Science.gov

Sample records for head mounted display

  1. Maintenance Procedure Display: Head Mounted Display (HMD) Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Milrian; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Solem, Jody A.; Holden, Kritina L.; Hoffman, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing maintenance procedures for head mounted displays is shown. The topics include: 1) Study Goals; 2) Near Eye Displays (HMDs); 3) Design; 4) Phase I-Evaluation Methods; 5) Phase 1 Results; 6) Improved HMD Mounting; 7) Phase 2 -Evaluation Methods; 8) Phase 2 Preliminary Results; and 9) Next Steps.

  2. Multifocal planes head-mounted displays.

    PubMed

    Rolland, J P; Krueger, M W; Goon, A

    2000-07-01

    Stereoscopic head-mounted displays (HMD's) provide an effective capability to create dynamic virtual environments. For a user of such environments, virtual objects would be displayed ideally at the appropriate distances, and natural concordant accommodation and convergence would be provided. Under such image display conditions, the user perceives these objects as if they were objects in a real environment. Current HMD technology requires convergent eye movements. However, it is currently limited by fixed visual accommodation, which is inconsistent with real-world vision. A prototype multiplanar volumetric projection display based on a stack of laminated planes was built for medical visualization as discussed in a paper presented at a 1999 Advanced Research Projects Agency workshop (Sullivan, Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, Va., 1999). We show how such technology can be engineered to create a set of virtual planes appropriately configured in visual space to suppress conflicts of convergence and accommodation in HMD's. Although some scanning mechanism could be employed to create a set of desirable planes from a two-dimensional conventional display, multiplanar technology accomplishes such function with no moving parts. Based on optical principles and human vision, we present a comprehensive investigation of the engineering specification of multiplanar technology for integration in HMD's. Using selected human visual acuity and stereoacuity criteria, we show that the display requires at most 27 equally spaced planes, which is within the capability of current research and development display devices, located within a maximal 26-mm-wide stack. We further show that the necessary in-plane resolution is of the order of 5 microm.

  3. Designing a Vibrotactile Head-mounted Display.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Oliveira, Victor; Brayda, Luca; Nedel, Luciana; Maciel, Anderson

    2017-01-23

    Due to the perceptual characteristics of the head, vibrotactile Head-mounted Displays are built with low actuator density. Therefore, vibrotactile guidance is mostly assessed by pointing towards objects in the azimuthal plane. When it comes to multisensory interaction in 3D environments, it is also important to convey information about objects in the elevation plane. In this paper, we design and assess a haptic guidance technique for 3D environments. First, we explore the modulation of vibration frequency to indicate the position of objects in the elevation plane. Then, we assessed a vibrotactile HMD made to render the position of objects in a 3D space around the subject by varying both stimulus loci and vibration frequency. Results have shown that frequencies modulated with a quadratic growth function allowed a more accurate, precise, and faster target localization in an active head pointing task. The technique presented high usability and a strong learning effect for a haptic search across different scenarios in an immersive VR setup.

  4. Head-Mounted and Head-Up Display Glossary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.; Allen, J. Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    One of the problems in head-up and helmet-mounted display (HMD) literature has been a lack of standardization of words and abbreviations. Several different words have been used for the same concept; for example, flight path angle, flight path marker, velocity vector, and total velocity vector all refer to the same thing. In other cases, the same term has been used with two different meanings, such as binocular field-of-view which means the field-of-view visible to both left and right eyes according to some or the field-of-view visible to either the left or right eye or both according to others. Many of the terms used in HMD studies have not been well-defined. We need to have a common language to ensure that system descriptions are communicated. As an example, the term 'stabilized' has been widely used with two meanings. 'Roll-stabilized' has been used to mean a symbol which rotates to indicate the roll or bank of the aircraft. 'World-stabilized' and 'head-stabilized' have both been used to indicate symbols which move to remain fixed with respect to external objects. HMDs present unique symbology problems not found in HUDs. Foremost among these is the issue of maintaining spatial orientation of the symbols. All previous flight displays, round dial instruments, HDDs, and HUDs have been fixed in the cockpit. With the HMD, the flight display can move through a large angle. The coordinates use in transforming from the real-world to the aircraft to the HMD have not been consistently defined. This glossary contains terms relating to optics and vision, displays, and flight information, weapons and aircraft systems. Some definitions, such as Navigation Display, have been added to clarify the definitions for Primary Flight Display and Primary Flight Reference. A list of HUD/HMD related abbreviations is also included.

  5. Head-Mounted and Head-Up Display Glossary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.; Allen, J. Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    One of the problems in head-up and helmet-mounted display (HMD) literature has been a lack of standardization of words and abbreviations. Several different words have been used for the same concept; for example, flight path angle, flight path marker, velocity vector, and total velocity vector all refer to the same thing. In other cases, the same term has been used with two different meanings, such as binocular field-of-view which means the field-of-view visible to both left and right eyes according to some or the field-of-view visible to either the left or right eye or both according to others. Many of the terms used in HMD studies have not been well-defined. We need to have a common language to ensure that system descriptions are communicated. As an example, the term 'stabilized' has been widely used with two meanings. 'Roll-stabilized' has been used to mean a symbol which rotates to indicate the roll or bank of the aircraft. 'World-stabilized' and 'head-stabilized' have both been used to indicate symbols which move to remain fixed with respect to external objects. HMDs present unique symbology problems not found in HUDs. Foremost among these is the issue of maintaining spatial orientation of the symbols. All previous flight displays, round dial instruments, HDDs, and HUDs have been fixed in the cockpit. With the HMD, the flight display can move through a large angle. The coordinates use in transforming from the real-world to the aircraft to the HMD have not been consistently defined. This glossary contains terms relating to optics and vision, displays, and flight information, weapons and aircraft systems. Some definitions, such as Navigation Display, have been added to clarify the definitions for Primary Flight Display and Primary Flight Reference. A list of HUD/HMD related abbreviations is also included.

  6. Head Mounted Displays for Virtual Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    image generating capabilities. 2.2.4 Color Since people are used to viewing the world in color, a full-color display would add to the realism of the...Crescent Street, Waltham, MA, undated. Lipton, L., Foundations of the Stereoscopic Cinema , New York: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Company, 1982. Martin, S. W

  7. Exploring Virtual Worlds With Head-Mounted Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, James C.; Harris, Mark R.; Brooks, Frederick P.; Fuchs, Henry; Kelley, Michael T.; Hughes, John W.; Ouh-Young, Ming; Cheung, Clement; Holloway, Richard L.; Pique, Michael

    1989-09-01

    For nearly a decade the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has been conducting research in the use of simple head-mounted displays in "real-world" applications. Such units provide the user with non-holographic true three-dimensional information, since the kinetic depth effect, stereoscopy, and other visual cues combine to immerse the user in a "virtual world" which behaves like the real world in some respects. UNC's head-mounted display was built inexpensively from commercially available off-the-shelf components. Tracking of the the user's head position and orientation is performed by a Polhemus Navigation Sciences' 3SPACE* tracker. The host computer uses the tracking information to generate updated images corresponding to the user's new left eye and right eye views. The images are broadcast to two liquid crystal television screens (220x320 pixels) mounted on a horizontal shelf at the user's forehead. The user views these color screens through half-silvered mirrors, enabling the computer-generated image to be superimposed upon the user's real physical environment. The head-mounted display has been incorporated into existing molecular modeling and architectural applications being developed at UNC. In molecular structure studies, chemists are presented with a room-sized molecule with which they can interact in a manner more intuitive than that provided by conventional two-dimensional displays and dial boxes. Walking around and through the large molecule may provide quicker understanding of its structure, and such problems as drug-enzyme docking may be approached with greater insight. In architecture, the head-mounted display enables clients to better appreciate three-dimensional designs, which may be misinterpreted in their conventional two-dimensional form by untrained eyes. The addition of a treadmill to the system provides additional kinesthetic input into the understanding of building size and scale.

  8. Head Mounted Display with a Roof Mirror Array Fold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention includes a head mounted display (HMD) worn by a user. The HMD includes a display projecting an image through an optical lens. The HMD also includes a one-dimensional retro reflective array receiving the image through the optical lens at a first angle with respect to the display and deflecting the image at a second angle different than the first angle with respect to the display. The one-dimensional retro reflective array reflects the image in order to project the image onto an eye of the user.

  9. Head-mounted projective displays for creating distributed collaborative environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Jannick P.; Davis, Larry; Ha, Yonggang; Hamza-Lup, Felix G.; Del Vento, Benjamin; Gao, Chunyu; Hua, Hong; Biocca, Frank

    2002-08-01

    In this paper, we shall present an overview of research in augmented reality technology and applications conducted in collaboration with the 3DVIS Lab and the MIND Lab. We present research in the technology of head-mounted projective displays and tracking probes. We then review mathematical methods developed for augmented reality. Finally we discuss applications in medical augmented reality and point to current developments in distributed 3d collaborative environments.

  10. Head-mounted workstation displays for airborne reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, Michael P.

    1998-09-01

    Aircraft reconnaissance operators need to access increasing amounts of information to perform their job effectively. Unfortunately, there is no excess weight, space or power capacity in most airborne platforms for the installation of additional display surfaces. Head mounted workstation displays solve these weight, space and power problems and mitigate information overload by providing a user-friendly interface to displayed information. Savings can be tremendous for large platforms. Over 18 kW of power and over 5,000 pounds could be saved on each Rivet Joint or AWACS platform. Even small platforms such as the E-2C or UAV ground control stations benefit from removal of large, heavy CRT or LCD displays. In addition, head mounted workstation displays provide an increased capability for collaborative mission planning and reduce motion-induced nausea. Kaiser Electronics has already designed and demonstrated a prototype system, VIEWTM, that addresses the needs of the airborne workstation operator. This system is easily reconfigured for multiple tasks and can be designed as a portable workstation for use anywhere within the aircraft (especially for maintenance or supervisory roles). We have validated the VIEWTM design with hundreds of user trials within the airborne reconnaissance community. Adopting such a display system in reconnaissance aircraft will gain significant benefits such as longer on-station time, increased operational altitude and improved operator performance.

  11. Head-mounted display system for surgical visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Greg W.; Osborn, Dale B.

    1995-05-01

    Recent advances in high resolution color spatial light modulators and light weight optics together with application specific integrated circuits enable true stereoscopic visualization on a head mounted display (HMD). The development of precision stereo displays with comfortable long duration wear characteristics are critically dependent on incorporating key human factors into the HMD design. In this paper we discuss the development of a VGA format (640 X 480 pixel) full color video and graphics stereo display. Its primary application is as an element of an integrated, interactive visualization system for surgeons performing minimally invasive surgery and endoscopic laser surgery. Additional uses include endoscopic and open surgical training and rehearsal. The high resolution, wide field of view displays combined with true stereoscopic imagery enhances the surgeon's visualization, ability to navigate and manipulate in the surgical field.

  12. Immersive BCI with SSVEP in VR head-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Bonkon Koo; Hwan-Gon Lee; Yunjun Nam; Seungjin Choi

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we present an immersive brain computer interface (BCI) where we use a virtual reality head-mounted display (VRHMD) to invoke SSVEP responses. Compared to visual stimuli in monitor display, we demonstrate that visual stimuli in VRHMD indeed improve the user engagement for BCI. To this end, we validate our method with experiments on a VR maze game, the goal of which is to guide a ball into the destination in a 2D grid map in a 3D space, successively choosing one of four neighboring cells using SSVEP evoked by visual stimuli on neighboring cells. Experiments indicate that the averaged information transfer rate is improved by 10% for VRHMD, compared to the case in monitor display and the users feel easier to play the game with the proposed system.

  13. 3D head mount display with single panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuchang; Huang, Junejei

    2014-09-01

    The head mount display for entertainment usually requires light weight. But in the professional application has more requirements. The image quality, field of view (FOV), color gamut, response and life time are considered items, too. A head mount display based on 1-chip TI DMD spatial light modulator is proposed. The multiple light sources and splitting images relay system are the major design tasks. The relay system images the object (DMD) into two image planes to crate binocular vision. The 0.65 inch 1080P DMD is adopted. The relay has a good performance which includes the doublet to reduce the chromatic aberration. Some spaces are reserved for placing the mirror and adjustable mechanism. The mirror splits the rays to the left and right image plane. These planes correspond to the eyepieces objects and image to eyes. A changeable mechanism provides the variable interpupillary distance (IPD). The folding optical path makes sure that the HMD center of gravity is close to the head and prevents the uncomfortable downward force being applied to head or orbit. Two RGB LED assemblies illuminate to the DMD in different angle. The light is highly collimated. The divergence angle is small enough such that one LED ray would only enters to the correct eyepiece. This switching is electronic controlled. There is no moving part to produce vibration and fast switch would be possible. Two LED synchronize with 3D video sync by a driving board which also controls the DMD. When the left eye image is displayed on DMD, the LED for left optical path turns on. Vice versa for right image and 3D scene is accomplished.

  14. Head-mounted display systems and the special operations soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, Rodney B.

    1998-08-01

    In 1997, the Boeing Company, working with DARPA under the Smart Modules program and the US Army Soldier Systems Command, embarked on an advanced research and development program to develop a wearable computer system tailored for use with soldiers of the US Special Operations Command. The 'special operations combat management system' is a rugged advanced wearable tactical computer, designed to provide the special operations soldier with enhanced situation awareness and battlefield information capabilities. Many issues must be considered during the design of wearable computers for a combat soldier, including the system weight, placement on the body with respect to other equipment, user interfaces and display system characteristics. During the initial feasibility study for the system, the operational environment was examined and potential users were interviewed to establish the proper display solution for the system. Many display system requirements resulted, such as head or helmet mounting, Night Vision Goggle compatibility, minimal visible light emissions, environmental performance and even the need for handheld or other 'off the head' type display systems. This paper will address these issues and other end user requirements for display systems for applications in the harsh and demanding environment of the Special Operations soldier.

  15. Gradient index eyepiece technology for head-mounted display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Peter L.

    2014-06-01

    Eyepieces used in full color head-mounted displays require a high degree achromatization to exhibit the level of performance required by observers. Many times, this leads to the use of dense glass materials and multi-element systems. The advent of new gradient index material systems as part of the DARPA-sponsored Manufacturable Gradient Index Optics (M-GRIN) may yield new design degrees of freedom for eyepiece and HMD designers. New plastic material systems may be used to simplify eyepiece design and shorten the eyepiece overall length, pulling the entire HMD system closer to the observer's head and improving systems center of gravity. This paper will examine the possibility of using large aperture GRIN optics to achromatize an eyepiece and reduce its overall mass. Assumptions about the material system (index of refraction (n) and delta n) and a candidate full color microdisplay will be clearly stated and may not reflect any commercially available system.

  16. Three-dimensional holographic display using active shutter for head mounted display application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Eui; Kim, Nam; Song, Hoon; Lee, Hong-Seok; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2011-03-01

    Three-dimensional holographic system using active shutters for head mounted display application is proposed. Conventional three-dimensional head mounted display suffers from eye-fatigue since it only provides binocular disparity, not monocular depth cues like accommodation. The proposed method presents two holograms of a 3D scene to corresponding eyes using active shutters. Since a holography delivered to each eye has full three-dimensional information, not only the binocular depth cues but also monocular depth cues are presented, eliminating eye-fatigue. The application to the head mounted display also greatly relaxes the viewing angle requirement that is one of the main issues of the conventional holographic displays. In presentation, the proposed optical system will be explained in detail with experimental results.

  17. Differential effects of head-mounted displays on visual performance.

    PubMed

    Schega, Lutz; Hamacher, Daniel; Erfuth, Sandra; Behrens-Baumann, Wolfgang; Reupsch, Juliane; Hoffmann, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Head-mounted displays (HMDs) virtually augment the visual world to aid visual task completion. Three types of HMDs were compared [look around (LA); optical see-through with organic light emitting diodes and virtual retinal display] to determine whether LA, leaving the observer functionally monocular, is inferior. Response times and error rates were determined for a combined visual search and Go-NoGo task. The costs of switching between displays were assessed separately. Finally, HMD effects on basic visual functions were quantified. Effects of HMDs on visual search and Go-NoGo task were small, but for LA display-switching costs for the Go-NoGo-task the effects were pronounced. Basic visual functions were most affected for LA (reduced visual acuity and visual field sensitivity, inaccurate vergence movements and absent stereo-vision). LA involved comparatively high switching costs for the Go-NoGo task, which might indicate reduced processing of external control cues. Reduced basic visual functions are a likely cause of this effect.

  18. Stereoscopic see-through retinal projection head-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hideya; Hirooka, Shun

    2008-02-01

    See-through head-mounted displays (HMDs) provide an effective capability for Mixed Reality. Some conventional monocular see-through HMDs have been developed and they can display two-dimensional virtual information. However, when two-dimensional virtual information is displayed, observers can understand it although it has no relation to real-world objects. What an observer sees needs to be augmented by virtual information in accordance with the real object. Such environments are provided by a stereoscopic see-through HMD. Though, this method has generally the drawback of dissociation between accommodation and convergence. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a new stereoscopic see-through HMD by using the principle of the modified Maxwellian View which solves the problem of the narrow viewing area. This HMD has an extremely long focal depth, and provides natural concordant accommodation and convergence. The proposed HMD consists of two pairs of an HOE and an LCD. An HOE is used as a combiner and a condenser lens which performs the Maxwellian View, and virtual 3D images can be displayed at any distance from viewer. We have verified that the accommodation consistent with the convergence by using proposed HMD. This paper describes the principle of the proposed stereoscopic see-through retinal projection HMD and also describes the experimental results.

  19. Head-mounted display (HMD) assessment for tracked vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Gail

    2011-06-01

    Providing the warfighter with Head or Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) while in tracked vehicles provides a means to visually maintain access to systems information while in a high vibration environment. The high vibration and unique environment of military tracked and turreted vehicles impact the ability to distinctly see certain information on an HMD, especially small font size or graphics and information that requires long fixation (staring), rather than a brief or peripheral glance. The military and commercial use of HMDs was compiled from market research, market trends, and user feedback. Lessons learned from previous military and commercial use of HMD products were derived to determine the feasibility of HMDs use in the high vibration and the unique environments of tracked vehicles. The results are summarized into factors that determine HMD features which must be specified for successful implementation.

  20. Gaze contingent hologram synthesis for holographic head-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jisoo; Kim, Youngmin; Hong, Sunghee; Shin, Choonsung; Kang, Hoonjong

    2016-03-01

    Development of display and its related technologies provides immersive visual experience with head-mounted-display (HMD). However, most available HMDs provide 3D perception only by stereopsis, lack of accommodation depth cues. Recently, holographic HMD (HHMD) arises as one viable option to resolve this problem because hologram is known to provide full set of depth cues including accommodation. Moreover, by virtue of increasing computational power, hologram synthesis from 3D object represented by point cloud can be calculated in real time even with rigorous Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula. However, in HMD, rapid gaze change of the user requires much faster refresh rate, which means that much faster hologram synthesis is indispensable in HHMD. Because the visual acuity falls off in the visual periphery, we propose here to accelerate synthesizing hologram by differentiating density of point cloud projected on the screen. We classify the screen into multiple layers which are concentric circles with different radii, where the center is aligned with gaze of user. Layer with smaller radius is closer to the region of interest, hence, assigned with higher density of point cloud. Because the computation time is directly related to the number of points in point cloud, we can accelerate synthesizing hologram by lowering density of point cloud in the visual periphery. Cognitive study reveals that user cannot discriminate those degradation in the visual periphery if the parameters are properly designed. Prototype HHMD system will be provided for verifying the feasibility of our method, and detailed design scheme will be discussed.

  1. 3D holographic head mounted display using holographic optical elements with astigmatism aberration compensation.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Han-Ju; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Seong-Bok; Zhang, HuiJun; Li, BoNi; Ji, Yeong-Min; Kim, Sang-Hoo; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2015-12-14

    We propose a bar-type three-dimensional holographic head mounted display using two holographic optical elements. Conventional stereoscopic head mounted displays may suffer from eye fatigue because the images presented to each eye are two-dimensional ones, which causes mismatch between the accommodation and vergence responses of the eye. The proposed holographic head mounted display delivers three-dimensional holographic images to each eye, removing the eye fatigue problem. In this paper, we discuss the configuration of the bar-type waveguide head mounted displays and analyze the aberration caused by the non-symmetric diffraction angle of the holographic optical elements which are used as input and output couplers. Pre-distortion of the hologram is also proposed in the paper to compensate the aberration. The experimental results show that proposed head mounted display can present three-dimensional see-through holographic images to each eye with correct focus cues.

  2. "Head up and eyes out" advances in head mounted displays capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alex

    2013-06-01

    There are a host of helmet and head mounted displays, flooding the market place with displays which provide what is essentially a mobile computer display. What sets aviators HMDs apart is that they provide the user with accurate conformal information embedded in the pilots real world view (see through display) where the information presented is intuitive and easy to use because it overlays the real world (mix of sensor imagery, symbolic information and synthetic imagery) and enables them to stay head up, eyes out, - improving their effectiveness, reducing workload and improving safety. Such systems are an enabling technology in the provision of enhanced Situation Awareness (SA) and reducing user workload in high intensity situations. Safety Is Key; so the addition of these HMD functions cannot detract from the aircrew protection functions of conventional aircrew helmets which also include life support and audio communications. These capabilities are finding much wider application in new types of compact man mounted audio/visual products enabled by the emergence of new families of micro displays, novel optical concepts and ultra-compact low power processing solutions. This papers attempts to capture the key drivers and needs for future head mounted systems for aviation applications.

  3. Performance considerations for high-definition head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Oliver J.; Larimer, James O.; Gille, Jennifer

    1992-07-01

    We will discuss design image-optimization for helmet mounted displays (HMDs) in the context of a system engineering approach that includes a description of natural targets in the field, a description of perceptual characteristics of the human visual system, and device specifications that relate to these ecological and human-factors parameters that ultimately determine task performance. We will consider two HMD system as examples: the GEN III (AN/PVS-7A) night vision goggle (NVG) system and the SIPE helmet system (Soldier''s Integrated Protective Ensemble), both developed by S-TRON for use by the US Army.

  4. Head up and head mounted display performance improvements through advanced techniques in the manipulation of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisely, Paul L.

    2009-05-01

    Since their introduction a number of years ago, head up and helmet mounted displays have undergone continuous and intensive development in aerospace applications. To date, the designs have been performed using geometric optic design techniques and have progressed to the point where very little further improvement in their characteristics is possible. This paper describes a display realised by the use of new optical design techniques based on wave-guiding principles that have enabled substantial further significant improvements to be made. These improvements are not only in respect of size, weight and volume for a given optical performance, but also in the optical characteristics that currently limit the usability of such displays in many applications. Displays that have been realised and tested through these methods are described and their performance in laboratory and flight trials discussed, together with considerations for further progress in their development.

  5. Comanche Helmet-Mounted Display Heading-Tape Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpin, Terry; Dowell, Susan; Atencio, Adolph

    2006-01-01

    The Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AMRDEC) conducted a simulation to assess the performance associated with a Contact Analog, world-referenced heading tape as implemented on the Comanche Helmet Integrated Display Sight System (HIDSS) when compared with a Compressed heading tape similar to that specified by the former Military Standard (MIL-STD) 1295. Six experienced pilots flew three modified Aeronautical Design Standards (ADS)-33 maneuvers (Hover Turn, Bob-up, Transient Turn) and a precision traffic pattern in the NASA Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS). Analysis of the pilot objective performance data and subjective handling qualities ratings (HQRs) showed the following: Compressed symbology in the Velocity Stabilization (VelStab) flight mode generally produced the most precise performances over Contact Analog symbology with respect to the heading, altitude, position, and time criteria specified for the maneuvers tested. VelStab outperformed the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) on all maneuvers achieving desired performance on most maneuvers for both symbol sets. Performance in the AFCS mode was generally desirable to adequate for heading and altitude and did not meet adequate standards for hover position and time for the Hover Turn and Bob-up maneuvers. VelStab and AFCS performance were nearly the same for the Transient Turn. Pilot comments concerning the Contact Analog heading-tape implementation were generally unfavorable in spite of the achieved levels of performance. HQRs showed Compressed symbology in the VelStab flight mode produced the lowest mean HQR, encompassing mixed ratings of satisfactory handling and needing improvement. All other symbology/flight-mode combinations yielded higher HQRs, which characterized opinions that deficiencies in aircraft handling due to HMD symbology would need improvement. Contact Analog heading tape and other symbology require improvement, especially when operating in the AFCS mode. NASA-TLX rated Compressed symbology

  6. Enhancing head and helmet-mounted displays using a virtual pixel technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kading, Benjamin; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    Head and helmet-mounted displays utilize pixels to display a digitized approximation of the real world. These displays must have a higher pixel density (as compared to a monitor or projected image) to create the same level of perceived resolution. This paper proposes a virtual pixel technology which incorporates a virtual pixel creation function. Each physical pixel's configuration is based on the virtual pixels that it contributes to, allowing lower pixel density display hardware to produce the approximation of a higher pixel density. The paper provides an overview of the proposed technology and how it is applicable to head/helmet-mounted displays and considerations related thereto.

  7. Tracking a head-mounted display in a room-sized environment with head-mounted cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jih-Fang; Azuma, Ronald T.; Bishop, Gary; Chi, Vernon; Eyles, John; Fuchs, Henry

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents our efforts to accurately track a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) in a large environment. We review our current benchtop prototype (introduced in {WCF9O]), then describe our plans for building the full-scale system. Both systems use an inside-oui optical tracking scheme, where lateraleffect photodiodes mounted on the user's helmet view flashing infrared beacons placed in the environment. Church's method uses the measured 2D image positions and the known 3D beacon locations to recover the 3D position and orientation of the helmet in real-time. We discuss the implementation and performance of the benchtop prototype. The full-scale system design includes ceiling panels that hold the infrared beacons and a new sensor arrangement of two photodiodes with holographic lenses. In the full-scale system, the user can walk almost anywhere under the grid of ceiling panels, making the working volume nearly as large as the room.

  8. The use of head-mounted display eyeglasses for teaching surgical skills: A prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Peden, Robert G; Mercer, Rachel; Tatham, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether 'surgeon's eye view' videos provided via head-mounted displays can improve skill acquisition and satisfaction in basic surgical training compared with conventional wet-lab teaching. A prospective randomised study of 14 medical students with no prior suturing experience, randomised to 3 groups: 1) conventional teaching; 2) head-mounted display-assisted teaching and 3) head-mounted display self-learning. All were instructed in interrupted suturing followed by 15 minutes' practice. Head-mounted displays provided a 'surgeon's eye view' video demonstrating the technique, available during practice. Subsequently students undertook a practical assessment, where suturing was videoed and graded by masked assessors using a 10-point surgical skill score (1 = very poor technique, 10 = very good technique). Students completed a questionnaire assessing confidence and satisfaction. Suturing ability after teaching was similar between groups (P = 0.229, Kruskal-Wallis test). Median surgical skill scores were 7.5 (range 6-10), 6 (range 3-8) and 7 (range 1-7) following head-mounted display-assisted teaching, conventional teaching, and head-mounted display self-learning respectively. There was good agreement between graders regarding surgical skill scores (rho.c = 0.599, r = 0.603), and no difference in number of sutures placed between groups (P = 0.120). The head-mounted display-assisted teaching group reported greater enjoyment than those attending conventional teaching (P = 0.033). Head-mounted display self-learning was regarded as least useful (7.4 vs 9.0 for conventional teaching, P = 0.021), but more enjoyable than conventional teaching (9.6 vs 8.0, P = 0.050). Teaching augmented with head-mounted displays was significantly more enjoyable than conventional teaching. Students undertaking self-directed learning using head-mounted displays with pre-recorded videos had comparable skill acquisition to those attending traditional wet

  9. Adaptive suppression of biodynamic interference in helmet mounted and head down displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhav, Shmuel J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses errors caused by vibrations or turbulence in airborne helmet teleoperation, helmet mounted, and head down displays. A preliminary study is presented which indicates that these errors can be significantly suppressed by adaptive filtering. A modified version of the LMS adaptive noise suppression algorithm facilitates the separation of the voluntary large head movements from the vibration-induced small nonvoluntary head movements. Computer simulations demonstrate the potential of the approach in suppressing both aiming errors and apparent display blurring.

  10. Perceptual Issues in the Use of Head-Mounted Visual Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Hakkinen (2004) reported similar problems when a monocular HMD was used during performance Perceptual Issues in the Use of Head-Mounted Visual Displays...person may miss information or signals while using an HMD. Hakkinen (2003) stated that monocular HMDs produce a common problem of rivalry and per- ceptual...mounted dis- plays. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 24, 120–134. Hakkinen , J. (2003, September 9). Ergonomics of head-worn virtual

  11. Recent advances in head-mounted light field displays for virtual and augmented reality (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Hong

    2017-02-01

    Head-mounted light field displays render a true 3D scene by sampling either the projections of the 3D scene at different depths or the directions of the light rays apparently emitted by the 3D scene and viewed from different eye positions. They are capable of rendering correct or nearly correct focus cues and addressing the very well-known vergence-accommodation mismatch problem in conventional virtual and augmented reality displays. In this talk, I will focus on reviewing recent advancements of head-mounted light field displays for VR and AR applications. I will demonstrate examples of HMD systems developed in my group.

  12. Clinical application of a modern high-definition head-mounted display in sonography.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Hideki; Kihara, Kazunori; Yoshida, Soichiro; Higuchi, Saori; Ito, Masaya; Nakanishi, Yasukazu; Kijima, Toshiki; Ishioka, Junichiro; Matsuoka, Yoh; Numao, Noboru; Saito, Kazutaka; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    2014-08-01

    Because of the remarkably improved image quality and wearability of modern head-mounted displays, a monitoring system using a head-mounted display rather than a fixed-site monitor for sonographic scanning has the potential to improve the diagnostic performance and lessen the examiner's physical burden during a sonographic examination. In a preclinical setting, 2 head-mounted displays, the HMZ-T2 (Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) and the Wrap1200 (Vuzix Corporation, Rochester, NY), were found to be applicable to sonography. In a clinical setting, the feasibility of the HMZ-T2 was shown by its good image quality and acceptable wearability. This modern device is appropriate for clinical use in sonography.

  13. Headphone and Head-Mounted Visual Displays for Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Duran R.; Ellis, Stephen R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Trejo, Leonard J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A realistic auditory environment can contribute to both the overall subjective sense of presence in a virtual display, and to a quantitative metric predicting human performance. Here, the role of audio in a virtual display and the importance of auditory-visual interaction are examined. Conjectures are proposed regarding the effectiveness of audio compared to visual information for creating a sensation of immersion, the frame of reference within a virtual display, and the compensation of visual fidelity by supplying auditory information. Future areas of research are outlined for improving simulations of virtual visual and acoustic spaces. This paper will describe some of the intersensory phenomena that arise during operator interaction within combined visual and auditory virtual environments. Conjectures regarding audio-visual interaction will be proposed.

  14. Adoption of ASL Classifiers as Delivered by Head-Mounted Displays in a Planetarium Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Eric G.; Jones, Michael D.; Lawler, M. Jeannette; Bench, Nathan; Mangrubang, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Accommodating the planetarium experience to members of the deaf or hard-of-hearing community has often created situations that are either disruptive to the rest of the audience or provide an insufficient accommodation. To address this issue, we examined the use of head-mounted displays to deliver an American Sign Language "sound track"…

  15. In the blink of an eye: head mounted displays development within BAE Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alex

    2015-05-01

    There has been an explosion of interest in head worn displays in recent years, particularly for consumer applications with an attendant ramping up of investment into key enabling technologies to provide what is essence a mobile computer display. However, head mounted system have been around for over 40 years and today's consumer products are building on a legacy of knowledge and technology created by companies such as BAE Systems who have been designing and fielding helmet mounted displays (HMD) for a wide range of specialist applications. Although the dominant application area has been military aviation, solutions have been fielded for solider, ground vehicle, simulation, medical, racing car and even subsea navigation applications. What sets these HMDs apart is that they provide the user with accurate conformal information embedded in the users real world view where the information presented is intuitive and easy to use because it overlays the real world and enables them to stay head up, eyes out, - improving their effectiveness, reducing workload and improving safety. Such systems are an enabling technology in the provision of enhanced Situation Awareness (SA) and reducing user workload in high intensity situations. These capabilities are finding much wider application in new types of compact man mounted audio/visual products enabled by the emergence of new families of micro displays, novel optical concepts and ultra-compact low power processing solutions. This paper therefore provides a personal summary of BAE Systems 40 year's journey in developing and fielding Head Mounted systems, their applications.

  16. A Novel Approach to Surgical Instructions for Scrub Nurses by Using See-Through-Type Head-Mounted Display.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Sasaki, Asami; Sato, Chikage; Yamazaki, Mutsuko; Takayasu, Junya; Tanaka, Naofumi; Okabayashi, Norie; Hirano, Hiromi; Saito, Kazutaka; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori

    2015-08-01

    In order to facilitate assists in surgical procedure, it is important for scrub nurses to understand the operation procedure and to share the operation status with attending surgeons. The potential utility of head-mounted display as a new imaging monitor has been proposed in the medical field. This study prospectively evaluated the usefulness of see-through-type head-mounted display as a novel intraoperative instructional tool for scrub nurses. From January to March 2014, scrub nurses who attended gasless laparoendoscopic single-port radical nephrectomy and radical prostatectomy wore the monocular see-through-type head-mounted display (AiRScouter; Brother Industries Ltd, Nagoya, Japan) displaying the instruction of the operation procedure through a crystal panel in front of the eye. Following the operation, the participants completed an anonymous questionnaire, which evaluated the image quality of the head-mounted display, the helpfulness of the head-mounted display to understand the operation procedure, and adverse effects caused by the head-mounted display. Fifteen nurses were eligible for the analysis. The intraoperative use of the head-mounted display could help scrub nurses to understand the surgical procedure and to hand out the instruments for the operation with no major head-mounted-display wear-related adverse event. This novel approach to support scrub nurses will help facilitate technical and nontechnical skills during surgery.

  17. System requirements for head down and helmet mounted displays in the military avionics environment

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, M.F.; Kalmanash, M.; Sethna, V.

    1996-12-31

    The introduction of flat panel display technologies into the military avionics cockpit is a challenging proposition, due to the very difficult system level requirements which must be met. These relate to environmental extremes (temperature and vibrational), sever ambient lighting conditions (10,000 fL to nighttime viewing), night vision system compatibility, and wide viewing angle. At the same time, the display system must be packaged in minimal space and use minimal power. The authors will present details on the display system requirements for both head down and helmet mounted systems, as well as information on how these challenges may be overcome.

  18. Visual Issues In The Use Of A Head-Mounted Monocular Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peli, Eli

    1989-11-01

    A miniature display device, recently available commercially, is aimed at providing a portable, inexpensive means of visual information communication. The display is head-mounted in front of one eye with the other eye's view of the environment unobstructed. Various visual phenomena are associated with this design. The consequences of these phenomena for visual safety, comfort, and efficiency of the user were evaluated: (1) The monocular, partially occluded mode of operation interrupts binocular vision. Presenting disparate images to each eye results in binocular rivalry. The two images may appear superimposed, with one image perceived with greater clarity or com letely dominant. Most observers can, use the display comfortably in this rivalrous mode. In many cases, it is easier to use the display in a peripheral position, slightly above or below the line of sight, thus permitting normal binocular vision of the environment. (2) As a head-mounted device, the displayed image is perceived to move during head movements due to the response of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. These movements affect the visibility of small letters during active head rotations and sharp accelerations. Adaptation is likely to reduce this perceived image motion. No evidence for postural instability or motion sickness was noted as a result of these conflicts between vis-ual and vestibular inputs. (3) Small displacements of the image are noted even without head motion, resulting from eye movements and the virtual lack of display persiste ce. These movements are noticed sponta e ously by few observers and are unlikely to interfere with the display use in most tasks.

  19. Optical waveguide technology and its application in head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alex

    2012-06-01

    Applying optical waveguide technology to head mounted display (HMD) solutions has the key goal of providing the user with improved tactical situational awareness by providing information and imagery in an easy to use form which also maintains compatibility with current night vision devices and also enables the integration of future night vision devices. The benefits of waveguide technology in HMDs have seen a number of alternative waveguide display technologies and configurations emerge for Head mounted Display applications. BAE System's presented one such technology in 2009 [1] and this is now in production for a range of Helmet Mounted Display products. This paper outlines the key design drivers for aviators Helmet Mounted Displays, provides an update of holographic Optical Waveguide Technology and its maturation into compact, lightweight Helmet Mounted Displays products for aviation and non-aviation applications. Waveguide displays have proved too be a radical enabling technology which allows higher performance display devices solutions to be created in a revolutionary way. It has also provided the user with see through daylight readable displays, offering the combination of very large eye box and excellent real world transmission in a compact format. Holographic Optical Waveguide is an optical technology which reduces size and mass whilst liberating the designer from many of the constraints inherent in conventional optical solutions. This technology is basically a way of moving light without the need for a complex arrangement of conventional lenses. BAE Systems has exploited this technology in the Q-SightTM family of scalable Helmet Mounted Displays; allowing the addition of capability as it is required in a flexible, low-cost way The basic monocular Q-SightTM architecture has been extended to offer wide field of view, monochrome and full colour HMD solution for rotary wing, fast jet and solider system applications. In its basic form Q-SightTM now offers plug

  20. Summary of the Advanced Research Projects Agency head-mounted display programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girolamo, Henry J.

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) established a head-mounted display (HMD) program as part of their High Definition Systems Program. The goals were to investigate, then develop new display technologies that would overcome the technical challenges of cathode-ray tubes, and satisfy DoD needs for improved HMDs. A Joint Services Working was formed to identify and define display specifications through common program goals. The technologies, Active Matrix Electroluminescent and Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display were selected as the candidate display technologies. The Combat Vehicle Crew-HMD program resulted as the testbed for integrating the new display technologies. Many military systems leveraging the ARPA-developed technologies have emerged as a result of the ARPA HMD program. The dual-use applications of these technologies comply with ARPA and user goals to have HMD systems that will have wide acceptance meeting the requirements of the military, medical, commercial, and consumer markets.

  1. A see-through holographic head-mounted display with the large viewing angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhidong; sang, Xinzhu; Lin, Qiaojun; Li, Jin; Yu, Xunbo; Gao, Xin; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Xie, Songlin

    2017-02-01

    A novel solution for the large view angle holographic head-mounted display (HHMD) is presented. Divergent light is used for the hologram illumination to construct a large size three-dimensional object outside the display in a short distance. A designed project-type lens with large numerical aperture projects the object constructed by the hologram to its real location. The presented solution can realize a compact HHMD system with a large field of view. The basic principle and the structure of the system are described. An augmented reality (AR) prototype with the size of 50 mm×40 mm and the view angle above 60° is demonstrated.

  2. A depth-based head-mounted visual display to aid navigation in partially sighted individuals.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Stephen L; Wilson, Iain; Muhammed, Louwai; Worsfold, John; Downes, Susan M; Kennard, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Independent navigation for blind individuals can be extremely difficult due to the inability to recognise and avoid obstacles. Assistive techniques such as white canes, guide dogs, and sensory substitution provide a degree of situational awareness by relying on touch or hearing but as yet there are no techniques that attempt to make use of any residual vision that the individual is likely to retain. Residual vision can restricted to the awareness of the orientation of a light source, and hence any information presented on a wearable display would have to limited and unambiguous. For improved situational awareness, i.e. for the detection of obstacles, displaying the size and position of nearby objects, rather than including finer surface details may be sufficient. To test whether a depth-based display could be used to navigate a small obstacle course, we built a real-time head-mounted display with a depth camera and software to detect the distance to nearby objects. Distance was represented as brightness on a low-resolution display positioned close to the eyes without the benefit focussing optics. A set of sighted participants were monitored as they learned to use this display to navigate the course. All were able to do so, and time and velocity rapidly improved with practise with no increase in the number of collisions. In a second experiment a cohort of severely sight-impaired individuals of varying aetiologies performed a search task using a similar low-resolution head-mounted display. The majority of participants were able to use the display to respond to objects in their central and peripheral fields at a similar rate to sighted controls. We conclude that the skill to use a depth-based display for obstacle avoidance can be rapidly acquired and the simplified nature of the display may appropriate for the development of an aid for sight-impaired individuals.

  3. A Depth-Based Head-Mounted Visual Display to Aid Navigation in Partially Sighted Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Stephen L.; Wilson, Iain; Muhammed, Louwai; Worsfold, John; Downes, Susan M.; Kennard, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Independent navigation for blind individuals can be extremely difficult due to the inability to recognise and avoid obstacles. Assistive techniques such as white canes, guide dogs, and sensory substitution provide a degree of situational awareness by relying on touch or hearing but as yet there are no techniques that attempt to make use of any residual vision that the individual is likely to retain. Residual vision can restricted to the awareness of the orientation of a light source, and hence any information presented on a wearable display would have to limited and unambiguous. For improved situational awareness, i.e. for the detection of obstacles, displaying the size and position of nearby objects, rather than including finer surface details may be sufficient. To test whether a depth-based display could be used to navigate a small obstacle course, we built a real-time head-mounted display with a depth camera and software to detect the distance to nearby objects. Distance was represented as brightness on a low-resolution display positioned close to the eyes without the benefit focussing optics. A set of sighted participants were monitored as they learned to use this display to navigate the course. All were able to do so, and time and velocity rapidly improved with practise with no increase in the number of collisions. In a second experiment a cohort of severely sight-impaired individuals of varying aetiologies performed a search task using a similar low-resolution head-mounted display. The majority of participants were able to use the display to respond to objects in their central and peripheral fields at a similar rate to sighted controls. We conclude that the skill to use a depth-based display for obstacle avoidance can be rapidly acquired and the simplified nature of the display may appropriate for the development of an aid for sight-impaired individuals. PMID:23844067

  4. Monocular 3D see-through head-mounted display via complex amplitude modulation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiankun; Liu, Juan; Han, Jian; Li, Xin

    2016-07-25

    The complex amplitude modulation (CAM) technique is applied to the design of the monocular three-dimensional see-through head-mounted display (3D-STHMD) for the first time. Two amplitude holograms are obtained by analytically dividing the wavefront of the 3D object to the real and the imaginary distributions, and then double amplitude-only spatial light modulators (A-SLMs) are employed to reconstruct the 3D images in real-time. Since the CAM technique can inherently present true 3D images to the human eye, the designed CAM-STHMD system avoids the accommodation-convergence conflict of the conventional stereoscopic see-through displays. The optical experiments further demonstrated that the proposed system has continuous and wide depth cues, which enables the observer free of eye fatigue problem. The dynamic display ability is also tested in the experiments and the results showed the possibility of true 3D interactive display.

  5. Depth of focus and visual recognition of imagery presented on simultaneously viewed displays: implications for head-mounted displays.

    PubMed

    Winterbottom, Marc D; Patterson, Robert; Pierce, Byron J; Covas, Christine M; Winner, Jennifer

    2007-10-01

    We sought to determine the optimal focal distance for a semitransparent monocular head-mounted display (HMD) integrated with a flight simulator display and to investigate whether observers experienced visual discomfort or impaired target recognition when using an HMD set at the optimal distance. When an observer wears a monocular HMD and views a simulator display, focal distances of both displays must be within the observers' depth of focus to prevent blurred imagery. Because focal distance can vary by as much as 0.5 m in U.S. Air Force multifaceted simulator displays, we determined whether a monocular HMD could be integrated with a simulator display without blurred imagery or discomfort. Depth of focus and visual recognition were measured with a staircase procedure, and visual discomfort was measured with a questionnaire. Depth of focus was 0.64 diopters in one condition tested, but it was affected by luminance level and display resolution. It was recommended that HMD focal distance equal the optical midpoint of the range of viewing distances encountered in the simulator. Moreover, wearing an HMD produced a decline in recognition performance for targets presented on the simulator display despite both displays being within observers' depth of focus and producing no visual discomfort. Monocular HMDs can be integrated with multifaceted simulator displays without blurred imagery or visual discomfort, provided that the correct focal distance is adopted. For situations involving simultaneously viewed visual displays.

  6. Analysis of a head-mounted display-type multifocus display system using a laser scanning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Kwon, Yong-Moo; Park, Q.-Han; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2011-03-01

    We developed a head-mounted display (HMD)-type multifocus display system using a laser-scanning method to provide an accommodation effect for viewers. This accomplishment indicates that providing a monocular depth cue is possible through this multifocus system. In the system, the optical path is changed by a scanning action. To provide an accurate accommodation effect for the viewer, the multifocus display system is designed and manufactured in accordance with the geometric analysis of the system's scanning action. Using a video camera as a substitute for the viewer, correct focus adjustment without the scanning action problem is demonstrated. By analyzing the scanning action and experimental results, we are able to illustrate the formation of a viewpoint in an HMD-type multifocus display system using a laser-scanning method. In addition, we demonstrate that the accommodation effect could be provided independent of the viewing condition of the viewer.

  7. Hybrid diffractive-refractive optical system design of head-mounted display for augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huijuan

    2005-02-01

    An optical see-through head-mounted display for augmented reality is designed in this paper. Considering the factors, such as the optical performance, the utilization ratios of energy of real world and virtual world, the feelings of users when he wears it and etc., a structure of the optical see-through is adopted. With the characteristics of the particular negative dispersive and the power of realizing random-phase modulation, the diffractive surface is helpful for optical system of reducing weight, simplifying structure and etc., and a diffractive surface is introduced in our optical system. The optical system with 25 mm eye relief, 12 mm exit pupil and 20° (H)x15.4° (V) field-of-view is designed. The utilization ratios of energy of real world and virtual world are 1/4 and 1/2, respectively. The angular resolution of display is 0.27 mrad and it less than that of the minimum of human eyes. The diameter of this system is less than 46mm, and it applies the binocular. This diffractive-refractive optical system of see-through head-mounted display not only satisfies the demands of user"s factors in structure, but also with high resolution, very small chromatic aberration and distortion, and satisfies the need of augmented reality. In the end, the parameters of the diffractive surface are discussed.

  8. New vision performance indicators of biocular head-mounted display image misalignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalich, Melvyn E.; Lont, Lisa M.; Bissette, Gina M.; Jones, Heber D.

    2006-05-01

    This is the last in a series of studies designed to establish objective tools that can evaluate vision and cognitive visual performance with head-/helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) in a static environment. These tools will be applied to ongoing studies in an interactive, animated environment that will compare visual performance of biocular and monocular HMDs and evaluate image misalignment tolerance standards during long-term wear (4-6 hours) and during vibration. In this study, saccadic velocity significantly decreased following image misalignment, but not following a corresponding control period without misalignment, showing the measurement to be sensitive to image misalignment in a full-overlap biocular display. Pupil constriction latency significantly increased for both the experimental and control conditions, indicating that, although sensitive to using the optical device, this measurement was not specifically sensitive to a divergent horizontal misalignment of 3.1 milliradians (mrad). These results add saccadic velocity to the tools that we have already established. We also evaluated the visual performance of presbyopic subjects using a full-overlap display and found decreased performance with and without image misalignment. This has implications for helmet-mounted display use by older pilots that certainly warrants further investigation. In previous studies 6, 7 individuals with accommodative and vergence problems showed reduced performance when there was a small divergent horizontal image misalignment in a partial-overlap biocular display.

  9. Quantitative assessment of visual acuity in projective head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidopiastis, Cali M.; Meyer, Catherine; Fuhrman, Christopher A.; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2003-09-01

    One issue of head mounted display design relates to the tradeoff between field of view (FOV) and resolution, which can lead to reduced visual acuity (VA). Essentially, an increase in FOV causes a decrease in visual acuity, for a given LCD display that has a fixed number of pixels. The effects of enhanced brightness on VA using two different types of retro-reflective material (cubed or beaded) were tested using a 52 deg. FOV projective helmet mounted display with VGA resolution. Three lighting conditions were also tested. Based on the display size, resolution, and FOV, we estimated a maximum visual acuity of 4.1 minutes of arc. In a counter-balanced between measures design, subjects' psychometric acuity functions were determined using a computer-generated 4AFC Landolt C test presented stereoscopically and probit analysis. The results confirmed that the maximum visual acuity possible within the setup was 4.1 arc minutes, the limit imposed by the microdisplay, and not the retroreflective material.

  10. Arthroscopic knee surgery using the advanced flat panel high-resolution color head-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Scott A.; Jones, D. E. Casey; St. Pierre, Patrick; Sampson, James B.

    1997-06-01

    The first ever deployed arthroscopic knee surgeries have been performed using a high resolution color head-mounted display (HMD) developed under the DARPA Advanced Flat Panel HMD program. THese procedures and several fixed hospital procedures have allowed both the system designers and surgeons to gain new insight into the use of a HMD for medical procedures in both community and combat support hospitals scenarios. The surgeons demonstrated and reported improved head-body orientation and awareness while using the HMD and reported several advantages and disadvantages of the HMD as compared to traditional CRT monitor viewing of the arthroscopic video images. The surgeries, the surgeon's comments, and a human factors overview of HMDs for Army surgical applications are discussed here.

  11. A head-mounted compressive three-dimensional display system with polarization-dependent focus switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Kun; Moon, Seokil; Lee, Byounghyo; Jeong, Youngmo; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-10-01

    A head-mounted compressive three-dimensional (3D) display system is proposed by combining polarization beam splitter (PBS), fast switching polarization rotator and micro display with high pixel density. According to the polarization state of the image controlled by polarization rotator, optical path of image in the PBS can be divided into transmitted and reflected components. Since optical paths of each image are spatially separated, it is possible to independently focus both images at different depth positions. Transmitted p-polarized and reflected s-polarized images can be focused by convex lens and mirror, respectively. When the focal lengths of the convex lens and mirror are properly determined, two image planes can be located in intended positions. The geometrical relationship is easily modulated by replacement of the components. The fast switching of polarization realizes the real-time operation of multi-focal image planes with a single display panel. Since it is possible to conserve the device characteristic of single panel, the high image quality, reliability and uniformity can be retained. For generating 3D images, layer images for compressive light field display between two image planes are calculated. Since the display panel with high pixel density is adopted, high quality 3D images are reconstructed. In addition, image degradation by diffraction between physically stacked display panels can be mitigated. Simple optical configuration of the proposed system is implemented and the feasibility of the proposed method is verified through experiments.

  12. Google Glass Glare: disability glare produced by a head-mounted visual display.

    PubMed

    Longley, Chris; Whitaker, David

    2016-03-01

    Head mounted displays are a type of wearable technology - a market that is projected to expand rapidly over the coming years. Probably the most well known example is the device Google Glass (or 'Glass'). Here we investigate the extent to which the device display can interfere with normal visual function by producing monocular disability glare. Contrast sensitivity was measured in two normally sighted participants, 32 and 52 years of age. Data were recorded for the right eye, the left eye and then again in a binocular condition. Measurements were taken both with and without the Glass in place, across a range of stimulus luminance levels using a two-alternative forced-choice methodology. The device produced a significant reduction in contrast sensitivity in the right eye (>0.5 log units). The level of disability glare increased as stimulus luminance was reduced in a manner consistent with intraocular light scatter, resulting in a veiling retinal illuminance. Sensitivity in the left eye was unaffected. A significant reduction in binocular contrast sensitivity occurred at lower luminance levels due to a loss of binocular summation, although binocular sensitivity was not found to fall below the sensitivity of the better monocular level (binocular inhibition). Head mounted displays such as Google Glass have the potential to cause significant disability glare in the eye exposed to the visual display, particularly under conditions of low luminance. They can also cause a more modest binocular reduction in sensitivity by eliminating the benefits of binocular summation. © 2015 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2015 The College of Optometrists.

  13. A 3D integral imaging optical see-through head-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2014-06-02

    An optical see-through head-mounted display (OST-HMD), which enables optical superposition of digital information onto the direct view of the physical world and maintains see-through vision to the real world, is a vital component in an augmented reality (AR) system. A key limitation of the state-of-the-art OST-HMD technology is the well-known accommodation-convergence mismatch problem caused by the fact that the image source in most of the existing AR displays is a 2D flat surface located at a fixed distance from the eye. In this paper, we present an innovative approach to OST-HMD designs by combining the recent advancement of freeform optical technology and microscopic integral imaging (micro-InI) method. A micro-InI unit creates a 3D image source for HMD viewing optics, instead of a typical 2D display surface, by reconstructing a miniature 3D scene from a large number of perspective images of the scene. By taking advantage of the emerging freeform optical technology, our approach will result in compact, lightweight, goggle-style AR display that is potentially less vulnerable to the accommodation-convergence discrepancy problem and visual fatigue. A proof-of-concept prototype system is demonstrated, which offers a goggle-like compact form factor, non-obstructive see-through field of view, and true 3D virtual display.

  14. Eyetracked optical see-through head-mounted display as an AAC device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Hong; Hu, Xinda; Gao, Chunyu; Qin, Xiao

    2014-06-01

    An eye-tracked head-mounted display (ET-HMD) system is able to display virtual images as a classical headmounted display (HMD) does, while additionally tracking the gaze direction of the user. An HMD with fullyintegrated eyetracking capability offers multi-fold benefits, not only to fundamental scientific research but also to emerging applications of such technology. A key limitation of the state-of-the-art ET-HMD technology is the lack of compactness and portability. In this paper, we present an innovative design of a high resolution optical see-through ET-HMD system based on freeform optical technology. A prototype system is demonstrated, which offers a goggle-like compact form factor, non-obstructive see-through field of view, true high-definition image resolution for the virtual display, and better than 0.5 arc minute of angular resolution for the see-through view. We will demonstrate the application of the technology as an assistive and augmentative communication (AAC) device.

  15. Passive method of eliminating accommodation/convergence disparity in stereoscopic head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichenlaub, Jesse B.

    2005-03-01

    The difference in accommodation and convergence distance experienced when viewing stereoscopic displays has long been recognized as a source of visual discomfort. It is especially problematic in head mounted virtual reality and enhanced reality displays, where images must often be displayed across a large depth range or superimposed on real objects. DTI has demonstrated a novel method of creating stereoscopic images in which the focus and fixation distances are closely matched for all parts of the scene from close distances to infinity. The method is passive in the sense that it does not rely on eye tracking, moving parts, variable focus optics, vibrating optics, or feedback loops. The method uses a rapidly changing illumination pattern in combination with a high speed microdisplay to create cones of light that converge at different distances to form the voxels of a high resolution space filling image. A bench model display was built and a series of visual tests were performed in order to demonstrate the concept and investigate both its capabilities and limitations. Results proved conclusively that real optical images were being formed and that observers had to change their focus to read text or see objects at different distances

  16. Alternate optical designs for head-mounted displays with a wide field of view.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Herkommer, Alois M

    2017-02-01

    The most widely applied design form for mixed reality head-mounted display (HMD) systems is generally a prism with one surface in total internal reflection (TIR). This, however, limits the angle of the incident rays, and thus decreases the design freedom and affects the performance. To obtain better performance of the HMD optics, in this paper two seldom used design forms of HMD systems are presented and compared to the standard TIR HMD optics. One of them is a catadioptric HMD system, consisting of one lens and two mirrors; the other is a prism HMD with a different folding geometry. The designs are compared for a field of view of 40°×30°; however, they are also investigated for an increased field of view of 50°×30°. The evaluation indicates good performance of our systems. In particular, the prism with an alternate folding geometry has advantages in both performance and size.

  17. Optical methods for enabling focus cues in head-mounted displays for virtual and augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Hong

    2017-05-01

    Developing head-mounted displays (HMD) that offer uncompromised optical pathways to both digital and physical worlds without encumbrance and discomfort confronts many grand challenges, both from technological perspectives and human factors. Among the many challenges, minimizing visual discomfort is one of the key obstacles. One of the key contributing factors to visual discomfort is the lack of the ability to render proper focus cues in HMDs to stimulate natural eye accommodation responses, which leads to the well-known accommodation-convergence cue discrepancy problem. In this paper, I will provide a summary on the various optical methods approaches toward enabling focus cues in HMDs for both virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR).

  18. Psycho-physiological effects of head-mounted displays in ubiquitous use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Takashi; Häkkinen, Jukka; Oshima, Keisuke; Saito, Hiroko; Yamazoe, Takashi; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Nyman, Göte

    2011-02-01

    In this study, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the psycho-physiological effects by practical use of monocular head-mounted display (HMD) in a real-world environment, based on the assumption of consumer-level applications as viewing video content and receiving navigation information while walking. In the experiment 1, the workload was examined for different types of presenting stimuli using an HMD (monocular or binocular, see-through or non-see-through). The experiment 2 focused on the relationship between the real-world environment and the visual information presented using a monocular HMD. The workload was compared between a case where participants walked while viewing video content without relation to the real-world environment, and a case where participants walked while viewing visual information to augment the real-world environment as navigations.

  19. Continued Testing of Head-Mounted Displays for Deaf Education in a Planetarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Eric G.; Jones, M.; Lawler, J.; Bench, N.; Mangrubang, F. R.

    2013-06-01

    For more than a year now we have been developing techniques for using Head-Mounted Displays (HMD) to help accommodate a deaf audience in a planetarium environment. Our target audience is primarily children from 8 to 13 years of age, but the methodologies can be used for a wide variety of audiences. Applications also extend beyond the planetarium environment. Three tests have been done to determine if American Sign Language (ASL) can be delivered to the HMD and the student view both the planetarium show and the ASL ‘sound track’. From those early results we are now at the point of testing for comprehension improvement on a number of astronomical subjects. We will present a number of these early results.

  20. Optical gesture sensing and depth mapping technologies for head-mounted displays: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Bernard; Lee, Johnny

    2013-05-01

    Head Mounted Displays (HMDs), and especially see-through HMDs have gained renewed interest in recent time, and for the first time outside the traditional military and defense realm, due to several high profile consumer electronics companies presenting their products to hit market. Consumer electronics HMDs have quite different requirements and constrains as their military counterparts. Voice comments are the de-facto interface for such devices, but when the voice recognition does not work (not connection to the cloud for example), trackpad and gesture sensing technologies have to be used to communicate information to the device. We review in this paper the various technologies developed today integrating optical gesture sensing in a small footprint, as well as the various related 3d depth mapping sensors.

  1. Comparing two input devices for virtual walkthroughs using a Head Mounted Display (HMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Santos, Beatriz; Dias, Paulo; Santos, Paulo; Ferreira, Carlos

    2014-02-01

    Selecting input and output devices to be used in virtual walkthroughs is an important issue as it may have significant impact in usability and comfort. This paper presents a user study meant to compare the usability of two input devices used for walkthroughs in a virtual environment with a Head-Mounted Display. User performance, satisfaction, ease of use and comfort, were compared with two different input devices: a two button mouse and a joystick from a gamepad. Participants also used a desktop to perform the same tasks in order to assess if the participant groups had similar profiles. The results obtained by 45 participants suggest that both input devices have a comparable usability in the used conditions and show that participants generally performed better with the desktop; a discussion of possible causes is presented.

  2. Visibility of monocular symbology in transparent head-mounted display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterbottom, M.; Patterson, R.; Pierce, B.; Gaska, J.; Hadley, S.

    2015-05-01

    With increased reliance on head-mounted displays (HMDs), such as the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System and F-35 Helmet Mounted Display System, research concerning visual performance has also increased in importance. Although monocular HMDs have been used successfully for many years, a number of authors have reported significant problems with their use. Certain problems have been attributed to binocular rivalry when differing imagery is presented to the two eyes. With binocular rivalry, the visibility of the images in the two eyes fluctuates, with one eye's view becoming dominant, and thus visible, while the other eye's view is suppressed, which alternates over time. Rivalry is almost certainly created when viewing an occluding monocular HMD. For semi-transparent monocular HMDs, however, much of the scene is binocularly fused, with additional imagery superimposed in one eye. Binocular fusion is thought to prevent rivalry. The present study was designed to investigate differences in visibility between monocularly and binocularly presented symbology at varying levels of contrast and while viewing simulated flight over terrain at various speeds. Visibility was estimated by measuring the presentation time required to identify a test probe (tumbling E) embedded within other static symbology. Results indicated that there were large individual differences, but that performance decreased with decreased test probe contrast under monocular viewing relative to binocular viewing conditions. Rivalry suppression may reduce visibility of semi-transparent monocular HMD imagery. However, factors, such as contrast sensitivity, masking, and conditions such as monofixation, will be important to examine in future research concerning visibility of HMD imagery.

  3. Photosensor-Based Latency Measurement System for Head-Mounted Displays.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Woo; Choi, Song-Woo; Lee, Sang-Lyn; Oh, Eui-Yeol; Baek, Jong-Sang; Kang, Suk-Ju

    2017-05-15

    In this paper, a photosensor-based latency measurement system for head-mounted displays (HMDs) is proposed. The motion-to-photon latency is the greatest reason for motion sickness and dizziness felt by users when wearing an HMD system. Therefore, a measurement system is required to accurately measure and analyze the latency to reduce these problems. The existing measurement system does not consider the actual physical movement in humans, and its accuracy is also very low. However, the proposed system considers the physical head movement and is highly accurate. Specifically, it consists of a head position model-based rotary platform, pixel luminance change detector, and signal analysis and calculation modules. Using these modules, the proposed system can exactly measure the latency, which is the time difference between the physical movement for a user and the luminance change of an output image. In the experiment using a commercial HMD, the latency was measured to be up to 47.05 ms. In addition, the measured latency increased up to 381.17 ms when increasing the rendering workload in the HMD.

  4. Video-based eyetracking methods and algorithms in head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Hong; Krishnaswamy, Prasanna; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2006-05-01

    Head pose is utilized to approximate a user’s line-of-sight for real-time image rendering and interaction in most of the 3D visualization applications using head-mounted displays (HMD). The eye often reaches an object of interest before the completion of most head movements. It is highly desirable to integrate eye-tracking capability into HMDs in various applications. While the added complexity of an eyetracked-HMD (ET-HMD) imposes challenges on designing a compact, portable, and robust system, the integration offers opportunities to improve eye tracking accuracy and robustness. In this paper, based on the modeling of an eye imaging and tracking system, we examine the challenges and identify parametric requirements for video-based pupil-glint tracking methods in an ET-HMD design, and predict how these parameters may affect the tracking accuracy, resolution, and robustness. We further present novel methods and associated algorithms that effectively improve eye-tracking accuracy and extend the tracking range.

  5. Semi-parametric color reproduction method for optical see-through head-mounted displays.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuta; Dzitsiuk, Maksym; Amano, Toshiyuki; Klinker, Gudrun

    2015-11-01

    The fundamental issues in Augmented Reality (AR) are on how to naturally mediate the reality with virtual content as seen by users. In AR applications with Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays (OST-HMD), the issues often raise the problem of rendering color on the OST-HMD consistently to input colors. However, due to various display constraints and eye properties, it is still a challenging task to indistinguishably reproduce the colors on OST-HMDs. An approach to solve this problem is to pre-process the input color so that a user perceives the output color on the display to be the same as the input. We propose a color calibration method for OST-HMDs. We start from modeling the physical optics in the rendering and perception process between the HMD and the eye. We treat the color distortion as a semi-parametric model which separates the non-linear color distortion and the linear color shift. We demonstrate that calibrated images regain their original appearance on two OST-HMD setups with both synthetic and real datasets. Furthermore, we analyze the limitations of the proposed method and remaining problems of the color reproduction in OST-HMDs. We then discuss how to realize more practical color reproduction methods for future HMD-eye system.

  6. Immersive Collaborative Analysis of Network Connectivity: CAVE-style or Head-Mounted Display?

    PubMed

    Cordeil, Maxime; Dwyer, Tim; Klein, Karsten; Laha, Bireswar; Marriott, Kim; Thomas, Bruce H

    2017-01-01

    High-quality immersive display technologies are becoming mainstream with the release of head-mounted displays (HMDs) such as the Oculus Rift. These devices potentially represent an affordable alternative to the more traditional, centralised CAVE-style immersive environments. One driver for the development of CAVE-style immersive environments has been collaborative sense-making. Despite this, there has been little research on the effectiveness of collaborative visualisation in CAVE-style facilities, especially with respect to abstract data visualisation tasks. Indeed, very few studies have focused on the use of these displays to explore and analyse abstract data such as networks and there have been no formal user studies investigating collaborative visualisation of abstract data in immersive environments. In this paper we present the results of the first such study. It explores the relative merits of HMD and CAVE-style immersive environments for collaborative analysis of network connectivity, a common and important task involving abstract data. We find significant differences between the two conditions in task completion time and the physical movements of the participants within the space: participants using the HMD were faster while the CAVE2 condition introduced an asymmetry in movement between collaborators. Otherwise, affordances for collaborative data analysis offered by the low-cost HMD condition were not found to be different for accuracy and communication with the CAVE2. These results are notable, given that the latest HMDs will soon be accessible (in terms of cost and potentially ubiquity) to a massive audience.

  7. Advanced auditory displays and head-mounted displays: advantages and disadvantages for monitoring by the distracted anesthesiologist.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Penelope M; Watson, Marcus O; Russell, Walter John; Jenkins, Simon; Liu, David; Green, Norris; Llewelyn, Kristen; Cole, Phil; Shek, Vivian; Krupenia, Stas S

    2008-06-01

    In a full-scale anesthesia simulator study we examined the relative effectiveness of advanced auditory displays for respiratory and blood pressure monitoring and of head-mounted displays (HMDs) as supplements to standard intraoperative monitoring. Participants were 16 residents and attendings. While performing a reading-based distractor task, participants supervised the activities of a resident (an actor) who they were told was junior to them. If participants detected an event that could eventually harm the simulated patient, they told the resident, pressed a button on the computer screen, and/or informed a nearby experimenter. Participants completed four 22-min anesthesia scenarios. Displays were presented in a counterbalanced order that varied across participants and included: (1) Visual (visual monitor with variable-tone pulse oximetry), (2) HMD (Visual plus HMD), (3) Audio (Visual plus auditory displays for respiratory rate, tidal volume, end-tidal CO(2), and noninvasive arterial blood pressure), and (4) Both (Visual plus HMD plus Audio). Participants detected significantly more events with Audio (mean = 90%, median = 100%, P < 0.02) and Both (mean = 92%, median = 100%, P < 0.05) but not with HMD (mean = 75%, median = 67%, ns) compared with the Visual condition (mean = 52%, median = 50%). For events detected, there was no difference in detection times across display conditions. Participants self-rated monitoring as easier in the HMD, Audio and Both conditions and their responding as faster in the HMD and Both conditions than in the Visual condition. Advanced auditory displays help the distracted anesthesiologist maintain peripheral awareness of a simulated patient's status, whereas a HMD does not significantly improve performance. Further studies should test these findings in other intraoperative contexts.

  8. The virtual reality head-mounted display Oculus Rift induces motion sickness and is sexist in its effects.

    PubMed

    Munafo, Justin; Diedrick, Meg; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2017-03-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that motion sickness may occur among users of contemporary, consumer-oriented head-mounted display systems and that women may be at greater risk. We evaluated the nauseogenic properties of one such system, the Oculus Rift. The head-mounted unit included motion sensors that were sensitive to users' head movements, such that head movements could be used as control inputs to the device. In two experiments, seated participants played one of two virtual reality games for up to 15 min. In Experiment 1, 22% of participants reported motion sickness, and the difference in incidence between men and women was not significant. In Experiment 2, motion sickness was reported by 56% of participants, and incidence among women (77.78%) was significantly greater than among men (33.33%). Before participants were exposed to the head-mounted display system, we recorded their standing body sway during the performance of simple visual tasks. In both experiments, patterns of pre-exposure body sway differed between participants who (later) reported motion sickness and those who did not. In Experiment 2, sex differences in susceptibility to motion sickness were preceded by sex differences in body sway. These postural effects confirm a prediction of the postural instability theory of motion sickness. The results indicate that users of contemporary head-mounted display systems are at significant risk of motion sickness and that in relation to motion sickness these systems may be sexist in their effects.

  9. Geometric calibration of head-mounted displays and its effects on distance estimation.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Falko; Bolte, Benjamin; Bruder, Gerd; Rautenberg, Ulrich; Steinicke, Frank; Lappe, Markus; Koch, Reinhard

    2012-04-01

    Head-mounted displays (HMDs) allow users to observe virtual environments (VEs) from an egocentric perspective. However, several experiments have provided evidence that egocentric distances are perceived as compressed in VEs relative to the real world. Recent experiments suggest that the virtual view frustum set for rendering the VE has an essential impact on the user's estimation of distances. In this article we analyze if distance estimation can be improved by calibrating the view frustum for a given HMD and user. Unfortunately, in an immersive virtual reality (VR) environment, a full per user calibration is not trivial and manual per user adjustment often leads to mini- or magnification of the scene. Therefore, we propose a novel per user calibration approach with optical see-through displays commonly used in augmented reality (AR). This calibration takes advantage of a geometric scheme based on 2D point - 3D line correspondences, which can be used intuitively by inexperienced users and requires less than a minute to complete. The required user interaction is based on taking aim at a distant target marker with a close marker, which ensures non-planar measurements covering a large area of the interaction space while also reducing the number of required measurements to five. We found the tendency that a calibrated view frustum reduced the average distance underestimation of users in an immersive VR environment, but even the correctly calibrated view frustum could not entirely compensate for the distance underestimation effects.

  10. Compact three-dimensional head-mounted display system with Savart plate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Kun; Moon, Seokil; Lee, Seungjae; Yoo, Dongheon; Hong, Jong-Young; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-08-22

    We propose three-dimensional (3D) head-mounted display (HMD) providing multi-focal and wearable functions by using polarization-dependent optical path switching in Savart plate. The multi-focal function is implemented as micro display with high pixel density of 1666 pixels per inches is optically duplicated in longitudinal direction according to the polarization state. The combination of micro display, fast switching polarization rotator and Savart plate retains small form factor suitable for wearable function. The optical aberrations of duplicated panels are investigated by ray tracing according to both wavelength and polarization state. Astigmatism and lateral chromatic aberration of extraordinary wave are compensated by modification of the Savart plate and sub-pixel shifting method, respectively. To verify the feasibility of the proposed system, a prototype of the HMD module for monocular eye is implemented. The module has the compact size of 40 mm by 90 mm by 40 mm and the weight of 131 g with wearable function. The micro display and polarization rotator are synchronized in real-time as 30 Hz and two focal planes are formed at 640 and 900 mm away from eye box, respectively. In experiments, the prototype also provides augmented reality function by combining the optically duplicated panels with a beam splitter. The multi-focal function of the optically duplicated panels without astigmatism and color dispersion compensation is verified. When light field optimization for two additive layers is performed, perspective images are observed, and the integration of real world scene and high quality 3D images is confirmed.

  11. Visual task performance using a monocular see-through head-mounted display (HMD) while walking.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Terhi; Berg, Mikko; Kaistinen, Jyrki; Kawai, Takashi; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2013-12-01

    A monocular see-through head-mounted display (HMD) allows the user to view displayed information while simultaneously interacting with the surrounding environment. This configuration lets people use HMDs while they are moving, such as while walking. However, sharing attention between the display and environment can compromise a person's performance in any ongoing task, and controlling one's gait may add further challenges. In this study, the authors investigated how the requirements of HMD-administered visual tasks altered users' performance while they were walking. Twenty-four university students completed 3 cognitive tasks (high- and low-working memory load, visual vigilance) on an HMD while seated and while simultaneously performing a paced walking task in a controlled environment. The results show that paced walking worsened performance (d', reaction time) in all HMD-administered tasks, but visual vigilance deteriorated more than memory performance. The HMD-administered tasks also worsened walking performance (speed, path overruns) in a manner that varied according to the overall demands of the task. These results suggest that people's ability to process information displayed on an HMD may worsen while they are in motion. Furthermore, the use of an HMD can critically alter a person's natural performance, such as their ability to guide and control their gait. In particular, visual tasks that involve constant monitoring of the HMD should be avoided. These findings highlight the need for careful consideration of the type and difficulty of information that can be presented through HMDs while still letting the user achieve an acceptable overall level of performance in various contexts of use.

  12. Optical see-through head-mounted display with occlusion capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chunyu; Lin, Yuxiang; Hua, Hong

    2013-05-01

    Lack of mutual occlusion capability between computer-rendered and real objects is one of fundamental problems for most existing optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST-HMD). Without the proper occlusion management, the virtual view through an OST-HMD appears "ghost-like", floating in the real world. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative optical scheme that uniquely combines the eyepiece and see-through relay optics to achieve an occlusion-capable OST-HMD system with a very compelling form factor and high optical performances. The proposed display system was based on emerging freeform optical design technologies and was designed for highly efficient liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) type spatial light modulator (SLM) and bright Organic LED (OLED) microdisplay. The proposed display technology was capable of working in both indoor and outdoor environments. Our current design offered a 1280x1024 color resolution based on 0.8" microdisplay and SLM. The MTF values for the majority of the fields at the cutoff frequency of 40lps/mm, which is determined by the pixel size of the microdisplay, are better than 15%. The design achieved a diagonal FOV of 40 degrees, 31.7 degrees horizontally and 25.6 degrees vertically, an exit pupil diameter of 8mm (non-vignetted), and an eye clearance of 18mm. The optics weights about 20 grams per eye. Our proposed occlusion capable OST-HMD system can easily find myriads of applications in various military and commercial sectors such as military training, gaming and entertainment.

  13. Rapid P300 brain-computer interface communication with a head-mounted display

    PubMed Central

    Käthner, Ivo; Kübler, Andrea; Halder, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Visual ERP (P300) based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow for fast and reliable spelling and are intended as a muscle-independent communication channel for people with severe paralysis. However, they require the presentation of visual stimuli in the field of view of the user. A head-mounted display could allow convenient presentation of visual stimuli in situations, where mounting a conventional monitor might be difficult or not feasible (e.g., at a patient's bedside). To explore if similar accuracies can be achieved with a virtual reality (VR) headset compared to a conventional flat screen monitor, we conducted an experiment with 18 healthy participants. We also evaluated it with a person in the locked-in state (LIS) to verify that usage of the headset is possible for a severely paralyzed person. Healthy participants performed online spelling with three different display methods. In one condition a 5 × 5 letter matrix was presented on a conventional 22 inch TFT monitor. Two configurations of the VR headset were tested. In the first (glasses A), the same 5 × 5 matrix filled the field of view of the user. In the second (glasses B), single letters of the matrix filled the field of view of the user. The participant in the LIS tested the VR headset on three different occasions (glasses A condition only). For healthy participants, average online spelling accuracies were 94% (15.5 bits/min) using three flash sequences for spelling with the monitor and glasses A and 96% (16.2 bits/min) with glasses B. In one session, the participant in the LIS reached an online spelling accuracy of 100% (10 bits/min) using the glasses A condition. We also demonstrated that spelling with one flash sequence is possible with the VR headset for healthy users (mean: 32.1 bits/min, maximum reached by one user: 71.89 bits/min at 100% accuracy). We conclude that the VR headset allows for rapid P300 BCI communication in healthy users and may be a suitable display option for severely

  14. Binocular Convergence and Errors in Judged Distance While Using Head-mounted See-through Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Bucher, Urs J.; Menges, Brian M.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Previous observations have shown that optical superposition of a physical backdrops at the judged depth of a stereoscopic virtual image moves the judged depth closer to the observer. This effect was more pronounced for slowly moving physical backdrops and was not enhanced when the virtual image was rendered as a flat shaded solid object rather than a open wire-frame. Since this change in rendering making the virtual image more completely occlude the backdrop did not effect its judged depth and since the motion of the backdrop which would have attracted visual attention and binocular convergence did Increase its perceptual displacement, it was concluded that the change In Judged depth was not due to the perceived occlusion. Rather it was concluded to be due to an increase in binocular convergence. An experimental test of this hypothesis using a unobtrusive nonius technique to detect absolute and relative convergence has confirmed the presence of convergence correlated with the magnitude of the change in judged position of this virtual Image. The practical implications of this cause are demonstrated by a second study using monocular, biocular and stereoscopic viewing conditions and the consequences for the design of head-mounted see-through displays for near work are discussed.

  15. Binocular Convergence and Errors in Judged Distance While Using Head-mounted See-through Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Bucher, Urs J.; Menges, Brian M.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Previous observations have shown that optical superposition of a physical backdrops at the judged depth of a stereoscopic virtual image moves the judged depth closer to the observer. This effect was more pronounced for slowly moving physical backdrops and was not enhanced when the virtual image was rendered as a flat shaded solid object rather than a open wire-frame. Since this change in rendering making the virtual image more completely occlude the backdrop did not effect its judged depth and since the motion of the backdrop which would have attracted visual attention and binocular convergence did Increase its perceptual displacement, it was concluded that the change In Judged depth was not due to the perceived occlusion. Rather it was concluded to be due to an increase in binocular convergence. An experimental test of this hypothesis using a unobtrusive nonius technique to detect absolute and relative convergence has confirmed the presence of convergence correlated with the magnitude of the change in judged position of this virtual Image. The practical implications of this cause are demonstrated by a second study using monocular, biocular and stereoscopic viewing conditions and the consequences for the design of head-mounted see-through displays for near work are discussed.

  16. A Survey of Calibration Methods for Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays.

    PubMed

    Grubert, Jens; Itoh, Yuta; Moser, Kenneth R; Swan Ii, J Edward

    2017-09-28

    Optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST HMDs) are a major output medium for Augmented Reality, which have seen significant growth in popularity and usage among the general public due to the growing release of consumer-oriented models, such as the Microsoft Hololens. Unlike Virtual Reality headsets, OST HMDs inherently support the addition of computer-generated graphics directly into the light path between a user's eyes and their view of the physical world. As with most Augmented and Virtual Reality systems, the physical position of an OST HMD is typically determined by an external or embedded 6-Degree-of-Freedom tracking system. However, in order to properly render virtual objects, which are perceived as spatially aligned with the physical environment, it is also necessary to accurately measure the position of the user's eyes within the tracking system's coordinate frame. For over 20 years, researchers have proposed calibration methods to determine this eye position. However, to date, there has not been a comprehensive overview of these procedures and their requirements. This paper surveys the field of calibration methods for OST HMDs. Specifically, it provides insights into the fundamentals of calibration techniques, and presents an overview of both manual and automatic approaches, as well as evaluation methods and metrics.

  17. Visual Evoked Potential Using Head-Mounted Display Versus Cathode Ray Tube: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyo Seon; Im, Sang Hee; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To present a new stimulation method based on the use of a head-mounted display (HMD) during pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PR-VEP) testing and to compare variables of HMD to those of conventional cathode ray tube (CRT). Methods Twenty-three normal subjects without visual problems were recruited. PR-VEPs were generated using CRT or HMD stimuli. VEP outcome measures included latencies (N75, P100, and N145) and peak-to-peak amplitudes (N75–P100 and P100–N145). Subjective discomfort associated with HMD was determined using a self-administered questionnaire. Results PR-VEPs generated by HMD stimuli showed typical triphasic waveforms, the components of which were found to be correlated with those obtained using conventional CRT stimuli. Self-administered discomfort questionnaires revealed that HMD was more comfortable in some aspects. It allowed subjects to concentrate better than CRT. Conclusion The described HMD stimulation can be used as an alternative to the standard CRT stimulation for PR-VEPs. PR-VEP testing using HMD has potential applications in clinical practice and visual system research because HMD can be used on a wider range of subjects compared to CRT. PMID:27152285

  18. Recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) Classifiers in a Planetarium Using a Head-Mounted Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Eric G.; Jones, Michael; Lawler, Jeannette; Bench, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    A traditional accommodation for the deaf or hard-of-hearing in a planetarium show is some type of captioning system or a signer on the floor. Both of these have significant drawbacks given the nature of a planetarium show. Young audience members who are deaf likely don't have the reading skills needed to make a captioning system effective. A signer on the floor requires light which can then splash onto the dome. We have examined the potential of using a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) to provide an American Sign Language (ASL) translation. Our preliminary test used a canned planetarium show with a pre-recorded sound track. Since many astronomical objects don't have official ASL signs, the signer had to use classifiers to describe the different objects. Since these are not official signs, these classifiers provided a way to test to see if students were picking up the information using the HMD.We will present results that demonstrate that the use of HMDs is at least as effective as projecting a signer on the dome. This also showed that the HMD could provide the necessary accommodation for students for whom captioning was ineffective. We will also discuss the current effort to provide a live signer without the light splash effect and our early results on teaching effectiveness with HMDs.This work is partially supported by funding from the National Science Foundation grant IIS-1124548 and the Sorenson Foundation.

  19. Contribution of TopOwl head mounted display system in degraded visual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Olivier; François, Jean-Michel; Point, Pascal

    2013-05-01

    Piloting a rotorcraft in a Degraded Visual Environment (DVE) is a very complex task, and the evolution of the rotorcraft missions tend to augment the probability of such degraded flight conditions (increase of night flights, all-weather flights, with brownout or whiteout phenomena…). When the direct view of the external situation is degraded, the avionic system can be of great help for the crew to recover the lost visual references. TopOwl® Head Mounted Sight and Display (HMSD) system is particularly adapted to such situations, allowing the pilot to remain "eyes-out" while visualizing on a large field of view different information: a conformal enhanced image (EVS) coming from an on-board sensor, various 2D and 3D symbologies (flight, navigation, mission specific symbols), a conformal synthetic representation of the terrain (SVS), a night vision image coming from the integrated Image Intensifier Tubes, or a combination of these data, depending on the external conditions and the phase of flight, according to the pilot's choice.

  20. Application of virtual reality head mounted display for investigation of movement: a novel effect of orientation of attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinlivan, Brendan; Butler, John S.; Beiser, Ines; Williams, Laura; McGovern, Eavan; O'Riordan, Sean; Hutchinson, Michael; Reilly, Richard B.

    2016-10-01

    Objective. To date human kinematics research has relied on video processing, motion capture and magnetic search coil data acquisition techniques. However, the use of head mounted display virtual reality systems, as a novel research tool, could facilitate novel studies into human movement and movement disorders. These systems have the unique ability of presenting immersive 3D stimulus while also allowing participants to make ecologically valid movement-based responses. Approach. We employed one such system (Oculus Rift DK2) in this study to present visual stimulus and acquire head-turn data from a cohort of 40 healthy adults. Participants were asked to complete head movements towards eccentrically located visual targets following valid and invalid cues. Such tasks are commonly employed for investigating the effects orientation of attention and are known as Posner cueing paradigms. Electrooculography was also recorded for a subset of 18 participants. Main results. A delay was observed in onset of head movement and saccade onset during invalid trials, both at the group and single participant level. We found that participants initiated head turns 57.4 ms earlier during valid trials. A strong relationship between saccade onset and head movement onset was also observed during valid trials. Significance. This work represents the first time that the Posner cueing effect has been observed in onset of head movement in humans. The results presented here highlight the role of head-mounted display systems as a novel and practical research tool for investigations of normal and abnormal movement patterns.

  1. Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Davis, Simon L; Blackmore, Karen L; Vakulin, Andrew; Nesbitt, Keith V

    2015-11-01

    Evidence from studies of provocative motion indicates that motion sickness is tightly linked to the disturbances of thermoregulation. The major aim of the current study was to determine whether provocative visual stimuli (immersion into the virtual reality simulating rides on a rollercoaster) affect skin temperature that reflects thermoregulatory cutaneous responses, and to test whether such stimuli alter cognitive functions. In 26 healthy young volunteers wearing head-mounted display (Oculus Rift), simulated rides consistently provoked vection and nausea, with a significant difference between the two versions of simulation software (Parrot Coaster and Helix). Basal finger temperature had bimodal distribution, with low-temperature group (n=8) having values of 23-29 °C, and high-temperature group (n=18) having values of 32-36 °C. Effects of cybersickness on finger temperature depended on the basal level of this variable: in subjects from former group it raised by 3-4 °C, while in most subjects from the latter group it either did not change or transiently reduced by 1.5-2 °C. There was no correlation between the magnitude of changes in the finger temperature and nausea score at the end of simulated ride. Provocative visual stimulation caused prolongation of simple reaction time by 20-50 ms; this increase closely correlated with the subjective rating of nausea. Lastly, in subjects who experienced pronounced nausea, heart rate was elevated. We conclude that cybersickness is associated with changes in cutaneous thermoregulatory vascular tone; this further supports the idea of a tight link between motion sickness and thermoregulation. Cybersickness-induced prolongation of reaction time raises obvious concerns regarding the safety of this technology.

  2. EMU helmet mounted display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmolejo, Jose (Inventor); Smith, Stephen (Inventor); Plough, Alan (Inventor); Clarke, Robert (Inventor); Mclean, William (Inventor); Fournier, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A helmet mounted display device is disclosed for projecting a display on a flat combiner surface located above the line of sight where the display is produced by two independent optical channels with independent LCD image generators. The display has a fully overlapped field of view on the combiner surface and the focus can be adjusted from a near field of four feet to infinity.

  3. Visibility of Monocular Symbology in Transparent Head-Mounted Display Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-08

    information with binocular parallax (also called binocular disparity, the cue for stereoscopic depth perception ) is presented to two eyes, it is called...33. Winterbottom, M. et al. Operational Based Vision Assessment Resarch: Depth Perception . J. Australas. Soc. Aerosp. Med. 9, 33–41 (2014). 34...Publishers, 1998). 4. Bayer, M., Rash, E. & Brindle, J. in Helmet-Mounted Displays: Sensation, Perception , and Cognition Issues (eds. Rash, C

  4. Visual cueing considerations in Nap-of-the-Earth helicopter flight head-slaved helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Kohn, Silvia

    1993-01-01

    The pilot's ability to derive Control-Oriented Visual Field Information from teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays in Nap-of-the-Earth flight, is investigated. The visual field with these types of displays, commonly used in Apache and Cobra helicopter night operations, originates from a relatively narrow field-of-view Forward Looking Infrared Radiation Camera, gimbal-mounted at the nose of the aircraft and slaved to the pilot's line-of-sight, in order to obtain a wide-angle field-of-regard. Pilots have encountered considerable difficulties in controlling the aircraft by these devices. Experimental simulator results presented here indicate that part of these difficulties can be attributed to head/camera slaving system phase lags and errors. In the presence of voluntary head rotation, these slaving system imperfections are shown to impair the Control-Oriented Visual Field Information vital in vehicular control, such as the perception of the anticipated flight path or the vehicle yaw rate. Since, in the presence of slaving system imperfections, the pilot will tend to minimize head rotation, the full wide-angle field-of-regard of the line-of-sight slaved Helmet-Mounted Display, is not always fully utilized.

  5. Application of large head-box aircraft transparency distortion measurement and compensation for improved cueing in helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischler, Mark; Campbell, Daniel; Atac, Robert; Melzer, Jim

    2017-05-01

    See-through distortion can occur when a pilot looks through a curved aircraft transparency because of a weak lens effect. A helmet-mounted display (HMD) system must either compensate for this distortion or incur a distortion error in its total error budget. We describe a method for characterization of and compensation for aircraft transparency distortion, allowing for increased targeting accuracy and reduced binocular vergence errors from any position within a large head box. We present techniques for compensating for transparency distortion for the entire HMD head box and implications observed based on applying these techniques for A-10 and F-16 aircraft transparencies.

  6. Investigation of a 3D head-mounted projection display using retro-reflective screen.

    PubMed

    Héricz, Dalma; Sarkadi, Tamás; Lucza, Viktor; Kovács, Viktor; Koppa, Pál

    2014-07-28

    We propose a compact head-worn 3D display which provides glasses-free full motion parallax. Two picoprojectors placed on the viewer's head project images on a retro-reflective screen that reflects left and right images to the appropriate eyes of the viewer. The properties of different retro-reflective screen materials have been investigated, and the key parameters of the projection - brightness and cross-talk - have been calculated. A demonstration system comprising two projectors, a screen tracking system and a commercial retro-reflective screen has been developed to test the visual quality of the proposed approach.

  7. Integrated image monitoring system using head-mounted display for gasless single-port clampless partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Kazunori; Saito, Kazutaka; Komai, Yoshinobu; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    2014-12-01

    A novel head-mounted display (HMD) offers a higher quality of endoscopic imagery in front of the eyes regardless of head position. We present an application of the HMD system as a personal integrated multi-image monitoring system in gasless single-port clampless partial nephrectomy (PN). Our HMD system displayed multiple forms of information as integrated, sharp, high-contrast images both seamlessly and synchronously using a four-split screen. The surgeon wearing an HMD display could continuously and simultaneously monitor the endoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) video and intraoperative ultrasound images. In addition, the operator can rotate the 3D video image using fingertip movements on the finger tracking system. All two clampless partial nephrectomies were safely completed within the operative time, blood loss was within usual limits and there were no complications. The integrated image HMD system might facilitate maneuverability and safety in minimally invasive clampless PN.

  8. Integrated image monitoring system using head-mounted display for gasless single-port clampless partial nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kazutaka; Komai, Yoshinobu; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    A novel head-mounted display (HMD) offers a higher quality of endoscopic imagery in front of the eyes regardless of head position. We present an application of the HMD system as a personal integrated multi-image monitoring system in gasless single-port clampless partial nephrectomy (PN). Our HMD system displayed multiple forms of information as integrated, sharp, high-contrast images both seamlessly and synchronously using a four-split screen. The surgeon wearing an HMD display could continuously and simultaneously monitor the endoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) video and intraoperative ultrasound images. In addition, the operator can rotate the 3D video image using fingertip movements on the finger tracking system. All two clampless partial nephrectomies were safely completed within the operative time, blood loss was within usual limits and there were no complications. The integrated image HMD system might facilitate maneuverability and safety in minimally invasive clampless PN. PMID:25562006

  9. Lightweight high-brightness helmet-mounted head-up display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Mathieu; North, Thibault; Bourquin, Stéphane; Kilcher, Lucio

    2016-03-01

    We present a compact binocular head-up display for integration in a motorcycle helmet. A 2D MEMS-mirror reflecting laser beams enables the formation of a bright image superimposed on the user vision by means of retinal scanning. A 3d-printed prototype including the required optical components is presented and characterized. It fits the morphology of most users thanks to several degrees of freedom accessible to the user for fine-tuning.

  10. Wireless communication technology as applied to head mounted display for a tactical fighter pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Gurdial S.

    2007-04-01

    The use of Helmet-Mounted Display/Tracker (HMD/Ts) is becoming widespread for air-to-air, within visual range target acquisition for a tactical fighter pilot. HMD/Ts provide the aircrew with a significant amount of information on the helmet, which reduces the burden of the aircrew from having to continually look down in the cockpit to receive information. HMD/Ts allow the aircrew to receive flight and targeting information regardless of line-of-sight, which should increase the aircrew's situation awareness and mission effectiveness. Current technology requires that a pilot wearing a Helmet Mounted Display/Tracker be connected to the aircraft with a cable. The design of this cable is complex, costly, and its use can decrease system reliability. Most of the problems associated with the use of cable can be alleviated by using wireless transmission for all signals. This will significantly reduce or eliminate the requirements of the interconnect cable/connector reducing system complexity, and cost, and enhancing system safety. A number of wireless communication technologies have been discussed in this paper and the rationale for selecting one particular technology for this application has been shown. The problems with this implementation and the direction of the future effort are outlined.

  11. Wireless communication technology as applied to head mounted display for a tactical fighter pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Gurdial S.

    2006-05-01

    The use of Helmet-Mounted Display/Tracker (HMD/Ts) is becoming widespread for air-to-air, within visual range target acquisition for a tactical fighter pilot. HMD/Ts provide the aircrew with a significant amount of information on the helmet, which reduces the burden of the aircrew from having to continually look down in the cockpit to receive information. HMD/Ts allow the aircrew to receive flight and targeting information regardless of line-of-sight, which should increase the aircrew's situation awareness and mission effectiveness. Current technology requires that a pilot wearing a Helmet Mounted Display/Tracker be connected to the aircraft with a cable. The design of this cable is complex, costly, and its use can decrease system reliability. Most of the problems associated with the use of cable can be alleviated by using wireless transmission for all signals. This will significantly reduce or eliminate the requirements of the interconnect cable/connector reducing system complexity, and cost, and enhancing system safety. A number of wireless communication technologies have been discussed in this paper and the rationale for selecting one particular technology for this application has been shown. The problems with this implementation and the direction of the future effort are outlined.

  12. Helmet-Mounted Display For Infantry Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Andrew J.

    1987-04-01

    A generic sensor/display/soldier interface concept is described for potential application as a helmet or headdress mounted infantry display system. A compact, lightweight infrared camera mounted on a rifle is expected to provide the video image. The objective for the head-mounted display is to increase the soldier's personal safety and functional performance by remotely displaying an image that is generated by a boresighted camera and to reduce eye fatigue.

  13. Usability Comparisons of Head-Mounted vs. Stereoscopic Desktop Displays in a Virtual Reality Environment with Pain Patients.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xin; Gromala, Diane; Gupta, Dimple; Squire, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have shown that immersive Virtual Reality (VR) can serve as an unusually powerful pain control technique. However, research assessing the reported symptoms and negative effects of VR systems indicate that it is important to ascertain if these symptoms arise from the use of particular VR display devices, particularly for users who are deemed "at risk," such as chronic pain patients Moreover, these patients have specific and often complex needs and requirements, and because basic issues such as 'comfort' may trigger anxiety or panic attacks, it is important to examine basic questions of the feasibility of using VR displays. Therefore, this repeated-measured experiment was conducted with two VR displays: the Oculus Rift's head-mounted display (HMD) and Firsthand Technologies' immersive desktop display, DeepStream3D. The characteristics of these immersive desktop displays differ: one is worn, enabling patients to move their heads, while the other is peered into, allowing less head movement. To assess the severity of physical discomforts, 20 chronic pain patients tried both displays while watching a VR pain management demo in clinical settings. Results indicated that participants experienced higher levels of Simulator Sickness using the Oculus Rift HMD. However, results also indicated other preferences of the two VR displays among patients, including physical comfort levels and a sense of immersion. Few studies have been conducted that compare usability of specific VR devices specifically with chronic pain patients using a therapeutic virtual environment in pain clinics. Thus, the results may help clinicians and researchers to choose the most appropriate VR displays for chronic pain patients and guide VR designers to enhance the usability of VR displays for long-term pain management interventions.

  14. Design of an ultralight head-mounted projective display (HMPD) and its applications in augmented collaborative environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Hong; Gao, Chunyu; Brown, Leonard; Biocca, Frank; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2002-05-01

    Head-mounted displays (HMDs) are widely used for 3D visualization tasks such as surgical planning, scientific visualization, or engineering design. Even though the HMD technologies have undergone great development, tradeoffs in capability and limitation exist. The concept of head-mounted projective displays (HMPDs) is an emerging technology on the boundary of conventional HMDs and projective displays such as the CAVE technology. It has been recently demonstrated to yield 3D visualization capability with potentially a large FOV, lightweight optics, low distortion, as well as correct occlusion of virtual objects by real objects. As such, the HMPD has been proposed as an alternative to stereoscopic displays for 3D visualization applications. In this paper, a brief review the HMPD technology is followed by the presentation of a recent design and implementation of a compact HMPD prototype based on an ultra-light design of projective optics using diffractive optical element (DOE) and plastic components. Finally, we will include applications of the HMPD technology being developed across three universities for augmented visualization tasks and distributed collaboration in augmented environments.

  15. Visual Search and Target Cueing: A Comparison of Head-Mounted Versus Hand-Held Displays on the Allocation of Visual Attention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Cueing: A Comparison of Head-Mounted Versus Hand-Held Displays on the Allocation of Visual Attention Michelle Yeh and Christopher D. Wickens Technical...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...Comparison of Head-Mounted Versus Hand-Held Displays on the Allocation of Visual Attention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  16. See-through optical combiner for augmented reality head-mounted display: index-matched anisotropic crystal lens.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jong-Young; Lee, Chang-Kun; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byounghyo; Yoo, Dongheon; Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Jeong, Jinsoo; Lee, Byoungho

    2017-06-05

    A novel see-through optical device to combine the real world and the virtual image is proposed which is called an index-matched anisotropic crystal lens (IMACL). The convex lens made of anisotropic crystal is enveloped with the isotropic material having same refractive index with the extraordinary refractive index of the anisotropic crystal. This optical device functions as the transparent glass or lens according to the polarization state of the incident light. With the novel optical property, IMACL can be utilized in the see-through near eye display, or head-mounted display for augmented reality. The optical property of the proposed optical device is analyzed and aberration by the anisotropic property of the index-matched anisotropic crystal lens is described with the simulation. The concept of the head-mounted display using IMACL is introduced and various optical performances such as field of view, form factor and transmittance are analyzed. The prototype is implemented to verify the proposed system and experimental results show the mixture between the virtual image and real world scene.

  17. Augmented reality 3D display using head-mounted projectors and transparent retro-reflective screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomro, Shoaib R.; Urey, Hakan

    2017-02-01

    A 3D augmented reality display is proposed that can provide glass-free stereo parallax using a highly transparent projection screen. The proposed display is based on a transparent retro-reflective screen and a pair of laser pico projectors placed close to the viewer's head. The retro-reflective screen directs incident light towards its source with little scattering so that each of the viewer's eyes only perceives the content projected by the associated projector. Each projector displays one of the two components (left or right channel) of stereo content. The retro-reflective nature of screen provides high brightness compared to the regular diffused screens. The partially patterned retro-reflective material on clear substrate introduces optical transparency and facilitates the viewer to see the real-world scene on the other side of screen. The working principle and design of the proposed see-through 3D display are presented. A tabletop prototype consisting of an in-house fabricated 60×40cm2 see-through retro-reflective screen and a pair of 30 lumen pico-projectors with custom 3D printed housings is demonstrated. Geometric calibration between projectors and optimal viewing conditions (eye box size, eye-to-projector distance) are discussed. The display performance is evaluated by measuring the brightness and crosstalk for each eye. The screen provides high brightness (up to 300 cd/m2 per eye) using 30 lumens mobile projectors while maintaining the 75% screen transparency. The crosstalk between left and right views is measured as <10% at the optimum distance of 125-175 cm, which is within acceptable range.

  18. A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng; Hua, Hong; Cheng, Dewen

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and implementation of an optical see-through head-mounted display (HMD) with addressable focus cues utilizing a liquid lens. We implemented a monocular bench prototype capable of addressing the focal distance of the display from infinity to as close as 8 diopters. Two operation modes of the system were demonstrated: a vari-focal plane mode in which the accommodation cue is addressable, and a time-multiplexed multi-focal plane mode in which both the accommodation and retinal blur cues can be rendered. We further performed experiments to assess the depth perception and eye accommodative response of the system operated in a vari-focal plane mode. Both subjective and objective measurements suggest that the perceived depths and accommodative responses of the user match with the rendered depths of the virtual display with addressable accommodation cues, approximating the real-world 3-D viewing condition.

  19. Compact see-through 3D head-mounted display based on wavefront modulation with holographic grating filter.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiankun; Liu, Juan; Duan, Xinhui; Zhao, Tao; Li, Xin; Liu, Peilin

    2017-04-03

    A compact see-through three-dimensional head-mounted display (3D-HMD) is proposed and investigated in this paper. Two phase holograms are analytically extracted from the object wavefront and uploaded on different zones of the spatial light modulator (SLM). A holographic grating is further used as the frequency filter to couple the separated holograms together for wavefront modulation. The developed preliminary prototype has a simple optical facility and a compact structure (133.8mm × 40.4mm × 35.4mm with a 47.7mm length viewing accessory). Optical experiments demonstrated that the proposed system can present 3D images to the human eye with full depth cues. Therefore, it is free of the accommodation-vergence conflict and visual fatigue problem. The dynamic display ability is also tested in the experiments, which provides a promising potential for the true 3D interactive display.

  20. Instructive head-mounted display system: pointing device using a vision-based finger tracking technique applied to surgical education

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Takeshita, Hideki; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The head-mounted display (HMD) system is a novel personalized imaging monitoring system for use in a medical setting. Aim To support interactive intraoperative communication among HMD wearers, we integrated vision-based finger tracking into our system as a pointing device. Material and methods Our vision-based finger tracking system is composed of a commercially available real-time video camera, which is mounted on the modern HMD, and computer software that enables tracking of the tip of the operator's index finger and superimposing the marker on the endoscopic view. Results We used this system in an experimental demonstration. The operator used the finger-tracking pointer to explain the intraoperative findings of transurethral resection for bladder cancer to medical students. Conclusions This finger tracking system-based pointing device can function as a supportive tool for the HMD system, enabling interactive instruction and communication between the operator and other attending physicians or medical students. PMID:25337172

  1. Development of a surgical navigation system based on augmented reality using an optical see-through head-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Lu; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Huixiang; Wang, Fang; Zeng, Xiangsen; Wang, Qiugen; Egger, Jan

    2015-06-01

    The surgical navigation system has experienced tremendous development over the past decades for minimizing the risks and improving the precision of the surgery. Nowadays, Augmented Reality (AR)-based surgical navigation is a promising technology for clinical applications. In the AR system, virtual and actual reality are mixed, offering real-time, high-quality visualization of an extensive variety of information to the users (Moussa et al., 2012) [1]. For example, virtual anatomical structures such as soft tissues, blood vessels and nerves can be integrated with the real-world scenario in real time. In this study, an AR-based surgical navigation system (AR-SNS) is developed using an optical see-through HMD (head-mounted display), aiming at improving the safety and reliability of the surgery. With the use of this system, including the calibration of instruments, registration, and the calibration of HMD, the 3D virtual critical anatomical structures in the head-mounted display are aligned with the actual structures of patient in real-world scenario during the intra-operative motion tracking process. The accuracy verification experiment demonstrated that the mean distance and angular errors were respectively 0.809±0.05mm and 1.038°±0.05°, which was sufficient to meet the clinical requirements.

  2. Helmet-Mounted Liquid-Crystal Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steve; Plough, Alan; Clarke, Robert; Mclean, William; Fournier, Joseph; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1991-01-01

    Helmet-mounted binocular display provides text and images for almost any wearer; does not require fitting for most users. Accommodates users from smallest interpupillary distance to largest. Two liquid-crystal display units mounted in helmet. Images generated seen from any position head can assume inside helmet. Eyes directed to position for best viewing.

  3. Helmet-Mounted Liquid-Crystal Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steve; Plough, Alan; Clarke, Robert; Mclean, William; Fournier, Joseph; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1991-01-01

    Helmet-mounted binocular display provides text and images for almost any wearer; does not require fitting for most users. Accommodates users from smallest interpupillary distance to largest. Two liquid-crystal display units mounted in helmet. Images generated seen from any position head can assume inside helmet. Eyes directed to position for best viewing.

  4. The influence of depth of focus on visibility of monocular head-mounted display symbology in simulation and training applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterbottom, Marc D.; Patterson, Robert; Pierce, Byron J.; Covas, Christine; Winner, Jennifer

    2005-05-01

    The Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS),is being considered for integration into the F-15, F-16, and F-18 aircraft. If this integration occurs, similar monocular head-mounted displays (HMDs) will need to be integrated with existing out-the-window simulator systems for training purposes. One such system is the Mobile Modular Display for Advanced Research and Training (M2DART), which is constructed with flat-panel rear-projection screens around a nominal eye-point. Because the panels are flat, the distance from the eye point to the display screen varies depending upon the location on the screen to which the observer is directing fixation. Variation in focal distance may create visibility problems for either the HMD symbology or the out-the-window imagery presented on the simulator rear-projection display screen because observers may not be able to focus both sets of images simultaneously. The extent to which blurring occurs will depend upon the difference between the focal planes of the simulator display and HMD as well as the depth of focus of the observer. In our psychophysical study, we investigated whether significant blurring occurs as a result of such differences in focal distances and established an optimal focal distance for an HMD which would minimize blurring for a range of focal distances representative of the M2DART. Our data suggest that blurring of symbology due to differing focal planes is not a significant issue within the range of distances tested and that the optimal focal distance for an HMD is the optical midpoint between the near and far rear-projection screen distances.

  5. Amblyopia treatment of adults with dichoptic training using the virtual reality oculus rift head mounted display: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Žiak, Peter; Holm, Anders; Halička, Juraj; Mojžiš, Peter; Piñero, David P

    2017-06-28

    The gold standard treatments in amblyopia are penalizing therapies, such as patching or blurring vision with atropine that are aimed at forcing the use of the amblyopic eye. However, in the last years, new therapies are being developed and validated, such as dichoptic visual training, aimed at stimulating the amblyopic eye and eliminating the interocular supression. To evaluate the effect of dichoptic visual training using a virtual reality head mounted display in a sample of anisometropic amblyopic adults and to evaluate the potential usefulness of this option of treatment. A total of 17 subjects (10 men, 7 women) with a mean age of 31.2 years (range, 17-69 year) and anisometropic amblyopia were enrolled. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and stereoacuity (Stereo Randot graded circle test) changes were evaluated after 8 sessions (40 min per session) of dichoptic training with the computer game Diplopia Game (Vivid Vision) run in the Oculus Rift OC DK2 virtual reality head mounted display (Oculus VR). Mean BCVA in amblyopic eye improved significantly from a logMAR value of 0.58 ± 0.35 before training to a post-training value of 0.43 ± 0.38 (p < 0.01). Forty-seven percent of the participants achieved BCVA of 20/40 or better after the training as compared to 30% before the training. Mean stereoacuity changed from a value of 263.3 ± 135.1 before dichoptic training to a value of 176.7 ± 152.4 s of arc after training (p < 0.01). A total of 8 patients (47.1%) before dichoptic treatment had unmeasurable stereoacuity while this only occurred in 2 patients (11.8%) after training. Dichoptic training using a virtual reality head mounted display seems to be an effective option of treatment in adults with anisometropic amblyopia. Future clinical trials are needed to confirm this preliminary evidence. Trial ID: ISRCTN62086471 . Date registered: 13/06/2017. Retrospectively registered.

  6. Real-time EO/IR sensor fusion on a portable computer and head-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Zhanfeng; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2007-04-01

    Multi-sensor platforms are widely used in surveillance video systems for both military and civilian applications. The complimentary nature of different types of sensors (e.g. EO and IR sensors) makes it possible to observe the scene under almost any condition (day/night/fog/smoke). In this paper, we propose an innovative EO/IR sensor registration and fusion algorithm which runs real-time on a portable computing unit with head-mounted display. The EO/IR sensor suite is mounted on a helmet for a dismounted soldier and the fused scene is shown in the goggle display upon the processing on a portable computing unit. The linear homography transformation between images from the two sensors is precomputed for the mid-to-far scene, which reduces the computational cost for the online calibration of the sensors. The system is implemented in a highly optimized C++ code, with MMX/SSE, and performing a real-time registration. The experimental results on real captured video show the system works very well both in speed and in performance.

  7. Integrated image navigation system using head-mounted display in “RoboSurgeon” endoscopic radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Yoh; Kawashima, Kenji; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of minimally invasive surgery relies on visual information. We aimed to develop an integrated image navigation system (RoboSurgeon System) that combines head-mounted displays (HMDs) with multiple image modalities, and assessed its feasibility in 5 prostate cancer patients who underwent gasless single-port endoscopic radical prostatectomy. A robotically manipulated transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) system was used. In all cases, preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images and intraoperative real-time images of an endoscope, TRUS, and HMD-mounted camera were integrated and displayed synchronously on each HMD in a four-split screen mode during the entire process. The TRUS helped identify the boundary with the adjacent structures endoscopically in reference to MR images. There were no negative incidents in intraoperative or postoperative courses. Integrated image navigation using HMDs as individualized monitors is feasible in the natural ergonomic position and may be beneficial to identify correct dissection planes. The efficacy of the RoboSurgeon System deserves further evaluation. PMID:25562001

  8. 3D optical see-through head-mounted display based augmented reality system and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenliang; Weng, Dongdong; Liu, Yue; Xiang, Li

    2015-07-01

    The combination of health and entertainment becomes possible due to the development of wearable augmented reality equipment and corresponding application software. In this paper, we implemented a fast calibration extended from SPAAM for an optical see-through head-mounted display (OSTHMD) which was made in our lab. During the calibration, the tracking and recognition techniques upon natural targets were used, and the spatial corresponding points had been set in dispersed and well-distributed positions. We evaluated the precision of this calibration, in which the view angle ranged from 0 degree to 70 degrees. Relying on the results above, we calculated the position of human eyes relative to the world coordinate system and rendered 3D objects in real time with arbitrary complexity on OSTHMD, which accurately matched the real world. Finally, we gave the degree of satisfaction about our device in the combination of entertainment and prevention of cervical vertebra diseases through user feedbacks.

  9. Effects of videogame distraction using a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet on cold pressor pain in children.

    PubMed

    Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Weiss, Karen E; Clendaniel, Lindsay Dillinger; Law, Emily F; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag; McKenna, Kristine D

    2009-06-01

    To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain. Forty-one children, aged 6-14 years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold (elapsed time until the child reported pain) and pain tolerance (total time the child kept the hand submerged in the cold water) were measured for each cold pressor trial. Both distraction conditions resulted in improved pain tolerance relative to baseline. Older children appeared to experience additional benefits from using the helmet, whereas younger children benefited equally from both conditions. The findings suggest that virtual reality technology can enhance the effects of distraction for some children. Research is needed to identify the characteristics of children for whom this technology is best suited.

  10. Active and passive distraction using a head-mounted display helmet: effects on cold pressor pain in children.

    PubMed

    Dahlquist, Lynnda M; McKenna, Kristine D; Jones, Katia K; Dillinger, Lindsay; Weiss, Karen E; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag

    2007-11-01

    The current study tested the effectiveness of interactive versus passive distraction that was delivered via a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet for children experiencing cold pressor pain. Forty children, aged 5 to 13 years, underwent 1 or 2 baseline cold pressor trials followed by interactive distraction and passive distraction trials in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold and pain tolerance. Children who experienced either passive or interactive distraction demonstrated significant improvements in both pain tolerance and pain threshold relative to their baseline scores. In contrast, children who underwent a second cold pressor trial without distraction showed no significant improvements in pain tolerance or threshold. Although both distraction conditions were effective, the interactive distraction condition was significantly more effective. Implications for the treatment of children's distress during painful medical procedures are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Effects of Videogame Distraction using a Virtual Reality Type Head-Mounted Display Helmet on Cold Pressor Pain in Children

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Karen E.; Dillinger Clendaniel, Lindsay; Law, Emily F.; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag; McKenna, Kristine D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain. Method Forty-one children, aged 6–14 years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold (elapsed time until the child reported pain) and pain tolerance (total time the child kept the hand submerged in the cold water) were measured for each cold pressor trial. Results Both distraction conditions resulted in improved pain tolerance relative to baseline. Older children appeared to experience additional benefits from using the helmet, whereas younger children benefited equally from both conditions. The findings suggest that virtual reality technology can enhance the effects of distraction for some children. Research is needed to identify the characteristics of children for whom this technology is best suited. PMID:18367495

  12. Optical See-Through Head Mounted Display Direct Linear Transformation Calibration Robustness in the Presence of User Alignment Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axholt, Magnus; Skoglund, Martin; Peterson, Stephen D.; Cooper, Matthew D.; Schoen, Thomas B.; Gustafsson, Fredrik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ellis, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technique by which computer generated signals synthesize impressions that are made to coexist with the surrounding real world as perceived by the user. Human smell, taste, touch and hearing can all be augmented, but most commonly AR refers to the human vision being overlaid with information otherwise not readily available to the user. A correct calibration is important on an application level, ensuring that e.g. data labels are presented at correct locations, but also on a system level to enable display techniques such as stereoscopy to function properly [SOURCE]. Thus, vital to AR, calibration methodology is an important research area. While great achievements already have been made, there are some properties in current calibration methods for augmenting vision which do not translate from its traditional use in automated cameras calibration to its use with a human operator. This paper uses a Monte Carlo simulation of a standard direct linear transformation camera calibration to investigate how user introduced head orientation noise affects the parameter estimation during a calibration procedure of an optical see-through head mounted display.

  13. The accuracy of the Oculus Rift virtual reality head-mounted display during cervical spine mobility measurement.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Chen, Karen B; Lin, Jia-Hua; Radwin, Robert G

    2015-02-26

    An inertial sensor-embedded virtual reality (VR) head-mounted display, the Oculus Rift (the Rift), monitors head movement so the content displayed can be updated accordingly. While the Rift may have potential use in cervical spine biomechanics studies, its accuracy in terms of cervical spine mobility measurement has not yet been validated. In the current study, a VR environment was designed to guide participants to perform prescribed neck movements. The cervical spine kinematics was measured by both the Rift and a reference motion tracking system. Comparison of the kinematics data between the Rift and the tracking system indicated that the Rift can provide good estimates on full range of motion (from one side to the other side) during the performed task. Because of inertial sensor drifting, the unilateral range of motion (from one side to neutral posture) derived from the Rift is more erroneous. The root-mean-square errors over a 1-min task were within 10° for each rotation axis. The error analysis further indicated that the inertial sensor drifted approximately 6° at the beginning of a trial during the initialization. This needs to be addressed when using the Rift in order to more accurately measure cervical spine kinematics. It is suggested that the front cover of the Rift should be aligned against a vertical plane during its initialization. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Talk to the Virtual Hands: Self-Animated Avatars Improve Communication in Head-Mounted Display Virtual Environments

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, Trevor J.; Mohler, Betty J.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.

    2011-01-01

    Background When we talk to one another face-to-face, body gestures accompany our speech. Motion tracking technology enables us to include body gestures in avatar-mediated communication, by mapping one's movements onto one's own 3D avatar in real time, so the avatar is self-animated. We conducted two experiments to investigate (a) whether head-mounted display virtual reality is useful for researching the influence of body gestures in communication; and (b) whether body gestures are used to help in communicating the meaning of a word. Participants worked in pairs and played a communication game, where one person had to describe the meanings of words to the other. Principal Findings In experiment 1, participants used significantly more hand gestures and successfully described significantly more words when nonverbal communication was available to both participants (i.e. both describing and guessing avatars were self-animated, compared with both avatars in a static neutral pose). Participants ‘passed’ (gave up describing) significantly more words when they were talking to a static avatar (no nonverbal feedback available). In experiment 2, participants' performance was significantly worse when they were talking to an avatar with a prerecorded listening animation, compared with an avatar animated by their partners' real movements. In both experiments participants used significantly more hand gestures when they played the game in the real world. Conclusions Taken together, the studies show how (a) virtual reality can be used to systematically study the influence of body gestures; (b) it is important that nonverbal communication is bidirectional (real nonverbal feedback in addition to nonverbal communication from the describing participant); and (c) there are differences in the amount of body gestures that participants use with and without the head-mounted display, and we discuss possible explanations for this and ideas for future investigation. PMID:22022442

  15. A new head-mounted display-based augmented reality system in neurosurgical oncology: a study on phantom.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Fabrizio; Meola, Antonio; Carbone, Marina; Sinceri, Sara; Cagnazzo, Federico; Denaro, Ennio; Esposito, Nicola; Ferrari, Mauro; Ferrari, Vincenzo

    2017-12-01

    Benefits of minimally invasive neurosurgery mandate the development of ergonomic paradigms for neuronavigation. Augmented Reality (AR) systems can overcome the shortcomings of commercial neuronavigators. The aim of this work is to apply a novel AR system, based on a head-mounted stereoscopic video see-through display, as an aid in complex neurological lesion targeting. Effectiveness was investigated on a newly designed patient-specific head mannequin featuring an anatomically realistic brain phantom with embedded synthetically created tumors and eloquent areas. A two-phase evaluation process was adopted in a simulated small tumor resection adjacent to Broca's area. Phase I involved nine subjects without neurosurgical training in performing spatial judgment tasks. In Phase II, three surgeons were involved in assessing the effectiveness of the AR-neuronavigator in performing brain tumor targeting on a patient-specific head phantom. Phase I revealed the ability of the AR scene to evoke depth perception under different visualization modalities. Phase II confirmed the potentialities of the AR-neuronavigator in aiding the determination of the optimal surgical access to the surgical target. The AR-neuronavigator is intuitive, easy-to-use, and provides three-dimensional augmented information in a perceptually-correct way. The system proved to be effective in guiding skin incision, craniotomy, and lesion targeting. The preliminary results encourage a structured study to prove clinical effectiveness. Moreover, our testing platform might be used to facilitate training in brain tumour resection procedures.

  16. A head-mounted display-based personal integrated-image monitoring system for transurethral resection of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Takeshita, Hideki; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    The head-mounted display (HMD) is a new image monitoring system. We developed the Personal Integrated-image Monitoring System (PIM System) using the HMD (HMZ-T2, Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) in combination with video splitters and multiplexers as a surgical guide system for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). The imaging information obtained from the cystoscope, the transurethral ultrasonography (TRUS), the video camera attached to the HMD, and the patient's vital signs monitor were split and integrated by the PIM System and a composite image was displayed by the HMD using a four-split screen technique. Wearing the HMD, the lead surgeon and the assistant could simultaneously and continuously monitor the same information displayed by the HMD in an ergonomically efficient posture. Each participant could independently rearrange the images comprising the composite image depending on the engaging step. Two benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients underwent TURP performed by surgeons guided with this system. In both cases, the TURP procedure was successfully performed, and their postoperative clinical courses had no remarkable unfavorable events. During the procedure, none of the participants experienced any HMD-wear related adverse effects or reported any discomfort. PMID:25562008

  17. A head-mounted display-based personal integrated-image monitoring system for transurethral resection of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Kihara, Kazunori; Takeshita, Hideki; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    2014-12-01

    The head-mounted display (HMD) is a new image monitoring system. We developed the Personal Integrated-image Monitoring System (PIM System) using the HMD (HMZ-T2, Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) in combination with video splitters and multiplexers as a surgical guide system for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). The imaging information obtained from the cystoscope, the transurethral ultrasonography (TRUS), the video camera attached to the HMD, and the patient's vital signs monitor were split and integrated by the PIM System and a composite image was displayed by the HMD using a four-split screen technique. Wearing the HMD, the lead surgeon and the assistant could simultaneously and continuously monitor the same information displayed by the HMD in an ergonomically efficient posture. Each participant could independently rearrange the images comprising the composite image depending on the engaging step. Two benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients underwent TURP performed by surgeons guided with this system. In both cases, the TURP procedure was successfully performed, and their postoperative clinical courses had no remarkable unfavorable events. During the procedure, none of the participants experienced any HMD-wear related adverse effects or reported any discomfort.

  18. Geometrical waveguide in see-through head-mounted display: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qichao; Wang, Qiwei; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    Geometrical waveguide has obvious advantage over other see-through technologies to achieve high resolution, ultra-thin thickness, light weight and full-color display. The general principle of waveguide display is introduced and the key challenges involved with geometrical waveguide display and the way to conquer them is discussed. Ultra-thin geometrical waveguide for see-through HMDs with different properties is reviewed in this paper, including waveguide with partially-reflective mirrors array (PRMA), trapezoidal microstructures and triangular microstructures. Finally, a type of ultra-thin waveguide display which can be fabricated with the technology of injection molding is presented, and the thickness can be reduced to less than 2mm with an EPD of 12mm and a FOV of 36°.

  19. Gaussian Light Field: Estimation of Viewpoint-Dependent Blur for Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuta; Amano, Toshiyuki; Iwai, Daisuke; Klinker, Gudrun

    2016-11-01

    We propose a method to calibrate viewpoint-dependent, channel-wise image blur of near-eye displays, especially of Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays (OST-HMDs). Imperfections in HMD optics cause channel-wise image shift and blur that degrade the image quality of the display at a user's viewpoint. If we can estimate such characteristics perfectly, we could mitigate the effect by applying correction techniques from the computational photography in computer vision as analogous to cameras. Unfortunately, directly applying existing calibration techniques of cameras to OST-HMDs is not a straightforward task. Unlike ordinary imaging systems, image blur in OST-HMDs is viewpoint-dependent, i.e., the optical characteristic of a display dynamically changes depending on the current viewpoint of the user. This constraint makes the problem challenging since we must measure image blur of an HMD, ideally, over the entire 3D eyebox in which a user can see an image. To overcome this problem, we model the viewpoint-dependent blur as a Gaussian Light Field (GLF) that stores spatial information of the display screen as a (4D) light field with depth information and the blur as point-spread functions in the form of Gaussian kernels, respectively. We first describe both our GLF model and a calibration procedure to learn a GLF for a given OST-HMD. We then apply our calibration method to two HMDs that use different optics: a cubic prism or holographic gratings. The results show that our method achieves significantly better accuracy in Point-Spread Function (PSF) estimations with an accuracy about 2 to 7 dB in Peak SNR.

  20. An Evaluation of Signal Annoyance for a Head-Mounted Tactile Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    guideline for the design of vibrotactile displays, but very little information is available that addresses the comfort of vibrotactile signals. In...this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of...2 2.3 Experimental Design and Analyses

  1. Inclination of standing posture due to the presentation of tilted view through an immersive head-mounted display

    PubMed Central

    Ohmura, Yuji; Yano, Shiro; Katsuhira, Junji; Migita, Masato; Yozu, Arito; Kondo, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study is to clarify whether tilted scenery presented through an immersive head-mounted display (HMD) causes the inclination of standing posture. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adult males who provided informed consent participated in the experiment. An immersive HMD and a stereo camera were employed to develop a visual inclination system. The subjects maintained a standing posture twice for 5s each while wearing the visual inclination system. They performed this task under two conditions: normal view and 20° leftward tilted view. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to measure the subjects’ postures, and two force plates were used to measure the vertical component of the floor reaction force of each leg. [Results] In the 20° leftward tilted view, the head and trunk angles in the frontal plane were similarly inclined toward the left, and the vertical component of the floor reaction force increased in the left leg, whereas it decreased in the right leg. [Conclusion] When the view in the immersive HMD was tilted, the participants’ trunk side bent toward the same side as that of the view. This visual inclination system seems to be a simple intervention for changing standing posture. PMID:28265145

  2. Development of Support Technology for Color AMEL and AMLCD Head-Mounted Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-11-01

    the program. Other key participants included: Mr. Roger Stewart - Sarnoff Project Mgmt. Mr. Gerry Becker - Allied Signal Staff Mr. Gary Dohlny...lower power lamp into displays delivered to Amstrong Laboratories for DARPA. In the preceding DARPA subtractive color HMD contract, Honeywell used a...Ipri Gary Dolny David Fürst James Atherton David Sarnoff Research Center CN5300 Princeton, NJ 08543 8/5/96 26 Table of Contents page I

  3. Visual Stability of Objects and Environments Viewed through Head-Mounted Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Adelstein, Bernard D.

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Environments (aka Virtual Reality) is again catching the public imagination and a number of startups (e.g. Oculus) and even not-so-startup companies (e.g. Microsoft) are trying to develop display systems to capitalize on this renewed interest. All acknowledge that this time they will get it right by providing the required dynamic fidelity, visual quality, and interesting content for the concept of VR to take off and change the world in ways it failed to do so in past incarnations. Some of the surprisingly long historical background of the technology that the form of direct simulation that underlies virtual environment and augmented reality displays will be briefly reviewed. An example of a mid 1990's augmented reality display system with good dynamic performance from our lab will be used to illustrate some of the underlying phenomena and technology concerning visual stability of virtual environments and objects during movement. In conclusion some idealized performance characteristics for a reference system will be proposed. Interestingly, many systems more or less on the market now may actually meet many of these proposed technical requirements. This observation leads to the conclusion that the current success of the IT firms trying to commercialize the technology will depend on the hidden costs of using the systems as well as the development of interesting and compelling content.

  4. A stochastic analysis of the calibration problem for Augmented Reality systems with see-through head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leebmann, Johannes

    This paper presents a closed stochastic solution for the calibration of see-through head-mounted displays (STHMD) for Augmented Reality. An Augmented Reality system (ARS) is based on several components that are affected by stochastic and random errors. One important component is the tracking system. The flock of birds (FOB) tracking system was tested for consistency in position and orientation outputs by establishing constraints that the system was required to meet. The tests for position and orientation were separated to derive uncorrelated quality measures. The tests are self-controlling and do not require any other measuring device. In addition, the image coordinate accuracy also had to be determined to complete the stochastic description of the calibration problem. Based on this stochastic model, different mathematical models were tested to determine whether or not they fit the stochastic model. An overview of different calibration approaches for optical see-through displays is given and a quantitative comparison of the different models is made based on the derived accuracy information.

  5. Assessing balance through the use of a low-cost head-mounted display in older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Saldana, Santiago J; Marsh, Anthony P; Rejeski, W Jack; Haberl, Jack K; Wu, Peggy; Rosenthal, Scott; Ip, Edward H

    2017-01-01

    As the population ages, the prevention of falls is an increasingly important public health problem. Balance assessment forms an important component of fall-prevention programs for older adults. The recent development of cost-effective and highly responsive virtual reality (VR) systems means new methods of balance assessment are feasible in a clinical setting. This proof-of-concept study made use of the submillimeter tracking built into modern VR head-mounted displays (VRHMDs) to assess balance through the use of visual-vestibular conflict. The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity, acceptability, and reliability of using a VRHMD to assess balance in older adults. Validity was assessed by comparing measurements from the VRHMD to measurements of postural sway from a force plate. Acceptability was assessed through the use of the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire pre- and postexposure to assess possible side effects of the visual-vestibular conflict. Reliability was assessed by measuring correlations between repeated measurements 1 week apart. Variables of possible importance that were found to be reliable (r≥0.9) between tests separated by a week were then tested for differences compared to a control group. Assessment was performed as a cross-sectional single-site community center-based study in 13 older adults (≥65 years old, 80.2±7.3 years old, 77% female, five at risk of falls, eight controls). The VR balance assessment consisted of four modules: a baseline module, a reaction module, a balance module, and a seated assessment. There was a significant difference in the rate at which participants with a risk of falls changed their tilt in the anteroposterior direction compared to the control group. Participants with a risk of falls changed their tilt in the anteroposterior direction at 0.7°/second vs 0.4°/second for those without a history of falls. No significant differences were found between pre/postassessment for oculomotor score or total

  6. Collision judgment when using an augmented-vision head-mounted display device

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gang; Woods, Russell L; Peli, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We have developed a device to provide an expanded visual field to patients with tunnel vision by superimposing minified edge images of the wide scene, in which objects appear closer to the heading direction than they really are. We conducted experiments in a virtual environment to determine if users would overestimate collision risks. Methods Given simulated scenes of walking or standing with intention to walk towards a given direction (intended walking) in a shopping mall corridor, participants (12 normally sighted and 7 with tunnel vision) reported whether they would collide with obstacles appearing at different offsets from variable walking paths (or intended directions), with and without the device. The collision envelope (CE), a personal space based on perceived collision judgments, and judgment uncertainty (variability of response) were measured. When the device was used, combinations of two image scales (5× minified and 1:1) and two image types (grayscale or edge images) were tested. Results Image type did not significantly alter collision judgment (p>0.7). Compared to the without-device baseline, minification did not significantly change the CE of normally sighted subjects for simulated walking (p=0.12), but increased CE by 30% for intended walking (p<0.001). Their uncertainty was not affected by minification (p>0.25). For the patients, neither CE nor uncertainty was affected by minification (p>0.13) in both walking conditions. Baseline CE and uncertainty were greater for patients than normally-sighted subjects in simulated walking (p=0.03), but the two groups were not significantly different in all other conditions. Conclusion Users did not substantially overestimate collision risk, as the 5× minified images had only limited impact on collision judgments either during walking or before starting to walk. PMID:19458339

  7. Subjective Evaluation of a Semi-Automatic Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Display Calibration Technique.

    PubMed

    Moser, Kenneth; Itoh, Yuta; Oshima, Kohei; Swan, J Edward; Klinker, Gudrun; Sandor, Christian

    2015-04-01

    With the growing availability of optical see-through (OST) head-mounted displays (HMDs) there is a present need for robust, uncomplicated, and automatic calibration methods suited for non-expert users. This work presents the results of a user study which both objectively and subjectively examines registration accuracy produced by three OST HMD calibration methods: (1) SPAAM, (2) Degraded SPAAM, and (3) Recycled INDICA, a recently developed semi-automatic calibration method. Accuracy metrics used for evaluation include subject provided quality values and error between perceived and absolute registration coordinates. Our results show all three calibration methods produce very accurate registration in the horizontal direction but caused subjects to perceive the distance of virtual objects to be closer than intended. Surprisingly, the semi-automatic calibration method produced more accurate registration vertically and in perceived object distance overall. User assessed quality values were also the highest for Recycled INDICA, particularly when objects were shown at distance. The results of this study confirm that Recycled INDICA is capable of producing equal or superior on-screen registration compared to common OST HMD calibration methods. We also identify a potential hazard in using reprojection error as a quantitative analysis technique to predict registration accuracy. We conclude with discussing the further need for examining INDICA calibration in binocular HMD systems, and the present possibility for creation of a closed-loop continuous calibration method for OST Augmented Reality.

  8. Towards Intelligent Environments: An Augmented Reality–Brain–Machine Interface Operated with a See-Through Head-Mount Display

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Kouji; Hata, Naoki; Kansaku, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The brain–machine interface (BMI) or brain–computer interface is a new interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines or computers. This technology is expected to support daily activities, especially for persons with disabilities. To expand the range of activities enabled by this type of interface, here, we added augmented reality (AR) to a P300-based BMI. In this new system, we used a see-through head-mount display (HMD) to create control panels with flicker visual stimuli to support the user in areas close to controllable devices. When the attached camera detects an AR marker, the position and orientation of the marker are calculated, and the control panel for the pre-assigned appliance is created by the AR system and superimposed on the HMD. The participants were required to control system-compatible devices, and they successfully operated them without significant training. Online performance with the HMD was not different from that using an LCD monitor. Posterior and lateral (right or left) channel selections contributed to operation of the AR–BMI with both the HMD and LCD monitor. Our results indicate that AR–BMI systems operated with a see-through HMD may be useful in building advanced intelligent environments. PMID:21541307

  9. Monitoring with head-mounted displays: performance and safety in a full-scale simulator and part-task trainer.

    PubMed

    Liu, David; Jenkins, Simon A; Sanderson, Penelope M; Watson, Marcus O; Leane, Terrence; Kruys, Amanda; Russell, W John

    2009-10-01

    Head-mounted displays (HMDs) can help anesthesiologists with intraoperative monitoring by keeping patients' vital signs within view at all times, even while the anesthesiologist is busy performing procedures or unable to see the monitor. The anesthesia literature suggests that there are advantages of HMD use, but research into head-up displays in the cockpit suggests that HMDs may exacerbate inattentional blindness (a tendency for users to miss unexpected but salient events in the field of view) and may introduce perceptual issues relating to focal depth. We investigated these issues in two simulator-based experiments. Experiment 1 investigated whether wearing a HMD would affect how quickly anesthesiologists detect events, and whether the focus setting of the HMD (near or far) makes any difference. Twelve anesthesiologists provided anesthesia in three naturalistic scenarios within a simulated operating theater environment. There were 24 different events that occurred either on the patient monitor or in the operating room. Experiment 2 investigated whether anesthesiologists physically constrained by performing a procedure would detect patient-related events faster with a HMD than without. Twelve anesthesiologists performed a complex simulated clinical task on a part-task endoscopic dexterity trainer while monitoring the simulated patient's vital signs. All participants experienced four different events within each of two scenarios. Experiment 1 showed that neither wearing the HMD nor adjusting the focus setting reduced participants' ability to detect events (the number of events detected and time to detect events). In general, participants spent more time looking toward the patient and less time toward the anesthesia machine when they wore the HMD than when they used standard monitoring alone. Participants reported that they preferred the near focus setting. Experiment 2 showed that participants detected two of four events faster with the HMD, but one event more

  10. New three-dimensional head-mounted display system, TMDU-S-3D system, for minimally invasive surgery application: procedures for gasless single-port radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Kazunori; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Masuda, Hitoshi; Saito, Kazutaka; Koga, Fumitaka; Matsuoka, Yoh; Numao, Noboru; Kojima, Kazuyuki

    2012-09-01

    We present an application of a new three-dimensional head-mounted display system that combines a high-definition three-dimensional organic electroluminescent head-mounted display with a high-definition three-dimensional endoscope to minimally invasive surgery, using gasless single-port radical nephrectomy procedures as a model. This system presents the surgeon with a higher quality of magnified three-dimensional imagery in front of the eyes regardless of head position, and simultaneously allows direct vision by moving the angle of sight downward. It is also significantly less expensive than the current robotic surgery system. While carrying out gasless single-port radical nephrectomy, the system provided the surgeon with excellent three-dimensional imagery of the operative field, direct vision of the outside and inside of the patient, and depth perception and tactile feedback through the devices. All four nephrectomies were safely completed within the operative time, blood loss was within usual limits and there were no complications. The display was light enough to comfortably be worn for a long operative time. Our experiences show that the three-dimensional head-mounted display system might facilitate maneuverability and safety in minimally invasive procedures, without prohibitive cost, and thus might mitigate the drawbacks of other three-dimensional vision systems. Because of the potential benefits that this system offers, it deserves further refinements of its role in various minimally invasive surgeries.

  11. Evaluation of Head Mounted and Head Down Information Displays During Simulated Mine-Countermeasures Dives to 42 msw

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    cues such as stereopsis , interposition, size, perspective, and motion parallax are also decreased by using both monocular and binocular HMDs... monocular and binocular HMD) were tested by nine mine counter-measures (MCM) divers at the surface and during simulated dives to 42 metres in 6oC...or whether a HDD, or a monocular or binocular (HMD) is preferred. Methods: Three modes of information display were tested at the Diving Research

  12. Real-time Video-Streaming to Surgical Loupe Mounted Head-Up Display for Navigated Meningioma Resection.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Roberto; Yoon, Jang; Chen, Robert; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Wharen, Robert; Komotar, Ricardo

    2017-04-30

    Wearable technology interfaces with normal human movement and function, thereby enabling more efficient and adaptable use.We developed a wearable display system for use with intra-operative neuronavigation for brain tumor surgery. The Google glass head-up display system was adapted to surgical loupes with a video-streaming integrated hardware and software device for display of the Stealth S7 navigation screen. Phantom trials of surface ventriculostomy were performed. The device was utilized as an alternative display screen during cranial surgery. Image-guided brain tumor resection was accomplished using Google Glass head-up display of Stealth S7 navigation images. Visual display consists of navigation video-streaming over a wireless network. The integrated system developed for video-streaming permits video data display to the operating surgeon without requiring movement of the head away from the operative field. Google Glass head-up display can be used for intra-operative neuronavigation in the setting of intracranial tumor resection.

  13. The head-mounted microscope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery.

  14. Evaluating the image quality of Closed Circuit Television magnification systems versus a head-mounted display for people with low vision. .

    PubMed

    Lin, Chern Sheng; Jan, Hvey-An; Lay, Yun-Long; Huang, Chih-Chia; Chen, Hsien-Tse

    2014-01-01

    In this research, image analysis was used to optimize the visual output of a traditional Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) magnifying system and a head-mounted display (HMD) for people with low vision. There were two purposes: (1) To determine the benefit of using an image analysis system to customize image quality for a person with low vision, and (2) to have people with low vision evaluate a traditional CCTV magnifier and an HMD, each customized to the user's needs and preferences. A CCTV system can electronically alter images by increasing the contrast, brightness, and magnification for the visually disabled when they are reading texts and pictures. The test methods was developed to evaluate and customize a magnification system for persons with low vision. The head-mounted display with CCTV was used to obtain better depth of field and a higher modulation transfer function from the video camera. By sensing the parameters of the environment (e.g., ambient light level, etc.) and collecting the user's specific characteristics, the system could make adjustments according to the user's needs, thus allowing the visually disabled to read more efficiently.

  15. Helmet-mounted video display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dague, Mark W.

    1997-06-01

    The Litton Soldier Vision Sub-system is a lightweight, low power, display system that can be mounted on the soft cap, helmet or bare head, of a soldier in the field. The head mounting approach allows hands-free operation by the soldier, thereby providing the ability to run stand shoot while still being able to observe the computer's display. Likewise, command post staff, maintenance technicians, even firemen, can function in a similar manner. The system contains four major components: HMD, electronics unit, battery housing, and cables. The HMD is a folded path design using a 60 hertz refresh active matrix liquid crystal display, with backlight from an array of six light-emitting diodes. The typical power source is a nominal 9 VDC lithium battery, the BA-5600, but rechargeable batteries can also be used. Extensive design effort has been expended to add the shielding and filters necessary for unimpaired operation in close proximity to tactical radios. The entire system, including battery and cables, weighs approximately 2.3 pounds. Small size, low power, and light weight allow the system to be used in many varied applications, including display of maintenance manuals, remote medical assistance, and field reconnaissance.

  16. Assessment of visual space recognition of patients with unilateral spatial neglect and visual field defects using a head mounted display system.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Shunichi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Miyasaka, Tomoya; Izumi, Takashi; Shimizu, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was the development of a method for presenting diverse visual information and assessing visual space recognition using a new head mounted display (HMD) system. [Subjects] Eight patients: four with unilateral spatial neglect (USN) and four with visual field defects (VFD). [Methods] A test sheet was placed on a desk, and its image was projected on the display of the HMD. Then, space recognition assessment was conducted using a cancellation test and motion analysis of the eyeballs and head under four conditions with images reduced in size and shifted. [Results] Leftward visual search was dominant in VFD patients, while rightward visual search was dominant in USN patients. The angular velocity of leftward eye movement during visual search of the right sheet decreased in both patient types. Motion analysis revealed a tendency of VFD patients to rotate the head in the affected direction under the left reduction condition, whereas USN patients rotated it in the opposite direction of the neglect. [Conclusion] A new HMD system was developed for presenting diverse visual information and assessing visual space recognition which identified the differences in the disturbance of visual space recognition of VFD and USN patients were indicated.

  17. Assessment of visual space recognition in patients with visual field defects using head mounted display (HMD) system: case study with severe visual field defect.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Shunichi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Miyasaka, Tomoya; Izumi, Takashi; Shimizu, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    For the quantitative assessment of visual field defects of cerebrovascular patients, we developed a new measurement system that could present various kinds of visual information to the patient. In this system, we use a head mounted display as the display device. The quantitative assessment becomes possible by adding the capability to measure the eye movement and the head movement simultaneously by means of a video apparatus of motion analysis. In our study, we examined the effectiveness of this system by applying it to a patient with serious visual field defects. The visual image of the reduced test paper was presented to the patient, the effect on his/her spatial recognition and eye movement was investigated. The results indicated the increase in the ration of visual search in the reduced side. With the reduced image, the decrease of the angular velocity of eye movement was recognized in the visual search in the defected side. In the motion analysis, the head movement was not observed while the eye movements appeared corresponding to each different conditions. This fact led us to confirm that the patient coped with this kind of test by the eye movement. In this analysis, the effectiveness and the usefulness of the developed system were confirmed that enables us to evaluate the abnormal and compensation movement of the eyes.

  18. Effects of Configuration of Optical Combiner on Near-Field Depth Perception in Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyoon; Hua, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The ray-shift phenomenon means the apparent distance shift in the display image plane between virtual and physical objects. It is caused by the difference in the refraction of virtual display and see-through optical paths derived from optical combiners that are necessary to provide a see-through capability in optical see-through head-mounted displays. In this work, through a human-subject experiment, we investigated the effects of ray-shift phenomenon induced by the optical combiner on depth perception for near-field distances (40 cm-100 cm). In our experiment, we considered three different configurations of optical combiner: horizontal-tilt and vertical-tilt configurations (using plate beamsplitters horizontally and vertically tilted by 45°, respectively), and non-tilt configuration (using rectangular solid waveguides). Participants' depth perception errors in these configurations were compared with those in an ordinary condition (i.e., the condition where physical objects are directly shown without the displays) and theoretically estimated ones. According to the experimental results, the measured percentage depth perception errors were similar to the theoretically estimated ones, where the amount of estimated percentage depth errors was greater than 0.3%. Furthermore, the participants showed significantly larger depth perception errors in the horizontal-tilt configuration than in an ordinary condition, while no large errors were found in the vertical-tilt configuration. In the non-tilt configuration, the results were dependent on the thickness of optical combiner and target distance.

  19. Effects of videogame distraction and a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet on cold pressor pain in young elementary school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Weiss, Karen E; Law, Emily F; Sil, Soumitri; Herbert, Linda Jones; Horn, Susan Berrin; Wohlheiter, Karen; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of videogame distraction and a virtual reality (VR) type head-mounted display helmet for children undergoing cold pressor pain. Fifty children between the ages of 6 and 10 years underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered via a VR helmet or without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As expected, children demonstrated significant improvements in pain threshold and pain tolerance during both distraction conditions. However, the two distraction conditions did not differ in effectiveness. Using the VR helmet did not result in improved pain tolerance over and above the effects of interactive videogame distraction without VR technology. Clinical implications and possible developmental differences in elementary school-aged children's ability to use VR technology are discussed.

  20. Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2007-04-01

    eMagin Corporation has recently developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. AMOLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. The new OLED-XL devices gave the promise of improvements in usable lifetime over 6X what the standard full color, white, and green devices could provide. The US Army's RDECOM CERDEC NVESD performed life tests on several standard and OLED-XL panels from eMagin under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA). Displays were tested at room temperature, utilizing eMagin's Design Reference Kit driver, allowing computer controlled optimization, brightness adjustment, and manual temperature compensation. The OLED Usable Lifetime Model, developed under a previous NVESD/eMagin SPIE paper presented at DSS 2005, has been adjusted based on the findings of these tests. The result is a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed.

  1. Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration in the Neck Region Using an Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Display: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Naoki; Tsunoda, Mayumi; Mitsuhashi, Masatsugu; Okubo, Keisuke; Takeshima, Taro; Sehara, Yoshihide; Nagai, Mutsumi; Kawai, Kensuke

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of an optical see-through head-mounted display (OST-HMD) to improve ergonomics during ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in the neck region. This randomized controlled study compared an OST-HMD with a normal ultrasound monitor during an ultrasound-guided FNA in the neck region. Patients with a neck tumor were recruited and randomized into one of two groups. Two practitioners performed ultrasound-guided FNA with or without the HMD, as indicated. An independent researcher measured the procedure time, the number and time of head movements, as well as the number of needle redirections. In addition, practitioners completed questionnaires after performing the FNA on each patient. In 93% of the sessions with the OST-HMD, practitioners performed ultrasound-guided FNA without turning the patients' heads. There was no difference in procedural time and number of needle redirections between the two groups. Results from the questionnaire revealed not only good wearability and low fatigue, but also the practitioners' preference for the HMD. The OST-HMD improved the practitioners' ergonomics and can be adopted for performing ultrasound-guided interventional procedures in clinical settings. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

    1997-01-01

    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. This document reviews current state of the art in HMDs and presents a design guide for the HMD engineer in identifying several critical HMD issues: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and Field Of View (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. In particular, display latency is a key issue for HMDs. In addition to requiring further experimental studies, it impacts the definition and control law issues. Symbol stabilization is also critical. In the case of the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and Nap Of the Earth (NOE) flight. This translates into excessive training requirements. There is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A set of definitions is proposed to address this. There are several specific areas where simulation and flight experiments are needed: development of hover and NOE symbologies which compensate for pilot head movement; display latency and sampling, and the tradeoff between FOV, sensor resolution and symbology.

  3. Helmet-Mounted Visual Display For Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Anthony M.

    1990-01-01

    Helmet-mounted visual display system provides pilot with broad range of visual information for flight simulation. Offers nearly unlimited field of regard. Optical fibers transmit wide-angle images in response to motions of head. Two "pancake" lenses mounted on lightweight helmet. Cable of optical fibers carries images to each lens. "Light-valve" projectors deliver computer-generated binocular images to cables.

  4. A three-dimensional head-mounted display system (RoboSurgeon system) for gasless laparoendoscopic single-port partial cystectomy.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori; Yoshida, Soichiro; Ishioka, Junichiro; Matsuoka, Yoh; Numao, Noboru; Saito, Kazutaka

    2014-12-01

    We developed a new three-dimensional (3D) head-mounted display (HMD) system (RoboSurgeon system) that combines a high-definition 3D organic electroluminescent HMD with a high-definition 3D endoscope and applies it to minimally invasive surgery. This system presents the surgeon with a higher quality of magnified 3D imagery in front of the eyes, regardless of head position. We report 5 cases of RoboSurgeon gasless laparoendoscopic single-port partial cystectomy, which is carried out as part of our selective bladder-sparing protocol, with a technique utilizing both an intravesical and extravesical approach. While carrying out the surgery, the system provides the surgeon with both excellent 3D imagery of the operative field and clear imagery of the cystoscopy. All procedures were safely completed and there were no complications except for a case of postoperative lymphorrhea. Our experience shows that the 3D HMD system might facilitate maneuverability and safety in various minimally invasive procedures.

  5. Automatic calibration of an optical see-through head-mounted display for augmented reality applications in computer-assisted interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Ede, Christopher; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Hummel, Johann; Seemann, Rudolf; Bergmann, Helmar

    2004-05-01

    We are developing an optical see through head mounted display in which preoperative planning data provided by a computer aided surgery system is overlaid to the optical image of the patient. In order to cope with head movements of the surgeon the device has to be calibrated for a wide zoom and focus range. For such a calibration accurate and robust localization of a huge amount of calibration points is of utmost importance. Because of the negligible radial distortion of the optics in our device, we were able to use projective invariants for stable detection of the calibration fiducials on a planar grid. The pattern at the planar grid was designed using a different cross ratio for four consecutive points in x respectively y direction. For automated image processing we put a CCD camera behind the eye piece of the device. The resulting image was thresholded and segmented, after deleting the artefacts a Sobel edge detector was applied and the image was Hough transformed to detect the x and y axes. Then the world coordinates of fiducial points on the grid could be detected. A series of six camera calibrations with two zoom settings was done. The mean values of the errors for the two calibrations were 0.08 mm respectively 0.3 mm.

  6. A three-dimensional head-mounted display system (RoboSurgeon system) for gasless laparoendoscopic single-port partial cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Yasuhisa; Yoshida, Soichiro; Ishioka, Junichiro; Matsuoka, Yoh; Numao, Noboru; Saito, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    We developed a new three-dimensional (3D) head-mounted display (HMD) system (RoboSurgeon system) that combines a high-definition 3D organic electroluminescent HMD with a high-definition 3D endoscope and applies it to minimally invasive surgery. This system presents the surgeon with a higher quality of magnified 3D imagery in front of the eyes, regardless of head position. We report 5 cases of RoboSurgeon gasless laparoendoscopic single-port partial cystectomy, which is carried out as part of our selective bladder-sparing protocol, with a technique utilizing both an intravesical and extravesical approach. While carrying out the surgery, the system provides the surgeon with both excellent 3D imagery of the operative field and clear imagery of the cystoscopy. All procedures were safely completed and there were no complications except for a case of postoperative lymphorrhea. Our experience shows that the 3D HMD system might facilitate maneuverability and safety in various minimally invasive procedures. PMID:25562007

  7. Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Hua, Hong; Talha, M M

    2009-05-10

    It has been a challenge to design an optical see-through head-mounted display (OST-HMD) that has a wide field of view (FOV) and low f-number (f/#) while maintaining a compact, lightweight, and nonintrusive form factor. In this paper, we present an OST-HMD design using a wedge-shaped freeform prism cemented with a freeform lens. The prism, consisting of three freeform surfaces (FFSs), serves as the near-eye viewing optics that magnifies the image displayed through a microdisplay, and the freeform lens is an auxiliary element attached to the prism in order to maintain a nondistorted see-through view of a real-world scene. Both the freeform prism and the lens utilize plastic materials to achieve light weight. The overall dimension of the optical system per eye is no larger than 25 mm by 22 mm by 12 mm, and the weight is 8 g. Based on a 0.61 in. microdisplay, our system demonstrates a diagonal FOV of 53.5 degrees and an f/# of 1.875, with an 8 mm exit pupil diameter and an 18.25 mm eye relief.

  8. Raster graphic helmet-mounted display study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beamon, William S.; Moran, Susanna I.

    1990-01-01

    A design of a helmet mounted display system is presented, including a design specification and development plan for the selected design approach. The requirements for the helmet mounted display system and a survey of applicable technologies are presented. Three helmet display concepts are then described which utilize lasers, liquid crystal display's (LCD's), and subminiature cathode ray tubes (CRT's), respectively. The laser approach is further developed in a design specification and a development plan.

  9. Helmet-mounted sight and display testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Schreyer, Herbert; Schranner, R.

    1991-08-01

    The results of tests conducted with helmet-mounted sights (HMS) and helmet- mounted displays (HMD) are presented. To compare the accuracy of the different HMS systems (on a magnetic, acoustic, or optical basis) the authors find and unify a test procedure for verification. The test conditions vary, depending on the principle of the HMS system. Magnetic systems should be tested with the influence of magnetic disturbances, ultrasonic systems with the occurrence of noise and changing characteristics of the dispersion medium, and optical systems under high luminance to check saturation effects of the sensors. Modern integrated helmets (IH) consist of CRTs for displaying binocular images of TV--or infrared--cameras and superimposed symbology and a second channel with image intensifier tubes (IIT). Important points for checking CRTs are the resolution, distortion, homogeneity, and brightness in day and night. The most important test for the IIT channel is the resolution measured as a function of luminance of the test pattern. Tests of the basic helmet regarding head fit, earphone, center of gravity, weight, etc., are also necessary because these properties have an influence on the performance of the complete man-machine system.

  10. Helmet mounted display flight symbology research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Seery, Ronald E.

    1992-01-01

    Screen/head stabilized MIL-STD 1295 helmet mounted display (HMD) flight symbology as integrated on the Apache helicopter was compared to world referenced/stabilized flight symbology. Simulation test results indicate that pilots perform significantly better using world-stabilized conformal attitude symbology. They were accurate to an average of 1/2 degree at estimating terrain relief and aerial target locations. World stabilized conformal symbology was preferred while performing contour flight tasks. They reported that the use of climb-dive-marker during contour flight greatly reduced pilot work load under conditions tested. Cyclic input errors occurred when using both 1295 hover symbology and test symbology indicating that a better approach for depicting hover symbology is warranted. The magnitude of cyclic input and spatial estimation errors increased as the off-axis viewing angle became larger.

  11. Metamorphism in potential function while maintaining upright posture during exposure to a three-dimensional movie on an head-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Takada, Hiroki; Fujikake, Kazuhiro; Miyao, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new index, sparse density (SPD), of stationary stabilograms for detecting the metamorphism in the (temporally averaged) potential function of stochastic differential equations, which occurs when a human attempts to maintain an upright posture. It is known that a mathematical model of the body sway can be developed by a stochastic process. The authors have succeeded in finding the nonlinearity in the potential function. In this study, subjects in a standing position were stimulated by three-dimensional (3-D) movies on an head-mounted display (HMD). We also measured the degree of determinism in the dynamics of the sway of the center of gravity of the subjects. The Double-Wayland algorithm was used as a novel method. As a result, the dynamics of the body sway in the presence of the stimulus as well as in its absence were considered to be stochastic. The metamorphism in the potential function during exposure to the conventional 3-D images could be detected by using the SPD.

  12. A hybrid simulated method for analyzing the optical efficiency of a head-mounted display with a quasi-crystal OLED panel.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kao-Der; Li, Chang-Yi; Pan, Jui-Wen; Cheng, Kuei-Yuan

    2014-03-10

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a quasi-crystal (QC) structure are analyzed and applied in a head-mounted display (HMD) system in this study. We adopt a hybrid simulated method to evaluate the light extraction efficiency (LEE) and far-field pattern in the air, and study the relationship between them. The simulation results show that OLEDs implanted with the QC structure can provide a collimated far-field pattern to increase the brightness. Using this 10-fold QC arrangement the maxima LEE of the OLEDs can be increased by 1.20 times. Compared with conventional OLEDs, the viewing angle of the OLED panel decreases from 120 degrees to 26 degrees with an improvement in the optical efficiency of the HMD system by 2.66 times. Moreover, the normalized on-axis intensity in the pupil of the eyepiece can be enlarged up to 3.95 times which suggests that the OLED panel can save 74.68% energy while achieving the same on-axis intensity as conventional OLEDs.

  13. Holographic Helmet-Mounted Display Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Helmet-mounted display unit designed for use in testing innovative concepts for display of information to aircraft pilots. Operates in conjunction with computers generating graphical displays. Includes two ocular subunits containing miniature cathoderay tubes and optics providing 40 degrees vertical, 50 degrees horizontal field of view to each eye, with or without stereopsis. In future color application, each ocular subunit includes trichromatic holographic combiner tuned to red, green, and blue wavelengths of phosphors used in development of miniature color display devices.

  14. Helmet Mounted Display symbology integration research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Seery, Ronald E.

    1992-01-01

    A five-week flight simulation investigation comparing screen/head stabilized Apache Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) flight symbology to world stabilized flight symbology is presented in this paper. Simulation test results indicate that pilots perform significantly (P is less than .05) better using world stabilized attitude symbology. They were accurate to an average of 1/2 deg at estimating terrain relief and aerial target locations. Pilots were able to take advantage of world referenced symbology due to the unique features of HMD that allow the pilot to visually use the symbology at extreme azimuth and elevation off-axis angles. Pilots preferred world stabilized symbology while performing contour flight tasks. They reported that the use of climb-dive-marker during contour flight greatly reduced pilot work load under conditions tested. A surprising number of cyclic input errors occurred when using both MIL-STD-1295 hover symbology and test symbology, indicating that a better approach for depicting hover symbology is probably warranted. The magnitude of cyclic input and spatial estimation errors increased as the off-axis viewing angle became larger.

  15. Timing considerations of Helmet Mounted Display performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tharp, Gregory; Liu, Andrew; French, Lloyd; Lai, Steve; Stark, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    The Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system developed in our lab should be a useful teleoperator systems display if it increases operator performance of the desired task; it can, however, introduce degradation in performance due to display update rate constraints and communication delays. Display update rates are slowed by communication bandwidth and/or computational power limitations. We used simulated 3D tracking and pick-and-place tasks to characterize performance levels for a range of update rates. Initial experiments with 3D tracking indicate that performance levels plateau at an update rate between 10 and 20 Hz. We have found that using the HMD with delay decreases performance as delay increases.

  16. Timing considerations of Helmet Mounted Display performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tharp, Gregory; Liu, Andrew; French, Lloyd; Lai, Steve; Stark, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    The Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system developed in our lab should be a useful teleoperator systems display if it increases operator performance of the desired task; it can, however, introduce degradation in performance due to display update rate constraints and communication delays. Display update rates are slowed by communication bandwidth and/or computational power limitations. We used simulated 3D tracking and pick-and-place tasks to characterize performance levels for a range of update rates. Initial experiments with 3D tracking indicate that performance levels plateau at an update rate between 10 and 20 Hz. We have found that using the HMD with delay decreases performance as delay increases.

  17. Helmet mounted display systems for helicopter simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Bucher, Nancy; Runnings, David

    1989-01-01

    Simulation scientists continually pursue improved flight simulation technology with the goal of closely replicating the 'real world' physical environment. The presentation/display of visual information for flight simulation is one such area enjoying recent technical improvements that are fundamental for conducting simulated operations close to the terrain. Detailed and appropriate visual information is especially critical for Nap-Of-the-Earth (NOE) helicopter flight simulation where the pilot maintains an 'eyes-out' orientation to avoid obstructions and terrain. This paper elaborates on the visually coupled Wide Field Of View Helmet Mounted Display (WFOVHMD) system technology as a viable visual display system for helicopter simulation. In addition the paper discusses research conducted on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator that examined one critical research issue for helmet mounted displays.

  18. Helmet mounted display systems for helicopter simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Bucher, Nancy; Runnings, David

    1989-01-01

    Simulation scientists continually pursue improved flight simulation technology with the goal of closely replicating the 'real world' physical environment. The presentation/display of visual information for flight simulation is one such area enjoying recent technical improvements that are fundamental for conducting simulated operations close to the terrain. Detailed and appropriate visual information is especially critical for Nap-Of-the-Earth (NOE) helicopter flight simulation where the pilot maintains an 'eyes-out' orientation to avoid obstructions and terrain. This paper elaborates on the visually coupled Wide Field Of View Helmet Mounted Display (WFOVHMD) system technology as a viable visual display system for helicopter simulation. In addition the paper discusses research conducted on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator that examined one critical research issue for helmet mounted displays.

  19. Eurofighter helmet-mounted display: status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Stephen J.; Cameron, Alexander A.

    2000-06-01

    BAE SYSTEMS are developing a high performance Helmet Mounted Display system for the Eurofighter/Typhoon combat aircraft. This paper presents an overview of the design solutions, as well as details of the development program status. Finally, it gives some indicators as to future growth applications.

  20. Mathematical Basis of Knowledge Discovery and Autonomous Intelligent Architectures - Eye-Tracking and Head-Mounted Display/Tracking Computer System for the Remote Control of Robots and Manipulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-14

    High resolution image zone (HRIZ) on computer monitors , displays for collective use and helmet-mounted ones; C). Zone of higher interest displaying...monitor; 2). 3D control of the high-resolution zone in displayed image (HRIZ), for helmet-mounted displays, computer monitors and any displays for...for helmet-mounted displays, computer monitors and any displays for collective use; 3). 3D control of image zone of perception concern (with added

  1. F-16 helmet-mounted display flight evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterfield, Bruce L.

    1990-10-01

    The Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) concept has long been regarded as a significant advantage to the modern combat pilot. This concept, however, has been limited to simulators, helicopters, and simplistic display types on fighter aircraft. For the first time, wide field of view HMD5, coupled with a head-steered FLIR, have undergone significant flight tests aboard a state of the art fighter aircraft. This paper discusses some of the lessons learned concerning the use of HMDs in a high performance fighter aircraft.

  2. A history of helmet mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Bob; Melzer, James

    2015-05-01

    In more than 40 years of development, the Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) has become a key part of the equipment for fixed and rotary wing pilots and ground soldiers, proving to be a force multiplier and reducing user workload. Rockwell Collins has been a key player in the development of modern HMD technology and is currently fielding major HMDs supporting pilots around the world including the Joint Hemet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) and Strike Eye. This paper will outline the history of HMDs over the last 40 years for fixed wing, rotorcraft and soldiers and discuss Rockwell Collins' role. We will discuss the development and testing required for introduction of HMDs into the modern pilot environment. Within the paper we will point out some of the misconceptions, facts and legends of HMDS.

  3. Evaluation of Helmet Mounted Display Alerting Symbology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Proposed helicopter helmet mounted displays will be used to alert the pilot to a variety of conditions, from threats to equipment problems. The present research was performed under the NASA Safe All-weather Flight Operations Research (SAFOR) program supported by a joint Army/NASA research agreement. The purpose of the research was to examine ways to optimize the alerting effectiveness of helmet display symbology. The research used two approaches to increasing the effectiveness of alerts. One was to increase the ability of the alert to attract attention by using the entire display surface. The other was to include information about the required response in the alert itself. The investigation was conducted using the NASA Ames Research Center's six-degree-of-freedom vertical motion simulator (VMS) with a rotorcraft cockpit. Helmet display symbology was based on the AH-64's pilot night vision system (PNVS), cruise mode symbology. A standardized mission was developed, that consisted of 11 legs. The mission included four tasks, which allowed variation in the frequency of alerts. The general trend in the data points to a small benefit from both the full-screen alert and the partial information alert.

  4. Theoretical issues relevant to helmet-mounted display attitude symbology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Joseph; Jennings, Sion A.; Craig, Greg

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses theoretical issues that are relevant to Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) attitude direction indicator (ADI) design. An ADI shows the relationship between the aircraft wings and the horizon and pilots use it to determine aircraft attitude (pitch and roll). The ADI is used for maintaining an aircraft attitude, capturing a precise attitude and recovering from an unusual attitude. An attitude indicator is an essential instrument because it provides pilots with orientation information that they do not normally have in instrument flight conditions. Recent work suggests that humans orient themselves within a fixed world-reference frame. We will discuss the relationship between the reference frames used by the human orientation system, the reference frames implemented in existing ADIs, and the reference frames available in a helmet-mounted display. A head tracked HMD system allows a system designer to implement symbology in many reference frames including the head, aircraft, and world reference frames. Traditional head down attitude symbology may not be appropriate for HMD use, and it may conflict with the reference frame used by human orientation systems. Based on the author's review of ADIs and frames of reference, research topics are discussed that examine the role of HMD ADI symbology.

  5. TRISTAR III: helmet-mounted display symbology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Sharkey, Thomas J.; Lee, Alan G.

    1995-05-01

    The US Army Aviation RDEC's Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) in cooperation with the Department of Defense Flight Symbology Working Group, the United Kingdom's Defense Research Agency (DRA), and The Technology Cooperative Program Helicopter Technical Panel 6 (HTP6), conducted a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) symbology investigation using AFDD's Crew Station Research and Development Facility helicopter simulator located at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. The objectives of the experiment were to examine HMD symbology stabilization, pitch ladders, flight path presentations, and tasks and measures that capture objective and subjective performance differences. Symbology presentation techniques closely modeled specific presentations found in the US Army's AH- 64D Apache helicopter and proposed symbology techniques for the RAH-Comanche and Longbow Apache rotorcraft. Eight helicopter pilots from DOD and DRA participated in the study flying simulated low-altitude rotorcraft maneuvers. This paper describes the simulation flight tests, test results, implications of test findings and recommendations for future HMD investigations.

  6. High Speed Rotor Head Mounted Instrumentation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hee, Leonard; Reynolds, R. S. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has been investigating the air flow of a rotor blade on a UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter in-flight. This paper will address the hardware problems and solutions used to design and fabricate an instrumentation system on top of a UH-60 main rotor head. The instrumentation system consisted of 10 data systems operating in parallel and collected data from 370 sensors that are mounted in four rotor blades and on the rotating rotor head. The data was recorded on board the aircraft and simultaneously down linked to the ground station at 7.5 MHz.

  7. Integrated helmet mounted display concepts for air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted in a dome simulator to evaluate several Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) formats developed as part of the NASA High Alpha Technology Program (HATP). The display formats conveyed energy management, spatial orientation, and weapons management information. The HMD format was compared to a generic Heads Up Display (HUD) typical of current operational fighter aircraft. Pilots were tasked to spend as much time in a weapon solution as possible, to have the correct weapon selected for the envelope they were in, and to avoid the adversary's weapon envelope as much as possible. Several different displays were tested individually and simultaneously to see how separate display concepts coexisted. Objective results showed that the ability for the pilot to select the correct weapon for the envelope he was in increased by 50% in a moderate workload condition and 90% in a high workload condition with the HMD format. In the post-test comments pilots generally favored the helmet display formats over the HUD formats with a few instances where pilots preferred a simple numeric readout of the parameter. Short term exposure effects of the HMD on visual acuity were also measured and showed no advers results.

  8. Comanche Helmet-Mounted Display Symbology Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpin, Terry S.; Dowell, Susan R.; Szoboszlay, Zoltan

    2006-01-01

    The Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AMRDEC) conducted a simulation to examine the performance of the Comanche Contact Analog world-referenced symbology displayed on the Comanche HIDSS when compared with a compressed symbology design similar to that specified by the former MIL-STD 1295. Six experimental test pilots flew one modified ADS-33 maneuver (hover turn, bob-up), an unusual attitude recovery, and two terrain flight tactical tasks in the NASA Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS). Analysis of the pilot objective performance data and subjective data showed the following results. Objective test results showed that 1295 symbology yielded more rapid maneuvering in the hover turn bob-up than Contact Analog symbology. The average margin of difference in the time to complete the maneuver was approximately two seconds, which was statistically significant. There were no significant differences measured between symbology sets with respect to altitude or position performance measures for all other maneuvers. The NOE target ID task data showed improved accuracy in determining heading to target when using Contact Analog over MIL-STD-1295. Subjective test results, including handling qualities ratings (HQRs) and NASA-TLX workload ratings, showed small but consistent advantages of 1295 symbology over Contact Analog for most parameters. For the bob-up maneuver, 1295 symbology handling qualities were rated Desired for lateral position error and time to complete whereas Contact Analog was rated adequate. The average HQRs for all other maneuvers were rated the same for both symbology sets. Pilot comments and the results of an online questionnaire more strongly favored 1295 over Contact Analog. Repeated comments from all six pilots led to a focus on design issues with six Contact Analog symbols. Those symbols were the heading tape, horizon line, radar altitude six-second predictor, the position of the torque symbol, the absence of a hover position cue, and the widespread positioning of

  9. Head-mounted computer interface based on eye tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, William E.

    1993-10-01

    A head-mounted computer interface using eye-tracking as a `pointer' was demonstrated at the Third Annual Weapons Technology Review and Training Exposition at San Diego in January 1992, and is under further development for military and civilian applications. in this interface, the computer interprets eye gaze direction just as it would input from a mouse or trackball. This technology makes possible computer-human interaction with many ideal aspects: complete portability, hands-free operation, silent, secure operation anywhere and any time. Commercial systems using control inputs from the tracked eye are available and effective within their limits, but size, weight, and cost have been barriers to wider use. This paper describes the latest head-mounted eye tracking display (HETD) development prototype. We are exploring the technological limits of current and near-term lighting, detector, and lens technology to project the feasibility of this device.

  10. Distance Perception of Stereoscopically Presented Virtual Objects Optically Superimposed on Physical Objects by a Head-Mounted See-Through Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Bucher, Urs J.; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physically presented background stimuli on the perceived depth of optically overlaid, stereoscopic virtual images has been studied using headmounted stereoscopic, virtual image displays. These displays allow presentation of physically unrealizable stimulus combinations. Positioning of an opaque physical object either at the initial perceived depth of the virtual image or at a position substantially in front of the virtual image, causes the virtual image to perceptually move closer to the observer. In the case of objects positioned substantially in front of the virtual image, subjects often perceive the opaque object to become transparent. Evidence is presented that the apparent change of position caused by interposition of the physical object is not due to occlusion cues. According, it may have an alternative cause such as variation in the binocular vengeance position of the eyes caused by introduction of the physical object. This effect may complicate design of overlaid virtual image displays for near objects and appears to be related to the relative conspicuousness of the overlaid virtual image and the background. Consequently, it may be related to earlier analyses of John Foley which modeled open-loop pointing errors to stereoscopically presented points of light in terms of errors in determination of a reference point for interpretation of observed retinal disparities. Implications for the design of see-through displays for manufacturing will be discussed.

  11. Distance Perception of Stereoscopically Presented Virtual Objects Optically Superimposed on Physical Objects by a Head-Mounted See-Through Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Bucher, Urs J.; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physically presented background stimuli on the perceived depth of optically overlaid, stereoscopic virtual images has been studied using headmounted stereoscopic, virtual image displays. These displays allow presentation of physically unrealizable stimulus combinations. Positioning of an opaque physical object either at the initial perceived depth of the virtual image or at a position substantially in front of the virtual image, causes the virtual image to perceptually move closer to the observer. In the case of objects positioned substantially in front of the virtual image, subjects often perceive the opaque object to become transparent. Evidence is presented that the apparent change of position caused by interposition of the physical object is not due to occlusion cues. According, it may have an alternative cause such as variation in the binocular vengeance position of the eyes caused by introduction of the physical object. This effect may complicate design of overlaid virtual image displays for near objects and appears to be related to the relative conspicuousness of the overlaid virtual image and the background. Consequently, it may be related to earlier analyses of John Foley which modeled open-loop pointing errors to stereoscopically presented points of light in terms of errors in determination of a reference point for interpretation of observed retinal disparities. Implications for the design of see-through displays for manufacturing will be discussed.

  12. Presentation of IR pictures on helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarotti, Giorgio; Fiori, Lorenzo; Malfagia, Roberto

    1994-06-01

    The head tracking systems for helmet mounted displays (HMD) have actually achieved a high degree of accuracy, thus allowing the precise control of the line of sight (LOS) of electrooptical vision sensors. Therefore, the possibility to fly day and night having on the helmet visors the pictures generated by a steerable infrared (IR) sensor slaved to the pilot's head becomes nowadays realistic. The paper describes the results of a technical analysis performed on a system based on a steerable IR sensor integrated with an advanced HMD for navigation aid purpose in a modern fighter. Integration aspects and human engineering factors are also widely analyzed. This paper considers the parameters which lead to an imperfect static or dynamic overlay of the generated IR picture with the external world, as seen by the pilot through the helmet visors, and the effects of such misalignment. The finite angular excursion of the IR sensor LOS, due to the gimbals limits, has been taken into account, and the necessary transitions to and from the LLTVs integrated within the helmet, suitable to cover all possible head motions, have been investigated. An approach for the fusion of information generated by the LLTVs and the IR sensor is also reported. The limits and constraints of navigation using steerable IR sensors are also highlighted with respect to safety aspects.

  13. Head-mounted spatial instruments: Synthetic reality or impossible dream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Grunwald, Arthur; Velger, Mordekhai

    1988-01-01

    A spatial instrument is defined as a display device which has been either geometrically or symbolically enhanced to better enable a user to accomplish a particular task. Research conducted over the past several years on 3-D spatial instruments has shown that perspective displays, even when viewed from the correct viewpoint, are subject to systematic viewer biases. These biases interfere with correct spatial judgements of the presented pictorial information. It is also found that deliberate, appropriate geometric distortion of the perspective projection of an image can improve user performance. These two findings raise intriguing questions concerning the design of head-mounted spatial instruments. The design of such instruments may not only require the introduction of compensatory distortions to remove the neutrally occurring biases but also may significantly benefit from the introduction of artificial distortions which enhance performance. These image manipulations, however, can cause a loss of visual-vestibular coordination and induce motion sickness. Additionally, adaptation to these manipulations is apt to be impaired by computational delays in the image display. Consequently, the design of head-mounted spatial instruments will require an understanding of the tolerable limits of visual-vestibular discord.

  14. A helmet mounted display to adapt the telerobotic environment to human vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tharp, Gregory; Liu, Andrew; Yamashita, Hitomi; Stark, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    A Helmet Mounted Display system has been developed. It provides the capability to display stereo images with the viewpoint tied to subjects' head orientation. The type of display might be useful in a telerobotic environment provided the correct operating parameters are known. The effects of update frequency were tested using a 3D tracking task. The effects of blur were tested using both tracking and pick-and-place tasks. For both, researchers found that operator performance can be degraded if the correct parameters are not used. Researchers are also using the display to explore the use of head movements as part of gaze as subjects search their visual field for target objects.

  15. Cuff-Mounted Electronic Checklist Display Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmolejo, Jose A.; Fullerton, Richard; Cottingham, Paul; Chen, Chen-Hsiang; Shepherd, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Portable electronic display unit developed to provide text and pictures to guide users through complex technical procedures in field. Touch screen divided into six areas; touching each area causes display of specific menu or page, or activates electronic stopwatch. Unit strapped onto user's wrist in manner of wristwatch, leaving user's hands free to carry out procedures while referring to displayed information. Intended originally for use by astronaut in space suit, unit also eases tasks of technicians on Earth by providing quick and easy access to information, without need to carry and thumb through massive service manuals.

  16. Binocular Rivalry and Attention in Helmet-Mounted Display Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    AFRL-HE-AZ-TP-2007-06 BINOCULAR RIVALRY AND ATTENTION IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY APPLICATIONS Marc D. Winterbottom Air Force Research...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the...SUBTITLE BINOCULAR RIVALRY AND ATTENTION IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY APPLICATIONS Presented at the 2006 Human Factors and Ergonomics Conference 5c

  17. Helmet-mounted displays on the modern battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Curtis J.

    1999-07-01

    The increasing need for information being demanded by the battlefield commander in order to increase and maintain overall situational awareness in execution of the battle plan has caused a proliferation of devices and methods to be evaluated in Army Warfighting Experiments (AWEs). The results are often technology driving requirements without sufficient consideration given to the requirements of the soldier in battle. We are witnessing an overload of information being imposed on both the commander and the individual soldier, employing equipment capable of providing information from numerous sources across multiple, non-compatible platforms. Displays for this information range from large, power-hungry, big screen TVs to small, rugged computers and head-mounted displays (HMDs) for the individual combat soldier. The former requires large power supplies and is not suitable for a mobile army; the latter offers poor resolution and interferes with the duties of a soldier in combat. While we must continue to explore technology to solve some of the problems on the modern battlefield, we, as developers of technology, cannot lose sight of the purpose of the combat soldier: To wage war on a highly complex and mobile battlefield, whether it be in a country or urban environment; to seek out the enemy, engage him, destroy his ability to fight.

  18. Body-worn optical wireless link to helmet mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, David W.; Watson, Malcolm A.; White, Henry J.

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes a prototype demonstration of a high bandwidth data link between the fuselage of an aircraft and a helmet mounted display. A single data receiver, powered by battery and equipped with a light-collecting optical antenna to increase optical gain, is worn on the body of the pilot, with a fast-modulated laser transmitter mounted in the pilot's seat area. The combination covered the expected range of body movement that a pilot typically undergoes during a flight. Uncompressed, {140Mbps video data is streamed over the free-space link to a BAE Systems helmet mounted display (Q-Sight™) worn by the pilot.

  19. Color Helmet-Mounted Display System for In-Flight Simulation on the RASCAL Research Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Tim; Barnhart, Warren; Sawyer, Kevin; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A high performance color helmet mounted display (HMD) system for in-flight simulation and research has been developed for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Laboratory (RASCAL). The display system consists of a programmable display generator, a display electronics unit, a head tracker, and the helmet with display optics. The system provides a maximum of 1024 x 1280 resolution, a 4:1 contrast ratio, and a brightness of 1100fL utilizing currently available technologies. This paper describes the major features and components of the system. Also discussed are the measured performance of the system and the design techniques that allowed the development of a full color HMD.

  20. Using a Head-Mounted Camera to Infer Attention Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitow, Clara; Stenberg, Gunilla; Billard, Aude; von Hofsten, Claes

    2013-01-01

    A head-mounted camera was used to measure head direction. The camera was mounted to the forehead of 20 6- and 20 12-month-old infants while they watched an object held at 11 horizontal (-80° to + 80°) and 9 vertical (-48° to + 50°) positions. The results showed that the head always moved less than required to be on target. Below 30° in the…

  1. Assessment of a head-mounted miniature monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, J. P., II

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the capabilities and limitations of the Private Eye, a miniature, head-mounted monitor. The first experiment compared the Private Eye with a cathode ray tube (CRT) and hard copy in both a constrained and unconstrained work envelope. The task was a simulated maintenance and assembly task that required frequent reference to the displayed information. A main effect of presentation media indicated faster placement times using the CRT as compared with hard copy. There were no significant differences between the Private Eye and either the CRT or hard copy for identification, placement, or total task times. The goal of the second experiment was to determine the effects of various local visual parameters on the ability of the user to accurately perceive the information of the Private Eye. The task was an interactive video game. No significant performance differences were found under either bright or dark ambient illumination environments nor with either visually simple or complex task backgrounds. Glare reflected off of the bezel surrounding the monitor did degrade performance. It was concluded that this head-mounted, miniature monitor could serve a useful role for in situ operations, especially in microgravity environments.

  2. Integration and test of a high-resolution helmet-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Sion A.; Swail, Carl P.; Craig, Greg; Lasnier, S.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the integration and proposed flight test of the Simulation Program for Improved Rotorcraft Integration Technology (SPIRIT) II helmet-mounted display on the National Research Council of Canada Bell 205 Airborne Simulator. The helmet-mounted display is a wide field-of-view (80 degrees H X 41 degrees V with a 30 degree binocular overlap) high resolution display (1280 X 960 pixels in each eye). Colors are displayed using a field sequential process, whereby green and red laser light is pulsed and directed onto the surface of a reflective ferro-electric liquid crystal display. The prototype helmet-mounted display overlays red, amber, or green symbology on monochrome green imagery obtained from high resolution daylight cameras. The optical design of the display does not form an exit pupil. This allows the wearer greater freedom in movement and comfort due to looser helmet fit tolerances. The helmet-mounted display was integrated with a head tracker and camera platform to form a visually coupled system on the National Research Council of Canada Bell 205. The integration process and flight test plan will be discussed.

  3. Visual field information in Nap-of-the-Earth flight by teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Kohn, S.; Merhav, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The human ability to derive Control-Oriented Visual Field Information from teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays in Nap-of-the-Earth flight, is investigated. The visual field with these types of displays originates from a Forward Looking Infrared Radiation Camera, gimbal-mounted at the front of the aircraft and slaved to the pilot's line-of-sight, to obtain wide-angle visual coverage. Although these displays are proved to be effective in Apache and Cobra helicopter night operations, they demand very high pilot proficiency and work load. Experimental work presented in the paper has shown that part of the difficulties encountered in vehicular control by means of these displays can be attributed to the narrow viewing aperture and head/camera slaving system phase lags. Both these shortcomings will impair visuo-vestibular coordination, when voluntary head rotation is present. This might result in errors in estimating the Control-Oriented Visual Field Information vital in vehicular control, such as the vehicle yaw rate or the anticipated flight path, or might even lead to visuo-vestibular conflicts (motion sickness). Since, under these conditions, the pilot will tend to minimize head rotation, the full wide-angle coverage of the Helmet-Mounted Display, provided by the line-of-sight slaving system, is not always fully utilized.

  4. Visual field information in Nap-of-the-Earth flight by teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Kohn, S.; Merhav, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The human ability to derive Control-Oriented Visual Field Information from teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays in Nap-of-the-Earth flight, is investigated. The visual field with these types of displays originates from a Forward Looking Infrared Radiation Camera, gimbal-mounted at the front of the aircraft and slaved to the pilot's line-of-sight, to obtain wide-angle visual coverage. Although these displays are proved to be effective in Apache and Cobra helicopter night operations, they demand very high pilot proficiency and work load. Experimental work presented in the paper has shown that part of the difficulties encountered in vehicular control by means of these displays can be attributed to the narrow viewing aperture and head/camera slaving system phase lags. Both these shortcomings will impair visuo-vestibular coordination, when voluntary head rotation is present. This might result in errors in estimating the Control-Oriented Visual Field Information vital in vehicular control, such as the vehicle yaw rate or the anticipated flight path, or might even lead to visuo-vestibular conflicts (motion sickness). Since, under these conditions, the pilot will tend to minimize head rotation, the full wide-angle coverage of the Helmet-Mounted Display, provided by the line-of-sight slaving system, is not always fully utilized.

  5. Helmet-Mounted Display Of Clouds Of Harmful Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Barengoltz, Jack B.; Schober, Wayne R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed helmet-mounted opto-electronic instrument provides real-time stereoscopic views of clouds of otherwise invisible toxic, explosive, and/or corrosive gas. Display semitransparent: images of clouds superimposed on scene ordinarily visible to wearer. Images give indications on sizes and concentrations of gas clouds and their locations in relation to other objects in scene. Instruments serve as safety devices for astronauts, emergency response crews, fire fighters, people cleaning up chemical spills, or anyone working near invisible hazardous gases. Similar instruments used as sensors in automated emergency response systems that activate safety equipment and emergency procedures. Both helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions used at industrial sites, chemical plants, or anywhere dangerous and invisible or difficult-to-see gases present. In addition to helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions, there could be hand-held version. In some industrial applications, desirable to mount instruments and use them similarly to parking-lot surveillance cameras.

  6. Helmet-Mounted Display Of Clouds Of Harmful Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, Daniel B.; Barengoltz, Jack B.; Schober, Wayne R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed helmet-mounted opto-electronic instrument provides real-time stereoscopic views of clouds of otherwise invisible toxic, explosive, and/or corrosive gas. Display semitransparent: images of clouds superimposed on scene ordinarily visible to wearer. Images give indications on sizes and concentrations of gas clouds and their locations in relation to other objects in scene. Instruments serve as safety devices for astronauts, emergency response crews, fire fighters, people cleaning up chemical spills, or anyone working near invisible hazardous gases. Similar instruments used as sensors in automated emergency response systems that activate safety equipment and emergency procedures. Both helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions used at industrial sites, chemical plants, or anywhere dangerous and invisible or difficult-to-see gases present. In addition to helmet-mounted and automated-sensor versions, there could be hand-held version. In some industrial applications, desirable to mount instruments and use them similarly to parking-lot surveillance cameras.

  7. Advances in rotary-wing helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewlett, David; Cameron, Alexander A.

    2000-06-01

    BAE SYSTEMS are developing a high performance Helmet Mounted Display system for the US Marine corps AH-1Z attack helicopter. This paper presents an overview of the design solution, as well as details of the rational behind the design and some of the lesson learnt. Finally, it gives some indicators as to future growth.

  8. Helmet-Mounted Display Symbology and Stabilization Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    The helmet-mounted display (HMD) presents flight, sensor, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information and to view sensor images while looking off boresight.

  9. Designing the integrated helmet-mounted display for pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu

    1998-08-01

    The design of an integrated helmet-mounted display for pilots is described. The purpose of the design is to provide sufficient information, fine comfort for wear, and low cost. Some factors are considered and compromised in the design. A 3rd generation image intensifier, a half inch cathode ray tube, two combiner eyepieces, and some optical assembly are used in the display. The optical axes of the objective lens, the intensifier, and the combiners are put on one plane with the line of sight of the water. A intensifying channel, a display channel and a see-through channel are included in the display system. These channel present fight symbology and objective scene by multiform way. Accordingly, the design has a great redundance, and the display has fine reliability and the location of the CG, low cost and weight.

  10. The effect of configural displays on pilot situation awareness in helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Joseph Christopher

    The current research utilized configural displays within the domain of aviation to assess what design features of configural displays contribute to the formation of operator situation awareness (SA). Configural displays map system information relevant to operator goals onto geometric shapes called emergent features. An emergent feature is formed from the combination of individual line segments to produce a global feature more perceptually salient and recognized sooner than the individual parts themselves. Configural displays have been shown in previous research to provide better operator performance for integration tasks where multiple pieces of information must be considered at once, yet the design aspects of configural displays that impact the formation of operator SA have yet to be determined. The current research compared the design features of three aviation configural displays over four experiments to quantify what aspects of configural displays would impact operator SA. The research sought to determine whether the simple act of representing system information in configural displays using emergent features is sufficient for facilitating operator SA or do other design factors need to be considered? Operator SA was assessed using explicit and implicit measures of SA from operator task performance in addition to a subjective SA rating scale. The recognition of aircraft attitude (climb/dive flight angles) when briefly presented to pilots in Experiment 1 revealed significant performance differences for the Arc Segment Attitude Reference (ASAR) configural display which mapped aircraft attitude information onto a circular shape versus the traditional aircraft head-up display (HUD) ladder found in the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) HUD and Dual-Articulated (DA) HUD. The current research in Experiment 1 provides evidence that configural displays such as the ASAR that utilize emergent features well mapped to fully relate the information needed for a task will facilitate

  11. Heading for Mount Sharp, Sol 329

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-11

    Lower slopes of Mount Sharp appear at the top of this image taken by the right Navigation Camera Navcam of NASA Mars rover Curiosity at the end of a drive of about 135 feet during the 329th Martian day, or sol, of the rover work on Mars.

  12. [Optoelectronic display system for minimal invasive laparoscopic operations: initial experiences with new face-mounted display video eyeglasses].

    PubMed

    Harms, J; Schneider, A

    2002-03-01

    A major aspect of efforts to improve minimally invasive surgery is the optimization of visualization, which is currently unsatisfactory due to the limited number of pixels in the monitors used, and inadequate alignment of the optical axis. Optical systems provided with commercially available head-mounted displays have failed to improve optical quality and significantly facilitate or improve laparoscopic surgery [2,3]. Innovations in the field of consumer video using a new optical prism and a high-resolution matrix (180,000 pixels) are the core elements of a new face-mounted display (FMD-Eye-Trek 700, Olympus Optical Co, Europe GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) that provides high image quality. This device has now been tested for the first time during laparoscopic procedures (n = 14) and combined laparoscopic-endoscopic procedures (n = 7) under clinical conditions. Impressive optical, ergonomic and surgeon-related benefits were established.

  13. Cognitive considerations for helmet-mounted display design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Gregory; Rash, Clarence E.

    2010-04-01

    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) are designed as a tool to increase performance. To achieve this, there must be an accurate transfer of information from the HMD to the user. Ideally, an HMD would be designed to accommodate the abilities and limitations of users' cognitive processes. It is not enough for the information (whether visual, auditory, or tactual) to be displayed; the information must be perceived, attended, remembered, and organized in a way that guides appropriate decision-making, judgment, and action. Following a general overview, specific subtopics of cognition, including perception, attention, memory, knowledge, decision-making, and problem solving are explored within the context of HMDs.

  14. A universal and smart helmet-mounted display of large FOV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Weng, Dongdong; Wang, Yongtian; Li, Xuan; Liu, Youhai

    2011-11-01

    HMD (head-mounted display) is an important virtual reality device, which has played a vital role in VR application system. Compared with traditional HMD which cannot be applied in the daily life owing to their disadvantage on the price and performance, a new universal and smart Helmet-Mounted Display of large FOV uses excellent performance and widespread popularity as its starting point. By adopting simplified visual system and transflective system that combines the transmission-type and reflection-type display system with transflective glass based on the Huggens-Fresnel principle, we have designed a HMD with wide field of view, which can be easy to promote and popularize. Its resolution is 800*600, and field of view is 36.87°(vertical)* 47.92°(horizontal). Its weight is only 1080g. It has caught up with the advanced world levels.

  15. A Review of Head-Worn Display Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis (Trey) J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Williams, Steven P.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Houston, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    NASA Langley has conducted research in the area of helmet-mounted/head-worn displays over the past 30 years. Initially, NASA Langley's research focused on military applications, but recently it has conducted a line of research in the area of head-worn displays for commercial and business aircraft. This work has revolved around numerous simulation experiments as well as flight tests to develop technology and data for industry and regulatory guidance. The paper summarizes the results of NASA's helmet-mounted/head-worn display research. Of note, the work tracks progress in wearable collimated optics, head tracking, latency reduction, and weight. The research lends credence that a small, sunglasses-type form factor of the head-worn display would be acceptable to commercial pilots, and this goal is now becoming technologically feasible. The research further suggests that a head-worn display may serve as an "equivalent" Head-Up Display (HUD) with safety, operational, and cost benefits. "HUD equivalence" appears to be the economic avenue by which head-worn displays can become main-stream on the commercial and business aircraft flight deck. If this happens, NASA's research suggests that additional operational benefits using the unique capabilities of the head-worn display can open up new operational paradigms.

  16. A review of head-worn display research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Williams, Steven P.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Houston, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    NASA Langley has conducted research in the area of helmet-mounted/head-worn displays over the past 30 years. Initially, NASA Langley's research focused on military applications, but recently has conducted a line of research in the area of head-worn displays for commercial and business aircraft. This work has revolved around numerous simulation experiments as well as flight tests to develop technology and data for industry and regulatory guidance. The paper summarizes the results of NASA's helmet-mounted/head-worn display research. Of note, the work tracks progress in wearable collimated optics, head tracking, latency reduction, and weight. The research lends credence that a small, sunglasses-type form factor of the head-worn display would be acceptable to commercial pilots, and this goal is now becoming technologically feasible. The research further suggests that a head-worn display may serve as an "equivalent" Head-Up Display (HUD) with safety, operational, and cost benefits. "HUD equivalence" appears to be the economic avenue by which head-worn displays can become main-stream on the commercial and business aircraft flight deck. If this happens, NASA's research suggests that additional operational benefits using the unique capabilities of the head-worn display can open up new operational paradigms.

  17. Head Tracking and Head Mounted Displays for Training Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-05

    include "mass stdc.h" # include "Idgi itdg.h" #include "simr cigif.h"l #include " pro -assoc .h #include " pro sim.h" *include "status.h" #include...activ.battleScheme - battleScheme~ther; mit:-activ.onSurface - TRUE;. iit-activ.status.vehicleType - vehicleUSMl; /* brand spanking new */ iit...34sim macros.h" #include "rtc.h" #include " pro sim.h" #include "prodata.h" #include "repair ml.h" #include "mass stdc.h" #include "dgistdg.h" #include

  18. South Fork Latrine, interior showing head with steel tank mounted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, interior showing head with steel tank mounted to wall; view south - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  19. Holographic Combiners for Head-Up Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-01

    AFAL-TR-77 -110 S HOLOGRAPHIC COMBINERS FOR HEAD-UP DISPLAYS S Radar and Optics Division Environmental Research Institute of Michigan P.O. Box 8618...to 200. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(RWihen Data Entered) FOREWORD This report was prepared by the Radar and Optics Division of the...with fringes parallel to the surface......31 Figure 13. Raytrace through the F-4 HUD with a holographic combiner

  20. Helmet-mounted display systems for flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loren A.; Bucher, Nancy M.

    1989-01-01

    Simulation scientists are continually improving simulation technology with the goal of more closely replicating the physical environment of the real world. The presentation or display of visual information is one area in which recent technical improvements have been made that are fundamental to conducting simulated operations close to the terrain. Detailed and appropriate visual information is especially critical for nap-of-the-earth helicopter flight simulation where the pilot maintains an 'eyes-out' orientation to avoid obstructions and terrain. This paper describes visually coupled wide field of view helmet-mounted display (WFOVHMD) system technology as a viable visual presentation system for helicopter simulation. Tradeoffs associated with this mode of presentation as well as research and training applications are discussed.

  1. Helmet-mounted display systems for flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loren A.; Bucher, Nancy M.

    1989-01-01

    Simulation scientists are continually improving simulation technology with the goal of more closely replicating the physical environment of the real world. The presentation or display of visual information is one area in which recent technical improvements have been made that are fundamental to conducting simulated operations close to the terrain. Detailed and appropriate visual information is especially critical for nap-of-the-earth helicopter flight simulation where the pilot maintains an 'eyes-out' orientation to avoid obstructions and terrain. This paper describes visually coupled wide field of view helmet-mounted display (WFOVHMD) system technology as a viable visual presentation system for helicopter simulation. Tradeoffs associated with this mode of presentation as well as research and training applications are discussed.

  2. Helmet-Mounted Displays For Helicopter Pilotage: Design Configuration Tradeoffs, Analyses, And Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Robert A.; Weisz, Alexander Z.

    1989-09-01

    Human engineering criteria applicable to the design of helmet mounted displays for use with night vision sensors, such as forward looking infra-red (FLIR) or low light level television (LLTV), are stated and reviewed. Systems requirements are presented which call for pilot operation at night that is as equivalent as practicable to flight under normal daytime visual rules. Requirements are developed that utilize head motion coupled to sensor movement to achieve the semblance of daytime pilotage while conducting operations at night under the cover of deep darkness. At the outset, salient factors are identified and prioritized which are applied to further design tradeoffs leading to helmet mounted visor displays. The prime design objectives being operational suitability, acceptability by the pilot community, reduced crew training requirements and minimal logistics support. In conclusion, alternate design configurations, computer analyses, operating experience, and pilot reaction are cited. Items to be addressed include: overall head supported weight, center-of-gravity, and other ergonomic factors affecting pilot acceptance: such as: comfort, eye-relief, total and instantaneous field of view, full or partial overlap of left-eye and right-eye fields of coverage, and head movement-to-sensor servo response. In addition, items of interest to the operating command: such as: training (ease or difficulty), maintenance of proficiency, and ease of viewing, will be discussed in light of data and operating experience from recently conducted flight trials. Finally, compatibility with nuclear biological and chemical (NBC) defense equipment and requirements, and laser eye protection will be discussed.

  3. Solutions to helmet-mounted display visual correction compatibility issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Clarence E.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; van de Pol, Corina

    2002-08-01

    To meet the goal of 24-hour, all-weather operation, U.S. Army aviation uses a number of imaging sensor systems on its aircraft. Imagery provided by these systems is presented on helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). Fielded systems include the Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used on the AH-64 Apache. Proposed future HMD systems such as the Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System (HIDSS) and the Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS) scanning laser system are possible choices for the Army's RAH-66 Comanche helicopter. Ever present in current and future HMD systems is the incompatibility problem between the design-limited physical eye relief of the HMD and the need to provide for the integration of laser and nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, as well as the need to address the changing optical and vision requirements of the aging aviator. This paper defines the compatibility issue, reviews past efforts to solve this problem (e.g., contact lenses, NBC masks, optical inserts, etc.), and identifies emerging techniques (e.g., refractive surgery, adaptive optics, etc.) that require investigation.

  4. Head-Up Displays and Attention Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Risser, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The primary role of head-up displays (HUDs) is to provide primary flight, navigation, and guidance information to the pilot in a forward field-of-view on a head-up transparent screen. Therefore, this theoretically allows for optimal control of an aircraft through the simultaneous scanning of both instrument data and the out-the-window scene. However, despite significant aviation safety benefits afforded by HUDs, a number of accidents have shown that their use does not come without costs. The human factors community has identified significant issues related to the pilot distribution of near and far domain attentional resources because of the compellingness of symbology elements on the HUD; a concern termed, attention or cognitive capture. The paper describes the phenomena of attention capture and presents a selected survey of the literature on the etiology and potential prescriptions.

  5. Quick-disconnect harness system for helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapu, P. T.; Aulds, M. J.; Fuchs, Steven P.; McCormick, David M.

    1992-10-01

    We have designed a pilot's harness-mounted, high voltage quick-disconnect connectors with 62 pins, to transmit voltages up to 13.5 kV and video signals with 70 MHz bandwidth, for a binocular helmet-mounted display system. It connects and disconnects with power off, and disconnects 'hot' without pilot intervention and without producing external sparks or exposing hot embers to the explosive cockpit environment. We have implemented a procedure in which the high voltage pins disconnect inside a hermetically-sealed unit before the physical separation of the connector. The 'hot' separation triggers a crowbar circuit in the high voltage power supplies for additional protection. Conductor locations and shields are designed to reduce capacitance in the circuit and avoid crosstalk among adjacent circuits. The quick- disconnect connector and wiring harness are human-engineered to ensure pilot safety and mobility. The connector backshell is equipped with two hybrid video amplifiers to improve the clarity of the video signals. Shielded wires and coaxial cables are molded as a multi-layered ribbon for maximum flexibility between the pilot's harness and helmet. Stiff cabling is provided between the quick-disconnect connector and the aircraft console to control behavior during seat ejection. The components of the system have been successfully tested for safety, performance, ergonomic considerations, and reliability.

  6. The Cobra helmet mounted display system for Gripen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jörgen; Blomqvist, Tommy

    2008-04-01

    Selected to meet the stringent requirements of the Gripen swing-role combat aircraft, the Cobra Helmet Mounted Display System, has been integrated as a key component to the Gripen weapon delivery system. Saab Aerosystems has since 2003 together with BAE System been developing the Cobra HMD and in parallel integrating the system in Gripen for South Africa. Work is currently done to prepare other customer for the Cobra HMDS. This paper will highlight some technical challenges and experiences with integrating a HMDS in a small cockpit environment as in Gripen and present an overview of the Cobra HMD design and installation. Furthermore the paper will discuss the importance of having the pilots and users involved during the design phase and throughout the development.

  7. Visual Field Testing with Head-Mounted Perimeter 'imo'.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chota; Yamao, Sayaka; Nomoto, Hiroki; Takada, Sonoko; Okuyama, Sachiko; Kimura, Shinji; Yamanaka, Kenzo; Aihara, Makoto; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new portable head-mounted perimeter, "imo", which performs visual field (VF) testing under flexible conditions without a dark room. Besides the monocular eye test, imo can present a test target randomly to either eye without occlusion (a binocular random single eye test). The performance of imo was evaluated. Using full HD transmissive LCD and high intensity LED backlights, imo can display a test target under the same test conditions as the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA). The monocular and binocular random single eye tests by imo and the HFA test were performed on 40 eyes of 20 subjects with glaucoma. VF sensitivity results by the monocular and binocular random single eye tests were compared, and these test results were further compared to those by the HFA. The subjects were asked whether they noticed which eye was being tested during the test. The mean sensitivity (MS) obtained with the HFA highly correlated with the MS by the imo monocular test (R: r = 0.96, L: r = 0.94, P < 0.001) and the binocular random single eye test (R: r = 0.97, L: r = 0.98, P < 0.001). The MS values by the monocular and binocular random single eye tests also highly correlated (R: r = 0.96, L: r = 0.95, P < 0.001). No subject could detect which eye was being tested during the examination. The perimeter imo can obtain VF sensitivity highly compatible to that by the standard automated perimeter. The binocular random single eye test provides a non-occlusion test condition without the examinee being aware of the tested eye.

  8. Configural features of helmet-mounted displays to enhance pilot situation awareness.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Joseph C; Gallimore, Jennie J

    2008-04-01

    In the current research, we used configural displays to investigate what design features contribute to the formation of operator situation awareness (SA). Configural displays have been shown to provide better performance for integration tasks, yet the design aspects of these displays which affect the formation of operator SA have not been determined. We compared the design features of three configural attitude head-up displays (HUD) [joint strike fighter (JSF), dual articulated (DA), and arc segment attitude reference (ASAR)] presented on a helmet mounted display (HMD) across four experiments to quantify what aspects of configural displays would affect pilot SA. In Experiment 1, nine expert pilots completed recall tasks for briefly-presented aircraft attitude displays to measure Level 1 SA performance. In Experiments 2-4, 10 highly trained pilots (expert group) and 10 flight test engineers (novice group) served as subjects to investigate higher level SA performance in an unusual attitude recovery (UAR) task. Experiments 3 and 4 included off-axis attitude symbology UARs. Experiment 1 results indicated a higher percentage of correct responses for recognition of climb and dive states with the ASAR configural display. Results from Experiments 2-4 indicated no differences in performance. Results also showed that transitioning between dissimilar configural displays conveying attitude does not affect pilot SA. This research discusses the specific properties of aviation configural displays. The results suggest that using these displays with the full range of aircraft states is sufficient for SA to be established when rapidly transitioning between dissimilar configural displays. Results indicate that differences in performance are diminished when using experts and significant training may overcome differences that exist among the configural displays.

  9. Manufacturing development of visor for binocular helmet mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krevor, David; Edwards, Timothy; Larkin, Eric; Skubon, John; Speirs, Robert; Sowden, Tom

    2007-09-01

    The HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) visor is a sophisticated article. It is both the optical combiner for the display and personal protective equipment for the pilot. The visor must have dimensional and optical tolerances commensurate with precision optics; and mechanical properties sufficient for a ballistic shield. Optimized processes and tooling are necessary in order to manufacture a functional visor. This paper describes the manufacturing development of the visor for the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) HMD. The analytical and experimental basis for the tool and manufacturing process development are described; as well as the metrological and testing methods to verify the visor design and function. The requirements for the F-35 JSF visor are a generation beyond those for the HMD visor which currently flies on the F-15, F-16 and F/A-18. The need for greater precision is manifest in the requirements for the tooling and molding process for the visor. The visor is injection-molded optical polycarbonate, selected for its combination of optical, mechanical and environmental properties. Proper design and manufacture of the tool - the mold - is essential. Design of the manufacturing tooling is an iterative process between visor design, mold design, mechanical modeling and polymer-flow modeling. Iterative design and manufacture enable the mold designer to define a polymer shrinkage factor more precise than derived from modeling or recommended by the resin supplier.

  10. Perceptual issues for color helmet-mounted displays: luminance and color contrast requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.; Lattimore, Morris R.; Statz, Jonathan; Martin, John S.

    2016-05-01

    Color is one of the latest design characteristics of helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). It's inclusion in design specifications is based on two suppositions: 1) color provides an additional method of encoding information, and 2) color provides a more realistic, and hence more intuitive, presentation of information, especially pilotage imagery. To some degree, these two perceived advantages have been validated with head-down panel-mounted displays, although not without a few problems associated with visual physiology and perception. These problems become more prevalent when the user population expands beyond military aviators to a general user population, of which a significant portion may have color vision deficiencies. When color is implemented in HMDs, which are eyes-out, see-through displays, visual perception issues become an increased concern. A major confound with HMDs is their inherent see-through (transparent) property. The result is color in the displayed image combines with color from the outside (or in-cockpit) world, possibly producing a false perception of either or both images. While human-factors derived guidelines based on trial and error have been developed, color HMD systems still place more emphasis on colorimetric than perceptual standards. This paper identifies the luminance and color contrast requirements for see-through HMDs. Also included is a discussion of ambient scene metrics and the choice of symbology color.

  11. Helmet-mounted display technology on the VISTA NF-16D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underhill, Gregory P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Markman, Steve

    1997-06-01

    Wright Laboratory's Variable-Stability In-Flight Simulator Test Aircraft (VISTA) NF-16D is the newest in-flight simulator in the USAF inventory. A unique research aircraft, it will perform a multitude of missions: to develop and evaluate flight characteristics of new aircraft that have not yet flown, and perform research in the areas of flying qualities, flight control design, pilot-vehicle interface, weapons and avionics integration, and to train new test pilots. The VISTA upgrade will enhance the simulation fidelity and research capabilities by adding a programmable helmet-mounted display (HMD) and head-up display (HUD) in the front cockpit. The programmable HMD consists of a GEC- Marconi Avionics Viper II Helmet-Mounted Optics Module integrated with a modified Helmet Integrated Systems Limited HGU-86/P helmet, the Honeywell Advanced Metal Tolerant tracker, and a GEC-Mounted Tolerant tracker, and a GEC- Marconi Avionics Programmable Display Generator. This system will provide a real-time programmable HUD and monocular stroke capable HMD in the front cockpit. The HMD system is designed for growth to stroke-on-video, binocular capability. This paper examines some of issues associated with current HMD development, and explains the value of rapid prototyping or 'quick-look' flight testing on the VISTA NF-16D. A brief overview of the VISTA NF-16D and the hardware and software modifications made to incorporate the programmable display system is give, as well as a review of several key decisions that were made in the programmable display system implementation. The system's capabilities and what they mean to potential users and designers are presented, particularly for pilot-vehicle interface research.

  12. Helmet-mounted displays for unmanned aerial vehicle control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morphew, M. Ephimia; Shively, Jay R.; Casey, Daniel

    2004-09-01

    An experiment was performed to assess the effect of using a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) versus a conventional computer monitor and joystick to perform an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor operator target search task. Eight subjects were evaluated on objective performance measures including their target detection accuracy and responses, in addition to subjective measures including workload, fatigue, situational awareness, and simulator sickness in both experimental conditions. Subjects were flown through a virtual world and asked to identify objects as targets, non-targets, or distractors. Results for objective measures indicated no difference in the operators' ability to accurately classify targets and non-targets. The subjects' ability to place the cursor on a target of interset (targeting accuracy), was, however, significantly better in the computer monitor condition than the HMD. The distance at which subjects could classify an object's identity was also significantly better in the computer monitor condition. Subjective measures showed no overall differences for sel-reported fatigue, workload, and situational awareness. A significant disadvantage, however, was found for the HMD with respect to self-reported nausea, disorientation, and oculomotor strain. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the incorporation of HMDs into UAV ground control station operations.

  13. Holography for automotive head-up displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsbottom, Andrew P.; Sergeant, Shirley A.; Sheel, David W.

    1992-05-01

    There is increasing interest in head-up-displays (HUDs) for automotive use. A number of technologies could be employed for the combiner function including plain glass reflection, dielectric enhancement, and holography. This paper will consider the potential role for conformal holography as the combiner element by initially reviewing the system requirements from an optical design view, how these differ significantly from an avionic HUD, and how they relate to material characteristics and process features. This will involve a consideration in some detail of the effects of specified hologram properties and lamination features on the optical performance and image characteristic of a car HUD. In particular, we shall examine such features as hologram efficiency, bandwidth, tuning position, environmental stability, tolerances, and film lamination effects and how these may influence the key optical characteristics of the image, i.e., distortions, blur, brightness, double imaging (separation and contrast) outside world view, etc.. A theoretical model based on Kogelnik coupled wave theory will be used to illustrate the various tradeoffs between hologram properties and process, image features, and display characteristics (bandwidth, polarization, etc.). This analysis will be related to properties of currently available holographic materials with reference to recent experimental work.

  14. MEMS scanned laser head-up display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Mark O.

    2011-03-01

    Head-up displays (HUD) in automobiles and other vehicles have been shown to significantly reduce accident rates by keeping the driver's eyes on the road. The requirements for automotive HUDs are quite demanding especially in terms of brightness, dimming range, supplied power, and size. Scanned laser display technology is particularly well-suited to this application since the lasers can be very efficiently relayed to the driver's eyes. Additionally, the lasers are only turned on where the light is needed in the image. This helps to provide the required brightness while minimizing power and avoiding a background glow that disturbs the see-through experience. Microvision has developed a couple of HUD architectures that are presented herein. One design uses an exit pupil expander and relay optics to produce a high quality virtual image for built-in systems where the image appears to float above the hood of the auto. A second design uses a patented see-through screen technology and pico projector to make automotive HUDs available to anyone with a projector. The presentation will go over the basic designs for the two types of HUD and discuss design tradeoffs.

  15. Improved display optical performance with notch polarizers and specialized lamps for helmet-mounted display application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Bill

    1996-06-01

    The helmet mounted display (HMD) is an important technology for aircraft cockpit information exchange, and is also of advantage for outdoor field use. For both applications, high display luminance is required to maintain acceptable contrast ratio while competing with environmental forward field scene luminance during bright daylight conditions. For the full color HMD, a broad color gamut is required. Notch Polarizers, made from crosslinked cholesteric liquid crystal silicones and utilized to modulate color with high resolution subtractive color twisted nematic diplay image sources, yield substantial improvements in system luminance efficiency, color gamut, and contrast ratio, compared with conventional color polarizers made with dichroic dyes. A TN subtractive color display system design with notch polarizers is presented, resulting in improved luminance, color gamut, contrast ratio, and contrast ratio in the presence of high ambient luminance. Results are given for backlighting with a broad band Xenon arc lamp, as well as with a trichrominance (primary color) lamp. Very substantial improvements in display system luminance efficiency, color gamut and contrast ratio were achieved.

  16. Development of helmet-mounted display symbology for use as a primary flight reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J. Chris

    2003-09-01

    The helmet-mounted display (HMD) will be used as the sole means of displaying head-up information to the pilot in future U.S. Air Force (USAF) fixed-wing tactical aircraft. For current fighter aircraft that employ the use of a stand-alone head-up display (HUD), the HMD will be integrated to provide the off-boresight symbology component of the head-up presentation. The symbology for on- and off-boresight use has to be designed to insure the effective interaction between display formats for conveyance of information to the pilot when transitioning between on- and off-boresight viewing angles. This is true for legacy aircraft where the symbology is presented in part by the HUD for on-boresight use with the HMD utilized for the off-boresight application and also for HUD-less aircraft, such as the Joint Strike Fighter, where symbology will be presented solely on the HMD. The Air Force Research Laboratory has been developing HMD symbology to meet the requirements to certify the HMD as a primary flight reference (PFR) for USAF fixed-wing tactical aircraft. This symbology has been designed to maximize the transference of attitude awareness to the pilot when switching between on- and off-boresight attitude references to help insure the pilot achieves correct awareness of spatial orientation. This paper describes the previous research that examined the ASAR for HUD applications, the design of the AFRL ASAR HUD symbology to replace the climb-dive ladder, and the planned flight test evaluation of the ASAR HUD for endorsement as a PFR.

  17. Cognitive issues in head-up displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, E.; Haines, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of pilots to recognize and act upon unexpected information, presented in either the outside world or in a head-up display (HUD), was evaluated. Eight commercial airline pilots flew 18 approaches with a flightpath-type HUD and 13 approaches with conventional instruments in a fixed-base 727 simulator. The approaches were flown under conditions of low visibility, turbulence, and wind shear. Vertical and lateral flight performance was measured for five cognitive variables: an unexpected obstacle on runway; vertical and lateral boresight-type offset of the HUD; lateral ILS beam bend-type offset; and no anomaly. Mean response time to the runway obstacle was longer with HUD than without it (4.13 vs 1.75 sec.), and two of the pilots did not see the obstacle at all with the HUD. None of the offsets caused any deterioration in lateral flight performance, but all caused some change in vertical tracking; all offsets seemed to magnify the environmental effects. In all conditions, both vertical and lateral tracking was better with the HUD than with the conventional instruments.

  18. Attentional limitations with Head-Up Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Foyle, David C.; Johnston, James C.

    1993-01-01

    Recent models of visual information processing suggest that visual attention can be focussed on either Head-Up Displays (HUD) or on the world beyond them, but not on both simultaneously. This hypothesis was tested in a part-task simulation in which subjects viewed a simulated approach to a runway with a HUD superimposed. An alphanumeric cue ('IFR' or 'VFR') appeared on either the HUD or the runway and was followed by two sets of three geometric forms; one set on the HUD and one set on the runway. Each set contained one potential target, either a stop sign or a diamond. If the cue spelled 'IFR', subjects made a speeded response based on the identity of the HUD target; if the cue spelled 'VFR', subjects made a speeded response based on the identity of the runway target. Regardless of cue location (HUD or Runway), responses were faster when the cue and the relevant target were part of the same perceptual group (i.e., both on the HUD or both on the runway) than when they were part of different perceptual groups. These results, as well as others, suggest that attentional constraints place severe limits on the ability of pilots to process HUD-referenced information and world-referenced information simultaneously. In addition, they provide direct evidence that transitioning from processing HUD information to processing world information requires an attention shift. Implications for HUD design are considered.

  19. Spinal neurosurgery with the head-mounted "Varioscope" microscope.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, J; Simons, P

    2009-05-01

    We present a preliminary report on the intra-operative use of a head-mounted microscope ("Varioscope" Leica HM500) in spinal neurosurgery. The Varioscope is a dynamic microscope mounted on a head-set. It weights 297 g and measures 73 x 120 x 63 mm (length x width x height). It offers an infinitely variable range of magnification from 3.6x to 7.2x. The working distance ranges from 300 to 600 mm. The field of view varies between 30-144 mm, depending on the selected enlargement factor and the working distance. In addition to the zoom function, the device offers a focus function (automatic or on demand). The optical elements for focus and zoom are located in two separate tubes which are mounted on a middle section containing the mechanical components as well as the receiver unit for the focussing elements. The lenses are adjusted by means of motor-driven push/pull cables. The autofocus works well in larger operative fields and a working distance between 30 and 60 cm. Nevertheless, when used in today's "keyhole" approaches, the autofocus is not helpful when operating in deep structures. Based on the satisfactory results achieved in our series, we can recommend the Varioscope, especially when no stationary microscope is available. The portable device can be packed in a suitcase and can travel with the consultant microsurgeon to different hospitals and distant units. The built-in video camera is ideal for patients, staff, assistant surgeons, and student education with real-time video monitoring of procedures from the microsurgeon's perspective. For daily microsurgery, we felt more comfortable with fixed, stationary operating microscopes.

  20. Wide field of view helmet mounted display systems for helicopter simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran A.; Bucher, Nancy M.; Hennessy, Robert T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper elaborates on visually-coupled Wide Field of View Helmet Mounted Display (WFOVHMD) system technology as a viable visual presentation system for helicopter simulation. Critical research issues on helmet mounted displays are reviewed. Tradeoffs associated with this mode of presentation as well as research and training applications are discussed.

  1. An analysis of control reversal errors during unusual attitude recoveries using helmet-mounted display symbology.

    PubMed

    Liggett, Kristen K; Gallimore, Jennie J

    2002-02-01

    Spatial disorientation (SD) refers to pilots' inability to accurately interpret the attitude of their aircraft with respect to Earth. Unfortunately, SD statistics have held constant for the past few decades, through the transition from the head-down attitude indicator (Al) to the head-up display (HUD) as the attitude instrument. The newest attitude-indicating device to find its way into military cockpits is the helmet-mounted display (HMD). HMDs were initially introduced into the cockpit to enhance target location and weapon-pointing, but there is currently an effort to make HMDs attitude reference displays so pilots need not go head-down to obtain attitude information. However, unintuitive information or inappropriate implementation of on-boresight attitude symbology on the HMD may contribute to the SD problem. The occurrence of control reversal errors (CREs) during unusual attitude recovery tasks when using an HMD to provide attitude information was investigated. The effect of such errors was evaluated in terms of altitude changes during recovery and time to recover. There were 12 pilot-subjects who completed 8 unusual attitude recovery tasks. Results showed that CREs did occur, and there was a significant negative effect of these errors on absolute altitude change, but not on total recovery time. Results failed to show a decrease in the number of CREs occurring when using the HMD as compared with data from other studies that used an Al or a HUD. Results suggest that new HMD attitude symbology needs to be designed to help reduce CREs and, perhaps, SD incidences.

  2. Latency Requirements for Head-Worn Display S/EVS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Trey Arthur, J. J., III; Williams, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    NASA s Aviation Safety Program, Synthetic Vision Systems Project is conducting research in advanced flight deck concepts, such as Synthetic/Enhanced Vision Systems (S/EVS), for commercial and business aircraft. An emerging thrust in this activity is the development of spatially-integrated, large field-of-regard information display systems. Head-worn or helmet-mounted display systems are being proposed as one method in which to meet this objective. System delays or latencies inherent to spatially-integrated, head-worn displays critically influence the display utility, usability, and acceptability. Research results from three different, yet similar technical areas flight control, flight simulation, and virtual reality are collectively assembled in this paper to create a global perspective of delay or latency effects in head-worn or helmet-mounted display systems. Consistent definitions and measurement techniques are proposed herein for universal application and latency requirements for Head-Worn Display S/EVS applications are drafted. Future research areas are defined.

  3. Applications of Augmented Vision Head-Mounted Systems in Vision Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Peli, Eli; Luo, Gang; Bowers, Alex; Rensing, Noa

    2007-01-01

    Vision loss typically affects either the wide peripheral vision (important for mobility), or central vision (important for seeing details). Traditional optical visual aids usually recover the lost visual function, but at a high cost for the remaining visual function. We have developed a novel concept of vision-multiplexing using augmented vision head-mounted display systems to address vision loss. Two applications are discussed in this paper. In the first, minified edge images from a head-mounted video camera are presented on a see-through display providing visual field expansion for people with peripheral vision loss, while still enabling the full resolution of the residual central vision to be maintained. The concept has been applied in daytime and nighttime devices. A series of studies suggested that the system could help with visual search, obstacle avoidance, and nighttime mobility. Subjects were positive in their ratings of device cosmetics and ergonomics. The second application is for people with central vision loss. Using an on-axis aligned camera and display system, central visibility is enhanced with 1:1 scale edge images, while still enabling the wide field of the unimpaired peripheral vision to be maintained. The registration error of the system was found to be low in laboratory testing. PMID:18172511

  4. Autonomous head-mounted electrophysiology systems for freely behaving primates.

    PubMed

    Gilja, Vikash; Chestek, Cindy A; Nuyujukian, Paul; Foster, Justin; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2010-10-01

    Recent technological advances have led to new light-weight battery-operated systems for electrophysiology. Such systems are head mounted, run for days without experimenter intervention, and can record and stimulate from single or multiple electrodes implanted in a freely behaving primate. Here we discuss existing systems, studies that use them, and how they can augment traditional, physically restrained, 'in-rig' electrophysiology. With existing technical capabilities, these systems can acquire multiple signal classes, such as spikes, local field potential, and electromyography signals, and can stimulate based on real-time processing of recorded signals. Moving forward, this class of technologies, along with advances in neural signal processing and behavioral monitoring, have the potential to dramatically expand the scope and scale of electrophysiological studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Head Up Displays. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, fabrication, and applications of head up displays (HUDs). Applications include military aircraft, helicopters, space shuttle, and commercial aircraft. Functions of the display include instrument approach, target tracking, and navigation. The head up display provides for an integrated avionics system with the pilot in the loop. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Head Up Displays. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, fabrication, and applications of head up displays (HUDs). Applications include military aircraft, helicopters, space shuttle, and commercial aircraft. Functions of the display include instrument approach, target tracking, and navigation. The head up display provides for an integrated avionics system with the pilot in the loop. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Head Up Displays. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, fabrication, and applications of head up displays (HUDs). Applications include military aircraft, helicopters, space shuttle, and commercial aircraft. Functions of the display include instrument approach, target tracking, and navigation. The head up display provides for an integrated avionics system with the pilot in the loop. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Head Up Displays. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, fabrication, and applications of head up displays (HUDs). Applications include military aircraft, helicopters, space shuttle, and commercial aircraft. Functions of the display include instrument approach, target tracking, and navigation. The head up display provides for an integrated avionics system with the pilot in the loop. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Human factors issues in the development of helmet-mounted displays for tactical fixed-wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaba, James M.

    1997-06-01

    There are many human factors issues that should be considered when designing a helmet mounted display for use in high speed aircraft with ejection seats. The Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System Program Office, with support from the Armstrong Laboratory and the Naval Air Warfare Center, has been studying many of these issues and is able to report several findings in the areas of anthropometry, limitations in head movement, helmet stability under high gravity forces and mass properties. This paper serves to summarize the findings of the program office in these areas. The paper will include highlights of several studies that have involved anthropometric data manipulation, 3D head scans, and testing of manikin and human subjects in static and dynamic cockpit environment simulations.

  10. Comparison of helmet-mounted display designs in support of wayfinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Jason K.; Massel, Lisa; Tack, David; Bossi, Linda

    2003-09-01

    The Canadian Soldier Information Requirements Technology Demonstration (SIREQ TD) soldier modernization research and development program has conducted experiments to help determine the types and amount of information needed to support wayfinding across a range of terrain environments, the most effective display modality for providing the information (visual, auditory or tactile) that will minimize conflict with other infantry tasks, and to optimize interface design. In this study, seven different visual helmet-mounted display (HMD) designs were developed based on soldier feedback from previous studies. The displays and an in-service compass condition were contrasted to investigate how the visual HMD interfaces influenced navigation performance. Displays varied with respect to their information content, frame of reference, point of view, and display features. Twelve male infantry soldiers used all eight experimental conditions to locate bearings to waypoints. From a constant location, participants were required to face waypoints presented at offset bearings of 25, 65, and 120 degrees. Performance measures included time to identify waypoints, accuracy, and head misdirection errors. Subjective measures of performance included ratings of ease of use, acceptance for land navigation, and mental demand. Comments were collected to identify likes, dislikes and possible improvements required for HMDs. Results underlined the potential performance enhancement of GPS-based navigation with HMDs, the requirement for explicit directional information, the desirability of both analog and digital information, the performance benefits of an egocentric frame of reference, the merit of a forward field of view, and the desirability of a guide to help landmark. Implications for the information requirements and human factors design of HMDs for land-based navigational tasks are discussed.

  11. Effects of three helmet-mounted display symbologies on unusual attitude recognition and recovery.

    PubMed

    Ercoline, William R; Self, Brian P; Matthews, Roger S J

    2002-11-01

    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) allow pilots to view aircraft instrument information while looking to the side, away from the aircraft centerline axis. In that situation, pilots may lose attitude awareness and thus develop spatial disorientation. A secondary concern is the possible effects of visual conflict between the apparent motion of traditional, nose-referenced flight symbology and the off-axis view of the outside world. Alternative symbologies will provide improved attitude awareness for HMDs when compared with the conventional inside-out symbology now used with head-up displays (HUDs), if the HUD symbology is used on a HMD. The 9 pilots were presented 48 randomly arranged unusual attitude conditions on a HMD. The three symbologies included: 1) the inside-out representation now used with fixed HUDs, which features a moving horizon and pitch ladder; 2) an outside-in display that depicts a moving aircraft relative to a fixed horizon; and 3) an inside-out novel symbology termed the grapefruit' display (GD). The background scene contained a mix of either a front view orientation or a side view one. Conditions were randomized within and across subjects. Subjective preferences were collected after the completion of all tasks. Analysis of variance repeated measures design revealed that stick input for the GD was significantly faster with fewer roll reversal errors than either of the other two. The time to recover to straight and level was significantly shorter for the front view orientation than the side view. Of the nine pilots, eight preferred the GD symbology as a method of presenting attitude information on the HMD. Results suggest the current HUD symbology is not the best way of displaying attitude information on the HMD. Given the conditions of this study, the best way of presenting the pilot with attitude information on the HMD is with the GD symbology.

  12. Improvement of Head-Up Display Standards. Volume 3. An Evaluation of Head-Up Display Safety.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    result was the PERSEPOLIS display (21). These displays both make use of the fundamental relationship "I’. between ALPHA, GAMMA, and THETA and use air...designed to emphasize the unique relationship between THETA, GAMMA, and ALPHA. The Klopfstein and PERSEPOLIS HUDs, designed for transport airplanes made...CSF 21 H. Suisse, Head-Up Display System -- PERSEPOLIS Symbology, Dassault Report DGT-16433, September 1979 22 "A Word from the Navy," ALPA Head-Up

  13. Design of a head mounted optical tracking system for surgical navigation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deorajh, Ryan; Morcos, Peter; Jivraj, Jamil; Ramjist, Joel; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2017-02-01

    When using surgical loupes and other head mounted surgical instruments for an extended period of time, many surgeons experience fatigue during the procedure, which results in a lot of pain in the neck and upper back. This is primarily due to the surgeon being subjected to long periods of uncomfortable positions, due to the design of the surgical instrument. To combat this issue, the surgeon is required to have a larger freedom of movement, which will reduce the fatigue in the affected areas, and allow the surgeon to comfortably operate for longer periods of time. The proposed design will incorporate an optical magnification system on a surgical head mounted display that will allow the surgeon to freely move their head and neck during the operation, while the optics are focused on the area of interest. The design will also include an infrared tracking system in order to acquire the field of view data, which will be used to control the optics. The reduction in neck pain will also be quantified using a clinically standardized numeric pain rating scale.

  14. Binocular Rivalry in Helmet-Mounted Display Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    Function and Visual Acuity .Threshold for 0. I-percent Transmittance See- Through Display and 4000-foot Lambert Ambient ...... 107 37 Modulation...Transfer Function and Visual Acuity Threshold for ’. 0-percent Transmittance See- Through Disp l.y and 4000-foot Lambert Ambient ...... i08 38 Modulation...Transfer Function and Visual Acuity Threshold for 10.0-percent Transmittance See- Through Display and 4000-foot Lambert Ambient ........ 109 39

  15. System Would Generate Virtual Heads-Up Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed helmet-mounted electronic display system superimposes full-color alphanumerical and/or graphical information onto observer's visual field. Displayed information projected directly onto observer's retinas, giving observer illusion of full-size computer display in foreground or background. Display stereoscopic, holographic, or in form of virtual image. Used by pilots to view navigational information while looking outside or at instruments, by security officers to view information about critical facilities while looking at visitors, or possibly even stock-exchange facilities to view desktop monitors and overhead displays simultaneously. System includes acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF), which acts as both spectral filter and spatial light modulator.

  16. Flight performance using a hyperstereo helmet-mounted display: post-flight debriefing questionnaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harding, Thomas H.; Jennings, Sion; Craig, Gregory; Stuart, Geoffrey W.

    2009-05-01

    Helmet-mounted display (HMD) designs have faced persistent head-supported mass and center of mass (CM) problems, especially HMD designs like night vision goggles (NVG) that utilize image intensification (I2) sensors mounted forward in front of the user's eyes. Relocating I2 sensors from the front to the sides of the helmet, at or below the transverse plane through the user's head CM, can resolve most of the CM problems. However, the resulting increase in the separation between the two I2 channels effectively increases the user's interpupillary distance (IPD). This HMD design is referred to as a hyperstero design and introduces the phenomenon of hyperstereopsis, a type of visual distortion where stereoscopic depth perception is exaggerated, particularly at distances under 200 feet (~60 meters). The presence of hyperstereopsis has been a concern regarding implementation of hyperstereo HMDs for rotary-wing aircraft. To address this concern, a flight study was conducted to assess the impact of hyperstereopsis on aircraft handling proficiency and pilot acceptance. Three rated aviators with differing levels of I2 and hyperstereo HMD experience conducted a series of flights that concentrated on low-level maneuvers over a two-week period. Initial and final flights were flown with a standard issue I2 device and a production hyperstereo design HMD. Interim flights were flown only with the hyperstereo HMD. Two aviators accumulated 8 hours of flight time with the hyperstereo HMD, while the third accumulated 6.9 hours. This paper presents data collected via written questionnaires completed by the aviators during the post-flight debriefings. These data are compared to questionnaire data from a previous flight investigation in which aviators in a copilot capacity, hands not on the flight controls, accumulated 8 flight hours of flight time using a hyperstereo HMD.

  17. Design of a Catadioptric VCASS Helmet-Mounted Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    mounted on an extra large Air Force flight helmet, type HGU-2A/P (see Figure 1). Since a single size of helmet must be adapted to all wearers (see sizing...in our discussions with the Government. We believe that distortion in itself can be adapted to if it is consistent over a period of time so that the...6, 627-643. Porac, Clare, and Stanley Coren, "Suppressive processes in binocular vision: ocular dominance and amblyopia ." Am. J. Optom. and Physiol

  18. Operation-microscope-mounted touch display tablet computer for intraoperative imaging visualization.

    PubMed

    Soehngen, Eric; Rahmah, Nunung Nur; Kakizawa, Yukinari; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Fujii, Yu; Kiuchi, Takafumi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2012-02-01

    The authors have developed a novel sterile draped touch display solution for convenient intraoperative access to imaging data. This study describes the technology and clinical experience of the system. We developed a flexible, mounted touch display solution (Apple iPad) that allows fixation of the display on the operation microscope and fine adjustments during surgery when the microscope is moved. We compared this setup with a conventional wall-mounted flat-panel and a mobile display stand in illustrative cases of vestibular schwannoma. The surgeon was able to employ the system without the need to leave the operation field or the need for external assistance while referring to imaging data. Commanding through imaging data with sterile gloves on the touch display was more convenient, more precise, and faster compared with other modalities. The operation-microscope-mounted touch display provides useful assistance for intraoperative imaging visualization in neurosurgical procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In-flight evaluation of a fiber optic helmet-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Sion A.; Gubbels, Arthur W.; Swail, Carl P.; Craig, Greg

    1998-08-01

    The National Research Council of Canada (NRC), in conjunction with the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND), is investigating the use of helmet-mounted displays (HMD) to improve pilot situational awareness in all-weather search and rescue helicopter operations. The National Research Council has installed a visually coupled HMD system in the NRC Bell 205 Airborne Simulator. Equipped with a full authority fly-by-wire control system, the Bell 205 has variable stability characteristics, which makes the airborne simulator the ideal platform for the integrated flight testing of HMDs in a simulated operational environment. This paper presents preliminary results from flight test of the NRC HMD. These results are in the form of numerical head tracker data, and subjective handling qualities ratings. Flight test results showed that the HMD degraded handling qualities due to reduced acuity, limited field-of-view, time delays in the sensor platform, and fatigue caused by excessive helmet inertia. Some evidence was found to support the hypothesis of an opto-kinetic cervical reflex whereby a pilot pitches and rolls his head in response to aircraft movements to maintain a level horizon in their field-of- view.

  20. Head-mounted spatial instruments II: Synthetic reality or impossible dream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Grunwald, Arthur

    1989-01-01

    A spatial instrument is defined as a spatial display which has been either geometrically or symbolically enhanced to enable a user to accomplish a particular task. Research conducted over the past several years on 3-D spatial instruments has shown that perspective displays, even when viewed from the correct viewpoint, are subject to systematic viewer biases. These biases interfere with correct spatial judgements of the presented pictorial information. The design of spatial instruments may not only require the introduction of compensatory distortions to remove the naturally occurring biases but also may significantly benefit from the introduction of artificial distortions which enhance performance. However, these image manipulations can cause a loss of visual-vestibular coordination and induce motion sickness. Consequently, the design of head-mounted spatial instruments will require an understanding of the tolerable limits of visual-vestibular discord.

  1. Optimizing a head-tracked stereo display system to guide hepatic tumor ablation.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Henry; State, Andrei; Yang, Hua; Peck, Tabitha; Lee, Sang Woo; Rosenthal, Michael; Bulysheva, Anna; Burke, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Radio frequency ablation is a minimally invasive intervention that introduces -- under 2D ultrasound guidance and via a needle-like probe -- high-frequency electrical current into non-resectable hepatic tumors. These recur mostly on the periphery, indicating errors in probe placement. Hypothesizing that a contextually correct 3D display will aid targeting and decrease recurrence, we have developed a prototype guidance system based on a head-tracked 3D display and motion-tracked instruments. We describe our reasoning and our experience in selecting components for, designing and constructing the 3D display. Initial candidates were an augmented reality see-through head-mounted display and a virtual reality "fish tank" system. We describe the system requirements and explain how we arrived at the final decision. We show the operational guidance system in use on phantoms and animals.

  2. Effects of aircraft windscreen on helmet-mounted display/tracker aiming accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, H. Lee

    1996-06-01

    Modern fighter aircraft windscreens are typically made of curved, transparent plastic for improved aero-dynamics and bird-strike protection. Since they are curved these transparencies often refract light in such a way that a pilot looking through the transparency will see a target in a location other than where it really is. This effect has been known for many years and methods to correct the aircraft head-up display (HUD) for these angular deviations have been developed and employed. The same problem will occur for helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) used for target acquisition only worse due to the fact the pilot can look through any part of the transparency instead of being constrained to just the forward section as in the case of the HUD. To determine the potential impact of these windscreen refraction errors two F-15 windscreens were measured; one acrylic and one multilayer acrylic and polycarbonate laminate. The average aiming error measured for the acrylic was 3.6 milliradians with a maximum error of 9.0 milliradians. The laminated windscreen was slightly worse at 4.1 milliradians average error and 10.5 milliradians maximum. These aiming errors were greatly reduced by employing correction algorithms which could be applied to the aiming information on the HMD. Subtleties of coordinate systems and roll correction are also addressed.

  3. Helmet-Mounted Area-of-Interest Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) initiated a design study by Martin Shenker Optical Design ( MSOD ), a consulting firm with FOHMD display expertise, to...optics MSOD conducted a preliminary design study of the input relay optics. The most important consideration in the research was the incorporation of

  4. RADAR Imaging Transformation for Heads Up Display Utility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    an instrument only landing using RADAR images as the main source of information. RADAR can be used in most types of weather and during night...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2007-0108 RADAR Imaging Transformation for Heads Up Display Utility Brian Wilson Nikola Subotic Altarum...August 2006 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-05-C-6635 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RADAR Imaging Transformation for Heads Up Display

  5. Psychometric Assessment of Stereoscopic Head-Mounted Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-29

    per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...60 call-to-landing task, including stereoscopic rendering using game-based simulation software, hardware/software antialiasing, and image warping ...virtual image distance (i.e., 0.25-diopter focal distance), and was capable of motion blur reduction (variable pixel hold time ). This HMD was selected

  6. Design for an Improved Head-Mounted Display System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    mechanical properties from -40ºF up to temperatures of 356ºF. It is radiation-resistant and is naturally flame- retardant. Glass reinforced grades have...STTR project, managed the HMD production program for n-vision to deliver more than 100 systems to Disney Regional Entertainment for their DisneyQuest...medical visualization, research, and entertainment and the customer base included Lockheed, Raytheon, Boeing, BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Volvo, NASA, Walt

  7. Emergence of solid state helmet-mounted displays in military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Curtis J.

    2002-08-01

    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) are used to provide pilots with out-the-window capabilities for engaging tactical threats. The first modern system to be employed was the Apache Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System (IHADSS). Using an optical tracker and multiple sensors, the pilot is able to navigate and engage the enemy with his weapons systems cued by the HMD in day and night conditions. Over the next several years HMDs were tested on tactical jet aircraft. The tactical fighter environment - high G maneuvering and the possibility of ejection - created several problems regarding integration and head-borne weight. However, these problems were soon solved by American, British, Israeli, and Russian companies and are employed or in the process of employment aboard the respective countries' tactical aircraft. It is noteworthy that the current configuration employs both the Heads-Up Display (HUD) as well as the HMD. The new Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), however, will become the first tactical jet to employ only a HMD. HMDs have increasingly become part of the avionics and weapons systems of new aircraft and helicopter platforms. Their use however, is migrating to other military applications. They are currently under evaluation on Combat Vehicle platforms for driving tasks to target acquisition and designation tasks under near-all weather, 24-hour conditions. Their use also has penetrated the individual application such as providing data and situational awareness to the individual soldier; the U.S. Army's Land Warrior Program is an example of this technology being applied. Current HMD systems are CRT-based and have many short-comings, including weight, reliability. The emergence of new microelectronics and solid state image sources - Flat Panel Displays (FPDs) - however, has expanded the application of vision devices across all facets of military applications. Some of the greatest contributions are derived from the following Enabling Technologies, and it is upon those

  8. The use of optical waveguides in head up display (HUD) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, Malcolm

    2013-06-01

    The application of optical waveguides to Head Up Displays (HUD) is an enabling technology which solves the critical issues of volume reduction (including cockpit intrusion) and mass reduction in an affordable product which retains the high performance optical capabilities associated with today's generation of digital display based HUDs. Improved operability and pilot comfort is achieved regardless of the installation by virtue of the intrinsic properties of optical waveguides and this has enabled BAE Systems Electronic Systems to develop two distinct product streams for glareshield and overhead HUD installations respectively. This paper addresses the design drivers behind the development of the next generation of Head Up Displays and their compatibility with evolving cockpit architectures and structures. The implementation of large scale optical waveguide combiners capable of matching and exceeding the display performances normally only associated with current digital display sourced HUDs has enabled BAE Systems Electronic Systems to solve the volume and installation challenges of the latest military and civil cockpits with it's LiteHUD® technology. Glareshield mounted waveguide based HUDs are compatible with the trend towards the addition of Large Area Displays (LAD) in place of the traditional multiple Head Down Displays (HDD) within military fast jet cockpits. They use an "indirect view" variant of the display which allows the amalgamation of high resolution digital display devices with the inherently small volume and low mass of the waveguide optics. This is then viewed using the more traditional technology of a conventional HUD combiner. This successful combination of technologies has resulted in the LPHUD product which is specifically designed by BAE Systems Electronic Systems to provide an ultra-low profile HUD which can be installed behind a LAD; still providing the level of performance that is at least equivalent to that of a conventional large volume

  9. Head-Up Display (HUD) Technology Demonstration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    Figure No. Page 39 Gain versus viewing angle for two screen materials........... 70 40 Image brightness uniformity with and without fresnel lenses ....... ......................... ....... ... .... . 72...discontinuity must be avoided. The solution to four-module display uniformity problem is accomplished with the use of four aligned fresnel lenses . The...The effect of the fresnel lenses on screen performance is shown in Figure 40-c and -d. The brightness nonuniformity caused by the directional properties

  10. Displaying optic flow to simulate locomotion: Comparing heading and steering

    PubMed Central

    Kountouriotis, Georgios K.; Wilkie, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Optic flow can be used by humans to determine their direction of heading as well as controlling steering. Dot-flow displays have been widely used to investigate these abilities but it is unclear whether photorealistic textures would provide better information for controlling high-speed steering. Here, we examine the accuracy of heading judgements from dot-flow displays of different densities and luminance and then compare to a scene containing a textured ground. We then examine steering behaviour using these same displays to determine whether accurate heading conditions necessarily equate to successful steering. Our findings suggest that the bright dense dot-flow displays led to equivalent performance as the ground texture when judging heading, and this was also true when steering. The intermediate dot-flow conditions (with fewer and faded dots) revealed that some conditions that led to accurate heading judgements were insufficient for accurate steering. It seems, therefore, that heading perception should not be considered synonymous with successful steering control, and displays that support one ability will not necessarily support the other. PMID:24349692

  11. Remote vs. head-mounted eye-tracking: a comparison using radiologists reading mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Gur, David

    2007-03-01

    Eye position monitoring has been used for decades in Radiology in order to determine how radiologists interpret medical images. Using these devices several discoveries about the perception/decision making process have been made, such as the importance of comparisons of perceived abnormalities with selected areas of the background, the likelihood that a true lesion will attract visual attention early in the reading process, and the finding that most misses attract prolonged visual dwell, often comparable to dwell in the location of reported lesions. However, eye position tracking is a cumbersome process, which often requires the observer to wear a helmet gear which contains the eye tracker per se and a magnetic head tracker, which allows for the computation of head position. Observers tend to complain of fatigue after wearing the gear for a prolonged time. Recently, with the advances made to remote eye-tracking, the use of head-mounted systems seemed destined to become a thing of the past. In this study we evaluated a remote eye tracking system, and compared it to a head-mounted system, as radiologists read a case set of one-view mammograms on a high-resolution display. We compared visual search parameters between the two systems, such as time to hit the location of the lesion for the first time, amount of dwell time in the location of the lesion, total time analyzing the image, etc. We also evaluated the observers' impressions of both systems, and what their perceptions were of the restrictions of each system.

  12. Flight performance using a hyperstereo helmet-mounted display: aircraft handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Sion A.; Craig, Gregory L.; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harding, Thomas H.

    2009-05-01

    A flight study was conducted to assess the impact of hyperstereopsis on helicopter handling proficiency, workload and pilot acceptance. Three pilots with varying levels of night vision goggle and hyperstereo helmet-mounted display experience participated in the test. The pilots carried out a series of flights consisting of low-level maneuvers over a period of two weeks. Four of the test maneuvers, The turn around the tail, the hard surface landing, the hover height estimation and the tree-line following were analysed in detail. At the end of the testing period, no significant difference was observed in the performance data, between maneuvers performed with the TopOwl helmet and maneuvers performed with the standard night vision goggle. This study addressed only the image intensification display aspects of the TopOwl helmet system. The tests did not assess the added benefits of overlaid symbology or head slaved infrared camera imagery. These capabilities need to be taken into account when assessing the overall usefulness of the TopOwl system. Even so, this test showed that pilots can utilize the image intensification imagery displayed on the TopOwl to perform benign night flying tasks to an equivalent level as pilots using ANVIS. The study should be extended to investigate more dynamic and aggressive low level flying, slope landings and ship deck landings. While there may be concerns regarding the effect of hyperstereopsis on piloting, this initial study suggests that pilots can either adapt or compensate for hyperstereo effects with sufficient exposure and training. Further analysis and testing is required to determine the extent of training required.

  13. Visual processing: implications for helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, J. L.; Cornum, Rhonda L. S.; Stephens, Robert L.; Rash, Clarence E.

    1990-10-01

    A study was conducted to compare the performance of AH-64 (Apache) pilots to other Army pilots on visual tasks. Each pilot was given a task presented monocularly to the right eye, a task presented monocularly to the left eye, and a task presented to both eyes simultaneously in a dichoptic task. Results indicated no performance difference between the groups of pilots on the dichoptic task, but indicated better performance on the left monocular task for the AH-64 pilots. These results indicate that AH-64 pilots who are required to switch their attention from their left eyes to their right eyes in order to obtain needed information are capable of processing information efficiently and effectively using only one eye. The implications of these results for the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) are discussed.

  14. Exaggerated displays do not improve mounting success in male seaweed flies Fucellia tergina (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Memmott, Ruth; Briffa, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Signals of individual quality are assumed to be difficult to exaggerate, either because they are directly linked to underlying traits (indices) or because they are costly to perform (handicaps). In practise advertisement displays may consist of conventional and costly components, for instance where a morphological structure related to body size is used in visual displays. In this case, there is the potential for dishonest displays, due to the population level variance around the relationship between body size and display structures. We examine the use of wing flicking displays that we observed in situ in a strandline dwelling seaweed fly Fucellia tergina, using overall body size and the size of their eyes as underlying indicators of condition. Males displayed far more frequently than females, and were also observed to frequently mount other flies, a behaviour that was rare in females. The rate of display was greater for males that had positive residual values from relationships between wing length and body length. In other words those males with larger than expected wings for their underlying quality displayed more frequently, indicating that these displays are open to exaggeration. Males with larger than expected wings (for the size of their body or eyes), however, mounted less frequently. We suggest that small bodied males are less successful in terms of mounting, but that those small males with relatively large wings may attempt to compensate for this through increased display effort.

  15. Critical testing for helmet-mounted displays: a tracking system accuracy test for the joint helmet mounted cueing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Adam P.

    2012-06-01

    Helmet mounted displays have not been supported with adequate methods and materials to validate and verify the performance of the underlying tracking systems when tested in a simulated or operational environment. Like most electronic systems on aircraft, HMDs evolve over the lifecycle of the system due to requirements changes or diminishing manufacturing sources. Hardware and software bugs are often introduced as the design evolves and it is necessary to revalidate a systems performance attributes over the course of these design changes. An on-aircraft test has been developed and refined to address this testing gap for the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) on F-16 aircraft. This test can be readily ported to other aircraft systems which employ the JHMCS, and has already been ported to the F-18. Additionally, this test method could provide an added value in the testing of any HMD that requires accurate cueing, whether used on fixed or rotary wing aircraft.

  16. A helmet mounted display demonstration unit for a Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernux, Carolyn G.; Blaser, Robert W.; Marmolejo, Jose

    1989-01-01

    Under NASA guidance an advanced development helmet mounted display (HMD) has been designed and fabricated. Delivery has been made of an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) HMD demonstration unit as an alternative to the current low-resolution, chest-mounted display, and cuff-mounted checklists. Important design goals achieved with this HMD include the use of transmissive liquid display image sources with fairly high resolution (text, graphics, and video compatible), binocular viewing with total image overlap, virtual image projection, low profile packaging, low power design, and demonstration of voice control of the HMD data. Test results showed that the HMD program successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and operated as designed, meeting the necessary program requirements.

  17. MicroDisplay technology: from eyeglass-mounted displays to portable projectors to the Dick Tracy video phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvelda, Phillip

    1997-06-01

    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies ranging from the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates to proprietary tunable color- filter technology, to optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation. All of these technologies were devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display devices with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass-clip-on virtual displays, pagers and personal communication services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are all target markets for MicroDisplay technology.

  18. Oculomotor responses with aviator helmet-mounted displays and their relation to in-flight symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kotulak, J C; Morse, S E

    1995-12-01

    Previous experiments have raised the possibility that abnormal oculomotor functioning could be the substrate for visual problems among aviators who use helmet-mounted displays. However, until the present investigation, no direct evidence linked the two. In our experiments, experienced Apache helicopter pilots, using the same helmet-mounted display that they use in flight, viewed Apache symbology and sensor imagery while we measured their accommodation and vergence eye movements in the laboratory. We found three circumstances that frequently occur in flight in which aviators with visual symptoms had different oculomotor responses than did asymptomatic aviators. Further work needs to be done to determine why symptomatic aviators respond differently from asymptomatic ones.

  19. Three dimensional audio versus head down TCAS displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Pittman, Marc T.

    1994-01-01

    The advantage of a head up auditory display was evaluated in an experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two conditions: Standard head down traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) display, and three-dimensional (3-D) audio TCAS presentation. Ten commercial airline crews were tested under full mission simulation conditions at the NASA Ames Crew-Vehicle Systems Research Facility Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. Scenario software generated targets corresponding to aircraft which activated a 3-D aural advisory or a TCAS advisory. Results showed a significant difference in target acquisition time between the two conditions, favoring the 3-D audio TCAS condition by 500 ms.

  20. First Use of Heads-up Display for Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumford, Holly; Hintz, E. G.; Jones, M.; Lawler, J.; Fisler, A.

    2013-01-01

    As part of our work on deaf education in a planetarium environment we are exploring the use of heads-up display systems. This allows us to overlap an ASL interpreter with our educational videos. The overall goal is to allow a student to watch a full-dome planetarium show and have the interpreter tracking to any portion of the video. We will present the first results of using a heads-up display to provide an ASL ‘sound-track’ for a deaf audience. This work is partially funded by an NSF IIS-1124548 grant and funding from the Sorenson Foundation.

  1. Attentional tunneling and the head-up display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Martin-Emerson, Robin; Larish, Inge

    1993-01-01

    Twenty instrument-rated flight students flew simulated landing approaches to a realistic graphics generated airport, using either a head-up display (HUD) of instrument landing systems (ILS) instruments or the same display positioned 8.5 deg. head down. Responses to discrete events appearing either on the ground environment or on the instrument display assessed the pilot's ability to switch attention between these domains. Unexpected events also occurred once (per subject) in each domain. The results revealed that flight path control and attention switching to the instrumnet display was better supported by the HUD, while this advantage disappeared for attention switching to the environment, and for detection of unexpected events. The results are discussed in terms of the attention strategies employed in sampling multiple information sources.

  2. Attentional tunneling and the head-up display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Martin-Emerson, Robin; Larish, Inge

    1993-01-01

    Twenty instrument-rated flight students flew simulated landing approaches to a realistic graphics generated airport, using either a head-up display (HUD) of instrument landing systems (ILS) instruments or the same display positioned 8.5 deg. head down. Responses to discrete events appearing either on the ground environment or on the instrument display assessed the pilot's ability to switch attention between these domains. Unexpected events also occurred once (per subject) in each domain. The results revealed that flight path control and attention switching to the instrumnet display was better supported by the HUD, while this advantage disappeared for attention switching to the environment, and for detection of unexpected events. The results are discussed in terms of the attention strategies employed in sampling multiple information sources.

  3. Transfer alignment from a personal locator system to a handheld or head-mounted instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, Lauro; Borenstein, Johann

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a method for computing position and attitude of an instrument attached to the human body such as a handheld or head-mounted video camera. The system uses two Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). One IMU is part of our earlier-developed Personal Dead-Reckoning (PDR) system, which tracks the position and heading of a walking person relative to a known starting position. The other IMU is rigidly attached to the handheld or head-mounted instrument. Our existing PDR system is substantially more accurate than conventional IMU-based systems because the IMU is mounted on the foot of the user where error correction techniques can be applied that are unavailable for IMUs mounted anywhere else on the body. However, if the walker is waving a handheld or head-mounted instrument, the position and attitude of the instrument is not known. Equipping the instrument with an additional IMU is by itself an unsatisfactory solution because that IMU is subject to accelerometer and gyro drift, which, unlike in the case of the foot-mounted IMU, cannot be corrected and cause unbounded position and heading errors. Our approach uses transfer alignment techniques and takes advantage of the fact that the handheld IMU moves with the walker. This constraint is used to bound and correct errors by a Kalman filter. The paper explains our method and presents extensive experimental results. The results show up to a five-fold reduction in heading errors for the handheld IMU.

  4. Integrated head package for top mounted nuclear instrumentation

    DOEpatents

    Malandra, Louis J.; Hornak, Leonard P.; Meuschke, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor such as a pressurized water reactor has an integrated head package providing structural support and increasing shielding leading toward the vessel head. A reactor vessel head engages the reactor vessel, and a control rod guide mechanism over the vessel head raises and lowers control rods in certain of the thimble tubes, traversing penetrations in the reactor vessel head, and being coupled to the control rods. An instrumentation tube structure includes instrumentation tubes with sensors movable into certain thimble tubes disposed in the fuel assemblies. Couplings for the sensors also traverse penetrations in the reactor vessel head. A shroud is attached over the reactor vessel head and encloses the control rod guide mechanism and at least a portion of the instrumentation tubes when retracted. The shroud forms a structural element of sufficient strength to support the vessel head, the control rod guide mechanism and the instrumentation tube structure, and includes radiation shielding material for limiting passage of radiation from retracted instrumentation tubes. The shroud is thicker at the bottom adjacent the vessel head, where the more irradiated lower ends of retracted sensors reside. The vessel head, shroud and contents thus can be removed from the reactor as a unit and rested safely and securely on a support.

  5. Head tracking for viewpoint control in stereographic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browse, Roger A.; Rodger, James C.; Pakowski, Sarah; Davis, Jennifer M.

    1999-05-01

    Future computer interfaces will likely use 3D displays with stereographic viewing to take advantage of the increased information inherent in 3D. The appropriate roles of devices to manipulate 3D displays, including the mouse, joystick and head tracking remain unresolved. Our research centers on the use of head tracking for the control of perspective. For monoscopic viewing, we previously found that viewers can control displays effectively with head movements. They learn rapidly to use head movements, though scene adjustments amplify or even reverse natural perspective changes, and this ability persist over time. With stereo viewing, if head movements do ont produce the expected change in perspective, the viewer may be confused, reducing the effectiveness of head tracking. We tested these conjectures in the experiment reported here, establishing the extent to which the flexibility found under monoscopic viewing extends to stereo. As in previous experiments, the viewer makes head movements to see a target sphere through a ring positioned in virtual space between the viewer and the target. We used a variety of ring sizes and position to measure the speed and directness of movement under four conditions that varied the scene location in depth, plus the extent and direction of perspective change. These combinations permit us to evaluate the effects of direction and extent of scene adjustment on viewers' ability to use head movements to alter virtual viewpoint. While we found no difference for reversed adjustments under monoscopic viewing, these conditions appear more difficult in stereo viewing. Furthermore, viewers perform better when perspective changes are amplified.

  6. Simulation Test of a Head-Worn Display with Ambient Vision Display for Unusual Attitude Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis (Trey) J., III; Nicholas, Stephanie N.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Ballard, Kathryn; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Ellis, Kyle E.; Bailey, Randall E.; Williams, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    Head-Worn Displays (HWDs) are envisioned as a possible equivalent to a Head-Up Display (HUD) in commercial and general aviation. A simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the HWD can provide an equivalent or better level of performance to a HUD in terms of unusual attitude recognition and recovery. A prototype HWD was tested with ambient vision capability which were varied (on/off) as an independent variable in the experiment testing for attitude awareness. The simulation experiment was conducted in two parts: 1) short unusual attitude recovery scenarios where the aircraft is placed in an unusual attitude and a single-pilot crew recovered the aircraft; and, 2) a two-pilot crew operating in a realistic flight environment with "off-nominal" events to induce unusual attitudes. The data showed few differences in unusual attitude recognition and recovery performance between the tested head-down, head-up, and head-worn display concepts. The presence and absence of ambient vision stimulation was inconclusive. The ergonomic influences of the head-worn display, necessary to implement the ambient vision experimentation, may have influenced the pilot ratings and acceptance of the concepts.

  7. The application of holographic optical waveguide technology to the Q-Sight family of helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Alex

    2009-05-01

    Traditionally head up displays and helmet mounted displays use a conventional arrangement of complex lenses to generate a display for the pilot from an image source such as a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) or Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). These systems tend to be complex, comprising many components and they also add mass and adversely modify the centre of the gravity of the helmet. This has resulted in the development of the Holographic Optical Waveguide, a revolutionary new optical technology which dramatically reduces size and mass whilst liberating the designer from many of the constraints inherent in conventional optical solutions. This technology is basically a way of moving light without the need for a complex arrangement of conventional lenses. This is made possible by embedding within the substrate a specially designed hologram which has carefully tailored set of optical properties. The image (or light waves) is constrained to follow a path through the substrate. As these waves pass through the substrate the hologram is programmed to allow some energy to escape in a carefully controlled manner reforming the image that was injected into the substrate. At the same time the hologram design modifies the image geometry such that the user views it as a full size conformal image precisely overlaid on his outside world view. Furthermore this image is maintained over a very large exit-pupil giving the user great flexibility in the installation of the display onto a helmet. The image is formed conventionally from a reflective LCD illuminated with a high brightness LED. The Q-SightTM Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) which exploits this concept is part of a modular-family of Helmet Mounted Displays; allowing the addition of capability as required in a flexible, low-cost way. The basic monocular QSightTM architecture offers plug-and-play solutions into any cockpit with either Analog (stroke) or Digital Video Interface (DVI) connections. This offers a significant upgrade opportunity

  8. Integration, development, and qualification of the helmet-mounted sight and display on the Rooivalk Attack Helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Timothy K.; Van Zyl, Petrus H.; Cross, Trevor

    2001-08-01

    The Rooivalk Attack Helicopter is designed and manufactured by Denel Aviation of South Africa, and in service with the South African Air Force. The Helmet Mounted Sight and Display (HMSD) hardware is manufactured by Sextant Avionique of France. The HMSD symbology is developed by Denel Aviation and is specific to the weapons and roles of the aircraft. The HMSD has visor projected NVG and PNVS images, and Flight and Weapon Symbology incorporating head slaved weapon aiming, helmet-to-helmet cueing, and helmet to main sight cueing. The NVG/PNVS image selection and main image controls are incorporated in the flight controls. The paper gives an overview of the aircraft visionic design and describes the integration process. The development of the displayed flight and weapon symbols is discussed. Aeronautical Design Standard 33E was chosen as a basis for the qualification process, and the development of the qualification criteria and the flight testing program are discussed.

  9. Time Counts! Some Comments on System Latency in Head-Referenced Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Adelstein, Bernard D.

    2013-01-01

    System response latency is a prominent characteristic of human-computer interaction. Laggy systems are; however, not simply annoying but substantially reduce user productivity. The impact of latency on head referenced display systems, particularly head-mounted systems, is especially disturbing since not only can it interfere with dynamic registration in augmented reality displays but it also can in some cases indirectly contribute to motion sickness. We will summarize several experiments using standard psychophysical discrimination techniques that suggest what system latencies will be required to achieve perceptual stability for spatially referenced computer-generated imagery. In conclusion I will speculate about other system performance characteristics that I would hope to have for a dream augmented reality system.

  10. Astronauts Gibson and Pogue at Apollo Telescope Mount display/control panel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-09-10

    S73-32837 (10 Sept. 1973) --- Scientist-astronaut Edward G. Gibson, seated, and astronaut William R. Pogue discuss a mission procedure at the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) display and control panel mock-up in the one-G trainer for the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA) at Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Astronauts Gibson and Pogue at Apollo Telescope Mount display/control panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Edward G. Gibson, seated, and Astronaut William R. Pogue discuss a mission procedure at the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) display and control panel mockup in the one-G trainer for the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA) at JSC.

  12. Contributions of Head-Mounted Cameras to Studying the Visual Environments of Infants and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen; Yoshida, Hanako; Fausey, Caitlin M.

    2015-01-01

    Head-mounted video cameras (with and without an eye camera to track gaze direction) are being increasingly used to study infants' and young children's visual environments and provide new and often unexpected insights about the visual world from a child's point of view. The challenge in using head cameras is principally conceptual and concerns the…

  13. Contributions of Head-Mounted Cameras to Studying the Visual Environments of Infants and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen; Yoshida, Hanako; Fausey, Caitlin M.

    2015-01-01

    Head-mounted video cameras (with and without an eye camera to track gaze direction) are being increasingly used to study infants' and young children's visual environments and provide new and often unexpected insights about the visual world from a child's point of view. The challenge in using head cameras is principally conceptual and concerns the…

  14. Pathway Concepts Experiment for Head-Down Synthetic Vision Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2004-01-01

    Eight 757 commercial airline captains flew 22 approaches using the Reno Sparks 16R Visual Arrival under simulated Category I conditions. Approaches were flown using a head-down synthetic vision display to evaluate four tunnel ("minimal", "box", "dynamic pathway", "dynamic crow s feet") and three guidance ("ball", "tadpole", "follow-me aircraft") concepts and compare their efficacy to a baseline condition (i.e., no tunnel, ball guidance). The results showed that the tunnel concepts significantly improved pilot performance and situation awareness and lowered workload compared to the baseline condition. The dynamic crow s feet tunnel and follow-me aircraft guidance concepts were found to be the best candidates for future synthetic vision head-down displays. These results are discussed with implications for synthetic vision display design and future research.

  15. Pathway concepts experiment for head-down synthetic vision displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2004-08-01

    Eight 757 commercial airline captains flew 22 approaches using the Reno Sparks 16R Visual Arrival under simulated Category I conditions. Approaches were flown using a head-down synthetic vision display to evaluate four tunnel ("minimal", "box", "dynamic pathway", "dynamic crow's feet") and three guidance ("ball", "tadpole", "follow-me aircraft") concepts and compare their efficacy to a baseline condition (i.e., no tunnel, ball guidance). The results showed that the tunnel concepts significantly improved pilot performance and situation awareness and lowered workload compared to the baseline condition. The dynamic crow's feet tunnel and follow-me aircraft guidance concepts were found to be the best candidates for future synthetic vision head-down displays. These results are discussed with implications for synthetic vision display design and future research.

  16. Ownship status helmet-mounted display symbology for off-boresight tactical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J. Chris; Thurling, Andrew J.; Brown, Becky D.

    2003-09-01

    Ownship status helmet-mounted display (HMD) symbology for off-boresight use in fixed-wing tactical aircraft serves to convey aircraft state information (e.g., airspeed, heading, altitude, and attitude) to the pilot for increased situation awareness and maintenance of spatial orientation. A recent flight test evaluation of HMD symbology conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the Edwards AFB Test Pilot School (TPS) indicated a clear performance advantage afforded by the use of off-boresight symbology compared to HUD use alone. The results indicated that the Non-Distributed Flight Reference (NDFR) was the best format of the HMD symbol sets evaluated and served as a good information/orientation aid off-boresight but needs further development to realize its tactical benefit. Specifically, the TPS recommendations pointed to a need for an improved rate-of-change (i.e., trend) indicator for airspeed and altitude, as well as an improvement to the off-boresight attitude reference concerning attitude precision (i.e., climb-dive), particularly near straight and level flight. Based on these recommendations, AFRL modified the original design of the NDFR symbology to satisfy the deficiencies noted by the Edwards AFB TPS. Two variants of the NDFR format with modifications for conveying trend information for airspeed and altitude as well as precision of aircraft attitude were evaluated along with the Mil-Std-1787D HUD symbology and baseline NDFR format. The study examined the four symbol sets during two simulated operationally representative air-to-air intercept tasks that employed the use of an HMD for the off-boresight visual acquisition of a target aircraft. Overall, the NDFR/Odometer symbology allowed a significantly higher amount of off-boresight viewing time while equaling the HUD and other off-boresight symbol sets for primary task performance and proved to be the preferred format for trend mechanization based on pilot comments.

  17. Psychophysical Research in Development of a Fiber-optic Helmet Mounted Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, R. V.; Longridge, T. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display (FOHMD) was conceived as an innovative solution to existing flight simulator display deficiencies. An initial (breadboard) version of the system was fabricated to permit experimentation which would help define design requirements for a more refined engineering prototype. A series of visual/human factors studies are being conducted at the USAF Human Resources Laboratory (AFHRL) Operations Training Division, Williams AFB, Arizona to determine the optimum fit of human observer operating characteristics and fiber optic helmet mounted display technology. Pilot performance within a variety of high resolution insert/binocular overlap combinations is being assessed in two classes of environment. The first two of four studies planned incorporate an air-to-air combat environment, whereas the second two studies will use a low level environment with air to ground weapons delivery.

  18. Head Worn Display System for Equivalent Visual Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupero, Frank; Valimont, Brian; Wise, John; Best. Carl; DeMers, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Head-Worn Displays or so-called, near-to-eye displays have potentially significant advantages in terms of cost, overcoming cockpit space constraints, and for the display of spatially-integrated information. However, many technical issues need to be overcome before these technologies can be successfully introduced into commercial aircraft cockpits. The results of three activities are reported. First, the near-to-eye display design, technological, and human factors issues are described and a literature review is presented. Second, the results of a fixed-base piloted simulation, investigating the impact of near to eye displays on both operational and visual performance is reported. Straight-in approaches were flown in simulated visual and instrument conditions while using either a biocular or a monocular display placed on either the dominant or non-dominant eye. The pilot's flight performance, visual acuity, and ability to detect unsafe conditions on the runway were tested. The data generally supports a monocular design with minimal impact due to eye dominance. Finally, a method for head tracker system latency measurement is developed and used to compare two different devices.

  19. AMLCD head-down displays for avionic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Alan J.

    1997-02-01

    Smiths Industries has been involved in the design, manufacture and supply of products used for the presentation of information, in one form or another, from its early pioneering years through to the present day. In the mid 1980s Smiths Industries began to invest in the then emerging active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) technology which the company believed would eventually take over from the cathode ray tube. To date Smiths Industries has made a significant investment in acquiring the enabling technology needed to produce active matrix liquid crystal color head- down displays for fast jet, helicopter and civil aircraft applications. The significant improvement in AMLCD product quality and manufacturing capability over recent years has enabled market penetration of AMLCD technology products to be achieved in military and civil avionic markets. Virtually all new contracts for head-down displays are now demanding the use of AMLCD technology rather than the cathode ray tube. A significant decision to move to AMLCD technology was made by McDonnell Douglas Helicopters in 1995, when a contract to supply over 4000 head-down display products for the Apache Helicopter was let. This has paved the way for the future of AMLCD technology.

  20. Head-Worn Displays for NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Arthur, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The operating concepts emerging under the Next Generation air transportation system (NextGen) require new technology and procedures - not only on the ground-side - but also on the flight deck. Flight deck display and decision support technologies are specifically targeted to overcome aircraft safety barriers that might otherwise constrain the full realization of NextGen. One such technology is the very lightweight, unobtrusive head-worn display (HWD). HWDs with an integrated head-tracking system are being researched as they offer significant potential benefit under emerging NextGen operational concepts. Two areas of benefit for NextGen are defined. First, the HWD may be designed to be equivalent to the Head-Up Display (HUD) using Virtual HUD concepts. As such, these operational credits may be provided to significantly more aircraft for which HUD installation is neither practical nor possible. Second, the HWD provides unique display capabilities, such as an unlimited field-of-regard. These capabilities may be integral to emerging NextGen operational concepts, eliminating safety issues which might otherwise constrain the full realization of NextGen. The paper details recent research results, current HWD technology limitations, and future technology development needed to realize HWDs as a enabling technology for NextGen.

  1. An experimental evaluation of head-up display formats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naish, J. M.; Miller, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Three types of head-up display format are investigated. Type 1 is an unreferenced (conventional) flight director, type 2 is a ground referenced flight path display, and type 3 is a ground referenced director. Formats are generated by computer and presented by reflecting collimation against a simulated forward view in flight. Pilots, holding commercial licenses, fly approaches in the instrument flight mode and in a combined instrument and visual flight mode. The approaches are in wind shear with varied conditions of visibility, offset, and turbulence. The displays are equivalent in pure tracking but there is a slight advantage for the unreferenced director in poor conditions. Flight path displays are better for tracking in the combined flight mode, possibly because of poor director control laws and the division of attention between superimposed fields. Workloads is better for the type 2 displays. The flight path and referenced director displays are criticized for effects of symbol motion and field limiting. In the subjective judgment of pilots familiar with the director displays, they are rated clearly better than path displays, with a preference for the unreferenced director. There is a fair division of attention between superimposed fields.

  2. Experimental testing of flight control head up displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berjal, M.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments and tests with 4 generations of head up displays was reported. The CV 191, based on fighter aircraft gunsights was replaced by the CV 193, with several improvements. The CV 193 V incorporates the velocity vector reference mark, eliminates much other data, clusters the rest in a small area of the visual field and is seen together with the outside landscape. The CV 91 presents only velocity vector and total angle of descent data, used when runway and horizon are visible; TC 121 displays an outline of the runway and can be used in visual and instrument approaches.

  3. Plan for evaluation of the training potential of helmet-mounted display and computer-generated synthetic imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbaum, K. S.; Kennedy, R. S.

    1985-04-01

    This report describes a plan of empirical research to evaluate the training effectiveness of a helmet-mounted display (HMD), and of computer-generated synthetic imagery (CGSI), for low level flight, navigation, and target interaction. This HMD has been developed by the Advanced Simulation Concepts Laboratory of the Naval Training Equipment Center for use in the Navy Visual Technology Research Simulator (VTRS). Optics mounted on the pilots's helmet project a scene upon a retro-reflecting screen. Two computer-image generation (CIG) channels are incorporated which present a wide-angle, low-resolution, low-detail background and an area of interest (AOI) of high resolution and detail. Eye and head tracking are used to position the display so that the AOI is presented to the fovea. The goal of HMD is to present a scene to the pilot that is indistinguishable from the real world insofar as pilot performance is concerned. The evaluation plan describes training scenarios emphasizing low level flight and ground interaction, response parameters used in measuring pilot performance, psychological experiments comparing the training efficacy of various aspects of HMD and CGSI, post stimulation subjective measures of pilot comfort, and the logistics of the research plan itself.

  4. Flight tests of a helmet-mounted display synthetic visibility system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yenni, Kenneth R.

    1990-01-01

    A short flight test program was conducted using the NASA Langley Research Center's B737 Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research airplane to determine if pilots could land a transport category airplane under visual meteorological conditions (VMC) by reference to a synthetic visibility system. No external guidance was to be used. The program was undertaken jointly by NASA and the McDonnel-Douglas Corporation. The airplane was fitted with forward-looking television cameras fixed in the nose. Inputs from the television cameras were mixed with internally generated symbology and displayed to the pilot on helmet-mounted eyepieces. The pilot task was to execute a visual approach and landing. Two NASA and two McDonnel-Douglas engineering test pilots participated in the program completing over 200 landings in a 32-hour test program. Landings accomplished with the helmet-mounted display (HMD) were compared with visual landings for each pilot.

  5. CUSUM analysis of learning curves for the head-mounted microscope in phonomicrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Vamos, Andrew C; Dailey, Seth H; Jiang, Jack J

    2016-10-01

    To observe the learning curve of the head-mounted microscope in a phonomicrosurgery simulator using cumulative summation (CUSUM) analysis, which incorporates a magnetic phonomicrosurgery instrument tracking system (MPTS). Retrospective case series. Eight subjects (6 medical students and 2 surgeons inexperienced in phonomicrosurgery) operated on phonomicrosurgical simulation cutting tasks while using the head-mounted microscope for 400 minutes total. Two 20-minute sessions occurred each day for 10 total days, with operation quality (Qs ) and completion time (T) being recorded after each session. Cumulative summation analysis of Qs and T was performed by using subjects' performance data from trials completed using a traditional standing microscope as success criteria. The motion parameters from the head-mounted microscope were significantly better than the standing microscope (P < 0.01), but T was longer than that from the standing microscope (P < 0.01). No subject successfully adapted to the head-mounted microscope, as assessed by CUSUM analysis. Cumulative summation analysis can objectively monitor the learning process associated with a phonomicrosurgical simulator system, ultimately providing a tool to assess learning status. Also, motion parameters determined by our MPTS showed that, although the head-mounted microscope provides better motion control, worse Qs and longer T resulted. This decrease in Qs is likely a result of the relatively unstable visual environment that it provides. Overall, the inexperienced surgeons participating in this study failed to adapt to the head-mounted microscope in our simulated phonomicrosurgery environment. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2295-2300, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Contributions of head-mounted cameras to studying the visual environments of infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Linda; Yu, Chen; Yoshida, Hanako; Fausey, Caitlin M

    Head-mounted video cameras (with and without an eye camera to track gaze direction) are being increasingly used to study infants' and young children's visual environments and provide new and often unexpected insights about the visual world from a child's point of view. The challenge in using head cameras is principally conceptual and concerns the match between what these cameras measure and the research question. Head cameras record the scene in front of faces and thus answer questions about those head-centered scenes. In this "tools of the trade" article, we consider the unique contributions provided by head-centered video, the limitations and open questions that remain for head-camera methods, and the practical issues of placing head-cameras on infants and analyzing the generated video.

  7. Contributions of head-mounted cameras to studying the visual environments of infants and young children

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Linda; Yu, Chen; Yoshida, Hanako; Fausey, Caitlin M.

    2014-01-01

    Head-mounted video cameras (with and without an eye camera to track gaze direction) are being increasingly used to study infants’ and young children’s visual environments and provide new and often unexpected insights about the visual world from a child’s point of view. The challenge in using head cameras is principally conceptual and concerns the match between what these cameras measure and the research question. Head cameras record the scene in front of faces and thus answer questions about those head-centered scenes. In this “tools of the trade” article, we consider the unique contributions provided by head-centered video, the limitations and open questions that remain for head-camera methods, and the practical issues of placing head-cameras on infants and analyzing the generated video. PMID:26257584

  8. Evaluation of Anti-Glare Applications for a Tactical Helmet-Mounted Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    simulated sunlight condition. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Helmet-Mounted Display, HMD, Glare, Anti-Reflective, Hood 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...legibility with each film and HMD hood covering under normal office lighting and under a simulated sunlight condition. In this test paradigm, participants had...impediment in the form of glare as sunlight is reflected into the user’s eye. Since operators can be expected to perform their missions at any time of

  9. Review of head-worn displays for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis (Trey) J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Williams, Steven P.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Houston, Vincent E.

    2017-05-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has conducted research in the area of helmet-mounted display (HMD)/head-worn display (HWD) over the past 30 years. Initially, NASA LaRC's research focused on military applications, but recently NASA has conducted a line of research in the area of HWD for commercial and business aircraft. This work revolved around numerous simulation experiments as well as flight tests to develop technology and data for industry and regulatory guidance. This paper summarizes the results of NASA's HMD/HWD research. Of note, the work tracks progress in wearable collimated optics, head tracking, latency reduction, and weight. The research lends credence to a small, sunglasses-type form factor of the HWD being acceptable to commercial pilots, and this goal is now becoming technologically feasible. The research further suggests that an HWD may serve as an "equivalent" head-up display (HUD) with safety, operational, and cost benefits. "HUD equivalence" appears to be the economic avenue by which HWDs can become mainstream on the commercial and business aircraft flight deck. If this happens, NASA's research suggests that additional operational benefits using the unique capabilities of the HWD can open up new operational paradigms.

  10. [A case of hypothyroidism displaying "dropped head" syndrome].

    PubMed

    Furutani, Rikiya; Ishihara, Kenji; Miyazawa, Yumi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Shiota, Jun-Ichi; Kawamur, Mitsuru

    2007-01-01

    We describe a patient with hypothyroidism displaying "dropped head" syndrome. A 50-year-old man visited our clinic because he was unable to hold his head in the natural position. He had weakness and hypertrophy of the neck extensor muscles. Tendon reflexes were diminished or absent in all limbs. Mounding phenomena were observed in the bilateral upper extremities. Blood biochemical analysis revealed hypothyroidism, hyperlipidemia, and elevated levels of muscle-derived enzymes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the neck demonstrated swelling and hyperintensity of the neck extensor muscles on T2-weighted images. The result of biopsy of the right biceps brachii muscle suggested mild atrophy of type 2 fibers. The diameters of the muscle fibers exhibited mild variation. No inflammatory changes were observed. We diagnosed hin as having "dropped head" syndrome due to hypothyroidism. Administration of thyroid hormone agent gradually improved his condition, and he became able to hold his head in the natural position. Levels of muscle-derived enzymes normalized and his hyperlipidemia remitted. Neck MRI also revealed improvement. Our findings suggest that hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of "dropped head" syndrome, although only a few cases like ours have been reported.

  11. Helmet-mounted display human factor engineering design issues: past, present, and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licina, Joseph R.; Rash, Clarence E.; Mora, John C.; Ledford, Melissa H.

    1999-07-01

    An often overlooked area of helmet-mounted display (HMD) design is that of good human factors engineering. Systems which pass bench testing with flying colors can often find less enthusiastic acceptance during fielding when good human factors engineering principles are not adhered to throughout the design process. This paper addresses lessons learned on the fielding of the AH-64 Apache Integrated Helmet and Display Sight System (IHADSS) and the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). These lessons are used to develop guidance for future HMDs in such diverse areas as: user adjustments, anthropometry, fit and comfort, manpower and personnel requirements, and equipment compatibility.

  12. Perceptual design tradeoff considerations for viewing I2 and FLIR with current helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalich, Melvyn E.; Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2008-04-01

    Providing both I2 (image intensified) and FLIR (forward looking infrared) images on a helmet-mounted display (HMD) requires perceptual design tradeoffs. Primary considerations center on the number, type, and placement of sensors. Perceptual drivers for these tradeoffs are derived from monocular versus biocular/binocular displays and offset of the sensors from the design eye. These conditions can create binocular rivalry, perceptual perspective distortion or hyperstereopsis, a binocular perceptual distortion that occurs when the sensors are positioned further apart than the interpupillary distance (IPD). Each of these perceptual tradeoff considerations is discussed.

  13. Helmet-mounted displays for rotary-wing aircraft: operational requirements and technical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Jean-Marc; Schroer, Gerd

    1993-12-01

    The Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) concept is now widely used to meet the ever increasing mission requirements of modern helicopters especially for the very demanding tasks of night navigation, piloting, and use of armaments. However, a careful review of the system and ergonomic issues has to be undertaken in order to define a product that will be accepted by the aircrew and efficient in the battle field environment. Special attention must be paid in the specifications and implementation of the image sensors used to display the external scene in front of the eyes of the aircrew members. A technical approach, including various designs and the most significant performances, is described.

  14. Consideration of technologies for head-down displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Christopher T.

    1998-09-01

    The market for military avionics head down displays for which Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays (AMLCD) has been specified is both well established and substantial. Typical major programs such as F-22, V-22 and Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) amount to over 15,000 displays. Nevertheless there is an insecurity about the situation because of the dependency upon Japanese and Korean manufacturers and the vagaries of the commercial market. The U.S. has only 7% of the world's manufacturing capability in AMLCD and is seeking alternative technologies to regain a hold in this lucrative business. The U.S. military manufacturers of AMLCD are capable, but can never achieve the benefits of scale that Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) equipment can offer. In addition to the commercial and political concerns, there are still performance issues related to AMLCD and there is a view that emissive displays in particular can offer advantages over AMLCD. However, it is beneficial to be able to tailor display sizes and there are doubts about the ability of current flat panel technologies to achieve custom, or indeed large area panels either economically, or reliably. It is in this arena that projection displays may be the optimum solution.

  15. Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Monica F.; Takallu, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The General Aviation Element of the Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) Project is developing technology to eliminate low visibility induced General Aviation (GA) accidents. SVS displays present computer generated 3-dimensional imagery of the surrounding terrain on the Primary Flight Display (PFD) to greatly enhance pilot's situation awareness (SA), reducing or eliminating Controlled Flight into Terrain, as well as Low-Visibility Loss of Control accidents. SVS-conducted research is facilitating development of display concepts that provide the pilot with an unobstructed view of the outside terrain, regardless of weather conditions and time of day. A critical component of SVS displays is the appropriate presentation of terrain to the pilot. An experimental study has been conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to explore and quantify the relationship between the realism of the terrain presentation and resulting enhancements of pilot SA and pilot performance. Composed of complementary simulation and flight test efforts, Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays (TP-HDD) experiments will help researchers evaluate critical terrain portrayal concepts. The experimental effort is to provide data to enable design trades that optimize SVS applications, as well as develop requirements and recommendations to facilitate the certification process. This paper focuses on the experimental set-up and preliminary qualitative results of the TP-HDD simulation experiment. In this experiment a fixed based flight simulator was equipped with various types of Head Down flight displays, ranging from conventional round dials (typical of most GA aircraft) to glass cockpit style PFD's. The variations of the PFD included an assortment of texturing and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resolution combinations. A test matrix of 10 terrain display configurations (in addition to the baseline displays) were evaluated by 27 pilots of various backgrounds and experience levels

  16. Head-mounted active noise control system with virtual sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Nobuhiro; Kajikawa, Yoshinobu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we apply a virtual sensing technique to a head-mounted active noise control (ANC) system we have already proposed. The proposed ANC system can reduce narrowband noise while improving the noise reduction ability at the desired locations. A head-mounted ANC system based on an adaptive feedback structure can reduce noise with periodicity or narrowband components. However, since quiet zones are formed only at the locations of error microphones, an adequate noise reduction cannot be achieved at the locations where error microphones cannot be placed such as near the eardrums. A solution to this problem is to apply a virtual sensing technique. A virtual sensing ANC system can achieve higher noise reduction at the desired locations by measuring the system models from physical sensors to virtual sensors, which will be used in the online operation of the virtual sensing ANC algorithm. Hence, we attempt to achieve the maximum noise reduction near the eardrums by applying the virtual sensing technique to the head-mounted ANC system. However, it is impossible to place the microphone near the eardrums. Therefore, the system models from physical sensors to virtual sensors are estimated using the Head And Torso Simulator (HATS) instead of human ears. Some simulation, experimental, and subjective assessment results demonstrate that the head-mounted ANC system with virtual sensing is superior to that without virtual sensing in terms of the noise reduction ability at the desired locations.

  17. Advances and trends of head-up and head-down display systems in automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gomez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    Currently, in the automotive industry the interaction between drivers and Augmented Reality (AR) systems is a subject of analysis, especially the identification of advantages and risks that this kind of interaction represents. Consequently, this paper attempts to put in evidence the potential applications of Head-Up (Display (HUD) and Head-Down Display (HDD) systems in automotive vehicles, showing applications and trends under study. In general, automotive advances related to AR devices suggest the partial integration of the HUD and HDD in automobiles; however, the right way to do it is still a moot point.

  18. Head-up and head-down displays integration in automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    In automotive industry, the dashboard has been ergonomically developed in order to keep the driver focused on the horizon while driving, but the possibility to access external electronic devices constraints the driver to turn away his face, generating dangerous situations in spite of the short periods of time. Therefore, this work explores the integration of Head-Up Displays and Head-Down Displays in automobiles, proposing configurations that give to drivers the facility to driving focused. In this way, some of the main ergonomic comments about those configurations are proposed; and also, some technical comments regarding the implemented arrangements are given.

  19. Performance comparison between a head-worn display system and a head-up display for low visibility commercial operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J.; Prinzel, Lawerence J.; Barnes, James R.; Williams, Steven P.; Jones, Denise R.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2014-06-01

    Research, development, test, and evaluation of flight deck interface technologies is being conducted by NASA to proactively identify, develop, and mature tools, methods, and technologies for improving overall aircraft safety of new and legacy vehicles operating in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Under the Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies (VSST) project in the Aviation Safety Program, one specific area of research is the use of small Head-Worn Displays (HWDs) as an equivalent display to a Head-Up Display (HUD). Title 14 of the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 91.175 describes a possible operational credit which can be obtained with airplane equipage of a HUD or an "equivalent" display combined with Enhanced Vision (EV). If successful, a HWD may provide the same safety and operational benefits as current BUD-equipped aircraft but for significantly more aircraft in which HUD installation is neither practical nor possible. A simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate if the HWD, coupled with a head-tracker, can provide an equivalent display to a HUD. Comparative testing was performed in the Research Flight Deck (RFD) Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) full mission, motion-based simulator at NASA Langley. Twelve airline crews conducted approach and landing, taxi, and departure operations during low visibility operations (1000' Runway Visual Range (RVR), 300' RVR) at Memphis International Airport (Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) identifier: KMEM). The results showed that there were no statistical differences in the crews performance in terms of touchdown and takeoff. Further, there were no statistical differences between the HUD and HWD in pilots' responses to questionnaires.

  20. Performance Comparison Between a Head-Worn Display System and a Head-Up Display for Low Visibility Commercial Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Barnes, James R.; Williams, Steven P.; Jones, Denise R.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2014-01-01

    Research, development, test, and evaluation of flight deck interface technologies is being conducted by NASA to proactively identify, develop, and mature tools, methods, and technologies for improving overall aircraft safety of new and legacy vehicles operating in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Under the Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies (VSST) project in the Aviation Safety Program, one specific area of research is the use of small Head-Worn Displays (HWDs) as an equivalent display to a Head-Up Display (HUD). Title 14 of the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 91.175 describes a possible operational credit which can be obtained with airplane equipage of a HUD or an "equivalent" display combined with Enhanced Vision (EV). If successful, a HWD may provide the same safety and operational benefits as current HUD-equipped aircraft but for significantly more aircraft in which HUD installation is neither practical nor possible. A simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate if the HWD, coupled with a head-tracker, can provide an equivalent display to a HUD. Comparative testing was performed in the Research Flight Deck (RFD) Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) full mission, motion-based simulator at NASA Langley. Twelve airline crews conducted approach and landing, taxi, and departure operations during low visibility operations (1000' Runway Visual Range (RVR), 300' RVR) at Memphis International Airport (Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) identifier: KMEM). The results showed that there were no statistical differences in the crews performance in terms of touchdown and takeoff. Further, there were no statistical differences between the HUD and HWD in pilots' responses to questionnaires.

  1. Head-up display in the non-precision approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naish, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of head-up guidance for an aircraft making an instrument approach without glide slope information is discussed. Requirements for path control are considered for each section of the approach profile and a head-up display is developed to meet these needs. The display is an unreferenced flight director which is modified by adding a ground referenced symbol as an alternative guidance component. The director is used for holding altitude in the first segment and for descent at a controlled rate in the second segment. It is used in the third segment to maintain the minimum decision altitude while assessing the approach situation. This is done by means of occasional brief changes to the referenced symbol. In the final segment a visual approach is made with the referenced symbol used continuously for path control. The display is investigated experimentally in simulated approaches made by three pilots. The results show a fair agreement between objective and subjective estimates of the quality of landing decisions.

  2. Superimposition, symbology, visual attention, and the head-up display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Emerson, R.; Wickens, C. D.

    1997-01-01

    In two experiments we examined a number of related factors postulated to influence head-up display (HUD) performance. We addressed the benefit of reduced scanning and the cost of increasing the number of elements in the visual field by comparing a superimposed HUD with an identical display in a head-down position in varying visibility conditions. We explored the extent to which the characteristics of HUD symbology support a division of attention by contrasting conformal symbology (which links elements of the display image to elements of the far domain) with traditional instrument landing system (ILS) symbology. Together the two experiments provide strong evidence that minimizing scanning between flight instruments and the far domain contributes substantially to the observed HUD performance advantage. Experiment 1 provides little evidence for a performance cost attributable to visual clutter. In Experiment 2 the pattern of differences in lateral tracking error between conformal and traditional ILS symbology supports the hypothesis that, to the extent that the symbology forms an object with the far domain, attention may be divided between the superimposed image and its counterpart in the far domain.

  3. Superimposition, symbology, visual attention, and the head-up display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Emerson, R.; Wickens, C. D.

    1997-01-01

    In two experiments we examined a number of related factors postulated to influence head-up display (HUD) performance. We addressed the benefit of reduced scanning and the cost of increasing the number of elements in the visual field by comparing a superimposed HUD with an identical display in a head-down position in varying visibility conditions. We explored the extent to which the characteristics of HUD symbology support a division of attention by contrasting conformal symbology (which links elements of the display image to elements of the far domain) with traditional instrument landing system (ILS) symbology. Together the two experiments provide strong evidence that minimizing scanning between flight instruments and the far domain contributes substantially to the observed HUD performance advantage. Experiment 1 provides little evidence for a performance cost attributable to visual clutter. In Experiment 2 the pattern of differences in lateral tracking error between conformal and traditional ILS symbology supports the hypothesis that, to the extent that the symbology forms an object with the far domain, attention may be divided between the superimposed image and its counterpart in the far domain.

  4. Helmet mounted display supporting helicopter missions during en route flight and landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueken, Thomas; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich; Schmerwitz, Sven

    2016-05-01

    Degraded visual environment is still a major problem for helicopter pilots especially during approach and landing. Particularly with regard to the landing phase, pilot's eyes must be directed outward in order to find visual cues as indicators for drift estimation. If lateral speed exceeds the limits it can damage the airframe or in extreme cases lead to a rollover. Since poor visibility can contribute to a loss of situation awareness and spatial disorientation, it is crucial to intuitively provide the pilot with the essential visual information he needs for a safe landing. With continuous technology advancement helmet-mounted displays (HMD) will soon become a spreading technology, because look through capability is an enabler to offer monitoring the outside view while presenting flight phase depending symbologies on the helmet display. Besides presenting primary flight information, additional information for obstacle accentuation or terrain visualization can be displayed on the visor. Virtual conformal elements like 3D pathway depiction or a 3D landing zone representation can help the pilot to maintain control until touchdown even during poor visual conditions. This paper describes first investigations in terms of both en route and landing symbology presented on a helmet mounted display system in the scope of helicopter flight trials with DLR's flying helicopter simulator ACT/FHS.

  5. A head-mounted operating binocular for augmented reality visualization in medicine--design and initial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Figl, Michael; Huber, Klaus; Watzinger, Franz; Wanschitz, Felix; Hummel, Johann; Hanel, Rudolf; Greimel, Wolfgang; Homolka, Peter; Ewers, Rolf; Bergmann, Helmar

    2002-08-01

    Computer-aided surgery (CAS), the intraoperative application of biomedical visualization techniques, appears to be one of the most promising fields of application for augmented reality (AR), the display of additional computer-generated graphics over a real-world scene. Typically a device such as a head-mounted display (HMD) is used for AR. However, considerable technical problems connected with AR have limited the intraoperative application of HMDs up to now. One of the difficulties in using HMDs is the requirement for a common optical focal plane for both the realworld scene and the computer-generated image, and acceptance of the HMD by the user in a surgical environment. In order to increase the clinical acceptance of AR, we have adapted the Varioscope (Life Optics, Vienna), a miniature, cost-effective head-mounted operating binocular, for AR. In this paper, we present the basic design of the modified HMD, and the method and results of an extensive laboratory study for photogrammetric calibration of the Varioscope's computer displays to a real-world scene. In a series of 16 calibrations with varying zoom factors and object distances, mean calibration error was found to be 1.24 +/- 0.38 pixels or 0.12 +/- 0.05 mm for a 640 x 480 display. Maximum error accounted for 3.33 +/- 1.04 pixels or 0.33 +/- 0.12 mm. The location of a position measurement probe of an optical tracking system was transformed to the display with an error of less than 1 mm in the real world in 56% of all cases. For the remaining cases, error was below 2 mm. We conclude that the accuracy achieved in our experiments is sufficient for a wide range of CAS applications.

  6. Head-Mounted Eye Tracking: A New Method to Describe Infant Looking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchak, John M.; Kretch, Kari S.; Soska, Kasey C.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Despite hundreds of studies describing infants' visual exploration of experimental stimuli, researchers know little about where infants look during everyday interactions. The current study describes the first method for studying visual behavior during natural interactions in mobile infants. Six 14-month-old infants wore a head-mounted eye-tracker…

  7. Head-Mounted Eye Tracking: A New Method to Describe Infant Looking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchak, John M.; Kretch, Kari S.; Soska, Kasey C.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Despite hundreds of studies describing infants' visual exploration of experimental stimuli, researchers know little about where infants look during everyday interactions. The current study describes the first method for studying visual behavior during natural interactions in mobile infants. Six 14-month-old infants wore a head-mounted eye-tracker…

  8. Toward Head-Worn Displays for Equivalent Visual Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence (Lance) J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J. (Trey); Bailey, Randall E.; Jones, Denise R.; Williams, Steven P.; Harrison, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System represents an envisioned transformation to the U.S. air transportation system that includes an "equivalent visual operations" (EVO) concept, intended to achieve the safety and operational tempos of Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations independent of visibility conditions. Today, Federal Aviation Administration regulations provide for the use of an Enhanced Flight Visual System (EFVS) as "operational credit" to conduct approach operations below traditional minima otherwise prohibited. An essential element of an EFVS is the Head-Up Display (HUD). NASA has conducted a substantial amount of research investigating the use of HUDs for operational landing "credit", and current efforts are underway to enable manually flown operations as low as 1000 feet Runway Visual Range (RVR). Title 14 CFR 91.175 describes the use of EFVS and the operational credit that may be obtained with airplane equipage of a HUD combined with Enhanced Vision (EV) while also offering the potential use of an “equivalent” display in lieu of the HUD. A Head-Worn Display (HWD) is postulated to provide the same, or better, safety and operational benefits as current HUD-equipped aircraft but for potentially more aircraft and for lower cost. A high-fidelity simulation was conducted that examined the efficacy of HWDs as "equivalent" displays. Twelve airline flight crews conducted 1000 feet RVR approach and 300 feet RVR departure operations using either a HUD or HWD, both with simulated Forward Looking Infra-Red cameras. The paper shall describe (a) quantitative and qualitative results, (b) a comparative evaluation of these findings with prior NASA HUD studies, and (c) describe current research efforts for EFVS to provide for a comprehensive EVO capability.

  9. Potential see-through performance deficits in U.S. Army developmental helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2004-09-01

    The U.S. Army has several helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) under development, all with unique characteristics and designs. For example, the now cancelled RAH-66 Comanche HIDSS (Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System) uses miniature liquid crystal displays as sources, and Microvision, Inc., of Bothel, Washington, is developing several prototype HMDs for the Army that incorporate a scanning laser or lasers as their source. Gone are new HMD designs that use cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as sources. A potential problem for see-through displays lies in the fact that the MTF (modulation transfer function) of flat panel displays is characterized by a good high-spatial frequency response. Although this seems counterintuitive, this high frequency response may impact the see-through detection and identification of high-spatial frequency targets because of visual masking and/or spatial frequency adaptation. A similar problem exists with the HMDs being developed by Microvision, Inc., where a high-spatial frequency noise pattern is present due to the inclusion of a diffractive exit pupil expander. Simple blurring of the HMD imagery would reduce this potential problem. In an earlier investigation, we found that a little blurring of flat panel displays does not affect small letter acuity even near threshold. Thus, it is possible to reduce the potential for see-through deficits while still maintaining maximum HMD fidelity.

  10. Evaluation of a Head-Worn Display System as an Equivalent Head-Up Display for Low Visibility Commercial Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis (Trey) J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Nicholas, Stephanie N.; Williams, Steven P.; Ellis, Kyle E.; Jones, Denise R.; Bailey, Randall E.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Barnes, James R.

    2017-01-01

    Research, development, test, and evaluation of fight deck interface technologies is being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to proactively identify, develop, and mature tools, methods, and technologies for improving overall aircraft safety of new and legacy vehicles operating in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). One specific area of research was the use of small Head-Worn Displays (HWDs) to serve as a possible equivalent to a Head-Up Display (HUD). A simulation experiment and a fight test were conducted to evaluate if the HWD can provide an equivalent level of performance to a HUD. For the simulation experiment, airline crews conducted simulated approach and landing, taxi, and departure operations during low visibility operations. In a follow-on fight test, highly experienced test pilots evaluated the same HWD during approach and surface operations. The results for both the simulation and fight tests showed that there were no statistical differences in the crews' performance in terms of approach, touchdown and takeoff; but, there are still technical hurdles to be overcome for complete display equivalence including, most notably, the end-to-end latency of the HWD system.

  11. A novel active heads-up display for driver assistance.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Anup; Cheng, Shinko Yuanhsien; Trivedi, Mohan Manubhai

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel laser-based wide-area heads-up windshield display which is capable of actively interfacing with a human as part of a driver assistance system. The dynamic active display (DAD) is a unique prototype interface that presents safety-critical visual icons to the driver in a manner that minimizes the deviation of his or her gaze direction without adding to unnecessary visual clutter. As part of an automotive safety system, the DAD presents alerts in the field of view of the driver only if necessary, which is based upon the state and pose of the driver, vehicle, and environment. This paper examines the effectiveness of DAD through a comprehensive comparative experimental evaluation of a speed compliance driver assistance system, which is implemented on a vehicular test bed. Three different types of display protocols for assisting a driver to comply with speed limits are tested on actual roadways, and these are compared with a conventional dashboard display. Given the inclination, drivers who are given an overspeed warning alert reduced the time required to slow down to the speed limit by 38% (p < 0.01) as compared with the drivers not given the alert. Additionally, certain alerts decreased distraction levels by reducing the time spent looking away from the road by 63% (p < 0.01). Ultimately, these alerts demonstrate the utility and promise of the DAD system.

  12. Results of using helmet-mounted displays to control robots in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hromadka, Theodore V., III; Melzer, James E.

    2003-09-01

    In July 2002, the US Army Robotics Study Team tested man-portable robots and controllers in combat for the first time. These robots quickly explored caves, bunkers, and other objectives in Afghanistan via remote control while the soldiers remained in secure positions. These systems, developed in less than a month, are still in use a year later. The M7 systems are based on equipment first prototyped for the Land Warrior program and clearly demonstrate that helmet-mounted display technology has reached a deployable state of the art for the infantry soldier. Further work on human factors and ergonomics are the new focus of development for this type of equipment.

  13. Helmet-Mounted Displays for Use in Air Force Training and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    greater potential to achieve high pixel counts and manufacturing costs are lower compared to some other technologies (McLaughlin, 2002). Limitations...of products such as cell phones and PDAs. An OLED display of sufficiently high resolution, brightness, and decreased response time would be a prime...head) that make up the cortical ventral stream. Areas in the ventral stream functionally analyze spatial pattern information. Cells in these cortical

  14. Assessment of a visually coupled system (VCS) using a binocular helmet-mounted display (BHMD) and a steerable FLIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longman, Peter J.; How, Thomas C.; Hudson, Craig; Clarkson, Geoffrey J. N.

    2001-08-01

    The Defence Evaluation Research Agency carried out an airborne demonstration and evaluation of a fast-jet Visually Coupled System (VCS) installed in ZD902, the Tornado Integrated Avionics Research Aircraft for the UK MOD. The installed VCS used a Head Steered Forward Looking Infra-Red (HSFLIR) sensor and a Head Tracking system to provide the pilot with an image of the outside world projected onto a Binocular Helmet Mounted Display. In addition to the sensor image, information such as aircraft altitude, attitude, and airspeed were also presented to the pilot through the HMD to eliminate the need to look inside the cockpit for critical flight data. The aim of the VIVIAN trial was to demonstrate by day and night the benefits of a fast-jet integrated HSFLIR and HMD as an aid to low level flight, navigation, target acquisition, take-off and landing. The outcome of this flight test program was very encouraging and, although testing has identified that improvements are necessary, in particular to HSFLIR image quality, Auto Gain Control performance, helmet fit and symbology design, test aircrew endorse the acceptability of a VCS.

  15. Study for verification testing of the helmet-mounted display in the Japanese Experimental Module.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, I; Yamamoto, I; Kato, H; Inokuchi, S; Nemoto, M

    2000-02-01

    Our purpose is to propose a research and development project in the field of telemedicine. The proposed Multimedia Telemedicine Experiment for Extra-Vehicular Activity will entail experiments designed to support astronaut health management during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Experiments will have relevant applications to the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) operated by National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) for the International Space Station (ISS). In essence, this is a proposal for verification testing of the Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD), which enables astronauts to verify their own blood pressures and electrocardiograms, and to view a display of instructions from the ground station and listings of work procedures. Specifically, HMD is a device designed to project images and data inside the astronaut's helmet. We consider this R&D proposal to be one of the most suitable projects under consideration in response to NASDA's open invitation calling for medical experiments to be conducted on JEM.

  16. Pathway Design Effects on Synthetic Vision Head-Up Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA s Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance for transport aircraft. This experiment evaluated the influence of different tunnel and guidance concepts upon pilot situation awareness (SA), mental workload, and flight path tracking performance for Synthetic Vision display concepts using a Head-Up Display (HUD). Two tunnel formats (dynamic, minimal) were evaluated against a baseline condition (no tunnel) during simulated IMC approaches to Reno-Tahoe International airport. Two guidance cues (tadpole, follow-me aircraft) were also evaluated to assess their influence on the tunnel formats. Results indicated that the presence of a tunnel on an SVS HUD had no effect on flight path performance but that it did have significant effects on pilot SA and mental workload. The dynamic tunnel concept with the follow-me aircraft guidance symbol produced the lowest workload and provided the highest SA among the tunnel concepts evaluated.

  17. Design and automatic calibration of a head mounted operating binocular for augmented reality applications in computer-aided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Ede, Christopher; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Hummel, Johann; Hanel, Rudolf; Bergmann, Helmar

    2005-04-01

    In the last years we developed and tested a head mounted display (HMD) for augmented reality applications in computer aided surgery. This HMD was developed by adapting the Varioscope AF3 (Life Optics, Vienna), an operating binocular with variable zoom and focus. One of the drawbacks of the AF3 was the missing possibility to set the zoom and focus values automatically via a machine usable interface, necessary for automatic calibration of the device. The paper presents the successor of the Varioscope AF3, the Varioscope M5 adapted for augmented reality by our lab. This device has an interface for machine controlled setting of the zoom and focus lens groups via RS 232. This enabled us to develop an automated calibration using a calibration grid mounted on a linear positioner. The position of the grid was controlled using a stepping motor controller connected via IEEE 488. The calibration grid was equipped with automatically detectable fiducial points using varying cross values of consecutive points. The resulting point pairs were used for a camera calibration with Tsai's algorithm. Tracker probes (Traxtal, Toronto) were mounted on the HMD and onto the calibration grid to derive the transformation from the coordinate system of the HMD into the system of the displays. The error of this calibrations was measured comparing the position of the tip of a bayonet probe calculated by the algorithm and found in the image of a camera mounted at the eyepiece of the device. Averaging 16 positions of the probe this deviation was found to be 0.97 +/- 0.22 mm.

  18. Magnitude of visual accommodation to a head-up display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitner, E. F.; Haines, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The virtual image symbology of head-up displays (HUDs) is presented at optical infinity to the pilot. This design feature is intended to help pilots maintain visual focus distance at optical infinity. However, the accommodation response could be nearer than optical infinity, due to an individual's dark focus response. Accommodation responses were measured of two age groups of airline pilots to: (1) static symbology on a HUD; (2) a landing site background at optical infinity; (3) the combination of the HUD symbology and the landing site background; and (4) complete darkness. Results indicate that magnitude of accommodation to HUD symbology, with and without the background, is not significantly different from an infinity focus response for either age group. The dark focus response is significantly closer than optical infinity for the younger pilots, but not the older pilots, a finding consistent with previous research.

  19. Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Monica F.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    The Synthetic Vision Systems General Aviation (SVS-GA) element of NASA's Aviation Safety Program is developing technology to eliminate low visibility induced General Aviation (GA) accidents through the application of synthetic vision techniques. SVS displays present computer generated 3-dimensional imagery of the surrounding terrain to greatly enhance pilot's situation awareness (SA), reducing or eliminating Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT), as well as Low-Visibility Loss of Control (LVLOC) accidents. In addition to substantial safety benefits, SVS displays have many potential operational benefits that can lead to flight in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) resembling those conducted in visual meteorological conditions (VMC). Potential benefits could include lower landing minimums, more approach options, reduced training time, etc. SVS conducted research will develop display concepts providing the pilot with an unobstructed view of the outside terrain, regardless of weather conditions and time of day. A critical component of SVS displays is the appropriate presentation of terrain to the pilot. The relationship between the realism of the terrain presentation and resulting enhancements of pilot SA and pilot performance has been largely undefined. Comprised of coordinated simulation and flight test efforts, the terrain portrayal for head-down displays (TP-HDD) test series examined the effects of two primary elements of terrain portrayal: variations of digital elevation model (DEM) resolution and terrain texturing. Variations in DEM resolution ranged from sparsely spaced (30 arc-sec/2,953ft) to very closely spaced data (1 arc-sec/98 ft). Variations in texture involved three primary methods: constant color, elevation-based generic, and photo-realistic, along with a secondary depth cue enhancer in the form of a fishnet grid overlay. The TP-HDD test series was designed to provide comprehensive data to enable design trades to optimize all SVS applications, as

  20. Visual Field Testing with Head-Mounted Perimeter ‘imo’

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Chota; Yamao, Sayaka; Nomoto, Hiroki; Takada, Sonoko; Okuyama, Sachiko; Kimura, Shinji; Yamanaka, Kenzo; Aihara, Makoto; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We developed a new portable head-mounted perimeter, “imo”, which performs visual field (VF) testing under flexible conditions without a dark room. Besides the monocular eye test, imo can present a test target randomly to either eye without occlusion (a binocular random single eye test). The performance of imo was evaluated. Methods Using full HD transmissive LCD and high intensity LED backlights, imo can display a test target under the same test conditions as the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA). The monocular and binocular random single eye tests by imo and the HFA test were performed on 40 eyes of 20 subjects with glaucoma. VF sensitivity results by the monocular and binocular random single eye tests were compared, and these test results were further compared to those by the HFA. The subjects were asked whether they noticed which eye was being tested during the test. Results The mean sensitivity (MS) obtained with the HFA highly correlated with the MS by the imo monocular test (R: r = 0.96, L: r = 0.94, P < 0.001) and the binocular random single eye test (R: r = 0.97, L: r = 0.98, P < 0.001). The MS values by the monocular and binocular random single eye tests also highly correlated (R: r = 0.96, L: r = 0.95, P < 0.001). No subject could detect which eye was being tested during the examination. Conclusions The perimeter imo can obtain VF sensitivity highly compatible to that by the standard automated perimeter. The binocular random single eye test provides a non-occlusion test condition without the examinee being aware of the tested eye. PMID:27564382

  1. Proof of principle for helmet-mounted display image quality tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.; Beasley, Howard H.; Martin, John S.

    2003-09-01

    Helmet mounted displays (HMDs) provide essential pilotage and fire control imagery information for pilots. To maintain system integrity and readiness, there is a need to develop an image quality-testing tool for HMDs. There is currently no such tool. A framework for development of an image quality tester for the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used in the U.S. Army's AH-64 was proposed in Hsieh et al. This paper presents the prototype development, summarizes the bench test findings using three IHADSS helmet display units (HDUs), and concludes with recommendations for future directions. The prototype consists of hardware (two cameras, sensors, image capture/data acquisition cards, battery pack, HDU holder, moveable rack and handle, and computer) and software algorithms for image capture and analysis. Two cameras with different apertures were mounted in parallel on a rack facing the HDU holder. A handle was designed to allow users to position the HDU in front of the two cameras. The HMD test pattern was then captured. Sensors are used to detect the position of the holder and whether the HDU was angled correctly in relation to the camera. Two sets of unified algorithms were designed to detect features presented by the two cameras. These features include focus, orientation, displacement, field-of-view, and number of gray-shades. Images of test pattern were captured and analyzed, and used to develop a specification for each inspection feature. Experiments were conducted to verify the robustness of the algorithms. A worst-case scenario for factors such as clock-wise and counterclockwise tilt, degree of focus, magnitude of brightness and contrast, and shifted images were set up and evaluated. Bench testing of three field-quality HDUs indicate that the image analysis algorithms are robust and able to detect the desired image features. Suggested future work includes development of a learning algorithm to automatically develop or revise feature

  2. Design of refractive/diffractive objective for head-mounted night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiu-Ling; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Fu, Ru-Lian; Sun, Qiang; Lu, Zhen-Wu

    A refractive/diffractive objective for head-mounted night vision goggle was designed. This objective consists of six elements, including one binary surface and two hyperboloids. It has a 40[degree sign] field of view, a 1.25 f-number, and a 18 mm image diameter, with a compact structure and a light weight. All optical specifications reach proposed designing targets. Besides, we considered fabrication issues about special surfaces of the system.

  3. Reduce volume of head-up display by image stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Yi-Feng; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2016-09-01

    Head-up Display (HUD) is a safety feature for automobile drivers. Although there have been some HUD systems in commercial product already, their images are too small to show assistance information. Another problem, the volume of HUD is too large. We proposed a HUD including micro-projectors, rear-projection screen, microlens array (MLA) and the light source is 28 mm x 14 mm realized a 200 mm x 100 mm image in 3 meters from drivers. We want to use the MLA to reduce the volume by virtual image stitching. We design the HUD's package dimensions is 12 cm x 12 cm x 9 cm. It is able to show speed, map-navigation and night vision information. We used Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) as our image source due to its brighter image output required and the minimum volume occupancy. The MLA is a multi aperture system. The proposed MLA consists of many optical channels each transmitting a segment of the whole field of view. The design of the system provides the stitching of the partial images, so that we can see the whole virtual image.

  4. A Head-Mounted Spectacle Frame for the Study of Mouse Lens-Induced Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yangshun; Xu, Baisheng; Feng, Chunfei; Ni, Yang; Wu, Qin; Du, Chixin; Hong, Nan; Li, Peng; Ding, Zhihua; Jiang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The mouse model has been widely employed to explore the mysteries of myopia. For now, existing techniques for induction of experimental myopia in mice can be classified into three types: (1) devices directly glued to the fur; (2) devices attached using a combination of glue and sutures; (3) devices attached using a skull-mounted apparatus. These techniques each have its advantages, disadvantages when considering the devices stability, safety, complexity, effectiveness, and so forth. Thus, techniques for myopia induction in mice have yet to be further refined to popularize the applications. In this pilot study, we introduce a new head fixation device named the head-mounted spectacle frame apparatus for the study of mouse lens-induced myopia. Surgical procedures for device attachment were relatively simple and easy to learn in our study. Effective myopia induction was validated by retinoscopy refraction and axial length measurement using optical coherence tomography. In addition, it showed improved compliance and reliable safety when compared to the published methods. The head-mounted spectacle frame apparatus provides a new choice for the study of lens-induced myopia in mouse. It also allows for the use of form deprivation, making it attractive for future experimental mouse myopia trials. PMID:26904275

  5. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  6. Head-up transition behavior of pilots with and without head-up display in simulated low-visibility approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Fischer, E.; Price, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    To quantify head-up transition behavior with and without a flightpath type head-up display, eight rated B-727 pilots each flew 31 manual and coupled approaches in a simulator with B-727 dynamics and collimated model board external scene. Data were also obtained on the roll played by the head-up display in the coupled-to-manual transition. Various wind shears, low visibilities, and ceilings were tested along with unexpected misalignment between the runway and head-up display symbology. The symbolic format used was a conformal scene. Every pilot except one stayed head-up, flying with the display after descending below the ceiling. Without the display and as altitude decreased, the number of lookups from the instrument panel decreased and the duration of each one increased. No large differences in mean number or duration of transitions up or down were found during the head-up display runs comparing the no-misalignment with the lateral instrument landing system offset misalignment runs. The head-up display led to fewer transitions after the pilot made a decision to land or execute a missed approach. Without the display, pilots generally waited until they had descended below the ceiling to look outside the first time, but with it several pilots looked down at their panel at relatively high altitudes (if they looked down at all). Manual takeover of control was rapid and smooth both with and without the display which permitted smoother engine power changes.

  7. Daylight luminance requirements for full-color, see-through, helmet-mounted display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2017-05-01

    When color is implemented in helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) that are eyes-out, see-through displays, visual perception issues become an increased concern. A major confound with HMDs is their inherent see-through (transparent) property. The result is color in the displayed image that combines with color from the outside (or in-cockpit) world, producing an image with additive color. As luminance of the HMD imagery is reduced, the color separation between the HMD imagery and the background is also reduced. It is because of this additive effect that luminance contrast is so vitally important in developing HMD standards for color symbology. As a result, this paper identifies luminance requirements for full-color HMDs based upon two lines of investigation. The first is based on a study of white symbology against natural static backgrounds, where the quality of symbology was judged to be a function of not only the background luminance but also of the background complexity as well. The second is based on an evaluation of the complexity inherent in natural backgrounds and from this investigation, a predictive curve was found that describes the complexity of natural backgrounds as a function of ambient luminance.

  8. Helmet-mounted display targeting symbology color coding: an air-to-air scenario evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiselman, Eric E.; Post, David L.

    1999-07-01

    Laboratory and flight test evaluations have consistently demonstrated the potential for helmet-mounted display (HMD) presented information to enhance air combat performance. The Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL's) Helmet-Mounted Sight Plus (HMS+) program seeks to provide further enhancement by enabling the presentation of multi-color symbology and sensor imagery. To take proper advantage of color-capable HMDs, systematic evaluations must be conducted to identify the best color-coding techniques. The experiment described here is the second we have conducted to address this need. The first experiment identified the better of two competing color coding strategies for air-to-air weapons symbology and indicated that pilots preferred the color codes over an otherwise equivalent monochrome baseline. The present experiment compared the 'winning' color code to the monochrome baseline during trials of a complex multi-player air-to-air weapon delivery scenario. Twelve fighter pilots representing three different countries (U.S., U.K., and Sweden) flew simulator trials that included target identification, intercept, attack, missile launch, and defensive maneuvering tasks. Participants' subjective feedback and performance data indicated a preference for color coded symbology.

  9. Rotorcraft aircrew systems concepts airborne laboratory (RASCAL) helmet-mounted display flight research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindson, William S.; Njaka, Chima E.; Aiken, Edwin W.; Barnhart, Warren A.

    1994-06-01

    The Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) is a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter that is being modified by the US Army and NASA for flight systems research. One of the objectives of the research is to develop and integrate technologies for Automated Nap-of-the Earth (ANOE) flight. The principal elements of this system include video imaging sensors, advanced real-time image processing capabilities, a graphics supercomputer, a wide field-of-view color helmet mounted display (HMD), and an advanced fly-by-wire flight control system. The development methodology and the current status of the ANOE Flight Program are summarized, a description of the visionics system is provided, and the plans for the initial applications of the color HMD are presented.

  10. Helmet-mounted displays on the next battlefield: a perspective on HMD reliability and mantainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verruso, Janis

    1999-07-01

    The United States Army introduced Helmet Mounted Displays (HMD) into its weapon inventory over fifteen years ago with the fielding of the AH-64 Attack Helicopter. To date the Integrated Helmet and Display Sight System (IHADSS) is still the only fielded HMD in the Army inventory. The HMD contractor community can expect the Army to increase the utility of HMDs in the next decade on a variety of weapon platforms. This is evident through such development programs as Land Warrior and Comanche, and advanced developments such as Air Warrior, Mounted Warrior, and the Driver Vehicle Enhancement Program. Should these programs continue to mature into production, we can expect to see HMD technology proliferate on several more solider, vehicle and aircraft platforms. The U.S. Army is setting in motion a massive force restructuring under Force XXI and Army After Next doctrines. These force structures of the future call out for significantly increased reliability requirements in new technology material acquisition, and methods for how these technologies are sustained on the battlefield. HMD contractors, along with the rest of the defense industry, will be directly impacted by these revolutionary requirements. The changes forthcoming bring challenges and new opportunities both in the laboratory and through the logistical support contractors are expected provide. This paper identifies some of the challenges HMD contractors will face as the Army moves forward to integrate HMDs on a multitude of legacy and newly developed weapon platforms. It sets the stage with a summary of events that occurred in 1990 when Honeywell was tasked by the Army to support IHADSS repair during Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm. It then examines some of the future changes we as contractors can expect from the Army in future material development and product support.

  11. Evaluation of anti-glare applications for a tactical helmet-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roll, Jason L.; Trew, Noel J. M.; Geis, Matthew R.; Havig, Paul R.

    2011-06-01

    Non see-through, monocular helmet mounted displays (HMDs) provide warfighters with unprecedented amounts of information at a glance. The US Air Force recognizes their usefulness, and has included such an HMD as part of a kit for ground-based, Battlefield Airmen. Despite their many advantages, non see-through HMDs occlude a large portion of the visual field when worn as designed, directly in front of the eye. To address this limitation, operators have chosen to wear it just above the cheek, angled up toward the eye. However, wearing the HMD in this position exposes the display to glare, causing a potential viewing problem. In order to address this problem, we tested several film and HMD hood applications for their effect on glare. The first experiment objectively examined the amount of light reflected off the display with each application in a controlled environment. The second experiment used human participants to subjectively evaluate display readability/legibility with each film and HMD hood covering under normal office lighting and under a simulated sunlight condition. In this test paradigm, participants had to correctly identify different icons on a map and different words on a white background. Our results indicate that though some applications do reduce glare, they do not significantly improve the HMD's readability/legibility compared with an uncovered screen. This suggests that these post-production modifications will not completely solve this problem and underscores the importance of employing a user-centered approach early in the design cycle to determine an operator's use-case before manufacturing an HMD for a particular user community.

  12. Evaluation of helmet-mounted display targeting symbology based on eye tracking technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijing; Wen, Fuzhen; Ma, Caixin; Zhao, Shengchu; Liu, Xiaodong

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find the Target Locator Lines (TLLs) which perform best by contrasting and comparing experiment based on three kinds of TTLs of fighter HMD. 10 university students, male, with an average age of 21-23, corrected visual acuity 1.5, participated in the experiment. In the experiment, head movement data was obtained by TrackIR. The geometric relationship between the coordinates of the real world and coordinates of the visual display was obtained by calculating the distance from viewpoint to midpoint of both eyes and the head movement data. Virtual helmet system simulation experiment environment was created by drawing TLLs of fighter HMD in the flight simulator visual scene. In the experiment, eye tracker was used to record the time and saccade trajectory. The results were evaluated by the duration of the time and saccade trajectory. The results showed that the symbol"locator line with digital vector length indication" cost most time and had the longest length of the saccade trajectory. It is the most ineffective and most unacceptable way. "Locator line with extending head vector length symbol" cost less time and had less length of the saccade trajectory. It is effective and acceptable;"Locator line with reflected vector length symbol" cost the least time and had the least length of the saccade trajectory. It is the most effective and most acceptable way. "Locator line with reflected vector length symbol" performs best. The results will provide reference value for the research of TTLs in future.

  13. A miniature shoe-mounted orientation determination system for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Tracking the position of pedestrian is urgently demanded when the most commonly used GPS (Global Position System) is unavailable. Benefited from the small size, low-power consumption, and relatively high reliability, micro-electro-mechanical system sensors are well suited for GPS-denied indoor pedestrian heading estimation. In this paper, a real-time miniature orientation determination system (MODS) was developed for indoor heading and trajectory tracking based on a novel dual-linear Kalman filter. The proposed filter precludes the impact of geomagnetic distortions on pitch and roll that the heading is subjected to. A robust calibration approach was designed to improve the accuracy of sensors measurements based on a unified sensor model. Online tests were performed on the MODS with an improved turntable. The results demonstrate that the average RMSE (root-mean-square error) of heading estimation is less than 1°. Indoor heading experiments were carried out with the MODS mounted on the shoe of pedestrian. Besides, we integrated the existing MODS into an indoor pedestrian dead reckoning application as an example of its utility in realistic actions. A human attitude-based walking model was developed to calculate the walking distance. Test results indicate that mean percentage error of indoor trajectory tracking achieves 2% of the total walking distance. This paper provides a feasible alternative for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking.

  14. A miniature shoe-mounted orientation determination system for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengzhi; Yu, Shuai; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Tracking the position of pedestrian is urgently demanded when the most commonly used GPS (Global Position System) is unavailable. Benefited from the small size, low-power consumption, and relatively high reliability, micro-electro-mechanical system sensors are well suited for GPS-denied indoor pedestrian heading estimation. In this paper, a real-time miniature orientation determination system (MODS) was developed for indoor heading and trajectory tracking based on a novel dual-linear Kalman filter. The proposed filter precludes the impact of geomagnetic distortions on pitch and roll that the heading is subjected to. A robust calibration approach was designed to improve the accuracy of sensors measurements based on a unified sensor model. Online tests were performed on the MODS with an improved turntable. The results demonstrate that the average RMSE (root-mean-square error) of heading estimation is less than 1°. Indoor heading experiments were carried out with the MODS mounted on the shoe of pedestrian. Besides, we integrated the existing MODS into an indoor pedestrian dead reckoning application as an example of its utility in realistic actions. A human attitude-based walking model was developed to calculate the walking distance. Test results indicate that mean percentage error of indoor trajectory tracking achieves 2% of the total walking distance. This paper provides a feasible alternative for accurate indoor heading and trajectory tracking.

  15. See-through head-worn display of patient monitoring data to enhance anesthesiologists' response to abnormal clinical events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, David F.; Ross, Brian K.; Naluai-Cecchini, A.

    2003-05-01

    One obstacle to safety in the operating room is anesthesiologist distraction -- having to shift attention back and forth from the patient to vital sign monitor while performing either routine or emergency procedures. The purpose of this study was to measure the decrease in anesthesiologist distraction made possible by using a head-mounted, see-through personal display (HMD) using retinal scanning technology. With the head-up display, they were able to focus their attention exclusively on the patient and the task at hand. The Nomad reduced the number of times the anesthesiologist had to shift their attention by a more than a third (17 times versus 58 times). This allowed them to spend more time focused on the patient.

  16. Holographic helmet-mounted display application for the extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstock, Mark J.; Pishtey, Wallace; LaRussa, Joseph A.; Tritsch, Constance L.

    1990-10-01

    This helmet mounted display (HMD) was designed for the extravehicular mobility unit (EMIJ) to be used on the Space Station Freedom. The HMD will be able to display text, graphics, and video to the astronaut. The image will be above his/her normal field of view (FOV) at a comfortable distance. It is believed that this device would be extraordinarily useful in performing scheduled and emergency extravehicular activities (EVAs) . This HMD may be voiceactivated for true "hands-free" operation, without invading the prime work envelope. The Technology Innovation Group (TIG)/Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Company (LESC) holographic HMD was developed for the Crew and Thermal Systems Division and NASA-Johnson Space Center. This HMD is unique because it uses holographic optical elements (HOEs) on the pressure helmet and protective visor surfaces to relay an image from a CRT directly to the eyebox. This HMD provides the user with a biocular virtual image in a 25 degree diagonal FOV, maximum combiner transparency, minimal volume dimension, and an unencumbered working field of view.

  17. Common software and interface for different helmet-mounted display (HMD) aircraft symbology sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, Fred F.

    2000-06-01

    Different aircraft in different services and countries have their own set of symbology they want displayed on their HMD. Even as flight symbolgy is standardized, there will still be some differences for types of aircraft, different weapons, different sensors, and different countries. As an HMD supplier, we want to provide a system that can be used across all these applications with no changes in the system, including no changes in the software. This HMD system must also provide the flexibility to accommodate new symbology as it is developed over the years, again, with no change in the HMD software. VSI has developed their HMD software to accommodate F-15, F- 16, F-18, and F-22 symbology sets for the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System. It also has the flexibility to accommodate the aircraft types and services of the Joint Strike Fighter: Conventional Takeoff and Landing variant for the USAF, Carrier-based Variant for the USN, and the Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing variant for the USMC and U.K. Royal Navy and Air Force. The key to this flexibility is the interface definition. The interface parameters are established at power-on with the download of an interface definition data set. This data set is used to interpret symbology commands from the aircraft OFP during operation and provide graphic commands to the HMD software. This presentation will define the graphics commands, provide an example of how the interface definition data set is defined, and then show how symbology commands produce a display.

  18. Head-motion-controlled video goggles: preliminary concept for an interactive laparoscopic image display (i-LID).

    PubMed

    Aidlen, Jeremy T; Glick, Sara; Silverman, Kenneth; Silverman, Harvey F; Luks, Francois I

    2009-08-01

    Light-weight, low-profile, and high-resolution head-mounted displays (HMDs) now allow personalized viewing, of a laparoscopic image. The advantages include unobstructed viewing, regardless of position at the operating table, and the possibility to customize the image (i.e., enhanced reality, picture-in-picture, etc.). The bright image display allows use in daylight surroundings and the low profile of the HMD provides adequate peripheral vision. Theoretic disadvantages include reliance for all on the same image capture and anticues (i.e., reality disconnect) when the projected image remains static, despite changes in head position. This can lead to discomfort and even nausea. We have developed a prototype of interactive laparoscopic image display that allows hands-free control of the displayed image by changes in spatial orientation of the operator's head. The prototype consists of an HMD, a spatial orientation device, and computer software to enable hands-free panning and zooming of a video-endoscopic image display. The spatial orientation device uses magnetic fields created by a transmitter and receiver, each containing three orthogonal coils. The transmitter coils are efficiently driven, using USB power only, by a newly developed circuit, each at a unique frequency. The HMD-mounted receiver system links to a commercially available PC-interface PCI-bus sound card (M-Audiocard Delta 44; Avid Technology, Tewksbury, MA). Analog signals at the receiver are filtered, amplified, and converted to digital signals, which are processed to control the image display. The prototype uses a proprietary static fish-eye lens and software for the distortion-free reconstitution of any portion of the captured image. Left-right and up-down motions of the head (and HMD) produce real-time panning of the displayed image. Motion of the head toward, or away from, the transmitter causes real-time zooming in or out, respectively, of the displayed image. This prototype of the interactive HMD

  19. Toward Head-Up and Head-Worn Displays for Equivalent Visual Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Jones, Denise R.; Williams, Steven P.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Ellis, Kyle K.

    2015-01-01

    A key capability envisioned for the future air transportation system is the concept of equivalent visual operations (EVO). EVO is the capability to achieve the safety of current-day Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations and maintain the operational tempos of VFR irrespective of the weather and visibility conditions. Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) offer a path to achieve EVO. NASA has successfully tested EFVS for commercial flight operations that has helped establish the technical merits of EFVS, without reliance on natural vision, to runways without category II/III ground-based navigation and lighting requirements. The research has tested EFVS for operations with both Head-Up Displays (HUDs) and "HUD equivalent" Head-Worn Displays (HWDs). The paper describes the EVO concept and representative NASA EFVS research that demonstrate the potential of these technologies to safely conduct operations in visibilities as low as 1000 feet Runway Visual Range (RVR). Future directions are described including efforts to enable low-visibility approach, landing, and roll-outs using EFVS under conditions as low as 300 feet RVR.

  20. SVGA and XGA active matrix microdisplays for head-mounted applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Bolotski, Michael; Brown, Imani L.

    2000-03-01

    The MicroDisplay Corporation's liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) display devices are based on the union of several technologies with the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS substrates. The fast liquid crystal operation modes and new scalable high-performance pixel addressing architectures presented in this paper enable substantially improved color, contrast, and brightness while still satisfying the optical, packaging, and power requirements of portable applications. The entire suite of MicroDisplay's technologies was devised to create a line of mixed-signal application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in single-chip display systems. Mixed-signal circuits can integrate computing, memory, and communication circuitry on the same substrate as the display drivers and pixel array for a multifunctional complete system-on-a-chip. System-on-a-chip benefits also include reduced head supported weight requirements through the elimination of off-chip drive electronics.

  1. Head-mounted LED for optogenetic experiments of freely-behaving animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Gnade, Andrew G.; Rush, Alexander D.; Patten, Craig D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent developments in optogenetics have demonstrated the ability to target specific types of neurons with sub-millisecond temporal precision via direct optical stimulation of genetically modified neurons in the brain. In most applications, the beam of a laser is coupled to an optical fiber, which guides and delivers the optical power to the region of interest. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an alternative light source for optogenetics and they provide many advantages over a laser based system including cost, size, illumination stability, and fast modulation. Their compact size and low power consumption make LEDs suitable light sources for a wireless optogenetic stimulation system. However, the coupling efficiency of an LED's output light into an optical fiber is lower than a laser due to its noncollimated output light. In typical chronic optogenetic experiment, the output of the light source is transmitted to the brain through a patch cable and a fiber stub implant, and this configuration requires two fiber-to-fiber couplings. Attenuation within the patch cable is potential source of optical power loss. In this study, we report and characterize a recently developed light delivery method for freely-behaving animal experiments. We have developed a head-mounted light source that maximizes the coupling efficiency of an LED light source by eliminating the need for a fiber optic cable. This miniaturized LED is designed to couple directly to the fiber stub implant. Depending on the desired optical power output, the head-mounted LED can be controlled by either a tethered (high power) or battery-powered wireless (moderate power) controller. In the tethered system, the LED is controlled through 40 gauge micro coaxial cable which is thinner, more flexible, and more durable than a fiber optic cable. The battery-powered wireless system uses either infrared or radio frequency transmission to achieve real-time control. Optical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal

  2. Visually Guided Navigation: Head-Mounted Eye-Tracking of Natural Locomotion in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Franchak, John M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2010-01-01

    The current study showed that visual fixation of obstacles is not required for rapid and adaptive navigation of obstacles. Children and adults wore a wireless, head-mounted eye-tracker during a visual search task in a room cluttered with obstacles. They spontaneously walked, jumped, and ran through the room, stepping up, down, and over obstacles. Both children and adults navigated adaptively without fixating obstacles, however, adults fixated less often than children. We discuss several possibilities for why obstacle navigation may shift from foveal to peripheral control over development. PMID:20932993

  3. Visually guided navigation: head-mounted eye-tracking of natural locomotion in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Franchak, John M; Adolph, Karen E

    2010-12-01

    The current study showed that visual fixation of obstacles is not required for rapid and adaptive navigation of obstacles. Children and adults wore a wireless, head-mounted eye-tracker during a visual search task in a room cluttered with obstacles. They spontaneously walked, jumped, and ran through the room, stepping up, down, and over obstacles. Both children and adults navigated adaptively without fixating obstacles, however, adults fixated less often than children. We discuss several possibilities for why obstacle navigation may shift from foveal to peripheral control over development.

  4. Concepts for conformal and body-axis attitude information for spatial awareness presented in a helmet-mounted display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Abbott, Terence S.; Burley, James R., II

    1993-01-01

    A piloted simulation study has been conducted to evaluate two methods of presenting attitude information in a helmet-mounted display (HMD) for spatial awareness in a fighter airplane. One method, the body-axis concept, displayed the information relative to the body axis of the airplane. The quantitative results of this study favored the body-axis concept. Although no statistically significant differences were noted for either the pilots' understanding of roll attitude or target position, the pilots made pitch judgment errors three times more often with the conformal display. The subjective results showed the body-axis display did not cause attitude confusion, a prior concern with this display. In the posttest comments, the pilots overwhelmingly selected the body-axis display as the display of choice.

  5. Measurement and reduction of system latency in see-through helmet mounted display (HMD) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenzi, Dennis A.; Deaton, John E.; Blickenderfer, Elizabeth L.; Pray, Rick; Williams, Barry; Buker, Timothy J.

    2010-04-01

    Future military aviation platforms such as the proposed Joint Strike Fighter F-35 will integrate helmet mounted displays (HMDs) with the avionics and weapon systems to the degree that the HMDs will become the aircraft's primary display system. In turn, training of pilot flight skills using HMDs will be essential in future training systems. In order to train these skills using simulation based training, improvements must be made in the integration of HMDs with out-thewindow (OTW) simulations. Currently, problems such as latency contribute to the onset of simulator sickness and provide distractions during training with HMD simulator systems that degrade the training experience. Previous research has used Kalman predictive filters as a means of mitigating the system latency present in these systems. While this approach has yielded some success, more work is needed to develop innovative and improved strategies that reduce system latency as well as to include data collected from the user perspective as a measured variable during test and evaluation of latency reduction strategies. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the paper describes a new method to measure and assess system latency from the user perspective. Second, the paper describes use of the testbed to examine the efficacy of an innovative strategy that combines a customized Kalman filter with a neural network approach to mitigate system latency. Results indicate that the combined approach reduced system latency significantly when compared to baseline data and the traditional Kalman filter. Reduced latency errors should mitigate the onset of simulator sickness and ease simulator sickness symptomology. Implications for training systems will be discussed.

  6. X-31 helmet-mounted visual and audio display (HMVAD) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehmer, Steven C.

    1994-06-01

    Agile aircraft (X-29, X-31, F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle and F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vector) test pilots, while flying at high angles of attack, experience difficulty predicting their flight path trajectory. To compensate for the loss of this critical element of situational awareness, the X-31 International Test Organization (ITO) installed and evaluated a helmet mounted display (HMD) system into an X-31 aircraft and simulator. Also investigated for incorporation within the HMD system and flight evaluation was another candidate technology for improving situational awareness -three dimensional audio. This was the first flight test evaluating the coupling of visual and audio cueing for aircrew aiding. The focus of the endeavor, which implemented two visual and audio formats, was to examine the extent visual and audio orientation cueing enhanced situational awareness and improved pilot performance during tactical flying. This paper provides an overview of the X-31 HMVAD system, describes the visual and audio symbology, presents a summary of the pilots' subjective evaluation of the system following its use in simulation and flight test, and outlines the future plans for the X-31 HMVAD system.

  7. Enhanced flight symbology for wide-field-of-view helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Steven P.; Asbury, Charles N.; Szoboszlay, Zoltan P.

    2003-09-01

    A series of studies was conducted to improve the Army aviator's ability to perform night missions by developing innovative symbols that capitalize on the advantages of new wide field-of-view (WFOV) helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). The most important outcomes of the research were two new symbol types called the Cylinder and the Flight Path Predictor. The Cylinder provides a large symbolic representation of real-world orientation that enables pilots to maintain the world frame of reference even if the visibility of the world is lost due to dust, smoke, snow, or inadvertent instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). Furthermore, the Cylinder is peripherally presented, supporting the "ambient" visual mode so that it does not require the conscious attention of the viewer. The Flight Path Predictor was developed to show the predicted flight path of a maneuvering aircraft using earth-referenced HMD symbology. The experimental evidence and the pilot interview results show that the new HMD symbology sets are capable of preventing spatial disorientation, improving flight safety, enhancing flight maneuver precision, and reducing workload so that the pilot can more effectively perform the critical mission tasks.

  8. Low-cost day/night helmet-mounted displays (HMD) in airborne operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Curtis J.

    1999-07-01

    Current doctrine dictates a requirement for conducting 24-hour operations on the modern battlefield either in a rural or urban environment. To date, Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) along with Infrared sensors provide the bulk of vision aids that allow crew members to engage in tactical operations at night and during periods of low and reduced visibility. Since operations employing these devices, as well as operational doctrine, require the crewmember to fly 'heads-out,' Heads-Up Displays (HUDs), enumerating flight parameters, engine and navigation information have come into existence, greatly reducing the workload on today's combat aviators. A fine example is the Marconi/Tracor ANVS-7. This device employs a symbol generator and CRT to project symbology of critical aircraft parameters into the Night Vision Goggle giving the aviator a HUD capability while engaged in NVG night operations. The system is limited to aided vision night operations employing NVGs. The same criteria that create a need for supplying critical flight information at night exist for day and night unaided vision operations. However, there is no system in production to answer this obvious need. There are several reasons for this: (1) Available technology that will offer a low-cost solution for days ops, (2) Ergonomic and Human factors Issues, (3) Competition with currently fielded systems (ANVS-7), (4) Cost. Highly sophisticated HMDs such as the Apache IHADSS and the Comanche HIDSS, which combine navigation, targeting as well as weapons and flight status for 24 hour, all-weather operations are far too expensive and, in many cases, inappropriate for the majority of Combat Support aircraft. Using internal R&D Kaiser Electronics has developed a low-cost HMD -- called Lite EyeTM HMD -- that is capable of being used in day and night operations that addresses the aforementioned issues. The solution, using recent advances in solid state display technology, maximizes the use of currently fielded equipment

  9. Color Helmet Mounted Display System with Real Time Computer Generated and Video Imagery for In-Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Kevin; Jacobsen, Robert; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the US Army are developing the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) using a Sikorsky UH-60 helicopter for the purpose of flight systems research. A primary use of the RASCAL is in-flight simulation for which the visual scene will use computer generated imagery and synthetic vision. This research is made possible in part to a full color wide field of view Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system that provides high performance color imagery suitable for daytime operations in a flight-rated package. This paper describes the design and performance characteristics of the HMD system. Emphasis is placed on the design specifications, testing, and integration into the aircraft of Kaiser Electronics' RASCAL HMD system that was designed and built under contract for NASA. The optical performance and design of the Helmet mounted display unit will be discussed as well as the unique capabilities provided by the system's Programmable Display Generator (PDG).

  10. Color Helmet Mounted Display System with Real Time Computer Generated and Video Imagery for In-Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Kevin; Jacobsen, Robert; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the US Army are developing the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) using a Sikorsky UH-60 helicopter for the purpose of flight systems research. A primary use of the RASCAL is in-flight simulation for which the visual scene will use computer generated imagery and synthetic vision. This research is made possible in part to a full color wide field of view Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) system that provides high performance color imagery suitable for daytime operations in a flight-rated package. This paper describes the design and performance characteristics of the HMD system. Emphasis is placed on the design specifications, testing, and integration into the aircraft of Kaiser Electronics' RASCAL HMD system that was designed and built under contract for NASA. The optical performance and design of the Helmet mounted display unit will be discussed as well as the unique capabilities provided by the system's Programmable Display Generator (PDG).

  11. Fiber Optic Development For Use On The Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Melvin L.; Siegmund, Walter P.; Antos, Steven E.; Robinson, Richard M.

    1989-09-01

    The Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display (FOHMD) developed by CAE for the US Air Force Human Resources Laboratory (AFHRL), requires very large format, coherant fiber optic cables. These cables must support the FOHMD's demanding modulation transfer function (MTF) requirements in full color and be flexible, durable, lightweight, and up to six feet long. These requirements have so constrained glass technology that conventional approaches are not capable of delivering the requisite performance. The cables currently used on FOHMD systems have alternating layers of inactive material to buffer linear arrays of multifibers so that a lighter weight 25 by 19 mm end size is achieved with 5 micron core size individual fibers. This skip-layer, multifiber approach delivers reasonable performance when using spectral multiplexing across the inactive layers. However, residual fixed pattern noise, broken multifibers, and inadequate resolution have reduced system performance. Because of the critical influence of the fiber optic cables on overall system performance, an alternative, but riskier process, is being explored. Several smaller experimental cables have been assembled using leachable, fused, multifibers arrayed in a hexagonal pattern. The inconspicuous mating of hexagonal elements should be possible now because of an order of magnitude improvement in cable drawing technology. Fused/leached fiber optic cables have the potential to provide image transmission capability equal to ten channels of the best available computer image generators. When coupled with chromatic enhancement to mask fixed pattern and broken fiber noise, the resulting MTF of the FOHMD optics would deliver a resolution equal to 1.5 arc minutes per pixel.

  12. Reading from a Head-Fixed Display during Walking: Adverse Effects of Gaze Stabilization Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Borg, Olivier; Casanova, Remy; Bootsma, Reinoud J

    2015-01-01

    Reading performance during standing and walking was assessed for information presented on earth-fixed and head-fixed displays by determining the minimal duration during which a numerical time stimulus needed to be presented for 50% correct naming answers. Reading from the earth-fixed display was comparable during standing and walking, with optimal performance being attained for visual character sizes in the range of 0.2° to 1°. Reading from the head-fixed display was impaired for small (0.2-0.3°) and large (5°) visual character sizes, especially during walking. Analysis of head and eye movements demonstrated that retinal slip was larger during walking than during standing, but remained within the functional acuity range when reading from the earth-fixed display. The detrimental effects on performance of reading from the head-fixed display during walking could be attributed to loss of acuity resulting from large retinal slip. Because walking activated the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex, the resulting compensatory eye movements acted to stabilize gaze on the information presented on the earth-fixed display but destabilized gaze from the information presented on the head-fixed display. We conclude that the gaze stabilization mechanisms that normally allow visual performance to be maintained during physical activity adversely affect reading performance when the information is presented on a display attached to the head.

  13. Reading from a Head-Fixed Display during Walking: Adverse Effects of Gaze Stabilization Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Olivier; Casanova, Remy; Bootsma, Reinoud J.

    2015-01-01

    Reading performance during standing and walking was assessed for information presented on earth-fixed and head-fixed displays by determining the minimal duration during which a numerical time stimulus needed to be presented for 50% correct naming answers. Reading from the earth-fixed display was comparable during standing and walking, with optimal performance being attained for visual character sizes in the range of 0.2° to 1°. Reading from the head-fixed display was impaired for small (0.2-0.3°) and large (5°) visual character sizes, especially during walking. Analysis of head and eye movements demonstrated that retinal slip was larger during walking than during standing, but remained within the functional acuity range when reading from the earth-fixed display. The detrimental effects on performance of reading from the head-fixed display during walking could be attributed to loss of acuity resulting from large retinal slip. Because walking activated the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex, the resulting compensatory eye movements acted to stabilize gaze on the information presented on the earth-fixed display but destabilized gaze from the information presented on the head-fixed display. We conclude that the gaze stabilization mechanisms that normally allow visual performance to be maintained during physical activity adversely affect reading performance when the information is presented on a display attached to the head. PMID:26053622

  14. Ergonomic and usability ratings of helmets and head-mounted personal protective equipment in industry.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Alison A; Eger, Tammy R

    2014-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence from industry suggests that those working as arborists prefer to use minimal brim style, climbing helmets rather than traditional forestry helmets. In the mining industry, workers prefer wireless, LED cap lamps. Workers cite better comfort, better ability to see their work and better ventilation as reasons to use those helmets and cap lamps. Safety personnel in the industry would like to base future helmet decisions and requirements on a complete understanding of the ergonomic and safety issues of all available head-borne equipment. Previous research has found that helmet design, head load and head/neck posture can influence the amount of neck discomfort experienced by users. Specific features of helmets and head-mounted personal protective equipment (PPE) in various industries have been changing to reflect ergonomic design principles. A series of three studies were conducted to evaluate usability and preference of new style cap lamps and helmet brims. PARTICIPANTS (n=10-16) were recruited primarily from undergraduate students, and each study represents a different group of novice participants. Two different courses that included a tunnel were used in the first two studies to evaluate cap lamp styles and wireless cap lamps, while a simulated arborist task was used in the final study to evaluate helmet brim. Measures of ergonomic and discomfort questionnaires were analysed for this paper. The first cap lamp study was able to conclude that LED lamps are preferred over incandescent lamps, while the second study demonstrated that users prefer a multi-directional beam, and adjustability features of the cap lamp. In the final study, participants who must perform extreme overhead tasks prefer a helmet with a minimal brim. Additional research is warranted to determine whether actual, industry workers demonstrate the same preferences for these PPE items.

  15. Autonomous Head-mounted Electrophysiology Systems for Freely-Behaving Primates

    PubMed Central

    Nuyujukian, Paul; Foster, Justin; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent technological advances have led to new lightweight battery-operated systems for electrophysiology. Such systems are head mounted, run for days without experimenter intervention, and can record and stimulate from single or multiple electrodes implanted in a freely-behaving primates. Here we discuss existing systems, studies that use them, and how they can augment traditional, physically restrained, “in-rig” electrophysiology. With existing technical capabilities these systems can acquire multiple signal classes, such as spikes, local field potential, and electromyography signals, and can stimulate based on real-time processing of recorded signals. Moving forward, this class of technologies, along with advances in neural signal processing and behavioral monitoring, have the potential to dramatically expand the scope and scale of electrophysiological studies. PMID:20655733

  16. Head-mounted eye-tracking: A new method to describe infant looking

    PubMed Central

    Franchak, John M.; Kretch, Kari S.; Soska, Kasey C.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Despite hundreds of studies describing infants’ visual exploration of experimental stimuli, researchers know little about where infants look during everyday interactions. The current study describes the first method for studying visual behavior during natural interactions in mobile infants. Six 14-month-old infants wore a head-mounted eye-tracker that recorded gaze during free play with mothers. Results revealed that infants’ visual exploration is opportunistic and depends on the availability of information and the constraints of infants’ own bodies. Looks to mothers’ faces were rare following infant-directed utterances, but more likely if mothers were sitting at infants’ eye level. Gaze toward the destination of infants’ hand movements was common during manual actions and crawling, but looks toward obstacles during leg movements were less frequent. PMID:22023310

  17. Head-mounted eye tracking: a new method to describe infant looking.

    PubMed

    Franchak, John M; Kretch, Kari S; Soska, Kasey C; Adolph, Karen E

    2011-01-01

    Despite hundreds of studies describing infants' visual exploration of experimental stimuli, researchers know little about where infants look during everyday interactions. The current study describes the first method for studying visual behavior during natural interactions in mobile infants. Six 14-month-old infants wore a head-mounted eye-tracker that recorded gaze during free play with mothers. Results revealed that infants' visual exploration is opportunistic and depends on the availability of information and the constraints of infants' own bodies. Looks to mothers' faces were rare following infant-directed utterances but more likely if mothers were sitting at infants' eye level. Gaze toward the destination of infants' hand movements was common during manual actions and crawling, but looks toward obstacles during leg movements were less frequent.

  18. The impact of human factors, crashworthiness and optical performance design requirements on helmet-mounted display development from the 1970s to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.; McLean, William E.; Martin, John S.

    2015-05-01

    Driven by the operational needs of modern warfare, the helmet-mounted display (HMD) has matured from a revolutionary, but impractical, World War I era idea for an infantry marksman's helmet-mounted weapon delivery system to a sophisticated and ubiquitous display and targeting system that dominates current night warfighting operations. One of the most demanding applications for HMD designs has been in Army rotary-wing aviation, where HMDs offer greater direct access to visual information and increased situational awareness in an operational environment where information availability is critical on a second-to-second basis. However, over the past 40 years of extensive HMD development, a myriad of crashworthiness, optical, and human factors issues have both frustrated and challenged designers. While it may be difficult to attain a full consensus on which are the most important HMD design factors, certainly head-supported weight (HSW), exit pupil size, field-of-view, image resolution and physical eye relief have been among the most critical. A confounding factor has been the interrelationship between the many design issues, such as early attempts to use non-glass optical elements to lower HSW, but at the cost of image quality, and hence, pilot visual performance. This paper traces how the role of the demanding performance requirements placed on HMDs by the U.S. Army aviation community has impacted the progress of HMD designs towards the Holy Grail of HMD design: a wide field-of-view, high resolution, binocular, full-color, totally crashworthy system.

  19. A conformal head-up display for the visual approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naish, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The degree of conformity used in matching a superimposed display to its visual background is considered in relation to the information available for vertical guidance and control during a purely visual approach. The information may be represented by individual symbols or combined in a single symbol, and the relative merits of these methods are discussed. A fully conformal display format is developed for the purpose of showing both the position and direction of the flight path, with provision for the effects of disturbances, ILS compatibility, and control needs. The field of view needed for all conditions and phases of the visual approach with a fully conformal display is studied in relation to the limitations of conventional collimator systems. Methods are discussed which depend on deviation of the sight line, and on windshield reflection of the uncollimated image of a simple pointer. Limited flight tests show some promise for the uncollimated method.

  20. Evaluation of a New Method of Heading Estimation for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Using Shoe Mounted Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirling, Ross; Fyfe, Ken; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method of sensor based pedestrian dead reckoning is presented using sensors mounted on a shoe. Sensor based systems are a practical alternative to global navigation satellite systems when positioning accuracy is degraded such as in thick forest, urban areas with tall buildings and indoors. Using miniature, inexpensive sensors it is possible to create self-contained systems using sensor-only navigation techniques optimised for pedestrian motion. The systems developed extend existing foot based stride measurement technology by adding the capability to sense direction, making it possible to determine the path and displacement of the user. The proposed dead-reckoning navigation system applies an array of accelerometers and magneto-resistive sensors worn on the subject's shoe. Measurement of the foot's acceleration allows the precise identification of separate stride segments, thus providing improved stride length estimation. The system relies on identifying the stance phase to resolve the sensor attitude and determine the step heading. Field trials were carried out in forested conditions. Performance metrics include position, stride length estimation and heading with respect to a high accuracy reference trajectory.

  1. Compensating sampling errors in stabilizing helmet-mounted displays using auxiliary acceleration measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhav, S.; Velger, M.

    1991-01-01

    A method based on complementary filtering is shown to be effective in compensating for the image stabilization error due to sampling delays of HMD position and orientation measurements. These delays would otherwise have prevented the stabilization of the image in HMDs. The method is also shown to improve the resolution of the head orientation measurement, particularly at low frequencies, thus providing smoother head control commands, which are essential for precise head pointing and teleoperation.

  2. Compensating sampling errors in stabilizing helmet-mounted displays using auxiliary acceleration measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhav, S.; Velger, M.

    1991-01-01

    A method based on complementary filtering is shown to be effective in compensating for the image stabilization error due to sampling delays of HMD position and orientation measurements. These delays would otherwise have prevented the stabilization of the image in HMDs. The method is also shown to improve the resolution of the head orientation measurement, particularly at low frequencies, thus providing smoother head control commands, which are essential for precise head pointing and teleoperation.

  3. Non-RF wireless helmet-mounted display and two-way audio connectivity using covert free-space optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, M.; Volfson, L.

    2011-06-01

    Providing the warfighter with Head or Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) while in tracked vehicles provides a means to visually maintain access to systems information while in a high vibration environment. The high vibration and unique environment of military tracked and turreted vehicles impact the ability to distinctly see certain information on an HMD, especially small font size or graphics and information that requires long fixation (staring), rather than a brief or peripheral glance. The military and commercial use of HMDs was compiled from market research, market trends, and user feedback. Lessons learned from previous military and commercial use of HMD products were derived to determine the feasibility of HMDs use in the high vibration and the unique environments of tracked vehicles. The results are summarized into factors that determine HMD features which must be specified for successful implementation.

  4. A Heads-Up Display for Diabetic Limb Salvage Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Timothy M.; Giovinco, Nicholas A.; Mills, Joseph L.; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2014-01-01

    Although the use of augmented reality has been well described over the past several years, available devices suffer from high cost, an uncomfortable form factor, suboptimal battery life, and lack an app-based developer ecosystem. This article describes the potential use of a novel, consumer-based, wearable device to assist surgeons in real time during limb preservation surgery and clinical consultation. Using routine intraoperative, clinical, and educational case examples, we describe the use of a wearable augmented reality device (Google Glass; Google, Mountain View, CA). The device facilitated hands-free, rapid communication, documentation, and consultation. An eyeglass-mounted screen form factor has the potential to improve communication, safety, and efficiency of intraoperative and clinical care. We believe this represents a natural progression toward union of medical devices with consumer technology. PMID:24876445

  5. Wearable and augmented reality displays using MEMS and SLMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urey, Hakan; Ulusoy, Erdem; Kazempourradi, Seyedmahdi M. K.; Mengu, Deniz; Olcer, Selim; Holmstrom, Sven T.

    2016-03-01

    In this talk, we present the various types of 3D displays, head-mounted projection displays and wearable displays developed in our group using MEMS scanners, compact RGB laser light sources, and spatial light modulators.

  6. Effect on real-world depth perception from exposure to heads-down stereoscopic flight displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busquets, Anthony M.; Williams, Steven P.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1990-09-01

    The application of stereopsis (true depth) cuing to advanced heads-down flight display concepts offers potential gains in pilot situation awareness and improved task performance, but little attention has been focused on a fundamental issue involving their use. The goal of this research was to determine whether or not the short-term use of heads-down stereoscopic displays in flight applications would degrade the real-world depth perception of pilots using such displays. Stereoacuity tests are traditionally used to measure the real-world depth perception of a subject. This study used such a test as part of the experimental protocol. Eight transport pilots flew repeated simulated landing approaches using both non-stereo and stereo 3-D heads-down pathway-in-the-sky displays. At the decision height of each approach, the pilots transitioned to a stereoacuity test using real objects rather than a two-dimensional target test apparatus. Statistical analysis of stereoacuity measures (averaged over pilots and replicates), comparing a control condition of no-exposure to any electronic flight display with the transition data from non-stereo and stereopsis displays, revealed no significant differences for any of the conditions. Clearly, transitioning from short-term exposure to a heads-down stereopsis display has no more effect on realworld depth perception (based on stereoacuity) than transitioning from a non-stereo display. However, depth perception effects based on size and distance judgements, and long-term exposure remain issues to be investigated.

  7. Quantifying information transfer through a head-attached vibrotactile display: principles for design and control.

    PubMed

    Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; Mejri, Seifeddine; Wischmann, Steffen; Floreano, Dario

    2012-07-01

    Vibrotactile displays can extend the perception capabilities of visually impaired persons. Placing such devices on the head promises easy attachment and detachment without reducing other interaction abilities. However, the effectiveness of head-attached vibrotactile displays has never been thoroughly tested. This paper presents the results obtained from experiments with 22 subjects equipped with a display containing 12 coin-type motors equally spaced in a horizontal plane around the upper head region. Our display allowed single- as well as multimotor activation with up to six simultaneously active motors. We identified the minimum and comfort strength of vibrotactile stimulation, and measured the precision in perceiving the accurate number of active motors as well as the precision in localizing the stimuli on the head. While subjects identified the correct number of active motors in 94% of the cases when presented with only one active motor, this precision dropped to 40% for two and down to 5% for five simultaneously active motors. This strongly suggests to avoid multipoint stimulation even though the precision of localizing a position of a stimulus on the head is barely affected by the number of simultaneously active motors. Localization precision, however, varied significantly with the region of the head suggesting that the most front and back regions of the head should be avoided if high precision is required.

  8. Toward eyeglasses-based electronic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, Mark B.; Aquilino, P. D.; McClelland, Robert W.; Rensing, Noa M.

    1997-06-01

    The development of a head mounted display concealed within eyeglasses has been a long term objective of many head mounted display (HMD) development efforts. This paper will review design concepts from the literature, with a view toward assessing the practical merits of the various approaches. The factors of importance in miniaturizing a HMD will be summarized. Finally, we will briefly summarize some new approaches including the use of alternative display technology that may lead to a display system hidden within eyeglasses frames.

  9. Full-color see-through daylight-readable goggle-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJong, Christian Dean

    2011-06-01

    See-through near-to-eye displays offer an opportunity to present visual information laid on top of the view of the real world. The information presented can be used to augment or annotate the scene the user sees. Microvision has developed a see-through, full-color, daylight-readable, monocular display in a goggle form factor. The image source for the display is a Pico Display Engine (PDE) that uses modulated red, green, and blue lasers reflecting off a MEMS based bi-axial scanning mirror to create an image. This image is relayed to the eye through a pupil-expanding substrateguiding optic. The low Lagrange invariant laser-based display engine is an excellent match for the substrate guided optics for presenting the user with an infinite conjugate image. This paper discusses design considerations and performance characteristics of the eyewear display.

  10. Advancement of thyroid surgery video recording: A comparison between two full HD head mounted video cameras.

    PubMed

    Ortensi, Andrea; Panunzi, Andrea; Trombetta, Silvia; Cattaneo, Alberto; Sorrenti, Salvatore; D'Orazi, Valerio

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to test two different video cameras and recording systems used in thyroid surgery in our Department. This is meant to be an attempt to record the real point of view of the magnified vision of surgeon, so as to make the viewer aware of the difference with the naked eye vision. In this retrospective study, we recorded and compared twenty thyroidectomies performed using loupes magnification and microsurgical technique: ten were recorded with GoPro(®) 4 Session action cam (commercially available) and ten with our new prototype of head mounted video camera. Settings were selected before surgery for both cameras. The recording time is about from 1 to 2 h for GoPro(®) and from 3 to 5 h for our prototype. The average time of preparation to fit the camera on the surgeon's head and set the functionality is about 5 min for GoPro(®) and 7-8 min for the prototype, mostly due to HDMI wiring cable. Videos recorded with the prototype require no further editing, which is mandatory for videos recorded with GoPro(®) to highlight the surgical details. the present study showed that our prototype of video camera, compared with GoPro(®) 4 Session, guarantees best results in terms of surgical video recording quality, provides to the viewer the exact perspective of the microsurgeon and shows accurately his magnified view through the loupes in thyroid surgery. These recordings are surgical aids for teaching and education and might be a method of self-analysis of surgical technique. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Field of view effects on a simulated flight task with head-down and head-up sensor imagery displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickner, Michael S.; Foyle, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Field-of-view (FOV) effects are investigated in simulated flights with sensor imagery appearing on a head-up display (HUD) and a head-down display (HDD). The pilots fly a simulated slalom course and are given information from a sensor image with a 25-, 40-, or 50-deg FOV and no additional information. The factors which most significantly affect performance are thereby identified, and the speed of flying, level of training, and FOV are found to be the most important characteristics. FOV affects performance regardless of the choice of HUD or HDD, and the narrow FOV caused the pilots to fly closer to the obstacles than the wider FOVs. No statistically significant difference between the use of HUD and HDD is identified, but the pilots appear to regard the displays in general as the entire world and not as a 'window on the world'.

  12. Visuomotor adaptation in head-mounted virtual reality versus conventional training

    PubMed Central

    Anglin, J. M.; Sugiyama, T.; Liew, S.-L.

    2017-01-01

    Immersive, head-mounted virtual reality (HMD-VR) provides a unique opportunity to understand how changes in sensory environments affect motor learning. However, potential differences in mechanisms of motor learning and adaptation in HMD-VR versus a conventional training (CT) environment have not been extensively explored. Here, we investigated whether adaptation on a visuomotor rotation task in HMD-VR yields similar adaptation effects in CT and whether these effects are achieved through similar mechanisms. Specifically, recent work has shown that visuomotor adaptation may occur via both an implicit, error-based internal model and a more cognitive, explicit strategic component. We sought to measure both overall adaptation and balance between implicit and explicit mechanisms in HMD-VR versus CT. Twenty-four healthy individuals were placed in either HMD-VR or CT and trained on an identical visuomotor adaptation task that measured both implicit and explicit components. Our results showed that the overall timecourse of adaption was similar in both HMD-VR and CT. However, HMD-VR participants utilized a greater cognitive strategy than CT, while CT participants engaged in greater implicit learning. These results suggest that while both conditions produce similar results in overall adaptation, the mechanisms by which visuomotor adaption occurs in HMD-VR appear to be more reliant on cognitive strategies. PMID:28374808

  13. Visuomotor adaptation in head-mounted virtual reality versus conventional training.

    PubMed

    Anglin, J M; Sugiyama, T; Liew, S-L

    2017-04-04

    Immersive, head-mounted virtual reality (HMD-VR) provides a unique opportunity to understand how changes in sensory environments affect motor learning. However, potential differences in mechanisms of motor learning and adaptation in HMD-VR versus a conventional training (CT) environment have not been extensively explored. Here, we investigated whether adaptation on a visuomotor rotation task in HMD-VR yields similar adaptation effects in CT and whether these effects are achieved through similar mechanisms. Specifically, recent work has shown that visuomotor adaptation may occur via both an implicit, error-based internal model and a more cognitive, explicit strategic component. We sought to measure both overall adaptation and balance between implicit and explicit mechanisms in HMD-VR versus CT. Twenty-four healthy individuals were placed in either HMD-VR or CT and trained on an identical visuomotor adaptation task that measured both implicit and explicit components. Our results showed that the overall timecourse of adaption was similar in both HMD-VR and CT. However, HMD-VR participants utilized a greater cognitive strategy than CT, while CT participants engaged in greater implicit learning. These results suggest that while both conditions produce similar results in overall adaptation, the mechanisms by which visuomotor adaption occurs in HMD-VR appear to be more reliant on cognitive strategies.

  14. Head mounted DMD based projection system for natural and prosthetic visual stimulation in freely moving rats

    PubMed Central

    Arens-Arad, Tamar; Farah, Nairouz; Ben-Yaish, Shai; Zlotnik, Alex; Zalevsky, Zeev; Mandel, Yossi

    2016-01-01

    Novel technologies are constantly under development for vision restoration in blind patients. Many of these emerging technologies are based on the projection of high intensity light patterns at specific wavelengths, raising the need for the development of specialized projection systems. Here we present and characterize a novel projection system that meets the requirements for artificial retinal stimulation in rats and enables the recording of cortical responses. The system is based on a customized miniature Digital Mirror Device (DMD) for pattern projection, in both visible (525 nm) and NIR (915 nm) wavelengths, and a lens periscope for relaying the pattern directly onto the animal’s retina. Thorough system characterization and the investigation of the effect of various parameters on obtained image quality were performed using ZEMAX. Simulation results revealed that images with an MTF higher than 0.8 were obtained with little effect of the vertex distance. Increased image quality was obtained at an optimal pupil diameter and smaller field of view. Visual cortex activity data was recorded simultaneously with pattern projection, further highlighting the importance of the system for prosthetic vision studies. This novel head mounted projection system may prove to be a vital tool in studying natural and artificial vision in behaving animals. PMID:27731346

  15. Head mounted DMD based projection system for natural and prosthetic visual stimulation in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Arens-Arad, Tamar; Farah, Nairouz; Ben-Yaish, Shai; Zlotnik, Alex; Zalevsky, Zeev; Mandel, Yossi

    2016-10-12

    Novel technologies are constantly under development for vision restoration in blind patients. Many of these emerging technologies are based on the projection of high intensity light patterns at specific wavelengths, raising the need for the development of specialized projection systems. Here we present and characterize a novel projection system that meets the requirements for artificial retinal stimulation in rats and enables the recording of cortical responses. The system is based on a customized miniature Digital Mirror Device (DMD) for pattern projection, in both visible (525 nm) and NIR (915 nm) wavelengths, and a lens periscope for relaying the pattern directly onto the animal's retina. Thorough system characterization and the investigation of the effect of various parameters on obtained image quality were performed using ZEMAX. Simulation results revealed that images with an MTF higher than 0.8 were obtained with little effect of the vertex distance. Increased image quality was obtained at an optimal pupil diameter and smaller field of view. Visual cortex activity data was recorded simultaneously with pattern projection, further highlighting the importance of the system for prosthetic vision studies. This novel head mounted projection system may prove to be a vital tool in studying natural and artificial vision in behaving animals.

  16. Head mounted DMD based projection system for natural and prosthetic visual stimulation in freely moving rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arens-Arad, Tamar; Farah, Nairouz; Ben-Yaish, Shai; Zlotnik, Alex; Zalevsky, Zeev; Mandel, Yossi

    2016-10-01

    Novel technologies are constantly under development for vision restoration in blind patients. Many of these emerging technologies are based on the projection of high intensity light patterns at specific wavelengths, raising the need for the development of specialized projection systems. Here we present and characterize a novel projection system that meets the requirements for artificial retinal stimulation in rats and enables the recording of cortical responses. The system is based on a customized miniature Digital Mirror Device (DMD) for pattern projection, in both visible (525 nm) and NIR (915 nm) wavelengths, and a lens periscope for relaying the pattern directly onto the animal’s retina. Thorough system characterization and the investigation of the effect of various parameters on obtained image quality were performed using ZEMAX. Simulation results revealed that images with an MTF higher than 0.8 were obtained with little effect of the vertex distance. Increased image quality was obtained at an optimal pupil diameter and smaller field of view. Visual cortex activity data was recorded simultaneously with pattern projection, further highlighting the importance of the system for prosthetic vision studies. This novel head mounted projection system may prove to be a vital tool in studying natural and artificial vision in behaving animals.

  17. Sound localization with head movement: implications for 3-d audio displays

    PubMed Central

    McAnally, Ken I.; Martin, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the accuracy of sound localization is improved if listeners are allowed to move their heads during signal presentation. This study describes the function relating localization accuracy to the extent of head movement in azimuth. Sounds that are difficult to localize were presented in the free field from sources at a wide range of azimuths and elevations. Sounds remained active until the participants' heads had rotated through windows ranging in width of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, or 64° of azimuth. Error in determining sound-source elevation and the rate of front/back confusion were found to decrease with increases in azimuth window width. Error in determining sound-source lateral angle was not found to vary with azimuth window width. Implications for 3-d audio displays: the utility of a 3-d audio display for imparting spatial information is likely to be improved if operators are able to move their heads during signal presentation. Head movement may compensate in part for a paucity of spectral cues to sound-source location resulting from limitations in either the audio signals presented or the directional filters (i.e., head-related transfer functions) used to generate a display. However, head movements of a moderate size (i.e., through around 32° of azimuth) may be required to ensure that spatial information is conveyed with high accuracy. PMID:25161605

  18. Full-color wide field-of-view holographic helmet-mounted display for pilot/vehicle interface development and human factors studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, James R., II; LaRussa, Joseph A.

    1990-10-01

    A Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) which utilizes highly efficient trichromatic holographic elements has been designed to support pilot vechicle interface development and human factors studies at the NASA-Langley Research Center. While the optics are fully color corrected, the miniature CRT's are monochromatic. This design provides an upgrade path to full-color when miniature display technology matures to color. The optical design conforms to the helmet shape and provides a 50 degree field-of-view (FOV) to each eye. Built-in adjustments allow each ocular to be independently moved so that the overall horizontal FOV may be varied from 50 degrees to 100 degrees with a corresponding change in the stereo overlap region. The helmet design and interpupillary adjustment allow for the 5th through 95th percentile male and female wearer. Total head-borne weight is approximately 4.2 pounds. The high-resolution monochromatic CRTs are driven by a set of multisync electronics with a maximum video bandwidth of 88 Mhz and supports bith raster and stroke modes. The electronics are designed to be compatiable with the Silicon Graphics IRIS 4D graphics workstations and the ADAGE 340 stroke graphics computer. A Polhemus magnetic tracking device is used to determine the helmet line-of-sight. The helmet will be used to develop innovative new display concepts for the F- 1 8 High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) which make use of the unique display properties of the HMD. Pictorial displays, which convey the appropriate information intuitively, are envisioned. Human factors studies are also planned to evaluate the utility of stereopsis and determine the FOV requirements for different tasks. Concepts proven in the simulator will be carried to flight test in 1993 with a lighter weight, "hardened" version of this HMD design.

  19. Surgeon point-of-view recording: Using a high-definition head-mounted video camera in the operating room

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Kamal, Saurabh; Dave, Tarjani Vivek; Mishra, Kapil; Reddy, Harsha S; Rocca, David Della; Rocca, Robert C Della; Andron, Aleza; Jain, Vandana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the utility of a commercially available small, portable ultra-high definition (HD) camera (GoPro Hero 4) for intraoperative recording. Methods: A head mount was used to fix the camera on the operating surgeon's head. Due care was taken to protect the patient's identity. The recorded video was subsequently edited and used as a teaching tool. This retrospective, noncomparative study was conducted at three tertiary eye care centers. The surgeries recorded were ptosis correction, ectropion correction, dacryocystorhinostomy, angular dermoid excision, enucleation, blepharoplasty and lid tear repair surgery (one each). The recorded videos were reviewed, edited, and checked for clarity, resolution, and reproducibility. Results: The recorded videos were found to be high quality, which allowed for zooming and visualization of the surgical anatomy clearly. Minimal distortion is a drawback that can be effectively addressed during postproduction. The camera, owing to its lightweight and small size, can be mounted on the surgeon's head, thus offering a unique surgeon point-of-view. In our experience, the results were of good quality and reproducible. Conclusions: A head-mounted ultra-HD video recording system is a cheap, high quality, and unobtrusive technique to record surgery and can be a useful teaching tool in external facial and ophthalmic plastic surgery. PMID:26655001

  20. Surgeon point-of-view recording: Using a high-definition head-mounted video camera in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Kamal, Saurabh; Dave, Tarjani Vivek; Mishra, Kapil; Reddy, Harsha S; Della Rocca, David; Della Rocca, Robert C; Andron, Aleza; Jain, Vandana

    2015-10-01

    To study the utility of a commercially available small, portable ultra-high definition (HD) camera (GoPro Hero 4) for intraoperative recording. A head mount was used to fix the camera on the operating surgeon's head. Due care was taken to protect the patient's identity. The recorded video was subsequently edited and used as a teaching tool. This retrospective, noncomparative study was conducted at three tertiary eye care centers. The surgeries recorded were ptosis correction, ectropion correction, dacryocystorhinostomy, angular dermoid excision, enucleation, blepharoplasty and lid tear repair surgery (one each). The recorded videos were reviewed, edited, and checked for clarity, resolution, and reproducibility. The recorded videos were found to be high quality, which allowed for zooming and visualization of the surgical anatomy clearly. Minimal distortion is a drawback that can be effectively addressed during postproduction. The camera, owing to its lightweight and small size, can be mounted on the surgeon's head, thus offering a unique surgeon point-of-view. In our experience, the results were of good quality and reproducible. A head-mounted ultra-HD video recording system is a cheap, high quality, and unobtrusive technique to record surgery and can be a useful teaching tool in external facial and ophthalmic plastic surgery.

  1. Alternative display and interaction devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolas, M. T.; McDowall, I. E.; Mead, R. X.; Lorimer, E. R.; Hackbush, J. E.; Greuel, C.

    1995-01-01

    While virtual environment systems are typically thought to consist of a head mounted display and a flex-sensing glove, alternative peripheral devices are beginning to be developed in response to application requirements. Three such alternatives are discussed: fingertip sensing gloves, fixed stereoscopic viewers, and counterbalanced head mounted displays. A subset of commercial examples that highlight each alternative is presented as well as a brief discussion of interesting engineering and implementation issues.

  2. An intelligent system and a relational data base for codifying helmet-mounted display symbology design requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Steven P.; Hamilton, David B.

    1994-06-01

    To employ the most readily comprehensible presentation methods and symbology with helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), it is critical to identify the information elements needed to perform each pilot function and to analytically determine the attributes of these elements. The extensive analyses of mission requirements currently performed for pilot-vehicle interface design can be aided and improved by the new capabilities of intelligent systems and relational databases. An intelligent system, named ACIDTEST, has been developed specifically for organizing and applying rules to identify the best display modalities, locations, and formats. The primary objectives of the ACIDTEST system are to provide rapid accessibility to pertinent display research data, to integrate guidelines from many disciplines and identify conflicts among these guidelines, to force a consistent display approach among the design team members, and to serve as an 'audit trail' of design decisions and justifications. A powerful relational database called TAWL ORDIR has been developed to document information requirements and attributes for use by ACIDTEST as well as to greatly augment the applicability of mission analysis data. TAWL ORDIR can be used to rapidly reorganize mission analysis data components for study, perform commonality analyses for groups of tasks, determine the information content requirement for tailored display modes, and identify symbology integration opportunities.

  3. Head-Worn Display Concepts for Surface Operations for Commerical Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Norman, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments and flight tests have shown that a Head-Up Display (HUD) and a head-down electronic moving map (EMM) can be enhanced with Synthetic Vision for airport surface operations. While great success in ground operations was demonstrated with a HUD, the research noted that two major HUD limitations during ground operations were its monochrome form and limited, fixed field-of-regard. A potential solution to these limitations found with HUDs may be emerging with Head Worn Displays (HWDs). HWDs are small display devices that may be worn without significant encumbrance to the user. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, unlimited field-of-regard may be realized. The results of three ground simulation experiments conducted at NASA Langley Research Center are summarized. The experiments evaluated the efficacy of head-worn display applications of Synthetic Vision and Enhanced Vision technology to improve transport aircraft surface operations. The results of the experiments showed that the fully integrated HWD provided greater pilot performance with respect to staying on the path compared to using paper charts alone. Further, when comparing the HWD with the HUD concept, there were no differences in path performance. In addition, the HWD and HUD concepts were rated via paired-comparisons the same in terms of situation awareness and workload.

  4. Evaluation of the Microvision Spectrum SD2500 Helmet-Mounted Display for the Air Warrior Block 3 Day/Night HMD Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    USAARL Report No. 2006-08 Evaluation of the Microvision Spectrum SD2500 Helmet-Mounted Display for the Air Warrior Block 3 Day/Night HMD Program by... Microvision Spectrum SD2500 Helmet-Mounted Display for the Air PE 622787 Warrior Block 3 Day/Night HMD Program PR 879 TA P WU DA361539 6. AUTHOR(S) Clarence E...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The Microvision Spectrum SD2500 HMD, a monocular, full-color scanning laser display, display, was evaluated for optical image

  5. Study of motion parallax in depth perception with a helmet-mounted display system used in teleoperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondot, Pascale; Lessard, Jean; Robert, Jean-Marc

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to compare human performance in executing tasks with a helmet- mounted display interface using different visual cues of depth perception. The study involves two experiments, the first, with direct viewing, the second, with a helmet-mounted display (HMD). These experiments are designed to assess the subject's stereoacuity in an alignment task involving two rods, one mobile, the other fixed. In both experiments, the subject has not time constraints and simply has to perform the task as well as possible. The dependent variable is the depth positioning error. Ten subjects with a stereoacuity of 20 arc-seconds or less and 20/20 visual acuity (Snellen test) corrected or not took part in this study. In all experiments, the subject was exposed to four viewing conditions in direct view or HMD: mono-stationary, stereo-stationary, mono with motion parallax and stereo with motion parallax. The independent variables are the presence of stereo (with vs. without), the presence of motion parallax (with vs. without) and the session (session 1 or session 2). ANOVA 2 X 2 X 2 statistical processing is used.

  6. Flight performance using a hyperstereo helmet-mounted display: adaptation to hyperstereopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Jennings, Sion A.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harding, Thomas H.; Craig, Gregory L.

    2009-05-01

    Modern helmet-mounted night vision devices, such as the Thales TopOwlTM helmet, project imagery from intensifiers mounted on the sides of the helmet onto the helmet visor. This increased effective inter-ocular separation distorts several cues to depth and distance that are grouped under the term "hyperstereopsis". Stereoscopic depth perception, at near to moderate distances (several hundred metres), is subject to magnification of binocular disparities. Absolute distance perception at near distances (a few metres) is affected by increased "differential perspective" as well as an increased requirement for convergence of the eyes to achieve binocular fixation. These distortions result in visual illusions such as the "bowl effect" where the ground appears to rise up near the observer. Previous reports have indicated that pilots can adapt to these distortions after several hours of exposure. The present study was concerned with both the time course and the mechanisms involved in this adaptation. Three test pilots flew five sorties with a hyperstereo night vision device. Initially, pilots reported that they were compensating for the effects of hyperstereopsis, but on the third and subsequent sorties all reported perceptual adaptation, that is, a reduction in illusory perception. Given that this adaptation was the result of intermittent exposure, and did not produce visual aftereffects, it was not due to the recalibration of the relationship between binocular cues and depth/distance. A more likely explanation of the observed visual adaptation is that it results from a discounting of distorted binocular cues in favour of veridical monocular cues, such as familiar size, motion parallax and linear perspective.

  7. A Comparison of Head-Up and Head-Down Display Formats during Instrument Flying Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    the radial from the station. The pointer consists of a SA bearing pointer, reference wings, and a readout. The pointer moves about the center of the...indicator to show the relative, magnetic bearing to the TACAN station. The readout displays the magnetic radial itom the i station, The pointer is...center of the Indicator, W 14. 1* W- Figure 4.11 .. Reftrence Tics 4,4,3. TACAN Radial Readout This readout, shown below, displays magnetic radial from

  8. Design Issues for Helmet-Mounted Display Systems for Rotary-Wing Aviation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    micromirror The digital micromirror device ( DMD ) display is a matrix where each pixel is a very small square mirror on the order of 10-20 microns. Each...can be caused to act as a light valve. Flat Panel Technologies Emitter Nonemitter Electroluminescent Plasma Liquid Digital n Crystal Micromirror ac...can be in two directions) correspond to "on" and "off" pixel states. Images are formed by using the mirrors to reflect light. DMDs are used in

  9. Evaluation of Head-Worn Display Concepts for Commercial Aircraft Taxi Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a Head-Up Display (HUD) can be used to enable more capacity and safer aircraft surface operations. This previous research also noted that the HUD exhibited two major limitations which hindered the full potential of the display concept: 1) the monochrome HUD format; and, 2) a limited, fixed field of regard. Full-color Head Worn Displays (HWDs) with very small sizes and weights are emerging to the extent that this technology may be practical for commercial and business aircraft operations. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, full-color, out-the-window display concepts with an unlimited field-of-regard may be realized to improve efficiency and safety in surface operations. A ground simulation experiment was conducted at NASA Langley to evaluate the efficacy of head-worn display applications which may directly address the limitations of the HUD while retaining all of its advantages in surface operations. The simulation experiment used airline crews to evaluate various displays (HUD, HWD) and display concepts in an operationally realistic environment by using a Chicago, O Hare airport database. The results pertaining to the implications of HWDs for commercial business and transport aviation applications are presented herein. Overall HWD system latency was measured and found to be acceptable, but not necessarily optimal. A few occurrences of simulator sickness were noted while wearing the HWD, but overall there appears to be commercial pilot acceptability and usability to the concept. Many issues were identified which need to be addressed in future research including continued reduction in user encumbrance due to the HWD, and improvement in image alignment, accuracy, and boresighting.

  10. Data Display Preference, Acceptability, and Accuracy among Urban Head Start Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojnoski, Robin L.; Caskie, Grace I. L.; Gischlar, Karen L.; Key, Jennifer M.; Barry, Amberly; Hughes, Cheyenne L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to collect, organize graphically, understand, interpret, and use data to make decisions is becoming more central to the role of early childhood practitioners. One consideration in practitioner use of data is the acceptability of the method of data display. The purpose of this study was to explore Head Start teachers' preference for and…

  11. Effect on real-world depth perception from exposure to heads-down stereoscopic flight displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, Anthony M.; Williams, Steven P.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1990-01-01

    A stereoacuity test was used as part of the experimental protocol of a study in which eight transport pilots flew repeated simulated landing approaches using both stereo and nonstereo three-dimensional heads-down 'pathway in the sky' displays. At the decisionmaking crux of each approach, the pilots transitioned to a stereoacuity test employing real objects rather than a two-dimensional target apparatus. A statistical analysis of stereoacuity measures which compared a controlled condition of no exposure to any electronic flight display with the transition data from nonstereo and stereopsis displays indicated no significant differences for any of the conditions.

  12. Overcoming the field-of-view/resolution invariant in head-mounted displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melzer, James E.

    1998-08-01

    The Integrated Maintenance and Logistics Soldier System advanced mobile information system for vehicle and weapon system integrated maintenance and logistics will expedite the successful completion of military mission objectives through enhanced situation awareness and reduced mean-time- to-repair for the Force XXI Army.

  13. Development and Application of a Wireless, Networked Raspberry Pi Controlled Head Mounted Tactile Display (HMTD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    aluminum polyurethane Electrical wiring Flexible, insulated #24 AWG Skin contactor 0.3-inch diameter, preloaded on skin Electrical characteristics...battery is thin, light, and powerful. The output ranges from 4.2 V when completely charged to 3.7 V. It has a capacity of 2500 mAh for a total of about...Service Set Identifier TCP Transmission Control Protocol USB universal serial bus WAV Waveform Audio Approved for public release

  14. Game-Based Evacuation Drill Using Augmented Reality and Head-Mounted Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai, Junya; Mitsuhara, Hiroyuki; Shishibori, Masami

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evacuation drills should be more realistic and interactive. Focusing on situational and audio-visual realities and scenario-based interactivity, the authors have developed a game-based evacuation drill (GBED) system that presents augmented reality (AR) materials on tablet computers. The paper's current research purpose is to improve…

  15. Wireless Communication Technology as Applied to Head Mounted Display for a Tactical Fighter Pilot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    non-military applications. Unlike traditional narrowband systems, UWB generates short pulses and uses these pulses for data modulation. Sometimes UWB is...that make it superior to other existing wireless technologies. The pulses transmitted by UWB essentially transmit at all 9 frequencies within this range...not cause interference to existing communication equipment and radar onboard the aircraft. Furthermore, the super narrow pulse used by UWB allows it to

  16. Game-Based Evacuation Drill Using Augmented Reality and Head-Mounted Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai, Junya; Mitsuhara, Hiroyuki; Shishibori, Masami

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evacuation drills should be more realistic and interactive. Focusing on situational and audio-visual realities and scenario-based interactivity, the authors have developed a game-based evacuation drill (GBED) system that presents augmented reality (AR) materials on tablet computers. The paper's current research purpose is to improve…

  17. Ergonomic evaluation of ubiquitous computing with monocular head-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Takashi; Häkkinen, Jukka; Yamazoe, Takashi; Saito, Hiroko; Kishi, Shinsuke; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Mustonen, Terhi; Kaistinen, Jyrki; Nyman, Göte

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors conducted an experiment to evaluate the UX in an actual outdoor environment, assuming the casual use of monocular HMD to view video content while short walking. In conducting the experiment, eight subjects were asked to view news videos on a monocular HMD while walking through a large shopping mall. Two types of monocular HMDs and a hand-held media player were used, and the psycho-physiological responses of the subjects were measured before, during, and after the experiment. The VSQ, SSQ and NASA-TLX were used to assess the subjective workloads and symptoms. The objective indexes were heart rate and stride and a video recording of the environment in front of the subject's face. The results revealed differences between the two types of monocular HMDs as well as between the monocular HMDs and other conditions. Differences between the types of monocular HMDs may have been due to screen vibration during walking, and it was considered as a major factor in the UX in terms of the workload. Future experiments to be conducted in other locations will have higher cognitive loads in order to study the performance and the situation awareness to actual and media environments.

  18. Instrumentation and Tactor Considerations for a Head-Mounted Tactile Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    S2 allow 2AFC [two alternate forced choice] decisions to be made in time or in location. For more detailed localization choices, an external keypad...Additional switches are connected to connector J2 to support detection and localization experiments: the two hand switches, S1 and S2 allow 2AFC

  19. A Computational Model for the Stereoscopic Optics of a Head-Mounted Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    through. 2 In 1989, Eric Howlett, the inventor of the LEEP optics, put together a commercial HMD, the LEEPvideo System I. It used monochrome LCD...measure them subjectively with users. 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank many people for their contributions to this work. Eric Howlett, designer of...and various parts of the UNC HMD system were built by each of the team members: Ron Azuma, Bill Brown, Jim Chung, Drew Davidson, Erik Erikson , Rich

  20. A Real-Time Optical 6D Tracker for Head-Mounted Display Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    prototype uses off-the-shelf components and can be easily duplicated. Our results indicate that the new system significantly out-performs other existing... indicate that the Polhemus can provide about 16 position updates per second, and the lag in response can be as long as 120 milliseconds. 2.1.3 Mechanical...of rotational accuracy and 1cm of positional accuracy with this camera self-calibration process (Section 3.4.2). Our experience indicates that in order

  1. Jedi training: playful evaluation of head-mounted augmented reality display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbek, Christopher S.; Giesler, Bjorn; Dillmann, Ruediger

    2004-05-01

    A fundamental decision in building augmented reality (AR) systems is how to accomplish the combining of the real and virtual worlds. Nowadays this key-question boils down to the two alternatives video-see-through (VST) vs. optical-see-through (OST). Both systems have advantages and disadvantages in areas like production-simplicity, resolution, flexibility in composition strategies, field of view etc. To provide additional decision criteria for high dexterity, accuracy tasks and subjective user-acceptance a gaming environment was programmed that allowed good evaluation of hand-eye coordination, and that was inspired by the Star Wars movies. During an experimentation session with more than thirty participants a preference for optical-see-through glasses in conjunction with infra-red-tracking was found. Especially the high-computational demand for video-capture, processing and the resulting drop in frame rate emerged as a key-weakness of the VST-system.

  2. An Optical Analysis of the Farrand VCASS (Visually Coupled Airborne Systems Simulator) Helmet-Mounted Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    helmet, without . display, at 0.7 kg (24.5 oz), with center of gravity located at X +1.16 cm (0.46 in.) and Y - +1.72 cm (0.68 in.) relative to the...8217J-4 417-70 noJ 4 - Y 00--- - - - - - /33 PANCAKE WINDOWTM 15-MM DIAMETER BEAM COMBINER EXIT PUPIL POLARI ZER RELAY OPTICS FIBEROPTIC FOLDING PRISM...TEE LEFT - DIMENSIIOS ARE GIVEN I MILLIMETERS - TEICKNESS IS AIAL SITANCE TO RlET SURFACE ASPHERIC CONSTANTS _ 2 (CURv) Y 4 6 o 10

  3. Flight test of a head-worn display as an equivalent-HUD for terminal operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, K. J.; Arthur, J. J.; Prinzel, L. J.; Nicholas, S. N.; Williams, S. P.; Bailey, R. E.

    2015-05-01

    Research, development, test, and evaluation of flight deck interface technologies is being conducted by NASA to proactively identify, develop, and mature tools, methods, and technologies for improving overall aircraft safety of new and legacy vehicles operating in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Under NASA's Aviation Safety Program, one specific area of research is the use of small Head-Worn Displays (HWDs) as a potential equivalent display to a Head-up Display (HUD). Title 14 of the US CFR 91.175 describes a possible operational credit which can be obtained with airplane equipage of a HUD or an "equivalent"' display combined with Enhanced Vision (EV). A successful HWD implementation may provide the same safety and operational benefits as current HUD-equipped aircraft but for significantly more aircraft in which HUD installation is neither practical nor possible. A flight test was conducted to evaluate if the HWD, coupled with a head-tracker, can provide an equivalent display to a HUD. Approach and taxi testing was performed on-board NASA's experimental King Air aircraft in various visual conditions. Preliminary quantitative results indicate the HWD tested provided equivalent HUD performance, however operational issues were uncovered. The HWD showed significant potential as all of the pilots liked the increased situation awareness attributable to the HWD's unique capability of unlimited field-of-regard.

  4. Flight Test of a Head-Worn Display as an Equivalent-HUD for Terminal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, K. J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Prinzel, L. J., III; Nicholas, S. N.; Williams, S. P.; Bailey, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    Research, development, test, and evaluation of flight deck interface technologies is being conducted by NASA to proactively identify, develop, and mature tools, methods, and technologies for improving overall aircraft safety of new and legacy vehicles operating in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Under NASA's Aviation Safety Program, one specific area of research is the use of small Head-Worn Displays (HWDs) as a potential equivalent display to a Head-up Display (HUD). Title 14 of the US CFR 91.175 describes a possible operational credit which can be obtained with airplane equipage of a HUD or an "equivalent"' display combined with Enhanced Vision (EV). A successful HWD implementation may provide the same safety and operational benefits as current HUD-equipped aircraft but for significantly more aircraft in which HUD installation is neither practical nor possible. A flight test was conducted to evaluate if the HWD, coupled with a head-tracker, can provide an equivalent display to a HUD. Approach and taxi testing was performed on-board NASA's experimental King Air aircraft in various visual conditions. Preliminary quantitative results indicate the HWD tested provided equivalent HUD performance, however operational issues were uncovered. The HWD showed significant potential as all of the pilots liked the increased situation awareness attributable to the HWD's unique capability of unlimited field-of-regard.

  5. Visual Discomfort with Stereo 3D Displays when the Head is Not Upright

    PubMed Central

    Kane, David; Held, Robert T.; Banks, Martin S.

    2012-01-01

    Properly constructed stereoscopic images are aligned vertically on the display screen, so on-screen binocular disparities are strictly horizontal. If the viewer’s inter-ocular axis is also horizontal, he/she makes horizontal vergence eye movements to fuse the stereoscopic image. However, if the viewer’s head is rolled to the side, the on-screen disparities now have horizontal and vertical components at the eyes. Thus, the viewer must make horizontal and vertical vergence movements to binocularly fuse the two images. Vertical vergence movements occur naturally, but they are usually quite small. Much larger movements are required when viewing stereoscopic images with the head rotated to the side. We asked whether the vertical vergence eye movements required to fuse stereoscopic images when the head is rolled cause visual discomfort. We also asked whether the ability to see stereoscopic depth is compromised with head roll. To answer these questions, we conducted behavioral experiments in which we simulated head roll by rotating the stereo display clockwise or counter-clockwise while the viewer’s head remained upright relative to gravity. While viewing the stimulus, subjects performed a psychophysical task. Visual discomfort increased significantly with the amount of stimulus roll and with the magnitude of on-screen horizontal disparity. The ability to perceive stereoscopic depth also declined with increasing roll and on-screen disparity. The magnitude of both effects was proportional to the magnitude of the induced vertical disparity. We conclude that head roll is a significant cause of viewer discomfort and that it also adversely affects the perception of depth from stereoscopic displays. PMID:24058723

  6. Visual Discomfort with Stereo 3D Displays when the Head is Not Upright.

    PubMed

    Kane, David; Held, Robert T; Banks, Martin S

    2012-02-09

    Properly constructed stereoscopic images are aligned vertically on the display screen, so on-screen binocular disparities are strictly horizontal. If the viewer's inter-ocular axis is also horizontal, he/she makes horizontal vergence eye movements to fuse the stereoscopic image. However, if the viewer's head is rolled to the side, the on-screen disparities now have horizontal and vertical components at the eyes. Thus, the viewer must make horizontal and vertical vergence movements to binocularly fuse the two images. Vertical vergence movements occur naturally, but they are usually quite small. Much larger movements are required when viewing stereoscopic images with the head rotated to the side. We asked whether the vertical vergence eye movements required to fuse stereoscopic images when the head is rolled cause visual discomfort. We also asked whether the ability to see stereoscopic depth is compromised with head roll. To answer these questions, we conducted behavioral experiments in which we simulated head roll by rotating the stereo display clockwise or counter-clockwise while the viewer's head remained upright relative to gravity. While viewing the stimulus, subjects performed a psychophysical task. Visual discomfort increased significantly with the amount of stimulus roll and with the magnitude of on-screen horizontal disparity. The ability to perceive stereoscopic depth also declined with increasing roll and on-screen disparity. The magnitude of both effects was proportional to the magnitude of the induced vertical disparity. We conclude that head roll is a significant cause of viewer discomfort and that it also adversely affects the perception of depth from stereoscopic displays.

  7. The design and fabrication of an optical diffuser for head-up displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chi-Hung; Chou, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Laser scanning head-up display (HUD) is an off-axis imaging virtual image display system. Its optical design inherited the feature of head-up display architecture in a fighter. When it is applied to a car, its main optics is replaced by a mirror to save space. Usually, a diffusion sheet or frosted glass is placed in front of a pico-projector to be an image screen, but there will be an issue of lower sharpness of the image due to its low divergence ability for the incident beam. This study proposes a pyramid-shaped micro-structure optical diaphragm to replace the above traditional diffusion films. Besides, the relationship between the optical light path and microstructure in the HUD is also well described.

  8. A full-color wide-field-of-view holographic helmet-mounted display for pilot/vehicle interface development and human factors studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    The application of advanced display concepts and helmet-mounted display (HMD) technology to air-to-air combat in highly maneuverable aircraft is discussed. The concepts considered include control authority, aircraft attitude, and energy maneuverability, and an HMD system designed for simulation studies is described. The human factors issues involved are addressed.

  9. A full-color wide-field-of-view holographic helmet-mounted display for pilot/vehicle interface development and human factors studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    The application of advanced display concepts and helmet-mounted display (HMD) technology to air-to-air combat in highly maneuverable aircraft is discussed. The concepts considered include control authority, aircraft attitude, and energy maneuverability, and an HMD system designed for simulation studies is described. The human factors issues involved are addressed.

  10. Visual Acuity Using Head-fixed Displays During Passive Self and Surround Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott J.; Black, F. Owen; Stallings, Valerie; Peters, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The ability to read head-fixed displays on various motion platforms requires the suppression of vestibulo-ocular reflexes. This study examined dynamic visual acuity while viewing a head-fixed display during different self and surround rotation conditions. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to report the orientation of Landolt C optotypes presented on a micro-display fixed to a rotating chair at 50 cm distance. Acuity thresholds were determined by the lowest size at which the subjects correctly identified 3 of 5 optotype orientations at peak velocity. Visual acuity was compared across four different conditions, each tested at 0.05 and 0.4 Hz (peak amplitude of 57 deg/s). The four conditions included: subject rotated in semi-darkness (i.e., limited to background illumination of the display), subject stationary while visual scene rotated, subject rotated around a stationary visual background, and both subject and visual scene rotated together. Visual acuity performance was greatest when the subject rotated around a stationary visual background; i.e., when both vestibular and visual inputs provided concordant information about the motion. Visual acuity performance was most reduced when the subject and visual scene rotated together; i.e., when the visual scene provided discordant information about the motion. Ranges of 4-5 logMAR step sizes across the conditions indicated the acuity task was sufficient to discriminate visual performance levels. The background visual scene can influence the ability to read head-fixed displays during passive motion disturbances. Dynamic visual acuity using head-fixed displays can provide an operationally relevant screening tool for visual performance during exposure to novel acceleration environments.

  11. Helmet-mounted displays and facial injury in US Army AH-64A Apache accidents.

    PubMed

    Crowley, J S

    1998-10-01

    There is concern that the helmet display unit (HDU) used by AH-64 Apache helicopter pilots might contribute to facial injury in a crash. The US Army accident database was searched for HDU-related injuries in survivable Apache accidents 1985-1995. Four aviators in three crashes sustained HDU-related injury. These involved three periorbital contusions and two minor eye injuries. There were no sequelae. This equates to an incidence of 0.57 injured individuals per 100,000 flying hours or 8.0 injured aviators per 100 survivable Class A-C accidents in which the HDU was worn. Applying these data to the projected UK Army Apache flying hour programme suggests that one HDU-related injury might be encountered approximately every 10.1 years. This estimate should be interpreted with caution. Serious injury remains a possibility due to the proximity of the HDU to the eye and face.

  12. Pilot Errors Involving Head-Up Displays (HUDs), Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMDs), and Night Vision Goggles (NVGs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Air Force Base, Ohio (formerly the Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory), and Williams Air Force Base, Arizona (formerly the Operations Training...Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH: USAF Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory. Newman, R.L. (1987), "Responses to Roscoe, ’he Trouble With HUDs and...Warnmg Lignt(Red) 16 FTIT Ind..:ator 38 MASTEIR CAUTION Light (Arme) 17 Venidai haiocIy Indicator .19 MPK qCN Light. 18 FUEL OTY SEL Panel 1.0 Ru a’r

  13. Helmet-mounted tracker and display (HMT/D) interfaces: developing a standardized helmet-vehicle interface (HVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocian, Dean F.

    1998-08-01

    The successful integration of technology and human factors meets its ultimate challenge in the area of military performance. Nowhere are the stakes so high and the competition so rigorous as in the arena of combat. This paper documents the attempt to define, develop, and test a 'standardized' interface for helmet-mounted tracker and displays as these systems begin to phase into the military inventory as standard equipment for USAF and USN fighter aircraft. The design that has been evolved is based upon active use and refinement in an environment that is as close to combat conditions, as resources permit. Many of the design ideas and lessons-learned covered in this paper came either directly or indirectly from pilots and support personnel of the USAF 422 Test and Evaluation Squadron located at Nellis AFB, NV.

  14. Simulation evaluation of a low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system adapted for a helmet-mounted display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Zelenka, Richard E.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Dearing, Munro G.

    1991-01-01

    A computer aiding concept for low-altitude helicopter flight has been developed and evaluated in a real-time piloted simulation. The concept included an optimal control trajectory-generation algorithm based upon dynamic programming, and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The pilot evaluation was conducted at the NASA-Ames Research Center moving base vertical motion simulator (VMS) by pilots representing NASA, the US Army, Air Force, and helicopter industry. The pilot manually tracked the trajectory generated by the algorithm utilizing the HMD symbology. The pilots were able to satisfactorily perform the tracking tasks while maintaining a high degree of awareness of the outside world.

  15. Perceptual and cognitive effects on the use of helmet-mounted displays due to external operational factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.; Lang, Gregory T.

    2010-04-01

    This paper addresses the human component of the human-machine interface and the effects of operational stressors on the user as a system operator. Discussions will strive to link operational stress factors to perception, cognition, and human performance errors and their implications for the design of helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). While many operational stressors can be self-imposed (e.g., fatigue, medication use and smoking), this discussion will focus on environment-related (external) stressors. Generally these factors are characteristics of an environment that require unique countermeasure development versus being under the direct control of the user. These include altitude, noise, vibration, thermal extremes and ambient lighting. Thus, it becomes incumbent upon the HMD designers to be cognizant of these environmental stressors and understand how the Soldier will perform when exposed to these conditions.

  16. Human-machine interface issues in the use of helmet-mounted displays in short conjugate simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melzer, James E.

    2011-06-01

    With the introduction of helmet-mounted displays (HMD) into modern aircraft, there is a desire on the part of pilot trainees to achieve a "look and feel" for the simulation environment similar to the real flight hardware. Given this requirement for high fidelity, it may be necessary to configure - or to perhaps re-configure - the HMD for a short conjugate viewing distance and to do so without causing eye strain or other adverse physiological effects. This paper will survey the human factors literature and provide an analysis on the visual construct issues of focus and vergence which - if not properly configured for the short conjugate simulator - could cause adverse effects, which can negatively affect training.

  17. Calorimetric calibration of head coil SAR estimates displayed on a clinical MR scanner.

    PubMed

    Gorny, Krzysztof R; Bernstein, Matt A; Felmlee, Joel P; Ward, Heidi A; McGee, Kiaran P; Lanners, Diana M; Lee, Kendall H

    2008-05-21

    Calorimetric measurements were performed to determine the average specific absorption rates (SAR) resulting from MRI head examinations. The data were compared with average head coil SAR estimates displayed by the MR scanner in order to refine the imaging protocols used in imaging patients with implanted deep brain stimulators (DBS). The experiments were performed using transmit-receive (TR) head coil on clinical 1.5 T General Electric MR scanners running 11.0 M4 revision software. The average applied SAR was derived from temperature increases measured inside a head phantom, due to deposition of RF energy during MRI scanning with a spin echo imaging sequence. The measurements were repeated for varied levels of RF transmit gain (TG) and analyzed with a range of entered patient weights. The measurements demonstrate that the ratio of the actual average head SAR to the scanner-displayed value (coil correction factor) decreases for decreasing TG or for increasing patient weight and may vary between 0.3 and 2.1. An additional retrospective patient study, however, shows that not all combinations of TG and patient weight are encountered clinically and, instead, TG generally increases with the patient weight. As a result, a much narrower range of coil correction factors (e.g., typically 0.5-1.0) will be encountered in practice. The calorimetric method described in this work could aid the physicians and technologists in refinement of the model-dependent SAR estimates displayed by the MR scanner, and in selection of imaging parameters for MR head examinations within allowable SAR safety levels.

  18. Multi-user 3D display using a head tracker and RGB laser illumination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surman, Phil; Sexton, Ian; Hopf, Klaus; Bates, Richard; Lee, Wing Kai; Buckley, Edward

    2007-05-01

    A glasses-free (auto-stereoscopic) 3D display that will serve several viewers who have freedom of movement over a large viewing region is described. This operates on the principle of employing head position tracking to provide regions referred to as exit pupils that follow the positions ofthe viewers' eyes in order for appropriate left and right images to be seen. A non-intrusive multi-user head tracker controls the light sources of a specially designed backlight that illuminates a direct-view LCD.

  19. Simulation and flight evaluation of a heads-up display for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1974-01-01

    A landing-site indicator (LASI) has been devised as a relatively simple heads-up display to show the pilot the magnitude and direction of the aircraft's velocity vector superimposed on the pilot's view of the landing area. A total of 160 landings were performed in a fixed-base simulation program by four pilots with and without the LASI display. These tests showed the display to be of beneficial use in making the approaches more consistent. Some inferences were also made that the physical workload would also be less with its use. The pilots generally agreed that the LASI, as represented in the simulation was a useful landing aid. Additional pilot comments from preliminary flight tests of a breadboard LASI display unit tend to confirm the simulator results.

  20. Head-up display using an inclined Al2O3 column array.

    PubMed

    Cho, Wen-Hao; Lee, Chao-Te; Kei, Chi-Chung; Liao, Bo-Huei; Chiang, Donyau; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2014-02-01

    An orderly inclined Al2O3 column array was fabricated by atomic layer deposition and sequential electron beam evaporation using a hollow nanosphere template. The transmittance spectra at various angles of incidence were obtained through the use of a Perkin-Elmer Lambda 900 UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer. The inclined column array could display the image information through a scattering mechanism and was transparent at high viewing angles along the deposition plane. This characteristic of the inclined column array gives it potential for applications in head-up displays in the automotive industry.

  1. Apparent limitations of head-up-displays and thermal imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    A simulated helicopter flight through a slalom course was presented on a Silicon Graphics IRIS 3130. The display represented the major visual characteristics of thermal images. Subjects were asked to maintain a designated altitude, while flying a slalom course between regularly spaced pylons. The presence of some of the high frequency details in the image improved subjects' ability to reach and maintain the correct altitude. A head-up-display helped in maintaining altitude, but impaired maneuvering around the poles. The results are interpreted in terms of the competition for visual resources between the HUD and the world view.

  2. Head-Up Auditory Displays for Traffic Collision Avoidance System Advisories: A Preliminary Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.

    1993-01-01

    The advantage of a head-up auditory display was evaluated in a preliminary experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two auditory conditions: standard one-earpiece presentation and two-earpiece three-dimensional (3D) audio presentation. Twelve commercial airline crews were tested under full mission simulation conditions at the NASA-Ames Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility advanced concepts flight simulator. Scenario software generated visual targets corresponding to aircraft that would activate a traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) aural advisory; the spatial auditory position was linked to the visual position with 3D audio presentation. Results showed that crew members using a 3D auditory display acquired targets approximately 2.2 s faster than did crew members who used one-earpiece head- sets, but there was no significant difference in the number of targets acquired.

  3. Project plan for joint FAA/NASA head-up display concept evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    Head-Up Display (HUD) concept for large commercial turbojet transport aircraft is considered for the its contribution to aviation safety in the form of improved performance during the approach and landing phase flight. The basic reearch areas represent fundamental questions that are still unresolved and which were considered important to the effective use of the HUD by pilots. Project documentation and management responsibilities are outlined.

  4. Update of the AN/AVS-7 Head-Up Display program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Robert K.; Troxel, David

    1996-06-01

    The AN/AVS-7 head up display (HUD) system is designed to enhance night vision goggle pilotage by superimposing aircraft, navigation and flight symbology on the aviator's night vision imaging system. The AN/AVS-7 system is produced by AEL Industries Inc., Cross Systems Division under a five year production contract with the Army's Communications and Electronics Command. The program is managed by the Army's Project Manager for Night Vision, Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition.

  5. Synthetic Vision Enhanced Surface Operations With Head-Worn Display for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Norman, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Experiments and flight tests have shown that airport surface operations can be enhanced by using synthetic vision and associated technologies, employed on a Head-Up Display (HUD) and head-down display electronic moving maps (EMM). Although HUD applications have shown the greatest potential operational improvements, the research noted that two major limitations during ground operations were its monochrome form and limited, fixed field-of-regard. A potential solution to these limitations may be the application of advanced Head Worn Displays (HWDs) particularly during low-visibility operations wherein surface movement is substantially limited because of the impaired vision of pilots and air traffic controllers. The paper describes the results of ground simulation experiments conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results of the experiments showed that the fully integrated HWD concept provided significantly improved path performance compared to using paper charts alone. When comparing the HWD and HUD concepts, there were no statistically-significant differences in path performance or subjective ratings of situation awareness and workload. Implications and directions for future research are described.

  6. Three-dimensional audio versus head-down traffic alert and collision avoidance system displays.

    PubMed

    Begault, D R; Pittman, M T

    1996-01-01

    The advantage of a head-up auditory display for situational awareness was evaluated in an experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two conditions: standard head-down Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System display and three-dimensional (3-D) audio Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System presentation. (The technology used for 3-D audio presentation allows a stereo headphone user to potentially localize a sound at any externalized position in 3-D auditory space). Ten commercial airline crews were tested under full-mission simulation conditions at the NASA-Ames Crew-Vehicle Systems Research Facility Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. Scenario software generated targets corresponding to aircraft that activated a 3-D aural advisory (the head-up auditory condition) or a standard, visual-audio TCAS advisory (map display with monaural audio alert). Results showed a significant difference in target acquisition time between the two conditions, favoring the 3-D audio Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System condition by 500 ms.

  7. Technical feasibility and safety of image-guided parieto-occipital ventricular catheter placement with the assistance of a wearable head-up display.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jang W; Chen, Robert E; ReFaey, Karim; Diaz, Roberto J; Reimer, Ronald; Komotar, Ricardo J; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Brown, Benjamin L; Wharen, Robert E

    2017-05-19

    Wearable technology is growing in popularity as a result of its ability to interface with normal human movement and function. Using proprietary hardware and software, neuronavigation images were captured and transferred wirelessly via a password-encrypted network to the head-up display. The operating surgeon wore a loupe-mounted wearable head-up display during image-guided parieto-occipital ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in two patients. The shunt placement was completed successfully without complications. The tip of the catheter ended well within the ventricles away from the ventricular wall. The wearable device allowed for continuous monitoring of neuronavigation images in the right upper corner of the surgeon's visual field without the need for the surgeon to turn his head to view the monitors. The adaptable nature of this proposed system permits the display of video data to the operating surgeon without diverting attention away from the operative task. This technology has the potential to enhance image-guided procedures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Head-up displays and their automotive application: an overview of human factors issues affecting safety.

    PubMed

    Ward, N J; Parkes, A

    1994-12-01

    In response to the recent innovations to use head-up displays (HUDs) in vehicles, this paper discusses the relevant human factors issues arising from this display format and the potential safety implications. A review is made of the relevant HUD literature, primarily from the aviation field. The primary issues for automotive HUDs relevant to system performance and safety in the driving task involve interference from background scene complexity, system novelty, user perceptual style, cognitive disruption, and perceptual tunnelling. Basic research is necessary to investigate the extent of these issues as well as to resolve fundamental design specifications (e.g. HUD size, shape, placement, information content). It is suggested that the introduction of HUDs into vehicles be carefully considered. This will necessitate not only the reconsideration what constitutes an in-vehicle display, but also what constitutes the information to be conveyed.

  9. Terrain Portrayal for Synthetic Vision Systems Head-Down Displays Evaluation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Monica F.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-01-01

    A critical component of SVS displays is the appropriate presentation of terrain to the pilot. At the time of this study, the relationship between the complexity of the terrain presentation and resulting enhancements of pilot SA and pilot performance had been largely undefined. The terrain portrayal for SVS head-down displays (TP-HDD) simulation examined the effects of two primary elements of terrain portrayal on the primary flight display (PFD): variations of digital elevation model (DEM) resolution and terrain texturing. Variations in DEM resolution ranged from sparsely spaced (30 arc-sec) to very closely spaced data (1 arc-sec). Variations in texture involved three primary methods: constant color, elevation-based generic, and photo-realistic, along with a secondary depth cue enhancer in the form of a fishnet grid overlay.

  10. High brightness MEMS mirror based head-up display (HUD) modules with wireless data streaming capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanovic, Veljko; Kasturi, Abhishek; Hachtel, Volker

    2015-02-01

    A high brightness Head-Up Display (HUD) module was demonstrated with a fast, dual-axis MEMS mirror that displays vector images and text, utilizing its ~8kHz bandwidth on both axes. Two methodologies were evaluated: in one, the mirror steers a laser at wide angles of <48° on transparent multi-color fluorescent emissive film and displays content directly on the windshield, and in the other the mirror displays content on reflective multi-color emissive phosphor plates reflected off the windshield to create a virtual image for the driver. The display module is compact, consisting of a single laser diode, off-the-shelf lenses and a MEMS mirror in combination with a MEMS controller to enable precise movement of the mirror's X- and Y-axis. The MEMS controller offers both USB and wireless streaming capability and we utilize a library of functions on a host computer for creating content and controlling the mirror. Integration with smart phone applications is demonstrated, utilizing the mobile device both for content generation based on various messages or data, and for content streaming to the MEMS controller via Bluetooth interface. The display unit is highly resistant to vibrations and shock, and requires only ~1.5W to operate, even with content readable in sunlit outdoor conditions. The low power requirement is in part due to a vector graphics approach, allowing the efficient use of laser power, and also due to the use of a single, relatively high efficiency laser and simple optics.

  11. Studying complex decision making in natural settings: using a head-mounted video camera to study competitive orienteering.

    PubMed

    Omodei, M M; McLennan, J

    1994-12-01

    Head-mounted video recording is described as a potentially powerful method for studying decision making in natural settings. Most alternative data-collection procedures are intrusive and disruptive of the decision-making processes involved while conventional video-recording procedures are either impractical or impossible. As a severe test of the robustness of the methodology we studied the decision making of 6 experienced orienteers who carried a head-mounted light-weight video camera as they navigated, running as fast as possible, around a set of control points in a forest. Use of the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test indicated that compared with free recall, video-assisted recall evoked (a) significantly greater experiential immersion in the recall, (b) significantly more specific recollections of navigation-related thoughts and feelings, (c) significantly more realizations of map and terrain features and aspects of running speed which were not noticed at the time of actual competition, and (d) significantly greater insight into specific navigational errors and the intrusion of distracting thoughts into the decision-making process. Potential applications of the technique in (a) the environments of emergency services, (b) therapeutic contexts, (c) education and training, and (d) sports psychology are discussed.

  12. Simulation evaluation of a low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system adapted for a helmet-mounted display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Zelenka, Richard E.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Dearing, Munro G.

    1992-01-01

    A computer aiding concept for low-altitude helicopter flight was developed and evaluated in a real-time piloted simulation. The concept included an optimal control trajectory-generation algorithm based upon dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and advanced navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. The pilot evaluation was conducted at NASA ARC moving base Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) by pilots representing NASA, the U.S. Army, the Air Force, and the helicopter industry. The pilots manually tracked the trajectory generated by the algorithm utilizing the HMD symbology. The pilots were able to satisfactorily perform the tracking tasks while maintaining a high degree of awareness of the outside world.

  13. System for providing an integrated display of instantaneous information relative to aircraft attitude, heading, altitude, and horizontal situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A display device is disclosed which is particularly suited for providing the pilot of an aircraft with combined inflight attitude, heading, altitude, and horizontal situation information previously available only by using two or three devices providing separate displays. The preferred embodiment combines a commonly used and commercially available flight director-type device for providing a display in combination with a miniature aircraft supported for angular displacement from a vertical orientation to indicate heading error, or heading offset, and an extended course deviation indicator bar which projects into juxtaposition with the miniature aircraft for providing a true picture of the aircraft's horizontal situation relative to a selective VOR, ILS, or MLS course.

  14. Skin suturing and cortical surface viral infusion improves imaging of neuronal ensemble activity with head-mounted miniature microscopes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinjian; Cao, Vania Y; Zhang, Wenyu; Mastwal, Surjeet S; Liu, Qing; Otte, Stephani; Wang, Kuan Hong

    2017-08-19

    In vivo optical imaging of neural activity provides important insights into brain functions at the single-cell level. Cranial windows and virally delivered calcium indicators are commonly used for imaging cortical activity through two-photon microscopes in head-fixed animals. Recently, head-mounted one-photon microscopes have been developed for freely behaving animals. However, minimizing tissue damage from the virus injection procedure and maintaining window clarity for imaging can be technically challenging. We used a wide-diameter glass pipette at the cortical surface for infusing the viral calcium reporter AAV-GCaMP6 into the cortex. After infusion, the scalp skin over the implanted optical window was sutured to facilitate postoperative recovery. The sutured scalp was removed approximately two weeks later and a miniature microscope was attached above the window to image neuronal activity in freely moving mice. We found that cortical surface virus infusion efficiently labeled neurons in superficial layers, and scalp skin suturing helped to maintain the long-term clarity of optical windows. As a result, several hundred neurons could be recorded in freely moving animals. Compared to intracortical virus injection and open-scalp postoperative recovery, our methods minimized tissue damage and dura overgrowth underneath the optical window, and significantly increased the experimental success rate and the yield of identified neurons. Our improved cranial surgery technique allows for high-yield calcium imaging of cortical neurons with head-mounted microscopes in freely behaving animals. This technique may be beneficial for other optical applications such as two-photon microscopy, multi-site imaging, and optogenetic modulation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Biodynamic simulations of the effect of a neck-mounted air bag on the head/neck response during high G acceleration.

    PubMed

    Lee, C M; Freivalds, A; Lee, S Y

    1991-08-01

    New helmet-mounted devices (such as night-vision goggles, laser eye protection, etc.) have created new safety hazards for pilots during ejection or high G maneuvering. In order to prevent the resulting head/neck injuries, this study extends the air-bag protection system developed for ground vehicles to a neck mounted system for aircrew personnel. Results, carried out by computer biodynamic simulations using the Articulated Total Body Model (ATB), showed that: 1) helmet weight had little effect on head/neck torque, contact force and flexion angle; 2) initial head/neck position and center of gravity offsets of the helmet-mounted devices had significant effects on head-neck torques, contact forces, and neck flexion angles; and 3) the neck mounted air bag significantly reduced neck torques, contact forces, and neck flexion angles. We conclude that the neck-mounted air bag system could significantly reduce the severity of head/neck injuries to pilots during ejection or high G maneuvering.

  16. Terrain Portrayal for Synthetic Vision Systems Head-Down Displays Evaluation Results: Compilation of Pilot Transcripts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Monica F.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-01-01

    The Terrain Portrayal for Head-Down Displays (TP-HDD) simulation experiment addressed multiple objectives involving twelve display concepts (two baseline concepts without terrain and ten synthetic vision system (SVS) variations), four evaluation maneuvers (two en route and one approach maneuver, plus a rare-event scenario), and three pilot group classifications. The TP-HDD SVS simulation was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) General Aviation WorkStation (GAWS) facility. The results from this simulation establish the relationship between terrain portrayal fidelity and pilot situation awareness, workload, stress, and performance and are published in the NASA TP entitled Terrain Portrayal for Synthetic Vision Systems Head-Down Displays Evaluation Results. This is a collection of pilot comments during each run of the TP-HDD simulation experiment. These comments are not the full transcripts, but a condensed version where only the salient remarks that applied to the scenario, the maneuver, or the actual research itself were compiled.

  17. High color fidelity thin film multilayer systems for head-up display use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Yi-Jen D.; Ho, Fang C.

    1996-09-01

    Head-up display is gaining increasing access in automotive vehicles for indication and position/navigation purposes. An optical combiner, which allows the driver to receive image information from outside and inside of the automobile, is the essential part of this display device. Two multilayer thin film combiner coating systems with distinctive polarization selectivity and broad band spectral neutrality are discussed. One of the coating systems was designed to be located at the lower portion of the windshield. The coating reduced the exterior glare by approximately 45% and provided about 70% average see-through transmittance in addition to the interior information display. The other coating system was designed to be integrated with the sunshield located at the upper portion of the windshield. The coating reflected the interior information display while reducing direct sunlight penetration to 25%. Color fidelity for both interior and exterior images were maintained in both systems. This facilitated the display of full-color maps. Both coating systems were absorptionless and environmentally durable. Designs, fabrication, and performance of these coating systems are addressed.

  18. A Method to Develop Neck Injury Criteria to Aid Design and Test of Escape Systems Incorporating Helmet Mounted Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    outcomes. All subjects had radiological scans taken before admittance to the subject panel and were cleared of any musculoskeletal and other...17 Head and Neck Anatomy ...addressed in this chapter. 18 Head and Neck Anatomy First, it is important to understand human head and neck anatomy . The human head

  19. Some VTOL head-up display drive-law problems and solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, Vernon K.

    1993-01-01

    A piloted simulation test was conducted on the Ames Research Center's vertical motion simulator (VMS) in support of the Phase 2A flight test of NASA's V/STOL systems research aircraft (VSRA). During the simulation several problems were found with the head-up display (HUD) symbol drive laws and the flightpath synthesis. These problems and the solutions devised to solve them are described. Most of the resulting HUD drive-law changes were implemented during the simulation and their effectiveness was verified. Subsequently both the HUD symbol drive-law and flightpath-synthesis changes were implemented in the VSRA and tested successfully in the Phase 2A flight tests.

  20. Comparison of fluid inclusions in coexisting (cogenetic?) wolframite, cassiterite, and quartz from St. Michael's Mount and Cligga Head, Cornwall, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Andrew R.; Panter, Kurt S.

    1990-03-01

    The St. Michael's Mount occurrence and Cligga Head deposit are typical examples of W-Sn mineralization in the Cornwall district in S.W. England. Mineralization consists of quartz, wolframite, cassiterite, and various amounts of base metal sulfides in sheeted veins. Associated alteration includes greisenization and argillization. In both areas textural evidence for contemporaneous deposition of the ore minerals, wolframite and cassiterite, with quartz is generally ambiguous. Previous studies state that the quartz and wolframite are intergrown, but do not address the genetic relation between them. In this study microthermometry was performed on fluid inclusions in wolframite, cassiterite, and quartz. The inclusions in wolframite were observed using an infrared microscope and those in cassiterite and quartz were observed with visible light. At St. Michael's Mount Th values for primary inclusions in quartz average 311°C and in wolframite average 369°C. Salinities average 7.3 eq. wt% NaCl in quartz and 4.2 eq. wt% NaCl in wolframite. At Cligga Head, the average Th values for primary inclusions in the various minerals are: cassiterite, 352°C; wolframite, 324°C; and quartz, 295°C. Fluid inclusion salinities average 5.3 eq. wt% NaCl in cassiterite, 3.9 eq. wt% in wolframite, and 6.0 eq. wt% NaCl in quartz. The magnitude of the changes in Th measurements between minerals cannot be accounted for by post trapping changes and therefore must be due to actual differences in the temperatures of deposition. These data suggest that the ore minerals, wolframite and cassiterite, were deposited earlier than the associated quartz, even though conclusive textural evidence is lacking. Wolframite and cassiterite were deposited at about the same temperature at St. Michael's Mount but at Cligga Head cassiterite was deposited at higher temperatures than wolframite. Certainly in these areas the gangue minerals do not provide reasonable estimates of the depositional conditions of the ore

  1. A head-up display for mid-air drone recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, W. L.; Heft, E. L.; Bowen, T. E.; Newman, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    During mid-air retrieval of parachute packages, the absence of a natural horizon creates serious difficulties for the pilot of the recovery helicopter. A head-up display (HUD) was tested in an attempt to solve this problem. Both a roll-stabilized HUD and a no-roll (pitch only) HUD were tested. The results show that fewer missed passes occurred with the roll-stabilized HUD when the horizon was obscured. The pilots also reported that the workload was greatly reduced. Roll-stabilization was required to prevent vertigo when flying in the absence of a natural horizon. Any HUD intended for mid-air retrieval should display pitch, roll, sideslip, airspeed, and vertical velocity.

  2. Head-up auditory displays for traffic collision avoidance system advisories: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Begault, D R

    1993-12-01

    The advantage of a head-up auditory display was evaluated in a preliminary experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two auditory conditions: standard one-earpiece presentation and two-earpiece three-dimensional (3D) audio presentation. Twelve commercial airline crews were tested under full mission simulation conditions at the NASA-Ames Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility advanced concepts flight simulator. Scenario software generated visual targets corresponding to aircraft that would activate a traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) aural advisory; the spatial auditory position was linked to the visual position with 3D audio presentation. Results showed that crew members using a 3D auditory display acquired targets approximately 2.2 s faster than did crew members who used one-earpiece headsets, but there was no significant difference in the number of targets acquired.

  3. Advanced Pathway Guidance Evaluations on a Synthetic Vision Head-Up Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications to potentially eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced guidance for commercial and business aircraft. This experiment evaluated the influence of different pathway and guidance display concepts upon pilot situation awareness (SA), mental workload, and flight path tracking performance for Synthetic Vision display concepts using a Head-Up Display (HUD). Two pathway formats (dynamic and minimal tunnel presentations) were evaluated against a baseline condition (no tunnel) during simulated instrument meteorological conditions approaches to Reno-Tahoe International airport. Two guidance cues (tadpole, follow-me aircraft) were also evaluated to assess their influence. Results indicated that the presence of a tunnel on an SVS HUD had no effect on flight path performance but that it did have significant effects on pilot SA and mental workload. The dynamic tunnel concept with the follow-me aircraft guidance symbol produced the lowest workload and provided the highest SA among the tunnel concepts evaluated.

  4. A head up display format for application to V/STOL aircraft approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, Vernon K.; Farris, Glenn G.; Vanags, Andrejs A.

    1990-01-01

    A head up display (HUD) format developed at NASA Ames Research Center to provide pilots of V/STOL aircraft with complete flight guidance and control information for category-3C terminal-area flight operations, is described in detail. These flight operations cover a large spectrum, from STOL operations on land-based runways to VTOL operations on small ships in high seas. Included in this description is a complete geometrical specification of the HUD elements and their drive laws. The principal features of this display format are the integration of the flightpath and pursuit guidance information into a narrow field of view, easily assimilated by the pilot with a single glance, and the superposition of vertical and horizontal situation information. The display is a derivative of a successful design developed for conventional transport aircraft. The design is the outcome of many piloted simulations conducted over a four-year period. Whereas the concepts on which the display format rests could not be fully exploited because of field-of-view restrictions, and some reservations remain about the acceptability of superimposing vertical and horizontal situation information, the design successfully fulfilled its intended objectives.

  5. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic heads-up display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Hahn, Paul S.; Kuo, Anthony N.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Intra-operative optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires a display technology which allows surgeons to visualize OCT data without disrupting surgery. Previous research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into surgical microscopes to provide monoscopic viewing of OCT data through one microscope ocular. To take full advantage of our previously reported real-time volumetric microscope-integrated OCT (4D MIOCT) system, we describe a stereoscopic HUD which projects a stereo pair of OCT volume renderings into both oculars simultaneously. The stereoscopic HUD uses a novel optical design employing spatial multiplexing to project dual OCT volume renderings utilizing a single micro-display. The optical performance of the surgical microscope with the HUD was quantitatively characterized and the addition of the HUD was found not to substantially effect the resolution, field of view, or pincushion distortion of the operating microscope. In a pilot depth perception subject study, five ophthalmic surgeons completed a pre-set dexterity task with 50.0% (SD = 37.3%) higher success rate and in 35.0% (SD = 24.8%) less time on average with stereoscopic OCT vision compared to monoscopic OCT vision. Preliminary experience using the HUD in 40 vitreo-retinal human surgeries by five ophthalmic surgeons is reported, in which all surgeons reported that the HUD did not alter their normal view of surgery and that live surgical maneuvers were readily visible in displayed stereoscopic OCT volumes. PMID:27231616

  6. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic heads-up display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Hahn, Paul S; Kuo, Anthony N; Toth, Cynthia A; Izatt, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    Intra-operative optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires a display technology which allows surgeons to visualize OCT data without disrupting surgery. Previous research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into surgical microscopes to provide monoscopic viewing of OCT data through one microscope ocular. To take full advantage of our previously reported real-time volumetric microscope-integrated OCT (4D MIOCT) system, we describe a stereoscopic HUD which projects a stereo pair of OCT volume renderings into both oculars simultaneously. The stereoscopic HUD uses a novel optical design employing spatial multiplexing to project dual OCT volume renderings utilizing a single micro-display. The optical performance of the surgical microscope with the HUD was quantitatively characterized and the addition of the HUD was found not to substantially effect the resolution, field of view, or pincushion distortion of the operating microscope. In a pilot depth perception subject study, five ophthalmic surgeons completed a pre-set dexterity task with 50.0% (SD = 37.3%) higher success rate and in 35.0% (SD = 24.8%) less time on average with stereoscopic OCT vision compared to monoscopic OCT vision. Preliminary experience using the HUD in 40 vitreo-retinal human surgeries by five ophthalmic surgeons is reported, in which all surgeons reported that the HUD did not alter their normal view of surgery and that live surgical maneuvers were readily visible in displayed stereoscopic OCT volumes.

  7. The utility of Head-Up Displays - Eye-focus vs decision times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weintraub, D. J.; Haines, R. F.; Randle, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Instrument-panel information is presented by a Head-Up Display (HUD) to pilots in such a way that the symbols appear far away (at optical infinity) superimposed upon the landscape. The use of a HUD makes it, therefore, unnecessary for the pilot to take his eyes off the changing scene in order to look down and refocus on the instrument panel. It is pointed out that the HUD has proved superior to the conventional instrument-panel display. An experiment was conducted with the objective to help to determine which of the differences between HUD and conventional instrument-panel display are mainly responsible for the superiority of the HUD. Important features of this experiment are that the format of each virtual-image display, its luminance, and its angle subtended at the eye, remained the same as the optical distance and location were varied. It was found that the HUD symbology at optical infinity does reduce decision times compared to the same format at the location of a conventional instrument panel.

  8. Mounted Combat System Crew Shock Loading: Head and Neck Injury Potential Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    U.S. Army Research Laboratory’s (ARL’s) Human Research Engineering Directorate for analysis. Biomechanics researchers at ARL were tasked with...compared to the standards established by the National Highway Traffic Safety Adminis- tration (NHTSA). Based on the standards used by NHTSA, the...15. SUBJECT TERMS biomechanics ; FCS; future combat system; head and neck injury 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  9. Blurring the boundaries between frame-based and frameless stereotaxy: feasibility study for brain biopsies performed with the use of a head-mounted robot.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Florian; Naros, Georgios; Gutenberg, Angelika; Keric, Naureen; Giese, Alf; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-09-01

    Frame-based stereotactic interventions are considered the gold standard for brain biopsies, but they have limitations with regard to flexibility and patient comfort because of the bulky head ring attached to the patient. Frameless image guidance systems that use scalp fiducial markers offer more flexibility and patient comfort but provide less stability and accuracy during drilling and biopsy needle positioning. Head-mounted robot-guided biopsies could provide the advantages of these 2 techniques without the downsides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a robotic guidance device, affixed to the patient's skull through a small mounting platform, for use in brain biopsy procedures. This was a retrospective study of 37 consecutive patients who presented with supratentorial lesions and underwent brain biopsy procedures in which a surgical guidance robot was used to determine clinical outcomes and technical procedural operability. The portable head-mounted device was well tolerated by the patients and enabled stable drilling and needle positioning during surgery. Flexible adjustments of predefined paths and selection of new trajectories were successfully performed intraoperatively without the need for manual settings and fixations. The patients experienced no permanent deficits or infections after surgery. The head-mounted robot-guided approach presented here combines the stability of a bone-mounted set-up with the flexibility and tolerability of frameless systems. By reducing human interference (i.e., manual parameter settings, calibrations, and adjustments), this technology might be particularly useful in neurosurgical interventions that necessitate multiple trajectories.

  10. RatCAP: a small, head-mounted PET tomograph for imaging the brain of an awake RAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, C.; Kriplani, A.; O'Connor, P.; Pratte, J.-F.; Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Schlyer, D.; Shokouhi, S.; Stoll, S.; Vaska, P.; Villaneuva, A.; Volkow, N.; Yu, B.

    2004-07-01

    A small, head-mounted tomograph is being developed which will allow PET imaging of the brain of an awake rat. This device will permit neurophysiological studies to be carried out on small animals without the use of anaesthesia, which severely suppresses brain functions and behavior. The tomograph consists of a 4 cm diameter ring consisting of 12 blocks of LSO crystals, each containing a 4×8 matrix of 2×2 mm 2 pixels read out with a Hamamatsu S8550 avalanche photodiode array. The ring will be mounted to the head of the rat and supported by a tether that carries the weight and provides a pathway for electrical signals. Combined with additional mechanical components, it will allow nearly complete freedom of movement of the animal. In order to minimize the weight of the ring, and to keep all of the front end readout electronics as close as possible to the detector, a new ASIC is being developed in 0.18 μm CMOS technology that will process the analog signals and provide digital readout of the pixel arrays and timing information. This paper will describe the novel features and challenges of this new detector, along with preliminary results obtained with a pair of block detectors used in a configuration similar to the final tomograph. Results are given on studies carried out to optimize the light output of the crystal arrays, measurements of the APDs, a preliminary design of the readout electronics chip, and reconstructed images of various types of phantoms in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the detector concept.

  11. Three methods of presenting flight vector information in a head-up display during simulated STOL approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, J. H., III; Palmer, E. A., III

    1975-01-01

    A simulator study was conducted to determine the usefulness of adding flight path vector symbology to a head-up display designed to improve glide-slope tracking performance during steep 7.5 deg visual approaches in STOL aircraft. All displays included a fixed attitude symbol, a pitch- and roll-stabilized horizon bar, and a glide-slope reference bar parallel to and 7.5 deg below the horizon bar. The displays differed with respect to the flight-path marker (FPM) symbol: display 1 had no FPM symbol; display 2 had an air-referenced FPM, and display 3 had a ground-referenced FPM. No differences between displays 1 and 2 were found on any of the performance measures. Display 3 was found to decrease height error in the early part of the approach and to reduce descent rate variation over the entire approach. Two measures of workload did not indicate any differences between the displays.

  12. Auditory Artifacts due to Switching Head-Related Transfer Functions of a Dynamic Virtual Auditory Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, Makoto; Hirahara, Tatsuya

    Auditory artifacts due to switching head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) are investigated, using a software-implemented dynamic virtual auditory display (DVAD) developed by the authors. The DVAD responds to a listener's head rotation using a head-tracking device and switching HRTFs to present a highly realistic 3D virtual auditory space to the listener. The DVAD operates on Windows XP and does not require high-performance computers. A total system latency (TSL), which is the delay between head motion and the corresponding change of the ear input signal, is a significant factor of DVADs. The measured TSL of our DVAD is about 50ms, which is sufficient for practical applications and localization experiments. Another matter of concern is the auditory artifact in DVADs caused by switching HRTFs. Switching HRTFs gives rise to wave discontinuity of synthesized binaural signals, which can be perceived as click noises that degrade the quality of presented sound image. A subjective test and excitation patterns (EPNs) analysis using an auditory filter are performed with various source signals and HRTF spatial resolutions. The results of the subjective test reveal that click noise perception depends on the source signal and the HRTF spatial resolution. Furthermore, EPN analysis reveals that switching HRTFs significantly distorts the EPNs at the off signal frequencies. Such distortions, however, are masked perceptually by broad-bandwidth source signals, whereas they are not masked by narrow-bandwidth source signals, thereby making the click noise more detectable. A higher HRTF spatial resolution leads to smaller distortions. But, depending on the source signal, perceivable click noises still remain even with 0.5-degree spatial resolution, which is less than minimum audible angle (1 degree in front).

  13. Development of a Flyable Acousto-Optic Laser Beam Deflection System for a Head Up Display of the Future.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Rayleigh criteria). The system was designed for stroke writing but was demonstrated with lissajous writing. The acousto - optic deflectors employed...The report describes a laser display which is to be used in a Head-Up Display of the future. The uniqueness of the display is that it uses acousto ... optic components for the modulation and deflection of the laser beam. As a result, there are no moving parts, which increases the reliability and life

  14. Helmet-Mounted Display Research Capabilities of the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Bivens, C. C.; Rediess, N. A.; Hindson, W. S.; Aiken, E. W.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) is a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter that is being modified by the US Army and NASA for flight systems research. The principal systems that are being installed in the aircraft are a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) and imaging system, and a programmable full authority Research Flight Control System (RFCS). In addition, comprehensive instrumentation of both the rigid body of the helicopter and the rotor system is provided. The paper will describe the capabilities of these systems and their current state of development. A brief description of initial research applications is included. The wide (40 X 60 degree) field-of-view HMD system has been provided by Kaiser Electronics. It can be configured as a monochromatic system for use in bright daylight conditions, a two color system for darker ambients, or a full color system for use in night viewing conditions. Color imagery is achieved using field sequential video and a mechanical color wheel. In addition to the color symbology, high resolution computer-gene rated imagery from an onboard Silicon Graphics Reality Engine Onyx processor is available for research in virtual reality applications. This synthetic imagery can also be merged with real world video from a variety of imaging systems that can be installed easily on the front of the helicopter. These sensors include infrared or tv cameras, or potentially small millimeter wave radars. The Research Flight Control System is being developed for the aircraft by a team of contractors led by Boeing Helicopters. It consists of a full authority high bandwidth fly-by-wire actuators that drive the main rotor swashplate actuators and the tail rotor actuator in parallel. This arrangement allows the basic mechanical flight control system of the Black Hawk to be retained so that the safety pilot can monitor the operation of the system through the action of his own controls. The evaluation pilot will signal the fly

  15. Helmet-Mounted Display Research Capabilities of the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Bivens, C. C.; Rediess, N. A.; Hindson, W. S.; Aiken, E. W.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) is a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter that is being modified by the US Army and NASA for flight systems research. The principal systems that are being installed in the aircraft are a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) and imaging system, and a programmable full authority Research Flight Control System (RFCS). In addition, comprehensive instrumentation of both the rigid body of the helicopter and the rotor system is provided. The paper will describe the capabilities of these systems and their current state of development. A brief description of initial research applications is included. The wide (40 X 60 degree) field-of-view HMD system has been provided by Kaiser Electronics. It can be configured as a monochromatic system for use in bright daylight conditions, a two color system for darker ambients, or a full color system for use in night viewing conditions. Color imagery is achieved using field sequential video and a mechanical color wheel. In addition to the color symbology, high resolution computer-gene rated imagery from an onboard Silicon Graphics Reality Engine Onyx processor is available for research in virtual reality applications. This synthetic imagery can also be merged with real world video from a variety of imaging systems that can be installed easily on the front of the helicopter. These sensors include infrared or tv cameras, or potentially small millimeter wave radars. The Research Flight Control System is being developed for the aircraft by a team of contractors led by Boeing Helicopters. It consists of a full authority high bandwidth fly-by-wire actuators that drive the main rotor swashplate actuators and the tail rotor actuator in parallel. This arrangement allows the basic mechanical flight control system of the Black Hawk to be retained so that the safety pilot can monitor the operation of the system through the action of his own controls. The evaluation pilot will signal the fly

  16. [EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF THE OPERATOR'S PERCEPTION OF SYMBOLIC INFORMATION ON THE HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY DEPENDING ON THE STRUCTURAL COMPLEXITY OF VISUAL ENVIRONMENT].

    PubMed

    Lapa, V V; Ivanov, A I; Davydov, V V; Ryabinin, V A; Golosov S Yu

    2015-01-01

    The experiments showed that pilot's perception of symbolic information on the helmet-mounted display (HMD) depends on type of HMD (mono- or binocular), and structural complexity of the background image. Complex background extends time and increases errors in perception, particularly when monocular HMD is used. In extremely complicated visual situations (symbolic information on a background intricately structured by supposition of a TV image on real visual environment) significantly increases time and lowers precision of symbols perception no matter what the HMD type.

  17. Integration of Head-Up Display system in automotive industry: a generalized application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio, Gilberto; Mejía, Alejandro

    2013-06-01

    Throughout the development of the automotive industry, supporting activities related with driving has been material of analysis and experimentation, always seeking new ways to achieve greater safety for the driver and passengers. With the purpose of contributing to this topic, in order to contribute to this subject, this paper summarizes from past research experiences the use of Head-Up Display systems applied to the automobile industry, covering it from two main points of discussion: the first one, from a technical point of view, in which the main principles of optical design associated with a moderate-cost experimental set up are brought out; and the second one, an operational approach where an applied driving graphical interface is presented. Up to now, the results suggest that the experimental set up here discussed could be adaptable to any automobile vehicle, but it is needed further research and investment.

  18. Optic design of head-up displays with freeform surfaces specified by NURBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Peter

    2008-09-01

    The imaging system of a head-up display of production-vehicles in automobile industry includes the windshield which is different for each automobile type. Thus, the the imaging system has to be matched to it. This requires an effcient optic design procedure in order to minimize the development costs. One challenge is the layout of the freeform surfaces of the imaging reflectors because there is a lack of procedures comparable to classical imaging systems like first order design or aberration theory. Additionally, reference systems are not published. Onother big issue is consistent data management. It is usual practice in automotive industriy that the surface data of the imaging surfaces will be imported in CAD systems. Often, from these systems manufacturing code is automaticall generated. Importing surface date is delicate, because the surface describtion in CAD systems is done by NURBS (non-uniform rational B-Splines) which are not or insufficently implemented in commercial optic design software. Thus, a conversion of the surface is performed by the software tools. This conversion is normally not much documented and problems with e.g. accuracy, surface continuity often arrise. In this contribution some methods for the design of an imaging reflector for a head-up display and some resulting designs are presented. Additionally it is shown that already in the design phase the freeform surface can be described by NURBS without any lack of performance. This kind of describtion can then easily be transfered to CAD systems by standardized formats like IGES or STEP without any error-prone conversion.

  19. An externally head-mounted wireless neural recording device for laboratory animal research and possible human clinical use.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming; Li, Hao; Bull, Christopher; Borton, David A; Aceros, Juan; Larson, Lawrence; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a new type of head-mounted wireless neural recording device in a highly compact package, dedicated for untethered laboratory animal research and designed for future mobile human clinical use. The device, which takes its input from an array of intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEA) has ninety-seven broadband parallel neural recording channels and was integrated on to two custom designed printed circuit boards. These house several low power, custom integrated circuits, including a preamplifier ASIC, a controller ASIC, plus two SAR ADCs, a 3-axis accelerometer, a 48MHz clock source, and a Manchester encoder. Another ultralow power RF chip supports an OOK transmitter with the center frequency tunable from 3GHz to 4GHz, mounted on a separate low loss dielectric board together with a 3V LDO, with output fed to a UWB chip antenna. The IC boards were interconnected and packaged in a polyether ether ketone (PEEK) enclosure which is compatible with both animal and human use (e.g. sterilizable). The entire system consumes 17mA from a 1.2Ahr 3.6V Li-SOCl2 1/2AA battery, which operates the device for more than 2 days. The overall system includes a custom RF receiver electronics which are designed to directly interface with any number of commercial (or custom) neural signal processors for multi-channel broadband neural recording. Bench-top measurements and in vivo testing of the device in rhesus macaques are presented to demonstrate the performance of the wireless neural interface.

  20. A new phase encoding approach for a compact head-up display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suszek, Jaroslaw; Makowski, Michal; Sypek, Maciej; Siemion, Andrzej; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej; Bartosz, Andrzej

    2008-12-01

    The possibility of encoding multiple asymmetric symbols into a single thin binary Fourier hologram would have a practical application in the design of simple translucent holographic head-up displays. A Fourier hologram displays the encoded images at the infinity so this enables an observation without a time-consuming eye accommodation. Presenting a set of the most crucial signs for a driver in this way is desired, especially by older people with various eyesight disabilities. In this paper a method of holographic design is presented that assumes a combination of a spatial segmentation and carrier frequencies. It allows to achieve multiple reconstructed images selectable by the angle of the incident laser beam. In order to encode several binary symbols into a single Fourier hologram, the chessboard shaped segmentation function is used. An optimized sequence of phase encoding steps and a final direct phase binarization enables recording of asymmetric symbols into a binary hologram. The theoretical analysis is presented, verified numerically and confirmed in the optical experiment. We suggest and describe a practical and highly useful application of such holograms in an inexpensive HUD device for the use of the automotive industry. We present two alternative propositions of car viewing setups.

  1. Meshfree approximation methods for free-form optical surfaces with applications to head-worn displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakmakci, Ozan

    Compact and lightweight optical designs achieving acceptable image quality, field of view, eye clearance, eyebox size, operating across the visible spectrum, are the key to the success of next generation head-worn displays. The first part of this thesis reports on the design, fabrication, and analysis of off-axis magnifier designs. The first design is catadioptric and consists of two elements. The lens utilizes a diffractive optical element and the mirror has a free-form surface described with an x-y polynomial. A comparison of color correction between doublets and single layer diffractive optical elements in an eyepiece as a function of eye clearance is provided to justify the use of a diffractive optical element. The dual-element design has an 8 mm diameter eyebox, 15 mm eye clearance, 20 degree diagonal full field, and is designed to operate across the visible spectrum between 450-650 nm. 20% MTF at the Nyquist frequency with less than 3% distortion has been achieved in the dual-element head-worn display. An ideal solution for a head-worn display would be a single free-form surface mirror design. A single surface mirror does not have dispersion; therefore, color correction is not required. A single surface mirror can be made see-through by machining the appropriate surface shape on the opposite side to form a zero power shell. The second design consists of a single off-axis free-form mirror described with an x-y polynomial, which achieves a 3 mm diameter exit pupil, 15 mm eye relief, and a 24 degree diagonal full field of view. The second design achieves 10% MTF at the Nyquist frequency set by the pixel spacing of the VGA microdisplay with less than 3% distortion. Both designs have been fabricated using diamond turning techniques. Finally, this thesis addresses the question of "what is the optimal surface shape for a single mirror constrained in an off-axis magnifier configuration with multiple fields?" Typical optical surfaces implemented in raytrace codes

  2. Chronic monitoring of cortical hemodynamics in behaving, freely-moving rats using a miniaturized head-mounted optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigal, Iliya; Gad, Raanan; Koletar, Margaret; Ringuette, Dene; Stefanovic, Bojana; Levi, Ofer

    2016-03-01

    Growing interest within the neurophysiology community in assessing healthy and pathological brain activity in animals that are awake and freely-behaving has triggered the need for optical systems that are suitable for such longitudinal studies. In this work we report label-free multi-modal imaging of cortical hemodynamics in the somatosensory cortex of awake, freely-behaving rats, using a novel head-mounted miniature optical microscope. The microscope employs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) at three distinct wavelengths (680 nm, 795 nm, and 850 nm) to provide measurements of four hemodynamic markers: blood flow speeds, HbO, HbR, and total Hb concentration, across a > 2 mm field of view. Blood flow speeds are extracted using Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI), while oxygenation measurements are performed using Intrinsic Optical Signal Imaging (IOSI). Longitudinal measurements on the same animal are made possible over the course of > 6 weeks using a chronic window that is surgically implanted into the skull. We use the device to examine changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation in superficial cortical blood vessels and tissue in response to drug-induced absence-like seizures, correlating motor behavior with changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation in the brain.

  3. Initial flight and simulator evaluation of a head up display for standard and noise abatement visual approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourquin, K.; Palmer, E. A.; Cooper, G.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the adequacy of a simple head up display (HUD) for providing vertical guidance for flying noise abatement and standard visual approaches in a jet transport. The HUD featured gyro-stabilized approach angle scales which display the angle of declination to any point on the ground and a horizontal flight path bar which aids the pilot in his control of the aircraft flight path angle. Thirty-three standard and noise abatement approaches were flown in a Boeing 747 aircraft equipped with a head up display. The HUD was also simulated in a research simulator. The simulator was used to familiarize the pilots with the display and to determine the most suitable way to use the HUD for making high capture noise abatement approaches. Preliminary flight and simulator data are presented and problem areas that require further investigation are identified.

  4. A Three-Dimensional Heads-Up Primary Navigation Reference Display for Paratroopers Performing High Altitude High Open Jumps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    47 Figure 17. Basic Java3D Scene Graph [J3D99] .......................................................................................... 48...paratrooper’s movement in the physical world, measured by GPS, as movement in a computer generated scene . This reference, presented as a heads-up display on...the display with NVGs and the fact that the platform must be mobile enough to travel with a paratrooper both in an aircraft and under canopy. 1.3.2

  5. Identification of Prey Captures in Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Using Head-Mounted Accelerometers: Field Validation with Animal-Borne Video Cameras.

    PubMed

    Volpov, Beth L; Hoskins, Andrew J; Battaile, Brian C; Viviant, Morgane; Wheatley, Kathryn E; Marshall, Greg; Abernathy, Kyler; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated prey captures in free-ranging adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) using head-mounted 3-axis accelerometers and animal-borne video cameras. Acceleration data was used to identify individual attempted prey captures (APC), and video data were used to independently verify APC and prey types. Results demonstrated that head-mounted accelerometers could detect individual APC but were unable to distinguish among prey types (fish, cephalopod, stingray) or between successful captures and unsuccessful capture attempts. Mean detection rate (true positive rate) on individual animals in the testing subset ranged from 67-100%, and mean detection on the testing subset averaged across 4 animals ranged from 82-97%. Mean False positive (FP) rate ranged from 15-67% individually in the testing subset, and 26-59% averaged across 4 animals. Surge and sway had significantly greater detection rates, but also conversely greater FP rates compared to heave. Video data also indicated that some head movements recorded by the accelerometers were unrelated to APC and that a peak in acceleration variance did not always equate to an individual prey item. The results of the present study indicate that head-mounted accelerometers provide a complementary tool for investigating foraging behaviour in pinnipeds, but that detection and FP correction factors need to be applied for reliable field application.

  6. Identification of Prey Captures in Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Using Head-Mounted Accelerometers: Field Validation with Animal-Borne Video Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Volpov, Beth L.; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Battaile, Brian C.; Viviant, Morgane; Wheatley, Kathryn E.; Marshall, Greg; Abernathy, Kyler; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated prey captures in free-ranging adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) using head-mounted 3-axis accelerometers and animal-borne video cameras. Acceleration data was used to identify individual attempted prey captures (APC), and video data were used to independently verify APC and prey types. Results demonstrated that head-mounted accelerometers could detect individual APC but were unable to distinguish among prey types (fish, cephalopod, stingray) or between successful captures and unsuccessful capture attempts. Mean detection rate (true positive rate) on individual animals in the testing subset ranged from 67-100%, and mean detection on the testing subset averaged across 4 animals ranged from 82-97%. Mean False positive (FP) rate ranged from 15-67% individually in the testing subset, and 26-59% averaged across 4 animals. Surge and sway had significantly greater detection rates, but also conversely greater FP rates compared to heave. Video data also indicated that some head movements recorded by the accelerometers were unrelated to APC and that a peak in acceleration variance did not always equate to an individual prey item. The results of the present study indicate that head-mounted accelerometers provide a complementary tool for investigating foraging behaviour in pinnipeds, but that detection and FP correction factors need to be applied for reliable field application. PMID:26107647

  7. Scanning pupil approach to aspheric surface slope error tolerancing in head-up display optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivokon, V. P.

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel approach to tolerancing slope errors of aspheric surfaces in relay optics of typical avionics head-up displays (HUD). In these systems, a beamlet entering the pilot eye occupies only a tiny fraction of HUD entrance pupil/eyebox with a typical diameter of 125mm. Consequently the beam footprint on any HUD optical surface is a small fraction of its clear aperture. This presents challenges to HUD tolerancing which is typically based on parallax (angular difference in line of sight between left and right eyes) analysis. Aspheric surfaces manufactured by sub-aperture grinding/polishing techniques add another source of error - surface slope error. This type of error not only degrades image quality of observed HUD symbology but also leads to its "waviness" and "floating" especially noticeable when a pilot moves his head within the HUD eyebox. The suggested approach allows aspheric surface slope error tolerancing that ensures an acceptable level of symbology "waviness". A narrow beamlet is traced from a pilot eye position backwards through the HUD optics until it hits the light source. Due to the small beamlet size, slope error of the aspheric surface acts primarily as an overall tilt/wedge that deviates the beam and causes it to shift. The slope error is acceptable when this shift is not resolved by a pilot eye. The beamlet is scanned over entire eyebox and field of view and the slope error tolerance is established for several zones in the aspheric surface clear aperture. The procedure is then repeated for each aspheric surface.

  8. Modeling Of A Monocular, Full-Color, Laser-Scanning, Helmet-Mounted Display for Aviator Situational Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-27

    requirements as the neutral -density, tinted visor would attenuate the light coming from the HMD as well as the ambient scene by the same amount. Apache...ambient luminance reaching the eye. Mounting the HMD in front of the visor would increase the HMD luminance requirements as the neutral -density...tinted visor would attenuate the light coming from the HMD as well as the ambient scene by the same amount. What makes the present paper unique at the time

  9. Backup Alignment Devices on Shuttle: Heads-Up Display or Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Space Shuttle was built to withstand multiple failures while still keeping the crew and vehicle safe. Although the design of the Space Shuttle had a great deal of redundancy built into each system, there were often additional ways to keep systems in the best configuration if a failure were to occur. One such method was to use select pieces of hardware in a way for which they were not primarily intended. The primary function of the Heads-Up Display (HUD) was to provide the crew with a display of flight critical information during the entry phase. The primary function of the Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) was to provide the crew an optical alignment capability for rendezvous and docking phases. An alignment device was required to keep the Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) well aligned for a safe Entry; nominally this alignment device would be the two on-board Star Trackers. However, in the event of a Star Tracker failure, the HUD or COAS could also be used as a backup alignment device, but only if the device had been calibrated beforehand. Once the HUD or COAS was calibrated and verified then it was considered an adequate backup to the Star Trackers for entry IMU alignment. There were procedures in place and the astronauts were trained on how to accurately calibrate the HUD or COAS and how to use them as an alignment device. The calibration procedure for the HUD and COAS had been performed on many Shuttle missions. Many of the first calibrations performed were for data gathering purposes to determine which device was more accurate as a backup alignment device, HUD or COAS. Once this was determined, the following missions would frequently calibrate the HUD in order to be one step closer to having the device ready in case it was needed as a backup alignment device.

  10. TRISTAR 1: Evaluation methods for testing head-up display (HUD) flight symbology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, R. L.; Haworth, L. A.; Kessler, G. K.; Eksuzian, D. J.; Ercoline, W. R.; Evans, R. H.; Hughes, T. C.; Weinstein, L. F.

    1995-01-01

    The first in a series of piloted head-up display (HUD) flight symbology studies (TRISTAR) measuring pilot task performance was conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center by the Tri-Service Flight Symbology Working Group (FSWG). Sponsored by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, this study served as a focal point for the FSWG to examine HUD test methodology and flight symbology presentations. HUD climb-dive marker dynamics and climb-dive ladder presentations were examined as pilots performed air-to-air (A/A), air-to-ground (A/G), instrument landing system (ILS), and unusual attitude (UA) recover tasks. Symbolic presentations resembled pitch ladder variations used by the U.S. Air Force (USAF), U.S. Navy (USN), and Royal Air Force (RAF). The study was initiated by the FSWG to address HUD flight symbology deficiencies, standardization, issue identification, and test methodologies. It provided the mechanism by which the USAF, USN, RAF, and USA could integrate organizational ideas and reduce differences for comparisons. Specifically it examined flight symbology issues collectively identified by each organization and the use of objective and subjective text methodology and flight tasking proposed by the FSWG.

  11. Optical interactions of aircraft windscreens and HUDs (Head-Up Displays) producing diplopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genco, L. V.

    1983-12-01

    The Air Force is in the process of evaluating new, wide field of view heads-up displays (WFOV HUDs) capable of presenting an enhanced array of visual imagery to pilots of modern aircraft. The main findings of this study are: (1) observers are relatively intolerant of negative disparity, (2) longer viewing is more likely to lead to a diplopia effect than very short glances, (3) resistance to disparity appears to be an individual trait, and (4) a large proportion of responses involve suppression of the view from one eye. The overall median negative disparity threshold was 1.2 mrad and the overall positive threshold was 2.6 mrad. These values are recommended as the maximum disparities acceptable for wide-field-of-view Canopy-HUD optical systems. Since the values are so small, we further recommend that the canopy and HUD be treated as a system, with technical interaction between the vendors, and between the vendors and the USAF. The disparity values indicate the net difference between both system components, so optimization may be possible by appropriately matching the optics.

  12. Microlens array-based high-gain screen design for direct projection head-up displays.

    PubMed

    Hedili, M Kivanc; Freeman, Mark O; Urey, Hakan

    2013-02-20

    Head-up display (HUD) systems have been used in recent car models to provide essential information to the drivers while keeping their eyes on the road. Virtual image HUD systems have been the preferred method, but they have the drawback of requiring a large volume of space in order to accommodate the relay optics that creates the virtual image. This is especially significant as the desired field of view increases. Direct projection HUD systems have been developed with a separate stand-alone microlens array (MLA)-based transparent screen on the dashboard, offering a compact solution. In this paper, we propose a direct projection HUD system based on a unique, windshield-embedded see-through screen that uses minimal space under the dashboard, offering an elegant and compact solution to the HUD problem. The screen is based on MLAs with varying surface normal angles such that the light from the projector is directed to the viewer's eyes from all positions across the field of view. Varying tilts provide an efficient relay and high brightness even with a low-lumen output projector. The calculated screen gain is about 69 and the eyebox area is about 30 cm×30 cm.

  13. The effect of a monocular helmet-mounted display on aircrew health: a 10-year prospective cohort study of Apache AH MK 1 pilots: study midpoint update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Watters, Raymond W.; Adams, Mark S.

    2009-05-01

    A collaborative occupational health study has been undertaken by Headquarters Army Aviation, Middle Wallop, UK, and the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Fort Rucker, Alabama, to determine if the use of the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) monocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) in the Apache AH Mk 1 attack helicopter has any long-term (10-year) effect on visual performance. The test methodology consists primarily of a detailed questionnaire and an annual battery of vision tests selected to capture changes in visual performance of Apache aviators over their flight career (with an emphasis on binocular visual function). Pilots using binocular night vision goggles serve as controls and undergo the same methodology. Currently, at the midpoint of the study, with the exception of a possible colour discrimination effect, there are no data indicating that the long-term use of the IHADSS monocular HMD results in negative effects on vision.

  14. The Effects of Helmet-Mounted Display Symbology on the Opto-Kinetic Cervical Reflex and Frame of Reference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    Ververs and Wickens, 1998; Wickens and Long, 1995; Yeh, Wickens, and Seagull , 1999) showed that some tasks do not allow for the near domain (symbology...Wickens, C. D., and Seagull , F. J. (1999). Target cueing in visual search: The effects of conformal and display location on the allocation of visual attention. Human Factors, 41(4), 524- 542.

  15. Enhanced/Synthetic Vision and Head-Worn Display Technologies for Terminal Maneuvering Area NextGen Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzell, Lawrence J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Norman, R. Mike

    2011-01-01

    NASA is researching innovative technologies for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) to provide a "Better-Than-Visual" (BTV) capability as adjunct to "Equivalent Visual Operations" (EVO); that is, airport throughputs equivalent to that normally achieved during Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations rates with equivalent and better safety in all weather and visibility conditions including Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). These new technologies build on proven flight deck systems and leverage synthetic and enhanced vision systems. Two piloted simulation studies were conducted to access the use of a Head-Worn Display (HWD) with head tracking for synthetic and enhanced vision systems concepts. The first experiment evaluated the use a HWD for equivalent visual operations to San Francisco International Airport (airport identifier: KSFO) compared to a visual concept and a head-down display concept. A second experiment evaluated symbology variations under different visibility conditions using a HWD during taxi operations at Chicago O'Hare airport (airport identifier: KORD). Two experiments were conducted, one in a simulated San Francisco airport (KSFO) approach operation and the other, in simulated Chicago O'Hare surface operations, evaluating enhanced/synthetic vision and head-worn display technologies for NextGen operations. While flying a closely-spaced parallel approach to KSFO, pilots rated the HWD, under low-visibility conditions, equivalent to the out-the-window condition, under unlimited visibility, in terms of situational awareness (SA) and mental workload compared to a head-down enhanced vision system. There were no differences between the 3 display concepts in terms of traffic spacing and distance and the pilot decision-making to land or go-around. For the KORD experiment, the visibility condition was not a factor in pilot's rating of clutter effects from symbology. Several concepts for enhanced implementations of an unlimited field

  16. Enhanced/synthetic vision and head-worn display technologies for terminal maneuvering area NextGen operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Norman, R. Mike

    2011-06-01

    NASA is researching innovative technologies for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) to provide a "Better-Than-Visual" (BTV) capability as adjunct to "Equivalent Visual Operations" (EVO); that is, airport throughputs equivalent to that normally achieved during Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations rates with equivalent and better safety in all weather and visibility conditions including Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). These new technologies build on proven flight deck systems and leverage synthetic and enhanced vision systems. Two piloted simulation studies were conducted to access the use of a Head-Worn Display (HWD) with head tracking for synthetic and enhanced vision systems concepts. The first experiment evaluated the use a HWD for equivalent visual operations to San Francisco International Airport (airport identifier: KSFO) compared to a visual concept and a head-down display concept. A second experiment evaluated symbology variations under different visibility conditions using a HWD during taxi operations at Chicago O'Hare airport (airport identifier: KORD). Two experiments were conducted, one in a simulated San Francisco airport (KSFO) approach operation and the other, in simulated Chicago O'Hare surface operations, evaluating enhanced/synthetic vision and head-worn display technologies for NextGen operations. While flying a closely-spaced parallel approach to KSFO, pilots rated the HWD, under low-visibility conditions, equivalent to the out-the-window condition, under unlimited visibility, in terms of situational awareness (SA) and mental workload compared to a head-down enhanced vision system. There were no differences between the 3 display concepts in terms of traffic spacing and distance and the pilot decision-making to land or go-around. For the KORD experiment, the visibility condition was not a factor in pilot's rating of clutter effects from symbology. Several concepts for enhanced implementations of an unlimited field

  17. Leadership Behaviour Displayed by Heads of School--Its Extent and Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; West, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports results of analyses of data from an online 360[degrees] feedback survey with 19 heads of school, 23 line managers and 120 significant others (peers, academic staff and administrative staff) from Australian universities. It focuses on the heads' effectiveness, and the extent and importance of several leadership roles. A series of…

  18. Leadership Behaviour Displayed by Heads of School--Its Extent and Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; West, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports results of analyses of data from an online 360[degrees] feedback survey with 19 heads of school, 23 line managers and 120 significant others (peers, academic staff and administrative staff) from Australian universities. It focuses on the heads' effectiveness, and the extent and importance of several leadership roles. A series of…

  19. Development of the C-17 Heads-Up Display (HUD) Container, CNU-676/E

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-27

    the container, mounting system or test item. There was no evidence of any contact on impact between the radome and the container walls or cover...leak technique was used to pressurize the container to a minimum test pressure of 10.34 kPa (1.5 psi). Maximum allowable leak rate is 0.34 kPa (0.05...hour. TEST CONCLUSIONS – No damage occurred during the above testing to either the container, mounting system , or test item. There was no evidence

  20. A Low-Cost Part-Task Flight Training System: An Application of a Head Mounted Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Viewer Oriented Perspective View .. .. .. ... ... ... ..... 4-12 5.1. Frame Rate VS Polygon Count. .. .. .. ... ... ... ...... 5-5 A. 1. Plane State...language using a standard three dimensional graphical ref- erence model). The measure of success was whether the simulator could provide a frame update...rate of 15 frames per second or better for Z-buffered, flat-shaded polygons. The results were short of the requirement. Our conclusion is that the price

  1. Head-up display (HUD) utility. II - Runway to HUD transitions monitoring eye focus and decision times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weintraub, D. J.; Haines, R. F.; Randle, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment conducted using a head-up display (HUD) suggests that the demonstrated superiority of the HUD over a conventional instrument panel stems from its superior layout of information. A HUD display presents instrument-panel information to pilots in such a way that the symbols appear as a virtual image at optical infinity superimposed on the landscape. In the experiment conducted, the luminance of the display symbology and its angle subtended at the eye remained fixed, while optical distance and gaze angle were varied. Concomitant measures of eye movements, eye accommodative state, and decision-making time concerning airspeed, altitude and runway condition were obtained. It is found that, while looking straight ahead, at zero diopters, the HUD shortens decision time by 80 to 90 msec, not statistically significant at the 0.05 (slope of diopter/gaze interaction) level. The question of a cognitive overload induced by the luminous symbols of the HUD is subsequently addressed.

  2. Performance and ergonomic characteristics of expert surgeons using a face-mounted display during virtual reality-simulated laparoscopic surgery: an electromyographically based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, D W; Bush, R W; Earle, D B; Seymour, N E

    2007-07-01

    Display positions for laparoscopy in current operating rooms may not be optimal for surgeon comfort or task performance, and face-mounted displays (FMDs) have been forwarded as a potential ergonomic solution. Little is known concerning expert use characteristics of these devices that might help define their role in future surgical care. The authors report the performance and ergonomic characterization of an FMD using virtual reality simulation technology to recreate the surgical environment. An FMD was studied in short- and long-duration trials of validated virtual reality-simulated surgical tasks. For the short-duration phase 7, expert surgeons were familiarized with a task on a conventional monitor, then returned on two separate occasions to repeat the task with the FMD while digital photos were taken during task performance and at the end in a standardized fashion. For the long-duration phase 5, expert surgeons performed two separate trials with repetitive groups of validated tasks for a minimum of 30 min while electromyelogram and performance data were measured. Photos of their gaze angle during and at the end of the trial were taken. All the participants consistently assumed a gaze angle slightly below horizontal during task performance. Performance scores on the FMD did not differ from those obtained with a conventional display, and remained stable with repetitive task performance. No participant had electromyelogram signals that exceeded the established thresholds for fatigue, but some had values within the threshold range. The natural gaze angle during simulated surgery was consistently a bit below horizontal during rigorous virtual reality-simulated tasks. Performance was not compromised during expert surgeons' use of an FMD, nor did muscle fatigue characteristics arise under these conditions. The findings suggest that these devices may represent a viable alternative to conventional displays for minimally invasive surgery, but definition of specific roles

  3. Comparison of a Visual and Head Tactile Display for Soldier Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    4  Figure 2. (left) Portable HMTD: four tactors, tactor controller board , netbook computer, and user response keypad...middle) control board and computer designed to be carried in a backpack; and (right) four tactile transducers mounted in an adjustable headband...tactor controller board (figure 2) over a USB interface and supplied audio signals from the headphone audio output to the external signal input of the

  4. Navigational Heads-Up Display: Will a Shipboard Augmented Electronic Navigation System Sink or Swim?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    of a working display platform onboard Navy warships 14. SUBJECT TERl"\\IS Conning, virtual reality , augmented reality , cognitive tunneling, ship 15...11 1. Virtual Reality ....................................................................................11 2. Augmented Reality ... Virtual Reality Systems ......18 D. SUMMARY ....................................................................................................20 III

  5. Astrocytes in the Optic Nerve Head of Glaucomatous Mice Display a Characteristic Reactive Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Seifert, Philip; Jakobs, Tatjana C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Optic nerve head astrocytes, a subtype of white-matter astrocytes, become reactive early in the course of glaucoma. It was shown recently that in the DBA/2J mouse model of inherited glaucoma optic nerve astrocytes extend new longitudinal processes into the axon bundles before ganglion cell loss becomes apparent. The present study aims at testing whether this behavior of astrocytes is typical of early glaucomatous damage. Methods Mice expressing green fluorescent protein in individual astrocytes were used to evaluate the early response of astrocytes in the glial lamina of the optic nerve head after increasing the IOP using the microbead occlusion method. Tissue sections from the glial lamina were imaged consecutively by confocal and electron microscopy. Results Confocal and electron microscope images show that astrocytes close to the myelination transition zone in the hypertensive nerve heads extend new processes that follow the longitudinal axis of the optic nerve and invade axon bundles in the nerve head. Ultrastructurally, the longitudinal processes were largely devoid of subcellular organelles except for degenerating mitochondria. Conclusions The longitudinal processes are a common feature of glaucomatous optic nerve astrocytes, whereas they are not observed after traumatic nerve injury. Thus, astrocytes appear to fine-tune their responses to the nature and/or timing of the injury to the neurons that they surround. PMID:28170536

  6. Cross-axis adaptation improves 3D vestibulo-ocular reflex alignment during chronic stimulation via a head-mounted multichannel vestibular prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chenkai; Fridman, Gene Y.; Chiang, Bryce; Davidovics, Natan; Melvin, Thuy-Anh; Cullen, Kathleen E.; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    By sensing three-dimensional (3D) head rotation and electrically stimulating the three ampullary branches of a vestibular nerve to encode head angular velocity, a multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) can restore vestibular sensation to individuals disabled by loss of vestibular hair cell function. However, current spread to afferent fibers innervating non-targeted canals and otolith endorgans can distort the vestibular nerve activation pattern, causing misalignment between the perceived and actual axis of head rotation. We hypothesized that over time, central neural mechanisms can adapt to correct this misalignment. To test this, we rendered five chinchillas vestibular-deficient via bilateral gentamicin treatment and unilaterally implanted them with a head mounted MVP. Comparison of 3D angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) responses during 2 Hz, 50°/s peak horizontal sinusoidal head rotations in darkness on the first, third and seventh days of continual MVP use revealed that eye responses about the intended axis remained stable (at about 70% of the normal gain) while misalignment improved significantly by the end of one week of prosthetic stimulation. A comparable time course of improvement was also observed for head rotations about the other two semicircular canal axes and at every stimulus frequency examined (0.2–5 Hz). In addition, the extent of disconjugacy between the two eyes progressively improved during the same time window. These results indicate that the central nervous system rapidly adapts to multichannel prosthetic vestibular stimulation to markedly improve 3D aVOR alignment within the first week after activation. Similar adaptive improvements are likely to occur in other species, including humans. PMID:21374081

  7. An Operational evaluation of head up displays for civil transport operations. NASA/FAA phase 3 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauber, J. K.; Bray, R. S.; Harrison, R. L.; Hemingway, J. C.; Scott, B. C.

    1982-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of head-up displays (HUDs) in commercial jet transport approach and landing operations was evaluated. Ten airline captains currently qualified in the B-727 aircraft flew a series of instrument landing system (ILS) and nonprecision approaches in a motion base simulator using both a flight director HUD concept and a flightpath HUD concept as well as conventional head-down instruments under a variety of environmental and operational conditions to assess: (1) the potential benefits of these HUDs in airline operations; (2) problems which might be associated with their use; and (3) flight crew training requirements and flight crew operating procedures suitable for use with the HUDs. Results are presented in terms of objective simulator based performance measures, subject pilot opinion and rating data, and observer data.

  8. Optoelectronic Mounting Structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R. F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Chu, Dahwey; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Peterson, Gary D.; Reber, Cathleen A.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2004-10-05

    An optoelectronic mounting structure is provided that may be used in conjunction with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. The mounting structure may be a flexible printed circuit board. Thermal vias or heat pipes in the head region may transmit heat from the mounting structure to the heat spreader. The heat spreader may provide mechanical rigidity or stiffness to the heat region. In another embodiment, an electrical contact and ground plane may pass along a surface of the head region so as to provide an electrical contact path to the optoelectronic devices and limit electromagnetic interference. In yet another embodiment, a window may be formed in the head region of the mounting structure so as to provide access to the heat spreader. Optoelectronic devices may be adapted to the heat spreader in such a manner that the devices are accessible through the window in the mounting structure.

  9. Simulation and flight test evaluation of head-up-display guidance for harrier approach transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorr, D. W.; Moralez, E., III; Merrick, V. K.

    1994-01-01

    Position and speed guidance displays for STOVL aircraft curved, decelerating approaches to hover and vertical landing have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing pilot workload and improving performance. The NASA V/STOL Systems Research Aircraft, a modified YAV-8B Harrier prototype, was used to evaluate the displays in flight, whereas the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator was used to extend the flight test results to instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) and to examine performance in various conditions of wind and turbulence. The simulation data showed close correlation with the flight test data, and both demonstrated the feasibility of the displays. With the exception of the hover task in zero visibility, which was level-3, averaged Copper-Harper handling qualities ratings given during simulation were level-2 for both the approach task and the hover task in all conditions. During flight tests in calm and clear conditions, the displays also gave rise to level-2 handling qualities ratings. Pilot opinion showed that the guidance displays would be useful in visual flight, especially at night, as well as in IMC.

  10. Simulation and flight test evaluation of head-up-display guidance for harrier approach transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorr, D. W.; Moralez, E., III; Merrick, V. K.

    1994-01-01

    Position and speed guidance displays for STOVL aircraft curved, decelerating approaches to hover and vertical landing have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing pilot workload and improving performance. The NASA V/STOL Systems Research Aircraft, a modified YAV-8B Harrier prototype, was used to evaluate the displays in flight, whereas the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator was used to extend the flight test results to instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) and to examine performance in various conditions of wind and turbulence. The simulation data showed close correlation with the flight test data, and both demonstrated the feasibility of the displays. With the exception of the hover task in zero visibility, which was level-3, averaged Copper-Harper handling qualities ratings given during simulation were level-2 for both the approach task and the hover task in all conditions. During flight tests in calm and clear conditions, the displays also gave rise to level-2 handling qualities ratings. Pilot opinion showed that the guidance displays would be useful in visual flight, especially at night, as well as in IMC.

  11. Microscope-integrated intraoperative OCT with electrically tunable focus and heads-up display for imaging of ophthalmic surgical maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yuankai K; Srivastava, Sunil K; Ehlers, Justis P

    2014-06-01

    We present novel optical and mechanical designs for a microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) system with enhanced function and ergonomics for visualization of ophthalmic surgical maneuvers. Integration of an electrically tunable lens allows rapid focal plane adjustment and iOCT imaging of both anterior and posterior segment tissue microstructures while maintaining parfocality with the ophthalmic surgical microscope. We demonstrate novel visualization of instrument positions relative to tissue layers of interest as colormap overlays onto en face OCT data, which may provide integrative display of volumetric information during surgical maneuvers. Finally, we implement a heads-up display system to provide real-time feedback as proof-of-principle for iOCT-guided ophthalmic surgery.

  12. A preliminary study of head-up display assessment techniques. 2: HUD symbology and panel information search time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guercio, J. G.; Haines, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    Twelve commercial pilots were shown 50 high-fidelity slides of a standard aircraft instrument panel with the airspeed, altitude, ADI, VSI, and RMI needles in various realistic orientations. Fifty slides showing an integrated head-up display (HUD) symbology containing an equivalent number of flight parameters as above (with flight path replacing VSI) were also shown. Each subject was told what flight parameter to search for just before each slide was exposed and was given as long as needed (12 sec maximum) to respond by verbalizing the parameter's displayed value. The results for the 100-percent correct data indicated that: there was no significant difference in mean reaction time (averaged across all five flight parameters) between the instrument panel and HUD slides; and a statistically significant difference in mean reaction time was found in responding to different flight parameters.

  13. Quantification of Contrast Sensitivity and Color Perception using Head-worn Augmented Reality Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    the case the Sony Glasstron PLM -50, enables a filter that reduces transmittance of light from the environment. Two binocular displays showed differ...Edition). Thomson Wadsworth, 2007. [5] S. E. Kirkley, Jr. Augmented Reality Performance Assessment Bat- tery (ARPAB): Object Recognition, Distance

  14. Advanced helmet mounted display (AHMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisodia, Ashok; Bayer, Michael; Townley-Smith, Paul; Nash, Brian; Little, Jay; Cassarly, William; Gupta, Anurag

    2007-04-01

    Due to significantly increased U.S. military involvement in deterrent, observer, security, peacekeeping and combat roles around the world, the military expects significant future growth in the demand for deployable virtual reality trainers with networked simulation capability of the battle space visualization process. The use of HMD technology in simulated virtual environments has been initiated by the demand for more effective training tools. The AHMD overlays computer-generated data (symbology, synthetic imagery, enhanced imagery) augmented with actual and simulated visible environment. The AHMD can be used to support deployable reconfigurable training solutions as well as traditional simulation requirements, UAV augmented reality, air traffic control and Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) applications. This paper will describe the design improvements implemented for production of the AHMD System.

  15. Globular Head-Displayed Conserved Influenza H1 Hemagglutinin Stalk Epitopes Confer Protection against Heterologous H1N1 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Klausberger, Miriam; Tscheliessnig, Rupert; Neff, Silke; Nachbagauer, Raffael; Wohlbold, Teddy John; Wilde, Monika; Palmberger, Dieter; Krammer, Florian; Jungbauer, Alois; Grabherr, Reingard

    2016-01-01

    Significant genetic variability in the head region of the influenza A hemagglutinin, the main target of current vaccines, makes it challenging to develop a long-lived seasonal influenza prophylaxis. Vaccines based on the conserved hemagglutinin stalk domain might provide broader cross-reactive immunity. However, this region of the hemagglutinin is immunosubdominant to the head region. Peptide-based vaccines have gained much interest as they allow the immune system to focus on relevant but less immunogenic epitopes. We developed a novel influenza A hemagglutinin-based display platform for H1 hemagglutinin stalk peptides that we identified in an epitope mapping assay using human immune sera and synthetic HA peptides. Flow cytometry and competition assays suggest that the identified stalk sequences do not recapitulate the epitopes of already described broadly neutralizing stalk antibodies. Vaccine constructs displaying 25-mer stalk sequences provided up to 75% protection from lethal heterologous virus challenge in BALB/c mice and induced antibody responses against the H1 hemagglutinin. The developed platform based on a vaccine antigen has the potential to be either used as stand-alone or as prime-vaccine in combination with conventional seasonal or pandemic vaccines for the amplification of stalk-based cross-reactive immunity in humans or as platform to evaluate the relevance of viral peptides/epitopes for protection against influenza virus infection. PMID:27088239

  16. Documentation and teaching of surgery with an eye movement driven head-mounted camera: see what the surgeon sees and does.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Erich; Bartl, Klaus; Dera, Thomas; Böning, Guido; Wagner, Philipp; Brandt, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A first proof of concept was developed for a head-mounted video camera system that is continuously aligned with the user's orientation of gaze. In doing so, it records images from the user's perspective that can document manual tasks during, e.g., surgery. Eye movements are tracked by video-oculography and used as signals to drive servo motors that rotate the camera. Thus, the sensorimotor output of a biological system for the control of eye movements evolved over millions of years is used to move an artificial eye. All the capabilities of multi-sensory processing for eye, head, and surround motions are detected by the vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems and used to drive a technical camera system. A camera guided in this way mimics the natural exploration of a visual scene and acquires video sequences from the perspective of a mobile user, while the oculomotor reflexes naturally stabilize the camera on target during head and target movements. Various documentation and teaching applications in health care, industry, and research are conceivable.

  17. Development and Design of Next-Generation Head-Mounted Ambulatory Microdose Positron-Emission Tomography (AM-PET) System.

    PubMed

    Melroy, Samantha; Bauer, Christopher; McHugh, Matthew; Carden, Garret; Stolin, Alexander; Majewski, Stan; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie; Wuest, Thorsten

    2017-05-19

    Several applications exist for a whole brain positron-emission tomography (PET) brain imager designed as a portable unit that can be worn on a patient's head. Enabled by improvements in detector technology, a lightweight, high performance device would allow PET brain imaging in different environments and during behavioral tasks. Such a wearable system that allows the subjects to move their heads and walk-the Ambulatory Microdose PET (AM-PET)-is currently under development. This imager will be helpful for testing subjects performing selected activities such as gestures, virtual reality activities and walking. The need for this type of lightweight mobile device has led to the construction of a proof of concept portable head-worn unit that uses twelve silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) PET module sensors built into a small ring which fits around the head. This paper is focused on the engineering design of mechanical support aspects of the AM-PET project, both of the current device as well as of the coming next-generation devices. The goal of this work is to optimize design of the scanner and its mechanics to improve comfort for the subject by reducing the effect of weight, and to enable diversification of its applications amongst different research activities.

  18. Development and Design of Next-Generation Head-Mounted Ambulatory Microdose Positron-Emission Tomography (AM-PET) System

    PubMed Central

    Melroy, Samantha; Bauer, Christopher; McHugh, Matthew; Carden, Garret; Stolin, Alexander; Majewski, Stan; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie; Wuest, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    Several applications exist for a whole brain positron-emission tomography (PET) brain imager designed as a portable unit that can be worn on a patient’s head. Enabled by improvements in detector technology, a lightweight, high performance device would allow PET brain imaging in different environments and during behavioral tasks. Such a wearable system that allows the subjects to move their heads and walk—the Ambulatory Microdose PET (AM-PET)—is currently under development. This imager will be helpful for testing subjects performing selected activities such as gestures, virtual reality activities and walking. The need for this type of lightweight mobile device has led to the construction of a proof of concept portable head-worn unit that uses twelve silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) PET module sensors built into a small ring which fits around the head. This paper is focused on the engineering design of mechanical support aspects of the AM-PET project, both of the current device as well as of the coming next-generation devices. The goal of this work is to optimize design of the scanner and its mechanics to improve comfort for the subject by reducing the effect of weight, and to enable diversification of its applications amongst different research activities. PMID:28534848

  19. Color speckle in laser displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  20. Conformal flight path symbology for head-up displays: Defining the distribution of visual attention in three-dimensional space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ververs, Patricia May

    An extensive investigation of the format for head-up display (HUD) instrumentation was conducted in a two-part experiment. First, a pilot's information requirements for the tasks of approach, landing, and taxi were determined through a survey administered to professional commercial pilots via the world wide web. The results of the survey were applied in the development of two symbology sets, one set for flight navigation and the second for ground navigation. Second, twenty pilots from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign were recruited to participate in a 3-day experiment. The study was designed to investigate the format for symbology on HUDs and the performance effects of using conformal and partially conformal symbology to support the pilots' tasks. In addition, two different methods were investigated for supporting the pilots' transition between the task of flying and the task of landing. A seamless transition used visual momentum techniques to smoothly guide the pilots' cognitive transition between the serial displays and the associated tasks. A seamed approach employed an abrupt change between the displays to alert the pilots of the task switch. The results indicate that incorporating a virtually conformal, tunnel-in-the-sky symbology into a complete HUD instrumentation set offers promising pilot performance effects. Pilots easily navigated the complex curved approaches with little to no deviation from the flight path (approximately 10 feet), while performing the secondary tasks of the scanning their instruments and the environment. The seamless transition between the flight and ground symbology offered the pilots a preview of the upcoming landing task, thereby preparing them for the task switch. On the ground, the perspective (scene-linked) symbology set supported landing and taxi navigation tasks with the equal efficiency to the plan view display but with much greater precision. Theories of allocation of attention were used to interpret the