear. The lambda values associated with the 32 mm size varied in a range around 1 (0.95 < lambda < 1.16), suggesting the possibility of operating in the mixed-lubrication regime.

  20. Ultrasound findings in asymptomatic patients with modular metal on metal total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Nicholas B; Wessell, Nolan M; Taliaferro, Kevin; Van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Silverton, Craig D

    2017-05-01

    The use of metal-on-metal and modular total hip arthroplasty is associated with potentially serious local and systemic complications. The primary aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of a pseudotumor in asymptomatic patients with a particular metal-on-metal hip prosthesis after a minimum follow-up of 5 years using ultrasound evaluation. A secondary purpose was to identify associations between the presence of pseudotumor and serum metal ion levels following implantation. We prospectively evaluated data collected from 36 asymptomatic patients who underwent implantation of a Profemur Z metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty from January 2004 to January 2010. Serum metal ion levels were collected in 2012 and 2015. Hip ultrasounds were performed in 2015. Pseudotumors were found in 7/36 patients (19.4%). The average pseudotumor size measured 38.2 cm(3) (range 7.35 cm(3)-130.81 cm(3)). Elevated metal ion levels were found in all patients at all time points. No statistical correlation was found between the presence of pseudotumor and patient age, age of the implant, component design, and any of the serum metal ion levels or ratios. One in every five asymptomatic patients with metal-on-metal implants was found to have a periarticular pseudotumor. There was no dose-dependent relationship found between elevated serum metal ion levels and the development of a pseudotumor. Our findings suggest that in patients with known elevated metal ion levels, continued monitoring of ion levels may not be a reliable predictor of pseudotumor formation, and ultrasound surveillance can and should be routinely used to document the presence and progression of pseudotumor.

  1. The natural history of inflammatory pseudotumors in asymptomatic patients after metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Almousa, Sulaiman A; Greidanus, Nelson V; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P; Garbuz, Donald S

    2013-12-01

    Although pseudotumors have been reported in 32% of asymptomatic metal-on-metal hips, the natural history of asymptomatic pseudotumors is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess changes over time in asymptomatic pseudotumors and the effect of revision on pseudotumor mass. Followup ultrasound was performed a mean of 25.8 months (range, 21-31 months) after the detection of 15 pseudotumors and five isolated fluid collections in a cohort of 20 asymptomatic patients (13 metal-on-metal, three metal-on-polyethylene, and four hip resurfacings) [42]. Changes in pseudotumors and fluid collections size and nature, and serum ion levels were determined. Among the 15 nonrevised patients, pseudotumors increased in size in six (four solid and two cystic) of 10 patients, three of which had clinically important increases (13-148 cm(3); 28-74 cm(3); 47-104 cm(3)). Three pseudotumors (one solid and two cystic) disappeared completely (the largest measured 31 cm(3)). One solid pseudotumor decreased in size (24 to 18 cm(3)). In five revised patients, pseudotumors completely disappeared in four patients. The fifth patient had two masses that decreased from 437 cm(3) to 262 cm(3) and 43 cm(3) to 25 cm(3). All revision patients had a reduction of chromium (40.42 μ/L to 2.69 μ/L) and cobalt ions (54.19 μ/L to 0.64 μ/L). Of five isolated fluid collections, four completely disappeared (two metal-on-metal and two metal-on-polyethylene) and one (metal-on-metal) increased from 26 cm(3) to 136 cm(3). Our observations suggest pseudotumors frequently increase in size in asymptomatic patients with occasional remission of small masses. Revision resulted in remission of pseudotumors.

  2. Ten-year results of a double-heat-treated metal-on-metal hip resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J; Ziaee, H; Kamali, A; Pradhan, C; Band, T; McMinn, D J W

    2010-01-01

    Second-generation metal-on-metal bearings were introduced as a response to the considerable incidence of wear-induced failures associated with conventional replacements, especially in young patients. We present the results at ten years of a consecutive series of patients treated using a metal-on-metal hip resurfacing. A distinct feature of the bearings used in our series was that they had been subjected to double-heat treatments during the post-casting phase of their manufacture. In the past these bearings had not been subjected to thermal treatments, making this a unique metal-on-metal bearing which had not been used before in clinical practice. We report the outcome of 184 consecutive hips (160 patients) treated using a hybrid-fixed metal-on-metal hip resurfacing during 1996. Patients were invited for a clinicoradiological follow-up at a minimum of ten years. The Oxford hip score and anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were obtained. The mean age at operation was 54 years (21 to 75). A series of 107 consecutive hips (99 patients) who received the same prosthesis, but subjected to a single thermal treatment after being cast, between March 1994 and December 1995, were used as a control group for comparison. In the 1994 to 1995 group seven patients (seven hips) died from unrelated causes and there were four revisions (4%) for osteolysis and aseptic loosening. In the 1996 group nine patients died at a mean of 6.9 years after operation because of unrelated causes. There were 30 revisions (16%) at a mean of 7.3 years (1.2 to 10.9), one for infection at 1.2 years and 29 for osteolysis and aseptic loosening. Furthermore, in the latter group there were radiological signs of failure in 27 (24%) of the 111 surviving hips. The magnitude of the problem of osteolysis and aseptic loosening in the 1996 cohort did not become obvious until five years after the operation. Our results indicate that double-heat treatments of metal-on-metal bearings can lead to an increased

  3. Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty at Five to Twelve Years Follow-Up: A Concise Follow-Up of a Previous Report.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Justin J; Callaghan, John J; Bedard, Nicholas A; Liu, Steve S; Goetz, Devon D; Mahoney, Craig R

    2016-08-01

    Concern has arisen regarding potential complications with modular metal-on-metal (MoM) acetabular components in total hip arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to analyze longitudinally the longer term results of a previously reported cohort of patients utilizing a cementless modular acetabular component with a MoM bearing. One hundred sixty-nine consecutive but selected total hip arthroplasties were performed in 148 patients at 2 institutions using a modular acetabular MoM component. One hundred thirty-nine patients (158 hips) were living at minimum 5 years, 1 patient (1 hip) was lost to follow-up and 8 patients (10 hips) were deceased. Patients were evaluated clinically in terms of revision as well as radiographically. Additional testing (metal ion levels, advanced imaging) was performed when concerns for adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) arose. There were 6 (3.8%) additional hips revised since the prior report for a total of 7 hips (4.4%) revised at 5-12 year follow-up. All newly revised hips (3.8%) demonstrated ALTR. There were 7 (4.7%) additional cases of radiographically detected acetabular osteolysis and 7 (4.7%) cases of femoral osteolysis. Longitudinal evaluation of a modular MoM bearing surface acetabular component demonstrated increased rates of ALTR and osteolysis at longer duration follow-up. Although greater than 95% of hips in this study performed well at 5-12 years, when comparing the results to metal-on-polyethylene bearings using the same acetabular component, the results were inferior. Longitudinal surveillance is warranted with this design and this bearing surface couple as cases of ALTR and osteolysis increased with longer follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Contact patch to rim distance: the quintessential tool for metal-on-metal bearing in vivo performance analysis - a review.

    PubMed

    Le Duff, Michel J; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Amstutz, Harlan C

    2017-05-12

    With metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings, fluid film lubrication is disrupted when the contact patch area between the femoral head and the cup is close to the edge of the acetabular component, making the calculation of the contact patch to rim (CPR) distance a key variable in the study of the performance of MoM bearings. A few research centers have used models of varying complexity to calculate the CPR distance and determine its relationship with assessments of component wear. In this review, we aimed to summarise the current knowledge related to the application of CPR distance calculations in the study of in vivo performance of MoM bearings. Our systematic search of the US National Library of Medicine yielded 9 relevant publications in which 3 different models were used for the computation of the CPR distance. The 3 models show different levels of complexity and their use is mainly dependent upon the size of the subject sample and the nature of the data collected as a dependent variable. The studies reviewed consistently showed a strong inverse correlation between CPR distance and wear or metal ion levels suggesting that any study aiming to determine the risk factors for MoM hip devices needs to include an assessment of CPR distance. Cup anteversion can be measured reliably with various tools and should not be an obstacle to the use of this essential variable that is CPR distance.

  5. [Cementless total hip arthroplasty: a review].

    PubMed

    Diehl, Peter; Haenle, Maximilian; Bergschmidt, Philipp; Gollwitzer, Hans; Schauwecker, Johannes; Bader, Rainer; Mittelmeier, Wolfram

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of total hip replacement (THR) is the restoration of a painless functioning hip joint with the main focus on the biomechanical properties. Advances in surgical techniques and biomaterial properties currently allow predictable surgical results in most patients. Despite the overwhelming success of this surgical procedure, the debate continues surrounding the optimal choice of implants and fixation. Femoral and acetabular implants with varying geometries and fixation methods are currently available. Problems inherent with acrylic bone cement, however, have encouraged surgeons to use alternative surfaces to allow biologic fixation. Optimal primary and secondary fixation of cementless hip stems is a precondition for long-term stability. Important criteria to achieve primary stability are good rotational and axial stability by press-fit fixation. The objective of the cementless secondary fixation is the biological integration of the implant by bony ingrowth. Nevertheless, current investigations show excellent results of cementless fixation even in older patients with reduced osseous quality. The main advantages of cementless fixation include biological integration, reduced duration of surgery, no tissue damage by cement polymerization and reduction of intraoperative embolisms. In comparison to cemented THR both, cementless sockets and stems provide good long-term results.

  6. Steady-state elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis of a metal-on-metal hip implant employing a metallic cup with an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene backing.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; Wang, F C; Jin, Z M; Hirt, F; Rieker, C; Grigoris, P

    2004-01-01

    The elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) analysis was carried out in this study for a 28 mm diameter metal-on-metal hip prosthesis employing a metallic cup with an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) backing under a simple steady state rotation representing the flexion/extension during walking. Both Reynolds and elasticity equations were coupled and solved numerically by the finite difference method. The elastic deformation was determined by means of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique using the displacement coefficients obtained from the finite element method. Excellent agreement of the predicted elastic deformation was obtained between the FFT technique and the conventional direct summation method. The number of grid points used in the lubrication analysis was found to be important in predicting accurate film thicknesses, particularly at low viscosities representative of physiological lubricants. The effect of the clearance between the femoral head and the acetabular cup on the predicted lubricant film thickness was shown to be significant, while the effect of load was found to be negligible. Overall, the UHMWPE backing was found not only to reduce the contact pressure as identified in a previous study by the authors (Liu et al., 2003) but also significantly to increase the lubricant film thickness for the 28 mm diameter metal-on-metal hip implant, as compared with a metallic mono-block cup.

  7. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis of metal-on-metal hip prostheses under steady state entraining motion.

    PubMed

    Jagatia, M; Jin, Z M

    2001-01-01

    The elastohydrodynamic lubrication problem of metal-on-metal hip joint replacements was considered in this study. A simple ball-in-socket configuration was used to represent the hip prosthesis. The Reynolds equation in a spherical coordinate was adopted for the fluid-film lubrication analysis, to account for the ball-in-socket geometry. The corresponding elastic deformation was calculated by means of the finite element method in order to consider the complex ball-in-socket geometry as well as the backing materials underneath the acetabular cup. Both the Reynolds and the elasticity equations were solved simultaneously using the Newton-Raphson finite difference method. The general methodology developed was then applied to a recent experimental prototype metal-on-metal hip implant. It was shown that the backing materials underneath the acetabular cup had little influence on the predicted contact pressure and the elastic deformation at the bearing surfaces for this particular example. Both the film thickness and the hydrodynamic pressure distributions were obtained under various loads up to 2500 N. The predicted minimum lubricating film thickness from the present study was compared with a simple estimation using the Hamrock and Dowson formulae based upon an equivalent ball-on-plane model and excellent agreement was found. However, it was pointed out that for some forms of metal-on-metal hip prostheses with a thin acetabular cup, a polyethylene inlay underneath a metallic bearing insert or a taper connection between a bearing insert and a fixation shell, the general methodology developed in the present study should be used and this will be considered in future studies.

  8. Complications Related to Metal-on-Metal Articulation in Trapeziometacarpal Joint Total Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Frølich, Christina; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2015-01-01

    Adverse reactions to metal-on-metal (MoM) prostheses are well known from total hip joint resurfacing arthroplasty with elevated serum chrome or cobalt, pain and pseudo tumor formation. It may, however, also be seen after total joint replacement of the trapeziometacarpal joint using MoM articulation, and we present two cases of failure of MoM prostheses due to elevated metal-serum levels in one case and pseudo tumor formation in another case. Furthermore, we suggest a diagnostic algorithm for joint pain after MoM trapeziometacarpal joint replacement based on published experiences from MoM hip prostheses and adverse reactions to metal. PMID:26020592

  9. Effect of carbon ion implantation on the tribology of metal-on-metal bearings for artificial joints

    PubMed Central

    Koseki, Hironobu; Tomita, Masato; Yonekura, Akihiko; Higuchi, Takashi; Sunagawa, Sinya; Baba, Koumei; Osaki, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have become popular due to a major advantage over metal-on-polymer bearings for total hip arthroplasty in that the larger femoral head and hydrodynamic lubrication of the former reduce the rate of wear. However, concerns remain regarding adverse reactions to metal debris including metallosis caused by metal wear generated at the taper-head interface and another modular junction. Our group has hypothesized that carbon ion implantation (CII) may improve metal wear properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wear properties and friction coefficients of CII surfaces with an aim to ultimately apply these surfaces to MoM bearings in artificial joints. CII was applied to cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloy substrates by plasma source ion implantation. The substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and a 3D measuring laser microscope. Sliding contact tests were performed with a simple geometry pin-on-plate wear tester at a load of 2.5 N, a calculated contact pressure of 38.5 MPa (max: 57.8 MPa), a reciprocating velocity of 30 mm/s, a stroke length of 60 mm, and a reciprocating cycle count of 172,800 cycles. The surfaces of the CII substrates were generally featureless with a smooth surface topography at the same level as untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Compared to the untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy, the CII-treated bearings had lower friction coefficients, higher resistance to catastrophic damage, and prevented the adhesion of wear debris. The results of this study suggest that the CII surface stabilizes the wear status due to the low friction coefficient and low infiltration of partner materials, and these properties also prevent the adhesion of wear debris and inhibit excessive wear. Carbon is considered to be biologically inert; therefore, CII is anticipated to be applicable to the bearing surfaces of MoM prostheses. PMID:28615939

  10. Effect of carbon ion implantation on the tribology of metal-on-metal bearings for artificial joints.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Hironobu; Tomita, Masato; Yonekura, Akihiko; Higuchi, Takashi; Sunagawa, Sinya; Baba, Koumei; Osaki, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have become popular due to a major advantage over metal-on-polymer bearings for total hip arthroplasty in that the larger femoral head and hydrodynamic lubrication of the former reduce the rate of wear. However, concerns remain regarding adverse reactions to metal debris including metallosis caused by metal wear generated at the taper-head interface and another modular junction. Our group has hypothesized that carbon ion implantation (CII) may improve metal wear properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wear properties and friction coefficients of CII surfaces with an aim to ultimately apply these surfaces to MoM bearings in artificial joints. CII was applied to cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloy substrates by plasma source ion implantation. The substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and a 3D measuring laser microscope. Sliding contact tests were performed with a simple geometry pin-on-plate wear tester at a load of 2.5 N, a calculated contact pressure of 38.5 MPa (max: 57.8 MPa), a reciprocating velocity of 30 mm/s, a stroke length of 60 mm, and a reciprocating cycle count of 172,800 cycles. The surfaces of the CII substrates were generally featureless with a smooth surface topography at the same level as untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Compared to the untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy, the CII-treated bearings had lower friction coefficients, higher resistance to catastrophic damage, and prevented the adhesion of wear debris. The results of this study suggest that the CII surface stabilizes the wear status due to the low friction coefficient and low infiltration of partner materials, and these properties also prevent the adhesion of wear debris and inhibit excessive wear. Carbon is considered to be biologically inert; therefore, CII is anticipated to be applicable to the bearing surfaces of MoM prostheses.

  11. Serum-cobalt levels with metal-on-metal bearings in the cement-free total hip arthroplasty results covering two years; prospective study.

    PubMed

    Weissinger, M; Grübl, A; Pöll, G

    2011-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty increases the use of alternate bearings to prevent polyethylene wear as the number of younger and more active patients has drastically risen. We carried out a prospective randomized study, to assess and compare clinical results and radiological changes, serum-cobalt- and serum-aluminium-levels when metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic bearings are applicated. After giving informed consent 80 consecutive patients were included in this prospective randomized study. They were randomly assigned to receive either a metal-on-metal or a ceramic-on-ceramic bearing in their total hip replacement. Eligible were patients with a primary coxarthrosis or an avascular necrosis of the head of femur. Of the 80 patients 54 were females and 26 males. 42 patients were randomized to a metal-on-metal bearing and 38 patients were randomized to a ceramic-on-ceramic bearing. The average patient-age was 65,8 years and the mean body mass index was 27,7 at the time of operation. Surgery was performed through a transgluteal approach in supine position under general or spinal anaesthesia. A forged conical threaded acetabular component made of titanium-aluminium-niobium alloy was used in all patients. The metal inlays and the 28 mm metal heads were made of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy with a carbon content of 0,2%. The ceramic inlays and the 28 mm ceramic heads are Al2O3 implants. We used as femoral component a conical rectangular stem of a titanium-aluminium-niobium alloy. Cup and stem werde implanted cementfree. Clinical data werde obtained at a follow up at a minimum of two years after implantation. Patients were assessed with the Harris Hip Score and the University of California at Los Angeles activity scale. 72 of the 80 patients could be explored clinically and radiologically. The 2 year follow up check showed clinically and radiologically no difference between the two groups. The median Harris HipScore was above 90 points and the UCLA score was about 7 points. The medium

  12. Friction in metal-on-metal total disc arthroplasty: effect of ball radius.

    PubMed

    Moghadas, Parshia; Mahomed, Aziza; Hukins, David W L; Shepherd, Duncan E T

    2012-02-02

    Total disc arthroplasty (TDA) can be used to replace a degenerated intervertebral disc in the spine. There are different designs of prosthetic discs, but one of the most common is a ball-and-socket combination. Contact between the bearing surfaces can result in high frictional torque, which can then result in wear and implant loosening. This study was designed to determine the effects of ball radius on friction. Generic models of metal-on-metal TDA were manufactured with ball radii of 10, 12, 14 and 16 mm, with a radial clearance of 0.015 mm. A simulator was used to test each sample in flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation at frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75 and 2 Hz under loads of 50, 600, 1200 and 2000 N, in new born calf serum. Frictional torque was measured and Stribeck curves were plotted to illustrate the lubrication regime in each case. It was observed that implants with a smaller ball radius showed lower friction and showed boundary and mixed lubrication regimes, whereas implants with larger ball radius showed boundary lubrication only. This study suggests designing metal-on-metal TDAs with ball radius of 10 or 12 mm, in order to reduce wear and implant loosening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuropsychiatric symptoms following metal-on-metal implant failure with cobalt and chromium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Green, Ben; Griffiths, Emily; Almond, Solomon

    2017-01-24

    There were at least 31,171 metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants in the UK between 2003 and 2011. Some of these were subject to failure and widescale recalls and revisions followed. This is a presentation of ten cases (mean age 60 years) where we evaluated neuropsychiatric morbidity following metal-on-metal hip implant failure and revision. Implants were ASR total hip replacement (acetabular implant, taper sleeve adaptor and unipolar femoral implants) performed between 2005 and 2009. This case series describes, for the first time, neuropsychiatric complications after revision where there has been cobalt and chromium toxicity. Pre-revision surgery, nine patients had toxic levels of chromium and cobalt (mean level chromium 338 nmol/l, mean cobalt 669.4 nmol/l). Depression assessment showed 9 of 9 respondents fulfilled the BDI criteria for depression and 3 of these were being treated. 7 of 9 patients showing short term memory deficit with mean mini mental state examination score of 24.2. The normal population mean MMSE for this group would be expected to be 28 with <25 indicating possible dementia. We found neurocognitive and depressive deficits after cobalt and chromium metallosis following MoM implant failure. Larger studies of neurocognitive effects are indicated in this group. There may be implications for public health.

  14. High Re-Operation Rates Using Conserve Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Articulations

    PubMed Central

    Mogensen, S.L.; Jakobsen, T.; Christoffersen, H.; Krarup, N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two-center study. Materials and Methods: 108 CONSERVE® MOM THA were implanted in 92 patients between November 2005 and December 2010. Patients had at time of retrospective evaluation their journals reviewed for re-operations and adverse reactions. Results: 20 hips were re-operated (18.4%) at a mean follow up of 53 months. 4 pseudotumors were diagnosed at time of follow up but no substantiated link was made between adverse reactions and re-operations. Conclusion: The high re-operation rates found in this study raised concern about the usage of the MOM THA and subsequently lead to the termination of implantation of this MOM THA at the two orthopaedic departments. PMID:27099640

  15. Formation of molten metal films during metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Nai-Shang; Okada, Makoto; Prakash, Vikas

    2004-09-01

    The present paper describes results of plate-impact pressure-shear friction experiments conducted to study time-resolved growth of molten metal films during dry metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions. By employing tribo-pairs comprising hard tool-steel against relatively low melt-point metals such as 7075-T6 aluminum alloys, interfacial friction stress ranging from 100 to 400 MPa and slip speeds of approximately 100 m/ s have been generated. These relatively high levels of friction stress combined with high slip-speeds generate conditions conducive for interfacial temperatures to approach the melting point of the lower melt point metal (Al alloy) comprising the tribo-pair. A Lagrangian finite element code is developed to understand the evolution of the thermo-mechanical fields and their relationship to the observed slip response. The code accounts for dynamic effects, heat conduction, contact with friction, and full thermo-mechanical coupling. At temperatures below the melting point the material is described as an isotropic thermally softening elastic-viscoplastic solid. For material elements with temperatures in excess of the melt point a purely Newtonian fluid constitutive model is employed. The results of the hybrid experimental-computational study provides new insights into the thermoelastic-plastic interactions during high speed metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions. During the early part of frictional slip the coefficient of kinetic friction is observed to decrease with increasing slip velocity. During the later part transition in interfacial slip occurs from dry metal-on-metal sliding to the formation of molten Al films at the tribo-pair interface. Under these conditions the interfacial resistance approaches the shear strength of the molten aluminum alloy under normal pressures of approximately 1- 3 GPa and shear strain rates of ˜10 7 s-1. The results of the study indicate that under these extreme conditions molten

  16. Do Complication Rates Differ by Gender After Metal-on-metal Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Haughom, Bryan D; Erickson, Brandon J; Hellman, Michael D; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2015-08-01

    Although metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing surfaces provide low rates of volumetric wear and increased stability, evidence suggests that certain MoM hip arthroplasties have high rates of complication and failure. Some evidence indicates that women have higher rates of failure compared with men; however, the orthopaedic literature as a whole has poorly reported such complications stratified by gender. This systematic review aimed to: (1) compare the rate of adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR); (2) dislocation; (3) aseptic loosening; and (4) revision between men and women undergoing primary MoM hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA). Systematic MEDLINE and EMBASE searches identified all level I to III articles published in peer-reviewed journals, reporting on the outcomes of interest, for MoM HRA. Articles were limited to those with 2-year followup that reported outcomes by gender. Ten articles met inclusion criteria. Study quality was evaluated using the Modified Coleman Methodology Score; the overall quality was poor. Heterogeneity and bias were analyzed using a Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. Women demonstrated an increased odds of developing ALTR (odds ratio [OR], 5.70 [2.71-11.98]; p<0.001), dislocation (OR, 3.04 [1.2-7.5], p=0.02), aseptic loosening (OR, 3.18 [2.21-4.58], p<0.001), and revision (OR, 2.50 [2.25-2.78], p<0.001) after primary MoM HRA. A systematic review of the currently available literature reveals a higher rate of complications (ALTR, dislocation, aseptic loosening, and revision) after MoM HRA in women compared with men. Although femoral head size has been frequently implicated as a prime factor in the higher rate of complication in women, further research is necessary to specifically probe this relationship. Retrospective studies of data available (eg, registry data) should be undertaken, and moving forward studies should report outcomes by gender (particularly complications). Level III, therapeutic study.

  17. Prediction of contact mechanics in metal-on-metal Total Hip Replacement for parametrically comprehensive designs and loads.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Finn E; Nyman, Edward; Coburn, James C

    2015-07-16

    Manufacturers and investigators of Total Hip Replacement (THR) bearings require tools to predict the contact mechanics resulting from diverse design and loading parameters. This study provides contact mechanics solutions for metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings that encompass the current design space and could aid pre-clinical design optimization and evaluation. Stochastic finite element (FE) simulation was used to calculate the head-on-cup contact mechanics for five thousand combinations of design and loading parameters. FE results were used to train a Random Forest (RF) surrogate model to rapidly predict the contact patch dimensions, contact area, pressures and plastic deformations for arbitrary designs and loading. In addition to widely observed polar and edge contact, FE results included ring-polar, asymmetric-polar, and transitional categories which have previously received limited attention. Combinations of design and load parameters associated with each contact category were identified. Polar contact pressures were predicted in the range of 0-200 MPa with no permanent deformation. Edge loading (with subluxation) was associated with pressures greater than 500 MPa and induced permanent deformation in 83% of cases. Transitional-edge contact (with little subluxation) was associated with intermediate pressures and permanent deformation in most cases, indicating that, even with ideal anatomical alignment, bearings may face extreme wear challenges. Surrogate models were able to accurately predict contact mechanics 18,000 times faster than FE analyses. The developed surrogate models enable rapid prediction of MoM bearing contact mechanics across the most comprehensive range of loading and designs to date, and may be useful to those performing bearing design optimization or evaluation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Validation of primary metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties on the National Joint Registry for England, Wales and Northern Ireland using data from the London Implant Retrieval Centre

    PubMed Central

    Sabah, S. A.; Henckel, J.; Cook, E.; Whittaker, R.; Hothi, H.; Pappas, Y.; Blunn, G.; Skinner, J. A.; Hart, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Arthroplasty registries are important for the surveillance of joint replacements and the evaluation of outcome. Independent validation of registry data ensures high quality. The ability for orthopaedic implant retrieval centres to validate registry data is not known. We analysed data from the National Joint Registry for England, Wales and Northern Ireland (NJR) for primary metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties performed between 2003 and 2013. Records were linked to the London Implant Retrieval Centre (RC) for validation. A total of 67 045 procedures on the NJR and 782 revised pairs of components from the RC were included. We were able to link 476 procedures (60.9%) recorded with the RC to the NJR successfully. However, 306 procedures (39.1%) could not be linked. The outcome recorded by the NJR (as either revised, unrevised or death) for a primary procedure was incorrect in 79 linked cases (16.6%). The rate of registry-retrieval linkage and correct assignment of outcome code improved over time. The rates of error for component reference numbers on the NJR were as follows: femoral head category number 14/229 (5.0%); femoral head batch number 13/232 (5.3%); acetabular component category number 2/293 (0.7%) and acetabular component batch number 24/347 (6.5%). Registry-retrieval linkage provided a novel means for the validation of data, particularly for component fields. This study suggests that NJR reports may underestimate rates of revision for many types of metal-on-metal hip replacement. This is topical given the increasing scope for NJR data. We recommend a system for continuous independent evaluation of the quality and validity of NJR data. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:10–18. PMID:25568407

  19. Surface arthroplasty for osteonecrosis of the hip: hemiresurfacing versus metal-on-metal hybrid resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Beaulé, Paul E; Amstutz, Harlan C; Le Duff, Michel; Dorey, Frederic

    2004-12-01

    Eighty-four hips with Ficat stage III and IV osteonecrosis were treated: 56 with metal-on-metal surface arthroplasty (MMSA) and 28 with hemi-surface arthroplasty (HSA). Average follow-up was 4.9 years. UCLA hip scores were significantly better for MMSA versus HSA for function and activity as well as Harris Hip scores and physical component of the SF-12 scores. In the MMSA group, 2 hips were revised to total hip arthroplasty for femoral loosening, and 5 hips had adverse radiological changes. In the HSA group, 4 hips were revised (1 sepsis and 3 for pain). There was no evidence of any femoral loosening or neck narrowing in the HSA group. Although the functional clinical outcome of MMSA is superior to HSA, long-term follow up of MMSA will determine the reliability of the femoral fixation.

  20. Effect of ion implantation on the tribology of metal-on-metal hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Bowsher, John G; Hussain, Azad; Williams, Paul; Nevelos, Jim; Shelton, Julia C

    2004-12-01

    Nitrogen ion implantation (which considerably hardens the surface of the bearing) may represent one possible method of reducing the wear of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip bearings. Currently there are no ion-implanted MOM bearings used clinically. Therefore a physiological hip simulator test was undertaken using standard test conditions, and the results compared to previous studies using the same methods. N2-ion implantation of high carbon cast Co-Cr-Mo-on-Co-Cr-Mo hip prostheses increased wear by 2-fold during the aggressive running-in phase compared to untreated bearing surfaces, plus showing no wear reductions during steady-state conditions. Although 2 specimens were considered in the current study, it would appear that ion implantation has no clinical benefit for MOM.

  1. [Measurement of chromium and cobalt ions in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Durazo-Villanueva, A; Benítez-Garduño, R

    2012-01-01

    New metal-on-metal hip replacement models emerged in the 1990 with modifications of the previous designs and alloys. This led to expect a lesser rate of ion and particle release in the body with the resulting decrease in wear, osteolysis and loosening. To measure blood and urine chromium and cobalt ions in a 28 mm metal-on-metal tribology during the first postoperative year. Blood and urine cobalt and chromium concentrations were measured in 10 patients (13 prostheses) with the atomic absorption method. The etiology was studied and they were functionally assessed with the Harris functional scale. Adverse metal reactions were also assessed. 8 male and 2 female patients, mean age 54.5 years; 6 had primary coxarthrosis, one was post-traumatic, and 3 had avascular necrosis. The final assessment according to the Harris scale was 92 points. Mean blood chromium was 1.26 ng/l, blood cobalt was 1.033 microg/l; (reference values: chromium 1.4 ng/l and cobalt 1.8 microg/l); only one figure, in a female patient, was found to be higher than normal (chromium 21.2 ng/l and cobalt 15.4 microg/l). Mean urine chromium was 0.95 ng/ml, urine cobalt was 0.53 microg/l (Reference values: chromium: 2.0 ng/ml and cobalt 0.5 microg/l). All patients, with the exception of a female patient, were within the normal ranges. No adverse effect was observed in patients with metal implants with a 28 mm tribology.

  2. ‘Pseudotumour’ invading the proximal femur with normal metal ions following metal on metal hip resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Harry; Sugand, Kapil; Ali, Ibrahim; Smith, Jay

    2015-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman who had undergone hybrid metal-on-metal hip resurfacing 8 years earlier underwent revision arthroplasty because of hip, groin and lateral thigh pain. The main differential was aseptic loosening; however, serum cobalt and chromium levels were normal. Multiple imaging modalities revealed a periprosthetic, cystic soft tissue mass adjacent to the proximal femur. A large ‘pseudotumour’ with proximal femoral invasion was found at revision arthroplasty. We report the first finding of a ‘pseudotumour’ invading the proximal femur with normal metal ions following metal on metal hip resurfacing. PMID:25670783

  3. Metal on metal total hip arthroplasty and a large groin mass: Not always adverse reaction to metallic debris

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Harry; Magnussen, Alex; Sharma, Aadhar; Skinner, John

    2014-01-01

    Due to their improved wear rates, Metal-on-metal bearings have been increasingly used in the past decade by orthopaedic surgeons carrying out total hip arthroplasty. However there is increasing evidence that there are significant complications associated with such implants. One well documented complication is that of metallic debris leading to pseudotumour formation, however there is less known about associations with other tumours within the pelvis. We present two cases where an intra-pelvic mass in patients with metal-on-metal implants were diagnosed as being of a different aetiology. This highlights the need for careful assessment of such patients in order to guide appropriate management. PMID:25560054

  4. Independent predictors of revision following metal-on-metal hip resurfacing: a retrospective cohort study using National Joint Registry data.

    PubMed

    Jameson, S S; Baker, P N; Mason, J; Porter, M L; Deehan, D J; Reed, M R

    2012-06-01

    Modern metal-on-metal hip resurfacing has been widely performed in the United Kingdom for over a decade. However, the literature reports conflicting views of the benefits: excellent medium- to long-term results with some brands in specific subgroups, but high failure rates and local soft-tissue reactions in others. The National Joint Registry for England and Wales (NJR) has collected data on all hip resurfacings performed since 2003. This retrospective cohort study recorded survival time to revision from a resurfacing procedure, exploring risk factors independently associated with failure. All patients with a primary diagnosis of osteoarthritis who underwent resurfacing between 2003 and 2010 were included in the analyses. Cox's proportional hazard models were used to analyse the extent to which the risk of revision was related to patient, surgeon and implant covariates. A total of 27 971 hip resurfacings were performed during the study period, of which 1003 (3.59%) underwent revision surgery. In the final adjusted model, we found that women were at greater risk of revision than men (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.30, p = 0.007), but the risk of revision was independent of age. Of the implant-specific predictors, five brands had a significantly greater risk of revision than the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR) (ASR: HR = 2.82, p < 0.001, Conserve: HR = 2.03, p < 0.001, Cormet: HR = 1.43, p = 0.001, Durom: HR = 1.67, p < 0.001, Recap: HR = 1.58, p = 0.007). Smaller femoral head components were also significantly more likely to require revision (≤ 44 mm: HR = 2.14, p < 0.001, 45 to 47 mm: HR = 1.48, p = 0.001) than medium or large heads, as were operations performed by low-volume surgeons (HR = 1.36, p < 0.001). Once these influences had been removed, in 4873 male patients < 60 years old undergoing resurfacing with a BHR, the five-year estimated risk of revision was 1.59%. In summary, after adjustment for a range of covariates we found that there were significant differences

  5. Cementless acetabular revision: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Luis; Rachala, Sridhar R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Acetabular revision is probably the most difficult aspect of hip reconstructive surgery. Although the majority of acetabular revisions can be performed using an uncemented hemispherical acetabular device with ancillary fixation, patients with severe acetabular deficiencies and poor bone quality require more complex alternatives for revision. The limitations of traditional cementless acetabular implants has promoted the development of improved methods of fixation and revision techniques. Highly porous metals have been introduced for clinical use in arthroplasty surgery over the last decade. Their higher porosity and surface friction are ideal for acetabular revision, optimising biological fixation. The use of trabecular metal cups in acetabular revision has yielded excellent clinical results. Purpose This review focuses on the use of cementless implants for acetabular revision. The use of trabecular metal cups, augments, jumbo cups, oblong cups, cages, and structural grafting are also discussed. PMID:21234562

  6. Characterisation of wear particles produced by metal on metal and ceramic on metal hip prostheses under standard and microseparation simulation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher; Williams, Sophie; Tipper, Joanne L; Fisher, John; Ingham, Eileen

    2007-05-01

    The failure of metal on polyethylene total hip replacements due to wear particle induced osteolysis and late aseptic loosening has focused interest upon alternative bearings, such as metal on metal implants. A recent advance in this field has been the development of a novel ceramic on metal implant. The characteristics of the wear particles generated in this low-wearing bearing have not been previously determined. The aims of this study were to characterise metal wear particles from metal on metal and ceramic on metal hips under standard and adverse (microseparation) wear conditions. Accurate characterisation of cobalt-chrome wear particles is difficult since the reactive nature of the particles prevents them from being isolated using acids and bases. A method was developed to isolate the metal wear particles using enzymes to digest serum containing lubricants from metal on metal and ceramic on metal hip simulations. High resolution scanning electron microscopy was then used to characterise the wear particles generated by both metal on metal and ceramic on metal implants under standard and microseparation wear conditions. The wear particles isolated from all simulations had a mean size of less than 50 nm with a rounded and irregular morphology. No significant difference was found between the size of wear particles generated under any conditions.

  7. Adverse soft-tissue reactions around non-metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty - a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carli, Alberto; Reuven, Avishai; Zukor, David J; Antoniou, John

    2011-01-01

    Adverse local soft-tissue reactions have been associated with severe osteolysis and implant failure in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA). Such a causal relationship has not often been associated with non metal-on-metal bearing surfaces. The purpose of this study was to assess the literature for cases of adverse soft-tissue reactions in non-metal-on-metal bearings in order to determine if a consistent histological diagnosis existed and if it was bearing-specific. A systematic review was performed in Medline and Embase databases, utilizing keyword searches to target reports of soft tissue complications following THA. Strict exclusion criteria were applied to retrieved studies in order to ensure that analyzed papers involved non-metal-on-metal bearing surfaces, had a final histological diagnosis, and had no previous history of periprosthetic infection or neoplastic process. Presenting symptoms, diagnostic work-up, histological diagnosis, and operative treatment were recorded for all reports retained for analysis. Twenty-seven reports representing 31 cases of adverse soft-tissue reactions for non-metal-on-metal THAs met the criteria for analysis. In the majority of cases, patients presented with painful, limited motion in the affected hip, and radiological evidence of severe osteolysis. Histological examination often revealed a cystic mass, denoted by a granulomatous reaction comprised of histiocytes and giant cells, but few plasma cells. Revision of loose components was the most common successful therapeutic strategy utilized. The present analysis revealed that similar adverse soft-tissue reactions have been described for both metal-on-polyethylene and ceramic bearing surfaces. When encountering such reactions in patients, a comprehensive diagnostic workup, including computed tomography (CT) scanning, lesion biopsy, and revision planning to alternate bearing surfaces should be considered.

  8. A lexicon for wear of metal-on-metal hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    McKellop, Harry A; Hart, Alister; Park, Sang-Hyun; Hothi, Harry; Campbell, Pat; Skinner, John A

    2014-09-01

    Research on metal-on-metal (MoM) hip bearings has generated an extensive vocabulary to describe the wear processes and resultant surface damage. However, a lack of consistency and some redundancy exist in the current terminology. To facilitate the understanding of MoM tribology and to enhance communication of results among researchers and clinicians, we propose four categories of wear terminology: wear modes refer to the in vivo conditions under which the wear occurred; wear mechanisms refer to fundamental wear processes (adhesion, abrasion, fatigue, and tribochemical reactions); wear damage refers to the resultant changes in the morphology and/or composition of the surfaces; and wear features refer to the specific wear phenomena that are described in terms of the relevant modes, mechanisms, and damage. Clarifying examples are presented, but it is expected that terms will be added to the lexicon as new mechanisms and types of damage are identified. Corrosion refers to electrochemical processes that can remove or add material and thus also generate damage. Corrosion can act alone or may interact with mechanical wear. Examples of corrosion damage are also presented. However, an in-depth discussion of the many types of corrosion and their effects is beyond the scope of the present wear lexicon.

  9. Wear mechanisms in metal-on-metal bearings: the importance of tribochemical reaction layers.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Markus A; Fischer, Alfons; Büscher, Robin; Pourzal, Robin; Sprecher, Christoph; Hauert, Roland; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2010-04-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings are at the forefront in hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Because of their good wear characteristics and design flexibility, MoM bearings are gaining wider acceptance with market share reaching nearly 10% worldwide. However, concerns remain regarding potential detrimental effects of metal particulates and ion release. Growing evidence is emerging that the local cell response is related to the amount of debris generated by these bearing couples. Thus, an urgent clinical need exists to delineate the mechanisms of debris generation to further reduce wear and its adverse effects. In this study, we investigated the microstructural and chemical composition of the tribochemical reaction layers forming at the contacting surfaces of metallic bearings during sliding motion. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy with coupled energy dispersive X-ray and electron energy loss spectroscopy, we found that the tribolayers are nanocrystalline in structure, and that they incorporate organic material stemming from the synovial fluid. This process, which has been termed "mechanical mixing," changes the bearing surface of the uppermost 50 to 200 nm from pure metallic to an organic composite material. It hinders direct metal contact (thus preventing adhesion) and limits wear. This novel finding of a mechanically mixed zone of nanocrystalline metal and organic constituents provides the basis for understanding particle release and may help in identifying new strategies to reduce MoM wear.

  10. Histological characterization of periprosthetic tissue responses for metal-on-metal hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Eual A; Klein, Gregg R; Cates, Harold E; Kurtz, Steven M; Steinbeck, Marla

    2014-01-01

    The histology of periprosthetic tissue from metal-on-metal (MOM) hip devices has been characterized using a variety of methods. The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate the suitability of two previously developed aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL) scoring systems for periprosthetic hip tissue responses retrieved from MOM total hip replacement (THR) systems revised for loosening. Two ALVAL scoring systems (Campbell and Oxford) were used to perform histological analyses of soft tissues from 17 failed MOM THRs. The predominant reactions for this patient cohort were macrophage infiltration and necrosis, with less than half of the patients (41%) showing a significant lymphocytic response or a high ALVAL reaction (6%). Other morphological changes varied among patients and included hemosiderin accumulation, cartilage formation, and heterotopic ossification. Both scoring systems are useful for correlating macrophage and lymphocyte responses and for comparison with the other; however, given the diversity and variability of the current responses, the Oxford-ALVAL system is more suitable for scoring tissues from MOM THR patients revised for loosening. It is important that standardized methods of scoring MOM tissue responses be used consistently so multiple study results can be compared and a consensus can be generated.

  11. Histological characterization of periprosthetic tissue responses for metal-on-metal hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Eual A.; Klein, Gregg R.; Cates, Harold E.; Kurtz, Steven M.; Steinbeck, Marla J.

    2014-01-01

    The histology of periprosthetic tissue from metal-on-metal (MOM) hip devices has been characterized by a variety of methods. The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate the suitability of two previously developed aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL) scoring systems for periprosthetic hip tissue responses retrieved from MOM THR systems revised for loosening. Two ALVAL scoring systems (Campbell and Oxford) were used to perform histological analysis of soft tissues from seventeen failed MOM THRs. The predominant reactions for this patient cohort were macrophage infiltration and necrosis, with less than half of the patients (41%) showing a significant lymphocytic response or a high ALVAL reaction (6%). Other morphological changes which varied among patients included hemosiderin accumulation, cartilage formation and heterotopic ossification. Both scoring systems correlated with macrophage and lymphocyte responses and with each other, however given the diversity and variability of the current responses the Oxford-ALVAL system was more suitable for scoring tissues from MOM THR patients revised for loosening. It is important that standardized methods to score MOM tissue responses be used consistently so multiple study results can be compared to one another and a consensus can be generated. PMID:24941402

  12. Poor short term outcome with a metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Levy, Yadin D; Ezzet, Kace A

    2013-08-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings for total hip arthroplasty (THA) have come under scrutiny with reports of high failure rates. Clinical outcome studies with several commercially available MoM THA bearings remain unreported. We evaluated 78 consecutive MoM THAs from a single manufacturer in 68 patients. Sixty-six received cobalt-chrome (CoCr) monoblock and 12 received modular titanium acetabular cups with internal CoCr liners. Femoral components were titanium with modular necks. At average 2.1 years postoperatively, 12 THAs (15.4%) demonstrated aseptic failure (10 revisions, 2 revision recommended). All revised hips demonstrated capsular necrosis with positive histology reaction for aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis-associated lesions/adverse local tissue reactions. Prosthetic instability following revision surgery was relatively common. Female gender was a strong risk factor for failure, though smaller cups were not. Both monoblock and modular components fared poorly. Corrosion was frequently observed around the proximal and distal end of the modular femoral necks.

  13. [MRI investigations in patients with problems due to metal-on-metal implants].

    PubMed

    Parsons, T M; Satchithananda, K; Berbe, R; Siddiqui, I A; Robinson, E; Hart, A J; Hart, A

    2013-08-01

    Until recently, metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants were commonly used for joint replacement and resurfacings. Their use has rapidly declined following reports of Frühversagen and soft tissue disease caused by the release of metal debris from the prosthesis. Detection of these soft tissue lesions has proven difficult using conventional imaging techniques and blood metal ion tests. Current guidelines recommend the use of imaging modalities including metal artefact reduction sequence (MARS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography and ultrasound but provide little indication which is best. MARS significantly reduces the susceptibility artefact induced by the presence of metal objects, thereby producing diagnostic quality images that can be shared with other physicians and compared over time. The clinical interpretation of MRI findings of solid pseudotumours and severe muscle atrophy is straightforward: revision is usually recommended. However, the most common MRI findings are of a cystic pseudotumour and minor muscle wasting. In these cases decision-making is difficult and we currently use multi-disciplinary and multi-colleague based meetings to make decisions regarding patient management. This article presents a comparison of imaging modalities and an update on the interpretation of MARS MRI for the investigation of patients with MoM hip implants.The English full-text version of this article is available at Springer Link (under "Supplemental").

  14. Management of metal-on-metal hip implant patients: Who, when and how to revise?

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Reshid; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2016-01-01

    The debate on how best to manage patients with metal-on-metal (MOM) hip implants continues. With over 1 million patients affected worldwide, the impact is far reaching. The majority of the aggressive failures of MOM hip implants have been dealt with by revision hip surgery, leaving patients with a much more indolent pattern of failure of devices that have been in situ for more than 10 years. The longer-term outcome for such patients remains unknown, and much debate exists on how best to manage these patients. Regulatory guidance is available but remains open to interpretation due to the lack of current evidence and long-term studies. Metal ion thresholds for concern have been suggested at 7 ppb for hip resurfacing arthroplasty and below this level for large diameter total hip arthroplasties. Soft tissue changes including pseudotumours and muscle atrophy have been shown to progress, but this is not consistent. New advanced imaging techniques are helping to diagnose complications with metal hips and the reasons for failure, however these are not widely available. This has led to some centres to tackle difficult cases through multidisciplinary collaboration, for both surgical management decisions and also follow-up decisions. We summarise current evidence and consider who is at risk, when revision should be undertaken and how patients should be managed. PMID:27190754

  15. Tribolayer Formation in a Metal-on-Metal (MoM) Hip Joint: An Electrochemical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, MT; Nagelli, C; Pourzal, R; Fischer, A; Laurent, MP; Jacobs, JJ; Wimmer, MA

    2013-01-01

    The demand for total hip replacement (THR) surgery is increasing in the younger population due to faster rehabilitation and more complete restoration of function. Up to 2009, metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joint bearings were a popular choice due to their design flexibility, post-operative stability and relatively low wear rates. The main wear mechanisms that occur along the bearing surface of MoM joints are tribochemical reactions that deposit a mixture of wear debris, metal ions and organic matrix of decomposed proteins known as a tribolayer. No in-depth electrochemical studies have been reported on the structure and characteristics of this tribolayer or about the parameters involved in its formation. In this study, we conducted an electrochemical investigation of different surfaces (bulk-like: control, nano-crystalline: new implant and tribolayer surface: retrieved implant) made out of two commonly used hip CoCrMo alloys (high-carbon and low-carbon). As per ASTM standard, cyclic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests were conducted. The results obtained from electrochemical parameters for different surfaces clearly indicated a reduction in corrosion for the tribolayer surface (Icorr: 0.76 μA/cm2). Further, polarization resistance (Rp:2.39±0.60MΩ/cm2) and capacitance (Cdl:15.20±0.75 μF/cm2) indicated variation in corrosion kinetics for the tribolayer surface, that attributed to its structure and stability in a simulated body environment. PMID:24099949

  16. Effect of swing phase load on metal-on-metal hip lubrication, friction and wear.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sophie; Jalali-Vahid, Davood; Brockett, Claire; Jin, Zhongmin; Stone, Martin H; Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John

    2006-01-01

    There is renewed interest in metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip replacements (THRs), however, variable wear rates have been observed clinically. It is hypothesised that changes in soft tissue tensioning during surgery may alter loading of THRs during the swing phase of gait leading to changes in fluid film lubrication, friction and wear. This study aimed to assess the effect of swing phase load on the lubrication, friction and wear of MOM hip replacements. Theoretical lubrication modelling was carried out using elastohydrodynamic theory. All the governing equations were solved numerically for the lubricant film thickness between the articulating surfaces under the transient dynamic conditions with low and high swing phase loads. Friction testing was completed using a single axis pendulum simulator, simplified loading cycles were applied with low and high swing phase loads. MOM hip replacements were tested in a hip simulator, modified to provide different swing phase loading regimes; a low (100 N) and a high load (as per ISO 14242-1; 280 N). Results demonstrated that the performance of MOM bearings is highly dependent on swing phase load. Hence, changes in the tension of the tissues at surgery and variations in muscle forces may increase swing phase load, reduce lubrication, increase friction and accelerate wear. This may explain some of the variations that have been observed with clinical wear rates.

  17. Method for the location of primary wear scars from retrieved metal on metal hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Govind, Garima; Henckel, Johann; Hothi, Harry; Sabah, Shiraz; Skinner, John; Hart, Alister

    2015-07-30

    Retrieved metal-on-metal acetabular cups are valuable resources in investigating the wear behaviour of failed hip implants, but adequate methods to do so are lacking. To further contribute to addressing this issue, we developed a method to detect the in vivo location of the primary wear scar of an explanted cup. We proposed a new method in which thirteen patients with failed metal hip resurfacings were recruited, and their acetabular components retrieved. A 3D wear map was generated and the precise location of the primary wear scar in each cup was identified using a coordinate measuring machine. This wear scar location was noted in relation to the features on the acetabular cup. Having identified the location of the wear scar, this 3D positional map was co-registered to the implant on the patient's pelvic 3D CT scan. Using our proposed technique, we were able to demonstrate that the in vivo position of the primary wear scar in explanted metal acetabular cups can be variable. This method has utilised existing techniques to better understand the three-dimensional properties of wear behaviour, and may be a method which can be used in further studies to investigate variables that affect the position of the primary wear scar.

  18. Renal clearance of cobalt in relation to the use of metal-on-metal bearings in hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Joseph; Ziaee, Hena; Pradhan, Chandra; Pynsent, Paul B; McMinn, Derek J W

    2010-04-01

    A concern regarding the use of metal-on-metal bearings in hip arthroplasty has been that the high levels of metal ions that are released overwhelm the renal threshold for metal excretion, leading to systemic buildup of metals. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the physiological renal capacity for cobalt clearance and cobalt concentrating efficiency is overwhelmed by the elevation in metal ion levels seen in patients with metal-on-metal-bearing hip devices. Concurrent specimens of urine and plasma were obtained from a group of 461 patients (346 men and 115 women) at various intervals after either a unilateral (296) or a bilateral (130) metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty or preoperatively (thirty-five patients; the control specimens). Metal ion analyses were performed with high-resolution inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Renal efficiency was measured as the ratio of urine cobalt concentration to plasma cobalt concentration. Cobalt clearance was calculated by dividing the urine cobalt output in twenty-four hours by the plasma cobalt concentration. Dividing the quotient by 1440 adjusts it to clearance per minute. The median renal efficiency was found to be 0.9 in the analysis of the preoperative specimens, indicating that there was renal conservation of cobalt. In patients with metal-on-metal bearings, the median renal efficiency was 3.2, indicating that, as a result of cobalt excretion, the cobalt concentration in urine was threefold higher than the concentration in plasma. Linear regression analysis showed that renal efficiency progressively increased at a rate of 9% for every microg/24 hr increase in cobalt release. Cobalt clearance showed a similar trend, increasing from 1.3 mL/min in the preoperative group to 3.7 mL/min in the follow-up group. In the follow-up group, renal cobalt clearance progressively increased from 1.9 to 7.1 mL/min with increasing daily cobalt output, which indicates that with increasing in vivo metal ion release there

  19. A prospective, randomised controlled trial comparing ceramic-on-metal and metal-on-metal bearing surfaces in total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Schouten, R; Malone, A A; Tiffen, C; Frampton, C M; Hooper, G

    2012-11-01

    In a double-blinded randomised controlled trial, 83 patients with primary osteoarthritis of the hip received either a ceramic-on-metal (CoM) or metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip replacement (THR). The implants differed only in the bearing surfaces used. The serum levels of cobalt and chromium and functional outcome scores were compared pre-operatively and at six and 12 months post-operatively. Data were available for 41 CoM and 36 MoM THRs (four patients were lost to follow-up, two received incorrect implants). The baseline characteristics of both cohorts were similar. Femoral head size measured 36 mm in all but two patients who had 28 mm heads. The mean serum cobalt and chromium levels increased in both groups, with no difference noted between groups at six months (cobalt p = 0.67, chromium p = 0.87) and 12 months (cobalt p = 0.76, chromium p = 0.76) post-operatively. Similarly, the mean Oxford hip scores, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index and University of California, Los Angeles activity scores showed comparable improvement at 12 months. Our findings indicate that CoM and MoM couplings are associated with an equivalent increase in serum cobalt and chromium levels, and comparable functional outcome scores at six and 12-months follow-up.

  20. Tribolayer formation in a metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joint: an electrochemical investigation.

    PubMed

    Mathew, M T; Nagelli, C; Pourzal, R; Fischer, A; Laurent, M P; Jacobs, J J; Wimmer, M A

    2014-01-01

    The demand for total hip replacement (THR) surgery is increasing in the younger population due to faster rehabilitation and more complete restoration of function. Up to 2009, metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joint bearings were a popular choice due to their design flexibility, post-operative stability and relatively low wear rates. The main wear mechanisms that occur along the bearing surface of MoM joints are tribochemical reactions that deposit a mixture of wear debris, metal ions and organic matrix of decomposed proteins known as a tribolayer. No in-depth electrochemical studies have been reported on the structure and characteristics of this tribolayer or about the parameters involved in its formation. In this study, we conducted an electrochemical investigation of different surfaces (bulk-like: control, nano-crystalline: new implant and tribolayer surface: retrieved implant) made out of two commonly used hip CoCrMo alloys (high-carbon and low-carbon). As per ASTM standard, cyclic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests were conducted. The results obtained from electrochemical parameters for different surfaces clearly indicated a reduction in corrosion for the tribolayer surface (Icorr: 0.76μA/cm(2)). Further, polarization resistance (Rp:2.39±0.60MΩ/cm(2)) and capacitance (Cdl:15.20±0.75μF/cm(2)) indicated variation in corrosion kinetics for the tribolayer surface, that attributed to its structure and stability in a simulated body environment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in blood ion levels after removal of metal-on-metal hip replacements

    PubMed Central

    Durrani, Salim K; Sampson, Barry; Panetta, Therese; Liddle, Alexander D; Sabah, Shiraz A; Chan, Newton K; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose In patients with metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prostheses, pain and joint effusions may be associated with elevated blood levels of cobalt and chromium ions. Since little is known about the kinetics of metal ion clearance from the body and the rate of resolution of elevated blood ion levels, we examined the time course of cobalt and chromium ion levels after revision of MoM hip replacements. Patients and methods We included 16 patients (13 female) who underwent revision of a painful MoM hip (large diameter, modern bearing) without fracture or infection, and who had a minimum of 4 blood metal ion measurements over an average period of 6.1 (0–12) months after revision. Results Average blood ion concentrations at the time of revision were 22 ppb for chromium and 43 ppb for cobalt. The change in ion levels after revision surgery varied extensively between patients. In many cases, over the second and third months after revision surgery ion levels decreased to 50% of the values measured at revision. Decay of chromium levels occurred more slowly than decay of cobalt levels, with a 9% lag in return to normal levels. The rate of decay of both metals followed second-order (exponential) kinetics more closely than first-order (linear) kinetics. Interpretation The elimination of cobalt and chromium from the blood of patients who have undergone revision of painful MoM hip arthroplasties follows an exponential decay curve with a half-life of approximately 50 days. Elevated blood levels of cobalt and chromium ions can persist for at least 1 year after revision, especially in patients with high levels of exposure. PMID:24758321

  2. Asymptomatic pseudotumours after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing show little change within one year.

    PubMed

    van der Weegen, W; Brakel, K; Horn, R J; Hoekstra, H J; Sijbesma, T; Pilot, P; Nelissen, R G H H

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the natural course of unrevised asymptomatic pseudotumours after metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacing during a six- to 12-month follow-up period. We used repeated metal artefact reduction sequence (MARS)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), serum metal ion analysis and clinical examination to study 14 unrevised hips (mean patient age 52.7 years, 46 to 68, 5 female, 7 male) with a pseudotumour and 23 hips (mean patient age 52.8 years, 38 to 69, 7 female, 16 male) without a pseudotumour. The mean post-operative time to the first MARS-MRI scan was 4.3 years (2.2 to 8.3), and mean time between the first and second MARS-MRI scan was eight months (6 to 12). At the second MRI scan, the grade of severity of the pseudotumour had not changed in 35 hips. One new pseudotumour (Anderson C2 score, moderate) was observed, and one pseudotumour was downgraded from C2 (moderate) to C1 (mild). In general, the characteristics of the pseudotumours hardly changed. Repeated MARS-MRI scans within one year in patients with asymptomatic pseudotumours after MoM hip resurfacing showed little or no variation. In 23 patients without pseudotumour, one new asymptomatic pseudotumour was detected. This is the first longitudinal study on the natural history of pseudotumours using MARS-MRI scans in hip resurfacing, and mirrors recent results for 28 mm diameter MoM total hip replacement.

  3. Metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty - five- to 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Vassilios S; Petit, Alain; Debiparshad, Kevin; Huk, Olga L; Zukor, David J; Antoniou, John

    2011-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been introduced in an attempt to reduce the wear rate and the consequent osteolysis around implants. The aim of this study was to present the intermediate to long-term clinical and radiological outcomes and to investigate the metal ion levels in the blood of patients who had undergone primary uncemented MoM THA in our institution. Between July 1997 and November 2003, 166 patients (193 hips), with a mean age of 50 years (range, 18-65 years), underwent primary MoM THA. Clinical data, radiographs, and blood samples were obtained at regular follow-up visits. Cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and molybdenum (Mo) ions were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) from the patient's whole blood. All patients were prospectively followed for a minimum of 5 years (mean, 7 years; range, 5-11 years). The mean Harris hip score (HHS) and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score at the latest follow-up was 88 ± 11 and 7 ± 1.8 points, respectively. Thirteen hips have been revised. Ten acetabular components had early failure, due to factory manufacturing problems. All other implants have been found stable, with no signs of aseptic loosening. The probability of survival at 11 years, if the hips that were revised due to manufacturing problems were excluded, was 98.4%. The Co and Cr metal ion levels, after increasing significantly during the first 4 to 5 years post-surgery, remained stable, with a tendency to decrease thereafter, but not significantly. During the same follow-up period, Mo ion levels remained stable. In this 5-to-11 year follow-up study of MoM THA patients, excellent survivorship, with low complications rates, was found. Results of longer follow-up studies are necessary to clarify the possible long-term effects of metal ion release.

  4. Balancing innovation and medical device regulation: the case of modern metal-on-metal hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jason J

    2016-01-01

    Due to problems with wear particle generation and subsequent loosening using conventional metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacements, there has been a shift toward alternative bearing systems, including metal-on-metal (MoM), for younger, more active patients with degenerative joint disease. Based on positive results from early short-term clinical studies, MoM hip replacements were readily adopted by orthopedic surgeons with thousands being implanted worldwide over the past decade. Unacceptably high revision rates reported by two national joint registries called into question the rigorousness of the regulatory approval process for these implants, particularly with respect to premarket data requirements to prove safety, effectiveness, and the appropriateness of the regulatory pathway chosen. The purpose of this review was to investigate the balance between facilitating the introduction of new medical technologies and the need to ensure safety and effectiveness through comprehensive regulatory assessment. The case of MoM hip replacement devices was used to frame the investigation and subsequent discussions. The regulatory approval processes and post-market surveillance requirements associated with three common MoM hip replacements (two resurfacings: the Birmingham and articular surface replacement and the articular surface replacement XL total hip replacement) were investigated. With respect to modern MoM hip replacement devices, the balance between facilitating the introduction of these new medical technologies and the need to ensure safety and effectiveness through comprehensive regulatory assessment was not achieved. The lessons learned from these experiences have application beyond joint replacements to the introduction of new medical technologies in general, particularly for those who have a significant potential for harm. In this regard, a series of recommendations have been developed to contribute to the evolution of the medical device regulatory process.

  5. Cross-sectional imaging of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth; Henckel, Johann; Sabah, Shiraz; Satchithananda, Keshthra; Skinner, John; Hart, Alister

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — Metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS) MRI is widely advocated for surveillance of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties (MOM-HAs). However, its use is limited by susceptibility artifact at the prosthesis-bone interface, local availability, patient compliance, and cost (Hayter et al. 2011a). We wanted to determine whether CT is a suitable substitute for MARS MRI in evaluation of the painful MOM-HA. Patients and methods — 50 MOM-HA patients (30 female) with unexplained painful prostheses underwent MARS MRI and CT imaging. 2 observers who were blind regarding the clinical data objectively reported the following outcomes: soft tissue lesions (pseudotumors), muscle atrophy, and acetabular and femoral osteolysis. Diagnostic test characteristics were calculated. Results — Pseudotumor was diagnosed in 25 of 50 hips by MARS MRI and in 11 of 50 by CT. Pseudotumors were classified as type 1 (n = 2), type 2A (n = 17), type 2B (n = 4), and type 3 (n = 2) by MARS MRI. CT did not permit pseudotumor classification. The sensitivity of CT for diagnosis of pseudotumor was 44% (95% CI: 25–65). CT had “slight” agreement with MARS MRI for quantification of muscle atrophy (κ = 0.23, CI: 0.16–0.29; p < 0.01). Osteolysis was identified in 15 of 50 patients by CT. 4 of these lesions were identified by MARS MRI. Interpretation — CT was found to be superior to MRI for detection of osteolysis adjacent to MOM-HA, and should be incorporated into diagnostic algorithms. CT was unable to classify and failed to detect many pseudotumors, and it was unreliable for assessment of muscle atrophy. Where MARS MRI is contraindicated or unavailable, CT would be an unsuitable substitute and other modalities such as ultrasound should be considered PMID:25267500

  6. Wear behaviour of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys used in metal-on-metal hip implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varano, Rocco

    The influence of carbon (C) content, microstructure, crystallography and mechanical properties on the wear behaviour of metal-on-metal (MM) hip implants made from commercially available cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys designated as American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) grade F1537, F75 and as-cast were studied in this work. The as-received bars of wrought CoCrMo alloys (ASTM F1537 of either about 0.05% or 0.26% C) were each subjected to various heat treatments to develop different microstructures. Pin and plate specimens were fabricated from each bar and were tested against each other using a linear reciprocating pin-on-plate apparatus in 25% by volume bovine serum solution. The applied normal load was 9.81 N and the reciprocating plate had a sinusoidal velocity with an average speed of 26 mm/s. The wear was measured gravimetrically and it was found to be most strongly affected by alloy C content, irrespective of grain size or carbide morphology. More precisely, the wear behaviour was directly correlated to the dissolved C content of the alloys. Increased C in solid-solution coincided with lower volumetric wear since C helps to stabilize the face-centred cubic (FCC) crystal structure thus limiting the amount of strain induced transformation (SIT) to the hexagonal close-packed crystal structure (HCP). Based on the observed surface twinning in and around the contact zone and the potentially detrimental effect of the HCP phase, it was postulated that the MM wear behaviour of CoCrMo alloys in the present study was controlled by a deformation mechanism, rather than corrosion or tribochemical reactions.

  7. Balancing innovation and medical device regulation: the case of modern metal-on-metal hip replacements

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Jason J

    2016-01-01

    Due to problems with wear particle generation and subsequent loosening using conventional metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacements, there has been a shift toward alternative bearing systems, including metal-on-metal (MoM), for younger, more active patients with degenerative joint disease. Based on positive results from early short-term clinical studies, MoM hip replacements were readily adopted by orthopedic surgeons with thousands being implanted worldwide over the past decade. Unacceptably high revision rates reported by two national joint registries called into question the rigorousness of the regulatory approval process for these implants, particularly with respect to premarket data requirements to prove safety, effectiveness, and the appropriateness of the regulatory pathway chosen. The purpose of this review was to investigate the balance between facilitating the introduction of new medical technologies and the need to ensure safety and effectiveness through comprehensive regulatory assessment. The case of MoM hip replacement devices was used to frame the investigation and subsequent discussions. The regulatory approval processes and post-market surveillance requirements associated with three common MoM hip replacements (two resurfacings: the Birmingham and articular surface replacement and the articular surface replacement XL total hip replacement) were investigated. With respect to modern MoM hip replacement devices, the balance between facilitating the introduction of these new medical technologies and the need to ensure safety and effectiveness through comprehensive regulatory assessment was not achieved. The lessons learned from these experiences have application beyond joint replacements to the introduction of new medical technologies in general, particularly for those who have a significant potential for harm. In this regard, a series of recommendations have been developed to contribute to the evolution of the medical device regulatory process

  8. The Inflammatory Phenotype in Failed Metal-On-Metal Hip Arthroplasty Correlates with Blood Metal Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Paukkeri, Erja-Leena; Korhonen, Riku; Hämäläinen, Mari; Pesu, Marko; Eskelinen, Antti; Moilanen, Teemu; Moilanen, Eeva

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hip arthroplasty is the standard treatment of a painful hip destruction. The use of modern metal-on-metal (MOM) bearing surfaces gained popularity in total hip arthroplasties during the last decade. Recently, worrisome failures due to adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD), including pseudotumor response, have been widely reported. However, the pathogenesis of this reaction remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ARMD response by flow cytometry approach. Methods Sixteen patients with a failed Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) hip prosthesis were included in the study. Samples of pseudotumor tissues collected during revision surgery were degraded by enzyme digestion and cells were typed by flow cytometry. Whole blood chromium and cobalt concentrations were analyzed with mass spectrometry before revision surgery. Results Flow cytometry analysis showed that the peri-implant pseudotumor tissue expressed two principal phenotypes, namely macrophage-dominated and T-lymphocyte-dominated response; the average portions being 54% (macrophages) and 25% (T-lymphocytes) in macrophage-dominated inflammation and 20% (macrophages) and 54% (T-lymphocytes) in T-lymphocyte-dominated response. The percentages of B-lymphocytes and granulocytes were lower in both phenotypes. Interestingly, the levels of blood chromium and cobalt were significantly higher in patients with macrophage-dominated response. Conclusions The results suggest that the adverse tissue reactions induced by MOM wear particles contain heterogeneous pathogeneses and that the metal levels are an important factor in the determination of the inflammatory phenotype. The present results support the hypothesis that higher metal levels cause cytotoxicity and tissue injury and macrophages are recruited to clear the necrotic debris. On the other hand, the adverse response developed in association with lower metal levels is T-lymphocyte-dominated and is likely to reflect

  9. Comparison of cementless and hybrid cemented total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lass, Richard; Kubista, Bernd; Holinka, Johannes; Pfeiffer, Martin; Schuller, Spiro; Stenicka, Sandra; Windhager, Reinhard; Giurea, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA) implants were designed to provide long-term fixation without the risk of cement-associated complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of titanium-coated cementless implants compared with hybrid TKA implants with a cemented tibial and a cementless femoral component. The authors performed a case-control, single-center study of 120 TKAs performed between 2003 and 2007, including 60 cementless and 60 hybrid cemented TKAs. The authors prospectively analyzed the radiographic and clinical data and the survivorship of the implants at a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Ninety patients who underwent TKA completed the 5-year assessment. Knee Society Scores increased significantly in both groups (P<.001). In both groups, 2 patients underwent revision due to aseptic tibial component loosening, resulting in a 96% implant survival rate. Radiographs showed significantly less radiolucent lines around the tibial baseplate in the cementless group (n=12) than in the hybrid cemented group (n=26) (P=.009).At 6-year mean follow-up, no significant difference existed between the cementless and hybrid cemented tibial components in TKA in terms of clinical and functional results and postoperative complications. The significantly smaller number of radiolucent lines in the cementless group is an indicator of primary stability with the benefit of long-term fixation durability of TKA.

  10. Removing a well-fixed nonmodular large-bearing cementless acetabular component: a simple modification of an existing removal device.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Thomas J

    2010-04-01

    Removing well-fixed cementless acetabular components while minimizing bone loss has been facilitated by the use of a removal device featuring sharp curved gouges, specific to the outside diameter of the existing acetabular shell, mated to a femoral head designed to sit inside the acetabular liner. Nonmodular acetabular components with inner bearing diameters greater than 36 mm are to date not accommodated by femoral head sizes in this system. A simple modification, placement of a bipolar head matching the inner diameter of the fixed shell, allows use of this removal device for nonmodular shells. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cementless total hip replacement: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Harumoto; Yoshihara, Yasuo; Henmi, Osamu; Morita, Mitsuhiro; Shiromoto, Yuichiro; Kawano, Tomoki; Kanaji, Arihiko; Ando, Kennichi; Nakagawa, Masato; Kosaki, Naoto; Fukaya, Eiichi

    2009-03-01

    Cementless total hip replacement (THR) is rapidly being accepted as the surgery for arthritic diseases of the hip joint. The bone-ingrowth rate in porous-type cementless implants was about 90% over 10 years after surgery, showing that biological fixation of cementless THR was well maintained on both the stem and cup sides. As for the stress shielding of the femur operated using a distal fixation-type stem, severe bone resorption was observed. The severe bone resorption group showed continuous progression for more than 10 years after surgery. Stem loosening directly caused by stress shielding has been considered less likely; however, close attention should be paid to bone resorption-associated disorders including femoral fracture. Cementless cups have several specific problems. It is difficult to decide whether a cup should be placed in the physiological position for the case of acetabular dysplasia by bone grafting or at a relatively higher position without bone grafting. The bone-ingrowth rate was lower in the group with en bloc bone grafting, and the reactive line was frequently noted in the bone-grafted region. Although no data indicated that en bloc bone grafting directly led to poor outcomes, such as loosening, cup placement at a higher site without bone grafting is now selected by most operators. The polyethylene liner in a cementless cup is thinned due to the metal cup thickness; however, it has been suggested that the apparent relation between the cup size and the wear rate was absent as long as a cementless cup is used. Comparative study indicated cementless THR was inferior with regard to the yearly polyethylene wear rate and incidence of osteolysis on both the stem and cup sides. Meta-analysis study on the survival rate between cement and cementless THR reported that cemented THR was slightly superior. It should be considered that specific problems for cementless THR, especially with regard to polyethylene wear, do occur.

  12. Comparison of metal on metal versus polyethylene-ceramic bearing in uncemented total hip arthroplasty in patients with haemophilic arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Panotopoulos, Joannis; Ay, Cihan; Schuh, Reinhard; Domayer, Stephan; Funovics, Philipp; Trieb, Klemens; Wanivenhaus, Hugo; Windhager, Reinhard

    2014-07-01

    We report the results of a consecutive series of 12 cases with haemophilic hip arthropathy treated with uncemented total hip arthroplasty (THA). Our hypothesis was that THA results in the haemophilic group would be inferior to those in the nonhaemophilic group. The clinical histories of 12 consecutive THAs in eight patients (all men) with hereditary bleeding disorders (haemophilia A and B and von Willebrand disease) were reviewed retrospectively. The results were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group without haemophilia, with special emphasis on bearing surfaces (Metasul metal-on-metal; polyethylene-ceramic articulation). The mean follow-up of the control group was 9.7 (range five to 24) years and was similar to the haemophilia group, with 10.4. Survival in the Metasul haemophilic group was 22.2 % after 18 years, which significantly differed from the Metasul control group (100 % after 24 years). Survival of the polyethylene-ceramic haemophilic group was similar to the control group (100 % after seven years in both groups). The metal-on-metal bearing surface in patients with haemophilia gave inferior results compared with nonhaemophilic patients. The use of metal-on-metal bearings in haemophilia is debatable.

  13. The effect of motion patterns on edge-loading of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Mellon, S J; Kwon, Y-M; Glyn-Jones, S; Murray, D W; Gill, H S

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of pseudotumours (soft tissue masses relating to the hip joint) following metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (MoMHRA) has been associated with high serum metal ion levels and consequently higher than normal bearing wear. We investigated the relationship between serum metal ion levels and contact stress on the acetabular component of MoMHRA patients for two functional activities; gait and stair descent. Four subjects with MoMHRA, who had their serum metal ion levels measured, underwent motion analysis followed by CT scanning. Their motion capture data was combined with published hip contact forces and finite element models representing 14% (peak force) and 60% (end of stance) of the gait cycle and 52% (peak force) of stair descent activity were created. The inclination angle of the acetabular component was increased by 10° in 1° intervals and the contact stresses were determined at each interval for each subject. When the inclination angle was altered in such a way as to cause the hip contact force to pass through the edge of the acetabular component edge-loading occurred. Edge-loading increased the contact stress by at least 50%; the maximum increase was 108%. Patients with low serum metal ion levels showed no increase in contact stress at peak force during gait or stair descent. Patients with high serum metal ion levels exhibited edge-loading with an increase to the inclination angle of their acetabular components. The increase in inclination angle that induced edge-loading for these subjects was less than the inter-subject variability in the angle of published hip contact forces. The results of this study suggest that high serum metal ion levels are the result of inclination angle influenced edge-loading but that edge-loading cannot be attributed to inclination angle alone and that an individual's activity patterns can reduce or even override the influence of a steep acetabular component and prevent edge-loading. Copyright © 2011 IPEM

  14. Do cobalt and chromium levels predict osteolysis in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Renner, Lisa; Schmidt-Braekling, Tom; Faschingbauer, Martin; Boettner, Friedrich

    2016-12-01

    Serum metal ions are part of the regular follow-up routine of patients with metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties (MoM-THA). Increased cobalt levels have been suggested to indicate implant failure and corrosion. (1) Is there a correlation between the size of the osteolysis measured on a CT scan and metal ion levels? (2) Can metal ion levels predict the presence of osteolysis in MoM-THA? (3) Are cobalt and chromium serum levels or the cobalt-chromium-ratio diagnostic for osteolysis? CT scans of patients (n = 75) with a unilateral MoM-THA (Birmingham Hip System, Smith & Nephew, TN, USA) implanted by a single surgeon were reviewed to determine the presence of osteolysis. Statistical analysis was performed to detect its association with metal ion levels at the time of the imaging exam. The incidence of osteolysis was the same in men and women (35.6 vs 35.7 %). The cobalt-chromium-ratio correlates with the size of the osteolysis on the CT scan and the femoral component size in the overall study population (p = 0.050, p = 0.001) and in men (p = 0.002, p = 0.001) but not in women (p = 0.312, p = 0.344). The AUC for the cobalt-chromium-ratio to detect osteolysis was 0.613 (p = 0.112) for the overall population, 0.710 for men (p = 0.021) and 0.453 (p = 0.684) for women. The data suggest that a cut off level of 1.71 for the cobalt-chromium-ratio has a sensitivity of 62.5 % and specificity of 72.4 % to identify male patients with osteolysis. The disproportional increase of cobalt over chromium, especially in male patients with large component sizes can not be explained by wear alone and suggests that other processes (corrosion) might contribute to metal ion levels and might be more pronounced in patients with larger component sizes.

  15. Revision of Metal-on-metal Hip Prostheses Results in Marked Reduction of Blood Cobalt and Chromium Ion Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lainiala, Olli; Reito, Aleksi; Elo, Petra; Pajamäki, Jorma; Puolakka, Timo; Eskelinen, Antti

    2015-07-01

    High revision rates attributable to adverse reactions to metal debris have been reported for total hip arthroplasties (THAs) with metal-on-metal implants and hip resurfacings. The effect of revision on blood metal ion levels is described only in small series, the clinical results of revisions have been contradictory, and concerns regarding component loosening have been presented. We asked: (1) Did revision surgery result in a reduction to normal for whole blood cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) levels (2) What changes to the Oxford Hip Score were observed after revision of these hips with metal-on-metal implants? (3) Were there radiologic signs of component loosening observed on 1-year followup radiographs? Between September 2010 and April 2013, 154 patients (166 hips) who had THAs with implantation of the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR™) system and 44 patients (49 hips) who had hip resurfacings of the ASR™ implant underwent revision surgery for adverse reactions to metal debris at our institution, after recall of these components in August 2010. General indications for revision of these implants included a symptomatic hip and/or a predominantly solid pseudotumor seen on cross-sectional imaging. Since recall, patients were systematically followed after revision with Oxford Hip Score questionnaires, blood Co and Cr measurements (analyzed from whole blood with dynamic reaction-cell inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry), and plain radiographs at 2 and 12 months after revision surgery, and thereafter at 2-year intervals. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative blood Co and Cr values were available for 93% (185 of 198 patients), Oxford Hip Score for 76% (151 of 198 patients), and plain radiographs for all patients. Whole-blood levels of Co decreased below the 7 ppb cut-off value in all patients with revision of unilateral THA or resurfacing, however, blood Cr levels remained elevated in four of 90 patients (4%) in the unilateral THA group and four of 34

  16. Incidence of Adverse Reactions to Metal Debris From 28-mm Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasties With Minimum 10 Years of Follow-Up: Clinical, Laboratory, and Ultrasound Assessment of 44 Cases.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Béchir; Putman, Sophie; Cholewinski, Pierre; Paris, Amandine; Migaud, Henri; Girard, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Total hip arthroplasty with metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings has been suspected to cause adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD), with the incidence varying greatly by implant type and patient gender. The prevalence of ARMD from small-diameter MoM bearings in women is unknown, especially after 10 years of follow-up (FU). Cementless 28-mm MoM total hip arthroplasty bearings (Metasul) were implanted consecutively in 42 active women between 1996 and 2002. They were reviewed after a minimum of 10 years' FU with clinical, laboratory, radiological, and ultrasound assessments. Mean FU was 15.9 years (range, 13-18). The mean Postel-Merle d'Aubigné and Oxford scores were 16.9 (range, 13-18) and 15.1 (range, 12-24), respectively, at FU. Mean cup inclination angle was 46.3° (range, 35°-57°). No femoral osteolysis was detected, but limited acetabular osteolysis (11%) over the screw holes occurred in 5 cases. No liquid or solid synovial reactions or ARMD were apparent on ultrasound, even in the 5 cases of pelvic osteolysis. Mean chromium levels were 1.32 μg/L (range, 0.1-7.9) and cobalt levels were 1.85 μg/L (range, 0.35-13.6). Cobalt was >3 μg/L in only 3 cases. The 15.9-year survivorship was 95% (range, 94.1%-98.9%). Reliable results were obtained with 28-mm MoM bearings, notably in young, active patients. This implant configuration requires very accurate positioning. No ARMD was seen in this group at 16 years' FU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Retaining well-fixed cementless stem in the treatment of infected hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Two-stage reconstruction, reimplantation after removal of an infected prosthesis, has been considered to be the gold standard for treatment of infected hip arthroplasty. However, during the removal of a well-fixed femoral stem, the proximal femur can be damaged and a sequestrum can be formed, which might lead to chronic osteomyelitis and difficulty in reimplantation. We wanted to determine whether infection after hip arthroplasty can be treated without removal of a well-fixed stem. Methods We treated 19 patients who had an infection after hip replacement, but a well-fixed cementless stem, with 2-stage reconstruction. At the first stage, we removed the acetabular cup, the liner and the head, but not the stem. We then implanted a cup of cement spacer. After control of infection, we reimplanted the acetabular component and head. Results 2 patients did not undergo second-stage reconstruction because they were satisfied with the pain relief and the activity that they had with the cement-spacer implantation. The remaining 17 patients underwent the second-stage of the reconstruction using cementless arthroplasty. At a mean follow-up time of 4 (2–8) years, 15 of the patients had no recurrence of infection, with satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcome. Interpretation This second-stage reconstruction after retention of the stem could be an alternative treatment option for periprosthetic infection with a well-fixed stem. PMID:23621807

  18. Have cementless and resurfacing components improved the medium-term results of hip replacement for patients under 60 years of age?

    PubMed Central

    Mason, James; Baker, Paul; Gregg, Paul J; Porter, Martyn; Deehan, David J; Reed, Mike R

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose The optimal hip replacement for young patients remains unknown. We compared patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), revision risk, and implant costs over a range of hip replacements. Methods We included hip replacements for osteoarthritis in patients under 60 years of age performed between 2003 and 2010 using the commonest brand of cemented, cementless, hybrid, or resurfacing prosthesis (11,622 women and 13,087 men). The reference implant comprised a cemented stem with a conventional polyethylene cemented cup and a standard-sized head (28- or 32-mm). Differences in implant survival were assessed using competing-risks models, adjusted for known prognostic influences. Analysis of covariance was used to assess improvement in PROMs (Oxford hip score (OHS) and EQ5D index) in 2014 linked procedures. Results In males, PROMs and implant survival were similar across all types of implants. In females, revision was statistically significantly higher in hard-bearing and/or small-stem cementless implants (hazard ratio (HR) = 4) and resurfacings (small head sizes (< 48 mm): HR = 6; large head sizes (≥ 48 mm): HR = 5) when compared to the reference cemented implant. In component combinations with equivalent survival, women reported significantly greater improvements in OHS with hybrid implants (22, p = 0.006) and cementless implants (21, p = 0.03) (reference, 18), but similar EQ5D index. For men and women, National Health Service (NHS) costs were lowest with the reference implant and highest with a hard-bearing cementless replacement. Interpretation In young women, hybrids offer a balance of good early functional improvement and low revision risk. Fully cementless and resurfacing components are more costly and do not provide any additional benefit for younger patients. PMID:25285617

  19. Early Outcomes Following Metal-on-Metal Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty in Patients Younger Than 50 Years.

    PubMed

    Riley, Clay; Idoine, John; Shishani, Yousef; Gobezie, Reuben; Edwards, Bradley

    2016-09-01

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is a useful intervention for older patients with glenohumeral arthritis and a deficient rotator cuff. However, as a semiconstrained prosthesis, conventional reverse TSA implanted in a young patient could fail over time secondary to polyethylene wear and subsequent osteolysis. A metal-on-metal prosthesis may avoid this type of failure. The purpose of this study is to assess the outcomes in an initial cohort of young patients who underwent reverse TSA using a metal-on-metal prosthesis. Surgical indications included age younger than 50 years with a functioning deltoid and significant impairment of shoulder function with irreparable rotator cuff due to tumor resection, arthritis, or revision surgery. Nine patients with an average age of 37 years underwent implantation of a custom metal-on-metal reverse TSA prosthesis. All patients had a minimum 12-month follow-up or a failure of their procedure requiring revision surgery prior to 1 year. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, Constant scores, and range of motion were recorded and analyzed pre- and postoperatively to assess improvement, and all complications were noted. Average ASES score improved from 47 points preoperatively to 73.4 points postoperatively (P=.013). Average Constant and adjusted Constant scores improved from 20.8 points and 16% preoperatively to 61.8 points and 67.3% postoperatively, respectively (P=.019 and P=.068). Mean postoperative active forward flexion and active external rotation were 119.4° and 10°, respectively. Complications included the following: 3 patients sustained a postoperative dislocation, 1 patient had a glenoid fracture and complete loss of fixation of the baseplate, and 1 patient experienced dissociation of the glenosphere from the base-plate. Although metal-on-metal reverse TSA may appear to be an attractive choice in the treatment of young patients with limited reconstructive options, postoperative outcomes are

  20. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids after implantation of hip replacements with metal-on-metal bearing--systematic review of clinical and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Albrecht; Hannemann, Franziska; Lützner, Jörg; Seidler, Andreas; Drexler, Hans; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Schmitt, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The use of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds) in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs) and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum) in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor), patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors). Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies) totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine) irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L). Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed "time out" for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted indication for hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Patients with implanted Mo

  1. Understanding the differences between the wear of metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-metal total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Pina, C G; Yan, Y; Neville, A; Fisher, J

    2008-04-01

    Hip simulator studies have been carried out extensively to understand and test artificial hip implants in vitro as an efficient alternative to obtaining long-term results in vivo. Recent studies have shown that a ceramic-on-metal material combination lowers the wear by up to 100 times in comparison with a typical metal-on-metal design. The reason for this reduction remains unclear and for this reason this study has undertaken simple tribometer tests to understand the fundamental material loss mechanisms in two material combinations: metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic. A simple-configuration reciprocating pin-on-plate wear study was performed under open-circuit potential (OCP) and with applied cathodic protection (CP) in a serum solution using two tribological couples: firstly, cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) pins against Co-Cr plates; secondly, Co-Cr pins against alumina (Al2O3) plates. The pin and plate surfaces prior to and after testing were examined by profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed a marked reduction in wear when CP was applied, indicating that total material degradation under the OCP condition was attributed to corrosion processes. The substitution of the Co-Cr pin with an Al2O3 plate also resulted in a dramatic reduction in wear, probably due to the reduction in the corrosion-wear interactions between the tribological pair.

  2. Lessons learnt from metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties will lead to safer innovation for all medical devices.

    PubMed

    Hart, Alister J; Sabah, Shiraz A; Henckel, Johann; Lloyd, Gwynneth; Skinner, John A

    2015-01-01

    Metal-on-metal bearings were re-popularised in the late 1990s with the introduction of modern hip resurfacing. Large diameter (LD) metal-on-metal (MoM) hips became more prevalent and have been the least successful group of hip implants ever used. They were rapidly adopted from 2004 until the British Hip Society stopped their use in 2012. Well functioning MoM hip results (including the BHR and Metasul) are hidden in the mire of poor results from the group of all MoM bearings.We have reviewed what happened and we make 3 observations. Firstly, collaboration between surgeons and then between surgeons and other disciplines, first identified and then solved the clinical management problems. Secondly, the problems with MoM hips occurred because hip simulation was inadequate at predicting performance in patients. They gave no indications of the biological effects of wear in the human environment. Lastly, retrieval of failed implants was essential to understanding why failure occurred.These lessons must never be forgotten and must form the basis by which new or altered implants are introduced and how they should be monitored. This will enable safer innovation for patients, surgeons and manufacturers. The problems with MoM hips will not have been in vain.

  3. Histologic, serologic, and tribologic findings in failed metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty: AAOS exhibit selection.

    PubMed

    Pelt, Christopher E; Erickson, Jill; Clarke, Ian; Donaldson, Thomas; Layfield, Lester; Peters, Christopher L

    2013-11-06

    Despite multiple changes in second-generation metal-on-metal hip implants, greater-than-expected revision rates have led to alarm. We hypothesized that the finding of intraoperative metallosis would be associated with a high metal load on histologic analysis and that both would be associated with increased wear, greater serum metal ion levels, and predictable biologic responses in the histologic sections. We evaluated the implant positioning, serum ion levels, intraoperative findings of metallosis, wear characteristics of retrieved implants (tribology), histology, and outcomes in a series of eighteen large-diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties. The arthroplasties were divided into two groups on the basis of the intraoperative finding of metallosis and into two groups on the basis of the metal load score. Intraoperative metallosis was not associated with a high metal load score (p = 0.15). The finding of intraoperative metallosis was associated with greater serum metal ion levels, greater wear rates, and greater complication rates. Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) scores were similar between the metallosis and non-metallosis groups (p = 0.49) as well as between the high and low-metal-load groups (p = 0.56).

  4. The exercise-related rise in plasma cobalt levels after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Khan, M; Kuiper, J-H; Richardson, J B

    2008-09-01

    Wear of metal-on-metal bearings causes elevated levels of cobalt and chromium in blood and body fluids. Metal-on-metal bearings have two distinct wear phases. In the early phase, the wear rate is high. Later, it decreases and the bearing enters a steady-state phase. It is expected that as the wear rates decline, the level of cobalt detected in plasma will also decrease. We studied the baseline and exercise-related cobalt rise in 21 patients (13 men and eight women) with a mean age of 54 years (38 to 80) who had undergone successful hip resurfacing at a mean of 44 months (10 to 96) earlier. Our results showed that circulating baseline cobalt levels were not significantly correlated with the time since implantation (r = 0.08, p = 0.650). By contrast, the exercise-related cobalt rise was directly correlated with the inclination angle of the acetabular component (r = 0.47, p = 0.032) and inversely correlated with the time since implantation (r = -0.5, p = 0.020). Inclination of the acetabular component should be kept less than 40 degrees to decrease the production of wear debris.

  5. Combined Vascular and Orthopaedic Approach for a Pseudotumor Causing Deep Vein Thrombosis after Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Hossam; Miles, Jonathan; Carrington, Richard W J; Hart, Alister; Loh, Alex; Skinner, John A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacings have been associated with a variety of complications resulting from adverse reaction to metal debris. Pseudotumors have rarely been reported to cause deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Study Design. A case report and a review of the literature. Case Presentation. A 75-year-old female who had left metal-on-metal hip resurfacing 6 years ago presented with left groin pain associated with unilateral lower limb edema and swelling. By duplex and MRI studies, our patient had an extensive soft tissue necrosis associated with a large pelvic mass causing extensive DVT of the lower limb secondary to mechanical compression of the left iliac vein. Results. Our case was initially treated for DVT followed by dual surgical approach. The pseudotumor was excised through a separate iliofemoral approach and revision of the hip implant was undertaken through a posterior approach in the same setting. An inferior vena cava (IVC) filter was inserted to minimise the perioperative risks of handling the iliac veins. Conclusion. A combined approach with vascular surgeons is required. Combined resection of the pseudotumor and revision of the metal bearing surfaces is essential, in order to achieve a good surgical outcome in this rare complication.

  6. Comparative effectiveness of metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene bearings in Medicare total hip arthroplasty patients.

    PubMed

    Bozic, Kevin J; Lau, Edmund C; Ong, Kevin L; Vail, Thomas P; Rubash, Harry E; Berry, Daniel J

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the risk of complication and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Medicare THA patients with different bearings. Using the 100% Medicare database (2005-2009), the adjusted risk of complication and revision THA was calculated for 148,827 THA patients (93,929 metal-on-polyethylene, 49,646 metal-on-metal, 5252 ceramic-on ceramic). Adjusted risk of deep vein thrombosis, dislocation, periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), mechanical loosening, periprosthetic fracture, and revision THA at up to 4 years postoperatively was compared using Cox regression. After adjusting for patient and hospital factors, metal-on-metal bearings were associated with higher risk of PJI (P = .001), mechanical loosening (P < .001), and deep vein thrombosis (P = .031) than metal-on-polyethylene bearings and higher risk of PJI (P = .014) than ceramic-on-ceramic bearings. Overall short-term revision rates did not vary significantly across bearing types, consistent with registry data. The benefits of hard-on-hard bearings in Medicare patients remain unproven, and further study is needed to compare long-term complication and revision rates in Medicare THA patients with different bearing types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of bearing geometry and structure support on transient elastohydrodynamic lubrication of metal-on-metal hip implants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongming; Roberts, Paul; Grigoris, Peter

    2007-01-01

    An effective lubrication can significantly reduce wear of metal-on-metal artificial hip joints. The improvement of the lubrication can be achieved through the optimisation of the bearing geometry in terms of a small clearance and/or the structural support such as a polyethylene backing underneath a metallic bearing in a sandwich acetabular cup form. The separate effects of these two factors on fluid film lubrication of 28 mm diameter metal-on-metal total hip joints under walking conditions were numerically investigated in this paper. The results show that a larger lubricant film due to the polyethylene backing can be significantly enhanced by the transient squeeze-film action, particularly during the stance phase, and a similar lubricant film can be developed for both the monolithic cup relying on the smaller clearance and the sandwich cup benefiting from the polyethylene backing. Both cup systems can function in a wide range of lubrication regimes, covering both mixed and fluid film, under the current design and manufacture conditions.

  8. Alumina Delta-on-Alumina Delta Bearing in Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients Aged <50 Years.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Park, Jang-Won; Kim, Jun-Shik

    2016-10-01

    There are limited studies to evaluate long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of alumina delta ceramic-on-ceramic bearings in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results, prevalence of osteolysis, squeaking, and fracture of ceramic material associated with the use of the alumina delta ceramic-on-alumina delta ceramic bearing in cementless THA in patients aged <50 years. We reviewed the cases of 277 patients (334 hips) who underwent a cementless THA using alumina delta ceramic-on-alumina delta ceramic when they were 50 years or younger at the time of surgery. Demographic data; Harris Hip Score; Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index; and University of California, Los Angeles activity score were recorded. Radiographic and computerized tomographic evaluations were used to evaluate implant fixation and osteolysis. Squeaking sound and ceramic fracture were documented. The mean follow-up was 13.1 years (range, 10-14). The mean postoperative Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score, University of California, Los Angeles activity score were 93 points, 15 points, and 8.6 points, respectively. Two patients had thigh pain (grade 7 points). All acetabular components and all but 2 femoral components were well fixed. Thirty-three hips (10%) exhibited clicking sound, and 2 hips (0.6%) exhibited squeaking sound. No hip had osteolysis or ceramic head or liner fracture. Our minimum 10-year follow-up results with the use of alumina delta ceramic-on-alumina delta ceramic bearings in patients aged <50 years suggest that cementless THA provides a high rate of survivorship without evidence of osteolysis or fracture of ceramic material. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Increased Mortality in Metal-on-Metal versus Non-Metal-on-Metal Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty at 10 Years and Longer Follow-Up: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meessen, J. M. T. A.; Fiocco, M.; van der Heide, H. J. L.; Sedrakyan, A.; Nelissen, R. G. H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Importance There are concerns about increased mortality in patients with metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Objective To determine the mortality and the morbidity in patients with metal-on-metal articulations (MOM THA) compared to patients with non-metal-on-metal articulations (non-MOM THA) after primary total hip arthroplasty. Data Sources Search of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, AcademicSearchPremier, ScienceDirect, Wiley and clinical trial registers through March 2015, augmented by a hand search of references from the included articles. No language restrictions were applied. Study Selection Two reviewers screened and identified randomised controlled trials and observational studies of primary total hip arthroplasty comparing MOM THA with non-MOM THA. Data Extraction and Synthesis Two reviewers independently extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. Risk differences (RD) were calculated with random effect models. Meta-regression was used to explore modifying factors. Main Outcomes and Measures Difference in mortality and difference in morbidity expressed as revisions and medical complications between patients with MOM THA and non-MOM THA. Results Forty-seven studies were included, comprising 4,000 THA in randomised trials and over 500,000 THA in observational studies. For mortality, random effects analysis revealed a higher pooled RD of 0.7%, 95%, confidence interval (CI) [0.0%, 2.3%], I-square 42%; the heterogeneity was explained by differences in follow-up. When restricted to studies with long term follow-up (i.e. 10 years or more), the RD for mortality was 8.5%, 95%, CI [5.8%, 11.2%]; number needed to treat was 12. Further subgroup analyses and meta-regression random effects models revealed no evidence for other moderator variables (study level covariates, e.g. resurfacing vs. non-resurfacing MOM) than follow-up duration. The quality of the evidence presented in this meta-analysis was characterized as

  10. [Low-Carbon Metal-on-Metal Articulations for Hip Arthroplasties--Evaluation of Wear and Histology after 11 to 17 Years].

    PubMed

    Reinisch, G; Huber, M; Zweymüller, K A

    2015-08-01

    High-carbon (HC) alloys for hip arthroplasties were preferred to low-carbon (LC) alloys for a long time because of their structurally hard carbide content. We opted for an LC alloy in 1994, because we expected it to be subject to less wear on account of its more homogeneous structure. Prompted by early complications not seen with ceramic-on-polyethylene mating surfaces, LC metal-on-metal articulations were, however, given up by us in early 1999. A series of implants retrieved after 11 to 17 years was now studied to establish the actual amount of wear. Potential tissue reactions associated with hypersensitivity were also evaluated histologically and correlated with the measured wear and the amount of metal particles in capsular tissue. Ten patients with LC metal-on-metal hip implants were the subjects of analyses after a mean follow-up time of 13.9 years. They underwent revision surgery because of osteolysis, cup loosening without dislocation, late infection in 1 patient and pain. The implant positions at the time of retrieval were the same as on the postoperative radiographs. Wear was determined in keeping with ISO 14242-2 and by SEM. In addition, periprosthetic tissue including the joint capsule and interface membranes were obtained for histological analysis. The amount of metal particles and the extent of lymphocyte infiltration were determined with the method described by Willert et al. Tissue alterations were evaluated histologically for signs of ALVAL using the method of Campbell et al. and correlated with the amount of wear and metal particles. The mean maximum linear wear rate was found to be 1.6 (1.0-2.1) µm/year. Our data also showed a mean rate of 0.32 mm³/year (range, 0.22-0.47 mm³/year). This is equivalent to an annual metal release of 2.7 (1.9-3.9) mg/year. No corrosion or corrosion products were present on the ball heads and their taper. All mating surfaces studied by SEM showed signs of abrasion. Sporadically, additional abrasions in the

  11. Cementless revisions of failed aseptic cemented and cementless total hip arthroplasties. 284 cases.

    PubMed

    Lord, G; Marotte, J H; Guillamon, J L; Blanchard, J P

    1988-10-01

    Over the past 13 years, 284 revisions of aseptic total hip arthroplasty failures have been performed with cementless implants. There were 213 cases involving cemented implant failures and 71 involving cementless ones. Considered as salvage procedures, these revisions provided a satisfactory result in about 70% of the reviewed patients after five years. A biologic fixation by bony ingrowth can be expected under certain conditions from decorticated living bone, a tight mechanical fitting, and a retentive corrugated surface of the implant. A prosthetic reimplantation, safely done without cement, appears more economical for the bone stock and prevents the long-term complications related with cement. Bone grafts are often required but cannot ensure the incoming osteogenic fixation of the implant. Long-term results and complications mandate harmless extractability of the revisional implant, a forged stem, an easy exchange of the plastic liner (in a two-part acetabular component), and an updated low-friction system (high-density polyethylene wear being a potential long-term problem).

  12. Transplacental transfer of cobalt and chromium in patients with metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ziaee, H; Daniel, J; Datta, A K; Blunt, S; McMinn, D J W

    2007-03-01

    Metal-on-metal bearings are being increasingly used in young patients. The potential adverse effects of systemic metal ion elevation are the subject of ongoing investigation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cobalt and chromium ions cross the placenta of pregnant women with a metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and reach the developing fetus. Whole blood levels were estimated using high-resolution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Our findings showed that cobalt and chromium are able to cross the placenta in the study patients with metal-on-metal hip resurfacings and in control subjects without any metal implants. In the study group the mean concentrations of cobalt and chromium in the maternal blood were 1.39 microg/l (0.55 to 2.55) and 1.28 microg/l (0.52 to 2.39), respectively. The mean umbilical cord blood concentrations of cobalt and chromium were comparatively lower, at 0.839 microg/l (0.42 to 1.75) and 0.378 microg/l (0.14 to 1.03), respectively, and this difference was significant with respect to chromium (p < 0.05). In the control group, the mean concentrations of cobalt and chromium in the maternal blood were 0.341 microg/l (0.18 to 0.54) and 0.199 microg/l (0.12 to 0.33), and in the umbilical cord blood they were 0.336 microg/l (0.17 to 0.5) and 0.194 microg/l (0.11 to 0.56), respectively. The differences between the maternal and umbilical cord blood levels in the controls were marginal, and not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mean cord blood level of cobalt in the study patients was significantly greater than that in the control group (p < 0.01). Although the mean umbilical cord blood chromium level was nearly twice as high in the study patients (0.378 microg/l) as in the controls (0.1934 microg/l), this difference was not statistically significant. (p > 0.05) The transplacental transfer rate was in excess of 95% in the controls for both metals, but only 29% for chromium and 60% for cobalt in study patients

  13. Five-year follow-up of a prospective randomised trial comparing ceramic-on-metal and metal-on-metal bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Schouten, R; Malone, A A; Frampton, C M; Tiffen, C; Hooper, G

    2017-10-01

    The primary aim of this independent prospective randomised trial was to compare serum metal ion levels for ceramic-on-metal (CoM) and metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Our one-year results demonstrated elevation in metal ion levels above baseline with no significant difference between the CoM and MoM groups. This paper reviews the five-year data. The implants used in each patient differed only in respect to the type of femoral head (ceramic or metal). At five-year follow-up of the 83 enrolled patients, data from 67 (36 CoM, 31 MoM) was available for comparison. The mean serum cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) ion levels remained above baseline in both groups (CoM: Co 1.16 μg/l (0.41 to 14.67), Cr 1.05 μg/l (0.16 to 12.58); MoM: Co 2.93 μg/l (0.35 to 30.29), Cr 1.85 μg/l (0.36 to 17.00)) but the increase was significantly less in the CoM cohort (Co difference p = 0.001, Cr difference p = 0.002). These medium-term results, coupled with lower revision rates from national joint registries, suggest that the performance of CoM THA may be superior to that of MoM. While both bearing combinations have since been withdrawn these results provide useful information for planning clinical surveillance of CoM THAs and warrants continued monitoring. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1298-1303. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  14. Validation of primary metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties on the National Joint Registry for England, Wales and Northern Ireland using data from the London Implant Retrieval Centre: a study using the NJR dataset.

    PubMed

    Sabah, S A; Henckel, J; Cook, E; Whittaker, R; Hothi, H; Pappas, Y; Blunn, G; Skinner, J A; Hart, A J

    2015-01-01

    Arthroplasty registries are important for the surveillance of joint replacements and the evaluation of outcome. Independent validation of registry data ensures high quality. The ability for orthopaedic implant retrieval centres to validate registry data is not known. We analysed data from the National Joint Registry for England, Wales and Northern Ireland (NJR) for primary metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties performed between 2003 and 2013. Records were linked to the London Implant Retrieval Centre (RC) for validation. A total of 67,045 procedures on the NJR and 782 revised pairs of components from the RC were included. We were able to link 476 procedures (60.9%) recorded with the RC to the NJR successfully. However, 306 procedures (39.1%) could not be linked. The outcome recorded by the NJR (as either revised, unrevised or death) for a primary procedure was incorrect in 79 linked cases (16.6%). The rate of registry-retrieval linkage and correct assignment of outcome code improved over time. The rates of error for component reference numbers on the NJR were as follows: femoral head category number 14/229 (5.0%); femoral head batch number 13/232 (5.3%); acetabular component category number 2/293 (0.7%) and acetabular component batch number 24/347 (6.5%). Registry-retrieval linkage provided a novel means for the validation of data, particularly for component fields. This study suggests that NJR reports may underestimate rates of revision for many types of metal-on-metal hip replacement. This is topical given the increasing scope for NJR data. We recommend a system for continuous independent evaluation of the quality and validity of NJR data.

  15. MRI findings following metal on metal hip arthroplasty and their relationship with metal ion levels and acetabular inclination angles.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ciara M; Bergin, Karen M; Kelly, Gabrielle E; McCoy, Gerry F; Ryan, Anthony G; Quinlan, John F

    2014-08-01

    Following the global recall of all ASR metal on metal hip products, our aim was to correlate MRI findings with acetabular inclination angles and metal ion levels in patients with these implants. Both cobalt and chromium levels were significantly higher in the presence of a periprosthetic fluid collection. There was no association between the presence of a periprosthetic mass, bone marrow oedema, trochanteric bursitis or greater levels of abductor muscle destruction for cobalt or chromium. There was no association between the level of periprosthetic tissue reaction and the acetabular inclination angle with any of the pathologies identified on MRI. The relationship between MRI pathology, metal ion levels and acetabular inclination angles in patients with ASR implants remains unclear adding to the complexity of managing patients.

  16. Effects of metal-on-metal wear on the host immune system and infection in hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Joint replacement with metal-on-metal (MOM) bearings have gained popularity in the last decades in young and active patients. However, the possible effects of MOM wear debris and its corrosion products are still the subject of debate. Alongside the potential disadvantages such as toxicity, the influences of metal particles and metal ions on infection risk are unclear. Methods We reviewed the available literature on the influence of degradation products of MOM bearings in total hip arthroplasties on infection risk. Results Wear products were found to influence the risk of infection by hampering the immune system, by inhibiting or accelerating bacterial growth, and by a possible antibiotic resistance and heavy metal co-selection mechanism. Interpretation Whether or not the combined effects of MOM wear products make MOM bearings less or more prone to infection requires investigation in the near future. PMID:20860450

  17. Cobalt to Chromium Ratio is Not a Key Marker for Adverse Local Tissue Reaction (ALTR) in Metal on Metal Hips.

    PubMed

    Fehring, Thomas K; Carter, Joshua L; Fehring, Keith A; Odum, Susan M; Griffin, William L

    2015-09-01

    The diagnosis of adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) after metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (MoMTHA) presents a significant challenge. No single biomarker is specific for ALTR. The purpose of this study was to determine if the ratio of cobalt to chromium ions is useful for diagnosing ALTR in MoMTHA. In 89 bearing-related revision THAs, preoperative cobalt and chromium ion levels were compared to an intraoperative soft tissue damage grading scale. The average cobalt to chromium ratio was 2.96 (0-20). There was no correlation between the tissue scale and the cobalt to chromium ratio (R=0.095; P=0.41). Many variables affecting ion production/excretion mitigate the use of the ion ratio. The cobalt to chromium ratio is not a predictive biomarker for ALTR in MoMTHA.

  18. Progressive Cardiomyopathy in a Patient With Elevated Cobalt Ion Levels and Bilateral Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Brian A; Maynard, Lance; Sotereanos, Nicholas G; Sewecke, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Systemic cobalt toxicity is a rare complication after metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip arthroplasty. Here we present a case of progressive cardiomyopathy, as evidenced by biopsy and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in a patient with bilateral MOM total hip arthroplasties. To our knowledge, it is one of the first cases in which cardiomyopathy resulting from systemic cobalt disease has been shown on MRI. While there is no guideline to unequivocally diagnose cobalt cardiomyopathy, the constellation of findings, including pathologic, biologic, blood levels, imaging, and surgical, all uniformly indicate a unifying diagnosis. The lack of improvement after removal of the prosthetic device supports a diagnosis of permanent myocardial damage, which is consistent with cardiomyopathy of advanced toxic etiology.

  19. Revision of Failed Hip Resurfacing and Large Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty Using Dual-Mobility Components.

    PubMed

    Snir, Nimrod; Park, Brian K; Garofolo, Garret; Marwin, Scott E

    2015-06-01

    Revision of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) or hip resurfacing is associated with high complication rates. The authors propose dual-mobility components as a surgical option and present short- to mid-term results of MoM hips revised with dual-mobility components. Eighteen consecutive hips that underwent revision of MoM THA or hip resurfacing using dual-mobility components were identified. At final follow-up (mean, 17.5 months), the visual analog scale, modified Harris Hip Score, and SF-12 scores had all improved (P<.05, P<.01, and P<.05, respectively). There were no dislocations or other complications. Revision of failed MoM THA or hip resurfacing using a dual-mobility device is an effective strategy. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Serum aluminium and cobalt levels after ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Grübl, A; Weissinger, M; Brodner, W; Gleiss, A; Giurea, A; Gruber, M; Pöll, G; Meisinger, V; Gottsauner-Wolf, F; Kotz, R

    2006-08-01

    In a randomised study, 28 patients with a mean age of 62.2 years (32 to 81) with osteoarthritis or avascular necrosis of the hip received either a ceramic-on-ceramic or a metal-on-metal total hip replacement. Apart from the liners the acetabular and femoral components were made of Ti-Al-Nb alloy. The serum aluminium and cobalt levels were measured before, and at one year after surgery. The 15 patients in the ceramic-on-ceramic group had a median pre-operative aluminium level of 1.3 microg/l (0.25 to 8.4) and a cobalt level below the detection limit. At one year the aluminium level was 1.1 microg/l (0.25 to 2.3) and the cobalt level was 0.4 microg/l (0.15 to 0.7). The 13 patients in the metal-on-metal group had a median pre-operative aluminium level of 1.9 microg/l (0.25 to 4.4) and a cobalt level below the detection limit. At one year the median aluminium level was 0.9 microg/l (0.25 to 3.9) whereas the cobalt level was 1.4 microg/l (0.5 to 10.5). This increase in the cobalt level at one year was significant (p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that ceramic-on-ceramic bearings do not cause elevated levels of serum aluminium in the first post-operative year.

  1. Current in vivo wear of metal-on-metal bearings assessed by exercise-related rise in plasma cobalt level.

    PubMed

    Khan, Munir; Takahashi, Tomoki; Kuiper, Jan H; Sieniawska, Christine E; Takagi, Katsumasa; Richardson, James B

    2006-11-01

    Baseline metal ion levels are elevated in patients with metal-on-metal (MOM) hip arthroplasty. Interpretation of baseline levels is difficult as measurements are influenced by wear, corrosion, and metal ion release from stored metal in the body. Schmalzried et al. demonstrated that "wear is the function of use, not time." The specific research question we asked was: Does physiological exercise increase the wear of metal-on-metal articulation which can be measured from the plasma metal ion levels? Patients with three different well functioning MOM bearings [two types of resurfacing (BHR 46.8 mm and Cormet 48 mm) and Metasul 28 mm] were included. Blood samples were taken immediately before, immediately after, and 1 h after exercise to determine cobalt and chromium levels. A significant increase (p<0.005) in serum cobalt and chromium of 13% and 11%, respectively, was noticed after the exercise. Rise of cobalt levels in patients with a resurfacing MOM was 8.5 times (BHR group) or 6.5 times (Cormet group) larger than in those with a Metasul MOM (p=0.021 and p=0.047). Neither rise of metal levels nor baseline levels correlated with any other factor (p>0.27). Exercise-related elevations of plasma cobalt level provides information on current in vivo wear production that cannot be inferred from a baseline measurement of cobalt levels. Chromium levels cannot provide reliable information on the in vivo wear of the devices. Diameter was the important feature of the implant in determining exercise-related elevations of plasma cobalt level. Exercise-related elevations of plasma cobalt level is a potential in vivo tool to understand and improve the tribology of metal-metal bearings. Copyright (c) 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  2. Initial experience with a newly developed cementless hip endoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Hach, V; Delfs, G

    2009-01-01

    The HELICA-Endoprosthesis is a newly developed cementless hip prosthesis for dogs. It was implanted in 39 dogs that had severe hip osteoarthritis and a history of hip pain, as well as in one dog that had chronic hip luxation. One dog had a bilateral arthroplasty. The body weight of the patients ranged between 22 and 54 kg and their ages between nine months and 10 years. Both the femoral stem and acetabular component of the prosthesis were screwed into position following bony preparation. Additional fixation was not necessary as the components remain fixed in position until osteointegration is complete. There are currently five sizes of prosthesis available, and the various components such as the stem, cup and head are readily interchangeable. Although it appeared that good osseous anchorage of the prostheses in the bone on the surgery table had been obtained, three patients experienced both stem and cup loosening (one week, three weeks and six months after surgery). In one animal, stem loosening was observed six weeks after surgery, and another dog experienced a cup loosening two weeks postoperatively. Most of the complications were due to technical errors that occurred during the learning phase. Surgical revisions were successful in three out of five animals. In two animals we had to perform a femoral head and neck excision. Two other animals experienced radiographic bone resorption underneath the segmented collar of the femoral prosthesis but did not show any significant clinical signs of lameness. Another dog that showed signs of ischial neuropraxy after surgery, recovered completely within six weeks after surgery. All of the dogs were capable of weight bearing on the operated leg one day after surgery. The main advantage of the HELICA-Endoprosthesis is the relatively easy surgical technique and short surgery time. The initial clinical results in these 40 cases have been very encouraging. The aim of this study was to assess the early clinical results in these 39

  3. Metal Ion Concentrations in Body Fluids after Implantation of Hip Replacements with Metal-on-Metal Bearing – Systematic Review of Clinical and Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Albrecht; Hannemann, Franziska; Lützner, Jörg; Seidler, Andreas; Drexler, Hans; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Schmitt, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The use of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds) in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. Objective To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. Methods Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs) and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum) in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor), patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors). Results Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies) totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine) irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L). Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Discussion Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed „time out“ for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted indication for hip

  4. Perfusion MRI in hips with metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Anwander, H.; Cron, G. O.; Rakhra, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hips with metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (MoM THA) have a high rate of adverse local tissue reactions (ALTR), often associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) measures tissue perfusion with the parameter Ktrans (volume transfer constant of contrast agent). Our purpose was 1) to evaluate the feasibility of DCE-MRI in patients with THA and 2) to compare DCE-MRI in patients with MoM bearings with metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) bearings, hypothesising that the perfusion index Ktrans in hips with MoM THA is higher than in hips with MoP THA. Methods In this pilot study, 16 patients with primary THA were recruited (eight MoM, eight MoP). DCE-MRI of the hip was performed at 1.5 Tesla (T). For each patient, Ktrans was computed voxel-by-voxel in all tissue lateral to the bladder. The mean Ktrans for all voxels was then calculated. These values were compared with respect to implant type and gender, and further correlated with clinical parameters. Results There was no significant difference between the two bearing types with both genders combined. However, dividing patients by THA bearing and gender, women with MoM bearings had the highest Ktrans values, exceeding those of women with MoP bearings (0.067 min−1 versus 0.053 min−1; p-value < 0.05) and men with MoM bearings (0.067 min−1 versus 0.034 min−1; p-value < 0.001). Considering only the men, patients with MoM bearings had lower Ktrans than those with MoP bearings (0.034 min−1 versus 0.046 min−1; p < 0.05). Conclusion DCE-MRI is feasible to perform in tissues surrounding THA. Females with MoM THA show high Ktrans values in DCE-MRI, suggesting altered tissue perfusion kinematics which may reflect relatively greater inflammation. Cite this article: Dr P. E. Beaule. Perfusion MRI in hips with metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty: A pilot stud. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:73–79. DOI: 10

  5. Time-dependent release of cobalt and chromium ions into the serum following implantation of the metal-on-metal Maverick type artificial lumbar disc (Medtronic Sofamor Danek).

    PubMed

    Zeh, Alexander; Becker, Claudia; Planert, Michael; Lattke, Peter; Wohlrab, David

    2009-06-01

    In total hip endoprosthetics and consequently for TDA, metal-on-metal combinations are used with the aim of reducing wear debris. In metal-on-metal TDA the release of metal ions has until now been secondary to the main discussion. In order to investigate the ion release following the implantation of the metal-on-metal Maverick type artificial lumbar disc we measured the serum cobalt and chromium concentration following implantation of 15 Maverick TDAs (monosegmental L5/S1, n = 5; bisegmental L4/5 and L5/S1, n = 5; average age 36.5 years). Five healthy subjects (no metal implants) acted as a control group. The two measurements of the metals were carried out using the absorption spectrometry after an average of 14.8 and 36.7 months. In summary, the concentrations of cobalt and chromium ions in the serum at both follow-ups amounted on average to 3.3 microg/l (SD 2.6) for cobalt and 2.2 microg/l (SD 1.5) for chromium. These figures are similar to the figures shown in the literature following the implantation of metal-on-metal THA. After a comparison to the control group, both the chromium and cobalt levels in the serum showed visible increases regarding the first and the second follow-up. As there is still a significant release of cobalt and chromium into the serum after an average follow-up of 36.7 months a persistent release of these ions must be taken into consideration. Despite the evaluation of the systemic and local effects of the release of Cr/Co from orthopaedic implants has not yet been concluded, one should take into consideration an explanation given to patients scheduled for the implantation of a metal-on-metal TDA about these results and the benefits/risks of alternative combinations of gliding contact surfaces.

  6. Elevation of circulating HLA DR+ CD8+ T-cells and correlation with chromium and cobalt concentrations 6 years after metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Following metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty (THA), immunological reactions including changes in lymphocyte populations, aseptic loosening, and lymphocytic pseudotumors occur. We hypothesized that changes in lymphocyte subpopulations would be associated with elevated metal ion concentrations. Methods A randomized trial involving 85 patients matched for age and sex and randomized to receiving metal-on-metal (n = 41) or metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty (n = 44) was conducted. 36 patients were eligible for follow-up after mean 7 (6–8) years. Concentrations of chromium and cobalt were analyzed by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Leukocyte subpopulations and immunoglobulins in patient blood were measured using standard laboratory methods. Results Patients with a metal-on-metal hip had higher serum concentrations of chromium (1.05 vs. 0.36 μg/L; p < 0.001) and cobalt (0.86 vs. 0.24 μg/L; p < 0.001) than those with metal-on-polyethylene. The percentage of HLA DR+ CD8+ T-cells was higher in the metal-on-metal group (10.6 vs. 6.7%; p = 0.03) and correlated positively with chromium and cobalt concentrations in patient blood (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.39, p = 0.02; 0.36, p = 0.03, respectively). The percentage of B-cells was lower in the metal-on-metal group (p = 0.01). The two groups were similar with respect to immunoglobulin concentrations and Harris hip scores, and there were no radiographic signs of loosening. Interpretation We conclude that immunological alterations appear to be associated with increased cobalt and chromium concentrations. It is tempting to speculate that HLA DR+ CD8+ T-cells are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions, implant loosening, and lymphocytic pseudotumors. PMID:21189110

  7. Are all metal-on-metal hip revision operations contributing to the National Joint Registry implant survival curves?

    PubMed Central

    Sabah, S. A.; Henckel, J.; Koutsouris, S.; Rajani, R.; Hothi, H.; Skinner, J. A.; Hart, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The National Joint Registry for England, Wales and Northern Ireland (NJR) has extended its scope to report on hospital, surgeon and implant performance. Data linkage of the NJR to the London Implant Retrieval Centre (LIRC) has previously evaluated data quality for hip primary procedures, but did not assess revision records. Methods We analysed metal-on-metal hip revision procedures performed between 2003 and 2013. A total of 69 929 revision procedures from the NJR and 929 revised pairs of components from the LIRC were included. Results We were able to link 716 (77.1%) revision procedures on the NJR to the LIRC. This meant that 213 (22.9%) revision procedures at the LIRC could not be identified on the NJR. We found that 349 (37.6%) explants at the LIRC completed the full linkage process to both NJR primary and revision databases. Data completion was excellent (> 99.9%) for revision procedures reported to the NJR. Discussion This study has shown that only approximately one third of retrieved components at the LIRC, contributed to survival curves on the NJR. We recommend prospective registry-retrieval linkage as a tool to feedback missing and erroneous data to the NJR and improve data quality. Take home message: Prospective Registry – retrieval linkage is a simple tool to evaluate and improve data quality on the NJR. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:33–9. PMID:26733513

  8. A comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of MARS MRI and ultrasound of the painful metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Imran A; Sabah, Shiraz A; Satchithananda, Keshthra; Lim, Adrian K; Cro, Suzie; Henckel, Johann; Skinner, John A

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS) MRI and ultrasound scanning (USS) can both be used to detect pseudotumors, abductor muscle atrophy, and tendinous pathology in patients with painful metal-on-metal (MOM) hip arthroplasty. We wanted to determine the diagnostic test characteristics of USS using MARS MRI as a reference for detection of pseudotumors and muscle atrophy. Patients and methods We performed a prospective cohort study to compare MARS MRI and USS findings in 19 consecutive patients with unilateral MOM hips. Protocolized USS was performed by consultant musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded regarding clinical details. Reports were independently compared with MARS MRI, the imaging gold standard, to calculate predictive values. Results The prevalence of pseudotumors on MARS MRI was 68% (95% CI: 43–87) and on USS it was 53% (CI: 29–76). The sensitivity of USS in detecting pseudotumors was 69% (CI 39–91) and the specificity was 83% (CI: 36–97). The sensitivity of detection of abductor muscle atrophy was 47% (CI: 24–71). In addition, joint effusion was detected in 10 cases by USS and none were seen by MARS MRI. Interpretation We found a poor agreement between USS and MARS MRI. USS was inferior to MARS MRI for detection of pseudotumors and muscle atrophy, but it was superior for detection of joint effusion and tendinous pathologies. MARS MRI is more advantageous than USS for practical reasons, including preoperative planning and longitudinal comparison. PMID:24694273

  9. The effect of microstructure on the wear of cobalt-based alloys used in metal-on-metal hip implants.

    PubMed

    Varano, R; Bobyn, J D; Medley, J B; Yue, S

    2006-02-01

    The influence of microstructure on the wear of cobalt-based alloys used in metal-on-metal hip implants was investigated in a boundary lubrication regime designed to represent the conditions that occurred some of the time in vivo. These cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys were either wrought, with a total carbon content of 0.05 or 0.23 wt %, cast with a solution-annealing procedure or simply as-cast but not solution annealed. Bars of these different alloy grades were subjected to various heat treatments to develop different microstructures. The wear was evaluated in a linear-tracking reciprocating pin-on-plate apparatus with a 25 per cent bovine serum lubricant. The wear was found to be strongly affected by the dissolved carbon content of the alloys and mostly independent of grain size or the carbide characteristics. The increased carbon in solid solution caused reductions in volumetric wear because carbon helped to stabilize a face-centred cubic crystal structure, thus limiting the amount of strain-induced transformation to a hexagonal close-packed crystal structure. Based on the observed surface twining in and around the contact zone and the potentially detrimental effect of the hexagonal close-packed phase, it was postulated that the wear of cobalt-based alloys in the present study was controlled by a deformation mechanism.

  10. The utility of repeat ultrasound imaging in the follow-up of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty patients

    PubMed Central

    Matharu, GS; Janardhan, S; Brash, L; Pynsent, PB; Dunlop, DJ; James, SLJ

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We assessed changes in metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties (MoMHAs) after repeat ultrasound examination. Methods This retrospective, single-centre cohort study involved all patients undergoing two ultrasound examinations of the same MoMHA. Between 2010 and 2014, 96 ultrasound examinations were performed in 48 MoMHAs (mean time between scans = 1.1 years). A radiologist assigned each scan to one of four grades and measured volumes of any solid/cystic masses. Changes in grade and lesion volume between scans were analysed. Results Change in grade between scans was significant (p=0.012); 27% (n=13) of MoMHAs increased in grade, 67% (n=32) had no grade change, and 6% (n=3) decreased in grade. The mean increase in lesion volume was 24.2cm3 by the second scan, and was significant (p=0.023). Evidence of progression in findings was observed in 54% (26/48) of MoMHAs. Of patients with normal scans initially, 44% (8/18) developed abnormalities. No factors (including blood metal ion concentrations and cup position) were associated significantly with progression of ultrasound findings. Conclusions Repeat ultrasound in MoMHA patients demonstrated that findings frequently progress in the short-term. Therefore, regular surveillance of MoMHA patients is important, with ultrasound representing an effective investigation for identifying the development and progression of lesions. PMID:26741659

  11. Good sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for detecting pseudotumors in 83 failed metal-on-metal hip replacements

    PubMed Central

    Lainiala, Olli; Elo, Petra; Reito, Aleksi; Pajamäki, Jorma; Puolakka, Timo; Eskelinen, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Ultrasound is used for imaging of pseudotumors associated with metal-on-metal (MoM) hips. Ultrasound has been compared with magnetic resonance imaging, but to date there have been no studies comparing ultrasound findings and revision findings. Methods We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of preoperative ultrasound for detecting pseudotumors in 82 patients with MoM hip replacement (82 hips). Ultrasound examinations were performed by 1 of 3 musculoskeletal radiologists, and pseudotumors seen by ultrasound were retrospectively classified as fluid-filled, mixed-type, or solid. Findings at revision surgery were retrieved from surgical notes and graded according to the same system as used for ultrasound findings. Results Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 83% (95% CI: 63–93) and a specificity of 92% (CI: 82–96) for detecting trochanteric region pseudotumors, and a sensitivity of 79% (CI: 62–89) and a specificity of 94% (CI: 83–98) for detecting iliopsoas-region pseudotumors. Type misclassification of pseudotumors found at revision occurred in 8 of 23 hips in the trochanteric region and in 19 of 33 hips in the iliopsoas region. Interpretation Despite the discrepancy in type classification between ultrasound and revision findings, the presence of pseudotumors was predicted well with ultrasound in our cohort of failed MoM hip replacements. PMID:25582840

  12. The chemical form of metallic debris in tissues surrounding metal-on-metal hips with unexplained failure.

    PubMed

    Hart, Alister J; Quinn, Paul D; Sampson, Barry; Sandison, Ann; Atkinson, Kirk D; Skinner, John A; Powell, Jonathan J; Mosselmans, J Fred W

    2010-11-01

    Implant-derived material from metal-on-metal (MOM) hip arthroplasties may be responsible for an unexplained tissue inflammatory response. The chemical form of the metal species in the tissues is predominantly chromium (Cr), but the currently used techniques have not been able to determine whether this is Cr(III) phosphate or Cr(III) oxide. The analytical challenge must overcome the fact that the metal in the tissues is at a relatively low concentration and tissue preparation or the microscopy beam used can affect the results. Microfocus X-ray spectroscopy using a synchrotron beam is useful in addressing both these issues. Using this technique we compared tissue from failed MOM hips with: (1) tissue from metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) hips; (2) chemical standards; (3) metal discs cut from MOM hips. The most abundant implant-related species in all MOM hip tissues contained Cr. Comparison with standards revealed the chemical form was Cr(III) phosphate, which did not vary with manufacturer type (four types analysed) or level of blood metal ions. Cobalt (Co) and molybdenum (Mo) were occasionally present in areas of high Cr. Co was normally found in a metallic state in the tissue, while Mo was found in an oxidized state. The variety of metallic species may have arisen from corrosion, wear or a combination of both. No evidence of Cr(VI) was seen in the tissues examined.

  13. The influence of clearance on friction, lubrication and squeaking in large diameter metal-on-metal hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Brockett, Claire L; Harper, Phil; Williams, Sophie; Isaac, Graham H; Dwyer-Joyce, Rob S; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2008-04-01

    Large diameter metal-on-metal bearings (MOM) are becoming increasingly popular, addressing the needs of young and more active patients. Clinical data has shown excellent short-to-mid-term results, though incidences of transient squeaking have been noted between implantation and up to 2 years post-operative. Geometric design features, such as clearance, have been significant in influencing the performance of the bearings. Sets of MOM bearings with different clearances were investigated in this study using a hip friction simulator to examine the influence of clearance on friction, lubrication and squeaking. The friction factor was found to be highest in the largest clearance bearings under all test conditions. The incidence of squeaking was also highest in the large clearance bearings, with all bearings in this group squeaking throughout the study. A very low incidence of squeaking was observed in the other two clearance groups. The measured lubricating film was found to be lowest in the large clearance bearings. This study suggests that increasing the bearing clearance results in reduced lubricant film thickness, increased friction and an increased incidence of squeaking.

  14. Migration pattern of a cobalt-chrome monoblock acetabular component after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Roda, Richard; Whittingham-Jones, Paul M; Lee, Joshua; Ryu, Jae-Jin; Beaulé, Paul E

    2016-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to study the initial fixation and migration pattern of a monoblock acetabular component used for a metal on metal hip resurfacing using Einzel Bild Roentgen Analyse (EBRA). 99 patients with a mean age of 49.6 years (range 28.5-66.3 years) of whom 14 were bilateral underwent a hip resurfacing (Conserve Plus®, MicroPort, Memphis, TN) for a total of 113 resurfacings. Acetabular component orientation was noted with 35 of the 113 components (31.0%) having a lucency >2 mm on the immediate postoperative radiograph. The mean follow-up for our cohort of 113 hips is 50 months (2-79 months). When examining the 2-year migration mark, 37 of the 113 hips exceeded the threshold of 0.5 mm/year with a median total migration of 1.40 mm (range 1.02-4.24). 6 resurfacings underwent revision surgery for aseptic loosening of the acetabular component at a mean time of 43.6 months. Presence of initial lucency (OR 2.29, p = 0.05) was the only significant predictor of migration over threshold at 2-years. Those that had migrated over the threshold (1.0 mm) at 2 years were at significantly greater risk of continued migration at 4 years. The migration pattern of this component raises concerns about long term performance, with postoperative lucencies representing a significant factor for future migration.

  15. Laboratory studies on the tribology of hard bearing hip prostheses: ceramic on ceramic and metal on metal.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, K; Scholes, S C; Unsworth, A

    2007-01-01

    Total hip replacements offer relief to a great many patients every year around the world. With an expected service life of around 25 years on most devices, and with younger and younger patients undergoing this surgery, it is of great importance to understand the mechanisms of their function. Tribological testing of both conventional and hard bearing joint combinations have been conducted in many centres throughout the world, and, after being initially abandoned owing to premature failures, hard bearing combinations have been revisited as viable options for joint replacements. Improved design, manufacturing procedures, and material compositions have led to improved performance over first-generation designs in both metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic hip prostheses. This paper offers a review of the work conducted in an attempt to highlight the most important factors affecting joint performance and tribology of hard bearing combinations. The tribological performance of these joints is superior to that of conventional metal- or ceramic-on-polymer designs.

  16. Clinical usefulness of blood metal measurements to assess the failure of metal-on-metal hip implants

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Barry; Hart, Alister

    2012-01-01

    In April 2010, a Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency safety alert concerning all metal-on-metal (MOM) hip replacements recommended measuring chromium and cobalt concentrations when managing patients with painful prostheses. The need for this review is illustrated by the recent surge in requests for these blood tests from orthopaedic surgeons following this alert. The aim is to provide guidance to laboratories in assessing these requests and advising clinicians on interpretation. First, we summarize the basic terminology regarding the types of hip replacements, with emphasis on the MOM type. Second, we describe the clinical concerns over implant-derived wear debris in the local tissues and distant sites. Analytical aspects of the measurement of the relevant metal ions and what factors affect the levels measured are discussed. The application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques to the measurement of these metals is considered in detail. The biological effects of metal wear products are summarized with local toxicity and systemic biological effects considered, including carcinogenicity, genotoxicity and systemic toxicity. Clinical cases are used to illustrate pertinent points. PMID:22155921

  17. International metal-on-metal multidisciplinary teams: do we manage patients with metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty in the same way? An analysis from the International Specialist Centre Collaboration on MOM Hips (ISCCoMH).

    PubMed

    Berber, R; Skinner, J; Board, T; Kendoff, D; Eskelinen, A; Kwon, Y-M; Padgett, D E; Hart, A

    2016-02-01

    There are many guidelines that help direct the management of patients with metal-on-metal (MOM) hip arthroplasties. We have undertaken a study to compare the management of patients with MOM hip arthroplasties in different countries. Six international tertiary referral orthopaedic centres were invited to participate by organising a multi-disciplinary team (MDT) meeting, consisting of two or more revision hip arthroplasty surgeons and a musculoskeletal radiologist. A full clinical dataset including history, blood tests and imaging for ten patients was sent to each unit, for discussion and treatment planning. Differences in the interpretation of findings, management decisions and rationale for decisions were compared using quantitative and qualitative methods. Overall agreement between the orthopaedic centres and the recommended treatment plans for the ten patients with MOM hip implants was moderate (kappa = 0.6). Full agreement was seen in a third of cases, however split decisions were also seen in a third of cases. Units differed in their interpretation of the significance of the investigation findings and put varying emphasis on serial changes, in the presence of symptoms. In conclusion, the management of raised or rising blood metal ions, cystic pseudotumours and peri-acetabular osteolysis led to inconsistency in the agreement between centres. Coordinated international guidance and MDT panel discussions are recommended to improve consensus in decision making. A lack of evidence and the subsequent variation in regulator guidance leads to differences in opinions, the clinical impact of which can be reduced through a multi-disciplinary team approach to managing patients with MOM hip implants. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:179-86. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  18. Ten-year results after cementless THA with a sandwich-type alumina ceramic bearing.

    PubMed

    Park, Youn-Soo; Park, Se-Jun; Lim, Seung-Jae

    2010-11-02

    We analyzed the long-term results of a single-surgeon series of 102 cementless total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed using a sandwich-type alumina ceramic bearing. The prostheses involved a porous-coated acetabular socket, a polyethylene-alumina composite liner, a 28-mm alumina head, and a grit-blasted titanium-alloy stem. Mean patient age at the time of THA was 39 years (range, 18-66 years), and 76% of the patients were younger than 50 years. All procedures were performed with use of the same surgical technique and the same implant at a single center. Mean follow-up was 115 months (range, 84-133 months). When failure was defined as revision of either the acetabular or the femoral component for any reason, Kaplan-Meier survival probability at 10 years was 95.3% (95% confidence interval, 89.5%-100%). Mean Harris Hip Score improved from 47 points (range, 16-70 points) preoperatively to 95 points (range, 85-100 points) at final follow-up. No radiographically detectable osteolysis around the acetabular or femoral component was observed in any hip. No patient reported squeaking in the operated hip. During the follow-up period, 3 hips (3%) required revision surgery; 2 underwent acetabular revision because of a ceramic liner fracture and 1 underwent revision for early loosening of the acetabular cup. Ten-year results of cementless THA with a sandwich-type alumina ceramic bearing were encouraging, and no great increase in ceramic failure rate was observed, which contrasts with the findings of previously reported short-term follow-up studies. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Early failure of metal-on-metal artificial disc prostheses associated with lymphocytic reaction: diagnosis and treatment experience in four cases.

    PubMed

    Guyer, Richard D; Shellock, Jessica; MacLennan, Benjamin; Hanscom, David; Knight, Reginald Q; McCombe, Peter; Jacobs, Joshua J; Urban, Robert M; Bradford, David; Ohnmeiss, Donna D

    2011-04-01

    Report of four collected cases. The purpose of this report is to describe the presentation, diagnostic workup, treatment, and pathologic findings in four cases of lymphocytic reaction in patients receiving a metal-on-metal total disc replacement (TDR). Metal-on-metal designs in hip arthroplasty have gained popularity because of decreased volumetric wear rates and theoretically increased implant longevity. Systemic metal ions produced have not been associated with adverse clinical sequelae, although there have been reports of local soft-tissue reactions leading to early prosthetic failure. Histologic evaluation in these cases suggested a cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Metal-on-metal bearings have also emerged in lumbar and cervical TDR. This report is on four patients, from three centers, who underwent TDR, using a metal-on-metal implant, and later presented with symptoms that were determined to be due to lymphocytic reaction. Details of their symptoms, diagnostic work-up, treatment, and outcomes were compiled. All four patients initially had a good surgical outcome, followed by the onset and worsening of axial pain, and/or radicular symptoms months later. All patients had imaging findings of a mass lesion with neurologic impingement. All three of the lumbar patients underwent a decompressive posterior procedure before the eventual device removal and fusion. Intraoperatively, in all the lumbar cases, a thick, yellowish, avascular soft-tissue mass was found to be responsible for an epidural-mass effect on the thecal sac. In the cervical case, there was a gray-tinged soft-tissue response around the implant, suggestive of metallosis. Independent laboratory analysis confirmed a lymphocytic reaction to the implant. Three of the patients had a good outcome after the explant and revision surgery. The remaining patient continued to have residual symptoms related to the neural compression caused by the mass. In this group of patients from three centers

  20. Intraoperative Proximal Femoral Fracture in Primary Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Danielle Y; Shahi, Alisina; Park, Andrew G; Purtill, James J

    2015-08-01

    Intraoperative proximal femoral fracture is a complication of primary cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) at rates of 2.95-27.8%. A retrospective review of 2423 consecutive primary cementless THA cases identified 102 hips (96 patients) with fracture. Multivariate analysis compared fracture incidences between implants, Accolade (Stryker Orthopaedics) and Tri-Lock (DePuy Orthopaedics, Inc.), and evaluated potential risk factors using a randomized control group of 1150 cases without fracture. The fracture incidence was 4.4% (102/2423), 3.7% (36/1019) using Accolade and 4.9% using Tri-Lock (66/1404) (P=0.18). Female gender (OR=1.96; 95% CI 1.19-3.23; P=0.008) and smaller stem size (OR=1.64; 95% CI 1.04-2.63; P=0.03) predicted increased odds of fracture. No revisions of the femoral component were required in the fracture cohort.

  1. High blood metal ion levels in 19 of 22 patients with metal-on-metal hinge knee replacements

    PubMed Central

    Laitinen, Minna; Nieminen, Jyrki; Reito, Aleksi; Pakarinen, Toni-Karri; Suomalainen, Piia; Pamilo, Konsta; Parkkinen, Jyrki; Lont, Tonis; Eskelinen, Antti

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose There has been increasing alarm regarding metal-on-metal (MoM) joint replacements leading to elevated levels of metal ions and adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMDs). There is little information available concerning the prevalence of and risk factors for these adverse reactions, except with MoM hip joint replacements. We determined the levels of metal ions in blood and the rate of revision due to ARMDs in patients treated with MoM hinge total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patients and methods 22 patients with TKAs and MoM hinge connecting mechanisms were studied for whole-blood chromium and cobalt levels at 6 months, 1 year, and/or ≥2 years after surgery. Possible ARMDs were investigated by MRI. 12 patients with TKAs and metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) connecting mechanisms served as controls. Results The cobalt levels were over 5 ppb in 19 of the 22 patients in the MoM group and in 1 of the 12 patients in the MoP group. The chromium levels were over 5 ppb in 11 of the 22 patients in the MoM group and in none of the 12 patients in the MoP group. Pseudotumors were operated in 4 of the 22 patients in the MoM group and in none of the patients in the MoP group. Interpretation Our results clearly show that the MoM hinge TKA carries a high risk of increased levels of systemic metal ions and also local ARMD, leading to complicated knee revisions. We therefore discourage the use of MoM hinge TKA. PMID:28122467

  2. Characterization of wear debris from metal-on-metal hip implants during normal wear versus edge-loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Kovochich, Michael; Fung, Ernest S; Donovan, Ellen; Unice, Kenneth M; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Finley, Brent L

    2017-05-08

    Advantages of second-generation metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants include low volumetric wear rates and the release of nanosized wear particles that are chemically inert and readily cleared from local tissue. In some patients, edge loading conditions occur, which result in higher volumetric wear. The objective of this study was to characterize the size, morphology, and chemistry of wear particles released from MoM hip implants during normal (40° angle) and edge-loading (65° angle with microseparation) conditions. The mean primary particle size by volume under normal wear was 35 nm (range: 9-152 nm) compared with 95 nm (range: 6-573 nm) under edge-loading conditions. Hydrodynamic diameter analysis by volume showed that particles from normal wear were in the nano- (<100 nm) to submicron (<1000 nm) size range, whereas edge-loading conditions generated particles that ranged from <100 nm up to 3000-6000 nm in size. Particles isolated from normal wear were primarily chromium (98.5%) and round to oval in shape. Edge-loading conditions generated more elongated particles (4.5%) (aspect ratio ≥ 2.5) and more CoCr alloy particles (9.3%) compared with normal wear conditions (1.3% CoCr particles). By total mass, edge-loading particles contained approximately 640-fold more cobalt than normal wear particles. Our findings suggest that high wear conditions are a potential risk factor for adverse local tissue effects in MoM patients who experience edge loading. This study is the first to characterize both the physical and chemical characteristics of MoM wear particles collected under normal and edge-loading conditions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Characterization of protein degradation in serum-based lubricants during simulation wear testing of metal-on-metal hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Maskiewicz, Victoria K; Williams, Paul A; Prates, Sarah J; Bowsher, John G; Clarke, Ian C

    2010-08-01

    A size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC) method has been developed which is capable of separation and quantitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine serum globulin (BSG) components of serum-based lubricant (SBL) solutions. This allowed characterization of the stability profiles of these proteins when acting as lubricants during hip wear simulation, and identification of wear-specific mechanisms of degradation. Using cobalt-chromium metal-on-metal (MOM) hip joints, it was observed that BSA remained stable for up to 3 days (215K cycles) of wear testing after which the protein degraded in a fairly linear fashion. BSG on the other hand, began to degrade immediately and in a linear fashion with a rate constant of 5% per day. Loss of both proteins occurred via the formation of high molecular weight aggregates which precipitated out of solution. No fragmentation of the polypeptide backbone of either protein was observed. Data obtained suggest that protein degradation was not due to microbial contamination, denaturation at the air-water interface, or frictional heating of articulating joint surfaces in these studies. We conclude that the primary source of protein degradation during MOM simulation testing occurs via high shear rates experienced by SBL solutions at articulating surfaces, possibly coupled with metal-protein interactions occurring as new and reactive metal surfaces are generated during wear testing. The development of this analytical methodology will allow new studies to clarify the role of SBL solutions in wear simulation studies and the interactions and lubricating properties of serum proteins with prosthetic surfaces other than MOM.

  4. Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing in patients with pigmented villonodular synovitis: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, Maik; Amstutz, Harlan C

    2010-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the hip joint is a rare and benign tumor of the synovia. This local, aggressive, proliferative disorder of the joint synovial membrane can lead to secondary osteoarthritis and represents a small percentage of all patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR). Because of the usually young age of the patients undergoing THR for PVNS, a resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip appears as a beneficial treatment option due to its bone-conserving nature, good joint stability, and ability to easily convert to a THR if needed. This article describes 2 cases of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing in patients with pigmented villonodular synovitis. In patient 1, PVNS was suspected on radiographs but confirmed only after removal of a mass of thick, grey-brown spotted synovia. A complete synovectomy was performed prior to hip resurfacing. Seven years postoperatively, radiographs show secure fixation of the components with no radiolucencies. In patient 2, arthroscopy of the hip joint had been performed 3 months prior, but PVNS had not been diagnosed. Pigmented villonodular synovitis was confirmed during the operation when incising a yellowish nodular mass protruding from the capsule. Granuloma was also found in the inferior and anterior part of the acetabulum. Four years postoperatively, the patient exhibits excellent clinical and radiographic results. Complete surgical removal of all tissue affected with PVNS is the key to a successful resurfacing, which is otherwise technically similar to resurfacing in patients with other etiologies. The mid-term results of the 2 presented cases are satisfying and show the potential of the resurfacing technique for young patients with PVNS of the hip. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Cross-sectional imaging of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties. Can we substitute MARS MRI with CT?

    PubMed

    Robinson, Elizabeth; Henckel, Johann; Sabah, Shiraz; Satchithananda, Keshthra; Skinner, John; Hart, Alister

    2014-12-01

    Metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS) MRI is widely advocated for surveillance of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties (MOM-HAs). However, its use is limited by susceptibility artifact at the prosthesis-bone interface, local availability, patient compliance, and cost (Hayter et al. 2011a). We wanted to determine whether CT is a suitable substitute for MARS MRI in evaluation of the painful MOM-HA. 50 MOM-HA patients (30 female) with unexplained painful prostheses underwent MARS MRI and CT imaging. 2 observers who were blind regarding the clinical data objectively reported the following outcomes: soft tissue lesions (pseudotumors), muscle atrophy, and acetabular and femoral osteolysis. Diagnostic test characteristics were calculated. Pseudotumor was diagnosed in 25 of 50 hips by MARS MRI and in 11 of 50 by CT. Pseudotumors were classified as type 1 (n=2), type 2A (n=17), type 2B (n=4), and type 3 (n=2) by MARS MRI. CT did not permit pseudotumor classification. The sensitivity of CT for diagnosis of pseudotumor was 44% (95% CI: 25-65). CT had "slight" agreement with MARS MRI for quantification of muscle atrophy (κ=0.23, CI: 0.16-0.29; p<0.01). Osteolysis was identified in 15 of 50 patients by CT. 4 of these lesions were identified by MARS MRI. CT was found to be superior to MRI for detection of osteolysis adjacent to MOM-HA, and should be incorporated into diagnostic algorithms. CT was unable to classify and failed to detect many pseudotumors, and it was unreliable for assessment of muscle atrophy. Where MARS MRI is contraindicated or unavailable, CT would be an unsuitable substitute and other modalities such as ultrasound should be considered.

  6. A simulator study of adverse wear with metal and cement debris contamination in metal-on-metal hip bearings

    PubMed Central

    Halim, T.; Clarke, I. C.; Burgett-Moreno, M. D.; Donaldson, T. K.; Savisaar, C.; Bowsher, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Third-body wear is believed to be one trigger for adverse results with metal-on-metal (MOM) bearings. Impingement and subluxation may release metal particles from MOM replacements. We therefore challenged MOM bearings with relevant debris types of cobalt–chrome alloy (CoCr), titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (PMMA). Methods Cement flakes (PMMA), CoCr and Ti6Al4V particles (size range 5 µm to 400 µm) were run in a MOM wear simulation. Debris allotments (5 mg) were inserted at ten intervals during the five million cycle (5 Mc) test. Results In a clean test phase (0 Mc to 0.8 Mc), lubricants retained their yellow colour. Addition of metal particles at 0.8 Mc turned lubricants black within the first hour of the test and remained so for the duration, while PMMA particles did not change the colour of the lubricant. Rates of wear with PMMA, CoCr and Ti6Al4V debris averaged 0.3 mm3/Mc, 4.1 mm3/Mc and 6.4 mm3/Mc, respectively. Conclusions Metal particles turned simulator lubricants black with rates of wear of MOM bearings an order of magnitude higher than with control PMMA particles. This appeared to model the findings of black, periarticular joint tissues and high CoCr wear in failed MOM replacements. The amount of wear debris produced during a 500 000-cycle interval of gait was 30 to 50 times greater than the weight of triggering particle allotment, indicating that MOM bearings were extremely sensitive to third-body wear. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:29–37. PMID:25736072

  7. Influence of the clearance on in-vitro tribology of large diameter metal-on-metal articulations pertaining to resurfacing hip implants.

    PubMed

    Rieker, Claude B; Schön, Rolf; Konrad, Reto; Liebentritt, Gernot; Gnepf, Patric; Shen, Ming; Roberts, Paul; Grigoris, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Large-diameter metal-on-metal articulations may provide an opportunity for wear reduction in total hip implants because earlier studies have shown that the formation of a fluid film that completely separates the bearing surfaces is theoretically possible. In such a lubrication mode and under ideal conditions, there is theoretically no amount of wear. Studies have suggested that the two primary parameters controlling the lubrication mode are the diameter and the clearance of the articulation. The goal of the present study was to experimentally investigate the influence of these two parameters on the wear behavior of large-diameter metal-on-metal articulations pertaining to resurfacing hip implants. The results of this in vitro investigation showed that longer running-in periods and higher amounts of running-in wear were associated with larger clearances.

  8. Scoring the Current Risk Stratification Guidelines in Follow-up Evaluation of Patients After Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty: A Proposal for a Metal-on-Metal Risk Score Supporting Clinical Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Daniel K; Madanat, Rami; Donahue, Gabrielle S; Rolfson, Ola; Bragdon, Charles R; Muratoglu, Orhun K; Malchau, Henrik

    2016-11-16

    In the follow-up evaluation of patients with metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements, current evidence suggests that orthopaedic surgeons should avoid reliance on any single investigative tool. Current risk stratification guidelines can be difficult to interpret because they do not provide guidance when there are several risk factors in different groups (high and low risk). To improve the clinical utility of risk stratification guidelines, we designed a scoring system to assess the risk of revision. The study population consisted of 1,709 patients (1,912 hips) enrolled in a multicenter follow-up study of a recalled MoM hip replacement. Eleven scoring criteria were determined on the basis of existing follow-up algorithm recommendations and consisted of patient-related factors, symptoms, clinical status, implant type, metal ion levels, and radiographic imaging results. Forward stepwise logistic regression was conducted to determine the minimum set of predictive variables for the risk of revision and to assign variable weights. The MoM risk score for each hip was then created by averaging the weighted values of each predictive variable. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis yielded good discrimination between all revised and unrevised hips, with an area under the curve of 0.82 (p < 0.001). The odds of revision for the group with a high MoM risk score were increased by 5.8-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1 to 11.0) relative to the moderate risk group and by 21.8-fold (95% CI, 9.9 to 48.0) compared with the low risk group. Although the use of MoM hip arthroplasty has been limited since 2010, we continue to be faced with the follow-up and risk assessment of thousands of patients who have not had a revision. As more knowledge about risk stratification is gained, the complexity of the algorithms is expected to increase. We propose the use of the MoM risk score as a tool to aid in the clinical decision-making process. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions

  9. Pseudotumors in association with well-functioning metal-on-metal hip prostheses: a case-control study using three-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hart, Alister J; Satchithananda, Keshthra; Liddle, Alexander D; Sabah, Shiraz A; McRobbie, Donald; Henckel, Johann; Cobb, Justin P; Skinner, John A; Mitchell, Adam W

    2012-02-15

    Many papers have been published recently on the subject of pseudotumors surrounding metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and replacement prostheses. These pseudotumors are sterile, inflammatory lesions within the periprosthetic tissues and have been variously termed masses, cysts, bursae, collections, or aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL). The prevalence of pseudotumors in patients with a well-functioning metal-on-metal hip prosthesis is not well known. The purpose of this study was to quantify the prevalence of pseudotumors adjacent to well-functioning and painful metal-on-metal hip prostheses, to characterize these lesions with use of magnetic resonance imaging, and to assess the relationship between their presence and acetabular cup position with use of three-dimensional computed tomography. We performed a case-control study to compare the magnetic resonance imaging findings of patients with a well-functioning unilateral metal-on-metal hip prosthesis and patients with a painful prosthesis (defined by either revision arthroplasty performed because of unexplained pain or an Oxford hip score of <30 of 48 possible points). Thirty patients with a painful hip prosthesis and twenty-eight controls with a well-functioning prosthesis were recruited consecutively. All patients also underwent computed tomography to assess the position of the acetabular component. Thirty-four patients were diagnosed with a pseudotumor. However, the prevalence of pseudotumors in patients with a painful hip (seventeen of thirty, 57%) was not significantly different from the prevalence in the control group (seventeen of twenty-eight, 61%). No objective differences in pseudotumor characteristics between the groups were identified. No clear association between the presence of a pseudotumor and acetabular component position was identified. The Oxford hip score in the group with a painful hip (mean, 20.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.7 to 45.8) was poorer than that in

  10. Activation of noble metals on metal-carbide surfaces: novel catalysts for CO oxidation, desulfurization and hydrogenation reactions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, José A; Illas, Francesc

    2012-01-14

    This perspective article focuses on the physical and chemical properties of highly active catalysts for CO oxidation, desulfurization and hydrogenation reactions generated by depositing noble metals on metal-carbide surfaces. To rationalize structure-reactivity relationships for these novel catalysts, well-defined systems are required. High-resolution photoemission, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and first-principles periodic density-functional (DF) calculations have been used to study the interaction of metals of Groups 9, 10 and 11 with MC(001) (M = Ti, Zr, V, Mo) surfaces. DF calculations give adsorption energies that range from 2 eV (Cu, Ag, Au) to 6 eV (Co, Rh, Ir). STM images show that Au, Cu, Ni and Pt grow on the carbide substrates forming two-dimensional islands at very low coverage, and three-dimensional islands at medium and large coverages. In many systems, the results of DF calculations point to the preferential formation of admetal-C bonds with significant electronic perturbations in the admetal. TiC(001) and ZrC(001) transfer some electron density to the admetals facilitating bonding of the adatom with electron-acceptor molecules (CO, O(2), C(2)H(4), SO(2), thiophene, etc.). For example, the Cu/TiC(001) and Au/TiC(001) systems are able to cleave both S-O bonds of SO(2) at a temperature as low as 150 K, displaying a reactivity much larger than that of TiC(001) or extended surfaces of bulk copper and gold. At temperatures below 200 K, Au/TiC is able to dissociate O(2) and perform the 2CO + O(2)→ 2CO(2) reaction. Furthermore, in spite of the very poor hydrodesulfurization performance of TiC(001) or Au(111), a Au/TiC(001) surface displays an activity for the hydrodesulfurization of thiophene higher than that of conventional Ni/MoS(x) catalysts. In general, the Au/TiC system is more chemically active than systems generated by depositing Au nanoparticles on oxide surfaces. Thus, metal carbides are excellent supports for enhancing the chemical

  11. Blood metal ion testing is an effectivescreening tool to identify poorly performing metal-on-metal bearingsurfaces.

    PubMed

    Sidaginamale, R P; Joyce, T J; Lord, J K; Jefferson, R; Blain, P G; Nargol, A V F; Langton, D J

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this piece of work were to: 1) record the background concentrations of blood chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) concentrations in a large group of subjects; 2) to compare blood/serum Cr and Co concentrations with retrieved metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacings; 3) to examine the distribution of Co and Cr in the serum and whole blood of patients with MoM hip arthroplasties; and 4) to further understand the partitioning of metal ions between the serum and whole blood fractions. A total of 3042 blood samples donated to the local transfusion centre were analysed to record Co and Cr concentrations. Also, 91 hip resurfacing devices from patients who had given pre-revision blood/serum samples for metal ion analysis underwent volumetric wear assessment using a coordinate measuring machine. Linear regression analysis was carried out and receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to assess the reliability of metal ions to identify abnormally wearing implants. The relationship between serum and whole blood concentrations of Cr and Co in 1048 patients was analysed using Bland-Altman charts. This relationship was further investigated in an in vitro study during which human blood was spiked with trivalent and hexavalent Cr, the serum then separated and the fractions analysed. Only one patient in the transfusion group was found to have a blood Co > 2 µg/l. Blood/Serum Cr and Co concentrations were reliable indicators of abnormal wear. Blood Co appeared to be the most useful clinical test, with a concentration of 4.5 µg/l showing sensitivity and specificity for the detection of abnormal wear of 94% and 95%, respectively. Generated metal ions tended to fill the serum compartment preferentially in vivo and this was replicated in the in vitro study when blood was spiked with trivalent Cr and bivalent Co. Blood/serum metal ion concentrations are reliable indicators of abnormal wear processes. Important differences exist however between elements and the blood

  12. Which imaging modality is most effective for identifying pseudotumours in metal-on-metal hip resurfacings requiring revision

    PubMed Central

    Matharu, G. S.; Mansour, R.; Dada, O.; Ostlere, S.; Pandit, H. G.; Murray, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study were to compare the diagnostic test characteristics of ultrasound alone, metal artefact reduction sequence MRI (MARS-MRI) alone, and ultrasound combined with MARS-MRI for identifying intra-operative pseudotumours in metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (MoMHR) patients undergoing revision surgery. Methods This retrospective diagnostic accuracy study involved 39 patients (40 MoMHRs). The time between imaging modalities was a mean of 14.6 days (0 to 90), with imaging performed at a mean of 5.3 months (0.06 to 12) before revision. The prevalence of intra-operative pseudotumours was 82.5% (n = 33). Results Agreement with the intra-operative findings was 82.5% (n = 33) for ultrasound alone, 87.5% (n = 35) for MARS-MRI alone, and 92.5% (n = 37) for ultrasound and MARS-MRI combined. The diagnostic characteristics for ultrasound alone and MARS-MRI alone reached similar sensitivities (90.9% vs 93.9%) and positive predictive values (PPVs; 88.2% vs 91.2%), but higher specificities (57.1% vs 42.9%) and negative predictive values (NPVs; 66.7% vs 50.0%) were achieved with MARS-MRI. Ultrasound and MARS-MRI combined produced 100% sensitivity and 100% NPV, whilst maintaining both specificity (57.1%) and PPV (91.7%). For the identification of a pseudotumour, which was confirmed at revision surgery, agreement was substantial for ultrasound and MARS-MRI combined (κ = 0.69), moderate for MARS-MRI alone (κ = 0.54), and fair for ultrasound alone (κ = 0.36). Discussion These findings suggest that ultrasound and/or MARS-MRI have a role when assessing patients with a MoMHR, with the choice dependent on local financial constraints and the availability of ultrasound expertise. However in patients with a MoMHR who require revision, combined imaging was most effective. Take home message: Combined imaging with ultrasound and MARS-MRI always identified intra-operative pseudotumours if present. Furthermore, if neither imaging modality showed a pseudotumour, one was not

  13. Particle characterisation and cytokine expression in failed small-diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Nuechtern, J V; Meyer, H; Fiedler, G M; Awiszus, F; Junk-Jantsch, S; Bruegel, M; Pflueger, G; Lohmann, C H

    2015-07-01

    The peri-prosthetic tissue response to wear debris is complex and influenced by various factors including the size, area and number of particles. We hypothesised that the 'biologically active area' of all metal wear particles may predict the type of peri-prosthetic tissue response. Peri-prosthetic tissue was sampled from 21 patients undergoing revision of a small diameter metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) for aseptic loosening. An enzymatic protocol was used for tissue digestion and scanning electron microscope was used to characterise particles. Equivalent circle diameters and particle areas were calculated. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on all tissue specimens. Aspirates of synovial fluid were collected for analysis of the cytokine profile analysis, and compared with a control group of patients undergoing primary THA (n = 11) and revision of a failed ceramic-on-polyethylene arthroplasty (n = 6). The overall distribution of the size and area of the particles in both lymphocyte and non-lymphocyte-dominated responses were similar; however, the subgroup with lymphocyte-dominated peri-prosthetic tissue responses had a significantly larger total number of particles. 14 cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ, and IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10), chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1ß), and growth factors (granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and platelet derived growth factor) were detected at significantly higher levels in patients with metal wear debris compared with the control group. Significantly higher levels for IL-1ß, IL-5, IL-10 and GM-CSF were found in the subgroup of tissues from failed MoM THAs with a lymphocyte-dominated peri-prosthetic response compared with those without this response. These results suggest that the 'biologically active area' predicts the type of peri-prosthetic tissue response. The cytokines IL-1ß, IL-5

  14. Risk factors for failure of the 36 mm metal-on-metal Pinnacle total hip arthroplasty system

    PubMed Central

    Matharu, G. S.; Nandra, R. S.; Berryman, F.; Judge, A.; Pynsent, P. B.; Dunlop, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Aims To determine ten-year failure rates following 36 mm metal-on-metal (MoM) Pinnacle total hip arthroplasty (THA), and identify predictors of failure. Patients and Methods We retrospectively assessed a single-centre cohort of 569 primary 36 mm MoM Pinnacle THAs (all Corail stems) followed up since 2012 according to Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulation Agency recommendations. All-cause failure rates (all-cause revision, and non-revised cross-sectional imaging failures) were calculated, with predictors for failure identified using multivariable Cox regression. Results Failure occurred in 97 hips (17.0%). The ten-year cumulative failure rate was 27.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 21.6 to 33.7). Primary implantation from 2006 onwards (hazard ratio (HR) 4.30; 95% CI 1.82 to 10.1; p = 0.001) and bilateral MoM hip arthroplasty (HR 1.59; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.46; p = 0.037) predicted failure. The effect of implantation year on failure varied over time. From four years onwards following surgery, hips implanted since 2006 had significantly higher failure rates (eight years 28.3%; 95% CI 23.1 to 34.5) compared with hips implanted before 2006 (eight years 6.3%; 95% CI 2.4 to 15.8) (HR 15.2; 95% CI 2.11 to 110.4; p = 0.007). Conclusion We observed that 36 mm MoM Pinnacle THAs have an unacceptably high ten-year failure rate, especially if implanted from 2006 onwards or in bilateral MoM hip patients. Our findings regarding implantation year and failure support recent concerns about the device manufacturing process. We recommend all patients undergoing implantation since 2006 and those with bilateral MoM hips undergo regular investigation, regardless of symptoms. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:592–600. PMID:28455467

  15. Effect of 3D physiological loading and motion on elastohydrodynamic lubrication of metal-on-metal total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Gao, Leiming; Wang, Fengcai; Yang, Peiran; Jin, Zhongmin

    2009-07-01

    An elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) simulation of a metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip implant was presented, considering both steady state and transient physiological loading and motion gait cycle in all three directions. The governing equations were solved numerically by the multi-grid method and fast Fourier transform in spherical coordinates, and full numerical solutions were presented included the pressure and film thickness distribution. Despite small variations in the magnitude of 3D resultant load, the horizontal anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) load components were found to translate the contact area substantially in the corresponding direction and consequently to result in significant squeeze-film actions. For a cup positioned anatomically at 45 degrees , the variation of the resultant load was shown unlikely to cause the edge contact. The contact area was found within the cup dimensions of 70-130 degrees and 90-150 degrees in the AP and ML direction respectively even under the largest translations. Under walking conditions, the horizontal load components had a significant impact on the lubrication film due to the squeeze-film effect. The time-dependent film thickness was increased by the horizontal translation and decreased during the reverse of this translation caused by the multi-direction of the AP load during walking. The minimum film thickness of 12-20 nm was found at 0.4s and around the location at (95, 125) degrees. During the whole walking cycle both the average and centre film thickness were found obviously increased to a range of 40-65 nm, compared with the range of 25-55 nm under one load (vertical) and one motion (flexion-extension) condition, which suggested the lubrication in the current MOM hip implant was improved under 3D physiological loading and motion. This study suggested the lubrication performance especially the film thickness distribution should vary greatly under different operating conditions and the time and

  16. Cementless Gustilo-Kyle and BIAS total hip arthroplasty: 2- to 5-year results.

    PubMed

    Kienapfel, H; Martell, J; Rosenberg, A; Galante, J

    1991-01-01

    We conducted extensive radiographic and clinical examination of 58 cementless total hip arthroplasties. Forty BIAS femoral stems had heads made of Co-base F 75 alloy and 18 Gustilo-Kyle femoral stems had Ti6A14V alloy heads. The cross-sectional geometry and location of the porous coating pads of the two stem types was identical, the BIAS component being slightly shorter. At the last follow-up, 27.8% of the Gustilo-Kyle femoral components and 2.5% of the BIAS femoral components were unstable. None of the acetabular components in the BIAS group as against 38.9% of the acetabular components in the Gustilo-Kyle group demonstrated wear of more than 1 mm. All unstable components which did not suffer intraoperative fracture had also acetabular wear of more than 1 mm. The only case with endosteal erosion was seen in a patient with an unstable implant displaying the most extensive wear. Nonparametric statistical analysis showed that the patients with Ti6A14V/polyethylene bearing surfaces had a statistically significantly higher extent of wear and a statistically significant higher incidence of femoral component loosening than patients with CrCoMo/polyethylene bearing surfaces.

  17. Five-year experience of cementless Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Pandit, H G; Campi, S; Hamilton, T W; Dada, O D; Pollalis, S; Jenkins, C; Dodd, C A F; Murray, D W

    2017-03-01

    Cementless unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) was introduced to address some of the problems that can occur following cemented UKR. The aim of this study was to report the 5-year experience of the first 512 medial cementless Oxford UKR implanted by two surgeons for the recommended indications. The first consecutive 512 cementless Phase 3 Oxford UKRs implanted by two surgeons for the recommended indications between June 2004 and October 2013 were prospectively identified and followed up independently. All the procedures were carried out through a minimally invasive approach without eversion or dislocation of the patella. Patients were assessed clinically pre-operatively and at 1, 2, 5, 7 and 10 years after surgery with functional outcome scores and radiographs. There were eight reoperations of which six were revisions giving a 5-year survival of 98 % (95 % CI 94-100 %). At a mean follow-up of 3.4 years (1.0-10.2), the mean OKS was 43 (SD 7), AKSS (objective) was 81 (SD 13), and AKSS (functional) was 86 (SD 17). The first 120 cases had a minimum follow-up of 5 years (mean 5.9; range 5-10.2). In these patients, the mean OKS was 41 (SD 8), AKSS (objective) was 81 (SD 14), and AKSS (functional) was 82 (SD 18). There were no femoral radiolucencies and no complete tibial radiolucencies. 11 % of tibial components had partial radiolucent lines; the remaining 89 % had no radiolucencies. The clinical results are as good as or better than those previously reported for cemented fixation. The radiographic results are better with secure bony attachment to the implants in every case. IV.

  18. [Revision total hip arthroplasty using a cementless prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qing; Xu, Zhi-hong; Chen, Dong-yang; Shi, Dong-quan; Qin, Jiang-hui; Dai, Jin; Weng, Wen-jie; Yuan, Tao

    2012-05-01

    To assess the operative technique and results with the usage of cementless prosthesis in hip revision. Retrospective study was done on revision of total hip arthroplasty with cementless prosthesis in 72 patients (41 males and 31 females) with an average age of 65.7 years (28-82 years) from January 2004 to December 2009. The reason for revision was 2 infection, 54 aseptic loosening, 4 periprosthetic fractures, 5 fracture of femoral stems and 7 cases of acetabular abrasion after hemi-arthroplasty. The operation time, bleeding loss, complications of infection, dislocation, periprosthetic fractures and loosening were evaluated. The Harris score were used for hip function evaluation. The average operation time was (146±47) minutes (70-280 minutes) and bleeding loss during the operation was (970±540) ml (200-2500 ml). Bacterium cultivation during operation demonstrated infection in 2 patients. Bone windows at the lateral femoral were opened in 4 patients and extend trochanteric osteotomy was done in 7 patients. Fracture of the proximal femur occurred in 8 cases. Twenty-nine patients were treated with bone graft including 18 autografts and 11 allografts. Sixty-seven patients were followed up for an average time of 66 months (20-92 months). Additional revisions were performed in 3 cases including 2 dislocations and 1 infection. There were no death, no damage of major blood vessels and nerves. The bone graft healed during 3-5 months. The survival rates of the femoral prosthesis and the acetabulum prostheses were 95.5% and 98.4%. The mean Harris score was 86±8 (55-95 points). Osteolysis were seen in 13 hips but migration was seen in only 1 patient. The cementless prosthesis is useful in revision total hip arthroplasty and the perfect clinical results are related to the reliable primary fixation.

  19. Patient and Radiographic Factors Help to Predict Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacings with Evidence of a Pseudotumor.

    PubMed

    Matharu, Gulraj S; Blanshard, Oliver; Dhaliwal, Kawaljit; Judge, Andrew; Murray, David W; Pandit, Hemant G

    2017-02-01

    The role of radiographs in the follow-up of patients with metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (MoMHR) implants is unclear. We investigated whether a combination of patient and radiographic factors predicted MoMHRs with evidence of a pseudotumor. We performed a retrospective single-center case-control study of 384 MoMHRs. The pseudotumor group of 130 hips all had evidence of a symptomatic pseudotumor on cross-sectional imaging, with the diagnosis confirmed at revision. The nonpseudotumor group of 254 hips (a subgroup of these hips were previously reported on) all had normal findings on cross-sectional imaging. Radiographs taken immediately prior to revision were assessed in the pseudotumor group and were compared with radiographs taken at the time of normal cross-sectional imaging in the nonpseudotumor group. Two blinded independent observers analyzed the radiographs for signs of failure, with excellent interobserver agreement. Logistic regression modeling identified the patient and radiographic predictors of revision for pseudotumor. Hips with a pseudotumor more commonly had abnormal findings on radiographs compared to hips without a pseudotumor (80.0% compared with 63.4%; p = 0.001). Patient and radiographic factors predictive of revision for pseudotumor in the multivariable model were female sex (odds ratio [OR], 3.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.85 to 5.35; p < 0.001), high inclination (OR, 1.04 per degree; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.07 per degree; p = 0.006), acetabular osteolysis (OR, 5.06; 95% CI, 2.14 to 12.0; p < 0.001), femoral osteolysis (OR, 17.8; 95% CI, 5.09 to 62.2; p < 0.001), and acetabular loosening (OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.34 to 8.35; p = 0.009). Factors predictive of not having a pseudotumor were anteversion of ≥5° (5° to <10°: OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.77; p = 0.012; and ≥10°: OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.70; p = 0.004) and heterotopic ossification (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.72; p = 0.015). The final multivariable model was well calibrated (p = 0

  20. Revision of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty in a tertiary center: a prospective study of 39 hips with between 1 and 4 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Alexander D; Satchithananda, Keshtra; Henckel, Johann; Sabah, Shiraz A; Vipulendran, Karuniyan V; Lewis, Angus; Skinner, John A; Mitchell, Adam W M; Hart, Alister J

    2013-06-01

    Operative findings during revision of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty (MOMHA) vary widely and can involve massive soft tissue and bone disruption. As a result, planning of theater time and resources is difficult, surgery is challenging, and outcomes are often poor. We describe our experience with revision of MOMHA and provide recommendations for management. We present the findings and outcomes of 39 consecutive MOMHAs (in 35 patients) revised in a tertiary unit (median follow-up time 30 (12-54) months). The patients underwent a preoperative work-up including CT, metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS) MRI, and blood metal ion levels. We determined 5 categories of failure. 8 of 39 hips had conventional failure mechanisms including infection and impingement. Of the other 31 hips, 14 showed synovitis without significant disruption of soft tissue; 6 had a cystic pseudotumor with significant soft tissue disruption; 7 had significant osteolysis; and 4 had a solid pseudotumor. Each category of failure had specific surgical hazards that could be addressed preoperatively. There were 2 reoperations and 1 patient (2 hips) died of an unrelated cause. Median Oxford hip score (OHS) was 37 (9-48); median change (ΔOHS) was 17 (-10 to 41) points. ΔOHS was similar in all groups-except those patients with solid pseudotumors and those revised to metal-on-metal bearings, who fared worse. Planning in revision MOMHA is aided by knowledge of the different categories of failure to enable choice of appropriate personnel, theater time, and equipment. With this knowledge, satisfactory outcomes can be achieved in revision of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty.

  1. Advanced metal artifact reduction MRI of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty implants: compressed sensing acceleration enables the time-neutral use of SEMAC.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Jan; Fritz, Benjamin; Thawait, Gaurav K; Raithel, Esther; Gilson, Wesley D; Nittka, Mathias; Mont, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) acceleration has been theorized for slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC), but has not been shown to be feasible. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that CS-SEMAC is feasible for MRI of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants. Following prospective institutional review board approval, 22 subjects with metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants underwent 1.5 T MRI. We compared CS-SEMAC prototype, high-bandwidth TSE, and SEMAC sequences with acquisition times of 4-5, 4-5 and 10-12 min, respectively. Outcome measures included bone-implant interfaces, image quality, periprosthetic structures, artifact size, and signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios (SNR and CNR). Using Friedman, repeated measures analysis of variances, and Cohen's weighted kappa tests, Bonferroni-corrected p-values of 0.005 and less were considered statistically significant. There was no statistical difference of outcomes measures of SEMAC and CS-SEMAC images. Visibility of implant-bone interfaces and pseudocapsule as well as fat suppression and metal reduction were "adequate" to "good" on CS-SEMAC and "non-diagnostic" to "adequate" on high-BW TSE (p < 0.001, respectively). SEMAC and CS-SEMAC showed mild blur and ripple artifacts. The metal artifact size was 63 % larger for high-BW TSE as compared to SEMAC and CS-SEMAC (p < 0.0001, respectively). CNRs were sufficiently high and statistically similar, with the exception of CNR of fluid and muscle and CNR of fluid and tendon, which were higher on intermediate-weighted high-BW TSE (p < 0.005, respectively). Compressed sensing acceleration enables the time-neutral use of SEMAC for MRI of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants when compared to high-BW TSE and image quality similar to conventional SEMAC.

  2. How have alternative bearings (such as metal-on-metal, highly cross-linked polyethylene, and ceramic-on-ceramic) affected the prevention and treatment of osteolysis?

    PubMed

    Callaghan, John J; Cuckler, John M; Huddleston, James I; Galante, Jorge O

    2008-01-01

    Osteolysis is a multifactorial process dependent on surgical technique, implant design, patient factors, and material composition. Alternative bearing surfaces, such as highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, and metal-on-metal articular surfaces, have been introduced in an attempt to reduce wear and osteolysis following total hip arthroplasty. Intermediate-term follow-up data available suggest that the prevalence and severity of osteolysis may be reduced with these materials compared with conventional metal-on-polyethylene bearing surface couples. However, long-term data are presently unavailable; the future performance of these bearings awaits clinical validation.

  3. Release of cobalt and chromium ions into the serum following implantation of the metal-on-metal Maverick-type artificial lumbar disc (Medtronic Sofamor Danek).

    PubMed

    Zeh, Alexander; Planert, Michael; Siegert, Gabriele; Lattke, Peter; Held, Andreas; Hein, Werner

    2007-02-01

    Cross-sectional study of 10 patients to measure the serum levels of cobalt and chromium after TDA. To investigate the release of cobalt and chromium ions into the serum following implantation of the metal-on-metal Maverick-type artificial lumbar disc. In total hip endoprosthetics and consequently for TDA (total disc arthroplasty), metal-on-metal combinations are used with the aim of reducing wear debris. In metal-on-metal TDA the release of metal ions has until now been secondary to the main discussion. We investigated the serum cobalt and chromium concentration following implantation of 15 Maverick TDAs (monosegmental L5-S1, n = 5; bisegmental L4-L5 and L5-S1, n = 5; average age, 36.5 years). Five healthy subjects (no metal implants) acted as a control group. The measurements of the metals were carried out using the HITACHI Z-8200 AAS polarized Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer after an average of 14.8 months. The concentrations of cobalt and chromium ions in the serum amounted on average to 4.75 microg/L (SD, 2.71) for cobalt and 1.10 microg/L (SD, 1.24) for chromium. Compared with control group, both the chromium and cobalt levels in the serum showed significant increases (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.0120). At follow-up,the Oswestry Disability Score was on average significantly decreased by 24.4 points (L5-S1) (t test, P < 0.05) and by 26.8 points (L4-S1) (t test, P < 0.05). The improved clinical situation is also represented by a significant decrease of the Visual Analog Pain Scale of 42.2 points after the follow-up (t test, P < 0.05). Significant systemic release of Cr/Co was proven in the serum compared with the control group. The concentrations of Cr/Co measured in the serum are similar in terms of their level to the values measured in THA metal-on-metal combinations or exceed these values given in the literature. Long-term implication of this metal exposure is unknown and should be studied further.

  4. Is Increased Modularity Associated With Increased Fretting and Corrosion Damage in Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty Devices?

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Genymphas B.; Hanzlik, Josa A.; MacDonald, Daniel W.; Gilbert, Jeremy L.; Rimnac, Clare M.; Kurtz, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    This retrieval study documents taper damage at modular interfaces in retrieved MOM THA systems and investigates if increased modularity is associated with increased fretting and corrosion. One hundred thirty-four (134) heads and 60 stems (41 modular necks) of 8 different bearing designs (5 manufacturers) were analyzed. Damage at the shell–liner interface of 18 modular CoCr acetabular liners and the corresponding 11 acetabular shells was also evaluated. The results of this study support the hypothesis that fretting and corrosion damage occurs at a variety of modular component interfaces in contemporary MOM THAs. We also found that modularity of the femoral stem was associated with increased damage at the head. An analysis of component and patient variables revealed that dissimilar alloy pairing, larger head sizes, increased medio-lateral offsets and longer neck moment arms were all associated with increased taper damage at the modular interfaces. PMID:23910820

  5. Short-term wear of Japanese highly cross-linked polyethylene in cementless THA.

    PubMed

    Miyanishi, Keita; Hara, Toshihiko; Kaminomachi, Shigekazu; Maekawa, Masayuki; Iwamoto, Mikio; Torisu, Takehiko

    2008-09-01

    Production of polyethylene wear from acetabular liners is thought, in part, to mediate the periprosthetic osteolysis. This study examined the in vivo wear performance of Japanese highly cross-linked polyethylene (Aeonian) in cementless total hip arthroplasty. Ninety-five hips received a highly cross-linked polyethylene liner, while 20 hips were implanted with conventional polyethylene. Two-dimensional linear wear was measured on radiographs and volumetric wear was then calculated. Both linear and volumetric wear rates were examined for the 1-year postoperative period as well as for the time frame beginning after 1 year ending with the final follow-up. The amount of linear wear was significantly lower in the cross-linked group at 3 and 5 years postoperatively (P < 0.01 and < 0.001, respectively). Linear and volumetric wear rates after 1 year postoperatively for hips with the cross-linked polyethylene were significantly reduced by 57 and 59%, respectively, when compared to rates for those who received conventional polyethylene (P < 0.01). A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that cross-linking was a significant factor influencing linear wear rate after 1 year postoperatively with an odds ratio, exp(ss) = 10.033 (P < 0.001). These results suggest that the highly cross-linked polyethylene reduces penetration of the femoral head and may be an optimal bearing surface for patients receiving total hip arthroplasty.

  6. Successful cementless cup reimplantation using cortical bone graft augmentation after an acetabular fracture and cup displacement.

    PubMed

    Torres, Bryan T; Chambers, Jonathan N; Budsberg, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    To report repair of a periprosthetic acetabular fracture with concurrent component displacement after cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). Clinical case report. Dog (n=1) with an acetabular fracture after THA. Acetabular repair was performed on a highly comminuted periprosthetic acetabular fracture after cementless THA. A bulk, structural corticocancellous autograft from the ipsilateral ilial wing was used for repair and reconstruction of the dorsal acetabular wall before reimplantation of a cementless acetabular component. Repair of a periprosthetic acetabular fracture with a bulk structural autograft was successful in reconstruction of the dorsal acetabular wall and in reestablishing a stable, functional cementless THA acetabular prosthesis. Structural corticocancellous autografts from the ilium can be successfully used in repair of periprosthetic acetabular fractures after THA. Structural corticocancellous grafting from the ilium can be considered as a treatment option for repair of periprosthetic acetabular fractures after THA.

  7. The immunobiology of cobalt: demonstration of a potential aetiology for inflammatory pseudotumours after metal-on-metal replacement of the hip.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, H; Deehan, D; Holland, J; Kirby, J; Tyson-Capper, A

    2014-09-01

    Abnormal wear of cobalt-containing metal-on-metal joints is associated with inflammatory pseudotumours. Cobalt ions activate human toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which normally responds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in sepsis. Activation of TLR4 by LPS increases the expression of chemokines IL-8 and CXCL10, which recruit leukocytes and activated T-cells, respectively. This study was designed to determine whether cobalt induces a similar inflammatory response to LPS by promoting the expression of IL-8 and CXCL10. A human monocytic cell line, derived from acute monocytic leukaemia, was treated with cobalt ions and expression of IL-8 and CXCL10 measured at mRNA and protein levels. Cobalt-treated macrophages showed a 60-fold increase in IL-8 mRNA, and an eightfold increase in production of the mature chemokine (both p < 0.001); expression of the CXCL10 gene and protein was also significantly increased by cobalt (both p < 0.001). Experiments were also performed in the presence of CLI-095, a TLR4-specific antagonist which abrogated the cobalt-mediated increase in IL-8 and CXCL10 expression. These findings suggest that cobalt ions induce inflammation similar to that observed during sepsis by the simultaneous activation of two TLR4-mediated signalling pathways. These pathways result in increased production of IL-8 and CXCL10, and may be implicated in pseudotumour formation following metal-on-metal replacement. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  8. Usefulness of metal artifact reduction with WARP technique at 1.5 and 3T MRI in imaging metal-on-metal hip resurfacings.

    PubMed

    Lazik, Andrea; Landgraeber, Stefan; Schulte, Patrick; Kraff, Oliver; Lauenstein, Thomas C; Theysohn, Jens M

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the metal artifact reduction technique "WARP" in the assessment of metal-on-metal hip resurfacings at 1.5 and 3T in the context of image quality and imaging speed. Nineteen patients (25 hip resurfacings) were randomized for 1.5 and 3T MRI, both including T1 and T2 turbo spin-echo as well as turbo inversion recovery magnitude sequences with and without view angle tilting and high bandwidth. Additional 3T sequences were acquired with a reduced number of averages and using the parallel acquisition technique for accelerating imaging speed. Artifact size (diameter, area), image quality (5-point scale) and delineation of anatomical structures were compared among the techniques, sequences and field strengths using the Wilcoxon sign-rank and paired t-test with Bonferroni correction. At both field strengths, WARP showed significant superiority over standard sequences regarding image quality, artifact size and delineation of anatomical structures. At 3T, artifacts were larger compared to 1.5T without affecting diagnostic quality, and scanning time could be reduced by up to 64 % without quality degradation. WARP proved useful in imaging metal-on-metal hip resurfacings at 1.5T as well as 3T with better image quality surrounding the implants. At 3T imaging could be considerably accelerated without losing diagnostic quality.

  9. Effects of CoCr metal wear debris generated from metal-on-metal hip implants and Co ions on human monocyte-like U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Posada, Olga M; Tate, Rothwelle J; Grant, M Helen

    2015-03-01

    Hip resurfacing with cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy was developed as a surgical alternative to total hip replacement. However, the biological effects of nanoparticles generated by wear at the metal-on-metal articulating surfaces has limited the success of such implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the combined exposure to CoCr nanoparticles and cobalt ions released from a resurfacing implant on monocytes (U937 cells) and whether these resulted in morphology changes, proliferation alterations, toxicity and cytokine release. The interaction between prior exposure to Co ions and the cellular response to nanoparticulate debris was determined to simulate the situation in patients with metal-on-metal implants receiving a second implant. Effects on U937 cells were mainly seen after 120h of treatment. Prior exposure to Co ions increased the toxic effects induced by the debris, and by Co ions themselves, suggesting the potential for interaction in vivo. Increased TNF-α secretion by resting cells exposed to nanoparticles could contribute to osteolysis processes in vivo, while increased IFN-γ production by activated cells could represent cellular protection against tissue damage. Data suggest that interactions between Co ions and CoCr nanoparticles would occur in vivo, and could threaten the survival of a CoCr metal implant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of different bearing surfaces on metal ion levels in urine following 28 mm metal-on-metal and 28 mm metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tiusanen, H; Mäkelä, K; Kiilunen, M; Sarantsin, P; Sipola, E; Pesola, M

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in manufacturing technology have enabled more precise tolerances and surface finishes using metal-on-metal bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to compare the level of metal ions in urine after implantation of a 28-mm metal-on-metal bearing manufactured from high-carbon wrought alloy and a 28-mm metal-on-polyethylene bearing. A total of 92 total hip arthroplasty patients were prospectively randomized into two groups: those receiving metal-on-metal bearings and those receiving metal-on-polyethylene bearings. Chromium, cobalt, and molybdenum ion levels in urine were measured preoperatively and at 1 year and 2 years postoperatively. In the metal-on-polyethylene group, there was a slight increase in mean chromium and cobalt concentrations at 2-year follow-up compared to the preoperative level (p = 0.02 for both chromium and cobalt). In the metal-on-metal group, there was a 15-fold increase in chromium and a 26-fold increase in cobalt at 2-year follow-up compared to the preoperative level (p < 0.001 for both chromium and cobalt). However, the quantity of chromium and cobalt in urine from the metal-on-metal group was not higher at 2-year follow-up than at 1-year follow-up (p = 0.5 and p = 0.6, respectively). The 28-mm metal-on-metal bearings yield chromium and cobalt concentrations in urine that can be higher than those recommended for occupational exposure. However, our results also indicate that a steady state in wear and ion production using metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty can occur.

  11. Removal of well-fixed, cementless, acetabular components in revision hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, P A; Masri, B A; Garbuz, D S; Greidanus, N V; Wilson, D; Duncan, C P

    2003-09-01

    Removal of well-fixed, cementless, acetabular components during revision arthroplasty remains a challenging problem. Further damage to host bone may limit options for reconstruction and compromise the long-term result of the revision operation. We report the results of 31 hips with well-fixed, cementless sockets which were removed using a new cup extraction system. In all hips the socket was removed without difficulty and with minimal further bone loss.

  12. Cementless revision for infection following total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Philip A; Masri, Bassam A; Garbuz, Donald S; Greidanus, Nelson V; Duncan, Clive P

    2003-01-01

    Eradication of chronic infection complicating total hip arthroplasty requires removal of all infected, devitalized and foreign tissue, including the arthroplasty components. Reimplantation into a sterile bed is the goal of treatment in most patients and successful reimplantation yields better functional results than excision arthroplasty. Reimplantation may be performed at the same stage as débridement as part of a single-stage procedure, using cemented components with antibiotic-loaded cement. Alternatively, a two-stage procedure may be performed so that the débridement and reimplantation are separated by a period of antibiotic delivery, both locally and systemically. The results of these treatment regimens and the rationale for cementless reconstruction at the second stage of a two-stage treatment protocol are important considerations in the treatment of periprosthetic infection.

  13. Immediate Cementless Hemiarthroplasty for Severe Destructive Glenohumeral Tuberculous Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kosiyatrakul, Arkaphat

    2013-01-01

    The glenohumeral joint tuberculosis (TB) is rare as compared with other joints. Plaster immobilization, arthrodesis, and resection arthroplasty have been proposed as the additional treatments with anti-TB medications in severe destructive arthritis. To our knowledge, however, the surgical treatment with shoulder arthroplasty has never been reported. We present two cases of active TB with unsalvageable glenohumeral joint. The cementless hemishoulder arthroplasties were performed immediately following the radical debridement. Anti-TB medications were given for 12 months after the surgery. Postoperatively, the patients were satisfied with the rapid symptomatic relief and significant functional recovery. With the follow-up period of 5 years, the operative results were still satisfactory and the reactivation of the infection was not detected. PMID:24167752

  14. Cementless RM Pressfit Cup: a clinical and radiological study of 91 cases with at least four years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lafon, L; Moubarak, H; Druon, J; Rosset, P

    2014-06-01

    Cementless metal-back acetabular cups have good long-term results, but some problems have appeared due to the shell's stiffness, modularity and required bearing surfaces. The RM Pressfit Cup is a single-piece polyethylene cementless acetabular cup that is covered by a thin layer of titanium. This allows for bone integration without limitations related to the stiffness of a metal-back shell. There is very little published information about this new, innovative implant design. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological results from a continuous series of 91 cups (85 patients) with a follow-up of at least 4 years. No patients were lost to follow-up. The Harris Hip Score (HHS) was used to assess the clinical outcome. To assess the radiological outcomes, digital X-rays were used to evaluate the cup position and integration; wear was measured using Livermore's technique. The clinical results were excellent: the mean HHS was 94 and 82% of cases had good or excellent scores. Three of the cups had to be revised because of dislocation brought on by incorrect positioning. X-rays revealed that three implants had shifted during the first 6 weeks, but had stabilized afterwards. Bone integration on X-rays was satisfactory in all cases with no signs of osteolysis. The configuration of the bone trabeculae showed that loads between the implant and peri-acetabular cancellous bone were evenly distributed. The wear of the polyethylene cup-ceramic head bearing was 0.07 mm/year. The results of this series are consistent with recent published studies with the RM Pressfit Cup. IV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Two-stage revision surgery with preformed spacers and cementless implants for septic hip arthritis: a prospective, non-randomized cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Outcome data on two-stage revision surgery for deep infection after septic hip arthritis are limited and inconsistent. This study presents the medium-term results of a new, standardized two-stage arthroplasty with preformed hip spacers and cementless implants in a consecutive series of adult patients with septic arthritis of the hip treated according to a same protocol. Methods Nineteen patients (20 hips) were enrolled in this prospective, non-randomized cohort study between 2000 and 2008. The first stage comprised femoral head resection, debridement, and insertion of a preformed, commercially available, antibiotic-loaded cement hip spacer. After eradication of infection, a cementless total hip arthroplasty was implanted in the second stage. Patients were assessed for infection recurrence, pain (visual analog scale [VAS]) and hip joint function (Harris Hip score). Results The mean time between first diagnosis of infection and revision surgery was 5.8 ± 9.0 months; the average duration of follow up was 56.6 (range, 24 - 104) months; all 20 hips were successfully converted to prosthesis an average 22 ± 5.1 weeks after spacer implantation. Reinfection after total hip joint replacement occurred in 1 patient. The mean VAS pain score improved from 48 (range, 35 - 84) pre-operatively to 18 (range, 0 - 38) prior to spacer removal and to 8 (range, 0 - 15) at the last follow-up assessment after prosthesis implantation. The average Harris Hip score improved from 27.5 before surgery to 61.8 between the two stages to 92.3 at the final follow-up assessment. Conclusions Satisfactory outcomes can be obtained with two-stage revision hip arthroplasty using preformed spacers and cementless implants for prosthetic hip joint infections of various etiologies. PMID:21575241

  16. Simple isolation method for the bulk isolation of wear particles from metal on metal bearing surfaces generated in a hip simulator test.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fang; Royle, Matt; Lali, Ferdinand V; Hart, Alister J; Collins, Simon; Housden, Jonathan; Shelton, Julia C

    2012-04-01

    Isolation and characterization of metal-on-metal (MoM) wear particles from simulator lubricants is essential to understand wear behaviour, ion release and associated corrosive activity related to the wear particles. Substantial challenges remain to establish a simple, precise and repeatable protocol for the isolation and analysis of wear particles due to their extremely small size, their tendency to agglomerate and degrade. In this paper, we describe a simple and efficient method for the bulk isolation and characterisation of wear particles from MoM bearings. Freeze drying was used to remove the large volume of water from the serum lubricant, enzymes used to digest the proteins and ultracentrifugation to finally isolate and purify the particles. The present study involved a total of eight steps for the isolation process and a wear particle extraction efficiency of 45% was achieved.

  17. Optimal acetabular component orientation estimated using edge-loading and impingement risk in patients with metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mellon, Stephen J; Grammatopoulos, George; Andersen, Michael S; Pandit, Hemant G; Gill, Harinderjit S; Murray, David W

    2015-01-21

    Edge-loading in patients with metal-on-metal resurfaced hips can cause high serum metal ion levels, the development of soft-tissue reactions local to the joint called pseudotumours and ultimately, failure of the implant. Primary edge-loading is where contact between the femoral and acetabular components occurs at the edge/rim of the acetabular component whereas impingement of the femoral neck on the acetabular component's edge causes secondary or contrecoup edge-loading. Although the relationship between the orientation of the acetabular component and primary edge-loading has been identified, the contribution of acetabular component orientation to impingement and secondary edge-loading is less clear. Our aim was to estimate the optimal acetabular component orientation for 16 metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (MoMHRA) subjects with known serum metal ion levels. Data from motion analysis, subject-specific musculoskeletal modelling and Computed Tomography (CT) measurements were used to calculate the dynamic contact patch to rim (CPR) distance and impingement risk for 3416 different acetabular component orientations during gait, sit-to-stand, stair descent and static standing. For each subject, safe zones free from impingement and edge-loading (CPR <10%) were defined and, consequently, an optimal acetabular component orientation was determined (mean inclination 39.7° (SD 6.6°) mean anteversion 14.9° (SD 9.0°)). The results of this study suggest that the optimal acetabular component orientation can be determined from a patient's motion and anatomy. However, 'safe' zones of acetabular component orientation associated with reduced risk of dislocation and pseudotumour are also associated with a reduced risk of edge-loading and impingement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cementless versus cemented Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: early results of a non-designer user group.

    PubMed

    Kerens, B; Schotanus, M G M; Boonen, B; Boog, P; Emans, P J; Lacroix, H; Kort, N P

    2017-03-01

    Although fewer tibial radiolucent lines are observed in cementless Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) compared with cemented Oxford UKA, an independent comparative study on this topic is lacking. In this multicentre retrospective study, a cohort of 60 consecutive cases of cementless Oxford UKA is compared with a cohort of 60 consecutive cases of cemented Oxford UKA. Radiolucent lines, survival, perioperative data and clinical results were compared. No complete tibial radiolucent lines were observed in either group. Seventeen per cent of partial tibial radiolucent lines were observed in the cementless group versus 21 % in the cemented group (n.s.). The percentage of tibial radiolucent zones was 4 versus 9 %, respectively (p = 0.036). Survival rates were 90 % at 34 months for the cementless group and 84 % at 54 months for the cemented group (n.s.). Mean operation time was 10 min shorter in the cementless group (p < 0.001), and clinical results were not significantly different. Although no significant differences in radiolucent lines were found between both groups, they appear to be more common in the cemented group. This confirms previous results from reports by prosthesis designers. The presence of radiolucent lines after cemented Oxford UKA does not correlate with clinical outcome or survival. III.

  19. Initial mechanical stability of cementless highly-porous titanium tibial components

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy Brandon; Amer, Luke D; Warren, Christopher P; Cornwell, Phillip; Meneghini, R Michael

    2008-01-01

    Cementless fixation in total knee replacement has seen limited use since reports of early failure surfaced in the late 80s and early 90s. However the emergence of improved biomaterials, particularly porous titanium and tantalum, has led to a renewed interest in developing a cementless tibial component to enhance long-term survivorship of the implants. Cement is commonly employed to minimize micromotion in new implants but represents a weak interface between the implant and bone. The elimination of cement and application of these new biomaterials, which theoretically provide improved stability and ultimate osseointegration, would likely result in greater knee replacement success. Additionally, the removal of cement from the procedure would help minimize surgical durations and get rid of the time needed for curing, thereby the chance of infection. The purpose of this biomechanical study was twofold. The first goal was to assess whether vibration analysis techniques can be used to evaluate and characterize initial mechanical stability of cementless implants more accurately than the traditional method of micromotion determination, which employs linear variable differential transducers (LVDTs). Second, an evaluative study was performed to determine the comparative mechanical stability of five designs of cementless tibial components under mechanical loading designed to simulate in vivo forces. The test groups will include a cemented Triathlon Keeled baseplate control group, three different 2-peg cementless baseplates with smooth, mid, and high roughnesses and a 4-peg cement/ess baseplate with mid-roughness.

  20. [Custom cementless stem for osteoarthritis following developmental hip dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Flecher, X; Argenson, J N; Parratte, S; Ryembault, E; Aubaniac, J M

    2006-06-01

    Arthroplasty in developmental dysplasia of the hip joint raises technical problems related to the anatomy and age of the young patient. The purpose of this work was to report results obtained with a custom-designed cementless stem. This study included 257 hips reviewed at mean 82 months (range 43-162 months). Mean patient age was 55 years (17-78), mean weight 67 kg (42-118), and mean height 164 cm (147-190). A standard imaging protocol was performed for all patients: AP pelvis in reclining position, AP and lateral views of healthy and pathological hip, AP view of entire lower limb in standing position, computed tomography of lower limb. La position of the greater trochanter and the lengthening necessary was determined from the preoperative films. Stem integration and migration as well as osteolysis were studied postoperatively. Femoral anteversion and the anteroposterior diameter of the paleoacetabulum were measured on the superposed computed tomographic images. Surgery was performed via a Watson-Jones approach to insert a noncemented cup hooked in the obturator foramen and implanted in the paleoacetabulum. The femur endomedullary cavity was prepared with a ream having the form of the definitive stem and the prosthetic neck was custom fit to match the desired lever arm and anteversion. The series included 174 cases of dysplasia and 83 dislocations, 39% stage 1, 30% stage 2, 14% stage 3 and 17% stage 4. Mean lengthening was 39 mm. The mean helitorsion was 28 +/- 16 degrees and the mean anteroposterior diameter of the acetabulum was 51 mm. On average, the alpha correction in the prosthetic neck was -13.4 degrees (-71 degrees to +37 degrees). The Postel-Merle-d'Aubigné score improved from 10.4 points preoperatively to 16.7 points at last follow-up. Postoperative x-rays showed signs of osteointegration in 88% of cases, osteolysis in 5% and one case of stem impaction. Ten hips (3.9%) required revision for replacement (7 for an aseptic problem and 3 for sepsis

  1. Results after Cementless Medial Oxford Unicompartmental Knee Replacement - Incidence of Radiolucent Lines

    PubMed Central

    Panzram, Benjamin; Bertlich, Ines; Reiner, Tobias; Walker, Tilman; Hagmann, Sébastien; Weber, Marc-André; Gotterbarm, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Tibial radiolucent lines (RL) are commonly seen in cemented unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR). In the postoperative course, they can be misinterpreted as signs of loosening, thus leading to unnecessary revision. Since 2004, a cementless OUKR is available. First studies and registry data have shown equally good clinical results of cementless OUKR compared to the cemented version and a significantly reduced incidence of RL in cementless implants. Methods This single-centre retrospective cohort study includes the first 30 UKR (27 patients) implanted between 2007 and 2009 with a mean follow-up of 5 years. Clinical outcome was evaluated using the OKS, AKS, range of movement (ROM) and level of pain (VAS). Standard radiologic evaluation was performed at three months, one and five years after surgery. The results five years after implantation were compared to a group of 27 cemented Oxford UKR (OUKR) in a matched-pair-analysis. Results Tibial RL were seen in 10 implants three months after operation, which significantly decreased to five after one year and to three after five years (p = 0.02). RL did not have a significant influence on revision (p = 1.0) or clinical outcome after five years. RL were always partial, never progressive and strictly limited to the tibia. There was no significant difference in the incidence of tibial RL five years after implantation between cemented and cementless implants (cemented: 4, cementless: 3, p = 1.0). Conclusions After cementless implantation RL were limited to the tibia, partial and never progressive. During short term follow-up the incidence of RL decreased significantly. RL seem to have no influence on clinical outcome and revision. PMID:28103308

  2. Metal ion release from bearing wear and corrosion with 28 mm and large-diameter metal-on-metal bearing articulations: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Vendittoli, P-A; Roy, A; Mottard, S; Girard, J; Lusignan, D; Lavigne, M

    2010-01-01

    We have updated our previous randomised controlled trial comparing release of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) ions and included levels of titanium (Ti) ions. We have compared the findings from 28 mm metal-on-metal total hip replacement, performed using titanium CLS/Spotorno femoral components and titanium AlloFit acetabular components with Metasul bearings, with Durom hip resurfacing using a Metasul articulation or bearing and a titanium plasma-sprayed coating for fixation of the acetabular component. Although significantly higher blood ion levels of Cr and Co were observed at three months in the resurfaced group than in total hip replacement, no significant difference was found at two years post-operatively for Cr, 1.58 microg/L and 1.62 microg/L respectively (p = 0.819) and for Co, 0.67 microg/L and 0.94 microg/L respectively (p = 0.207). A steady state was reached at one year in the resurfaced group and after three months in the total hip replacement group. Interestingly, Ti, which is not part of the bearing surfaces with its release resulting from metal corrosion, had significantly elevated ion levels after implantation in both groups. The hip resurfacing group had significantly higher Ti levels than the total hip replacement group for all periods of follow-up. At two years the mean blood levels of Ti ions were 1.87 microg/L in hip resurfacing and and 1.30 microg/L in total hip replacement (p = 0.001). The study confirms even with different bearing diameters and clearances, hip replacement and 28 mm metal-on-metal total hip replacement produced similar Cr and Co metal ion levels in this randomised controlled trial study design, but apart from wear on bearing surfaces, passive corrosion of exposed metallic surfaces is a factor which influences ion concentrations. Ti plasma spray coating the acetabular components for hip resurfacing produces significantly higher release of Ti than Ti grit-blasted surfaces in total hip replacement.

  3. Has Metal-On-Metal Resurfacing Been a Cost-Effective Intervention for Health Care Providers?—A Registry Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Pulikottil-Jacob, Ruth; Connock, Martin; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Mistry, Hema; Grove, Amy; Freeman, Karoline; Costa, Matthew; Sutcliffe, Paul; Clarke, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Background Total hip replacement for end stage arthritis of the hip is currently the most common elective surgical procedure. In 2007 about 7.5% of UK implants were metal-on-metal joint resurfacing (MoM RS) procedures. Due to poor revision performance and concerns about metal debris, the use of RS had declined by 2012 to about a 1% share of UK hip procedures. This study estimated the lifetime cost-effectiveness of metal-on-metal resurfacing (RS) procedures versus commonly employed total hip replacement (THR) methods. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a cost-utility analysis using a well-established multi-state semi-Markov model from an NHS and personal and social services perspective. We used individual patient data (IPD) from the National Joint Registry (NJR) for England and Wales on RS and THR surgery for osteoarthritis recorded from April 2003 to December 2012. We used flexible parametric modelling of NJR RS data to guide identification of patient subgroups and RS devices which delivered revision rates within the NICE 5% revision rate benchmark at 10 years. RS procedures overall have an estimated revision rate of 13% at 10 years, compared to <4% for most THR devices. New NICE guidance now recommends a revision rate benchmark of <5% at 10 years. 60% of RS implants in men and 2% in women were predicted to be within the revision benchmark. RS devices satisfying the 5% benchmark were unlikely to be cost-effective compared to THR at a standard UK willingness to pay of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. However, the probability of cost effectiveness was sensitive to small changes in the costs of devices or in quality of life or revision rate estimates. Conclusion/Significance Our results imply that in most cases RS has not been a cost-effective resource and should probably not be adopted by decision makers concerned with the cost effectiveness of hip replacement, or by patients concerned about the likelihood of revision, regardless of patient age or

  4. Case Report: Cementless Stem Stabilization after Intraoperative Fracture: A Radiostereometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Graham; Nilsson, Kjell G.; Callary, Stuart A.

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with intraoperative femoral fracture during THA, which was repaired using cerclage fixation and insertion of an hydroxyapatite-coated cementless stem. The patient was evaluated postoperatively using radiostereometry during a 2-year course, and despite a large amount of subsidence and rotation, stabilization occurred and was maintained by 6 months. By evaluating the pattern of stem migration after intraoperative fracture, this case shows, even in the presence of instability, a successful clinical outcome can be achieved using an hydroxyapatite-coated cementless stem. PMID:19760467

  5. Case report: Cementless stem stabilization after intraoperative fracture: a radiostereometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, David; Mercer, Graham; Nilsson, Kjell G; Callary, Stuart A

    2010-03-01

    We present the case of a patient with intraoperative femoral fracture during THA, which was repaired using cerclage fixation and insertion of an hydroxyapatite-coated cementless stem. The patient was evaluated postoperatively using radiostereometry during a 2-year course, and despite a large amount of subsidence and rotation, stabilization occurred and was maintained by 6 months. By evaluating the pattern of stem migration after intraoperative fracture, this case shows, even in the presence of instability, a successful clinical outcome can be achieved using an hydroxyapatite-coated cementless stem.

  6. Significance of Elevated Blood Metal Ion Levels in Patients with Metal-on-Metal Prostheses: An Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Markers.

    PubMed

    Tkaczyk, Cathy; Petit, Alain; Antoniou, John; Zukor, David J; Tabrizian, Maryam; Huk, Olga L

    2010-07-02

    It is widely known that cobalt and chromium ions can enhance the production of reactive oxygen species, known to be damaging to cells by disturbing their redox status and then generating oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to determine if increased metal ion levels induce a state of oxidative stress in patients with metal-on-metal (MM) hip arthroplasty. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the concentration of oxidative stress markers (total antioxidants, peroxides, and nitrated proteins) in the patients with MM bearings compared to patients without prostheses. The activity antioxidant enzymes was stable (catalase and glutathione peroxidase) or slightly decreased (superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase-1) over time. This work is the first to determine the biological effects of metal ions released from MM hip implants with regards to mid-term systemic oxidative stress and showed that the increased levels of Co and Cr ions are not associated with significant oxidative stress damage in the plasma of patients with these implants.

  7. Influence of particulate and dissociated metal-on-metal hip endoprosthesis wear on mesenchymal stromal cells in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rakow, Anastasia; Schoon, Janosch; Dienelt, Anke; John, Thilo; Textor, Martin; Duda, Georg; Perka, Carsten; Schulze, Frank; Ode, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    In hip arthroplasty the implants' articulating surfaces can be made of a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloy. The use of these metal-on-metal (MoM) pairings can lead to the release of wear products such as metallic particles and dissociated metal species, raising concerns regarding their safety amongst orthopedic surgeons and the public. MoM-wear particles are reported to be heterogeneous in their physicochemical properties, are capable of inducing adverse effects on a cellular level and are thought to be involved in relevant clinical problems like aseptic osteolysis. Yet, it remains elusive how MoM-wear affects bone forming cells and their progenitors: bone marrow residing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). This study introduces an assessment of the in vivo exposure to particulate and dissociated Co and Cr and evaluates the effects of MoM-wear on MSCs. The exposure to MoM-wear products in vivo and in vitro leads to a decrease in MSCs' osteogenic matrix mineralization and alkaline phosphatase activity on a cellular and systemic level. In conclusion, MoM-wear products are released in the periprosthetic region and elevate bone marrow Co and Cr concentrations towards levels that impair osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Therefore, the ongoing use of CoCrMo alloys for articulating surfaces in joint replacement implants needs critical reconsideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Latest Lessons Learned from Retrieval Analyses of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, Metal-on-Metal, and Alternative Bearing Total Disc Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Steven M.; Toth, Jeffrey M.; Siskey, Ryan; Ciccarelli, Lauren; MacDonald, Dan; Isaza, Jorge; Lanman, Todd; Punt, Ilona; Steinbeck, Marla; Goffin, Jan; van Ooij, André

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge regarding the in vivo performance and periposthetic tissue response of cervical and lumbar total disc replacements (TDRs) continues to expand. This review addresses the following four main questions: 1) What are the latest lessons learned from polyethylene in large joints and how are they relevant to current TDRs? 2) What are the latest lessons learned regarding adverse local tissue reactions from metal-on-metal, CoCr bearings in large joints and how are they relevant to current TDRs? 3) What advancements have been made in understanding the in vivo performance of alternative biomaterials, such as stainless steel and polycarbonate urethane, for TDRs in the past five years? 4) How has retrieval analysis of all these various artificial disc bearing technologies advanced the state of the art in preclinical testing of TDRs? The study of explanted artificial discs and their associated tissues can help inform bearing selection as well as the design of future generations of disc arthroplasty. Analyzing retrieved artificial discs is also essential for validating preclinical test methods. PMID:22904606

  9. Serial magnetic resonance imaging of metal-on-metal total hip replacements. Follow-up of a cohort of 28 mm Ultima TPS THRs.

    PubMed

    Ebreo, D; Bell, P J; Arshad, H; Donell, S T; Toms, A; Nolan, J F

    2013-08-01

    Metal artefact reduction (MAR) MRI is now widely considered to be the standard for imaging metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants. The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) has recommended cross-sectional imaging for all patients with symptomatic MoM bearings. This paper describes the natural history of MoM disease in a 28 mm MoM total hip replacement (THR) using MAR MRI. Inclusion criteria were patients with MoM THRs who had not been revised and had at least two serial MAR MRI scans. All examinations were reported by an experienced observer and classified as A (normal), B (infection) or C1-C3 (mild, moderate, severe MoM-related abnormalities). Between 2002 and 2011 a total of 239 MRIs were performed on 80 patients (two to four scans per THR); 63 initial MRIs (61%) were normal. On subsequent MRIs, six initially normal scans (9.5%) showed progression to a disease state; 15 (15%) of 103 THRs with sequential scans demonstrated worsening disease on subsequent imaging. Most patients with a MoM THR who do not undergo early revision have normal MRI scans. Late progression (from normal to abnormal, or from mild to more severe MoM disease) is not common and takes place over several years.

  10. Accuracy of methods for calculating volumetric wear from coordinate measuring machine data of retrieved metal-on-metal hip joint implants.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhen; McKellop, Harry A

    2014-03-01

    This study compared the accuracy and sensitivity of several numerical methods employing spherical or plane triangles for calculating the volumetric wear of retrieved metal-on-metal hip joint implants from coordinate measuring machine measurements. Five methods, one using spherical triangles and four using plane triangles to represent the bearing and the best-fit surfaces, were assessed and compared on a perfect hemisphere model and a hemi-ellipsoid model (i.e. unworn models), computer-generated wear models and wear-tested femoral balls, with point spacings of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm. The results showed that the algorithm (Method 1) employing spherical triangles to represent the bearing surface and to scale the mesh to the best-fit surfaces produced adequate accuracy for the wear volume with point spacings of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm. The algorithms (Methods 2-4) using plane triangles to represent the bearing surface and to scale the mesh to the best-fit surface also produced accuracies that were comparable to that with spherical triangles. In contrast, if the bearing surface was represented with a mesh of plane triangles and the best-fit surface was taken as a smooth surface without discretization (Method 5), the algorithm produced much lower accuracy with a point spacing of 0.5 mm than Methods 1-4 with a point spacing of 3 mm.

  11. In vitro analysis of the wear, wear debris and biological activity of surface-engineered coatings for use in metal-on-metal total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Williams, S; Tipper, J L; Ingham, E; Stone, M H; Fisher, J

    2003-01-01

    Extremely low wear rates have been reported for metal-on-metal total hip replacements, but concerns remain about the effects of metal ion release, dissolution rates and toxicity. Surface-engineered coatings have the potential to improve wear resistance and reduce the biological activity of the wear debris produced. The aim of this study was to examine the wear and wear debris generation from surface-engineered coatings: titanium nitride (TiN), chromium nitride (CrN) and chromium carbon nitride (CrCN) applied to a cobalt-chrome alloy (CoCr) substrate. The coatings were articulated against themselves in a simple geometry model. The wear particles generated were characterized and the cytotoxic effect on U937 macrophages and L929 fibroblasts assessed. The CrN and CrCN coatings showed a decrease in wear compared to the CoCr bearings and produced small (less than 40 nm in length) wear particles. The wear particles released from the surface engineered bearings also showed a decreased cytotoxic effect on cells compared to the CoCr alloy debris. The reduced wear volumes coupled with the reduced cytotoxicity per unit volume of wear indicate the potential for the clinical application of this technology.

  12. A safe zone for acetabular component position in metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty: winner of the 2012 HAP PAUL award.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Gross, Thomas P

    2013-08-01

    A safe zone for acetabular component positioning in hip resurfacing (RAIL: Relative Acetabular Inclination Limit) was calculated based on implant size and acetabular inclination angle (AIA). For AIA below the RAIL, there were no adverse wear failures or dislocations, and only 1% of cases with ion levels above 10 μg/L. Other than high inclination angle and small bearing size, female gender was the only other factor that correlated with high ion levels in the multivariate analysis. Seven hundred sixty-one hip resurfacing cases are included in this study. The UCLA activity score, femoral shaft angle, body mass index, weight, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, combined range of motion, diagnosis, age, gender, implant brand, AIA, bearing size, and duration of implantation were analyzed to determine the potential risk factors for elevated metal ion levels. These findings apply to sub hemispheric metal-on-metal bearings with similar coverage arcs as the Biomet and Corin hip resurfacing brands. Additional problems may occur when these bearings are connected with trunions on stems for total hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. N-Acetyl-Cysteine as Effective and Safe Chelating Agent in Metal-on-Metal Hip-Implanted Patients: Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lonati, Davide; Ragghianti, Benedetta; Ronchi, Anna; Vecchio, Sarah; Locatelli, Carlo Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Systemic toxicity associated with cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) containing metal hip alloy may result in neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, and hypothyroidism. However clinical management concerning chelating therapy is still debated in literature. Here are described two metal-on-metal hip-implanted patients in which N-acetyl-cysteine decreased elevated blood metal levels. A 67-year-old male who underwent Co/Cr hip implant in September 2009 referred to our Poison Control Centre for persisting elevated Co/Cr blood levels (from March 2012 to November 2014). After receiving oral high-dose N-acetyl-cysteine, Co/Cr blood concentrations dropped by 86% and 87% of the prechelation levels, respectively, and persisted at these latter concentrations during the following 6 months of follow-up. An 81-year-old female who underwent Co/Cr hip implant in January 2007 referred to our Centre for detection of high Co and Cr blood levels in June 2012. No hip revision was indicated. After a therapy with oral high-dose N-acetyl-cysteine Co/Cr blood concentrations decreased of 45% and 24% of the prechelation levels. Chelating agents reported in hip-implanted patients (EDTA, DMPS, and BAL) are described in few cases. N-acetyl-cysteine may provide chelating sites for metals and in our cases reduced Co and Cr blood levels and resulted well tolerable. PMID:27148463

  14. Chromium and cobalt ion release following the Durom high carbon content, forged metal-on-metal surface replacement of the hip.

    PubMed

    Vendittoli, P-A; Mottard, S; Roy, A G; Dupont, C; Lavigne, M

    2007-04-01

    We evaluated the concentrations of chromium and cobalt ions in blood after metal-on-metal surface replacement arthroplasty using a wrought-forged, high carbon content chromium-cobalt alloy implant in 64 patients. At one year, mean whole blood ion levels were 1.61 microg/L (0.4 to 5.5) for chromium and 0.67 microg/L (0.23 to 2.09) for cobalt. The pre-operative ion levels, component size, female gender and the inclination of the acetabular component were inversely proportional to the values of chromium and/or cobalt ions at one year postoperatively. Other factors, such as age and level of activity, did not correlate with the levels of metal ions. We found that the levels of the ions in the serum were 1.39 and 1.37 times higher for chromium and cobalt respectively than those in the whole blood. The levels of metal ions obtained may be specific to the hip resurfacing implant and reflect its manufacturing process.

  15. Metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasties: Influence of cobalt and chromium ions on bacterial growth and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Hosman, Anton H; van der Mei, Henny C; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Busscher, Henk J; Neut, Daniëlle

    2009-03-01

    Metal-on-metal (MOM) bearings involving cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys in total hip arthroplasties are becoming more and more popular due to their low wear. Consequences of corrosion products of Co-Cr alloys are for the most part unclear, and the influence of cobalt and chromium ions on biofilm formation has never been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate how Co-Cr ions affect bacterial growth, biofilm formation, and architecture. A collection of clinically isolated and commercially available bacterial strains were exposed to Co-Cr concentrations as found in serum and above as found in adjacent tissue. Planktonic growth of bacteria was inhibited by concentrations of 200,000/93,000 microg/L Co-Cr. Co-Cr concentrations up to 20/9.3 microg/L as reported to occur in serum revealed no consistent influence on biofilm formation, but higher concentrations of 200,000/93,000 microg/L significantly reduced Staphylococcus aureus and CNS biofilm formation. As indicated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, no dead bacteria were encountered in the biofilms, and the metal ion concentrations used must be classified as growth-inhibiting and not bactericidal. Long-term clinical data on infection rates for Co-Cr MOM-bearings are not yet available, but the current results suggest that Co-Cr ions may yield these prostheses less prone to biofilm formation and subsequent infection. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Latest Lessons Learned from Retrieval Analyses of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, Metal-on-Metal, and Alternative Bearing Total Disc Replacements.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven M; Toth, Jeffrey M; Siskey, Ryan; Ciccarelli, Lauren; Macdonald, Dan; Isaza, Jorge; Lanman, Todd; Punt, Ilona; Steinbeck, Marla; Goffin, Jan; van Ooij, André

    2012-03-01

    Knowledge regarding the in vivo performance and periposthetic tissue response of cervical and lumbar total disc replacements (TDRs) continues to expand. This review addresses the following four main questions: 1) What are the latest lessons learned from polyethylene in large joints and how are they relevant to current TDRs? 2) What are the latest lessons learned regarding adverse local tissue reactions from metal-on-metal, CoCr bearings in large joints and how are they relevant to current TDRs? 3) What advancements have been made in understanding the in vivo performance of alternative biomaterials, such as stainless steel and polycarbonate urethane, for TDRs in the past five years? 4) How has retrieval analysis of all these various artificial disc bearing technologies advanced the state of the art in preclinical testing of TDRs? The study of explanted artificial discs and their associated tissues can help inform bearing selection as well as the design of future generations of disc arthroplasty. Analyzing retrieved artificial discs is also essential for validating preclinical test methods.

  17. Contemporary total hip arthroplasty with and without cement in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Oh, S-H; Kim, J-S; Koo, K-H

    2003-04-01

    The rate of failure of primary total hip arthroplasty in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head is higher than that in patients with osteoarthritis. The purpose of this prospective study was to document the clinical and radiographic results of arthroplasty with so-called third-generation cementing and the results of second-generation cementless total hip arthroplasty in ninety-eight consecutive patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Fifty patients who had had simultaneous bilateral total hip arthroplasty with a cemented stem in one hip and a cementless stem in the other and forty-eight patients who had had a unilateral total hip arthroplasty with a cementless stem were included in the study. A cementless acetabular component was used in all hips. The presumed cause of the osteonecrosis was ethanol abuse in fifty-seven patients, unknown in twenty-seven, fracture of the femoral neck in nine, and steroid use in five. There were eighty men and eighteen women. The mean age at the time of the arthroplasty was 47.3 years (range, twenty-six to fifty-eight years). Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed preoperatively; at six weeks; at three, six, and twelve months; and yearly thereafter. The average duration of follow-up was 9.3 years. The average Harris hip scores in the group treated with unilateral arthroplasty (97 points) and the group treated with bilateral arthroplasty (94 points) were similar at the time of final follow-up. They were also similar between the group treated with cement (mean, 96 points) and that treated without cement (95 points). No component had aseptic loosening in either group. In one hip, a cemented femoral stem (2%) and a cementless cup were revised because of infection. Two cementless stems (2%) were revised because of fracture of the proximal part of the femur with loosening of the stem. Annual wear of the polyethylene liner averaged 0.22 mm in the group treated with cement (a zirconia head) and 0.14 mm in the

  18. An integrated CAD/CAM/robotic milling method for custom cementless femoral prostheses.

    PubMed

    Wen-ming, Xi; Ai-min, Wang; Qi, Wu; Chang-hua, Liu; Jian-fei, Zhu; Fang-fang, Xia

    2015-09-01

    Aseptic loosening is the primary cause of cementless femoral prosthesis failure and is related to the primary stability of the cementless femoral prosthesis in the femoral cavity. The primary stability affects both the osseointegration and the long-term stability of cementless femoral prostheses. A custom cementless femoral prosthesis can improve the fit and fill of the prosthesis in the femoral cavity and decrease the micromotion of the proximal prosthesis such that the primary stability of the custom prosthesis can be improved, and osseointegration of the proximal prosthesis is achieved. These results will help to achieve long-term stability in total hip arthroplasty (THA). In this paper, we introduce an integrated CAD/CAM/robotic method of milling custom cementless femoral prostheses. The 3D reconstruction model uses femoral CT images and 3D design software to design a CAD model of the custom prosthesis. After the transformation matrices between two units of the robotic system are calibrated, consistency between the CAM software and the robotic system can be achieved, and errors in the robotic milling can be limited. According to the CAD model of the custom prosthesis, the positions of the robotic tool points are produced by the CAM software of the CNC machine. The normal vector of the three adjacent robotic tool point positions determines the pose of the robotic tool point. In conclusion, the fit rate of custom pig femur stems in the femoral cavities was 90.84%. After custom femoral prostheses were inserted into the femoral cavities, the maximum gaps between the prostheses and the cavities measured less than 1 mm at the diaphysis and 1.3 mm at the metaphysis. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene Liner Dissociation from a Cement-less Modular Acetabular Shell: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Shunsuke; Sonohata, Motoki; Kitajima, Masaru; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Liner dissociation of polyethylene from a cementless acetabular socket following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a rare complication. Cross-linked polyethylene liner dissociation from AMS-HA shell (KYOCERA Med, Osaka, Japan) occurred in 2 out of the 4153 (0.04%) cases approximately 10 years after undergoing surgery at our institute. First case was an 80-year-old female who underwent right THA along with subtrochanteric femoral shortening osteotomy due to complete dislocation hip, and second case was a 72-year-old male, who underwent right THA due to coxarthrosis. A 26 mm femoral head and CPE liner were used in both cases and the inclination degree of the acetabular socket was within 50°.There was no implant loosening in both cases. There was partial damage in the elevated rim on the alternative side and scratches on the back side in the both extracted CPE liner. It was surmised that liner dissociation was caused due to a problem in the liner fixing format of the push in type of the present model. PMID:28217197

  20. Differential distribution of cobalt, chromium, and nickel between whole blood, plasma and urine in patients after metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ashley W; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan; Armstrong, Catherine; Peter, Viju; Roberts, Norman B

    2012-10-01

    Evidence shows that raised cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) whole blood concentrations correlate with poor device outcome in patients following metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasty. To understand the local and systemic pathological effects of these raised metal concentrations it is important to define their distribution between whole blood, plasma, and urine. The metals were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS). Two hundred and five plasma, 199 whole blood, and 24 sets of urine samples were analyzed from 202 patients with Co-Cr alloy MoM hip prostheses implanted between 8 months to 12 years (mean 6.0 years) prior to analysis. Plasma Co (median 39.1 nmol/L) showed significantly positive 1:1 correlation with whole blood Co (median 45.9 nmol/L; R(2)  = 0.98, p < 0.001, slope = 1.0). Plasma Cr (median 53.8 nmol/L) and whole blood Cr (median 40.3 nmol/L) were also correlated; however, concentrations were significantly higher in plasma indicating relatively little blood cell uptake (R(2)  = 0.96, p < 0.001, slope = 1.6). Urinary Co was up to threefold higher than Cr (median 334.0 vs. 97.3 nmol/L respectively). Nickel concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine were low relative to Co and Cr. The analysis shows fundamental differences in the physiological handling of these metals: Co is distributed approximately equally between blood cells and plasma, whereas Cr is mainly in plasma, despite which, Cr had far less renal excretion than Co. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  1. Gluteal muscle fatty atrophy is not associated with elevated blood metal ions or pseudotumors in patients with a unilateral metal-on-metal hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Reito, Aleksi; Elo, Petra; Nieminen, Jyrki; Puolakka, Timo; Eskelinen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose There are no international guidelines to define adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD). Muscle fatty atrophy has been reported to be common in patients with failing metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements. We assessed whether gluteal muscle fatty atrophy is associated with elevated blood metal ion levels and pseudotumors. Patients and methods 263 consecutive patients with unilateral ASR XL total hip replacement using a posterior approach and with an unoperated contralateral hip were included in the study. All patients had undergone a standard screening program at our institution, including MRI and blood metal ion measurement. Muscle fatty atrophy was graded as being absent, mild, moderate, or severe in each of the gluteal muscles. Results The prevalance of moderate-to-severe gluteal muscle atrophy was low (12% for gluteus minimus, 10% for gluteus medius, and 2% for gluteus maximus). Muscle atrophy was neither associated with elevated blood metal ion levels (> 5 ppb) nor with the presence of a clear (solid- or mixed-type) pseudotumor seen in MRI. A combination of moderate-to-severe atrophy in MRI, elevated blood metal ion levels, and MRI-confirmed mixed or solid pseudotumor was rare. Multivariable regression revealed that “preoperative diagnosis other than osteoarthrosis” was the strongest predictor of the presence of fatty atrophy. Interpretation Gluteal muscle atrophy may be a clinically significant finding with influence on hip muscle strength in patients with MoM hip replacement. However, our results suggest that gluteal muscle atrophy seen in MRI is not associated with either the presence or severity of ARMD, at least not in patients who have been operated on using the posterior approach. PMID:26427902

  2. In vivo response of heme-oxygenase-1 to metal ions released from metal-on-metal hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Beraudi, Alina; Bianconi, Eva; Catalani, Simona; Canaider, Silvia; De Pasquale, Dalila; Apostoli, Pietro; Bordini, Barbara; Stea, Susanna; Toni, Aldo; Facchin, Federica

    2016-07-01

    Metal ion release and accumulation is considered to be a factor responsible for the high failure rates of metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants. Numerous studies have associated the presence of these ions, besides other factors, including a hypoxia‑like response and changes in pH due to metal corrosion leading to the induction of the oxidative stress response. The aim of the present study was to verify whether, in patients with a MoM hip prosthesis, mRNA and protein expression of HMOX‑1 was modulated by the presence of metal ions and whether patients without prostheses exhibit a different expression pattern of this enzyme. The study was conducted on 22 matched pairs of patients with and without prostheses, for a total of 44 samples. Ion dosage was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with dynamic cell reaction. HMOX‑1 gene expression was quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and HMOX‑1 protein expression was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results demonstrated that although there were significant differences in the metallic ion concentrations amongst the two groups of patients, there was no correlation between circulating levels of cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr), and HMOX‑1 gene and protein expression. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the protein expression levels of HMOX‑1 between the two groups. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that circulating Co and Cr ions released by articular prosthetics do not induce an increase in HMOX‑1 mRNA and protein expression at least 3.5 years after the implant insertion. The present study suggests that involvement of HMOX‑1 may be excluded from future studies and suggests that other antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase should be investigated.

  3. Changes in blood ion levels after removal of metal-on-metal hip replacements: 16 patients followed for 0-12 months.

    PubMed

    Durrani, Salim K; Noble, Philip C; Sampson, Barry; Panetta, Therese; Liddle, Alexander D; Sabah, Shiraz A; Chan, Newton K; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2014-06-01

    In patients with metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prostheses, pain and joint effusions may be associated with elevated blood levels of cobalt and chromium ions. Since little is known about the kinetics of metal ion clearance from the body and the rate of resolution of elevated blood ion levels, we examined the time course of cobalt and chromium ion levels after revision of MoM hip replacements. We included 16 patients (13 female) who underwent revision of a painful MoM hip (large diameter, modern bearing) without fracture or infection, and who had a minimum of 4 blood metal ion measurements over an average period of 6.1 (0-12) months after revision. Average blood ion concentrations at the time of revision were 22 ppb for chromium and 43 ppb for cobalt. The change in ion levels after revision surgery varied extensively between patients. In many cases, over the second and third months after revision surgery ion levels decreased to 50% of the values measured at revision. Decay of chromium levels occurred more slowly than decay of cobalt levels, with a 9% lag in return to normal levels. The rate of decay of both metals followed second-order (exponential) kinetics more closely than first-order (linear) kinetics. The elimination of cobalt and chromium from the blood of patients who have undergone revision of painful MoM hip arthroplasties follows an exponential decay curve with a half-life of approximately 50 days. Elevated blood levels of cobalt and chromium ions can persist for at least 1 year after revision, especially in patients with high levels of exposure.

  4. Metal ion concentrations and semen quality in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty: A prospective comparison between metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene implants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Hu, Chih-Chien; Chen, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Pang-Hsin

    2016-03-01

    The widespread usage of metal-on-metal (MoM) articulations in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been tempered by concerns of increased metal ion production. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the influence of metal ion exposure on semen quality in young male patients undergoing THA. Male patients who were scheduled for unilateral THA and aged between 20 and 45 years were prospectively enrolled. Patients were sorted into MoM and metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) groups with equal case number. Semen and blood metal ion levels were measured and sperm analysis was performed before, 6 months after, and 1 year after surgery. Compared to preoperative baseline, patients (n = 50) in both groups had increased cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) concentrations in blood and seminal fluid after surgery. Between-group comparisons at 6 months and 1 year after surgery showed that patients in the MoM group both had a greater Co concentration in blood and semen and a greater Cr concentration in blood and semen. Patients receiving MoM prosthesis had a reduced percentage of morphologically normal sperm, and decreases from the preoperative level (44.7%) were significant at 6 months (36.8%, p = 0.03) and 1 year (33.8%, p = 0.004). Our data shows a significantly greater concentration of metal ion in blood and semen in patients with MoM prosthesis with a reduced percentage of morphologically normal sperm. Despite small effects on sperm quality, some concerns remain. Further studies are necessary to determine sources of metal ion and to investigate effects on male fertility. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cementless acetabular fixation in patients 50 years and younger at 10 to 18 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Teusink, Matthew J; Callaghan, John J; Warth, Lucian C; Goetz, Devon D; Pedersen, Douglas R; Johnston, Richard C

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the 10- to 18-year follow-up of cementless acetabular fixation in patients 50 years and younger. We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive group of 118 patients (144 hips) in whom primary total hip arthroplasty had been performed by 2 surgeons using a cementless acetabular component. Two (1.4%) cementless acetabular components were revised because of aseptic loosening. Twenty-four hips (16.7%) were revised for any mechanical failure of the acetabular component mostly related to acetabular liner wear and osteolysis. The average linear wear rate was 0.19 mm per year, which was higher than our previous reports with cemented acetabular fixation. The fiber mesh ingrowth surface of the cementless acetabular component in this study was superior to cemented acetabular components in terms of fixation. However, the high rates of wear and osteolysis have led to poor overall acetabular component construct survivorship.

  6. No difference between cemented and cementless total knee arthroplasty in young patients: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Franceschetti, Edoardo; Torre, Guglielmo; Palumbo, Alessio; Papalia, Rocco; Karlsson, Jón; Ayeni, Olufemi R; Samuelsson, Kristian; Franceschi, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    The present piece of work provides improved knowledge about the evidence related to TKA in patients 60 years of age or younger, with special focus on fixation methods. Main concern of the review is to analyse the difference of survival rate and complications of cemented and cementless implants. An electronic search was carried out between October and December 2015, through CINAHL, PubMed and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials web databases. Articles in English, Italian, French and Spanish were considered for inclusion. Only peer-reviewed studies with adult patients aged 60 years or less, with diagnosis of osteoarthritis in more than 90% of the subjects, were considered for inclusion. All studies had to report outcomes after TKA with either cemented or cementless fixation technique. No significant differences in terms of clinical, functional and radiological outcomes were found between cemented and cementless implants. Good clinical and functional results were obtained in terms of the Knee Society score and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for both techniques. Radiographic results showed that radiolucent lines of <2 mm in width were detected at radiographs, without difference between cemented or cementless implants. Well-conducted trials on cemented versus cementless TKA were carried out in few papers. A survival rate of over 90% was reported in the majority of the studies at a mean follow-up of 8.6 years (range 5-18 years). Similar results were observed in terms of functional outcome and survival rates for both cemented and cementless TKAs. High survival rates were reported for both operative techniques and cemented TKA did not offer additional benefit. Assuming that cementless prosthesis allows a stable fixation and reduces the time of operation, the authors recommend the cementless fixation as a primary choice in the investigated patient population. However, evidence is low, and further research is needed. IV.

  7. Cementless total hip arthroplasty in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Zeng, Min; Xie, Jie; Wen, Ting; Hu, Yihe

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Controversies on the surgical protocols and efficacies of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) still exist. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the perioperative managements and their outcomes related to performing THA on patients with AS. Data of 54 AS patients who underwent 81 THAs between 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and imaging data were collected preoperatively, postoperatively, and during the follow-up period for surgical efficacy. Using posterolateral approach, cementless prostheses were selected in all cases. Mean follow-up period was 3.6 years (range, 2–8 years). Inclinations and anteversions of acetabular cups were 36.3°±4.5° (range, 30°–50°) and 12.3°±4.9° (range, 0°–25°) respectively. Mean visual analog scale (VAS) score decreased from 6.7 ± 2.1 (range, 4–10) preoperatively to 1.5 ± 1.0 (range, 0–4) at final follow-up, and mean Harris hip score (HHS) improved from 31.2 ± 11.6 (range, 15–45) to 86.1 ± 4.3 (range, 80–95) (P < 0.05). Postoperative range of motion (ROM) in flexion was improved from 6.7°±13.5° (range, 0°–50°) preoperatively to 82.5°±6.4° (range, 70°–100°) at final follow-up, and ROM in extension was improved from 1.8°±5.7°(range, 0°–15°) to 15.4°±2.6° (range, 10°–20°) (P < 0.05). Heterotopic ossification (HO) was documented in 9 hips (11.1%). Signs of stable fibrous ingrowth and bone ingrowth were detected in 52 and 29 hips, respectively. Sciatic never injury was occurred in 3 cases, and treated conservatively. There were no signs of periprosthetic fractures, dislocation, or prosthesis loosening. Surgical efficacies of THA for AS patients with severe hip involvement are satisfactory. PMID:28121928

  8. Asymptomatic prospective and retrospective cohorts with metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty indicate acquired lymphocyte reactivity varies with metal ion levels on a group basis.

    PubMed

    Hallab, Nadim J; Caicedo, Marco; McAllister, Kyron; Skipor, Anastasia; Amstutz, Harlan; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2013-02-01

    Some tissues from metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasty revisions have shown evidence of adaptive-immune reactivity (i.e., excessive peri-implant lymphocyte infiltration/activation). We hypothesized that, prior to symptoms, some people with MoM hip arthroplasty will develop quantifiable metal-induced lymphocyte reactivity responses related to peripheral metal ion levels. We tested three cohorts (Group 1: n = 21 prospective longitudinal MoM hip arthroplasty; Group 2: n = 17 retrospective MoM hip arthroplasty; and Group 3: n = 20 controls without implants). We compared implant position, metal-ion release, and immuno-reactivity. MoM cohorts had elevated (p < 0.01) amounts of serum Co and Cr compared to controls as early as 3 months post-op (Group 1:1.2 ppb Co, 1.5 ppb Cr; Group 2: 3.4 ppb Co, 5.4 ppb Cr; Group 3: 0.01 ppb Co, 0.1 ppb Cr). However, only after 1-4 years post-op did 56% of Group 1 develop metal-reactivity (vs. 5% pre-op, metal-LTT, SI > 2), compared with 76% of Group 2, and 15% of Group 3 controls (patch testing was a poor diagnostic indicator with only 1/21 Group 1 positive). Higher cup-abduction angles (50° vs. 40°) in Group 1 were associated with higher serum Cr (p < 0.07). However, sub-optimal cup-anteversion angles (9° vs. 20°) had higher serum Co (p < 0.08). Serum Cr and Co were significantly elevated in reactive versus non-reactive Group-1 participants (p < 0.04). CD4+CD69+ T-helper lymphocytes (but not CD8+) and IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-6 cytokines were all significantly elevated in metal-reactive versus non-reactive Group 1 participants. Our results showed that lymphocyte reactivity to metals can develop within the first 1-4 years after MoM arthroplasty in asymptomatic patients and lags increases in metal ion levels. This increased metal reactivity was more prevalent in those individuals with extreme cup angles and higher amounts of circulating metal. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  9. Do survival rate and serum ion concentrations 10 years after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing provide evidence for continued use?

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Albrecht; Lützner, Jörg; Kirschner, Stephan; Witzleb, Wolf-Christoph; Günther, Klaus-Peter

    2012-11-01

    Owing to concerns attributable to problems associated with metal-on-metal bearing surfaces, current evidence for the use of hip resurfacing is unclear. Survival rates reported from registries and individual studies are controversial and the limited long-term studies do not conclusively allow one to judge whether hip resurfacing is still a reasonable alternative to conventional THA. We asked whether the long-term survival rate of hip resurfacing is comparable to that of conventional THA and certain factors can be identified that influence serum ion concentration 10 years postoperatively. We specifically assessed (1) the 10-year survivorship in the whole cohort and in male and female patients, (2) serum concentrations of metal ions in patients with hip resurfacing who had not undergone revision surgery, and (3) potential influencing factors on the serum ion concentration. We retrospectively reviewed our first 95 patients who had 100 hip resurfacings performed from 1998 to 2001. The median age of the patients at surgery was 52 years (range, 28-69 years); 49% were men. We assessed the survival rate (revision for any reason as the end point), radiographic changes, and serum ion concentrations for cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum. The correlations between serum ion concentration and patient-related factors (age, sex, BMI, activity) and implant-related factors (implant size, cup inclination, stem-shaft angle) were investigated. The minimum followup was 9.3 years (mean, 10 years; range, 9.3-10.5 years). The 10-year survivorship was 88% for the total cohort. The overall survival rate was greater in men (93%) than in women (84%). Median serum ion levels were 1.9 μg/L for chromium, 1.3 μg/L for cobalt, and 1.6 μg/L for molybdenum. Radiolucent lines around acetabular implants were observed in 4% and femoral neck thinning in 5%. Although our overall failure rate was greater than anticipated, the relatively low serum ion levels and no revisions for pseudotumors in young male

  10. Comparison of Clinical Efficacy Between Modular Cementless Stem Prostheses and Coated Cementless Long-Stem Prostheses on Bone Defect in Hip Revision Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huibin; Chen, Fang; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the clinical efficacy of modular cementless stem and coated cementless long-stem prostheses in hip revision arthroplasty. Material/Methods Sixty-five patients with complete hip revision surgery data during January 2005 to March 2015 were selected from the People’s Hospital of Linyi City and randomly divided into a S-ROM group (implanted with cementless modular stem prostheses, n=32) and a SLR-PLUS group (implanted with cementless coated long-stem prostheses, n=33). Harris score was used to evaluate the hip function of the patients in order to measure the clinical efficacy of the prostheses in total hip arthroplasty. Anteroposterior pelvic radiographs and lateral pelvic radiographs were taken and each patient’s hip arthroplasty condition was recorded. Kaplan-Meier method was applied to compare the cumulative 5-year non-revision rate between the 2 prostheses and log-rank method was used to inspect the statistical data. Results The Harris scores of both the S-ROM group and the SLR-PLUS group were significantly higher at 12 months after the operation than those before the operation (both P<0.05). The Harris scores of the patients with type I/II bone defects in the S-ROM group were not significantly different from those of the same types in the SLR-PLUS group at all time points (all P>0.05), while the Harris scores of the patients with type IIIA/IIIB in the S-ROM group were both significantly higher than those of the same types in the SLR-PLUS group at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the operation (all P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the cumulative 5-year non-revision rate between the type I/II patients in the S-ROM group (92.31%) and the patients of the same types in the SLR-PLUS group (85.71%) (P>0.05). However, the cumulative 5-year non-revision rate of the type IIIA/IIIB patients in the S-ROM group (89.47%) was significantly different from the patients of the same types in

  11. Cavitary acetabular defects treated with morselized cancellous bone graft and cementless cups

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, G. C.T.; Kubiak, E. N.; Levine, B.; Chen, F. S.

    2006-01-01

    The use of impacted morselized cancellous bone grafts in conjunction with cementless hemispherical acetabular cups for treatment of AAOS type II acetabular cavitary deficiencies was evaluated in a retrospective study of 23 primary and 24 revision total hip arthroplasties, at a mean follow-up of 7.9 and 8.1 years, respectively. All primary hips received autografts, while all revision hips received allografts. Modified Harris Hip Scores for primary and revision hip replacements increased from a pre-operative mean of 37 and 47 to a postoperative mean of 90 and 86, respectively. All 23 autografts and 23 out of 24 cancellous allografts were radiographically incorporated without evidence of resorption. There were no instances of infection, component migration, or cases requiring subsequent acetabular revision. We conclude that impacted morselized cancellous bone-graft augmentation of cementless cups is a viable surgical option for AAOS type II cavitary acetabular defects. PMID:16988799

  12. Cementless two-stage exchange arthroplasty for infection after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Masri, Bassam A; Panagiotopoulos, Kostas P; Greidanus, Nelson V; Garbuz, Donald S; Duncan, Clive P

    2007-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed all patients at one center with an infected total hip arthroplasty treated with 2-stage revision using cementless components for the second stage and the PROSTALAC articulated spacer at the first stage. Twenty-nine patients were reviewed and followed for at least 2 years postoperatively. An isolated Staphylococcus species was cultured in 76% (22/29) of patients. Three (10.3%) of 29 patients had recurrent infection at the site of the prosthesis. One of the 3 patients ultimately underwent a Girdlestone arthroplasty. Another patient was managed with irrigation and debridement, whereas the final patient was treated with intravenous antibiotics alone. Treatment of infection at the site of a hip arthroplasty with 2-stage revision using cementless components and an articulated spacer yields recurrence rates similar to revisions where at least one of the components at the second stage is fixed with antibiotic-loaded cement.

  13. Bone scans after total knee arthroplasty in asymptomatic patients. Cemented versus cementless

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, A.A.; Wyatt, R.W.; Daniels, A.U.; Armstrong, L.; Alazraki, N.; Taylor, A. Jr. )

    1990-02-01

    The natural history of bone scans after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was studied in 26 patients with 28 cemented TKAs and 29 patients with 31 cementless TKAs. The bone scans were examined at specified postoperative intervals. Radionuclide activity of the femoral, tibial, and patellar regions was measured. Six patients who developed pain postoperatively were excluded. Bone scans immediately postoperative and at three months demonstrated increased uptake, which gradually decreased to baseline levels at ten to 12 months. Radioisotope uptake was comparable in the cemented and cementless groups, but was highly variable in individual patients and in each of the follow-up periods. A single postoperative bone scan cannot differentiate component loosening from early bone remodeling. Sequential bone scans, as a supplement to the clinical examination and conventional radiography, may prove useful in the diagnosis of TKA failure.

  14. Comparative Fixation and Subsidence Profiles of Cementless Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty Implants.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Gokce; Gopalakrishnan, Ananthkrishnan; Davignon, Robert A; Parker, John W; Chawla, Harshvardhan; Pearle, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Aseptic loosening is the primary cause of failure for both cemented and cementless unicondylar knee replacements (UKRs). Micromotion and subsidence of tibial baseplate are two causes of failure, due to poor fixation and misalignment, respectively. Stair ascent activity profiles from Bergmann et al and Li et al were used. Biphasic Sawbones models were prepared according to the surgical techniques of traditional and novel cementless UKRs. Implants were tested for 10,000 cycles representing post-operative bone interdigitation period, and micromotion was observed using speckle pattern measurements, which demonstrated sufficient resolution. Additionally, the test method proposed by Liddle et al was used to measure subsidence with pressure sensors under increasingly lateralized loading. Mean displacement due to micromotion for mediolateral and anteroposterior plane was consistently greater for traditional cementless UKR. Mean displacement for axial micromotion was significantly higher for traditional UKR at the anterior aspect of the implant; however, values were lower for the medial periphery of the implant. Subsidence was significantly lower for the novel design with increasingly lateralized loading, and indentation was not observed on the test substrate, when compared to the traditional design. Our findings demonstrate that the novel cementless design is capable of fixation and elimination of subsidence in laboratory test settings. Both designs limit micromotion to below the established loosening micromotion value of 150 μm. The L-shaped keel design resists both micromotion and subsidence and may prevent failure modes that can lead to aseptic loosening for UKRs. These findings are highly relevant for clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cementless Oxford medial unicompartimental knee replacement: an independent series with a 5-year-follow-up.

    PubMed

    Panzram, Benjamin; Bertlich, Ines; Reiner, Tobias; Walker, Tilman; Hagmann, Sébastien; Gotterbarm, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    Cemented unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) has proven excellent long-term survival rates and functional scores in Price et al. (Clin Orthop Relat Res 435:171-180, 2005), Price and Svard (Clin Orthop Relat Res 469(1):174-179, 2011) and Murray et al. (Bone Joint Surg Br 80(6):983-989, 1998). The main causes for revision, aseptic loosening and pain of unknown origin might be addressed by cementless UKR in Liddle et al. (Bone Joint J 95-B(2):181-187, 2013), Pandit et al. (J Bone Joint Surg Am 95(15):1365-1372, 2013), National Joint Registry for England, Wales and Northern Ireland: 10th Annual Report 2013 ( http://www.njrcentre.org.uk/njrcentre/Portals/0/Documents/England/Reports/10th_annual_report/NJR%2010th%20Annual%20Report%202013%20B.pdf , 2013), Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register: Annual Report 2013 ( http://www.myknee.se/pdf/SKAR2013_Eng.pdf , 2013). This single-centre retrospective cohort study reports the 5-year follow-up results of our first 30 consecutively implanted cementless Oxford UKR (OUKR). Clinical outcome was measured using the OKS, AKSS, range of movement and level of pain (visual analogue scale). The results were compared to cemented OUKR in a matched-pair analysis. Implant survival was 89.7%. One revision each was performed due to tibial fracture, progression of osteoarthritis (OA) and inlay dislocation. The 5-year survival rate of the cementless group was 89.7% and of the cemented group 94.1%. Both groups showed excellent postoperative clinical scores. Cementless fixation shows good survival rates and clinical outcome compared to cemented fixation.

  16. Total hip replacement: A meta-analysis to evaluate survival of cemented, cementless and hybrid implants

    PubMed Central

    Phedy, Phedy; Ismail, H Dilogo; Hoo, Charles; Djaja, Yoshi P

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine whether cemented, cementless, or hybrid implant was superior to the other in terms of survival rate. METHODS Systematic searches across MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane that compared cemented, cementless and hybrid total hip replacement (THR) were performed. Two independent reviewers evaluated the risk ratios of revision due to any cause, aseptic loosening, infection, and dislocation rate of each implants with a pre-determined form. The risk ratios were pooled separately for clinical trials, cohorts and registers before pooled altogether using fixed-effect model. Meta-regressions were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. Funnel plots were analyzed. RESULTS Twenty-seven studies comprising 5 clinical trials, 9 cohorts, and 13 registers fulfilled the research criteria and analyzed. Compared to cementless THR, cemented THR have pooled RR of 0.47 (95%CI: 0.45-0.48), 0.9 (0.84-0.95), 1.29 (1.06-1.57) and 0.69 (0.6-0.79) for revision due to any reason, revision due to aseptic loosening, revision due to infection, and dislocation respectively. Compared to hybrid THR, the pooled RRs of cemented THR were 0.82 (0.76-0.89), 2.65 (1.14-6.17), 0.98 (0.7-1.38), and 0.67 (0.57-0.79) respectively. Compared to hybrid THR, cementless THR had RRs of 0.7 (0.65-0.75), 0.85 (0.49-1.5), 1.47 (0.93-2.34) and 1.13 (0.98-1.3). CONCLUSION Despite the limitations in this study, there was some tendency that cemented fixation was still superior than other types of fixation in terms of implant survival. PMID:28251071

  17. Greater trochanter osteotomy with cementless THA for Crowe type IV DDH.

    PubMed

    Lei, Pengfei; Hu, Yihe; Cai, PengDe; Xie, Jie; Yang, XuCheng; Wang, Long

    2013-05-01

    This study explored the surgical method and short-term clinical effect of a greater trochanter osteotomy along with cementless artificial total hip arthroplasty in the treatment of Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip. The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of 18 patients (22 hips) with Crowe type IV dysplasia who were seen between June 2008 and August 2010. After undergoing cementless artificial total hip arthroplasty using a posterolateral approach, a greater trochanter osteotomy was used to adjust the tension of the gluteal muscle, and an acetabular cup was placed. Average preoperative length shortening of the affected limb was 4.5 cm (range, 3.4-6 cm), and average postoperative length increase was 4.0 cm (range, 3.2-4.8 cm). Average postoperative Harris Hip Score was 87 (range, 79-91), which was higher than the average preoperative score of 38 (range, 32-51). Intraoperatively, 3 hips (3 patients) sustained a proximal femur fracture. Due to the stability of the femoral prosthesis, either no treatment or wire fixation only was given; by 2 months postoperatively, radiographs indicated that all fractures had healed. One patient had symptoms of sciatic nerve paralysis that resolved 3 months postoperatively. Performing a greater trochanter osteotomy after cementless artificial total hip arthroplasty is effective for the treatment of Crowe type IV dysplasia and can rebuild the complex biology and biomechanics of hip dysplasia without increasing the complication risk. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Comparative Study of Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty for Femur Neck Fractures Treated with Cemented versus Cementless Stem

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare and analyze clinical and radiologic outcomes of cemented versus cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty for treatment of femur neck fractures. Materials and Methods A total of 180 patients aged 65 years and over older who underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty for treatment of displaced femur neck fractures (Garden stage III, IV) from March 2009 to February 2014 were included in this study. Among the 180 patients, 115 were treated with cemented stems and 65 patients with cementless stems. Clinical outcomes assessed were: i) postoperative ambulatory status, ii) inguinal and thigh pain, and iii) complications. The radiologic outcome was femoral stem subsidence measured using postoperative simple X-ray. Results The cemented group had significantly lower occurrence of complications (postoperative infection, P=0.04) compared to the cementless group. There was no significant difference in postoperative ambulatory status, inguinal and thigh pain, and femoral stem subsidence. Conclusion For patients undergoing bipolar hemiarthroplasty, other than complications, there was no statistically significant difference in clinical or radiologic outcomes in our study. Selective use of cemented stem in bipolar hemiarthroplasty may be a desirable treatment method for patients with poor bone quality and higher risk of infections. PMID:28097110

  19. No Difference in Reoperations at 2 Years Between Ceramic-on-metal and Metal-on-metal THA: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Engh, C Anderson; Sritulanondha, Supatra; Korczak, Abigail; Whalen, Terrence David; Naudie, Douglas D R; McCalden, Richard W; MacDonald, Steven J

    2016-02-01

    Hard-on-hard bearings for total hip arthroplasty continue to warrant analysis even though crosslinked polyethylene is performing very well. Ceramic-on-metal (CoM) has low in vitro wear and did well in an early clinical trial. We report on a prospective, randomized, multicenter investigational device trial comparing CoM with metal-on-metal (MoM). (1) Is there a difference in the number or type of revisions comparing CoM with MoM? (2) Are cobalt and chromium metal levels different for CoM and MoM THA? Between August 2005 and October 2006, of 1015 patients screened, 390 patients were enrolled at 11 centers and randomized to 194 CoM and 196 MoM bearings. There was no difference in the preoperative patient demographics between the study groups. Mean followup was 50 months (range, 22-75 months). Seventy-two patients from two centers had metal level analysis. With the numbers available, there was no difference in the proportion of patients undergoing revisions between the MoM and the CoM cohorts (MOM: 3% [six of 196]; COM: 1.5% [three of 194]; p = 0.50). Four MoM revisions were unrelated to the bearing surface. Two had bearing surface-related reoperations, one for an aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion and one for elevated metal levels with acetabular malposition. None of the CoM revisions were related to the bearing surface. The metal level analysis revealed that in contrast to the CoM, the MoM bearing group had increasing values of erythrocyte and serum cobalt from 1 to 5 years (CoM erythrocyte 0.45-0.55 ppb, p = 0.11 and CoM serum 0.88-0.85, p = 0.55, and MoM erythrocyte 0.32-0.51 ppb, p < 0.01 and MoM serum 0.65-1.01 ppb, p < 0.01). In addition, the MoM cobalt levels in erythrocytes and serum at 5 years were more variable than at 1 year (erythrocyte interquartile range [IQR], 0.26-0.44 to 0.31-1.21 ppb and serum IQR, 0.42-0.80 to 0.64-2.20 ppb, p < 0.02 for both). Although both bearings performed well at short-term followup, the CoM bearing group

  20. Promising short-term clinical results of the cementless Oxford phase III medial unicondylar knee prosthesis.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, Karin B; Breugem, Stefan Jm; Bruijn, Daniël J; Driessen, Marcel Jm

    2016-04-18

    To investigate the short-term clinical results of the Oxford phase III cementless medial unicondylar knee prosthesis (UKP) compared to the cemented medial UKP. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a tertairy orthopedic centre between the period of May 2010 and September 2012. We included 99 medial UKP in 97 patients and of these UKP, 53 were cemented and 46 were cementless. Clinical outcome was measured using a questionnaire, containing a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, Oxford Knee score, Kujala score and SF-12 score. Knee function was tested using the American Knee Society score. Complications, reoperations and revisions were recorded. Statistical significance was defined as a P value < 0.05. In a mean follow-up time of 19.5 mo, three cemented medial UKP were revised to a total knee prosthesis. Reasons for revision were malrotation of the tibial component, aseptic loosening of the tibial component and progression of osteoarthritis in the lateral- and patellofemoral compartment. In five patients a successful reoperation was performed, because of impingement or (sub)luxation of the polyethylene bearing. Patients with a reoperation were significant younger than patients in the primary group (56.7 vs 64.0, P = 0.01) and were more likely to be male (85.7% vs 38.8%, P = 0.015). Overall the cementless medial UKP seems to perform better, but the differences in clinical outcome are not significant; a VAS pain score of 7.4 vs 11.7 (P = 0.22), an Oxford Knee score of 43.3 vs 41.7 (P = 0.27) and a Kujala score of 79.6 vs 78.0 (P = 0.63). The American Knee Society scores were slightly better in the cementless group with 94.5 vs 90.2 (P = 0.055) for the objective score and 91.2 vs 87.8 (P = 0.25) for the subjective score. The cementless Oxford phase III medial UKP shows good short-term clinical results, when used in a specialist clinic by an experienced surgeon.

  1. Second-generation cementless total hip arthroplasty. Eight to eleven-year results.

    PubMed

    Archibeck, M J; Berger, R A; Jacobs, J J; Quigley, L R; Gitelis, S; Rosenberg, A G; Galante, J O

    2001-11-01

    Second-generation cementless femoral components were designed to provide more reliable ingrowth and to limit distal osteolysis by incorporating circumferential proximal ingrowth surfaces. We examined the eight to eleven-year results of total hip arthroplasty with a cementless, anatomically designed femoral component and a cementless hemispheric acetabular component. Ninety-two consecutive primary total hip arthroplasties with implantation of a femoral component with a circumferential proximal porous coating (Anatomic Hip) and a cementless hemispheric porous-coated acetabular component (Harris-Galante II) were performed in eighty-five patients. These patients were prospectively followed clinically and radiographically. Six patients (seven hips) died and five patients (seven hips) were lost to follow-up, leaving seventy-four patients (seventy-eight hips) who had been followed for a mean of ten years (range, eight to eleven years). The mean age at the time of the arthroplasty was fifty-two years. The mean preoperative Harris hip score of 51 points improved to 94 points at the time of final follow-up; 86% of the hips had a good or excellent result. Thigh pain was reported as mild to severe after seven hip arthroplasties. No femoral component was revised for any reason, and none were loose radiographically at the time of the last follow-up. Two hips underwent acetabular revision (one because of dislocation and one because of loosening). Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was performed with revision or loosening of any component as the end point. The ten-year survival rate was 96.4% +/- 2.1% for the total hip prosthesis, 100% for the femoral component, and 96.4% +/- 2.1% for the acetabular component. Radiolucencies adjacent to the nonporous portion of the femoral component were seen in sixty-eight (93%) of the -seventy-three hips with complete radiographic follow-up. Femoral osteolysis proximal to the lesser trochanter was noted in four hips (5%). No osteolysis was

  2. Is increased modularity associated with increased fretting and corrosion damage in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty devices?: a retrieval study.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Genymphas B; Hanzlik, Josa A; MacDonald, Daniel W; Gilbert, Jeremy L; Rimnac, Clare M; Kurtz, Steven M

    2013-09-01

    This retrieval study documents taper damage at modular interfaces in retrieved MOM THA systems and investigates if increased modularity is associated with increased fretting and corrosion. One hundred thirty-four (134) heads and 60 stems (41 modular necks) of 8 different bearing designs (5 manufacturers) were analyzed. Damage at the shell-liner interface of 18 modular CoCr acetabular liners and the corresponding 11 acetabular shells was also evaluated. The results of this study support the hypothesis that fretting and corrosion damage occurs at a variety of modular component interfaces in contemporary MOM THAs. We also found that modularity of the femoral stem was associated with increased damage at the head. An analysis of component and patient variables revealed that dissimilar alloy pairing, larger head sizes, increased medio-lateral offsets and longer neck moment arms were all associated with increased taper damage at the modular interfaces.

  3. Comparison of Biocompatibility of Cemented vs. Cementless Hip Joint Endoprostheses Based on Postoperative Evaluation of Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels

    PubMed Central

    Szypuła, Jan; Cabak, Anna; Kiljański, Marek; Boguszewski, Dariusz; Tomaszewski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Background The yearly increase in the number of procedures involving implantation of hip joint endoprostheses forces prosthetics manufacturers to search for biologically neutral implants. The goal of this study was to assess the concentration of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its correlation with C-reactive protein (CRP), depending on the type of hip joint endoprosthesis (cemented or cementless endoprosthesis) in order to determine implant biotolerance during the early postoperative period. Material/Methods The sample comprised 200 patients [mean age=64 (31–81) years] with coxarthrosis. All patients underwent hip joint arthroplasty using a cemented or cementless endoprosthesis. Blood samples were collected 3 times: before the procedure, on the first day after the procedure, and after 6 weeks. IL-6 and CRP levels were assayed using immunoenzymatic methods. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Results On the 1st day after the procedure, CRP and IL-6 concentration increased rapidly after implantation of both cemented and cementless endoprostheses. At 6 weeks postoperatively, the CRP value remained at a similar level in patients after cemented arthroplasty and was almost 2-fold lower in patients who underwent cementless arthroplasty. The IL-6 value returned to the baseline level in patients after cementless arthroplasty and showed an ongoing increasing tendency in patients after cemented arthroplasty. Conclusions 1. The measurement of C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6 is a high-sensitivity test, assessing implant biotolerance. 2. The implantation of a cemented endoprosthesis induces a higher increase in the level of proinflammatory cytokines as compared with a cementless endoprosthesis. 3. For a complete assessment of both early and later body responses to implantation and the related surgical procedure, further studies using available approaches and tools are recommended. PMID:27935873

  4. [2- to 5-year follow-up of cementless implantable knee joint prosthesis of the Miller-Galante type].

    PubMed

    Kienapfel, H; Griss, P; Orth, J; Roloff, K; Malzer, U

    1991-06-01

    Based on a prospective study protocol, the two- to five-year results of the Miller-Galante cementless total knee arthroplasty are presented. Sixty-four implants were placed in 59 patients: 60 implantations were cementless and 4 cemented. Clinically, the scores for pain, range of motion, walking and stair climbing improved significantly. Radiographically, the uncemented components displayed no signs of definite or possible loosening, whereas one of the cemented components was found to be definitely loose. On histological evaluation of the retrieved implants, all components had bone ingrowth.

  5. Navigated Cementless Total Knee Arthroplasty - Medium-Term Clinical and Radiological Results§

    PubMed Central

    Schüttrumpf, Jan P; Balcarek, Peter; Sehmisch, Stephan; Frosch, Stephan; Wachowski, Martin M; Stürmer, Klaus M; Walde, Hans-Joachim; Walde, Tim A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the medium-term clinical and radiological results after navigated cementless implantation, without patella resurfacing, of a total knee endoprosthesis with tibial and femoral press-fit components, with a focus on survival rate and clinical outcome. The innovation is the non-cemented fixation together with the use of a navigation system. Scope and Methods: Sixty patients with gonarthrosis were included consecutively in this study. In all cases, the cementless Columbus total knee endoprosthesis with a coating out of pure titanium was implanted, using a navigation system. The Knee Society Score showed a statistically significant increase from 75 (± 21.26) before surgery to 180 (± 16.15) after a mean follow-up of 5.6 (± 0.25) years. The last radiological examination revealed no osteolysis. No radiolucent lines were seen at any time in the area of the femoral prosthetic components. In the tibial area, radiolucent lines were seen in 24.4 % of the cases, mostly in the distal uncoated part of the stem. During follow-up, no prosthesis had to be replaced because of aseptic loosening while in 2 cases revision surgery was necessary due to septic loosening and in 1 case due to unexplainable pain. Results and Conclusions: Navigated cementless implantation of the Columbus total knee endoprosthesis yielded good clinical and radiological results in the medium term. The excellent radiological osteointegration of the prosthetic components, coated with a microporous pure titanium layer and implanted with a press-fit technique, should be emphasized. PMID:22550552

  6. Femoral head diameter considerations for primary total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Girard, J

    2015-02-01

    The configuration of total hip arthroplasty (THA) implants has constantly evolved since they were first introduced. One of the key components of THA design is the diameter of the prosthetic femoral head. It has been well established that the risk of dislocation is lower as the head diameter increases. But head diameter impacts other variables beyond joint stability: wear, cam-type impingement, range of motion, restoration of biomechanics, proprioception and groin pain. The introduction of highly cross-linked polyethylene and hard-on-hard bearings has allowed surgeons to implant large-diameter heads that almost completely eliminate the risk of dislocation. But as a result, cup liners have become thinner. With femoral head diameters up to 36 mm, the improvement in joint range of motion, delay in cam-type impingement and reduction in dislocation risk have been clearly demonstrated. Conversely, large-diameter heads do not provide any additional improvements. If an "ecologically sound" approach to hip replacement is embraced (e.g. keeping the native femoral head diameter), hip resurfacing with a metal-on-metal bearing must be carried out. The reliability of large-diameter femoral heads in the longer term is questionable. Large-diameter ceramic-on-ceramic bearings may be plagued by the same problems as metal-on-metal bearings: groin pain, squeaking, increased stiffness, irregular lubrication, acetabular loosening and notable friction at the Morse taper. These possibilities require us to be extra careful when using femoral heads with a diameter greater than 36 mm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Does osteoporosis reduce the primary tilting stability of cementless acetabular cups?

    PubMed

    von Schulze Pellengahr, Christoph; von Engelhardt, Lars V; Wegener, Bernd; Müller, Peter E; Fottner, Andreas; Weber, Patrick; Ackermann, Ole; Lahner, Matthias; Teske, Wolfram

    2015-04-21

    Cementless hip cups need sufficient primary tilting stability to achieve osseointegration. The aim of the study was to assess differences of the primary implant stability in osteoporotic bone and in bone with normal bone density. To assess the influence of different cup designs, two types of threaded and two types of press-fit cups were tested. The maximum tilting moment for two different cementless threaded cups and two different cementless press-fit cups was determined in macerated human hip acetabuli with reduced (n=20) and normal bone density (n=20), determined using Q-CT. The tilting moments for each cup were determined five times in the group with reduced bone density and five times in the group with normal bone density, and the respective average values were calculated. The mean maximum extrusion force of the threaded cup Zintra was 5670.5 N (max. tilting moment 141.8 Nm) in bone with normal density and.5748.3 N (max. tilting moment 143.7 Nm) in osteoporotic bone. For the Hofer Imhof (HI) threaded cup it was 7681.5 N (192.0 Nm) in bone with normal density and 6828.9 N (max. tilting moment 170.7 Nm) in the group with osteoporotic bone. The mean maximum extrusion force of the macro-textured press-fit cup Metallsockel CL was 3824.6 N (max. tilting moment 95.6 Nm) in bone with normal and 2246.2 N (max. tilting moment 56.2 Nm) in osteoporotic bone. For the Monoblock it was 1303.8 N (max. tilting moment 32.6 Nm) in normal and 1317 N (max. tilting moment 32.9 Nm) in osteoporotic bone. There was no significance. A reduction of the maximum tilting moment in osteoporotic bone of the ESKA press-fit cup Metallsockel CL was noticed. Results on macerated bone specimens showed no statistically significant reduction of the maximum tilting moment in specimens with osteoporotic bone density compared to normal bone, neither for threaded nor for the press-fit cups. With the limitation that the results were obtained using macerated bone, we could not detect any restrictions for

  8. Intra-operative evaluation of cementless hip implant stability: a prototype device based on vibration analysis.

    PubMed

    Lannocca, Maurizio; Varini, Elena; Cappello, Angelo; Cristofolini, Luca; Bialoblocka, Ewa

    2007-10-01

    Cementless implants are mechanically stabilized during surgery by a press-fitting procedure. Good initial stability is crucial to avoid stem loosening and bone cracking, therefore, the surgeon must achieve optimal press-fitting. A possible approach to solve this problem and assist the surgeon in achieving the optimal compromise, involves the use of vibration analysis. The present study aimed to design and test a prototype device able to evaluate the primary mechanical stability of a cementless prosthesis, based on vibration analysis. In particular, the goal was to discriminate between stable and quasi-stable implants; thus the stem-bone system was assumed to be linear in both cases. For that reason, it was decided to study the frequency responses of the system, instead of the harmonic distortion. The prototype developed consists of a piezoelectric exciter connected to the stem and an accelerometer attached to the femur. Preliminary tests were performed on four composite femurs implanted with a conventional stem. The results showed that the input signal was repeatable and the output could be recorded accurately. The most sensitive parameter to stability was the shift in resonance frequency of the stem-bone system, which was highly correlated with residual micromotion on all four specimens.

  9. Preclinical trial of a novel surface architecture for improved primary fixation of cementless orthopaedic implants.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Noel; Field, John R; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Curtin, William; McHugh, Peter E; Mc Donnell, Pat

    2014-09-01

    A new surface architecture for cementless orthopaedic implants (OsteoAnchor), which incorporates a multitude of tiny anchor features for enhancing primary fixation, was tested in an ovine hemi-arthroplasty pilot study. Test animals were implanted with a hip stem component incorporating the OsteoAnchor surface architecture produced using additive layer manufacturing and control animals were implanted with stems containing a standard plasma sprayed titanium coating. Intra-operative surgeon feedback indicated that superior primary fixation was achieved for the OsteoAnchor stems and rapid return to normal gait and load bearing was observed post-operation. Following a 16-week recovery time, histological evaluation of the excised femurs revealed in-growth of healthy bone into the porous structure of the OsteoAnchor stems. Bone in-growth was not achieved for the plasma sprayed stems. These results indicate the potential for the OsteoAnchor surface architecture to enhance both the initial stability and long term lifetime of cementless orthopaedic implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A genetic algorithm based multi-objective shape optimization scheme for cementless femoral implant.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Souptick; Gupta, Sanjay; Kumar Pratihar, Dilip

    2015-03-01

    The shape and geometry of femoral implant influence implant-induced periprosthetic bone resorption and implant-bone interface stresses, which are potential causes of aseptic loosening in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). Development of a shape optimization scheme is necessary to achieve a trade-off between these two conflicting objectives. The objective of this study was to develop a novel multi-objective custom-based shape optimization scheme for cementless femoral implant by integrating finite element (FE) analysis and a multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA). The FE model of a proximal femur was based on a subject-specific CT-scan dataset. Eighteen parameters describing the nature of four key sections of the implant were identified as design variables. Two objective functions, one based on implant-bone interface failure criterion, and the other based on resorbed proximal bone mass fraction (BMF), were formulated. The results predicted by the two objective functions were found to be contradictory; a reduction in the proximal bone resorption was accompanied by a greater chance of interface failure. The resorbed proximal BMF was found to be between 23% and 27% for the trade-off geometries as compared to ∼39% for a generic implant. Moreover, the overall chances of interface failure have been minimized for the optimal designs, compared to the generic implant. The adaptive bone remodeling was also found to be minimal for the optimally designed implants and, further with remodeling, the chances of interface debonding increased only marginally.

  11. Influence of cementless cup surface on stability and bone fixation 2 years after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Urbański, Wiktor; Krawczyk, Artur; Dragan, Szymon Ł; Kulej, Mirosław; Dragan, Szymon F

    2012-01-01

    Loss of fixation between bone and implant surface is one of the main treatment problems in total hip arthroplasty. It might lead to implant instability, bone loss and treatment failure resulting in revision surgery. Surface modification is a method for improving bone response to implant and increasing implant osseointegration. However, the currently applied modifications such as hydroxyapatite coatings do not meet expectation and do not provide good clinical result. The object of the study was to evaluate the influence of acetabular cup surface modification on fixation and bone remodelling in total hip arthroplasty. Clinical and radiological outcomes were evaluated in patients two years after cementless total hip replacement. Two groups were compared: patients with acetabular component with uncoated titanium surface and patients with hydroxyapatite-coated acetabular surface. Hips X-rays were analysed for early signs of losing stability of acetabular cups. Two years after surgery the analysis of X-rays did not reveal any statistical differences in stability, migration of acetabular components of endoprosthesis between both groups. No differences were also observed in bone remodelling around implants. Particularly high percentage of cups, i.e. 17.64%, were classified into the group with high risk of early implant loosening, i.e., the group with HA coatings. Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium cementless acetabular cups implanted by press-fit technique have no influence on their stability, bone-implant fixation and the remodelling of bone surrounding an implant two years after surgery.

  12. Low BMD affects initial stability and delays stem osseointegration in cementless total hip arthroplasty in women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Immediate implant stability is a key factor for success in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). Low bone mineral density (BMD) and age-related geometric changes of the proximal femur may jeopardize initial stability and osseointegration. We compared migration of hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems in women with or without low systemic BMD. Patients and methods 61 female patients with hip osteoarthritis were treated with cementless THA with anatomically designed hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems and ceramic-ceramic bearing surfaces (ABG-II). Of the 39 eligible patients between the ages of 41 and 78 years, 12 had normal systemic BMD and 27 had osteopenia or osteoporosis. According to the Dorr classification, 21 had type A bone and 18 had type B. Translational and rotational migration of the stems was evaluated with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) up to 2 years after surgery. Results Patients with low systemic BMD showed higher subsidence of the femoral stem during the first 3 months after surgery than did those with normal BMD (difference = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.1–1.1; p = 0.03). Low systemic BMD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.1, CI: 0.006–1.0; p = 0.02), low local hip BMD (OR = 0.3, CI: 0.1–0.7; p = 0.005) and ageing (OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02) were risk factors for delayed translational stability. Ageing and low canal flare index were risk factors for delayed rotational stabilization (OR = 3, CI: 1.1–9; p = 0.04 and OR = 1.1, CI: 1.0–1.2; p = 0.02, respectively). Harris hip score and WOMAC score were similar in patients with normal systemic BMD and low systemic BMD. Interpretation Low BMD, changes in intraosseous dimensions of the proximal femur, and ageing adversely affected initial stability and delayed osseointegration of cementless stems in women. PMID:22489886

  13. Mid-term outcome of a modular, cementless, proximally hydroxyapatite-coated, anatomic femoral stem.

    PubMed

    Cossetto, David J; Goudar, Anil

    2012-12-01

    To report the mid-term outcome of a modular, cementless, proximally hydroxyapatitecoated, anatomic femoral stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA). 160 consecutive patients aged 42 to 92 (mean, 70) years underwent 185 cementless THAs for primary osteoarthritis or femoral neck fractures. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon using the same modular, cementless, proximally hydroxyapatite-coated, anatomic femoral stem, regardless of age and bone quality. Clinical evaluation (pain, range of movement, and ability to walk) was based on the Merle d'Aubigne and Postel scores. Radiological assessment was based on criteria by Engh et al. in the 7 Gruen zones with regard to the presence of radiolucent lines, osteolysis, cancellous condensation, cortical hypertrophy or atrophy, reactive lines, and pedestal formation. Failure of the stem was defined as revision or impending revision because of aseptic loosening or pain. Of the 160 patients, 21 died and none were lost to follow-up. In 3 of the 21 patients, the femoral stems were revised for periprosthetic fractures after a fall at 6 weeks, 10 months, and 3.8 years. 138 patients (162 THAs) completed a mean follow-up of 7.8 (range, 5.5-10.4) years. Their overall mean Merle d'Aubigne and Postel scores increased from 7.09 preoperatively to 16.36 postoperatively. The mean Engh score was 24.9 out of 27, with the mean score for femoral stem fixation 10 out of 10 and 14.9 out of 17 for femoral stem stability. No reactive lines at the bone-stem interfaces and no subsidence or osteolysis were evident in any of the radiographs. There were 5 periprosthetic femoral fractures, 2 deep infections, 3 dislocations, and 2 aseptic loosening (one each for the femoral stem and acetabular socket). Survivorship of the femoral stem at 10 years was 99% when revision secondary to only aseptic loosening of the stem was the endpoint. It was 96% when failures due to all causes (infection, periprosthetic fracture, and aseptic loosening) were the

  14. A second-generation cementless total hip arthroplasty mean 9-year results.

    PubMed

    Surdam, Jonathan W; Archibeck, Michael J; Schultz, Steven C; Junick, Daniel W; White, Richard E

    2007-02-01

    Two hundred fifty-eight primary total hip arthroplasties in 231 patients were implanted using a circumferentially, proximally porous-coated, collared femoral component and a cementless, hemispherical, porous-coated acetabular component and followed up for a mean of 9 years (5-14 years). Four femoral components were revised (2 stems for infection and 2 stems for aseptic loosening). One additional femoral component was radiographically loose at last follow-up. Nine hips underwent acetabular revision (4 for instability, 2 for infection, 2 for loosening, and 1 for osteolysis). Ten-year survivorship with revision or loosening of any component as the end point was 92%; with femoral component aseptic loosening as end point, survivorship was 98%; with acetabular aseptic loosening as the end point, survivorship was 99%. Osteolysis was identified in 26 hips (13%).

  15. Radiographic wear measurements in a cementless metal-backed modular cobalt-chromium acetabular component.

    PubMed

    Barrack, R L; Lavernia, C; Szuszczewicz, E S; Sawhney, J

    2001-10-01

    Linear polyethylene wear was measured radiographically and correlated with direct measurements of wear from 21 of 24 liners retrieved at revision. An optical comparator was used to assess linear wear using the shadowgraph technique. Postoperative and prerevision radiographs were reviewed to measure the amount of linear wear radiographically. Seven radiographic methods described in the literature were used: 5 were manual techniques, and 2 techniques used a computer-assisted digitizer. Linear regression analysis showed that there was a statistically significant correlation between the radiographic measurements compared with the direct measurement for 4 of the 5 manual techniques but only 1 of the 2 computerized techniques. Based on these results, radiographic wear measurements of cementless, modular components should be considered qualitative rather than quantitative. There is a significant difference in the measurements obtained among various published techniques. The addition of computer digitization to enhance manual methodology does not improve accuracy.

  16. Total hip arthroplasty using a cylindrical cementless stem in patients with a small physique.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshihide; Mitsui, Hiromasa; Kikuchi, Akira; Toh, Satoshi; Katano, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We performed total hip arthroplasty using an anatomic medullary locking cementless stem for small-physique patients from 1988 to 1995. We conducted a retrospective study of 50 joints in 44 cases, including 40 developmentally dysplastic hips followed for 12 to 20 years (average, 15.1 years). Average height and body weight were 152 cm and 56 kg (5.0 ft and 124 lb), respectively, with an average body mass index of 24.2. Twelve joints (24%) were revised for acetabular-sided failures. Forty-eight stems (96%) showed bone ingrowth fixation, and there were no unstable stems. The simple cylindrical shape of the distal portion of the AML stem was less affected by deformity of the proximal femur of developmental dysplasia of the hip in patients with a small physique, and both clinically and radiologically good results were confirmed at long-term follow-up.

  17. Computationally efficient prediction of bone-implant interface micromotion of a cementless tibial tray during gait.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Hemelaar, Pleun; Taylor, Mark

    2014-05-07

    Cementless tibial fixation in total knee replacement (TKR) has potential for improved fixation and ease of revision. Achieving primary stability in cementless TKR is critical to the performance of the components. Excessive micromotion may prevent osseointegration at the bone-implant interface. Computational finite element (FE) studies have been used to predict micromotion at the interface, but analysis of an entire activity cycle is computational expensive, prohibiting large numbers of analyses. Surrogate modeling methods can be used to train a numerical model to predict the response of an FE model. These models are computationally efficient and are suitable for high-volume or iterative analyses requiring probabilistic, statistical or optimization methods. The objective of this work was to train a surrogate model capable of predicting micromotion over the entire bone-implant interface. A proximal tibial bone with mapped material properties was virtually implanted with a tibial tray. A FE model, with six-degree-of-freedom loads sampled from telemetric patients during walking, was used to generate training data for the surrogate model. The linear response surrogate model was evaluated for six full gait cycles; the average and peak micromotion across the interface, and the percentage of bone-implant interface surface area experiencing micromotions less than 50 and greater than 150µm were calculated both as a function of the activity cycle and as the composite peak micromotion throughout the cycle. Differences in root-mean-square (RMS) micromotion between FE and surrogate models were less than 14µm. FE analysis time for a complete gait cycle was 15h, compared to 30s for the surrogate model. Surrogate models have significant potential to rapidly predict micromotion over the entire bone-implant interface, allowing greater range in loading conditions to be explored than is possible through conventional methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acoustic pattern evaluation during cementless hip arthroplasty surgery may be a new method for predicting complications

    PubMed Central

    Morohashi, Itaru; Iwase, Hideaki; Kanda, Akio; Sato, Taichi; Homma, Yasuhiro; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Obayashi, Osamu; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although surgeons must perform implantation of the cementless stem during total hip arthroplasty (THA) without complications, assessment is left to the surgeon’s intuitive judgement, which could contain inter/intra-observer bias variety. We therefore asked (1) whether the sound created during the stem implantation could be evaluated objectively and (2) whether those sounds are correlate to the complication specific to the cementless stems. Our hypothesis is that the sounds produced during stem insertion could be quantified and related to the complications. Patients and method: In 71 THAs, we quantified the sound produced during stem insertion and investigated the relationship between these sounds and the occurrence of intraoperative fracture and subsidence. Results: The sound data were divided into two patterns: Patterns A and B. The difference between the peak value (dB) at the most common frequency (near 7 kHz) and the second most common frequency (near 4 kHz) of strikes during the final phase of implantation in Patterns A and B showed a significant difference. Adverse events on intraoperative fracture and subsidence were significantly less common in patients with Pattern A than in those with Pattern B (six of 42 hips with Pattern A and 13 of 29 hips with Pattern B, p = 0.004). Pattern A in predicting a clinical course without those adverse events was 69.2% and the specificity was 68.4%. Positive and negative predictive values were 85.7% and 44.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The sound generated during stem insertion was quantified. Those sound patterns were associated with complications. PMID:28186872

  19. Mesh morphing for finite element analysis of implant positioning in cementless total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Bah, Mamadou T; Nair, Prasanth B; Browne, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Finite element (FE) analysis of the effect of implant positioning on the performance of cementless total hip replacements (THRs) requires the generation of multiple meshes to account for positioning variability. This process can be labour intensive and time consuming as CAD operations are needed each time a specific orientation is to be analysed. In the present work, a mesh morphing technique is developed to automate the model generation process. The volume mesh of a baseline femur with the implant in a nominal position is deformed as the prosthesis location is varied. A virtual deformation field, obtained by solving a linear elasticity problem with appropriate boundary conditions, is applied. The effectiveness of the technique is evaluated using two metrics: the percentages of morphed elements exceeding an aspect ratio of 20 and an angle of 165 degrees between the adjacent edges of each tetrahedron. Results show that for 100 different implant positions, the first and second metrics never exceed 3% and 3.5%, respectively. To further validate the proposed technique, FE contact analyses are conducted using three selected morphed models to predict the strain distribution in the bone and the implant micromotion under joint and muscle loading. The entire bone strain distribution is well captured and both percentages of bone volume with strain exceeding 0.7% and bone average strains are accurately computed. The results generated from the morphed mesh models correlate well with those for models generated from scratch, increasing confidence in the methodology. This morphing technique forms an accurate and efficient basis for FE based implant orientation and stability analysis of cementless hip replacements.

  20. Improved design of cementless hip stems using two-dimensional functionally graded materials.

    PubMed

    Hedia, H S; Shabara, M A N; El-Midany, T T; Fouda, N

    2006-10-01

    Increasingly, it is acknowledged that bone resorption around cementless hip implants may cause future problems. The solution is frequently sought in reducing implant stiffness. However, this confronts the designer with a true design conflict: how to reduce the stiffness without excessively loading the proximal bone/prosthesis interface? The aim of this work is to improve the design of cementless hip stem material, using two-dimensional (2D) functionally graded material (FGM) concept in order to solve the above problems. Two models were used in this analysis, using three materials with different elastic moduli, E(1), E(2), and E(3). In model I, the elastic moduli E(1) and E(2) gradually change along the upper stem surface, while E(3) is maintained constant along all the lower surface of the stem. However, in model II, the elastic moduli E(1) and E(2) gradually change along the lower stem surface, while E(3) is maintained constant all along the upper stem surface. It is found that the recommended model is model I, which has three distinct materials of hydroxyapatite, Bioglass, and collagen. The recommended design of 2D FGM is expected to reduce the stress shielding by 91% and 12%, respectively, compared with titanium stem and model II of FGM. It is found that this new design reduces the maximum interface shear stress at the lateral and medial sides of the femur by about 50%, compared with titanium stem. Furthermore, the maximum interface shear stress is reduced by about 17% and 11% at the lateral and medial sides of the femur, respectively, compared with that of model II of FGM.

  1. A biodegradable gentamicin-hydroxyapatite-coating for infection prophylaxis in cementless hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Neut, D; Dijkstra, R J; Thompson, J I; Kavanagh, C; van der Mei, H C; Busscher, H J

    2015-01-02

    A degradable, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), gentamicin-loaded prophylactic coating for hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated cementless hip prostheses is developed with similar antibacterial efficacy as offered by gentamicin-loaded cements for fixing traditional, cemented prostheses in bone. We describe the development pathway, from in vitro investigation of antibiotic release and antibacterial properties of this PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coating in different in vitro models to an evaluation of its efficacy in preventing implant-related infection in rabbits. Bone in-growth in the absence and presence of the coating was investigated in a canine model. The PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coating showed high-burst release, with antibacterial efficacy in agar-assays completely disappearing after 4 days, minimising risk of inducing antibiotic resistance. Gentamicin-sensitive and gentamicin-resistant staphylococci were killed by the antibiotic-loaded coating, in a simulated prosthesis-related interfacial gap. PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coatings prevented growth of bioluminescent staphylococci around a miniature-stem mounted in bacterially contaminated agar, as observed using bio-optical imaging. PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coated pins inserted in bacterially contaminated medullary canals in rabbits caused a statistically significant reduction in infection rates compared to HA-coated pins without gentamicin. Bone ingrowth to PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coated pins, in condylar defects of Beagle dogs was not impaired by the presence of the degradable, gentamicin-loaded coating. In conclusion, the PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coating constitutes an effective strategy for infection prophylaxis in cementless prostheses.

  2. Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Cementless Porous Tantalum Monoblock Tibial Component: A Minimum 10-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Ivan; D'Apolito, Rocco; Sculco, Peter K; Poultsides, Lazaros A; Gasparini, Giorgio

    2016-10-01

    Cementless fixation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was introduced to improve the longevity of implants but has yet to be widely adopted because of reports of higher failure rates in some series. The cementless tantalum monoblock tibial component, in contrast, has shown successful short-term results, but long-term survivorship with this design is still lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the minimum 10-year clinical and radiographic results of the cementless tantalum monoblock tibial component in primary TKA. From March 2002 to March 2005, 33 patients (33 knees) underwent primary TKA with a cementless tantalum monoblock tibial component. All patients were followed clinically and radiographically for a minimum of 10 years (mean 11.5 years, range 10-13 years). No patients were lost to follow-up. The underlying diagnosis that led to the primary TKA was primary osteoarthritis in 31 knees and post-traumatic osteoarthritis in 2 knees. None of the components was revised. At a minimum 10-year follow-up, the survivorship with reoperation for any reason as end point was 96.9%. With tibial component revision for aseptic loosening or osteolysis as the end point survivorship was 100%. There was no radiographic evidence of tibial component loosening, subsidence, osteolysis, or migration at the time of the latest follow-up. The mean Knee Society knee scores improved from 56 points preoperatively to 93 points at the last clinical visit. The porous tantalum tibial monoblock component demonstrated excellent clinical and radiographic outcomes with no component revisions for aseptic loosening at a minimum follow-up of 10 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Migration pattern of cementless press fit cups in the presence of stabilizing screws in total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial acetabular implant stability and late acetabular implant migration in press fit cups combined with screw fixation of the acetabular component in order to answer the question whether screws are necessary for the fixation of the acetabular component in cementless primary total hip arthroplasty. One hundred and seven hips were available for follow-up after primary THA using a cementless, porous-coated acetabular component. A total of 631 standardized radiographs were analyzed digitally by the "single-film-x-ray-analysis" method (EBRA). One hundred 'and one (94.4%) acetabular components did not show significant migration of more than 1 mm. Six (5.6%) implants showed migration of more than 1 mm. Statistical analysis did not reveal preoperative patterns that would identify predictors for future migration. Our findings suggest that the use of screw fixation for cementless porous- coated acetabular components for primary THA does not prevent cup migration. PMID:21486725

  4. Corrosion at the head-neck interface of current designs of modular femoral components: essential questions and answers relating to corrosion in modular head-neck junctions.

    PubMed

    Osman, K; Panagiotidou, A P; Khan, M; Blunn, G; Haddad, F S

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing global awareness of adverse reactions to metal debris and elevated serum metal ion concentrations following the use of second generation metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties. The high incidence of these complications can be largely attributed to corrosion at the head-neck interface. Severe corrosion of the taper is identified most commonly in association with larger diameter femoral heads. However, there is emerging evidence of varying levels of corrosion observed in retrieved components with smaller diameter femoral heads. This same mechanism of galvanic and mechanically-assisted crevice corrosion has been observed in metal-on-polyethylene and ceramic components, suggesting an inherent biomechanical problem with current designs of the head-neck interface. We provide a review of the fundamental questions and answers clinicians and researchers must understand regarding corrosion of the taper, and its relevance to current orthopaedic practice. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:579-84.

  5. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of raised plasma metal ion levels in the diagnosis of adverse reaction to metal debris in symptomatic patients with a metal-on-metal arthroplasty of the hip.

    PubMed

    Malek, I A; King, A; Sharma, H; Malek, S; Lyons, K; Jones, S; John, A

    2012-08-01

    Plasma levels of cobalt and chromium ions and Metal Artefact Reduction Sequence (MARS)-MRI scans were performed on patients with 209 consecutive, unilateral, symptomatic metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasties. There was wide variation in plasma cobalt and chromium levels, and MARS-MRI scans were positive for adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) in 84 hips (40%). There was a significant difference in the median plasma cobalt and chromium levels between those with positive and negative MARS-MRI scans (p < 0.001). Compared with MARS-MRI as the potential reference standard for the diagnosis of ARMD, the sensitivity of metal ion analysis for cobalt or chromium with a cut-off of > 7 µg/l was 57%. The specificity was 65%, positive predictive value was 52% and the negative predictive value was 69% in symptomatic patients. A lowered threshold of > 3.5 µg/l for cobalt and chromium ion levels improved the sensitivity and negative predictive value to 86% and 74% but at the expense of specificity (27%) and positive predictive value (44%). Metal ion analysis is not recommended as a sole indirect screening test in the surveillance of symptomatic patients with a MoM arthroplasty. The investigating clinicians should have a low threshold for obtaining cross-sectional imaging in these patients, even in the presence of low plasma metal ion levels.

  6. Toxicology of wear particles of cobalt-chromium alloy metal-on-metal hip implants Part II: Importance of physicochemical properties and dose in animal and in vitro studies as a basis for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Madl, Amy K; Kovochich, Michael; Liong, Monty; Finley, Brent L; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Oberdörster, Günter

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the Part II analysis was to evaluate animal and in vitro toxicology studies of CoCr particles with respect to their physicochemistry and dose relevance to metal-on-metal (MoM) implant patients as derived from Part I. In the various toxicology studies, physicochemical characteristics were infrequently considered and administered doses were orders of magnitude higher than what occurs in patients. Co was consistently shown to rapidly release from CoCr particles for distribution and elimination from the body. CoCr micron sized particles appear more biopersistent in vivo resulting in inflammatory responses that are not seen with similar mass concentrations of nanoparticles. We conclude, that in an attempt to obtain data for a complete risk assessment, future studies need to focus on physicochemical characteristics of nano and micron sized particles and on doses and dose metrics relevant to those generated in patients or in properly conducted hip simulator studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bilaterally Primary Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty for Severe Hip Ankylosis with Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Yu-Min; Nian, Yue-Wen; Zhang, Jun; Kang, Xiao-Min; Wu, Shu-Fang; Zhu, Yang-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is a reliable therapeutic intervention in patients with ankylosing spondylitis, in whom the aims of surgery are to reduce pain, restore hip function and improve quality of life. The current study is a retrospective analysis of the clinical and radiographic findings in a consecutive series of patients with hip ankylosis associated with severe ankylosing spondylitis who underwent bilateral primary total hip arthroplasty using non-cemented components. From June 2008 to May 2012, total hip arthroplasty was performed on 34 hips in 17 patients with bilateral ankylosis caused by ankylosing spondylitis. The study patients included 13 men and 4 women with a mean age of 24.2 years. The mean duration of disease was 8.3 years and the average duration of hip involvement was 7.6 years. All patients had severe hip pain and dysfunction with bilateral bony ankylosis and no range of motion preoperatively and all underwent bilateral cementless total hip arthroplasty performed by a single surgeon. Joint pain, range of motion (ROM), and Harris hip scores were assessed to evaluate the postoperative results. At a mean follow-up of 31.7 months, all patients had experienced significant clinical improvement in function, ROM, posture and ambulation. At the final follow-up, the mean postoperative flexion ROM was 134.4° compared with 0° preoperatively. Similar improvements were seen in hip abduction, adduction, internal rotation and external rotation. Postoperatively, 23 hips were completely pain-free, six had only occasional discomfort, three mild to moderate pain and two severe pain. The average Harris Hip Score improved from 23.7 preoperatively to 65.8 postoperatively. No stems had loosened at the final follow-up in any patient, nor had any revision surgery been required. Bilateral severe hip ankylosis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis can be treated with cementless bilateral synchronous total hip arthroplasty, which can greatly improve hip joint function and

  8. Preparation of the femoral bone cavity in cementless stems: broaching versus compaction

    PubMed Central

    Hjorth, Mette H; Stilling, Maiken; Søballe, Kjeld; Nielsen, Poul Torben; Christensen, Poul H; Kold, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Short-term experimental studies have confirmed that there is superior fixation of cementless implants inserted with compaction compared to broaching of the cancellous bone. Patients and methods — 1-stage, bilateral primary THA was performed in 28 patients between May 2001 and September 2007. The patients were randomized to femoral bone preparation with broaching on 1 side and compaction on the other side. 8 patients declined to attend the postoperative follow-up, leaving 20 patients (13 male) with a mean age of 58 (36–70) years for evaluation. The patients were followed with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) at baseline, at 6 and 12 weeks, and at 1, 2, and 5 years, and measurements of periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) at baseline and at 1, 2, and 5 years. The subjective part of the Harris hip score (HHS) and details of complications throughout the observation period were obtained at a mean interval of 6.3 (3.0–9.5) years after surgery. Results — Femoral stems in the compaction group had a higher degree of medio-lateral migration (0.21 mm, 95% CI: 0.03–0.40) than femoral stems in the broaching group at 5 years (p = 0.02). No other significant differences in translations or rotations were found between the 2 surgical techniques at 2 years (p > 0.4) and 5 years (p > 0.7) postoperatively. There were no individual stems with continuous migration. Periprosthetic BMD in the 7 Gruen zones was similar at 2 years and at 5 years. Intraoperative femoral fractures occurred in 2 of 20 compacted hips, but there were none in the 20 broached hips. The HHS and dislocations were similar in the 2 groups at 6.3 (3.0–9.5) years after surgery. Interpretation — Bone compaction as a surgical technique with the Bi-Metric stem did not show the superior outcomes expected compared to conventional broaching. Furthermore, 2 periprosthetic fractures occurred using the compaction technique, so we cannot recommend compaction for insertion of the

  9. Long-term results using the straight tapered femoral cementless hip stem in total hip arthroplasty: a minimum of twenty-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ateschrang, Atesch; Weise, Kuno; Weller, Siegfried; Stöckle, Ulrich; de Zwart, Peter; Ochs, Björn Gunnar

    2014-08-01

    We report the first long-term results of a prospective cohort study after total hip arthroplasty using the cementless Bicontact hip stem. Between 1987 and 1990, 250 total hip arthroplasties in 236 patients were performed using the cementless Bicontact hip stem. The average follow-up was 22.8 years (20.4-24.8) and average age at index surgery was 58.1 years. Eighty-one patients died and 9 were lost to follow-up. We noted 11 stem revisions revealing an overall Kaplan Meier survival rate of 95.0% (CI 95%: 91.1-97.2%). The average Harris Hip Score revealed 81 points (range 24-93). The Bicontact hip stem demonstrated high survival rates despite high ages and osteopenic changes, which are equivalent to other long-term reports of cementless stem fixation.

  10. Biomechanical evaluation of adjunctive cerclage wire fixation for the prevention of periprosthetic femur fractures using cementless press-fit total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Scott A; Kim, Stanley E; Roe, Simon; Pozzi, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Periprosthetic femoral fractures are a common complication associated with cementless press-fit total hip arthroplasty. The use of prophylactic cerclage wire fixation has been advocated to reduce this complication. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a double loop cerclage wire, used as adjunctive fixation, increased the peak torsional load to failure in femora implanted with press-fit cementless stems. Peak torsional load to failure was compared between femora without adjunctive fixation and femora receiving a 1 mm double loop cerclage wire placed proximally to the lesser trochanter. Femora treated with adjunctive cerclage wire fixation failed at 20% greater peak torque (P = 0.0001). In conclusion, a double loop cerclage wire may aid in the prevention of periprosthetic fractures associated with press-fit cementless femoral stems.

  11. Outcomes following revision surgery performed for adverse reactions to metal debris in non-metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty patients: Analysis of 185 revisions from the National Joint Registry for England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Matharu, G S; Judge, A; Murray, D W; Pandit, H G

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have assessed outcomes following non-metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty (non-MoMHA) revision surgery performed for adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD). We assessed outcomes following non-MoMHA revision surgery performed for ARMD, and identified predictors of re-revision. We performed a retrospective observational study using data from the National Joint Registry for England and Wales. All non-MoMHAs undergoing revision surgery for ARMD between 2008 and 2014 were included (185 hips in 185 patients). Outcome measures following ARMD revision were intra-operative complications, mortality and re-revision surgery. Predictors of re-revision were identified using Cox regression. Intra-operative complications occurred in 6.0% (n = 11) of the 185 cases. The cumulative four-year patient survival rate was 98.2% (95% CI 92.9 to 99.5). Re-revision surgery was performed in 13.5% (n = 25) of hips at a mean time of 1.2 years (0.1 to 3.1 years) following ARMD revision. Infection (32%; n = 8), dislocation/subluxation (24%; n = 6), and aseptic loosening (24%; n = 6) were the most common re-revision indications. The cumulative four-year implant survival rate was 83.8% (95% CI 76.7 to 88.9). Multivariable analysis identified three predictors of re-revision: multiple revision indications (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.78; 95% CI 1.03 to 7.49; p = 0.043); selective component revisions (HR = 5.76; 95% CI 1.28 to 25.9; p = 0.022); and ceramic-on-polyethylene revision bearings (HR = 3.08; 95% CI 1.01 to 9.36; p = 0.047). Non-MoMHAs revised for ARMD have a high short-term risk of re-revision, with important predictors of future re-revision including selective component revision, multiple revision indications, and ceramic-on-polyethylene revision bearings. Our findings may help counsel patients about the risks of ARMD revision, and guide reconstructive decisions. Future studies attempting to validate the predictors identified should also assess the effects of implant design (metallurgy

  12. Is there any range-of-motion advantage to using bearings larger than 36mm in primary hip arthroplasty: A case-control study comparing 36-mm and large-diameter heads.

    PubMed

    Delay, C; Putman, S; Dereudre, G; Girard, J; Lancelier-Bariatinsky, V; Drumez, E; Migaud, H

    2016-10-01

    Large-diameter (>36mm) total hip arthroplasty (THA) has developed rapidly since the advent of ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearings and highly cross-linked polyethylene. Theoretically, the increase in diameter reduces the risk of instability, although the advantage of calibers beyond 36mm has not been demonstrated in terms of range-of-motion recovery. We conducted a comparative study with a single prosthesis model to determine whether increasing the caliber beyond 36mm provides: (1) better recovery of range-of-motion, (2) a higher functional score, and (3) reduction of the dislocation rate. Increasing the range-of-motion by increasing the caliber beyond 36mm provides better range-of-motion. We analyzed two consecutive, single-operator cementless THA series performed via the mini posterior approach, which differed only in the bearing system (51 metal-on-metal [MoM] with a mean caliber of 45mm±3.3 [range, 40-54] and 61 CoC with a 36-mm caliber). Both series were comparable preoperatively in terms of age, diagnosis, functional scores, preoperative range-of-motion, body mass index, UCLA activity level, and Charnley score. We compared the joint range of movement at follow-up and the gains in range of movement, onset of dislocation, and functional scores (Oxford, Postel-Merle d'Aubigné [PMA]). The mean overall joint range-of-motion was 254°±39° (range, 150-310°) for an 81°±44° (range, -50 to 180°) gain in the MoM group and 256°±23° (range, 200-280°) for an 84°±40° (range, 0-160°) gain in the CoC group (NS). The MoM group presented the following results: Oxford=13.71±3.66 (range, 12-33) for a gain of 24.82 points±7.9 (range, -1 to 40), PMA=17.75±1.06 (range, 11-18) for a gain of 7.78 points±4.01 (range, 2-15). The CoC group had: Oxford=14.98±4.42 (range, 12-36) for a gain of 24.75 points±6.55 (range, 12-40), PMA 17.66±0.7 (range, 14-18) for a gain of 8 points±3.77 (range, 1-15). None of the gains and scores at follow-up differed significantly between

  13. Retrospective cohort study of the performance of the Pinnacle metal on metal (MoM) total hip replacement: a single-centre investigation in combination with the findings of a national retrieval centre

    PubMed Central

    Langton, David John; Sidaginamale, Raghavendra Prasad; Avery, Peter; Waller, Sue; Tank, Ghanshyabhai; Lord, James; Joyce, Thomas; Cooke, Nick; Logishetty, Raj; Nargol, Antoni Viraf Francis

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine risk factors for revision in patients implanted with a commonly used metal on metal (MoM) hip replacement. Design Retrospective cohort study in combination with a prospective national retrieval study (Northern Retrieval Registry (NRR)). Setting Combined orthopaedic unit in combination with the NRR. Participants All patients implanted with a DePuy Pinnacle MoM hip prostheses by the 2 senior authors were invited to attend for a review which included clinical examination, blood metal ion measurements, radiographs and targeted imaging. Explanted components underwent wear analysis using validated methodology and these results were compared with those obtained from the NRR. Results 489 MoM Pinnacle hips were implanted into 434 patients (243 females and 191 males). Of these, 352 patients attended the MoM recall clinics. 64 patients had died during the study period. For the purposes of survival analysis, non-attendees were assumed to have well-functioning prostheses. The mean follow-up of the cohort as a whole was 89 months. 71 hips were revised. Prosthetic survival for the whole cohort was 83.6% (79.9–87.3) at 9 years. The majority of explanted devices exhibited signs of taper junction failure. Risk factors for revision were bilateral MoM prostheses, smaller Pinnacle liners, and implantation in 2006 and later years. A significant number of devices were found to be manufactured out of their specifications. This was confirmed with analysis of the wider data set from the NRR. Conclusions This device was found to have an unacceptably high revision rate. Bilateral prostheses, those implanted into female patients and devices implanted in later years were found to be at greater risk. A significant number of explanted components were found to be manufactured with bearing diameters outside of the manufacturer's stated tolerances. Our findings highlight the clinical importance of hitherto unrecognised variations in device production. PMID:27130159

  14. Acceleration of Intended Pozzolanic Reaction under Initial Thermal Treatment for Developing Cementless Fly Ash Based Mortar

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yang-Hee; Kang, Sung-Hoon; Hong, Sung-Gul; Moon, Juhyuk

    2017-01-01

    Without using strong alkaline solution or ordinary Portland cement, a new structural binder consisting of fly ash and hydrated lime was hardened through an intensified pozzolanic reaction. The main experimental variables are the addition of silica fume and initial thermal treatment (60 °C for 3 days). A series of experiments consisting of mechanical testing (compressive and flexural strength, modulus of elasticity), X-ray diffraction, and measurements of the heat of hydration, pore structure, and shrinkage were conducted. These tests show that this new fly ash-based mortar has a compressive strength of 15 MPa at 91 days without any silica fume addition or initial thermal treatment. The strength increased to over 50 MPa based on the acceleration of the intensified pozzolanic reaction from the silica fume addition and initial thermal treatment. This is explained by a significant synergistic effect induced by the silica fume. It intensifies the pozzolanic reaction under thermal treatment and provides a space filling effect. This improved material performance can open a new pathway to utilize the industrial by-product of fly ash in cementless construction materials. PMID:28772585

  15. The impact of subsidence on straight and curved modular cementless revision stems in hip revision surgery.

    PubMed

    Fraile Suari, A; Gil González, S; Pérez Prieto, D; León García, A; Mestre Cortadellas, C; Tey Pons, M; Marqués López, F

    Subsidence is one of the potential complications in femoral stem revision total hip arthroplasty surgery, and can affect stability and osseointegration. A retrospective study was conducted on the outcomes at one year and 5 years (specifically subsidence and clinical relevance) of 40 consecutive femoral total hip arthroplasty revisions, comparing two modular cementless revision stems, Straight vs. Curved, with 20 patients in each group. No mechanical failure was observed, and there was an improvement in functional outcomes. Mean radiological subsidence was 9.9±4.9mm (straight=10.75mm vs. curved=9.03mm), with no statistically significant difference between groups (p=0,076). Fourteen patients (35%) had ≥10mm of subsidence, up to a maximum of 22mm. The subsidence found in this study is similar to published series, with no short-term clinical manifestations, or an increased number of complications or stem loosening in either the Straight or Curved group. No differences in subsidence were observed at one year and 5 years after surgery between the 2 types of stems. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Design process of cementless femoral stem using a nonlinear three dimensional finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimal available information concerning hip morphology is the motivation for several researchers to study the difference between Asian and Western populations. Current use of a universal hip stem of variable size is not the best option for all femur types. This present study proposed a new design process of the cementless femoral stem using a three dimensional model which provided more information and accurate analysis compared to conventional methods. Methods This complete design cycle began with morphological analysis, followed by femoral stem design, fit and fill analysis, and nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA). Various femur parameters for periosteal and endosteal canal diameters are measured from the osteotomy level to 150 mm below to determine the isthmus position. Results The results showed better total fit (53.7%) and fill (76.7%) canal, with more load distributed proximally to prevent stress shielding at calcar region. The stem demonstrated lower displacement and micromotion (less than 40 μm) promoting osseointegration between the stem–bone and providing primary fixation stability. Conclusion This new design process could be used as a preclinical assessment tool and will shorten the design cycle by identifying the major steps which must be taken while designing the femoral stem. PMID:24484753

  17. A finite element analysis of the vibration behaviour of a cementless hip system.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M A; Seral-García, B

    2013-01-01

    An early diagnosis of aseptic loosening of a total hip replacement (THR) by plain radiography, scintigraphy or arthography has been shown to be less reliable than using a vibration technique. However, it has been suggested that it may be possible to distinguish between a secure and a loose prosthesis using a vibration technique. In fact, vibration analysis methods have been successfully used to assess dental implant stability, to monitor fracture healing and to measure bone mechanical properties. Several studies have combined the vibration technique with the finite element (FE) method in order to better understand the events involved in the experimental technique. In the present study, the main goal is to simulate the change in the resonance frequency during the osseointegration process of a cementless THR (Zweymüller). The FE method was used and a numerical modal analysis was conducted to obtain the natural frequencies and mode shapes under vibration. The effects were studied of different bone and stem material properties, and different contact conditions at the bone-implant interface. The results were in agreement with previous experimental and computational observations, and differences among the different cases studied were detected. As the osseointegration process at the bone-implant interface evolved, the resonance frequency values of the femur-prosthesis system also increased. In summary, vibration analysis combined with the FE method was able to detect different boundary conditions at the bone-implant interface in cases of both osseointegration and loosening.

  18. The use of a constrained cementless acetabular component for instability in total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Rady, Ahmad Emad; Asal, Mohammed Kamal; Bassiony, Ayman Abdelaziz

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent dislocation after total hip arthroplasty is a disabling complication that can be difficult to treat. We evaluated the early clinical and radiographic outcome associated with the use of a constrained acetabular component for instability in total hip arthroplasty. Fifteen patients underwent either primary or revision total hip arthroplasty with a cementless constrained acetabular component for different indications. The mean patient age at surgery was 57.4 years and the mean clinical and radiological follow-up period was 26.4 months. Clinical assessment was performed by the Harris hip score and at the latest follow up patients reported outcome using the Oxford hip score questionnaire. All radiographs were evaluated for evidence of loosening. Only one patient experienced redislocation with the constrained prosthesis. The average Harris hip score increased from a preoperative mean of 22 (range, 16 - 36) to a postoperative mean of 85 (range, 66-94). Preoperatively, the mean Oxford Hip Score was 48.6, which decreased to 20.5 at the final examination. All but one of the 15 hips had a well-fixed, stable cup. Femoral component stability with bone ingrowth was achieved in 10 cases. A constrained acetabular component is an effective option for the treatment of hip instability in primary and revision arthroplasty in those at high risk of dislocation. The potential for aseptic loosening requires evaluation by long term studies.

  19. Fabrication of low-cost, cementless femoral stem 316L stainless steel using investment casting technique.

    PubMed

    Baharuddin, Mohd Yusof; Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Suhasril, Andril Arafat; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam; Omar, Mohd Afian; Abd Kader, Ab Saman; Mohd Noor, Alias; A Harris, Arief Ruhullah; Abdul Majid, Norazman

    2014-07-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is a flourishing orthopedic surgery, generating billions of dollars of revenue. The cost associated with the fabrication of implants has been increasing year by year, and this phenomenon has burdened the patient with extra charges. Consequently, this study will focus on designing an accurate implant via implementing the reverse engineering of three-dimensional morphological study based on a particular population. By using finite element analysis, this study will assist to predict the outcome and could become a useful tool for preclinical testing of newly designed implants. A prototype is then fabricated using 316L stainless steel by applying investment casting techniques that reduce manufacturing cost without jeopardizing implant quality. The finite element analysis showed that the maximum von Mises stress was 66.88 MPa proximally with a safety factor of 2.39 against endosteal fracture, and micromotion was 4.73 μm, which promotes osseointegration. This method offers a fabrication process of cementless femoral stems with lower cost, subsequently helping patients, particularly those from nondeveloped countries.

  20. Metallosis with pseudotumour formation: Long-term complication following cementless total hip replacement in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Volstad, Nicola J.; Schaefer, Susan L.; Snyder, Laura A.; Meinen, Jeffrey B.; Sample, Susannah J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Case description A 10-year-old female Belgian Teruven dog was presented to our clinic for total hip revision following a diagnosis of implant (cup) failure with metallosis and abdominal pseudotumour formation. The patient had a cementless metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement performed nine years prior to presentation. Clinical findings The clinical findings, including pseudotumour formation locally and at sites distant from the implant and pain associated with the joint replacement, were similar to those described in human patients with this condition. Histopathological, surgical, and radiographic findings additionally supported the diagnosis of metallosis and pseudotumour formation. Treatment and outcome Distant site pseudo tumours were surgically removed and the total hip replacement was explanted due to poor bone quality. The patient recovered uneventfully and has since resumed normal activity. Conclusion In veterinary patients with metal-on-polyethylene total hip implants, cup failure leading to metallosis and pseudotumour formation should be considered as a potential cause of ipsilateral hindlimb lameness, intra-pelvic abdominal tumours, or a combination of both. These clinical findings may occur years after total hip replacement surgery. PMID:27189390

  1. Effect of stem length on prosthetic radial head micromotion.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dave R; Fitzsimmons, James S; An, Kai-Nan; O'Driscoll, Shawn W

    2012-11-01

    Osteointegration of press-fit radial head implants is achieved by limiting micromotion between the stem and bone. Aspects of stem design that contribute to the enhancement of initial stability (ie, stem diameter and surface coating) have been investigated. The importance of total prosthesis length and level of the neck cut has not been examined. Cadaveric radii were implanted with cementless, porous-coated radial head stems. We resected 10, 12, 15, 20, and 25 mm of radial neck in each specimen. Stem-bone micromotion was measured after each cut. Values were expressed in terms of quotients (cantilever quotient). A threshold effect was observed at 15 mm of neck resection (cantilever quotient, 0.4), with a significant increase in micromotion observed between 12 mm (40 ± 10 μm) and 15 mm (80 ± 25 μm). A cantilever quotient of 0.35 or less predicted implant stability, whereas implants with a cantilever quotient of 0.6 or more were unstable. In between, the stems were "at risk" of instability. Initial stem stability of a porous-coated, cementless radial head implant is dependent on length of the implant stem within bone and the level of the cut (amount of bone resected). Stability may be compromised by an implant with a combined head and neck length that is too long compared with the stem length within the canal. We found a critical ratio of exposed prosthesis to total implant length (cantilever quotient of 0.4), which puts the prosthesis at risk of inadequate initial stability. These data carry important implications for implant design and use. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cementless modular hip arthroplasty as a salvage operation for failed internal fixation of trochanteric fractures in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Molinier, François; Tricoire, Jean-Louis; Bonnevialle, Nicolas; Chiron, Philippe; Puget, Jean

    2007-12-01

    Failure of internal fixation of trochanteric fractures requires repeat surgery in order to avoid the risks of complications affecting bedridden patients. This study was conducted to assess the results of hemi- or total hip arthroplasty with a cementless modular femoral stem, as a salvage operation following early mechanical failure of internal fixation. Twenty nine patients with a mean age of 81.1 years (70-91) were included in the study. Fractures extending into the diaphysis and pathological fractures were excluded, as well as patients who presented late complications. A cementless modular stem designed for metaphyso-diaphyseal anchorage was used in all cases. Twenty-two patients underwent hemiarthroplasty and seven total hip arthroplasty. Four patients died within one year and two were lost to follow-up. The remaining 23 patients were followed for a mean of 20 months (range: 6-89). At the time of last follow-up, 20 were ambulatory with (11 cases) or without support (9 cases) and three were bedridden. There were no intra- or postoperative femoral fractures. Two patients presented an early dislocation after bipolar hemiarthroplasty. One was successfully treated by closed reduction; the other underwent revision with a dual mobility acetabular component because of recurrent dislocation. All the patients reported significant pain relief and functional improvement. Subsidence of the stem greater than 5 mm was noted in three cases, without clinical consequences. The cementless modular femoral stem used in this study appeared as a reliable implant. Primary arthroplasty with such an implant could be considered in selected cases such as markedly unstable fractures and in osteoporotic elderly patients.

  3. A multicenter approach evaluating the impact of vitamin e-blended polyethylene in cementless total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Marcus; van Wasen, Andrea; Warwas, Sebastian; Landgraeber, Stefan; Haversath, Marcel; Group, Vitas

    2014-04-22

    Since polyethylene is one of the most frequently used biomaterials as a liner in total hip arthroplasty, strong efforts have been made to improve design and material properties over the last 50 years. Antioxidants seems to be a promising alternative to further increase durability and reduce polyethylene wear in long term. As of yet, only in vitro results are available. While they are promising, there is yet no clinical evidence that the new material shows these advantages in vivo. To answer the question if vitamin-E enhanced ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is able to improve long-term survivorship of cementless total hip arthroplasty we initiated a randomized long-term multicenter trial. Designed as a superiority study, the oxidation index assessed in retrieval analyses of explanted liners was chosen as primary parameter. Radiographic results (wear rate, osteolysis, radiolucency) and functional outcome (Harris Hip Scores, University of California-Los Angeles, Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Visual Analogue Scale) will serve as secondary parameters. Patients with the indication for a cementless total hip arthroplasty will be asked to participate in the study and will be randomized to either receive a standard hip replacement with a highly cross-linked UHMWPE-X liner or a highly cross-linked vitamin-E supplemented UHMWPE-XE liner. The follow-up will be 15 years, with evaluation after 5, 10 and 15 years. The controlled randomized study has been designed to determine if Vitamin-E supplemented highly cross-linked polyethylene liners are superior to standard XLPE liners in cementless total hip arthroplasty. While several studies have been started to evaluate the influence of vitamin-E, most of them evaluate wear rates and functional results. The approach used for this multicenter study, to analyze the oxidation status of retrieved implants, should make it possible to directly evaluate the ageing process and development of the implant

  4. Effect of femoral canal shape on mechanical stress distribution and adaptive bone remodelling around a cementless tapered-wedge stem.

    PubMed

    Oba, M; Inaba, Y; Kobayashi, N; Ike, H; Tezuka, T; Saito, T

    2016-09-01

    In total hip arthroplasty (THA), the cementless, tapered-wedge stem design contributes to achieving initial stability and providing optimal load transfer in the proximal femur. However, loading conditions on the femur following THA are also influenced by femoral structure. Therefore, we determined the effects of tapered-wedge stems on the load distribution of the femur using subject-specific finite element models of femurs with various canal shapes. We studied 20 femurs, including seven champagne flute-type femurs, five stovepipe-type femurs, and eight intermediate-type femurs, in patients who had undergone cementless THA using the Accolade TMZF stem at our institution. Subject-specific finite element (FE) models of pre- and post-operative femurs with stems were constructed and used to perform FE analyses (FEAs) to simulate single-leg stance. FEA predictions were compared with changes in bone mineral density (BMD) measured for each patient during the first post-operative year. Stovepipe models implanted with large-size stems had significantly lower equivalent stress on the proximal-medial area of the femur compared with champagne-flute and intermediate models, with a significant loss of BMD in the corresponding area at one year post-operatively. The stovepipe femurs required a large-size stem to obtain an optimal fit of the stem. The FEA result and post-operative BMD change of the femur suggest that the combination of a large-size Accolade TMZF stem and stovepipe femur may be associated with proximal stress shielding.Cite this article: M. Oba, Y. Inaba, N. Kobayashi, H. Ike, T. Tezuka, T. Saito. Effect of femoral canal shape on mechanical stress distribution and adaptive bone remodelling around a cementless tapered-wedge stem. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:362-369. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.2000525. © 2016 Yutaka et al.

  5. Cementless Tapered Wedge Femoral Stems Decrease Subsidence in Obese Patients Compared to Traditional Fit-and-Fill Stems.

    PubMed

    Grant, Tanner W; Lovro, Luke R; Licini, David J; Warth, Lucian C; Ziemba-Davis, Mary; Meneghini, Robert M

    2017-03-01

    Femoral component stability and resistance to subsidence is critical for osseointegration and clinical success in cementless total hip arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to radiographically evaluate the anatomic fit and subsidence of 2 different proximally tapered, porous-coated modern cementless femoral component designs. A retrospective cohort study of 126 consecutive cementless total hip arthroplasties was performed. Traditional fit-and-fill stems were implanted in the first 61 hips with the remaining 65 receiving morphometric tapered wedge stems. Preoperative bone morphology was radiographically assessed by the canal flare index. Canal fill in the coronal plane, subsidence, and the sagittal alignment of stems was measured digitally on immediate and 1-month postoperative radiographs. Demographics and canal flare indices were similar between groups. The percentage of femoral canal fill was greater in the tapered wedge compared to the fit-and-fill stem (P = .001). There was significantly less subsidence in the tapered wedge design (0.3 mm) compared to the fit-and-fill design (1.1 mm) (P = .001). Subsidence significantly increased as body mass index (BMI) increased in the fit-and-fill stems, a finding not observed in the tapered wedge design (P = .013). An anatomically designed morphometric tapered wedge femoral stem demonstrated greater axial stability and decreased subsidence with increasing BMI than a traditional fit-and-fill stem. The resistance to subsidence, irrespective of BMI, is likely due to the inherent axial stability of a tapered wedge design and may be the optimal stem design for obese patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of femoral canal shape on mechanical stress distribution and adaptive bone remodelling around a cementless tapered-wedge stem

    PubMed Central

    Oba, M.; Kobayashi, N.; Ike, H.; Tezuka, T.; Saito, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In total hip arthroplasty (THA), the cementless, tapered-wedge stem design contributes to achieving initial stability and providing optimal load transfer in the proximal femur. However, loading conditions on the femur following THA are also influenced by femoral structure. Therefore, we determined the effects of tapered-wedge stems on the load distribution of the femur using subject-specific finite element models of femurs with various canal shapes. Patients and Methods We studied 20 femurs, including seven champagne flute-type femurs, five stovepipe-type femurs, and eight intermediate-type femurs, in patients who had undergone cementless THA using the Accolade TMZF stem at our institution. Subject–specific finite element (FE) models of pre- and post-operative femurs with stems were constructed and used to perform FE analyses (FEAs) to simulate single-leg stance. FEA predictions were compared with changes in bone mineral density (BMD) measured for each patient during the first post-operative year. Results Stovepipe models implanted with large-size stems had significantly lower equivalent stress on the proximal-medial area of the femur compared with champagne-flute and intermediate models, with a significant loss of BMD in the corresponding area at one year post-operatively. Conclusions The stovepipe femurs required a large-size stem to obtain an optimal fit of the stem. The FEA result and post-operative BMD change of the femur suggest that the combination of a large-size Accolade TMZF stem and stovepipe femur may be associated with proximal stress shielding. Cite this article: M. Oba, Y. Inaba, N. Kobayashi, H. Ike, T. Tezuka, T. Saito. Effect of femoral canal shape on mechanical stress distribution and adaptive bone remodelling around a cementless tapered-wedge stem. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:362–369. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.2000525. PMID:27601435

  7. Long-Term Results of Third-Generation Ceramic-on-Ceramic Bearing Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty in Young Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Park, Jang-Won; Kim, Jun-Shik

    2016-11-01

    The results of third-generation of alumina-on-alumina ceramic bearing in a large number of patient cohorts are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine clinical and radiologic outcome, prevalence of osteolysis detected with radiographs and computerized tomographic scan, and survivorship of a cementless total hip arthroplasty using a third-generation of alumina-on-alumina ceramic bearing in a large number of active patients aged younger than 65 years. We reviewed the cases of 871 patients (1131 hips) who underwent a cementless total hip arthroplasty when they were aged 65 years or younger at the time of surgery. The most common diagnoses were osteonecrosis (53%) and osteoarthritis (20%). Harris hip score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and University of California, Los Angeles activity scores were recorded. Radiographic and computerized tomographic evaluations were used to evaluate implant fixation and osteolysis. The mean follow-up interval was 18.8 years (range, 15-20 years). At the time of final follow-up, the mean Harris hip score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score, and University of California, Los Angeles activity score were 90 points, 15 points, and 8 points, respectively. All the femoral stem and acetabular components were well-fixed at the time of final follow-up. No hip had aseptic loosening or osteolysis or fracture of ceramic material at the time of the final follow-up. The current results with the use of the third-generation of alumina-on-alumina ceramic bearings in young patients suggest that cementless acetabular and femoral components provide outstanding long-term fixation and provide a high rate of survivorship without evidence of osteolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Multicenter Approach Evaluating the Impact of Vitamin E-Blended Polyethylene in Cementless Total Hip Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Marcus; van Wasen, Andrea; Warwas, Sebastian; Landgraeber, Stefan; Haversath, Marcel; Group, VITAS

    2014-01-01

    Since polyethylene is one of the most frequently used biomaterials as a liner in total hip arthroplasty, strong efforts have been made to improve design and material properties over the last 50 years. Antioxidants seems to be a promising alternative to further increase durability and reduce polyethylene wear in long term. As of yet, only in vitro results are available. While they are promising, there is yet no clinical evidence that the new material shows these advantages in vivo. To answer the question if vitamin-E enhanced ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is able to improve long-term survivorship of cementless total hip arthroplasty we initiated a randomized long-term multicenter trial. Designed as a superiority study, the oxidation index assessed in retrieval analyses of explanted liners was chosen as primary parameter. Radiographic results (wear rate, osteolysis, radiolucency) and functional outcome (Harris Hip Scores, University of California-Los Angeles, Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Visual Analogue Scale) will serve as secondary parameters. Patients with the indication for a cementless total hip arthroplasty will be asked to participate in the study and will be randomized to either receive a standard hip replacement with a highly cross-linked UHMWPE-X liner or a highly cross-linked vitamin-E supplemented UHMWPE-XE liner. The follow-up will be 15 years, with evaluation after 5, 10 and 15 years. The controlled randomized study has been designed to determine if Vitamin-E supplemented highly cross-linked polyethylene liners are superior to standard XLPE liners in cementless total hip arthroplasty. While several studies have been started to evaluate the influence of vitamin-E, most of them evaluate wear rates and functional results. The approach used for this multicenter study, to analyze the oxidation status of retrieved implants, should make it possible to directly evaluate the ageing process and development of the implant

  9. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult louse ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to ...

  10. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Home Diseases and Conditions Head Lice Head Lice Condition Family HealthKids and Teens Share Head Lice Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Causes4. Prevention5. ...

  11. Head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... a child's head circumference. Normal ranges for a child's sex and age (weeks, months), based on values that experts have obtained for normal growth rates of infants' and children's heads. Measurement of the head circumference is an ...

  12. A large scale finite element study of a cementless osseointegrated tibial tray.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Francis; Kahnt, Max; Ramm, Heiko; Worsley, Peter; Zachow, Stefan; Nair, Prasanth; Taylor, Mark

    2013-07-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a cementless osseointegrated tibial tray (P.F.C. ® Sigma®, Depuy® Inc, USA) in a general population using finite element (FE) analysis. Computational testing of total knee replacements (TKRs) typically only use a model of a single patient and assume the results can be extrapolated to the general population. In this study, two statistical models (SMs) were used; one of the shape and elastic modulus of the tibia, and one of the tibiofemoral joint loads over a gait cycle, to generate a population of FE models. A method was developed to automatically size, position and implant the tibial tray in each tibia, and 328 models were successfully implanted and analysed. The peak strain in the bone of the resected surface was examined and the percentage surface area of bone above yield strain (PSAY) was used to determine the risk of failure of a model. Using an arbitrary threshold of 10% PSAY, the models were divided into two groups ('higher risk' and 'lower risk') in order to explore factors that may influence potential failure. In this study, 17% of models were in the 'higher risk' group and it was found that these models had a lower elastic modulus (mean 275.7MPa), a higher weight (mean 85.3kg), and larger peak loads, of which the axial force was the most significant. This study showed the mean peak strain of the resected surface and PSAY were not significantly different between implant sizes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiologic bone adaptations on a cementless short-stem shoulder prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Schnetzke, Marc; Coda, Sebastian; Raiss, Patric; Walch, Gilles; Loew, Markus

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the timing and location of radiologic bone adaptations related to shoulder arthroplasty using a single type of cementless short-stem shoulder prosthesis. Uncemented short-stem shoulder arthroplasties were evaluated in 52 patients at a mean age of 71.6 years (range, 58.1-86.6) with a minimum clinical and radiologic follow-up of 2 years (mean, 32 months; range, 23-52 months). All radiographs were analyzed for inclination of the stem, filling ratio of metaphysis and diaphysis, bone remodeling around the stem, radiolucent lines around the glenoid, and subsidence of the humeral stem. Finally, the radiographic and clinical findings were compared between patients with low and high bone adaptations. At final follow-up, no loosening, subsidence, or osteolysis was seen. High bone adaptations were present in 27 patients (51.9%). Cortical thinning and osteopenia in the medial cortex (82.7%) and spot welds in the lateral cortex (78.6%) were the most frequently occurring bone adaptations. Patients with high bone adaptations had significantly higher metaphyseal (0.60 ± 0.05 vs. 0.56 ± 0.06; P = .024) and diaphyseal filling ratio (0.66 ± 0.04 vs. 0.61 ± 0.06; P = .019) at 2-year follow-up than patients with low bone adaptations. Clinical outcome was not influenced by the radiographic changes. The clinical and radiologic results of the short-stem shoulder arthroplasty are comparable to those with the third and fourth generations of standard stem arthroplasty. Higher filling ratios in the metaphysis and the diaphysis were significantly associated with the occurrence of high bone adaptations. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The dimensional accuracy of preparation of femoral cavity in cementless total hip arthroplasty*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-dong; Hahne, HJ; Hassenpflug, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the accuracy of femoral preparation and the position of the cementless prosthesis in femoral cavity, and to compare the results between the computer-assisted surgical group (CASPAR) and the conventional group. Methods: Ten femoral components were implanted either manually or by CASPAR in cadaver femurs. The specimens were cut to 3 mm thick slices. Microradiograms of every slice were sent to a computer for analysis with special software (IDL). The gaps and the medullary cavities between component and bone, the direct bone contact area of the implant surface, the gap width and the percentage of gap and bone contact area were measured in every slice. Results: In the proximal implant coated with HA of the CASPAR group, the average percentage of bone contact reached 93.2% (ranging from 87.6% to 99.7%); the average gap percentage was 2.9% (ranging from 0.3% to 7.8%); the maximum gap width was 0.81 mm and the average gap width was only 0.20 mm. While in the conventional group, the average percentage of bone contact reached 60.1% (ranging from 49.2% to 70.4%); the average gap percentage was 32.8% (ranging from 25.1% to 39.9%); the maximum gap width was 2.97 mm and the average gap width was 0.77 mm. The average gap around the implant in the CASPAR group was only 9% of that in the manual group; the maximum and average gap widths were only about 26% of those in the manual group. On the other hand, the CASPAR group showed 33% higher bone contact than the manual group. Conclusion: With the use of robotics-assisted system, significant progress can be achieved for femoral preparation in total hip arthroplasty. PMID:15362200

  15. Retrospective cohort study of the performance of the Pinnacle metal on metal (MoM) total hip replacement: a single-centre investigation in combination with the findings of a national retrieval centre.

    PubMed

    Langton, David John; Sidaginamale, Raghavendra Prasad; Avery, Peter; Waller, Sue; Tank, Ghanshyabhai; Lord, James; Joyce, Thomas; Cooke, Nick; Logishetty, Raj; Nargol, Antoni Viraf Francis

    2016-04-29

    To determine risk factors for revision in patients implanted with a commonly used metal on metal (MoM) hip replacement. Retrospective cohort study in combination with a prospective national retrieval study (Northern Retrieval Registry (NRR)). Combined orthopaedic unit in combination with the NRR. All patients implanted with a DePuy Pinnacle MoM hip prostheses by the 2 senior authors were invited to attend for a review which included clinical examination, blood metal ion measurements, radiographs and targeted imaging. Explanted components underwent wear analysis using validated methodology and these results were compared with those obtained from the NRR. 489 MoM Pinnacle hips were implanted into 434 patients (243 females and 191 males). Of these, 352 patients attended the MoM recall clinics. 64 patients had died during the study period. For the purposes of survival analysis, non-attendees were assumed to have well-functioning prostheses. The mean follow-up of the cohort as a whole was 89 months. 71 hips were revised. Prosthetic survival for the whole cohort was 83.6% (79.9-87.3) at 9 years. The majority of explanted devices exhibited signs of taper junction failure. Risk factors for revision were bilateral MoM prostheses, smaller Pinnacle liners, and implantation in 2006 and later years. A significant number of devices were found to be manufactured out of their specifications. This was confirmed with analysis of the wider data set from the NRR. This device was found to have an unacceptably high revision rate. Bilateral prostheses, those implanted into female patients and devices implanted in later years were found to be at greater risk. A significant number of explanted components were found to be manufactured with bearing diameters outside of the manufacturer's stated tolerances. Our findings highlight the clinical importance of hitherto unrecognised variations in device production. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  16. CoCr wear particles generated from CoCr alloy metal-on-metal hip replacements, and cobalt ions stimulate apoptosis and expression of general toxicology-related genes in monocyte-like U937 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Posada, Olga M.; Gilmour, Denise; Tate, Rothwelle J.; Grant, M. Helen

    2014-11-15

    Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) particles in the nanometre size range and their concomitant release of Co and Cr ions into the patients' circulation are produced by wear at the articulating surfaces of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. This process is associated with inflammation, bone loss and implant loosening and led to the withdrawal from the market of the DePuy ASR™ MoM hip replacements in 2010. Ions released from CoCr particles derived from a resurfacing implant in vitro and their subsequent cellular up-take were measured by ICP-MS. Moreover, the ability of such metal debris and Co ions to induce both apoptosis was evaluated with both FACS and immunoblotting. qRT-PCR was used to assess the effects on the expression of lymphotoxin alpha (LTA), BCL2-associated athanogene (BAG1), nitric oxide synthase 2 inducible (NOS2), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible alpha (GADD45A). ICP-MS showed that the wear debris released significant (p < 0.05) amounts of Co and Cr ions into the culture medium, and significant (p < 0.05) cellular uptake of both ions. There was also an increase (p < 0.05) in apoptosis after a 48 h exposure to wear debris. Analysis of qRT-PCR results found significant up-regulation (p < 0.05) particularly of NOS2 and BAG1 in Co pre-treated cells which were subsequently exposed to Co ions + debris. Metal debris was more effective as an inducer of apoptosis and gene expression when cells had been pre-treated with Co ions. This suggests that if a patient receives sequential bilateral CoCr implants, the second implant may be more likely to produce adverse effects than the first one. - Highlights: • Effects of CoCr nanoparticles and Co ions on U937 cells were investigated. • Ions released from wear debris play an important role in cellular response, • Toxicity of Co ions could be related to NO metabolic processes and apoptosis. • CoCr particles were a more effective inducer of apoptosis after cell

  17. Prevalence of Failure due to Adverse Reaction to Metal Debris in Modern, Medium and Large Diameter Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements – The Effect of Novel Screening Methods: Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reito, Aleksi; Lainiala, Olli; Elo, Petra; Eskelinen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements were used for almost a decade before adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) were found to be a true clinical problem. Currently, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the usefulness of systematic screening for ARMD. We implemented a systematic review and meta-analysis to establish the prevalence of revision confirmed ARMD stratified by the use of different screening protocols in patients with MoM hip replacements. Five levels of screening were identified: no screening (level 0), targeted blood metal ion measurement and/or cross-sectional imaging (level 1), metal ion measurement without imaging (level 2), metal ion measurement with targeted imaging (level 3) and comprehensive screening (both metal ions and imaging for all; level 4). 122 studies meeting our eligibility criteria were included in analysis. These studies included 144 study arms: 100 study arms with hip resurfacings, 33 study arms with large-diameter MoM total hip replacements (THR), and 11 study arms with medium-diameter MoM THRs. For hip resurfacing, the lowest prevalence of ARMD was seen with level 0 screening (pooled prevalence 0.13%) and the highest with level 4 screening (pooled prevalace 9.49%). Pooled prevalence of ARMD with level 0 screening was 0.29% and with level 4 screening 21.3% in the large-diameter MoM THR group. In metaregression analysis of hip resurfacings, level 4 screening was superior with regard to prevalence of ARMD when compared with other levels. In the large diameter THR group level 4 screening was superior to screening 0,2 and 3. These outcomes were irrespective of follow-up time or study publication year. With hip resurfacings, routine cross-sectional imaging regardless of clinical findings is advisable. It is clear, however, that targeted metal ion measurement and/or imaging is not sufficient in the screening for ARMD in any implant concepts. However, economic aspects should be weighed when choosing the preferred screening level

  18. Use of an Electron Beam Melting Manufactured Titanium Collared Cementless Femoral Stem to Resist Subsidence After Canine Total Hip Replacement.

    PubMed

    Liska, William D; Doyle, Nancy D

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of a collared electron beam melting (EBM)-manufactured titanium cementless femoral stem on implant subsidence after total hip replacement (THR). Prospective study Dogs (n = 26); 33 THR. Records were maintained on the first 110 consecutive THR using an EBM collared femoral stem. Radiographs on the first 33 THR that had 6-months follow-up were evaluated for implant subsidence. These results were compared to 27 dogs with subsidence after THR with a Co Cr collarless stem. Dogs that had EBM collared stem THR had a mean body weight of 35.4 kg, body condition score (BCS) of 6.21, and mean canal flare index (CFI) of 1.56. EBM stem sizes used (number implanted) were #7 (13), #8 (10), #9 (8), and #10 (2). Subsidence of collared stems did not occur if the collar was in contact with cortical bone during surgery. Subsidence of 1-3 mm occurred closing a gap between the collar and bone if contact was not made during surgery, but subsidence stopped once contact was made. No major complications directly related to the EBM collared stem were encountered. A collar on a cementless femoral stem in contact with cortical bone resists subsidence. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Antibacterial efficacy of a new gentamicin-coating for cementless prostheses compared to gentamicin-loaded bone cement.

    PubMed

    Neut, Daniëlle; Dijkstra, René J B; Thompson, Jonathan I; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2011-11-01

    Cementless prostheses are increasingly popular but require alternative prophylactic measures than the use of antibiotic-loaded bone cements. Here, we determine the 24-h growth inhibition of gentamicin-releasing coatings from grit-blasted and porous-coated titanium alloys, and compare their antibacterial efficacies and gentamicin release-profiles to those of a commercially available gentamicin-loaded bone cement. Antibacterial efficacy increased with increasing doses of gentamicin in the coating and loading with 1.0 and 0.1 mg gentamicin/cm(2) on both grit-blasted and porous-coated samples yielded comparable efficacy to gentamicin-loaded bone cement. The coating had a higher burst release than bone cement, and also inhibited growth of gentamicin-resistant strains. Antibacterial efficacy of the gentamicin coatings disappeared after 4 days, while gentamicin-loaded bone cement exhibited efficacy over at least 7 days. Shut-down after 4 days of gentamicin-release from coatings is advantageous over the low-dosage tail-release from bone cements, as it minimizing risk of inducing antibiotic-resistant strains. Both gentamicin-loaded cement discs and gentamicin-coated titanium coupons were able to kill gentamicin-sensitive and -resistant bacteria in a simulated prothesis-related interfacial gap. In conclusion, the gentamicin coating provided similar antibacterial properties to those seen by gentamicin-loaded bone cement, implying protection of a prosthesis from being colonized by peri-operatively introduced bacteria in cementless total joint arthroplasty.

  20. Sports and physical activity after cementless total hip arthroplasty with a minimum follow-up of 10 years.

    PubMed

    Innmann, M M; Weiss, S; Andreas, F; Merle, C; Streit, M R

    2016-05-01

    The present retrospective cohort study was conducted to compare sporting activity levels before and a minimum of 10 years after primary cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). A consecutive series of 86 patients with a mean age at surgery of 52 years (range, 21-60 years) was evaluated 11 years after surgery (range, 10-12 years). Pre- and post-operative sporting activities were assessed at routine follow-up using the University of California, Los Angeles activity score and the Schulthess Clinic sports and activity questionnaire. Post-operative health-related quality of life was measured using the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire and compared with age-matched reference populations from the SF-36 database. Eleven years after THA, 89% of preoperatively active patients had returned to sport. Comparing sports activity preoperatively (before the onset of symptoms) and 11 years after THA, no significant difference was found for the mean number of disciplines or session length. A significant decline in high-impact activities was observed, while participation in low-impact activities significantly increased. Health-related quality of life compared well against a healthy age-matched reference population and was significantly higher than in a reference group of patients with osteoarthritis. The majority of patients were able to maintain their physical activity level in the long term after primary cementless THA, compared with the activity level before the onset of restricting osteoarthritis symptoms. However, a change in disciplines toward low-impact activities was observed.

  1. Midterm Outcome of Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty in Crowe IV-Hartofilakidis Type III Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    PubMed

    Mu, Wenbo; Yang, Desheng; Xu, Boyong; Mamtimin, Askar; Guo, Wentao; Cao, Li

    2016-03-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is widespread in developing countries, and treating Crowe IV-Hartofilakidis Type III DDH in adults requires the use of a highly demanding technique. We sought to determine the outcome of cementless total hip arthroplasty using Zweymüller components to treat Crowe IV-Hartofilakidis Type III DDH. Fifty-eight patients (71 hips) with a mean age of 35.8 years at time of index operation were included in our study. The average duration of follow-up was 70.5 months. The acetabular component was placed in the true acetabulum in all cases, and subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy was performed in 61 hips. With any component revision for any reason as the end point, Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis at 98 months revealed a cumulative survival rate for implanted components of 91.40%. The mean Harris Hip Score improved from 35.6 preoperatively to 82.9 postoperatively. There were 20 cases of intraoperative fracture, 1 case of complete nerve palsy, and 7 cases of transient nerve palsy. Revision surgery was performed in 7 patients because of cup loosening in 1, severe polyethylene wear in 4, cup breakage in 1, and dislocation in 1. Midterm results for cementless total hip arthroplasty in patients with Crowe IV-Hartofilakidis Type III DDH was satisfactory; however, intraoperative fracture and polyethylene wear were major complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Damage Patterns at the Head-Stem Taper Junction Helps Understand the Mechanisms of Material Loss.

    PubMed

    Hothi, Harry S; Panagiotopoulos, Andreas C; Whittaker, Robert K; Bills, Paul J; McMillan, Rebecca A; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2017-01-01

    Material loss at the taper junction of metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties has been implicated in their early failure. The mechanisms of material loss are not fully understood; analysis of the patterns of damage at the taper can help us better understand why material loss occurs at this junction. We mapped the patterns of material loss in a series of 155 metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties received at our center by scanning the taper surface using a roundness-measuring machine. We examined these material loss maps to develop a 5-tier classification system based on visual differences between different patterns. We correlated these patterns to surgical, implant, and patient factors known to be important for head-stem taper damage. We found that 63 implants had "minimal damage" at the taper (material loss <1 mm(3)), and the remaining 92 implants could be categorized by 4 distinct patterns of taper material loss. We found that (1) head diameter and (2) time to revision were key significant variables separating the groups. These material loss maps allow us to suggest different mechanisms that dominate the cause of the material loss in each pattern: (1) corrosion, (2) mechanically assisted corrosion, or (3) intraoperative damage or poor size tolerances leading to toggling of trunnion in taper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cementless total hip arthroplasty in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Zeng, Min; Xie, Jie; Wen, Ting; Hu, Yihe

    2017-01-01

    Controversies on the surgical protocols and efficacies of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) still exist. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the perioperative managements and their outcomes related to performing THA on patients with AS.Data of 54 AS patients who underwent 81 THAs between 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and imaging data were collected preoperatively, postoperatively, and during the follow-up period for surgical efficacy.Using posterolateral approach, cementless prostheses were selected in all cases. Mean follow-up period was 3.6 years (range, 2-8 years). Inclinations and anteversions of acetabular cups were 36.3°±4.5° (range, 30°-50°) and 12.3°±4.9° (range, 0°-25°) respectively. Mean visual analog scale (VAS) score decreased from 6.7 ± 2.1 (range, 4-10) preoperatively to 1.5 ± 1.0 (range, 0-4) at final follow-up, and mean Harris hip score (HHS) improved from 31.2 ± 11.6 (range, 15-45) to 86.1 ± 4.3 (range, 80-95) (P < 0.05). Postoperative range of motion (ROM) in flexion was improved from 6.7°±13.5° (range, 0°-50°) preoperatively to 82.5°±6.4° (range, 70°-100°) at final follow-up, and ROM in extension was improved from 1.8°±5.7°(range, 0°-15°) to 15.4°±2.6° (range, 10°-20°) (P < 0.05). Heterotopic ossification (HO) was documented in 9 hips (11.1%). Signs of stable fibrous ingrowth and bone ingrowth were detected in 52 and 29 hips, respectively. Sciatic never injury was occurred in 3 cases, and treated conservatively. There were no signs of periprosthetic fractures, dislocation, or prosthesis loosening.Surgical efficacies of THA for AS patients with severe hip involvement are satisfactory.

  4. Cementless surface replacement arthroplasty (Copeland CSRA) for osteoarthritis of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ofer; Copeland, Stephen A

    2004-01-01

    Clinical experience with the Copeland cementless surface replacement arthroplasty (CSRA) of the shoulder now spans 17 years. Between 1986 and 1997, 79 CSRAs (42 total shoulder replacements and 37 hemiarthroplasties) were performed for primary osteoarthritis of the shoulder. Total shoulder replacement was done in 12 men and 30 women with a mean age of 71.5 years (range, 50-87 years). Hemiarthroplasty was used in 9 men and 28 women; 5 patients had bilateral hemiarthroplasty. The mean age was 73.4 years (range, 53-88 years). Thirty-nine total shoulder arthroplasties and thirty hemiarthroplasties with a follow-up of more than 2 years were available for review. The mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range, 48 months to 13 years) for total shoulder replacement and 4.4 years (range, 24 months to 6.5 years) for hemiarthroplasty. The Constant scores improved from an age-adjusted Constant score of 33.8% (20.0 points) to 94% (61.9 points) for total shoulder replacement and from an age-adjusted Constant score 40.0% (25.3 points) to 91% (58.1 points) for hemiarthroplasty. Active elevation improved by a mean of 59.9 degrees to a mean of 128 degrees for total shoulder replacement and to a mean of 124 degrees for hemiarthroplasty. Of the patients, 89.9% considered the shoulder to be much better or better as a result of the operation. Radiographically, one humeral implant and three glenoid implants had evidence of loosening. Four revisions were performed in the total shoulder replacement group. No revision surgery was needed in the hemiarthroplasty group. The results of this series are at least comparable to those reported for stemmed prostheses with a comparable length of follow-up. The results of total shoulder replacement and hemiarthroplasty in osteoarthritis of the shoulder seem to be comparable. With use of the CSRA prosthesis, several severe complications mainly concerning the humeral shaft and periprosthetic fractures can be avoided. Should the need for revision surgery or

  5. Five-year clinical and radiological outcomes in 257 consecutive cementless Oxford medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Blaney, J; Harty, H; Doran, E; O'Brien, S; Hill, J; Dobie, I; Beverland, D

    2017-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the clinical and radiographic outcomes in 257 consecutive Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasties (OUKAs) (238 patients), five years post-operatively. A retrospective evaluation was undertaken of patients treated between April 2008 and October 2010 in a regional centre by two non-designing surgeons with no previous experience of UKAs. The Oxford Knee Scores (OKSs) were recorded and fluoroscopically aligned radiographs were assessed post-operatively at one and five years. The median age of the 238 patients was 65.0 years (interquartile range (IQR) 59.0 to 73.0), the median body mas index was 30.0 (IQR 27.5 to 33.0) and 51.7% were male. There were no intra-operative complications. There was a significant improvement in the median OKS at six weeks (34, IQR 31.0 to 37.0), one year (38, IQR 29.0 to 43.0) and five years (37, IQR 27.0 to 42.0) when compared with the pre-operative scores (16, IQR 13.0 to 19.0) (all p = < 0.01). No patient had progressive radiolucent lines or loosening. A total of 16 patients had died by five years. The cumulative survival at five years was 98.8% and the mean survival time was 5.8 years (95% confidence interval 5.6 to 5.9). A total of seven OUKAs (2.7%) were revised; three within five years and four thereafter, between 5.1 and 5.7 years post-operatively. Five (1.9%) had re-operations within five years. The proportion of patients requiring revision at five years is lower than that generally reported for UKA. These findings add support for the use of the cementless OUKA outside the design centre. Longer follow-up is required. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:623-31. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  6. Blood Metal Ion Thresholds to Identify Patients with Metal-on-Metal Hip Implants at Risk of Adverse Reactions to Metal Debris: An External Multicenter Validation Study of Birmingham Hip Resurfacing and Corail-Pinnacle Implants.

    PubMed

    Matharu, Gulraj S; Berryman, Fiona; Judge, Andrew; Reito, Aleksi; McConnell, Jamie; Lainiala, Olli; Young, Stephen; Eskelinen, Antti; Pandit, Hemant G; Murray, David W

    2017-09-20

    The authors of recent studies have reported newly devised implant-specific blood metal ion thresholds to predict adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) in patients who have undergone unilateral or bilateral metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasty. These thresholds were most effective for identifying patients at low risk of ARMD. We investigated whether these newly devised blood metal ion thresholds could effectively identify patients at risk of ARMD after MoM hip arthroplasty in an external cohort of patients. We performed a validation study involving 803 MoM hip arthroplasties (323 unilateral Birmingham Hip Resurfacing [BHR], 93 bilateral BHR, and 294 unilateral Corail-Pinnacle implants) performed in 710 patients at 3 European centers. All patients underwent whole-blood metal ion sampling, and were divided into 2 groups: those with ARMD (leading to revision or identified on imaging; n = 75) and those without ARMD (n = 635). Previously devised implant-specific blood metal ion thresholds (2.15 μg/L of cobalt for unilateral BHR; 5.5 μg/L for the maximum of either cobalt or chromium for bilateral BHR; and 3.57 μg/L of cobalt for unilateral Corail-Pinnacle implants) were applied to the validation cohort, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to establish the discriminatory characteristics of each threshold. The area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the ability of each implant-specific threshold to distinguish between patients with and without ARMD were, respectively, 89.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 82.8% to 96.0%), 78.9%, 86.7%, 44.1%, and 96.9% for unilateral BHR; 89.2% (CI = 81.3% to 97.1%), 70.6%, 86.8%, 54.5%, and 93.0% for bilateral BHR; and 76.9% (CI = 63.9% to 90.0%), 65.0%, 85.4%, 24.5%, and 97.1% for unilateral Corail-Pinnacle implants. Using the implant-specific thresholds, we missed 20 patients with ARMD (2.8% of the patients in this series). We missed more patients

  7. Heads Up

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    ... Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... fit, and maintain the right helmet for specific sports. Concussion Laws Learn about Return to Play and other ...

  8. Head MRI

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    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... the test, tell your provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips An artificial heart valves Heart defibrillator ...

  9. The Harris-Galante cementless acetabular component: results in 190 cases with at least 3 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Claus, B; Van Innis, B; De Witte, E; Van Overschelde, J; Magotteaux, B; Fatemi, F; Vandepaer, F

    1993-01-01

    The results of 190 primary total hip arthroplasties with a Harris-Galante cementless acetabular cup were reviewed. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 3 years (range, 3 to 5.5 years, mean 46 months). Clinical and radiographical analysis was performed. Inguinal pain was recorded in five cases. We noted a fracture of a screw in four cases without further implications. There was no evidence of acetabular loosening. There was no migration of the acetabular cup. No acetabular component showed measurable wear of the polyethylene liner. Non-progressive radiolucent lines were recorded in 14% of the patients: among these patients, radiolucent lines were noted in zone 1 in 46%, in zone 2 in 4% and in zone 3 in 86%. Two socket revisions became necessary. One patient suffered a deep-seated infection. Another revision was necessary because of recurrent dislocation.

  10. Delivery of antibiotics from cementless titanium-alloy cubes may be a novel way to control postoperative infections.

    PubMed

    Bezuidenhout, Martin B; van Staden, Anton D; Oosthuizen, Gert A; Dimitrov, Dimitar M; Dicks, Leon M T

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial colonisation and biofilm formation onto orthopaedic devices are difficult to eradicate. In most cases infection is treated by surgical removal of the implant and cleaning of the infected area, followed by extensive treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Such treatment causes great discomfort, is expensive, and is not always successful. In this study we report on the release of vancomycin through polyethersulfone membranes from channels in cementless titanium-alloy cubes. The cubes were constructed with LaserCUSING from Ti6Al4V ELI powder. Vancomycin was released by non-Fickian anomalous (constraint) diffusion. Approximately 50% of the vancomycin was released within the first 17 h. However, sustained delivery of vancomycin for 100 h was possible by reinjecting the channels. Refillable implants may be a novel way to control postoperative infections.

  11. Three- to five-year results with the cementless Harris-Galante acetabular component used in hybrid total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kienapfel, H; Pitzer, W; Griss, P

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we present our 3- to 5-year results after hybrid total hip replacement using the cementless porous coated Harris-Galante acetabular component and the cemented Griss femoral component in 39 patients with 40 implantations. Postoperatively, mild to moderate pain was experienced by 16.1% of patients, mostly following hard activity. A slight to moderate limp occurred in 24.2%. All patients were able to walk more than 1000 m. Full-time use of support was required by 2.8%. The postoperative range of motion was increased in 93.9%. Radiographically, none of the acetabular or femoral components had to be classified as unstable. Only one acetabular component displayed complete (i.e., along all interface zones) radiolucency and was therefore classified as possibly unstable.

  12. Delivery of Antibiotics from Cementless Titanium-Alloy Cubes May Be a Novel Way to Control Postoperative Infections

    PubMed Central

    Bezuidenhout, Martin B.; van Staden, Anton D.; Oosthuizen, Gert A.; Dimitrov, Dimitar M.; Dicks, Leon M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial colonisation and biofilm formation onto orthopaedic devices are difficult to eradicate. In most cases infection is treated by surgical removal of the implant and cleaning of the infected area, followed by extensive treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Such treatment causes great discomfort, is expensive, and is not always successful. In this study we report on the release of vancomycin through polyethersulfone membranes from channels in cementless titanium-alloy cubes. The cubes were constructed with LaserCUSING from Ti6Al4V ELI powder. Vancomycin was released by non-Fickian anomalous (constraint) diffusion. Approximately 50% of the vancomycin was released within the first 17 h. However, sustained delivery of vancomycin for 100 h was possible by reinjecting the channels. Refillable implants may be a novel way to control postoperative infections. PMID:25861649

  13. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Barbara L; Weiner, Leonard B

    2002-09-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with little morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. This statement attempts to clarify issues of diagnosis and treatment of head lice and makes recommendations for dealing with head lice in the school setting.

  14. In vitro osteogenic capacity of bone marrow MSCs from postmenopausal women reflect the osseointegration of their cementless hip stems.

    PubMed

    Alm, Jessica J; Moritz, Niko; Aro, Hannu T

    2016-12-01

    Age-related dysfunction of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is suggested as a main cause of altered bone repair with aging. We recently showed that in postmenopausal women undergoing cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) aging, low bone mineral density (BMD) and age-related geometric changes of the proximal femur are risk factors for increased early migration and delayed osseointegration of the femoral stems. Extending these analyses, we have here explored how the in vitro osteogenic capacity of bone marrow MSCs from these patients reflects implant osseointegration, representing the patient's in vivo bone healing capacity. A total of 19 postmenopausal women with primary hip osteoarthritis (mean age 65 years, range 50-78) and well-defined bone quality underwent successful preoperative in vitro analysis of osteogenic capacity of iliac crest bone marrow MSCs as well as two-year radiostereometric (RSA) follow-up of femoral stem migration after cementless THA. In patients with MSCs of low osteogenic capacity, the magnitude of cumulative stem subsidence after the settling period of three months was greater (p = 0.028) and the time point for translational osseointegration was significantly delayed (p = 0.030) compared to patients with MSCs of high osteogenic capacity. This study suggests that patients with MSCs of low in vitro osteogenic capacity may display increased stem subsidence after the settling period of 3 months and thereby delayed osseointegration. Our study presents a novel approach for studying the biological progress of hip implant osseointegration and to verify the impact of decreased MSCs function, especially in patients with age-related dysfunction of MSCs and bone healing capacity.

  15. A gentamicin-releasing coating for cementless hip prostheses-Longitudinal evaluation of efficacy using in vitro bio-optical imaging and its wide-spectrum antibacterial efficacy.

    PubMed

    Neut, Daniëlle; Dijkstra, René J B; Thompson, Jonathan I; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2012-12-01

    Cementless prostheses are increasingly popular in total hip arthroplasties. Therewith, common prophylactic measures to reduce the risk of postoperative infection like the use of antibiotic-loaded bone cements, will no longer be available. Alternative prophylactic measures may include the use of antibiotic-releasing coatings. Previously, we developed a gentamicin-releasing coating for cementless titanium hip prostheses and derived an appropriate dosing of this coating by adjusting the amount of gentamicin in the coating to match the antibacterial efficacy of clinically employed gentamicin-loaded bone cement. In this manuscript, we investigated two important issues regarding the prophylactic use of this 1 mg cm(-2) bioactive gentamicin-releasing coating in cementless total hip arthroplasty: (1) its ability to prevent bacterial growth in a geometrically relevant set-up and (2) its antibacterial spectrum. A geometrically relevant set-up was developed in which miniature titanium stems were surrounded by agar, contaminated with bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus. Novel, bio-optical imaging was performed allowing noninvasive, longitudinal monitoring of staphylococcal growth around miniature stems with and without the gentamicin-releasing coating. Furthermore, the antibacterial efficacy of the gentamicin-releasing coating was determined against a wide variety of clinical isolates, including bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus strains, using traditional zone of inhibition measurements. The gentamicin-releasing coating demonstrated a wide-spectrum of antibacterial efficacy and successfully prevented growth of bioluminescent staphylococci around a miniature stem mounted in bacterially contaminated agar for at least 60 h. This implies that the gentamicin-releasing coating has potential to contribute to the improvement of infection prophylaxis in cementless total hip arthroplasty.

  16. A prospective comparative study of cementless total hip arthroplasty and hip resurfacing in patients under the age of 55 years: a ten-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Haddad, F S; Konan, S; Tahmassebi, J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ten-year clinical and functional outcome of hip resurfacing and to compare it with that of cementless hip arthroplasty in patients under the age of 55 years. Between 1999 and 2002, 80 patients were enrolled into the study: 24 were randomised (11 to hip resurfacing, 13 to total hip arthroplasty), 18 refused hip resurfacing and chose cementless total hip arthroplasty with a 32 mm bearing, and 38 insisted on resurfacing. The mean follow-up for all patients was 12.1 years (10 to 14). Patients were assessed clinically and radiologically at one year, five years and ten years. Outcome measures included EuroQol EQ5D, Oxford, Harris hip, University of California Los Angeles and University College Hospital functional scores. No differences were seen between the two groups in the Oxford or Harris hip scores or in the quality of life scores. Despite a similar aspiration to activity pre-operatively, a higher proportion of patients with a hip resurfacing were running and involved in sport and heavy manual labour after ten years. We found significantly higher function scores in patients who had undergone hip resurfacing than in those with a cementless hip arthroplasty at ten years. This suggests a functional advantage for hip resurfacing. There were no other attendant problems. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. Study of bone remodeling of two models of femoral cementless stems by means of DEXA and finite elements

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A hip replacement with a cemented or cementless femoral stem produces an effect on the bone called adaptive remodelling, attributable to mechanical and biological factors. All of the cementless prostheses designs try to achieve an optimal load transfer in order to avoid stress-shielding, which produces an osteopenia. Long-term densitometric studies taken after implanting ABG-I and ABG-II stems confirm that the changes made to the design and alloy of the ABG-II stem help produce less proximal atrophy of the femur. The simulation with FE allowed us to study the biomechanical behaviour of two stems. The aim of this study was, if possible, to correlate the biological and mechanical findings. Methods Both models with prostheses ABG-I and II have been simulated in five different moments of time which coincide with the DEXA measurements: postoperative, 6 months, 1, 3 and 5 years, in addition to the healthy femur as the initial reference. For the complete comparative analysis of both stems, all of the possible combinations of bone mass (group I and group II of pacients in two controlled studies for ABG-I and II stems, respectively), prosthetic geometry (ABG-I and ABG-II) and stem material (Wrought Titanium or TMZF) were simulated. Results and Discussion In both groups of bone mass an increase of stress in the area of the cancellous bone is produced, which coincides with the end of the HA coating, as a consequence of the bottleneck effect which is produced in the transmission of loads, and corresponds to Gruen zones 2 and 6, where no osteopenia can be seen in contrast to zones 1 and 7. Conclusions In this study it is shown that the ABG-II stem is more effective than the ABG-I given that it generates higher tensional values on the bone, due to which proximal bone atrophy diminishes. This biomechanical behaviour with an improved transmission of loads confirmed by means of FE simulation corresponds to the biological findings obtained with Dual-Energy X

  18. Results of Total Elbow Arthroplasty with Cementless Implantation of an Alumina Ceramic Elbow Prosthesis for Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Keiichiro; Hashizume, Kenzo; Ozawa, Masatsugu; Takeshita, Ayumu; Kaneda, Daisuke; Nakahara, Ryuichi; Nasu, Yoshihisa; Shimamura, Yasunori; Inoue, Hajime; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the long-term clinical results of total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) by cementless fixation of alumina ceramic unlinked elbow prostheses (J-alumina ceramic elbows: JACE) for the reconstruction of elbow joints with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Seventeen elbows in 17 patients (aged 44-72 years, average 54.8) replaced by JACE TEA without bone cement were investigated. The average follow-up period was 10.7 (range, 1.0-19.3) years. Clinical conditions of each elbow before and after surgery were assessed according to the Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI). Radiographic loosening was defined as a progressive radiolucent line of more than 1 mm that was completely circumferential around the intramedullary stem. The average MEPI significantly improved from 46.8 points preoperatively to 66.8 points at final follow-up (p=0.0226). However, aseptic loosening was noted in 10 of 17 elbows (58.8%) and revision surgery was required in 7 (41.2%). Most loosening was observed on the humeral side. With radiographic loosening and revision surgery defined as the end points, the likelihoods of prosthesis survival were 41.2% and 51.8%, respectively, up to 15 years by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The clinical results of JACE implantation without bone cement were disappointing, with high revision and loosening rates of the humeral component.

  19. Bone ingrowth and wear debris in well-fixed cementless porous-coated tibial components removed from patients.

    PubMed

    Sumner, D R; Kienapfel, H; Jacobs, J J; Urban, R M; Turner, T M; Galante, J O

    1995-04-01

    Bone ingrowth and the distribution of wear debris within the porous coating of 13 primary cementless porous-coated tibial components removed for reasons unrelated to fixation or infection were quantitatively described. The average length of implantation was 15.3 months (range, 3-30 months). The implants were all of the same design, made for Ti6A14V with a commercially pure titanium fiber-metal porous coating, which covered the undersurface of the tray and the four fixation pegs. In all but one component, supplemental screw fixation was used. The average extent of bone ingrowth within the tray was 27.1 +/- 16.1%, and the average volume fraction was 9.5 +/- 7.5%. There was significantly more bone ingrowth within the fixation pegs than within the tray and also more bone ingrowth in the anterior half of the tray than posteriorly. There was no correlation between the amount of bone ingrowth and the length of implantation, age, or sex of the patient; however, the depth and orientation of the resection plane were found to correlate with the topographic distribution of bone ingrowth. Particulate debris appeared to gain access to the interface via soft tissue pathways both at the periphery and through the holes for adjuvant screw fixation.

  20. Optimization of custom cementless stem using finite element analysis and elastic modulus distribution for reducing stress-shielding effect.

    PubMed

    Saravana Kumar, Gurunathan; George, Subin Philip

    2017-02-01

    This work proposes a methodology involving stiffness optimization for subject-specific cementless hip implant design based on finite element analysis for reducing stress-shielding effect. To assess the change in the stress-strain state of the femur and the resulting stress-shielding effect due to insertion of the implant, a finite element analysis of the resected femur with implant assembly is carried out for a clinically relevant loading condition. Selecting the von Mises stress as the criterion for discriminating regions for elastic modulus difference, a stiffness minimization method was employed by varying the elastic modulus distribution in custom implant stem. The stiffness minimization problem is formulated as material distribution problem without explicitly penalizing partial volume elements. This formulation enables designs that could be fabricated using additive manufacturing to make porous implant with varying levels of porosity. Stress-shielding effect, measured as difference between the von Mises stress in the intact and implanted femur, decreased as the elastic modulus distribution is optimized.

  1. Prospective five-year subsidence analysis of a cementless fully hydroxyapatite-coated femoral hip arthroplasty component.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Martin; Van Der Straeten, Catherine; Goossens, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Early subsidence >1.5 mm is considered to be a predictive factor for later aseptic loosening of the femoral component following total hip arthroplasty (THA). The aim of this study was to assess five-year subsidence rates of the cementless hydroxyapatite-coated twinSys stem (Mathys Ltd., Bettlach, Switzerland).This prospective single-surgeon series examined consecutive patients receiving a twinSys stem at Maria Middelares Hospital, Belgium. Patients aged >85 years or unable to come to follow-up were excluded. Subsidence was assessed using Ein Bild Roentgen Analyse--Femoral Component Analysis (EBRA-FCA). Additional clinical and radiographic assessments were performed. Follow-ups were prospectively scheduled at two, five, 12, 24, and 60 months.In total, 218 THA (211 patients) were included. At five years, mean subsidence was 0.66 mm (95% CI: 0.43-0.90). Of the 211 patients, 95.2% had an excellent or good Harris Hip Score. There were few radiological changes. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated five-year stem survival to be 98.4% (95% CI: 97.6-100%).Subsidence levels of the twinSys femoral stem throughout the five years of follow-up were substantially lower than the 1.5 mm level predictive of aseptic loosening. This was reflected in the high five-year survival rate.

  2. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't stop crying complains of head and neck pain (younger or nonverbal children may be more fussy) ... vision pupils of unequal size weakness or paralysis neck pain or stiffness seizure If your child is unconscious: ...

  3. Head Noises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Explains how a toy called "Sound Bites" can be modified to demonstrate the transmission of sound waves. Students can hear music from the toy when they press it against any bone in their heads or shoulders. (WRM)

  4. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  5. Head Noises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Explains how a toy called "Sound Bites" can be modified to demonstrate the transmission of sound waves. Students can hear music from the toy when they press it against any bone in their heads or shoulders. (WRM)

  6. Head Tilt

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco ...

  7. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... object that's stuck in the wound. previous continue Concussions Concussions — the temporary loss of normal brain function due ... also a type of internal head injury. Repeated concussions can permanently damage the brain. In many cases, ...

  8. Effect of head contact on the rim of the cup on the offset loading and torque in hip joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Williams, Sophie; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2013-11-01

    Head contact on the rim of the cup causes stress concentration and consequently increased wear. The head contact on the rim of the cup may in addition cause an offset load and torque on the cup. The head-rim contact resulting from microseparation or subluxation has been investigated. An analytical model has been developed to calculate the offset loading and resultant torque on the cup as a function of the translational displacement of the head under simplified loading condition of the hip joint at heel strike during a walking cycle. The magnitude of the torque on the cup was found to increase with the increasing translational displacement, larger diameter heads, eccentric cups, and the coefficient of friction of the contact. The effects of cup inclination, cup rim radius, and cup coverage angle on the magnitude of the torque were found to be relatively small with a maximum variation in the torque magnitude being lower than 20%. This study has shown an increased torque due to the head loading on the rim of the cup, and this may contribute to the incidence of cup loosening. Particularly, metal-on-metal hip joints with larger head diameters may produce the highest offset loading torque.

  9. Does cemented or cementless single-stage exchange arthroplasty of chronic periprosthetic hip infections provide similar infection rates to a two-stage? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    George, D A; Logoluso, N; Castellini, G; Gianola, S; Scarponi, S; Haddad, F S; Drago, L; Romano, C L

    2016-10-10

    The best surgical modality for treating chronic periprosthetic hip infections remains controversial, with a lack of randomised controlled studies. The aim of this systematic review is to compare the infection recurrence rate after a single-stage versus a two-stage exchange arthroplasty, and the rate of cemented versus cementless single-stage exchange arthroplasty for chronic periprosthetic hip infections. We searched for eligible studies published up to December 2015. Full text or abstract in English were reviewed. We included studies reporting the infection recurrence rate as the outcome of interest following single- or two-stage exchange arthroplasty, or both, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Two reviewers independently abstracted data and appraised quality assessment. After study selection, 90 observational studies were included. The majority of studies were focused on a two-stage hip exchange arthroplasty (65 %), 18 % on a single-stage exchange, and only a 17 % were comparative studies. There was no statistically significant difference between a single-stage versus a two-stage exchange in terms of recurrence of infection in controlled studies (pooled odds ratio of 1.37 [95 % CI = 0.68-2.74, I(2) = 45.5 %]). Similarly, the recurrence infection rate in cementless versus cemented single-stage hip exchanges failed to demonstrate a significant difference, due to the substantial heterogeneity among the studies. Despite the methodological limitations and the heterogeneity between single cohorts studies, if we considered only the available controlled studies no superiority was demonstrated between a single- and two-stage exchange at a minimum of 12 months follow-up. The overalapping of confidence intervals related to single-stage cementless and cemented hip exchanges, showed no superiority of either technique.

  10. Intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid via a drain plus drain-clamping to reduce blood loss in cementless total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA) sometimes suffer large blood loss. In a retrospective study, we explored whether postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of tranexamic acid (TA) and leaving a drain clamp in place for 1 h reduced blood loss. Patients and methods Patients (n = 140) treated with unilateral primary cementless TKA (posterior cruciate ligament retained) were divided into two groups: those who had an intra-articular injection of TA (1000 mg) and drain clamping for 1 h postoperatively (study group, n = 70) and those who were not given TA and did not undergo clamping of their drains (control group, n = 70). Postoperative total blood loss, volume of drainage, hemoglobin level, transfusion amounts and rates, D-dimer level at postoperative day (POD) 7, and complications were recorded. Results Total blood loss, total drainage, mean transfusion volume, and transfusion rates were lower in the study group than in controls (P < 0.001). Hemoglobin levels on PODs 1 and 14 were similar in the groups, but on POD 7 the hemoglobin level was higher in the study group than in controls (P < 0.001). D-dimer level on POD 7 was lower in the study group than in controls (P < 0.05). There were no complications in either group. Conclusions Immediately postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of TA and 1 h of drain-clamping effectively reduced blood loss and blood transfusion after cementless TKA. We believe that this method is simple, easy, and suitable for these patients. PMID:23020868

  11. Long-term follow-up results of a second-generation cementless femoral prosthesis with a collar and straight distal fixation channels.

    PubMed

    Han, Chang Wook; Yang, Ick Hwan; Lee, Hye Yeon; Han, Chang Dong

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the results of more than 10 years of follow-up of total hip arthroplasty using a second-generation cementless femoral prosthesis with a collar and straight distal fixation channels. One hundred five patients (129 hips) who underwent surgery between 1991 and 1996 for primary total hip arthroplasty using cementless straight distal fluted femoral stems were followed for more than 10 years. Ninety-four hips in 80 patients were available for clinical and radiologic analysis. The mean age at the time of surgery was 47 years, and the mean duration of follow-up was 14.3 years. The mean Harris hip scores had improved from 58 points to 88 points at the time of the 10-year follow-up. Activity-related thigh pain was reported in nine hips (10%). At the last follow-up, 93 stems (99%) were biologically stable and one stem (1%) was revised because of loosening. No hip had distal diaphyseal osteolysis. Proximal femoral stress-shielding was reported in 86 hips (91%). We found no significant relationship between collar-calcar contact and thigh pain, stem fixation status, or stress-shielding. The cumulative survival of the femoral stem was 99% (95% confidence interval, 98-100%) after 10 years. The long-term results of total hip arthroplasty using a second-generation cementless femoral prosthesis with a collar and straight distal fixation channels were satisfactory; however, the high rate of proximal stress-shielding and the minimal effect of the collar indicate the need for some changes in the stem design.

  12. Comparison of the risk of revision in cementless total hip arthroplasty with ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-polyethylene bearings

    PubMed Central

    Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma B; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearings were introduced in total hip arthroplasty (THA) to reduce problems related to polyethylene wear. We compared the 9-year revision risk for cementless CoC THA and for cementless metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THA. Patients and methods In this prospective, population-based study from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry, we identified all the primary cementless THAs that had been performed from 2002 through 2009 (n = 25,656). Of these, 1,773 THAs with CoC bearings and 9,323 THAs with MoP bearings were included in the study. To estimate the relative risk (RR) of revision, we used regression with the pseudo-value approach and treated death as a competing risk. Results 444 revisions were identified: 4.0% for CoC THA (71 of 1,773) and 4.0% for MoP THA (373 of 9,323). No statistically significant difference in the risk of revision for any reason was found for CoC and MoP bearings after 9 years of follow-up (adjusted RR = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.72–2.4). Revision rates due to component failure were 0.5% (n = 8) for CoC bearings and 0.1% (n = 6) for MoP bearings (p < 0.001). 6 patients with CoC bearings (0.34%) underwent revision due to ceramic fracture. Interpretation When compared to the “standard” MoP bearings, CoC THA had a 33% higher (though not statistically significantly higher) risk of revision for any reason at 9 years. PMID:25637339

  13. Prospective randomised clinical trial assessing subsidence and rotation, using radiostereometric analysis, of two modular cementless femoral stems (Global K2 and Apex)

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Mark; Ebert, Jay; Nivbrant, Oscar; Wood, David

    2014-01-01

    Aims To accurately assess subsidence, rotation and clinical scores in two cementless femoral stems. Methods 260 patients received either K2 or Apex femoral stems and were studied over 2y, with RSA and clinical scores. Results Mean Oxford Hip score for both stems was excellent (45.78 and 46.76). Very little subsidence or rotation were noted on RSA in either stem. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical scores, or radiological motion between stems. Revision rate was 0.8% over the study period. Conclusion Excellent clinical and RSA scores over the 2y study period predict good long term outcomes for these stems. PMID:25104894

  14. Cementless metaphyseal fitting anatomic total hip arthroplasty with a ceramic-on-ceramic bearing in patients thirty years of age or younger.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Park, Jang-Won; Kim, Jun-Shik

    2012-09-05

    The number of midterm or long-term studies on the current generation of cementless total hip replacements with alumina-on-alumina ceramic bearings in patients younger than thirty years of age is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the midterm results of the cementless metaphyseal fitting anatomic total hip prosthesis in patients younger than thirty years of age, with a particular emphasis on the prevalence of thigh pain, resorption of bone due to stress-shielding of the proximal part of the femur, aseptic loosening, and osteolysis. We reviewed the cases of ninety-six patients (127 hips) who had a cementless total hip arthroplasty when they were thirty years or younger at the time of surgery. All surgical procedures were performed by a single surgeon. The most common diagnoses were osteonecrosis (54.3%) and developmental dysplasia of the hip (20.5%). Demographic data, the Harris hip score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) activity scores were recorded. Radiographic evaluation was used to evaluate implant fixation and osteolysis. The minimum follow-up interval was ten years (mean, 14.6 years; range, ten to sixteen years). The mean preoperative Harris hip score, WOMAC score, and UCLA activity score were 41 points, 66 points, and 3 points, respectively. At the time of final follow-up, the mean Harris hip score, WOMAC score, and UCLA activity score were 95 points, 16 points, and 8 points, respectively. No patient had thigh pain after one year postoperatively. All of the femoral stems and all but one of the acetabular components were well-fixed at the time of final follow-up. No hip exhibited squeaking, ceramic fracture, loosening, or osteolysis at the time of the final follow-up. These results in patients thirty years of age or younger suggest that the cementless metaphyseal fitting anatomic total hip prosthesis provides outstanding midterm fixation and substantial

  15. Intraoperative Femur Fracture Risk During Primary Direct Anterior Approach Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty With and Without a Fracture Table.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Eric M; Vaughn, Joshua J; Ritterman, Scott A; Eisenson, Daniel L; Rubin, Lee E

    2017-09-01

    There is no study to date comparing intraoperative femur fractures (IFFs) in the direct anterior approach (DAA) with and without a fracture table. We hypothesize that there is no significant difference in the IFF with and without a fracture table when performed by experienced DAA hip surgeons. This study is a 1-year retrospective review of patients who underwent DAA total hip arthroplasty by 2 surgeons: one surgeon uses a flat table and manually elevates the femur with a large bone hook, while the other surgeon uses a fracture table and a mechanical femoral elevator. Exclusion criteria included cemented femoral implants, femoral neck fractures, and lack of 6-month follow-up. We identified 487 patients for analysis (220 male and 267 female, average age 66.55 years). There were 12 total IFFs (2.46%): 8 female and 4 male patients. The average age of IFF patients was 70.67 years and in nonfracture patients was 66.00 years. There was no difference in gender (P = .2981) or age (P = .2099) between IFF and nonfracture patients. In the fracture table group, there were 6 IFFs (2.22%) in 271 patients; in the nonfracture table group, there were 6 IFFs (2.76%) in 216 patients. There was no statistical difference in IFF between the 2 groups (P = .6973). We observed just 2 patients (0.4%) in this series where the IFFs changed management requiring a revision femoral stem. There was no statistical difference in IFF with or without the use of fracture table. Both DAA surgical technique variations are felt to be equivalent regarding the risk for IFF during DAA cementless total hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In Vivo Damage of the Head-Neck Junction in Hard-on-Hard Total Hip Replacements: Effect of Femoral Head Size, Metal Combination, and 12/14 Taper Design.

    PubMed

    Baleani, Massimiliano; Erani, Paolo; Bordini, Barbara; Zuccheri, Federica; Mąkosa, Mateusz Kordian; De Pasquale, Dalila; Beraudi, Alina; Stea, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Recently, concerns have been raised about the potential effect of head-neck junction damage products at the local and systemic levels. Factors that may affect this damage process have not been fully established yet. This study investigated the possible correlations among head-neck junction damage level, implant design, material combination, and patient characteristics. Head-neck junctions of 148 retrieved implants were analysed, including both ceramic-on-ceramic (N = 61) and metal-on-metal (N = 87) bearings. In all cases, the male taper was made of titanium alloy. Damage was evaluated using a four-point scoring system based on damage morphology and extension. Patient age at implantation, implantation time, damage risk factor, and serum ion concentration were considered as independent potential predicting variables. The damage risk factor summarises head-neck design characteristics and junction loading condition. Junction damage correlated with both implantation time and damage factor risk when the head was made of ceramic. A poor correlation was found when the head was made of cobalt alloy. The fretting-corrosion phenomenon seemed mainly mechanically regulated, at least when cobalt alloy components were not involved. When a component was made of cobalt alloy, the role of chemical phenomena increased, likely becoming, over implantation time, the damage driving phenomena of highly stressed junctions.

  17. In Vivo Damage of the Head-Neck Junction in Hard-on-Hard Total Hip Replacements: Effect of Femoral Head Size, Metal Combination, and 12/14 Taper Design

    PubMed Central

    Erani, Paolo; Bordini, Barbara; Zuccheri, Federica; Mąkosa, Mateusz Kordian; De Pasquale, Dalila; Beraudi, Alina; Stea, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Recently, concerns have been raised about the potential effect of head-neck junction damage products at the local and systemic levels. Factors that may affect this damage process have not been fully established yet. This study investigated the possible correlations among head-neck junction damage level, implant design, material combination, and patient characteristics. Head-neck junctions of 148 retrieved implants were analysed, including both ceramic-on-ceramic (N = 61) and metal-on-metal (N = 87) bearings. In all cases, the male taper was made of titanium alloy. Damage was evaluated using a four-point scoring system based on damage morphology and extension. Patient age at implantation, implantation time, damage risk factor, and serum ion concentration were considered as independent potential predicting variables. The damage risk factor summarises head-neck design characteristics and junction loading condition. Junction damage correlated with both implantation time and damage factor risk when the head was made of ceramic. A poor correlation was found when the head was made of cobalt alloy. The fretting-corrosion phenomenon seemed mainly mechanically regulated, at least when cobalt alloy components were not involved. When a component was made of cobalt alloy, the role of chemical phenomena increased, likely becoming, over implantation time, the damage driving phenomena of highly stressed junctions. PMID:28773095

  18. Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  19. Cone Heads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The author, a middle school art teacher, describes a sculpture project lesson involving Cone Heads (sculptures made from cardboard cones). Discussion of caricatures with exaggerated facial features and interesting profiles helped students understand that the more expressive the face, the better. This project took approximately four to five…

  20. Magnetic Heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoshima, Tokihiko

    Figure 6.1 shows how rapidly the areal density of hard disk drives (HDD) has been increasing over the past 20 years [1]. Several critical innovations were necessary to bring about such rapid progress in the field of magnetic recording [2]. One of the most significant innovations from the viewpoint of material improvement was the electrodeposition of permalloy (Ni80Fe20), which was introduced by IBM in 1979 as the core material of a thin-film inductive head to increase the magnetic recording density [3]. After the introduction of the magneto-resistive (MR) element as the read head and the electrodeposited permalloy as the write head by IBM in 1991 [4], the rate of increase in the recording density of HDDs jumped from 30% per year to 60% per year. Recently, a giant magneto-resistive (GMR) element has been used for the read element instead of the MR element. The rate of increase in the recording density jumped to over 100% per year in 1999, which is an incredible rate of increase. Since 2002, however, the rate of increase has decreased to 30%; thus, new innovations are required to maintain the rate of increase. In 2004, the practical use of perpendicular magnetic recording instead of longitudinal magnetic recording was announced [5]. This system is a critical innovation for developing high-performance HDD systems with high-recording density. The design of the magnetic recording head was changed because of the change of the recording system.

  1. Ibandronate and cementless total hip arthroplasty: densitometric measurement of periprosthetic bone mass and new therapeutic approach to the prevention of aseptic loosening

    PubMed Central

    Muratore, Maurizio; Quarta, Eugenio; Quarta, Laura; Calcagnile, Fabio; Grimaldi, Antonella; Orgiani, M. Antonio; Marsilio, Antonio; Rollo, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Summary Studies of the mechanisms of periprosthetic bone loss have led to the development of pharmacologic strategies intended to enhance bone mass recovery after surgery and consequently prevent aseptic loosening and prolong the implant survival. Bisphosphonates, potent anti-resorptive drugs widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis and other disorders of bone metabolism, were shown to be particularly effective in reducing periprosthetic bone resorption in the first year after hip and knee arthroplasty, both cemented and cementless. Based on these results, we investigated the inhibitory effects of ibandronate on periprosthetic bone loss in a 2-year study of postmenopausal women that underwent cementless total hip arthroplasty. In the first 6 months both groups (A, treated with ibandronate 3 mg i.v. within five days after surgery and then with oral ibandronate 150 mg/month, plus calcium and vitamin D supplementation; and B, treated with calcium and vitamin D supplementation only) experienced bone loss, though to a lesser extent in group A. After 12 months, group A showed a remarkable BMD recovery, that was statistically significant versus baseline values (about +1, 74% of global BMD) and most evident in region R1 (+3, 81%) and R2 (+4, 12%); in group B, on the contrary, BMD values were unchanged compared with those at 6 months post-surgery. Quality of life scores also showed a greater improvement in group A, both at 6 and 12 months after surgery, likely because of the pain-reducing effects of ibandronate treatment. PMID:22783337

  2. Inter- and intra-observer variability of radiography and computed tomography for evaluation of Zurich cementless acetabular cup placement ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Leasure, Jessica O; Peck, Jeffrey N; Villamil, Armando; Fiore, Kara L; Tano, Cheryl A

    2016-11-23

    To evaluate the inter- and intra-observer variability in measurement of the angle of lateral opening (ALO) and version angle measurement using digital radiography and computed tomography (CT). Each hemipelvis was implanted with a cementless acetabular cup. Ventrodorsal and mediolateral radiographs were made of each pelvis, followed by CT imaging. After removal of the first cup, the pelves were implanted with an acetabular cup in the contralateral acetabulum and imaging was repeated. Three surgeons measured the ALO and version angles three times for each cup from the mediolateral radiographic projection. The same measurements were made using three-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions from CT images. Two anatomical axes were used to measure pelvic inclination in the sagittal plane, resulting in six measurements per cup. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance evaluated inter- and intra-observer repeatability for radiographic and CT-based measurements. Version angle based on radiographic measurement did not differ within surgeons (p = 0.433), but differed between surgeons (p <0.001). Radiographic measurement of ALO differed within surgeons (p = 0.006) but not between surgeons (p = 0.989). The ALO and version angle measured on CT images did not differ with or between surgeons. Assessment of inter- and intra-observer measurement of ALO and version angle was more reproducible using CT images than conventional mediolateral radiography for a Zurich cementless acetabular cup.

  3. [Cementless total hip arthroplasty after acute femoral neck fracture in active patients. Prospective matched study with a minimum follow-up of 5 years].

    PubMed

    Lizaur-Utrilla, A; Sanz-Reig, J; Miralles-Muñoz, F A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate outcomes of cementless total hip replacement after acute femoral neck fracture in active patients. A prospective matched study was conducted to compare the results between 76 patients with fractures and 76 patients with osteoarthritis. The Harris score, short-WOMAC and SF-12 were used for the clinical assessment. The mean follow-up was 7.3 years (range 5-11). There were no significant differences in medical or surgical complications between the 2 groups. Functional outcomes were similar, but more walking aids were used in fracture group. There were 6 revisions among the fractures group (one dislocation, 2 deep infections, 3 aseptic loosening), and 2 aseptic loosening among controls. There was no significant difference in arthroplasty survival at 10 years (88.7 vs. 96.1%, P=.15). The mortality rates at 2 and 10 years were similar. Cementless total hip replacement for treatment of acute femoral neck fracture showed similar results to those of elective surgery for osteoarthritis in these selected patients. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Primary cementless hip arthroplasty as a potential risk factor for non-union after long-stem revision arthroplasty in periprosthetic femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Boesmueller, Sandra; Michel, Marc; Hofbauer, Marcus; Platzer, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    In case of stem loosening in periprosthetic femoral fractures (PPFF), revision arthroplasty should be performed. The first hypothesis of this study was that advanced patient age and female gender shows higher non-union rates. The second hypothesis was that primary cementless arthroplasty is associated with a higher non-union rate compared to cemented primary hip arthroplasty. All PPFF occurring between January 2000 and June 2010 treated by revision arthroplasty were included. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify independent variables leading to fracture non-union. Eighty one patients (78 % female) met the inclusion criteria. In 20/81 patients (24.7 %) no adequate fracture healing could be determined on radiographs 12 months after revision surgery. Although age and female gender showed a positive correlation with bony non-union after PPFF as expected, the p-values were not statistically significant. Multiple regression analysis revealed primary cementless prosthesis (p = 0.001) to be the only independent variable associated with non-union. Non-cemented primary prosthesis might be a negative predicting factor for the development of non-union after long-stem revision arthroplasty in PPFF. We therefore recommend the thorough debridement of pannus tissue thus inducing bone healing before the implantation of revision prostheses.

  5. Late Nontraumatic Dissociation of the Femoral Head and Trunnion in a Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Simon J. M.; Khan, Wasim; Mellor, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background. Modular total hip arthroplasties are increasingly popular because customisation allows optimal restoration of patient biomechanics. However, the introduction of component interfaces provides greater opportunities for failure. We present a case of late nontraumatic dissociation of the head-neck interface, more than 10 years after insertion. Case Description. A 58-year-old woman had a left metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty in 2002 for hip dysplasia. Following an uneventful 10-year period, she presented to hospital in severe pain after standing from a seated position, and radiographs demonstrated complete dissociation of the modular femoral head from the stem, with the femoral head remaining in its cup. There was no prior trauma or infection. Mild wear and metallosis were present on the articulating surface between the femoral head and trunnion. Soft tissues were unaffected. Discussion and Conclusions. This is the latest occurrence reported to date for nontraumatic component failure in such an implant by more than 7 years. The majority of cases occur in the context of dislocation and attempted closed reduction. We analyse and discuss possible mechanisms for failure, aiming to raise awareness of this potential complication and encouraging utmost care in component handling and insertion, as well as the long term follow-up of such patients. PMID:26078899

  6. Revision hip arthroplasty in patients with a previous total hip replacement for osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    PubMed

    Park, Youn-Soo; Moon, Young-Wan; Lee, Keun-Ho; Lim, Seung-Jae

    2014-12-01

    Patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head are typically relatively young and active and often require high rates of revision after primary total hip arthroplasty. However, outcomes of revision hip arthroplasty in this patient population have rarely been reported in the literature. The authors conducted a retrospective review of 72 patients (75 hips) who underwent revision hip arthroplasty with a primary diagnosis of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Mean age at index revision was 53.3 years (range, 34-76). Components of acetabular revision included a cementless porous-coated cup in 58 hips and an acetabular cage in 3 hips. Components of femoral revision included a fully grit-blasted tapered stem in 30 hips and a proximally porous-coated modular stem in 9 hips. Mean duration of follow-up was 7 years (range, 3-17). Mean Harris Hip Score improved from 49 points preoperatively to 90 points postoperatively. At final follow-up, 11 hips (14.7%) required reoperation because of aseptic loosening (6 hips), infection (2 hips), recurrent dislocation (1 hip), periprosthetic fracture (1 hip), and ceramic fracture (1 hip). Kaplan-Meier survivor-ship with an endpoint of re-revision for any reason was 81% and for mechanical failure was 87.5% for the cup and 100% for the stem at 10 years. Unlike the previous report, the authors' study showed a lower failure rate of the femoral stem after revision hip arthroplasty using modern cementless femoral components in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Aseptic cup loosening or osteolysis is the most common mechanism of failure at medium-term follow-up. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Computational Evaluation of the Effects of Bone Ingrowth on Bone Resorptive Remodeling after a Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Duk-Young; Kang, Yu-Bong; Tsutsumi, Sadami; Nakai, Ryusuke; Ikeuchi, Ken; Sekel, Ron

    In this study, we simulated a wide cortex separation from a cementless hip prosthesis using the bone resorption remodeling method that is based on the generation of high compressive stress around the distal cortical bone. Thereafter, we estimated the effect on late migration quantities of the hip prosthesis produced by the interface state arising from bone ingrowth. This was accomplished using cortical bone remodeling over a long period of time. Two-dimensional natural hip and implanted hip FEM models were constructed with each of the following interface statements between the bone and prosthesis: (1) non-fixation, (2) proximal 1/3, (3) proximal 2/3 and (4) full-fixation. The fixation interfaces in the fully and partially porous coated regions were rigidly fixed by bony ingrowth. The non-fixation model was constructed as a critical situation, with the fibrous or bony tissue not integrated at all into the implant surface. The daily load history was generated using the three loading cases of a one-legged stance as well as abduction and adduction motions. With the natural hip and one-legged stance, the peak compressive principal stresses were found to be under the criteria value for causing bone resorption, while no implant movement occurred. The migration magnitude of the stem of the proximal 1/3 fixation model with adduction motion was much higher, reaching 6%, 11%and 21%greater than those of the non-fixation, proximal 2/3 fixation and all-fixation models, respectively. The full-fixation model showed the lowest compressive principal stress and implant movement. Thus, we concluded that the late loosening and subsequent movement of the stem in the long term could be estimated with the cortical bone remodeling method based on a high compressive stress at the bone-implant interface. The change caused at the bone-prosthesis interface by bony or fibrous tissue ingrowth constituted the major factor in determining the extent of cortical bone resorption occurring with

  8. A comparison of a conventional versus a short, anatomical metaphyseal-fitting cementless femoral stem in the treatment of patients with a fracture of the femoral neck.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y-H; Oh, J-H

    2012-06-01

    We compared the clinical and radiological outcomes of two cementless femoral stems in the treatment of patients with a Garden III or IV fracture of the femoral neck. A total of 70 patients (70 hips) in each group were enrolled into a prospective randomised study. One group received a short anatomical cementless stem and the other received a conventional cementless stem. Their mean age was 74.9 years (50 to 94) and 76.0 years (55 to 96), respectively (p = 0.328). The mean follow-up was 4.1 years (2 to 5) and 4.8 years (2 to 6), respectively. Perfusion lung scans and high resolution chest CTs were performed to detect pulmonary microemboli. At final follow-up there were no statistically significant differences between the short anatomical and the conventional stems with regard to the mean Harris hip score (85.7 (66 to 100) versus 86.5 (55 to 100); p = 0.791), the mean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (17 (6 to 34) versus 16 (5 to 35); p = 0.13) or the mean University of California, Los Angeles activity score (5 (3 to 6) versus 4 (3 to 6); p = 0.032). No patient with a short stem had thigh pain, but 11 patients (16%) with a conventional stem had thigh pain. No patients with a short stem had symptomatic pulmonary microemboli, but 11 patients with a conventional stem had pulmonary microemboli (symptomatic in three patients and asymptomatic in eight patients). One hip (1.4%) in the short stem group and eight (11.4%) in the conventional group had an intra-operative undisplaced fracture of the calcar. No component was revised for aseptic loosening in either group. One acetabular component in the short stem group and two acetabular components in the conventional stem group were revised for recurrent dislocation. Our study demonstrated that despite the poor bone quality in these elderly patients with a fracture of the femoral neck, osseo-integration was obtained in all hips in both groups. However, the incidence of thigh pain, pulmonary

  9. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ian F

    2011-05-16

    Head lice can only be diagnosed by finding live lice, as eggs take 7 days to hatch and may appear viable for weeks after death of the egg. Infestation may be more likely in school children, with risks increased in children with more siblings, longer hair, and of lower socioeconomic group. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for head lice? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 26 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: benzyl alcohol, dimeticone, herbal and essential oils, insecticide combinations, isopropyl myristate, ivermectin, lindane, malathion, mechanical removal by combing ("bug busting"), oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole, TMP-SMX), permethrin, phenothrin, pyrethrum, and spinosad.

  10. Head lice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Head lice can only be diagnosed by finding live lice, as eggs take 7 days to hatch and may appear viable for weeks after death of the egg. Infestation may be more likely in school children, with risks increased in children with more siblings, longer hair, and of lower socioeconomic group. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for head lice? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 26 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: benzyl alcohol, dimeticone, herbal and essential oils, insecticide combinations, isopropyl myristate, ivermectin, lindane, malathion, mechanical removal by combing ("bug busting"), oral trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole, TMP-SMX), permethrin, phenothrin, pyrethrum, and spinosad. PMID:21575285

  11. Head lice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Head louse infection is diagnosed by finding live lice, as eggs take 7 days to hatch (but a few may take longer, up to 13 days) and may appear viable for weeks after death of the egg. Infestation may be more likely in school children, with risks increased in children with more siblings or of lower socioeconomic group. Factors such as longer hair make diagnosis and treatment more difficult. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of physically acting treatments for head lice? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found six studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 1,2-octanediol, dimeticone, herbal and essential oils, and isopropyl myristate. PMID:25587918

  12. Mid-term clinical results of total hip arthroplasty using a Wagner standard cup for dysplastic hip

    PubMed Central

    Maezawa, Katsuhiko; Nozawa, Masahiko; Yuasa, Takahito; Aritomi, Kentaro; Ogawa, Seiki; Maruyama, Yuichiro; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Background The outcome of cementless total hip arthroplasty depends on many factors. We must not forget fundamental things those are design of outer surface of the component, that leads bone ingrowth into the prosthesis, better initial stability, and better insertional techniques. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty with a Wagner standard cup for patients who had acetabular dysplasia. Patients and methods Fifty-four patients with 55 hips underwent primary metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (Metasul prosthesis) with a Wagner standard cup (44–48 mm in outer diameter) and were followed for a minimum of 10 years. All patients received the same type of cementless femoral component (Natural hip stem) and femoral head (28 mm in diameter). Results Seventeen of the 55 Wagner standard cups (30.9%) showed aseptic loosening over a mean period of 3.6 years after surgery, and there were no bone anchors on the outer surface of the 16 retrieved cups. Conclusion From our experience, the small Wagner standard cup does not achieve sufficient osteointegration and we do not recommend the use of this cup, especially for patients with acetabular dysplasia and/or those with a small stature. PMID:25561751

  13. Mid-Term Outcomes and Complications with Cementless Distal Locking Hip Revision Stem with Hydroxyapatite Coating for Proximal Bone Defects and Fractures.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Lluis; Haddad, Sleiman; Minguell, Joan; Amat, Carles; Corona, Pablo S

    2015-06-01

    We revised the first 100 revision total hip arthroplasties using a cementless distal locking revision stem conducted in our referral centre. Average follow-up was 9.2 years (range: 5.5-12 years). Harris Hip Score improved from 42.5 to 81.6, and none had thigh pain at last follow-up. No significant stress shielding, osteolysis, or radiologic loosening was found. All patients showed radiological evidence of secondary implant osseointegration. Overall survival was 97% with three patients being revised: two stem ruptures and one subsidence. We could trace these complications to technical errors. These findings suggest that a diaphyseal fixation of the revision stem with distal locking can provide the needed primary axial and rotational stability of the prosthesis. This would allow further bony ingrowth, enhanced by the hydroxyapatite coating.

  14. Making A Noble-Metal-On-Metal-Oxide Catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Irvin M.; Davis, Patricia P.; Upchurch, Billy T.

    1989-01-01

    Catalyst exhibits superior performance in oxidation of CO in CO2 lasers. Two-step process developed for preparing platinum- or palladium-on-tin-oxide catalyst for recombination of CO and O2, decomposition products that occur in high-voltage discharge region of closed-cycle CO2 laser. Process also applicable to other noble-metal/metal-oxide combinations.

  15. Metal-On-Metal Bonding and Rebonding Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Bogicevic, A.

    1999-02-23

    Density-functional calculations for a wide variety of metals show that, contrary to the rebonding view of adsorbate bonding, addimers do not have notably longer surface bonds than adatoms, do not reside farther above the surface, and do not meet the rebonding arguments for augmented mobility. Rebonding concepts are found to have some utility in explaining addimer stability.

  16. The effect of abductor muscle and anterior-posterior hip contact load simulation on the in-vitro primary stability of a cementless hip stem

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In-vitro mechanical tests are commonly performed to assess pre-clinically the effect of implant design on the stability of hip endoprostheses. There is no standard protocol for these tests, and the forces applied vary between studies. This study examines the effect of the abductor force with and without application of the anterior-posterior hip contact force in the in-vitro assessment of cementless hip implant stability. Methods Cementless stems (VerSys Fiber Metal) were implanted in twelve composite femurs which were divided into two groups: group 1 (N = 6) was loaded with the hip contact force only, whereas group 2 (N = 6) was additionally subjected to an abductor force. Both groups were subjected to the same cranial-caudal hip contact force component, 2.3 times body weight (BW) and each specimen was subjected to three levels of anterior-posterior hip contact load: 0, -0.1 to 0.3 BW (walking), and -0.1 to 0.6 BW (stair climbing). The implant migration and micromotion relative to the femur was measured using a custom-built system comprised of 6 LVDT sensors. Results Substantially higher implant motion was observed when the anterior-posterior force was 0.6BW compared to the lower anterior-posterior load levels, particularly distally and in retroversion. The abductor load had little effect on implant motion when simulating walking, but resulted in significantly less motion than the hip contact force alone when simulating stair climbing. Conclusions The anterior-posterior component of the hip contact load has a significant effect on the axial motion of the stem relative to the bone. Inclusion of the abductor force had a stabilizing effect on the implant motion when simulating stair climbing. PMID:20576151

  17. Congenital hip dysplasia treated by total hip arthroplasty using cementless tapered stem in patients younger than 50 years old: results after 12-years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Faldini, Cesare; Miscione, Maria Teresa; Chehrassan, Mohammadreza; Acri, Francesco; Pungetti, Camilla; d'Amato, Michele; Luciani, Deianira; Giannini, Sandro

    2011-12-01

    Congenital hip dysplasia may lead to severe acetabular and femoral abnormalities that can make total hip arthroplasty a challenging procedure. We assessed a series of patients affected by developmental hip dysplasia treated with total hip arthroplasty using cementless tapered stem and here we report the outcomes at long-term follow-up. Twenty-eight patients (24 women and 4 men) aged between 44 and 50 years (mean 47 years) were observed. Clinical evaluation was rated with the Harris Hip Score. Radiographic evaluation consisted in standard anteroposterior and axial view radiographs of the hip. According to Crowe's classification, 16 hips presented dysplasia grade 1, 14 grade 2, and 4 grade 3. All patients were treated with total hip arthroplasty using a cementless tapered stem (Wagner Cone Prosthesis). Six patients were operated bilaterally, with a totally of 34 hips operated. After surgery, the patients were clinically and radiographically checked at 3, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter until an average follow-up of 12 years (range 10-14 years). Average Harris Hip Score was 56 ± 9 (range 45-69) preoperatively, 90 ± 9 (range 81-100) 12 months after surgery, and 91 ± 8 (range 83-100) at last follow-up. Radiographic evaluation demonstrated excellent osteointegration of the implants. Signs of bone resorption were present in 6 hips, nevertheless no evidence of loosening was observed and none of the implants has been revised. Even in dysplasic femur, the tapered stem allowed adequate stability and orientation of the implant. We consider tapered stem a suitable option for total hip arthroplasty in developmental hip dysplasia, also in case of young patients, thanks to the favourable long-term results.

  18. Primary cementless total hip arthroplasty with an alumina ceramic-on-ceramic bearing: results after a minimum of twenty years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Petsatodis, George E; Papadopoulos, Pericles P; Papavasiliou, Kyriakos A; Hatzokos, Ippokratis G; Agathangelidis, Filon G; Christodoulou, Anastasios G

    2010-03-01

    The biological problems related to wear debris after total hip arthroplasty have stimulated renewed interest in alternatives to metal-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and radiographic results of 100 patients who had undergone a total of 109 primary total hip arthroplasties with a cementless alumina ceramic-on-ceramic prosthesis between January 1985 and December 1989. The mean age of the patients at the time of the index arthroplasty was forty-six years. Clinical evaluation was performed with use of the Charnley modification of the Merle d'Aubigné-Postel scale. Seventy-eight patients who had had a total of eighty-five arthroplasties were available for follow-up evaluation at an average of 20.8 years. The patients' average age at the time of the latest follow-up was 66.8 years. Six hips (six acetabular cups and one femoral stem) in six patients underwent revision. Aseptic loosening of the cup combined with focal osteolysis was the cause of all six revisions. In one patient, the stem was also revised because of aseptic loosening. At the time of final follow-up, the result was excellent (according to the Merle d'Aubigné-Postel scale) in 68% of the hips, good in 19%, fair in 9%, and poor in 4%. The mean Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score improved from 7.9 points preoperatively to 16.9 points postoperatively (p < 0.001). The cumulative rate of survival of the prostheses was 84.4% at 20.8 years. The results of these cementless ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasties continued to be satisfactory at a minimum of twenty years postoperatively. The improved design of contemporary prostheses and the new generation of ceramic-on-ceramic bearing surfaces may lead to even better long-term results.

  19. The influence of contact ratio and its location on the primary stability of cementless total hip arthroplasty: A finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Reimeringer, M; Nuño, N

    2016-05-03

    Cementless hip stems are fixed to the surrounding bone by means of press-fit. To ensure a good press-fit, current surgical technique specifies an under-reaming of the bone cavity using successively larger broaches. Nevertheless, this surgical technique is inaccurate. Several studies show that the contact ratio (percentage of stem interface in contact with bone) achieved after surgery can vary between 20% and 95%. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of the contact ratio and its location on the primary stability of a cementless total hip arthroplasty using finite element analysis. A straight tapered femoral stem implanted in a composite bone was subjected to stair climbing. Micromotion of 7600 nodes at the stem-bone interface was computed for different configurations of contact ratios between 2% and 98%) along the hip stem. Considering the 15 configurations evaluated, the average micromotion ranges between 27μm and 54μm. The percentage of the porous interface of the stem having micromotion below 40μm that allows bone ingrowth range between 25-57%. The present numerical study shows that full contact (100%) between stem and bone is not necessary to obtain a good primary stability. The stem primary stability is influenced by both the contact ratio and its location. Several configurations with contact ratio lower than 100% and involving either the proximal or the cortical contact provide better primary stability than the full contact configuration. However, with contact ratio lower than 40%, the stem should be in contact with cortical bone to ensure a good primary stability.

  20. [Cementless Plasmacup-Bicontact total hip arthroplasty. Results of a minimum of ten-year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Špička, J; Radová, L; Gallo, J

    2012-01-01

    relevant literature data. This implant design is associated with a relatively infrequent osteolysis around the cup probably due to a low wear rate of polyethylene and a stable polyethylene liner-metal cup interface. Based on this work and some other studies it can be concluded that a post-operative migration of several millimetres is compatible with a long-term, stable cementless THA. The Bicontact-Plasmacup THA meets the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) criteria for a very good implant (ten-year survival rate of over 90%). At 10 years after surgery, however, the first signs of complaints about surgery outcome // dissatisfaction with surgery outcomes were recorded. This may, at least partly, be related to aseptic loosening which is one of the symptoms of particle disease.

  1. Head circumference (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area (above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head). During routine check-ups, the distance is measured ...

  2. Cementless total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Risitano, Salvatore; Sabatini, Luigi; Giachino, Matteo; Agati, Gabriele; Massè, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Interest for uncemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has greatly increased in recent years. This technique, less used than cemented knee replacement in the last decades, sees a revival thanks an advance in prosthetic design, instrumentation and operative technique. The related literature in some cases shows conflicting data on survival and on the revision’s rate, but in most cases a success rate comparable to cemented TKA is reported. The optimal fixation in TKA is a subject of debate with the majority of surgeons favouring cemented fixation. PMID:27162779

  3. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  4. Cementless surface replacement hemiarthroplasty for primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis: results of over 5-year follow-up in patients with or without rotator cuff deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hadithy, Nawfal; Furness, Nicholas; Patel, Ronak; Jonas, Sam; Jobbagy, Attila; Lowdon, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Background Cementless surface replacement hemiarthroplasty (CSRHA) is an established treatment for glenohumeral osteoarthritis; however, studies evaluating its role in arthritis with rotator cuff deficiency are limited. This study reviews the outcomes of CSRHA for glenohumeral osteoarthritis with and without rotator cuff tears. Methods 41 CSRHA (Mark III Copeland prosthesis) were performed for glenohumeral osteoarthritis with intact rotator cuffs (n = 21) and cuff-deficient shoulders (n = 20). Patients were assessed using Oxford and Constant questionnaires, patient satisfaction, range of motion measurements and by radiography. Results Mean age and follow-up were 75 years and 5.1 years, respectively. Functional gains were significantly higher in patients with intact rotator cuffs compared to cuff-deficient shoulders, with Oxford Shoulder Score improving from 18 to 37.5 and 15 to 27 and forward flexion improved from 60° to 126° and 44° to 77° in each group, respectively. Two patients with deficient cuffs had deficient subscapularis tendons; one of which was dislocated anteriorly. Conclusions CSRHA provides significant improvements in pain and function in patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis. In patients with deficient cuffs, functional gains are limited, and should be considered in low-demand patients where pain is the primary problem. Caution should be taken in patients with a deficient subscapularis as a result of the risk of dislocation. PMID:27582984

  5. A new cementless total hip arthroplasty with bioactive titanium porous-coating by alkaline and heat treatment: average 4.8-year results.

    PubMed

    Kawanabe, Keiichi; Ise, Kentaro; Goto, Koji; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Nakamura, Takashi; Kaneuji, Ayumi; Sugimori, Tanzo; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2009-07-01

    A method has been developed for creating a bioactive coating on titanium by alkaline and heat treatment, and shown that it forms a thin layer of hydroxyapatite (HA) on the surface of implants when soaked in simulated body fluid. A series of 70 cementless primary total hip arthroplasties using this coating technique on a porous titanium surface was performed, and followed up the patients for a mean period of 4.8 years. There were no instances of loosening or revision, or formation of a reactive line on the porous coating. Although radiography just after operation showed a gap between the host bone and the socket in over 70% of cases, all the gaps disappeared within a year, indicating the good osteoconduction provided by the coating. Alkaline-heat treatment of titanium to provide a thin HA coating has several advantages over plasma-spraying, including no degeneration or absorption of the HA coating, simplicity of the manufacturing process, and cost effectiveness. In addition, this method allows homogeneous deposition of bone-like apatite within a porous implant. Although this was a relatively short-term study, treatment that creates a bioactive surface on titanium and titanium alloy implants has considerable promise for clinical application.

  6. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in men. Using ...

  7. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  8. Increased head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003305.htm Increased head circumference To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the ...

  9. Compact Multifunction Inspection Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volpe, Richard A.; Ivlev, Robert; Ohm, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    Multiple-sensor inspection head designed to be mounted at tip of robot arm for performing multiple automated and/or remotely controlled inspection functions. Inspection head houses optoelectronic sensors, electrochemical sensor, sources of illumination, and parallel-jaw gripper.

  10. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... a gunshot to the head. Head injuries include: Concussion , in which the brain is shaken, is the ... function. This is called a traumatic brain injury. Concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury. Symptoms of ...

  11. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  12. Cost Analysis of Ceramic Heads in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Keith J; Odum, Susan M; Troyer, Jennifer L; Fehring, Thomas K

    2016-11-02

    The advent of adverse local tissue reactions seen in metal-on-metal bearings, and the recent recognition of trunnionosis, have led many surgeons to recommend ceramic-on-polyethylene articulations for primary total hip arthroplasty. However, to our knowledge, there has been little research that has considered whether the increased cost of ceramic provides enough benefit over cobalt-chromium to justify its use. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of ceramic-on-polyethylene implants and metal-on-polyethylene implants in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Markov decision modeling was used to determine the ceramic-on-polyethylene implant revision rate necessary to be cost-effective compared with the revision rate of metal-on-polyethylene implants across a range of patient ages and implant costs. A different set of Markov models was used to estimate the national cost burden of choosing ceramic-on-polyethylene implants over metal-on-polyethylene implants for primary total hip arthroplasties. The Premier Research Database was used to identify 20,398 patients who in 2012 were ≥45 years of age and underwent a total hip arthroplasty with either a ceramic-on-polyethylene implant or a metal-on-polyethylene implant. The cost-effectiveness of ceramic heads is highly dependent on the cost differential between ceramic and metal femoral heads and the age of the patient. At a cost differential of $325, ceramic-on-polyethylene bearings are cost-effective for patients <85 years of age. At a cost differential of $600, it is cost-effective to utilize ceramic-on-polyethylene bearings in patients <65 years of age, and, at a differential of $1,003, ceramic-on-polyethylene bearings are not cost-effective at any age. The ability to recoup the initial increased expenditure of ceramic heads through a diminished lifetime revision cost is dependent on the price premium for ceramic and the age of the patient. A wholesale switch to ceramic bearings

  13. Head Lice - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Head Lice - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (bosanski) Expand Section Head Lice - bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Expand Section Head ...

  14. Head Start Automation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Univ. Coll.

    The task for the National Data Management Project is to share technological capabilities with the Head Start Community in order to implement improved services for children and families involved in Head Start. Many Head Start programs have incorporated technology into their programs, including word processing, database management systems,…

  15. Treating Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... 180 K) En Español On this page: Blood-Sucking Bugs Steps for Safe Use Heading Off Head Lice Head lice. Every parent’s nightmare. A year-round problem, the number of cases seems to peak when ...

  16. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  17. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fax: 847-378-0600 www.NeurosurgeryToday.org A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and ...

  18. Mania following head injury.

    PubMed

    Yatham, L N; Benbow, J C; Jeffers, A M

    1988-03-01

    A case of mania following head injury in an individual with a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia is reported. It is argued that the head injury is probably causative in his case and suggested that head injury should be considered as one of the aetiological factors in secondary mania.

  19. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  20. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What ... there any new developments in treating my disease? Head and neck cancer overview The way a particular head and ...

  1. Head Impact Measurement Devices.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richelle M; Dowling, Margaret; O'Connor, Kathryn L

    Concussive injuries are at the forefront of sports medicine research. Recently, researchers have used a variety of head- and helmet-based impact-monitoring devices to quantify impacts sustained during contact sport participation. This review provides an up-to-date collection of head accelerometer use at the youth, high school, and collegiate levels. PubMed was searched for articles published between 1980 and 2015 using the terms accelerometer and concussion, impact sensor and concussion, head impact telemetry system, head impact telemetry, and linear acceleration and concussion. An additional Google search was performed to capture devices without publications. Clinical review. Level 4. Twenty-four products track and/or record head impact for clinical or research use. Ten of these head impact devices have publications supporting their utility. Head impact measuring devices can describe athlete exposure in terms of magnitude and/or frequency, highlighting their utility within a multimodal approach for concussion assessment and diagnosis.

  2. Hydroxyapatite in total hip arthroplasty. Our experience with a plasma spray porous titanium alloy/hydroxyapatite double-coated cementless stem

    PubMed Central

    Castellini, Iacopo; Andreani, Lorenzo; Parchi, Paolo Domenico; Bonicoli, Enrico; Piolanti, Nicola; Risoli, Francesca; Lisanti, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Purpose Total hip arthroplasty could fail due to many factors and one of the most common is the aseptic loosening. In order to achieve an effective osseointegration and reduce risk of lossening, the use of cemented implant, contact porous bearing surface and organic coating were developed. Aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiological mid-term outcomes of a porous titanium alloy/hydroxyapatite double coating manufactured cementless femoral stem applied with “plasma spray” technique and to demonstrate the possibility to use this stem in different types of femoral canals. Methods Between January 2008 and December 2012, 240 consecutive primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) were performed using a porous titanium alloy/hydroxyapatite double coating manufactured cementless femoral stem. 182 patients were examined: 136 were females (74.7%) and 46 males (25.2%); average age was 72 years old (ranging from 26 to 92 years old). For each patient, Harris Hip Scores (HHS) and Womac Scores were collected. All X-ray images were analyzed in order to demonstrate stem survival rate and subsidence. Results Harris Hip Score was good or excellent in 85% of the cases (average 90%) and mean WOMAC score was 97.5 (ranging from 73.4 to 100). No cases of early/late infection or periprosthetic fracture were noticed, with an excellent implant survival rate (100%) in a mean period of 40 months (ranging from 24 and 84 months). 5 cases presented acute implant dislocation, 2 due to wrong cup positioning in a dysplastic acetabulum and 3 after ground level fall. Dorr classification of femoral geometry was uses and the results were: 51 type A bone, 53 type B bone and 78 type C bone. Stem subsidence over 2 mm was considered as a risk factor of future implant loosening and was evidenced in 3 female patients with type C of Dorr classification. No radiolucencies signs around the proximally coated portion of stem or proximal reabsorption were visible during the radiographic

  3. An Analytical Calculation of Frictional and Bending Moments at the Head-Neck Interface of Hip Joint Implants during Different Physiological Activities.

    PubMed

    Farhoudi, Hamidreza; Oskouei, Reza H; Pasha Zanoosi, Ali A; Jones, Claire F; Taylor, Mark

    2016-12-05

    This study predicts the frictional moments at the head-cup interface and frictional torques and bending moments acting on the head-neck interface of a modular total hip replacement across a range of activities of daily living. The predicted moment and torque profiles are based on the kinematics of four patients and the implant characteristics of a metal-on-metal implant. Depending on the body weight and type of activity, the moments and torques had significant variations in both magnitude and direction over the activity cycles. For the nine investigated activities, the maximum magnitude of the frictional moment ranged from 2.6 to 7.1 Nm. The maximum magnitude of the torque acting on the head-neck interface ranged from 2.3 to 5.7 Nm. The bending moment acting on the head-neck interface varied from 7 to 21.6 Nm. One-leg-standing had the widest range of frictional torque on the head-neck interface (11 Nm) while normal walking had the smallest range (6.1 Nm). The widest range, together with the maximum magnitude of torque, bending moment, and frictional moment, occurred during one-leg-standing of the lightest patient. Most of the simulated activities resulted in frictional torques that were near the previously reported oxide layer depassivation threshold torque. The predicted bending moments were also found at a level believed to contribute to the oxide layer depassivation. The calculated magnitudes and directions of the moments, applied directly to the head-neck taper junction, provide realistic mechanical loading data for in vitro and computational studies on the mechanical behaviour and multi-axial fretting at the head-neck interface.

  4. Cementless anatomical prosthesis for the treatment of 3-part and 4-part proximal humerus fractures: cadaver study and prospective clinical study with minimum 2 years followup

    PubMed Central

    Obert, Laurent; Saadnia, Rachid; Loisel, François; Uhring, Julien; Adam, Antoine; Rochet, Séverin; Clappaz, Pascal; Lascar, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of a cementless, trauma-specific locked stem for 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures. Materials and methods: This study consisted of two parts: a cadaver study with 22 shoulders and a multicenter prospective clinical study of 23 fracture patients evaluated at least 2 years after treatment. In the cadaver study, the locked stem (HumelockTM, FX Solutions) and its instrumentation were evaluated. In the clinical study, five senior surgeons at four different hospitals performed the surgical procedures. An independent surgeon evaluated the patients using clinical (Constant score, QuickDASH) and radiological (X-rays, CT scans) outcome measures. Results: The cadaver study allowed us to validate the height landmarks relative to the pectoralis major tendon. In the clinical study, at the review, abduction was 95° (60–160), forward flexion was 108° (70–160), external rotation (elbow at body) was 34° (0–55), the QuickDASH was 31 (4.5–59), the overall Constant score was 54 (27–75), and the weighted Constant score was 76 (31.5–109). Discussion: This preliminary study of hemiarthroplasty (HA) with a locked stem found results that were at least equivalent to published series. As all patients had at least a 2-year follow-up, integration of the locked stem did not cause any specific complications. These results suggest that it is possible to avoid using cement when hemiarthroplasty is performed for the humeral stem. This implant makes height adjustment and transosseous suturing of the tuberosities more reproducible. PMID:27194107

  5. Mid-term results of cementless total hip replacement using a ceramic-on-ceramic bearing with and without computer navigation.

    PubMed

    Sugano, N; Nishii, T; Miki, H; Yoshikawa, H; Sato, Y; Tamura, S

    2007-04-01

    We have developed a CT-based navigation system using infrared light-emitting diode markers and an optical camera. We used this system to perform cementless total hip replacement using a ceramic-on-ceramic bearing couple in 53 patients (60 hips) between 1998 and 2001. We reviewed 52 patients (59 hips) at a mean of six years (5 to 8) postoperatively. The mid-term results of total hip replacement using navigation were compared with those of 91 patients (111 hips) who underwent this procedure using the same implants, during the same period, without navigation. There were no significant differences in age, gender, diagnosis, height, weight, body mass index, or pre-operative clinical score between the two groups. The operation time was significantly longer where navigation was used, but there was no significant difference in blood loss or navigation-related complications. With navigation, the acetabular components were placed within the safe zone defined by Lewinnek, while without, 31 of the 111 components were placed outside this zone. There was no significant difference in the Merle d'Aubigne and Postel hip score at the final follow-up. However, hips treated without navigation had a higher rate of dislocation. Revision was performed in two cases undertaken without navigation, one for aseptic acetabular loosening and one for fracture of a ceramic liner, both of which showed evidence of neck impingement on the liner. A further five cases undertaken without navigation showed erosion of the posterior aspect of the neck of the femoral component on the lateral radiographs. These seven impingement-related mechanical problems correlated with malorientation of the acetabular component. There were no such mechanical problems in the navigated group. We conclude that CT-based navigation increased the precision of orientation of the acetabular component and control of limb length in total hip replacement, without navigation-related complications. It also reduced the rate of

  6. Rifampicin-fosfomycin coating for cementless endoprostheses: antimicrobial effects against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    PubMed

    Alt, Volker; Kirchhof, Kristin; Seim, Florian; Hrubesch, Isabelle; Lips, Katrin S; Mannel, Henrich; Domann, Eugen; Schnettler, Reinhard

    2014-10-01

    New strategies to decrease infection rates in cementless arthroplasty are needed, especially in the context of the growing incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of a rifampicin-fosfomycin coating against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA in a rabbit infection prophylaxis model. Uncoated or rifampicin-fosfomycin-coated K-wires were inserted into the intramedullary canal of the tibia in rabbits and contaminated with an inoculation dose of 10(5) or 10(6) colony-forming units of MSSA EDCC 5055 in study 1 and MRSA T6625930 in study 2, respectively. After 28days the animals were killed and clinical, histological and microbiological assessment, including pulse-field gel electrophoresis, was conducted. Positive culture growth in agar plate testing and/or clinical signs and/or histological signs were defined positive for infection. Statistical evaluation was performed using Fisher's exact test. Both studies showed a statistically significant reduction of infection rates for rifampicin-fosfomycin-coated implants compared to uncoated K-wires (P=0.015). In both studies none of the 12 animals that were treated with a rifampicin-fosfomycin-coated implant showed clinical signs of infection or a positive agar plate testing result. In both studies, one animal of the coating group showed the presence of sporadic bacteria with concomitant inflammatory signs in histology. The control groups in both studies exhibited an infection rate of 100% with clear clinical signs of infection and positive culture growth in all animals. In summary, the rifampicin-fosfomycin-coating showed excellent antimicrobial activity against both MSSA and MRSA, and therefore warrants further clinical testing.

  7. Ceramic bearings with bilayer coating in cementless total hip arthroplasty. A safe solution. A retrospective study of one hundred and twenty six cases with more than ten years' follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, André; Aslanian, Thierry; Dalin, Thibaud; Picaud, Jean

    2017-05-01

    Using a ceramic-ceramic bearings, cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) has provided good clinical results. To ensure longevity a good quality fixation of the implants is mandatory. Different surface treatments had been used, with inconsistent results. We hypothesized that a "bilayer coating" applied to both THA components using validated technology will provide a long-lasting and reliable bone fixation. We studied the survival and bone integration of a continuous, single-surgeon, retrospective series of 126 THA cases (116 patients) with an average follow-up of 12.2 years (minimum 10 years). The THA consisted of cementless implants with a bilayer coating of titanium and hydroxyapatite and used a ceramic-ceramic bearing. With surgical revision for any cause (except infection) as the end point, THA survival was 95.1 % at 13 years. Stem (98.8 %) and cup (98.6 %) survival was similar at 13 years. Bone integration was confirmed in 100 % of implants (Engh-Massin score of 17.42 and ARA score of 5.94). There were no instances of loosening. Revisions were performed because of instability (1.6 %), prosthetic impingement or material-related issues. A bilayer titanium and hydroxyapatite coating provides strong, fast, reliable osseo integration, without deterioration at the interface or release of damaging particles. The good clinical outcomes expected of ceramic bearings were achieved, as were equally reliable stem and cup fixation.

  8. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Karen M

    2016-07-01

    Soccer is currently the most popular and fastest growing sport worldwide, with approximately 265 million registered soccer players existing around the world. The popularity of the sport, coupled with the high incidence of 18.8-21.5 head injuries per 1,000 player hours reported, make it essential that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes, have a solid understanding of head injuries. The successful rehabilitation of athletes with head injuries relies upon early and accurate identification strategies and implementation of appropriate return to play measures across all areas in the continuum of care. Soccer is a frequently played sport, and head injuries are common. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes themselves have a solid understanding of head injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment options. The purpose of this article was to provide rehabilitation nurses with current information regarding frequently occurring head injuries in the widespread sport of soccer. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  9. Treatment of head lice.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Stephanie A; Morrell, Dean S; Burkhart, Craig N

    2009-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is a common infestation among children worldwide. Multiple therapies exist for the treatment of this condition, including topical pediculicides and oral medications. When used in combination with environmental decontamination, these drugs can be very effective in eradicating head lice infestation without significant adverse events. The present study discusses the use of available over-the-counter and prescription treatments, including pyrethroids and permethrin, lindane, malathion, ivermectin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, in the treatment of head lice.

  10. Hip fracture in a patient affected by transient osteoporosis of the femoral head during the last trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Spinarelli, Antonio; Patella, Vittorio; Speciale, Domenico; Petrera, Massimo; Vittore, Donato; Pesce, Vito; Patella, Silvio

    2009-05-01

    Few cases of hip fracture in pregnant women affected by transient osteoporosis of the femoral head have been reported in the literature, but its real incidence seems to be underestimated. During pregnancy, osteoporosis manifests itself with an insidious onset of hip pain and limp without any trauma or infective episode in clinical history. Its clinical course is characterized by spontaneous recovery a few weeks to several months after delivery. This article describes the case of a 35-year-old woman with a sudden onset of bilateral hip pain during the last trimester of her first pregnancy; she had neither history of steroid therapy nor alcohol abuse; her body temperature and serological parameters were normal. Bilateral transient osteoporosis of the femoral heads was suspected and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Fifteen days postpartum, she was admitted to our clinic with a displaced femoral neck fracture. A cementless total hip arthroplasty was performed to quickly begin a rehabilitative program. She underwent antiresorptive therapy with alendronic acid 70 mg/week and vitamin D for 3 months. Three months after the fracture, a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan showed osteopenia (T-score, -1.5). Risedronic acid 35 mg/week and vitamin D were then prescribed. The last physical examination at 3 months postoperatively revealed a gradual recovery of the autonomy in activities of daily life.

  11. Characterization of the fretting corrosion behavior, surface and debris from head-taper interface of two different modular hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Claudio T; Barbosa, Cassio; Monteiro, Maurício J; Abud, Ibrahim C; Caminha, Ieda M V; Roesler, Carlos R M

    2016-09-01

    Modular hip prostheses are flexible to match anatomical variations and to optimize mechanical and tribological properties of each part by using different materials. However, micromotions associated with the modular components can lead to fretting corrosion and, consequently, to release of debris which can cause adverse local tissue reactions in human body. In the present study, the surface damage and residues released during in vitro fretting corrosion tests were characterized by stereomicroscope, SEM and EDS. Two models of modular hip prosthesis were studied: Model SS/Ti Cementless whose stem was made of ASTM F136 Ti-6Al-4V alloy and whose metallic head was made of ASTM F138 austenitic stainless steel, and Model SS/SS Cemented with both components made of ASTM F138 stainless steel. The fretting corrosion tests were evaluated according to the criteria of ASTM F1875 standard. Micromotions during the test caused mechanical wear and material loss in the head-taper interface, resulting in fretting-corrosion. Model SS/SS showed higher grade of corrosion. Different morphologies of debris predominated in each model studied. Small and agglomerated particles were observed in the Model SS/Ti and irregular particles in the Model SS/SS. After 10 million cycles, the Model SS/Ti was more resistant to fretting corrosion than the Model SS/SS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Deposition head for laser

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

  13. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  14. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  15. Isolated acetabular revision with use of the Harris-Galante Cementless Component. Study with intermediate-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Amir A; Dungy, Danton S; Mark, Arthur; Schule, Steven; Harris, William H

    2004-08-01

    Isolated revision of an acetabular total hip component is associated with special problems related to the retention of the femoral component. We reviewed the intermediate-term results of a series of such operations with use of the Harris-Galante Porous acetabular component. We retrospectively studied the results of ninety-five isolated acetabular revisions, specifically focusing on sixty-three that had been followed for a minimum of sixty months (average, 130 months). Evaluation measures included the Harris hip score, radiographic analysis, complications, and prosthetic survival. Follow-up information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires, telephone contact, and/or clinical examination. The effects of a femoral component with a modular neck-head junction and of trochanteric osteotomy on the dislocation rate were evaluated. Nine shells were rerevised: four because of recurrent dislocation, four because of aseptic loosening, and one because of dissociation of the liner. The survival rate with rerevision of the shell as the end point was 90.5% at 120 months. Pelvic osteolysis occurred in 4% of the cases. The dislocation rate for the sixty-three hips was 8%. When femoral component modularity was accounted for, the analysis of the dislocations revealed a significantly higher dislocation rate for the hips without a trochanteric osteotomy (p = 0.04). Eight arthroplasties were complicated by nerve palsies, seven of which resolved fully or nearly so. Isolated acetabular revision with use of the Harris-Galante Porous acetabular component was associated with a low rate of loosening, lysis, and rerevision of the shell at the time of intermediate-term follow-up. However, there was a high rate of complications, including trochanteric nonunion, dislocation, and nerve palsy. The performance of a trochanteric osteotomy was associated with a decreased rate of dislocation.

  16. Woodpeckers and head injury.

    PubMed

    May, P R; Fuster, J M; Newman, P; Hirschman, A

    1976-02-28

    The woodpecker is an experiment in Nature, a model for the investigation of mechanisms of basic importance for head injury and its prevention. A preliminary anatomical study of the woodpecker's head suggests that it may be fruitful to explore impact protective systems which are radically different from those in common use.

  17. Head Start. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Head Start is a national program that provides comprehensive developmental services for preschool children (ages 3 to 5) from low-income families and social services for their families. Approximately 1,400 community-based nonprofit organizations and school systems develop programs to meet specific needs. Head Start began in 1965 in the Office of…

  18. Head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-03-29

    Essential facts Head and neck cancers include those of the mouth and throat, and rarer forms affecting the sinuses, salivary glands, nose or middle ear. The Oracle Cancer Trust says head and neck cancer is the UKs sixth most common type, with 31 people diagnosed each day.

  19. Effect of a collar on subsidence and local micromotion of cementless femoral stems: in vitro comparative study based on micro-computerised tomography.

    PubMed

    Malfroy Camine, Valérie; Rüdiger, Hannes A; Pioletti, Dominique P; Terrier, Alexandre

    2017-06-07

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively compare the difference in primary stability between collarless and collared versions of the same femoral stem. Specifically, we tested differences in subsidence and micromotion. Collarless and collared versions of the same cementless femoral stem were implanted in two groups of six fresh-frozen cadaveric femurs. Each implanted femur was then subsequently tested for axial compressive and torsional loadings. A micro-CT based technique was applied to quantify implant subsidence and compute the map of local micromotion around the femoral stems. Micromotion of collarless and collared stems was compared in each Gruen zone. Subsidence was higher but not significantly (p = 0.352) with collarless (41.0 ± 29.9 μm) than with collared stems (37.0 ± 44.6 μm). In compression, micromotion was lower (p = 0.257) with collarless (19.5 ± 5 μm) than with collared stems (43.3 ± 33.1 μm). In torsion, micromotion was also lower (p = 0.476) with collarless (96.9 ± 59.8 μm) than collared stems (118.7 ± 45.0 μm). Micromotion was only significantly lower (p = 0.001) in Gruen zone 1 and for compression with collarless (7.0 ± 0.6 μm) than with collared stems (22.6 ± 25.5 μm). Primary stability was achieved for both stem designs, with a mean micromotion below the osseointegration threshold. Under loading conditions similar to those observed in normal daily activity and with good press-fit, the collar had no influence on subsidence or micromotion. Further studies are required to test the potential advantage of collar with higher loads, undersized stems, or osteoporotic femurs.

  20. American Head and Neck Society

    MedlinePlus

    American Head & Neck Society Mission Statement: Advance Education, Research, and Quality of Care for the head and neck oncology patient. American Head & Neck Society | AHNS The mission of the AHNS is ...

  1. Ulnar head replacement.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  2. Large-diameter total hip arthroplasty modular heads require greater assembly forces for initial stability

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, A. R.; Sullivan, N. P. T.; Whitehouse, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Modular junctions are ubiquitous in contemporary hip arthroplasty. The head-trunnion junction is implicated in the failure of large diameter metal-on-metal (MoM) hips which are the currently the topic of one the largest legal actions in the history of orthopaedics (estimated costs are stated to exceed $4 billion). Several factors are known to influence the strength of these press-fit modular connections. However, the influence of different head sizes has not previously been investigated. The aim of the study was to establish whether the choice of head size influences the initial strength of the trunnion-head connection. Materials and Methods Ti-6Al-4V trunnions (n = 60) and two different sizes of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) heads (28 mm and 36 mm; 30 of each size) were used in the study. Three different levels of assembly force were considered: 4 kN; 5 kN; and 6 kN (n = 10 each). The strength of the press-fit connection was subsequently evaluated by measuring the pull-off force required to break the connection. The statistical differences in pull-off force were examined using a Kruskal–Wallis test and two-sample Mann–Whitney U test. Finite element and analytical models were developed to understand the reasons for the experimentally observed differences. Results 36 mm diameter heads had significantly lower pull-off forces than 28 mm heads when impacted at 4 kN and 5 kN (p < 0.001; p < 0.001), but not at 6 kN (p = 0.21). Mean pull-off forces at 4 kN and 5 kN impaction forces were approximately 20% larger for 28 mm heads compared with 36 mm heads. Finite element and analytical models demonstrate that the differences in pull-off strength can be explained by differences in structural rigidity and the resulting interface pressures. Conclusion This is the first study to show that 36 mm Co-Cr heads have up to 20% lower pull-off connection strength compared with 28 mm heads for equivalent assembly forces. This effect is likely

  3. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Reutzel, Edward W.

    1998-01-01

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure.

  4. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Reutzel, E.W.

    1998-08-18

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure. 8 figs.

  5. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ocular cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal ... cause permanent tightening of neck muscles that can lead to chronic neck ache or headache. An abnormal ...

  6. TCGA head Neck

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  7. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  8. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  9. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional support, and other therapies. You may ... help treat head and neck cancer. Immunotherapy. An active area of immunotherapy research centers around drugs that ...

  10. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  11. Exploding head syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of abrupt, loud noises when going to sleep or waking up. They are usually painless, but associated with fear and distress. In spite of the fact that its characteristic symptomatology was first described approximately 150 y ago, exploding head syndrome has received relatively little empirical and clinical attention. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature using Medline, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and PubMed was undertaken. After first discussing the history, prevalence, and associated features, the available polysomnography data and five main etiological theories for exploding head syndrome are summarized. None of these theories has yet reached dominance in the field. Next, the various methods used to assess and treat exploding head syndrome are discussed, as well as the limited outcome data. Finally, recommendations for future measure construction, treatment options, and differential diagnosis are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  13. Head muscle development.

    PubMed

    Tzahor, Eldad

    2015-01-01

    The developmental paths that lead to the formation of skeletal muscles in the head are distinct from those operating in the trunk. Craniofacial muscles are associated with head and neck structures. In the embryo, these structures derive from distinct mesoderm populations. Distinct genetic programs regulate different groups of muscles within the head to generate diverse muscle specifications. Developmental and lineage studies in vertebrates and invertebrates demonstrated an overlap in progenitor populations derived from the pharyngeal mesoderm that contribute to certain head muscles and the heart. These studies reveal that the genetic program controlling pharyngeal muscles overlaps with that of the heart. Indeed cardiac and craniofacial birth defects are often linked. Recent studies suggest that early chordates, the last common ancestor of tunicates and vertebrates, had an ancestral pharyngeal mesoderm lineage that later during evolution gave rise to both heart and craniofacial structures. This chapter summarizes studies related to the origins, signaling, genetics, and evolution of the head musculature, highlighting its heterogeneous characteristics in all these aspects.

  14. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze. PMID:20607135

  15. Head Injuries in Children

    PubMed Central

    Craft, A. W.; Shaw, D. A.; Cartlidge, N. E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Two-hundred children with head injury admitted consecutively to paediatric wards in the two main hospitals in Newcastle upon Tyne have been studied. Eight children required neurosurgical operation. There were two deaths. Details of the cause and consequences of the accidents have been analysed and an attempt has been made to identify psychological or physical factors that may predispose to injury. There was a slightly higher proportion of children with what are regarded as adverse personality factors among the head injuries than in a control group and there were more left-handed children than would be expected in the general population. The results suggest that the modern “high-rise” bicycle may carry a special risk of head injury. PMID:5082547

  16. Pediatric head injury.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, N

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric head injury is a public health problem that exacts a high price from patients, their families and society alike. While much of the brain damage in head-injured patients occurs at the moment of impact, secondary injuries can be prevented by aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Modern imaging devices have simplified the task of diagnosing intracranial injuries. Recent advances in monitoring technology have made it easier to assess the effectiveness of medical therapy. These include intracranial pressure monitoring devices that are accurate and safe, and jugular bulb monitoring which provides a continuous, qualitative measure of cerebral blood flow. The cornerstones of treatment remain hyperventilation and osmotherapy. Despite maximal treatment, however, the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric head injury remains high. Reduction of this mortality and morbidity will likely depend upon prevention rather than treatment.

  17. Holographic Optical Head

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    optical path from HOE to focal point can be made (ie same for both rays. We do this for a thin lens; in reality, the condition is obtained by ray...I2 RADC-TR-90-200 Final Technical Report September 1990 uric FILE COPY HOLOGRAPHIC OPTICAL HEAD Holometrix, Inc. P. Gregory DeBaryshe, Charles S. th...aa w 1. REPOA ATE 3. Reoa"rm AND DAS C September 1990 Final Aug 88 - May 90 4. TME AND hTME s. FUMO NUMBERS HOLOGRAPHIC OPTICAL HEAD C - F30602-88-C

  18. Head and Neck Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shannon; Melin, Alyson; Reilly, Debra

    2017-10-01

    Management of head and neck burns involves acute and intermediate phases. Acutely, the goals are establish a secure airway and treat life-threatening injuries. Then, optimize nutrition, assess extent of the burn, perform local wound care, and provide eye protection. Management depends on the degree of the head and neck burn. Postinjury splinting and rehabilitation are vital to healing. After the acute inflammation has resolved and the scars have matured, reconstruction begins with the goals of restoring both function and aesthetics. Reconstruction ranges from simple scar release, to skin grafting, and possibly free flap reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Head and neck melanoma.

    PubMed

    Shashanka, R; Smitha, B R

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma appears to be increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world over the past 30-40 years and continues to increase in the United States, Canada, Australia, Asia, and Europe. The behavior of head and neck melanoma is aggressive, and it has an overall poorer prognosis than that of other skin sites. The authors review the published literature and text books, intending to give an overall picture of malignant melanomas of the head and neck and a special emphasis on treatment considerations with controversies in treatment including biopsy, radiation therapy, sentinel node biopsy, and nodal dissection.

  20. Flexible Heating Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris

    1994-01-01

    United States Air Force is investigating method of repairing aircraft by use of adhesive bonding with induction heating to cure adhesive. Fast-acting and reliable induction heating device that is lightweight, portable, and easy to use needed for such applications. Newly developed flexible heating head lightweight and conforms to complex, curved surfaces. Incorporates principles and circuitry of toroid joining gun described in "Toroid Joining Gun for Fittings and Couplings" (LAR-14278). Concentrates heat in local area through induction heating. Flexible heating head contains tank circuit, connected via cable to source of power.

  1. Professor and Head.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-14

    V AD-AO107 OKLHI UNV IKALT4 SC ZENCES CENTER OI4LAI4ONA C ITY DETC F/9 6/19 PROFESSOR AND HEAD . (U) AUG 81 H L STOWE. R T DOWELL, L A SORDA14L AFOSR...78-3506 UNCLASSIFIED AFOSRTR-81-0675 NL mEE~h~hhINE EEEEELI AFOSRTR. 81 -0675 LE’VEEL𔃻 Final Report IS, Professor and Head Stone, H. L., Ph...Acceleration Stress, Coronary Blood Flow, Heart Biochemistry 20. ABST ~CT (Continue on rovers* side It necessary and Identify by block number) The level of the

  2. Flexible Heating Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris

    1994-01-01

    United States Air Force is investigating method of repairing aircraft by use of adhesive bonding with induction heating to cure adhesive. Fast-acting and reliable induction heating device that is lightweight, portable, and easy to use needed for such applications. Newly developed flexible heating head lightweight and conforms to complex, curved surfaces. Incorporates principles and circuitry of toroid joining gun described in "Toroid Joining Gun for Fittings and Couplings" (LAR-14278). Concentrates heat in local area through induction heating. Flexible heating head contains tank circuit, connected via cable to source of power.

  3. Heading in soccer: dangerous play?

    PubMed

    Spiotta, Alejandro M; Bartsch, Adam J; Benzel, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    Soccer is the world's most popular sport and unique in that players use their unprotected heads to intentionally deflect, stop, or redirect the ball for both offensive and defensive strategies. Headed balls travel at high velocity pre- and postimpact. Players, coaches, parents, and physicians are justifiably concerned with soccer heading injury risk. Furthermore, risk of long-term neurocognitive and motor deficits caused by repetitively heading a soccer ball remains unknown. We review the theoretical concerns, the results of biomechanical laboratory experiments, and the available clinical data regarding the effects of chronic, subconcussive head injury during heading in soccer.

  4. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOEpatents

    Sawabe, James K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  5. Is Head Start Dying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Ann; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of problems faced by Head Start and its present status includes a review of its transfer from O.E.O. to H.E.W., its extensions, the Westinghouse Report, and other studies and articles. Decline in public interest and support is noted. (KW)

  6. Head injury in children.

    PubMed

    Mihić, Josip; Rotim, Kresimir; Marcikić, Marcel; Smiljanić, Danko

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, head injuries are becoming more frequent in children. The most common cause of head injuries in children is fall, and, in more severe injuries, traffic accident trauma. In traumatic brain injuries in infants and small children, the most common symptoms are paleness, somnolence and vomiting, the so called "pediatric contusion syndrome". After the first year of age, light head trauma occurs after minor falls, whereas the most severe injuries are caused by car accidents, including pedestrians, or fall from the height. As the child grows, severe head trauma is more likely to occur after bicycle or car accidents. Brain injuries involving or penetrating the brain by broken bone fragments include contusions and lacerations of the brain. Unconsciousness need not always occur during contusion, as it may also appear after swelling of the brain or high intracranial pressure complications. Despite comprehensive injuries in such types of accidents, the outcome of survivors is surprisingly good. Such severe neurocranium injuries usually include heavy bleeding with hematoma (epidural bleeding, subdural bleeding, intracerebral bleeding, and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage). Improved prehospital care, readiness and accessibility of multidisciplinary teams, establishment of regional centers, and efforts to prevent and decrease traffic accidents contribute to mortality rate reduction.

  7. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  8. Prognosis in head injury.

    PubMed

    Jane, J A; Rimel, R W

    1982-01-01

    The prognosis of head injury when viewed from the perspective of the Glasgow Coma Scale confirms the utility of this measure. In particular, decrease in mortality is associated with an increase in GCS. In addition, the motor score portion of the GCS was of predictive value when taken alone. The outcome of patients in coma (GCS less than 8) was closely related to three preventable or treatable factors, namely, hypoxia, shock, and increased intracranial pressure. These three factors, when considered in combination, powerfully predicted mortality. Of considerable interest was the finding that moderate head injury (GCS 9-12) was associated with a small but perhaps preventable mortality. The morbidity was intermediate between that of severe and minor and was surprisingly high. Minor head injury, while not associated with significant mortality, also resulted in considerable morbidity. Neuropsychological evaluation of the patients and an experimental study suggests that an organic component may be involved even in this group. To deal with head injury, distinctions must be made between grades of severity. The Glasgow Coma Scale is suited for this task. Nonetheless, the recognition of this basic continuity should elicit the further recognition that different health providers may be inv