Sample records for head shaking nystagmus

  1. Diversity of head shaking nystagmus in peripheral vestibular disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Beom; Huh, Se Hyung; Ban, Jae Ho

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of head shaking nystagmus in various peripheral vestibular diseases. Retrospective case series. Tertiary referral center. Data of 235 patients with peripheral vestibular diseases including vestibular neuritis, Ménière's disease, and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, were retrospectively analyzed. All subjects presented between August 2009 and July 2010. Patients were tested for vestibular function including head shaking nystagmus and caloric information. Regarding vestibular neuritis, all tests were again performed during the 1-month follow-up. Head shaking nystagmus was classified as monophasic or biphasic and, according to the affected ear, was divided as ipsilesional or contralesional. Of the 235 patients, 87 patients revealed positive head shaking nystagmus. According to each disease, positive rates of head shaking nystagmus were as follows: 35 (100%) of 35 cases of vestibular neuritis, 11 (68.8%) of 16 cases of Ménière's disease, and 41 (22.2%) of 184 cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. All cases of vestibular neuritis initially presented as a monophasic, contralesional beating, head shaking nystagmus. However, 1 month after first visit, the direction of nystagmus was changed to biphasic (contralesional first then ipsilesional beating) in 25 cases (72.5%) but not in 10 cases (27.5%). There was a significant correlation between the degree of initial caloric weakness and the biphasic conversion of head shaking nystagmus (p = 0.02). In 72.5% of vestibular neuritis cases, head shaking nystagmus was converted to biphasic during the subacute period. The larger the initial canal paresis was present, the more frequent the biphasic conversion of head shaking nystagmus occurred. However, Ménière's disease and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo did not have specific patterns of head shaking nystagmus.

  2. Head-Shaking Nystagmus Depends on Gravity

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Sarah; Straumann, Dominik

    2005-01-01

    In acute unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit, horizontal spontaneous nystagmus (SN) increases when patients lie on their affected ear. This phenomenon indicates an ipsilesional reduction of otolith function that normally suppresses asymmetric semicircular canal signals. We asked whether head-shaking nystagmus (HSN) in patients with chronic unilateral vestibular deficit following vestibular neuritis is influenced by gravity in the same way as SN in acute patients. Using a three-dimensional (3-D) turntable, patients (N = 7) were placed in different whole-body positions along the roll plane and oscillated (1 Hz, ±10°) about their head-fixed vertical axis. Eye movements were recorded with 3-D magnetic search coils. HSN was modulated by gravity: When patients lay on their affected ear, slow-phase eye velocity significantly increased upon head shaking and consisted of a horizontal drift toward the affected ear (average: 1.2°/s ±0.5 SD), which was added to the gravity-independent and directionally nonspecific SN. In conclusion, HSN in patients with chronic unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit is best elicited when they are lying on their affected ear. This suggests a gravity-dependent mechanism similar to the one observed for SN in acute patients, i.e., an asymmetric suppression of vestibular nystagmus by the unilaterally impaired otolith organs. PMID:15735939

  3. Head-shaking nystagmus predicts greater disability in unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Simon I; Velandia, Sandra; Snapp, Hillary

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of the bedside test of head-shaking nystagmus (HSN) with patients' self-perceived dizziness handicap as well as this test's sensitivity and specificity in unilateral peripheral vestibular hypofunction. A retrospective case-control study was performed. The study was held at an academic, tertiary referral center. Fifty-three adult patients with unilateral peripheral hypofunction defined by the caloric test of the videonystagmography with documented bedside HSN and who had completed questionnaires of self-perceived dizziness handicap were included. The sensitivity and specificity of the bedside HSN in patients and 10 healthy controls in diagnosing unilateral vestibular hypofunction defined by videonystagmographic caloric testing and by abnormal gain and symmetry of the vestibular-ocular reflex by rotary chair testing were determined. Scores of the screening test of the Dizziness Handicap Index and Functional Level Scale questionnaires were taken. When using the caloric irrigation test as the reference standard for unilateral vestibular hypofunction, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the bedside HSN were 31%, 96%, and 97%, respectively. When comparing with results of rotational chair testing (vestibular-ocular reflex gain and symmetry), the sensitivity of the HSN test increases to 71%. Patients with positive bedside HSN had higher scores (greater self-perceived dizziness handicap) of the Dizziness Handicap Index (P = .049) and higher (worse) scores of the Functional Level Scale (P = .0377) than those with negative bedside HSN (Wilcoxon rank test). Greater perceived handicap was correlated with a positive bedside HSN in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy. The HSN has sufficient sensitivity to be used as screening test of uncompensated vestibulopathy in this series. However, a negative HSN alone does not rule out the diagnosis of peripheral vestibular dysfunction

  4. Change in head posture and character of nystagmus in a patient with neurological upbeat nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Caleb; Seth, Rajeev K; Ramos-Esteban, Jerome C

    2007-01-01

    To report a case of a patient with chin-up head posture and presumed congenital toxoplasmosis chorioretinal scars, who had a change in the character of the nystagmus and therefore the head posture following treatment for a neurological upbeat nystagmus. A 5 month old female presented with a chin up head posture and upbeat nystagmus. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed an arachnoid cyst in the area of the pineal gland. Nine months after cyst-peritoneal shunt surgery, the upbeat nystagmus was dampened but change in character to a rotary nystagmus worse on the left gaze. The patient had assumed a left face turn, shifting the null point from the vertical to the horizontal plane. The left face turn was successfully corrected at age eight years with a Kestenbaum procedure. This case emphasizes the possibility of having two distinct types of nystagmus associated with two etiologies. In this case, an acquired upbeat nystagmus secondary to an arachnoid cyst, and a congenital left rotary nystagmus from the chorioretinal scars. Furthermore, there can be a change in head position and character of nystagmus after treating the cause of the central motility disorder, thereby affecting the choice and timing of surgical intervention to correct the head positioning.

  5. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  6. Apogeotropic central positional nystagmus as a sole sign of nodular infarction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Yi, Hyon-Ah; Lee, Hyung

    2012-10-01

    Positional vertigo and nystagmus without associated neurological symptoms and signs are characteristic features of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Although positional nystagmus may occur with caudal cerebellar infarction including the nodulus, positional nystagmus is usually associated with other neurological signs such as spontaneous or gaze-evoked nystagmus, perverted head-shaking nystagmus, cerebellar dysmetria, or severe gait ataxia with falling. We present a patient with nodular infarction who had positional vertigo with nystagmus as a sole manifestation. Video-oculography showed apogeotropic positional horizontal nystagmus during head turning while supine, which was consistent with apogeotropic BPPV involving the horizontal canal. MRI disclosed acute infarct in the nodulus. Nodulus infarction should be considered in a patient with positional nystagmus, especially when the presenting symptoms and signs are consistent with BPPV involving the horizontal canal.

  7. [Nystagmus].

    PubMed

    Jutila, Topi; Hirvonen, Timo P

    2013-01-01

    Physiological nystagmus stabilizes gaze during head movements and pathological nystagmus reflects a disorder of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Pathological nystagmus appears or strengthens usually during change in head position. Therefore, dizziness or nystagmus associated with head movements is not specific to benign paroxysmal positional vertigo unless it is verified in specific positional test. Peripheral nystagmus decelerates during visual fixation, accelerates when gaze is turned towards the fast phase, does not change direction, and is usually composed of several directional components unlike central nystagmus. The velocity and frequency of the slow phase of nystagmus can be measured with electronystagmography or video-oculography.

  8. Can imaginary head tilt shorten postrotatory nystagmus?

    PubMed

    Gianna-Poulin, C C; Voelker, C C; Erickson, B; Black, F O

    2001-08-01

    In healthy subjects, head tilt upon cessation of a constant-velocity yaw head rotation shortens the duration of postrotatory nystagmus. The presumed mechanism for this effect is that the velocity storage of horizontal semicircular canal inputs is being discharged by otolith organ inputs which signal a constant yaw head position when the head longitudinal axis is no longer earth-vertical. In the present study, normal subjects were rotated head upright in the dark on a vertical-axis rotational chair at 60 degrees/s for 75 s and were required to perform a specific task as soon as the chair stopped. Horizontal position of the right eye was recorded with an infra-red video camera. The average eye velocity (AEV) was measured over a 30-s interval following chair acceleration/deceleration. The ratios (postrotatory AEV/perrotatory AEV) were 1.1 (SD 0.112) when subjects (N=10) kept their head erect, 0.414 (SD 0.083) when subjects tilted their head forward, 1.003 (SD 0.108) when subjects imagined watching a TV show, 1.012 (SD 0.074) when subjects imagined looking at a painting on a wall, and 0.995 (SD 0.074) when subjects imagined floating in a prone position on a lake. Thus, while actual head tilt reduced postrotatory nystagmus, the imagination tasks did not have a statistically significant effect on postrotatory nystagmus. Therefore, velocity storage does not appear to be under the influence of cortical neural signals when subjects imagine that they are floating in a prone orientation.

  9. Oblique muscle surgery for treatment of nystagmus with head tilt.

    PubMed

    Lueder, Gregg T; Galli, Marlo

    2012-08-01

    Patients with nystagmus may adopt an abnormal head posture if they have a null zone in eccentric gaze. These patients uncommonly present with torticollis due to a null zone when the head is tilted. We describe the results of surgery on the oblique muscles to improve the abnormal head posture in this condition. This was a retrospective review of patients who had head tilts due to null zones of nystagmus. Surgery consisted of an anterior 50% tenectomy of the superior oblique tendon on one side and recession of the inferior oblique muscle to a position 6 mm posterior to the insertion of the inferior rectus muscle on the contralateral side. The patients' clinical histories and outcomes were reviewed. Six patients underwent the procedure. Of these, four had infantile nystagmus syndrome and two were born prematurely and had histories of intraventricular hemorrhages. Five of the patients had previous Kestenbaum surgery that corrected the horizontal component of their abnormal head postures. Age at time of surgery for the head tilt ranged from 3 to 13 years. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 1.5 to 3 years. The preoperative head tilts ranged from 25° to 45° (mean, 39°). The postoperative improvement ranged from 20° to 40° (mean, 28°). One of the patients with a history of intraventricular hemorrhage required additional surgery for strabismus unrelated to nystagmus. Anterior tenectomy of the superior oblique tendon combined with contralateral recession of the inferior oblique muscle improved head tilts related to a null zone of nystagmus. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Reference values for the vestibulo-ocular reflex response to the head shaking and the bithermal caloric tests].

    PubMed

    Molina, M I; Zapata, C; Palma, M J; López-Escámez, J A

    2006-01-01

    To obtain reference values for the vestibulo-ocular reflex response to the head-shaking nystagmus and the bithermal caloric test in the spanish population. A descriptive study. SET UP: General hospital. One hundred and seven healthy sex and age stratified voluntiers were included. The final sample included 97 individuals over 18 years of age. Spontaneous nystagmus (SN), head-shaking nystagmus (HSN) and caloric induced nystagmus were explored. The eyes movement was recorded by a video-oculographic system. The SN or HSN was considered significant when at least 6 consecutive beats with a slow phase velocity of 2 degrees/sec were detected. The caloric test was performed with water flow at 250mL/20 s at 30 degrees C and 44 degrees C with an interval of 10 minutes between irrigations. The percentage of canal paresis (CP) and directional preponderance (DP) was calculated using maximum slow phase velocity and the Jongkees index formula. Presence of SN, horizontal and vertical SHN, percentage of CP and DP. SN was found in 10,3% individuals (6 women and 4 men). Horizontal HSN was also observed in 9 women and 10 men (19,5%), and vertical HSN in 8 women and 10 men (18,6%). The mean and 95 percentil for CP were 13,10 and 28,60 in women and 11,02 and 27,30 in men. For DP, the mean and 95 percentil were 11,76 and 35,80 in women and 11,58 and 28,65 in men. The 5 percentils for slow phase velocity of nystagmus after each irrigation were 6,30; 5,14; 5,96; 4,02 degrees/s (left ear 44 degrees, right ear 44 degrees, left ear 30 degrees, right ear 30 degrees, respectively) in the group of women; and 5,82; 6,99; 5,67; 4,55 degrees/s in men (with the same irrigation sequence). Results presented should be considered as a population-based norms and may be useful as references for water bithermal test for VOG studies. The SN or HSN could be observed in subjects without vestibular pathology.

  11. The video head impulse test during post-rotatory nystagmus: physiology and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Mantokoudis, Georgios; Tehrani, Ali S Saber; Xie, Li; Eibenberger, Karin; Eibenberger, Bernhard; Roberts, Dale; Newman-Toker, David E; Zee, David S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effects of a sustained nystagmus on the head impulse response of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in healthy subjects. VOR gain (slow-phase eye velocity/head velocity) was measured using video head impulse test goggles. Acting as a surrogate for a spontaneous nystagmus (SN), a post-rotatory nystagmus (PRN) was elicited after a sustained, constant-velocity rotation, and then head impulses were applied. 'Raw' VOR gain, uncorrected for PRN, in healthy subjects in response to head impulses with peak velocities in the range of 150°/s-250°/s was significantly increased (as reflected in an increase in the slope of the gain versus head velocity relationship) after inducing PRN with slow phases of nystagmus of high intensity (>30°/s) in the same but not in the opposite direction as the slow-phase response induced by the head impulses. The values of VOR gain themselves, however, remained in the normal range with slow-phase velocities of PRN < 30°/s. Finally, quick phases of PRN were suppressed during the first 20-160 ms of a head impulse; the time frame of suppression depended on the direction of PRN but not on the duration of the head impulse. Our results in normal subjects suggest that VOR gains measured using head impulses may have to be corrected for any superimposed SN when the slow-phase velocity of nystagmus is relatively high and the peak velocity of the head movements is relatively low. The suppression of quick phases during head impulses may help to improve steady fixation during rapid head movements.

  12. Congenital Head Nodding and Nystagmus with Cerebrocerebellar Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyanaraman, K.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Reported are three case histories of children with congenital head nodding and nystagmus (rhytmic oscillation of the eyeballs) associated with brain degeneration and motor and mental retardation. (DB)

  13. ANOMALOUS HEAD POSTURES IN STRABISMUS AND NYSTAGMUS - DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT -

    PubMed Central

    Teodorescu, Luminita

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal head positions are adopted in order to improve visual acuity, to avoid diplopia or to obtain a more comfortable binocular vision. The head can be turned or tilted toward right or left, with the chin rotated up or downwards or combination of these positions. The ophthalmologic examination including the assessment of versions leads to the diagnosis. When versions are free, the cause may be congenital nystagmus or strabismus with large angle. When versions are limited we suspect paralytic or restrictive strabismus. The head tilted to one shoulder suggests cyclotropia (IV Nerve Palsy) or congenital nystagmus. We present few of the above cases. An adequate surgical treatment can improve or correct the ocular deviation, diplopia and the abnormal head posture. Conclusions: The abnormal head posture must be assessed and treated early in order to correct the ocular position and head posture. All patient presenting abnormal head position HAD TO BE investigated by an ophthalmologist. PMID:26978880

  14. [Treatment options for nystagmus].

    PubMed

    Tegetmeyer, H

    2015-02-01

    The goal of treatment for nystagmus is to reduce or to abolish the typical symptoms associated with nystagmus. These are (i) reduction of visual acuity (and amblyopia in infantile nystagmus), (ii) abnormal head posture (with possible secondary changes of cervical spine) and (iii) oscillopsia (often connected with vertigo and disorders of gait and orientation). Treatment strategies include pharmacological treatment, surgical therapy and optical devices. Choice of treatment depends on the type of nystagmus and its characteristics. The following surgical procedures were successfully used as treatment of selected symptoms: (i) unilateral recess-resect surgery of the dominant eye in infantile esotropia with latent nystagmus for the relief of abnormal head posture, (ii) Kestenbaum operation of both eyes in infantile nystagmus syndrome with excentric null zone and abnormal head posture, (iii) recess-resect surgery to produce artificial exophoria in infantile nystagmus syndrome. PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT: Depending on the pathophysiology of different types of nystagmus, several drugs were effective in clinical application (off-label use): (i) gabapentin (non-selective GABAergic and anti-glutamatergic effect): up to 2400 mg/d in infantile nystagmus, acquired pendular nystagmus and oculopalatal tremor, (ii) nemantine (anti-glutamatergic effect): dosage up to 40 mg/d in infantile nystagmus, also in acquired pendular nystagmus and oculopalatal tremor, (iii) baclofen (GABA-B-receptor agonist): 3 × 5-10 mg/d in periodic alternating nystagmus and in upbeat nystagmus, (iv) 4-aminopyridine (non-selective blocker of voltage-gated potassium channels): 3 × 5 mg/d or 1-2 × 10 mg Fampridin in downbeat nystagmus and upbeat nystagmus, (v) acetazolamide (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor): in hereditary episodic ataxia type 2. OPTICAL DEVICES: (i) Contact lenses are used in infantile nystagmus in order to overcome negative effects of eye glasses in abnormal head posture

  15. Surgical management of anomalous head posture because of horizontal gaze palsy or acquired vertical nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Campos, E C; Schiavi, C; Bellusci, C

    2003-07-01

    To confirm the effectiveness of the Kestenbaum-Anderson principle in the surgical management of compensatory head posture because of horizontal gaze palsy and acquired vertical nystagmus. Nine patients with anomalous head posture because of horizontal gaze palsy, and four patients with acquired vertical nystagmus and oscillopsia and compensatory torticollis underwent surgery according to the Kestenbaum-Anderson principle. As in the treatment of congenital nystagmus, the eyes have to be shifted in the orbits, in the direction of anomalous head posture. Homonymously based prisms were used preoperatively to assess the potential benefit of surgery. At the time of surgery, the clinical conditions of the patients had been stable for at least 1 year. After surgery, compensatory head posture and visual performances improved in all cases and the results remained stable for at least 2 years. Contrary to what is generally believed, the ocular condition of the patients with compensatory head posture secondary to neurological causes can be often improved with surgery. The aim of surgery is obviously not to modify ocular motility, but rather to improve the head position.

  16. Nystagmus and oscillopsia.

    PubMed

    Straube, A; Bronstein, A; Straumann, D

    2012-01-01

    The ocular motor system consists of several subsystems, including the vestibular ocular nystagmus saccade system, the pursuit system, the fixation and gaze-holding system and the vergence system. All these subsystems aid the stabilization of the images on the retina during eye and head movements and any kind of disturbance of one of the systems can cause instability of the eyes (e.g. nystagmus) or an inadequate eye movement causing a mismatch between head and eye movement (e.g. bilateral vestibular failure). In both situations, the subjects experience a movement of the world (oscillopsia) which is quite disturbing. New insights into the patho-physiology of some of the ocular motor disorders have helped to establish new treatment options, in particular in downbeat nystagmus, upbeat nystagmus, periodic alternating nystagmus, acquired pendular nystagmus and paroxysmal vestibular episodes/attacks. The discussed patho-physiology of these disorders and the current literature on treatment options are discussed and practical treatment recommendations are given in the paper. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  17. Single-plane compensatory phase shift of head and eye oscillations in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Evangelos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Anastasopoulos, Dimitri

    2011-09-15

    A 43-year-old man with infantile nystagmus syndrome complained of "head tremor" that would occur during attempted reading. Three-dimensional, combined eye and head recordings were performed with the magnetic search coil technique in two conditions: 1) looking straight-ahead under photopic conditions without a particular attentional focus and 2) reading a simple text held one meter away. A mainly vertical-horizontal spontaneous nystagmus was evident in both conditions, whereas head nodding emerged in the second condition. The head oscillated only in the vertical plane and concomitant analysis of eye and head displacement revealed a counterphase, compensatory pattern of the first harmonic of the INS waveform. This was verified by the significant negative peak of the crosscorrelogram at zero lag. Eye-in-space (gaze) displacement during nystagmic oscillations was thereby reduced suggesting a central adaptive behavior that may have evolved to partly compensate for the abnormal eye movements during reading. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nystagmus-based approach to vertebrobasilar stroke presenting as vertigo without initial neurologic signs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Beom; Boo, Sung Hyun; Ban, Jae Ho

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the clinical courses and common nystagmus of isolated vertigo patients with vertebrobasilar stroke. The patients who presented with isolated acute spontaneous vertigo with spontaneous nystagmus (acute vestibular syndrome) at the Emergency Department were retrospectively analyzed. They were referred to the Otolaryngology Department due to the absence of neurologic signs or even of imaging abnormalities after the initial examination at the Emergency Department. Various clinical features, including presenting symptoms, delayed neurologic signs, the site of infarction, and videonystagmographic (VNG) findings were analyzed. Of the 468 cases of acute vestibular syndrome, 23 (4.9%) cases of radiologically proven vertebrobasilar stroke were identified. Of the 23 patients, 17 (74%) showed aggravation of vertigo or delayed neurologic signs during the admission. In the analysis of VNG, 11 (48%) cases of direction-changing gaze-evoked nystagmus, 7 (30%) cases of fixation failure in the caloric test, 6 (27%) cases of periodic alternating nystagmus, and 4 (17%) cases of atypical head-shaking nystagmus were presented. Stroke occurred in the cerebellum (n=18, 78%), medulla (n=4, 17%), and pons (n=1, 4%). In the early stage of vertebrobasilar stroke, an accurate diagnosis was difficult in the Emergency Department even though a radiologic study was performed, but various VNG abnormalities and delayed neurologic signs could help to diagnose whether the origin is central or not. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Beside the point: Mothers' head nodding and shaking gestures during parent-child play.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Maria; Vallotton, Claire D; Harris, Paul L

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the context for children's social learning and language acquisition requires consideration of caregivers' multi-modal (speech, gesture) messages. Though young children can interpret both manual and head gestures, little research has examined the communicative input that children receive via parents' head gestures. We longitudinally examined the frequency and communicative functions of mothers' head nodding and head shaking gestures during laboratory play sessions for 32 mother-child dyads, when the children were 14, 20, and 30 months of age. The majority of mothers produced head nods more frequently than head shakes. Both gestures contributed to mothers' verbal attempts at behavior regulation and dialog. Mothers' head nods primarily conveyed agreement with, and attentiveness to, children's utterances, and accompanied affirmative statements and yes/no questions. Mothers' head shakes primarily conveyed prohibitions and statements with negations. Changes over time appeared to reflect corresponding developmental changes in social and communicative dimensions of caregiver-child interaction. Directions for future research are discussed regarding the role of head gesture input in socialization and in supporting language development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Head position modulates optokinetic nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Ferraresi, A.; Botti, F. M.; Panichi, R.; Barmack, N. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation and movement relies on both visual and vestibular information mapped in separate coordinate systems. Here, we examine how coordinate systems interact to guide eye movements of rabbits. We exposed rabbits to continuous horizontal optokinetic stimulation (HOKS) at 5°/s to evoke horizontal eye movements, while they were statically or dynamically roll-tilted about the longitudinal axis. During monocular or binocular HOKS, when the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the posterior → anterior (P → A) direction, slow phase eye velocity (SPEV) increased by 3.5–5°/s. When the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the A → P direction, SPEV decreased to ~2.5°/s. We also tested the effect of roll-tilt after prolonged optokinetic stimulation had induced a negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II). In this condition, the SPEV occurred in the dark, “open loop.” Modulation of SPEV of OKAN II depended on the direction of the nystagmus and was consistent with that observed during “closed loop” HOKS. Dynamic roll-tilt influenced SPEV evoked by HOKS in a similar way. The amplitude and the phase of SPEV depended on the frequency of vestibular oscillation and on HOKS velocity. We conclude that the change in the linear acceleration of the gravity vector with respect to the head during roll-tilt modulates the gain of SPEV depending on its direction. This modulation improves gaze stability at different image retinal slip velocities caused by head roll-tilt during centric or eccentric head movement. PMID:21735244

  1. Head position modulates optokinetic nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Pettorossi, V E; Ferraresi, A; Botti, F M; Panichi, R; Barmack, N H

    2011-08-01

    Orientation and movement relies on both visual and vestibular information mapped in separate coordinate systems. Here, we examine how coordinate systems interact to guide eye movements of rabbits. We exposed rabbits to continuous horizontal optokinetic stimulation (HOKS) at 5°/s to evoke horizontal eye movements, while they were statically or dynamically roll-tilted about the longitudinal axis. During monocular or binocular HOKS, when the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the posterior → anterior (P → A) direction, slow phase eye velocity (SPEV) increased by 3.5-5°/s. When the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the A → P direction, SPEV decreased to ~2.5°/s. We also tested the effect of roll-tilt after prolonged optokinetic stimulation had induced a negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II). In this condition, the SPEV occurred in the dark, "open loop." Modulation of SPEV of OKAN II depended on the direction of the nystagmus and was consistent with that observed during "closed loop" HOKS. Dynamic roll-tilt influenced SPEV evoked by HOKS in a similar way. The amplitude and the phase of SPEV depended on the frequency of vestibular oscillation and on HOKS velocity. We conclude that the change in the linear acceleration of the gravity vector with respect to the head during roll-tilt modulates the gain of SPEV depending on its direction. This modulation improves gaze stability at different image retinal slip velocities caused by head roll-tilt during centric or eccentric head movement.

  2. Ocular motor characteristics of different subtypes of spinocerebellar ataxia: distinguishing features.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Sun; Kim, Ji Soo; Youn, Jinyoung; Seo, Dae-Won; Jeong, Yuri; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jeong Ho; Cho, Jin Whan

    2013-08-01

    Because of frequent involvement of the cerebellum and brainstem, ocular motor abnormalities are key features of spinocerebellar ataxias and may aid in differential diagnosis. Our objective for this study was to distinguish the subtypes by ophthalmologic features after head-shaking and positional maneuvers, which are not yet recognized as differential diagnostic tools in most common forms of spinocerebellar ataxias. Of the 302 patients with a diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia in 3 Korean University Hospitals from June 2011 to June 2012, 48 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, or 8 or with undetermined spinocerebellar ataxias were enrolled. All patients underwent a video-oculographic recording of fixation abnormalities, gaze-evoked nystagmus, positional and head-shaking nystagmus, and dysmetric saccades. Logistic regression analysis controlling for disease duration revealed that spontaneous and positional downbeat nystagmus and perverted head-shaking nystagmus were strong predictors for spinocerebellar ataxia 6, whereas saccadic intrusions and oscillations were identified as positive indicators of spinocerebellar ataxia 3. In contrast, the presence of gaze-evoked nystagmus and dysmetric saccades was a negative predictor of spinocerebellar ataxia 2. Positional maneuvers and horizontal head shaking occasionally induced or augmented saccadic intrusions/oscillations in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2, and 3 and undetermined spinocerebellar ataxia. The results indicated that perverted head-shaking nystagmus may be the most sensitive parameter for SCA6, whereas saccadic intrusions/oscillations are the most sensitive for spinocerebellar ataxia 3. In contrast, a paucity of gaze-evoked nystagmus and dysmetric saccades is more indicative of spinocerebellar ataxia 2. Head-shaking and positional maneuvers aid in defining ocular motor characteristics in spinocerebellar ataxias. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2013 Movement

  3. Arnold-Chiari malformation and nystagmus of skew

    PubMed Central

    Pieh, C.; Gottlob, I.

    2000-01-01

    The Arnold-Chiari malfomation is typically associated with downbeat nystagmus. Eye movement recordings in two patients with Arnold-Chiari malfomation type 1 showed, in addition to downbeat and gaze evoked nystagmus, intermittent nystagmus of skew. To date this finding has not been reported in association with Arnold-Chiari malfomation. Nystagmus of skew should raise the suspicion of Arnold-Chiari malfomation and prompt sagittal head MRI examination.

 PMID:10864619

  4. Infantile aperiodic alternating nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Hertle, Richard W; Reznick, Leah; Yang, Dongsheng

    2009-01-01

    This study identifies the clinical and ocular motility characteristics of the periodic and aperiodic forms of infantile alternating nystagmus (IAPAN) and establishes the range of electrophysiological and clinical characteristics while providing clues to its presence and pathophysiology. Seventy-eight patients with ocular oscillations consistent with IAPAN were reported. Outcome variables were: age, follow-up in months, vision, strabismus, other eye and systemic abnormalities, head position, periodicity, cycle and null period duration, foveation time, waveforms, and cycle symmetry. Age range was 1 to 67 years, 50% had pure periodic and aperiodic forms, 46% had albinism, 26% had binocular acuity of 20/40 or greater, 72% had strabismus, 35% had amblyopia, 31% had other eye disease, 14% had systemic disease, 87% had an anomalous head posture, and 65% had binocular directional asymmetry. The periodic cycle averaged 224 seconds and the aperiodic cycle ranged from 2 to more than 300 seconds. One in three patients with strabismus and nystagmus periodicity had a static head posture. Fifteen percent of the infantile nystagmus syndrome population had either the periodic or aperiodic form. A changing null period is often clinically missed because of long or irregular cycles, decreased acuity, associated strabismus, and either a nonexistent or inconsistent head posture. The changing null period is easier to recognize using eye movement recordings or if the non-preferred eye is occluded and the preferred eye is examined with the head straight and gaze in primary position for at least 5 to 7 minutes. The recognition of this variant has profound treatment implications.

  5. Perpetrator Accounts in Infant Abusive Head Trauma Brought about by a Shaking Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biron, Dean; Shelton, Doug

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze perpetrator and medical evidence collected during investigations of infant abusive head trauma (IAHT), with a view to (a) identifying cases where injuries were induced by shaking in the absence of any impact and (b) documenting the response of infant victims to a violent shaking event. Method: A retrospective study was…

  6. Toxicology observation: nystagmus after marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Kibby, Thomas; Halcomb, S Eliza

    2013-05-01

    Traditional teaching has held that horizontal-gaze nystagmus is a sign of intoxication by sedatives such as alcohol but not marijuana. This is a case report of an adult male who presents with 3 days of visual disturbance and dizziness following marijuana use. The exam was notable for gaze-evoked nystagmus and ataxia. Lab testing was normal except that urine drug screening was positive for marijuana only. Imaging included computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the head. Prior studies showing a negative association of nystagmus with marijuana are reviewed. This case is presented as a possible exception to the generalisation that marijuana is not associated with nystagmus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Stabilization of gaze during circular locomotion in darkness. II. Contribution of velocity storage to compensatory eye and head nystagmus in the running monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, D.; Cohen, B.

    1992-01-01

    1. Yaw eye in head (Eh) and head on body velocities (Hb) were measured in two monkeys that ran around the perimeter of a circular platform in darkness. The platform was stationary or could be counterrotated to reduce body velocity in space (Bs) while increasing gait velocity on the platform (Bp). The animals were also rotated while seated in a primate chair at eccentric locations to provide linear and angular accelerations similar to those experienced while running. 2. Both animals had head and eye nystagmus while running in darkness during which slow phase gaze velocity on the body (Gb) partially compensated for body velocity in space (Bs). The eyes, driven by the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR), supplied high-frequency characteristics, bringing Gb up to compensatory levels at the beginning and end of the slow phases. The head provided substantial gaze compensation during the slow phases, probably through the vestibulocollic reflex (VCR). Synchronous eye and head quick phases moved gaze in the direction of running. Head movements occurred consistently only when animals were running. This indicates that active body and limb motion may be essential for inducing the head-eye gaze synergy. 3. Gaze compensation was good when running in both directions in one animal and in one direction in the other animal. The animals had long VOR time constants in these directions. The VOR time constant was short to one side in one animal, and it had poor gaze compensation in this direction. Postlocomotory nystagmus was weaker after running in directions with a long VOR time constant than when the animals were passively rotated in darkness. We infer that velocity storage in the vestibular system had been activated to produce continuous Eh and Hb during running and to counteract postrotatory afterresponses. 4. Continuous compensatory gaze nystagmus was not produced by passive eccentric rotation with the head stabilized or free. This indicates that an aspect of active locomotion, most

  8. Stabilization of gaze during circular locomotion in light. I. Compensatory head and eye nystagmus in the running monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, D.; Cohen, B.

    1992-01-01

    1. A rhesus and cynomolgus monkey were trained to run around the perimeter of a circular platform in light. We call this "circular locomotion" because forward motion had an angular component. Head and body velocity in space were recorded with angular rate sensors and eye movements with electrooculography (EOG). From these measurements we derived signals related to the angular velocity of the eyes in the head (Eh), of the head on the body (Hb), of gaze on the body (Gb), of the body in space (Bs), of gaze in space (Gs), and of the gain of gaze (Gb/Bs). 2. The monkeys had continuous compensatory nystagmus of the head and eyes while running, which stabilized Gs during the slow phases. The eyes established and maintained compensatory gaze velocities at the beginning and end of the slow phases. The head contributed to gaze velocity during the middle of the slow phases. Slow phase Gb was as high as 250 degrees/s, and targets were fixed for gaze angles as large as 90-140 degrees. 3. Properties of the visual surround affected both the gain and strategy of gaze compensation in the one monkey tested. Gains of Eh ranged from 0.3 to 1.1 during compensatory gaze nystagmus. Gains of Hb varied around 0.3 (0.2-0.7), building to a maximum as Eh dropped while running past sectors of interest. Consistent with predictions, gaze gains varied from below to above unity, when translational and angular body movements with regard to the target were in opposite or the same directions, respectively. 4. Gaze moved in saccadic shifts in the direction of running during quick phases. Most head quick phases were small, and at times the head only paused during an eye quick phase. Eye quick phases were larger, ranging up to 60 degrees. This is larger than quick phases during passive rotation or saccades made with the head fixed. 5. These data indicate that head and eye nystagmus are natural phenomena that support gaze compensation during locomotion. Despite differential utilization of the head and

  9. Regional differences in hyoid muscle activity and length-dynamics during mammalian head-shaking

    PubMed Central

    Wentzel, Sarah E.; Konow, Nicolai; German, Rebecca Z.

    2010-01-01

    The sternohyoid (SH) and geniohyoid (GH) are antagonist strap-muscles that are active during a number of different behaviors, including sucking, intraoral transport, swallowing, breathing, and extension/flexion of the neck. Because these muscles have served different functions through the evolutionary history of vertebrates, it is quite likely they will have complex patterns of electrical activity and muscle fiber contraction. Different regions of the sternohyoid exhibit different contraction and activity patterns during a swallow. We examined the dynamics of the sternohyoid and geniohyoid muscles during an unrestrained, and vigorous head-shake behavior in an animal model of human head, neck and hyolingual movement. A gentle touch to infant pig ears elicited a head shake of several head revolutions. Using sonomicrometry and intramuscular EMG we measured regional (within) muscle strain and activity in SH and GH. We found that EMG was consistent across three regions (anterior, belly and posterior) of each muscle. Changes in muscle length however, were more complex. In the SH, mid-belly length-change occurred out of phase with the anterior and posterior end-regions, but with a zero-lag timing; the anterior region shortened prior to the posterior. In the GH, the anterior region shortened prior to, and out of phase with the mid-belly and posterior regions. Head-shaking is a relatively simple reflex behavior, yet the underlying patterns of muscle length-dynamics and EMG activity are not. The regional complexity in SH and GH, similar to regionalization of SH during swallowing, suggests that these ‘simple hyoid strap muscles’ are more complex than textbooks often suggest. PMID:21370479

  10. Kestenbaum procedure on the vertical rectus muscles with simultaneous compensation of the induced cyclodeviation for nystagmus patients with chin-up or chin-down head posture.

    PubMed

    Schild, A M; Fricke, J; Rüssmann, W; Neugebauer, A

    2009-10-01

    Kestenbaum surgery is performed for nystagmus-related abnormal head posture, and symmetrically changes the position of both eyes to shift the null point to the primary position. Most patients with infantile nystagmus have their null point zone in a lateral gaze position. Less frequently, surgery can be performed to reduce chin-up or chin-down head posture. We report indications for, and the results of eight consecutive interventions performed according to the Kestenbaum principle for the reduction of a chin-up or chin-down head posture. In a retrospective study, the clinical findings for eight patients who consecutively underwent treatment in the University Eye Hospital of Cologne between 2001 and 2007 were investigated. The patients were aged 6 to 16 years; median age was 6.5 years. For all patients, surgery was to correct a chin-up or chin-down head posture due to infantile nystagmus. Preoperatively, five patients showed a chin-down, three a chin-up head posture. All vertical rectus muscles were recessed or tucked between 6 and 7 mm; the resulting cyclodeviation was reduced by an intervention on the superior oblique muscles (6 to 8 mm tucking, in the case of chin-down, or recession in the case of chin-up head posture). Surgery was successful in seven of the eight patients, with a reduction of the vertical head posture to less than 10 degrees. In the cases of chin-down posture, head posture was reduced to between 0 degrees and a maximum of 20 degrees in one case postoperatively (before the operation 20 degrees to 35 degrees ); in the cases of chin-up posture, to less than 8 degrees (before the operation 25 degrees to 35 degrees). One case showed no postoperative improvement in chin-down posture but a head turn to the left of up to 20 degrees; another case had a remaining chin-up posture of 8 degrees with a right turn of 15 degrees . Binocular vision was better or the same in all cases after surgery. For nystagmus patients with chin-up or chin-down head posture

  11. Influence of gravity on the spatial orientation of eye nystagmus induced by unilateral lesion of horizontal semicircular canal.

    PubMed

    Pettorossi, V E; Ermanno, M; Pierangelo, E; Silvarosa, G

    2000-03-01

    The influence of gravity in the orientation and slow phase eye velocity of the ocular nystagmus following unilateral damage of the cupula in the ampulla of the horizontal semicircular canal (UHCD) was investigated. The nystagmus was analysed at different sagittal head positions using the x-y infrared eye monitor technique. The nystagmus was almost horizontal at 0 degrees head pitch angle and remained partially fixed in space when the head was pitched upward or downward. The reorientation gain of the slow and quick phases was high (about 0.75) within +/- 45 degrees of head pitch angle, but beyond this range, it decreased greatly. The gain value depended on the lesion extension to otolithic receptors. The absolute value of the slow phase eye velocity of UHCD nystagmus was also modified systematically by the head pitch, showing a reduction in the upward and an increase in the downward.

  12. Tonic cervical influences on eye nystagmus following hemilabyrinthectomy: immediate and plastic effects.

    PubMed

    Pettorossi, V E; Petrosini, L

    1984-12-17

    In intact guinea pigs a passive horizontal rotation of the body about the fixed head induces compensatory ocular movements (cervico-ocular reflex). When the static neck deviation is maintained, a significant ocular displacement is observed. In acutely hemilabyrinthectomized animals, static body deviation towards the lesion side tonically alters eye nystagmus. It affects slow phase eye velocity and quick phase amplitude and frequency causing the eye to reach a less eccentric orbital position. Apart from such immediate influences, a plastic effect on eye nystagmus abatement is induced. In the animals restrained with no body-on-head deviation, abatement of nystagmus is delayed with respect to the animals restrained with 35 degrees body deviation towards the lesion side. Thus the head position signal is not only a contributing factor for the correction of postural deficits but also influences the time course of the ocular balancing process following unilateral vestibular damage.

  13. Acquired pendular nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sarah; Shaikh, Aasef G.

    2017-01-01

    Acquired pendular nystagmus is comprised of quasi-sinusoidal oscillations of the eyes significantly affecting gaze holding and clarity of vision. The most common causes of acquired pendular nystagmus include demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis and the syndrome of ocular palatal tremor. However, several other deficits, such as pharmacological intoxication, metabolic and genetic disorders, and granulomatous disorders can lead to syndromes mimicking acquired pendular nystagmus. Study of the kinematic features of acquired pendular nystagmus has suggested a putative pathophysiology of an otherwise mysterious neurological disorder. Here we review clinical features of neurological deficits that co-occur with acquired pendular nystagmus. Subsequent discussion of the pathophysiology of individual forms of pendular nystagmus speculates on mechanisms of the underlying disease while providing insights into pharmacotherapy of nystagmus. PMID:28320194

  14. Acquired pendular nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sarah; Shaikh, Aasef G

    2017-04-15

    Acquired pendular nystagmus is comprised of quasi-sinusoidal oscillations of the eyes significantly affecting gaze holding and clarity of vision. The most common causes of acquired pendular nystagmus include demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis and the syndrome of ocular palatal tremor. However, several other deficits, such as pharmacological intoxication, metabolic and genetic disorders, and granulomatous disorders can lead to syndromes mimicking acquired pendular nystagmus. Study of the kinematic features of acquired pendular nystagmus has suggested a putative pathophysiology of an otherwise mysterious neurological disorder. Here we review clinical features of neurological deficits that co-occur with acquired pendular nystagmus. Subsequent discussion of the pathophysiology of individual forms of pendular nystagmus speculates on mechanisms of the underlying disease while providing insights into pharmacotherapy of nystagmus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Positional and positioning down-beating nystagmus without central nervous system findings.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yasuo; Suzuki, Mamoru; Otsuka, Koji; Shimizu, Shigetaka; Inagaki, Taro; Hayashi, Mami; Hagiwara, Akira; Kitajima, Naoharu

    2009-12-01

    We report the clinical features of 4 cases with positional or positioning down-beating nystagmus in a head-hanging or supine position without any obvious central nervous system disorder. The 4 cases had some findings in common. There were no abnormal findings on neurological tests or brain MRI. They did not have gaze nystagmus. Their nystagmus was observed only in a supine or head-hanging position and it was never observed upon returning to a sitting position and never reversed. The nystagmus had no or little torsional component, had latency and tended to decrease with time. The positional DBN (p-DBN) is known to be indicative of a central nervous system disorder. Recently there were some reports that canalithiasis of the anterior semicircular canal (ASC) causes p-DBN and that patients who have p-DBN without obvious CNS dysfunction are dealt with anterior semicircular canal (ASC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). There are some doubts as to the validity of making a diagnosis of ASC-BPPV in a case of p-DBN without CNS findings. It is hard to determine the cause of p-DBN in these cases.

  16. An update on acquired nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Janet C

    2008-01-01

    Proper evaluation and treatment of acquired nystagmus requires accurate characterization of nystagmus type and visual effects. This review addresses important historical and examination features of nystagmus and current concepts of pathogenesis and treatment of gaze-evoked nystagmus, nystagmus due to vision loss, acquired pendular nystagmus, peripheral and central vestibular nystagmus, and periodic alternating nystagmus.

  17. Therapy for nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Thurtell, Matthew J; Leigh, R John

    2010-12-01

    Pathological forms of nystagmus and their visual consequences can be treated using pharmacological, optical, and surgical approaches. Acquired periodic alternating nystagmus improves following treatment with baclofen, and downbeat nystagmus may improve following treatment with aminopyridines. Gabapentin and memantine are helpful in reducing acquired pendular nystagmus due to multiple sclerosis. Ocular oscillations in oculopalatal tremor may also improve following treatment with memantine or gabapentin. The infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) may have only a minor impact on vision if "foveation periods" are well developed, but symptomatic patients may benefit from treatment with gabapentin, memantine, or base-out prisms to induce convergence. Several surgical therapies are also reported to improve INS, but selection of the optimal treatment depends on careful evaluation of visual acuity and nystagmus intensity in various gaze positions. Electro-optical devices are a promising and novel approach for treating the visual consequences of acquired forms of nystagmus.

  18. Rebound nystagmus: EOG analysis of a case with a floccular tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, A; Zee, D S

    1979-01-01

    Eye movements were recorded and quantitatively analysed in a patient with a tumour initially involving the cerebellar flocculus. Ocular motor abnormalities included (1) impaired smooth pursuit, (2) impaired cancellation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex when fixating an object rotating with the head, and (3) gaze paretic and rebound nystagmus. Comparable findings have been reported in monkeys with experimental floccular lesions. The rebound nystagmus (but not the other ocular motor abnormalities) disappeared when the tumour appeared to invade the brain stem in the region near the vestibular nuclei. This finding suggests that the floccular lesion unmasked a bias which created rebound nystagmus and that the bias probably arose in the vestibular nuclei. PMID:508695

  19. The Role of Superior Oblique Posterior Tenectomy Along With Inferior Rectus Recessions for the Treatment of Chin-up Head Positioning in Patients With Nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Escuder, Anna G; Ranka, Milan P; Lee, Kathy; Nam, Julie N; Steele, Mark A

    2018-05-29

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of bilateral superior oblique posterior 7/8th tenectomy with inferior rectus recession on improving chin-up head positioning in patients with horizontal nystagmus. Medical records were reviewed from 2007 to 2017 for patients with nystagmus and chin-up positioning of 15° or more who underwent combined bilateral superior oblique posterior 7/8th tenectomy with an inferior rectus recession of at least 5 mm. Thirteen patients (9 males and 4 females) were included, with an average age of 7.3 years (range: 1.8 to 15 years). Chin-up positioning ranged from 15° to 45° degrees (average: 30°). Three patients had prior horizontal muscle surgeries, 1 for esotropia and 2 for horizontal null zones causing anomalous face turns. Ten patients underwent other concomitant eye muscle surgery: 3 had esotropia, 1 had exotropia, and 2 had biplanar nystagmus null point requiring a horizontal Anderson procedure. Four patients underwent simultaneous bilateral medial rectus tenotomy and reattachment. All patients had improved chin-up positioning. Eight patients had complete resolution, whereas 5 had minimal residual chin-up positioning. Three patients developed an eccentric horizontal gaze null point with compensatory anomalous face turn with onset 2 weeks, 2 years, and 3 years postoperatively. Average follow-up was 42.7 months. No postoperative pattern deviations, cyclodeviations, or inferior oblique overaction were seen. No surgical complications were noted. Bilateral superior oblique posterior 7/8th tenectomy in conjunction with bilateral inferior rectus recession is a safe and effective procedure for improving chin-up head positioning in patients with horizontal nystagmus with a down gaze null point. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 201X;XX(X):XX-XX.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Importance of spontaneous nystagmus detection in the differential diagnosis of acute vertigo.

    PubMed

    Pavlin-Premrl, Davor; Waterston, John; McGuigan, Sean; Infeld, Bernard; Sultana, Ron; O'Sullivan, Richard; Gerraty, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    Vertigo is a common cause of emergency department attendance. Detection of spontaneous nystagmus may be a useful sign in distinguishing vestibular neuritis from other vestibular diagnoses. We aimed to assess the contribution of spontaneous nystagmus in the diagnosis of acute vertigo. We enrolled consecutive consenting patients arriving at a single emergency department with acute vertigo. There was no declared protocol for the emergency department staff. A standardized history and examination was conducted by the investigators. Observation for spontaneous nystagmus, its response to visual fixation, and testing the vestibulo-ocular reflex with the horizontal head impulse test were the chief examination components. MRI was obtained within 24 hours. Clinical criteria and MRI were used to reach the final diagnosis. The investigators' physical findings and final neurological diagnosis were compared with the initial emergency department examination findings and the referral diagnosis. There were 28 patients, 15 with vestibular neuritis, six with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, one with stroke, suspected clinically, and three with migraine. In three the diagnosis remained uncertain. Spontaneous nystagmus was seen in all 15 patients with vestibular neuritis, fixation-suppressed in eight of 11 tested for this. The head impulse test was positive in 12 of 15 with vestibular neuritis. The emergency department referral diagnosis was correct in six of 23 patients. The ability to detect spontaneous nystagmus is useful in vestibular diagnosis, both in support of a diagnosis of vestibular neuritis and in avoiding false positive diagnoses of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Medical treatment of acquired nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, David; Eggenberger, Eric

    2012-11-01

    This article synthesises recent findings and addresses relevant anatomy, pathophysiologic considerations, and current treatment options for common forms of acquired nystagmus including vestibular and gaze holding dysfunction. Some forms of nystagmus have relatively specific treatments, such as baclofen for periodic alternating nystagmus, and repositioning for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Recent studies have brought changes to many of the treatments of nystagmus variants. Additionally, other recent advances in nystagmus treatment, like the usage of 4-aminopyridine, have added potent medications to the physician's armamentarium. Nystagmus is a commonly encountered entity in clinical practice. However, evidence supported treatments are scarce. Medical treatment of nystagmus is difficult, with often limited and variable response to pharmacologic therapies. This mandates a continued re-evaluation of patients and creation of an individualized approach to this common clinical problem.

  2. The Effect of Gaze Angle on Visual Acuity in Infantile Nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Matt J; Wiggins, Debbie; Woodhouse, J Margaret; Margrain, Tom H; Harris, Christopher M; Erichsen, Jonathan T

    2017-01-01

    Most individuals with infantile nystagmus (IN) have an idiosyncratic gaze angle at which their nystagmus intensity is minimized. Some adopt an abnormal head posture to use this "null zone," and it has therefore long been assumed that this provides people with nystagmus with improved visual acuity (VA). However, recent studies suggest that improving the nystagmus waveform could have little, if any, influence on VA; that is, VA is fundamentally limited in IN. Here, we examined the impact of the null zone on VA. Visual acuity was measured in eight adults with IN using a psychophysical staircase procedure with reversals at three horizontal gaze angles, including the null zone. As expected, changes in gaze angle affected nystagmus amplitude, frequency, foveation duration, and variability of intercycle foveation position. Across participants, each parameter (except frequency) was significantly correlated with VA. Within any given individual, there was a small but significant improvement in VA (0.08 logMAR) at the null zone as compared with the other gaze angles tested. Despite this, no change in any of the nystagmus waveform parameters was significantly associated with changes in VA within individuals. A strong relationship between VA and nystagmus characteristics exists between individuals with IN. Although significant, the improvement in VA observed within individuals at the null zone is much smaller than might be expected from the occasionally large variations in intensity and foveation dynamics (and anecdotal patient reports of improved vision), suggesting that improvement of other aspects of visual performance may also encourage use of the null zone.

  3. A new light on caloric test--what was disclosed by three dimensional analysis of caloric nystagmus?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arai, Y.

    2001-01-01

    For better understanding of caloric nystagmus, this phenomenon will be reviewed historically in three stages. 1) The first light on caloric nystagmus was thrown by Barany 1906. Through direct observation of eye movements, Barany established the caloric test as an important tool to determine the side of lesion for vertigo. 2) The second light is shed by electrooculogram (EOG) from the late 1950th. EOG enabled qualitative analysis of caloric nystagmus, and proved Barany's convection theory, but resulted in neglect of vertical and roll eye movements. 3) The third light is gained by 3D recording of eye movements started from the late 1980th. 3D recordings of eye movements enabled us to analyze the spatial orientation of caloric nystagmus, and disclose the close correlation of the nystagmus components in the head vertical and the space vertical planes, suggesting a contribution of the velocity storage integrator. The 3D property of caloric nystagmus will be explained in detail.

  4. Effects of oxcarbazepine on monoamines content in hippocampus and head and body shakes and sleep patterns in kainic acid-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso; González-Piña, Rigoberto; Bueno-Nava, Antonio; Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Ávila-Luna, Alberto; Uribe-Escamilla, Rebeca; Vargas-Sánchez, Javier

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of oxcarbazepine (OXC) on sleep patterns, "head and body shakes" and monoamine neurotransmitters level in a model of kainic-induced seizures. Adult Wistar rats were administered kainic acid (KA), OXC or OXC + KA. A polysomnographic study showed that KA induced animals to stay awake for the whole initial 10 h. OXC administration 30 min prior to KA diminished the effect of KA on the sleep parameters. As a measure of the effects of the drug treatments on behavior, head and body shakes were visually recorded for 4 h after administration of KA, OXC + KA or saline. The presence of OXC diminished the shakes frequency. 4 h after drug application, the hippocampus was dissected out, and the content of monoamines was analyzed. The presence of OXC still more increased serotonin, 5-hidroxyindole acetic acid, dopamine, and homovanilic acid, induced by KA.

  5. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss with positional vertigo: Initial findings of positional nystagmus and hearing outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Hee; Shin, Jung Eun; Yang, Young Soo; Im, Donghyuk

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the initial findings of positional nystagmus in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) and positional vertigo, and to compare hearing improvement among patients with different types of positional nystagmus. The characteristics of positional nystagmus upon initial examination were analysed, and the initial mean pure-tone audiometry (PTA) threshold was compared with that at three months after treatment. Forty-four SSNHL patients with concomitant positional vertigo were included. Positional nystagmus was classified into five subgroups; persistent geotropic direction-changing positional nystagmus (DCPN) in head-roll test (HRT) and negative Dix-Hallpike test (DHT), persistent apogeotropic DCPN in HRT and negative DHT, positive DHT and negative HRT, persistent geotropic DCPN in HRT and positive DHT, and persistent apogeotropic DCPN in HRT and positive DHT. PTA threshold improvement was significantly greater in SSNHL patients with negative DHT than with positive DHT (p = 0.027). When geotropic DCPN was elicited by HRT, the nystagmus was persistent, which suggests that alteration of specific gravity of the endolymph, rather than the lateral canal canalolithiasis, may be a cause of this characteristic positional nystagmus. Positive DTH may be a prognostic factor for worse hearing recovery among patients with SSNHL and positional vertigo.

  6. Variants of windmill nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kwang-Dong; Shin, Hae Kyung; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Sung-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Zee, David S

    2016-07-01

    Windmill nystagmus is characterized by a clock-like rotation of the beating direction of a jerk nystagmus suggesting separate horizontal and vertical oscillators, usually 90° out of phase. We report oculographic characteristics in three patients with variants of windmill nystagmus in whom the common denominator was profound visual loss due to retinal diseases. Two patients showed a clock-like pattern, while in the third, the nystagmus was largely diagonal (in phase or 180° out of phase) but also periodically changed direction by 180°. We hypothesize that windmill nystagmus is a unique manifestation of "eye movements of the blind." It emerges when the central structures, including the cerebellum, that normally keep eye movements calibrated and gaze steady can no longer perform their task, because they are deprived of the retinal image motion that signals a need for adaptive recalibration.

  7. Combining recessions (nystagmus and strabismus) with tenotomy improved visual function and decreased oscillopsia and diplopia in acquired downbeat nystagmus and in horizontal infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong I; Dell'Osso, Louis F; Tomsak, Robert L; Jacobs, Jonathan B

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the effects of combined tenotomy and recession procedures on both acquired downbeat nystagmus and horizontal infantile nystagmus. Patient 1 had downbeat nystagmus with a chin-down (upgaze) position, oscillopsia, strabismus, and diplopia. Asymmetric superior rectus recessions and inferior rectus tenotomies reduced right hypertropia and rotated both eyes downward. Patient 2 had horizontal infantile nystagmus, a 20 degrees left-eye exotropia, and alternating (abducting-eye) fixation. Lateral rectus recessions and medial rectus tenotomies were performed. Horizontal and vertical eye movements were recorded pre- and postsurgically using high-speed digital video. The eXpanded Nystagmus Acuity Function (NAFX) and nystagmus amplitudes and frequencies were measured. Patient 1: The NAFX peak moved from 10 degrees up to primary position where NAFX values improved 17% and visual acuity increased 25%. Vertical NAFX increased across the -10 degrees to +5 degrees vertical range. Primary-position right hypertropia decreased approximately 50%; foveation time per cycle increased 102%; vertical amplitude, oscillopsia, and diplopia were reduced, and frequency was unchanged. Patient 2: Two lateral, narrow high-NAFX regions (due to alternating fixation) became one broad region with a 43% increase in primary position (acuity increased approximately 92.3%). Diplopia amplitude decreased; convergence and gaze holding were improved. Primary-position right exotropia was reduced; foveation time per cycle increased 257%; horizontal-component amplitude decreased 45.7%, and frequency remained unchanged. Combining tenotomy with nystagmus or strabismus recession procedures increased NAFX and visual acuities and reduced diplopia and oscillopsia in downbeat nystagmus and infantile nystagmus.

  8. Clinical course of persistent geotropic direction-changing positional nystagmus with neutral position-Light cupula.

    PubMed

    Seo, Toru; Shiraishi, Ko; Kobayashi, Takaaki; Mutsukazu, Kitano; Doi, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    A short clinical course and frequent recurrence are common features of persistent geotropic direction-changing positional nystagmus with neutral position (positional nystagmus of light cupula: PNLC) and cupulolithiasis of the lateral semicircular canal. It is suggested that PNLC is caused by light debris attached to the cupula of the lateral semicircular canal. PNLC is a sub-type of direction-changing positional nystagmus. It is thought to be caused by anti-gravitational deviation of the cupula of the lateral semicircular canal (light cupula); however, the exact mechanism is yet to be elucidated. To this end, the clinical features of PNLC were studied. Clinical charts of 27 patients (13 men and 14 women) with PNLC were reviewed. The nystagmus had resolved within a week in 70% and within 30 days in 89% of the patients. The recurrence rate was 33%. The subjects did not have a history of alcohol intake, head trauma, or vestibular neuritis.

  9. Spatial orientation of caloric nystagmus in semicircular canal-plugged monkeys.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasuko; Yakushin, Sergei B; Cohen, Bernard; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Raphan, Theodore

    2002-08-01

    We studied caloric nystagmus before and after plugging all six semicircular canals to determine whether velocity storage contributed to the spatial orientation of caloric nystagmus. Monkeys were stimulated unilaterally with cold ( approximately 20 degrees C) water while upright, supine, prone, right-side down, and left-side down. The decline in the slow phase velocity vector was determined over the last 37% of the nystagmus, at a time when the response was largely due to activation of velocity storage. Before plugging, yaw components varied with the convective flow of endolymph in the lateral canals in all head orientations. Plugging blocked endolymph flow, eliminating convection currents. Despite this, caloric nystagmus was readily elicited, but the horizontal component was always toward the stimulated (ipsilateral) side, regardless of head position relative to gravity. When upright, the slow phase velocity vector was close to the yaw and spatial vertical axes. Roll components became stronger in supine and prone positions, and vertical components were enhanced in side down positions. In each case, this brought the velocity vectors toward alignment with the spatial vertical. Consistent with principles governing the orientation of velocity storage, when the yaw component of the velocity vector was positive, the cross-coupled pitch or roll components brought the vector upward in space. Conversely, when yaw eye velocity vector was downward in the head coordinate frame, i.e., negative, pitch and roll were downward in space. The data could not be modeled simply by a reduction in activity in the ipsilateral vestibular nerve, which would direct the velocity vector along the roll direction. Since there is no cross coupling from roll to yaw, velocity storage alone could not rotate the vector to fit the data. We postulated, therefore, that cooling had caused contraction of the endolymph in the plugged canals. This contraction would deflect the cupula toward the plug

  10. Upbeat nystagmus changes to downbeat nystagmus with upward gaze in a patient with Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Byoung-Soo; Oh, Sun-Young; Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Hyung; Kim, Eui-Jung; Hwang, Seung-Bae

    2010-11-15

    We describe a patient with Wernicke's encephalopathy who showed spontaneous upbeat nystagmus with decelerating slow phases that changed to downbeat nystagmus during upward gaze and increased during downward gaze. He also showed horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus and impaired upward smooth pursuit. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated symmetric lesions involving the bilateral medial thalami, periaqueductal gray matters and inferior cerebellar peduncles. In this patient, the decelerating slow phases and disobedience to Alexander's law of upbeat nystagmus suggest both deficient (leaky) and unstable neural integrators subserving vertical eye motion. Dysfunction of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal or its descending pathway to the vestibulocerebellum via the paramedian tract cell groups may be responsible for the upbeat nystagmus and its modulation by gazes in our patient with Wernicke's encephalopathy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Gravity-dependent nystagmus and inner-ear dysfunction suggest anterior and posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarct.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Miller, Benjamin R; Sundararajan, Sophia; Katirji, Bashar

    2014-04-01

    Cerebellar lesions may present with gravity-dependent nystagmus, where the direction and velocity of the drifts change with alterations in head position. Two patients had acute onset of hearing loss, vertigo, oscillopsia, nausea, and vomiting. Examination revealed gravity-dependent nystagmus, unilateral hypoactive vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), and hearing loss ipsilateral to the VOR hypofunction. Traditionally, the hypoactive VOR and hearing loss suggest inner-ear dysfunction. Vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and nystagmus may suggest peripheral or central vestibulopathy. The gravity-dependent modulation of nystagmus, however, localizes to the posterior cerebellar vermis. Magnetic resonance imaging in our patients revealed acute cerebellar infarct affecting posterior cerebellar vermis, in the vascular distribution of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). This lesion explains the gravity-dependent nystagmus, nausea, and vomiting. Acute onset of unilateral hearing loss and VOR hypofunction could be the manifestation of inner-ear ischemic injury secondary to the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) compromise. In cases of combined AICA and PICA infarction, the symptoms of peripheral vestibulopathy might masquerade the central vestibular syndrome and harbor a cerebellar stroke. However, the gravity-dependent nystagmus allows prompt identification of acute cerebellar infarct. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nystagmus and ataxia associated with antiganglioside antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Nam, Jungmoo; Kwon, Min Jeong; Kim, Jong Kuk; Kim, Ji Soo

    2011-12-01

    Antiganglioside antibodies are found in various neurological disorders that constitute a continuum from peripheral neuropathy to encephalitis. However, nystagmus has rarely been described in patients with ataxia associated with antiganglioside antibodies. From January 2008 to July 2009, we identified 3 patients with acute ataxia and nystagmus in 2 University Hospitals of Korea, who were found to have anti-GD1b, anti-GM1, or anti-GQ1b antibodies. In addition to acute ataxia, all 3 patients showed various combinations of nystagmus, which included central positional nystagmus (n = 3), vertical nystagmus (n = 1), and periodic alternating nystagmus (n = 1). The spontaneous and positional nystagmus were mostly detectable only with the elimination of fixation and magnification of the eyes using video goggles. Two patients also exhibited gaze-evoked nystagmus that was noticeable without the aid of video goggles. Patients had serum IgG antibodies to GD1b, GM1, or GQ1b. Cerebrospinal fluid examination, nerve conduction studies, and brain MRI were normal. In all patients, the symptoms and signs resolved over 3-12 months. Various forms of nystagmus with acute ataxia may be a sole or predominant manifestation of disorders related to antiganglioside antibodies. The nystagmus indicates a central pathology involving the cerebellum or brainstem in this antibody-associated disorder. Antiganglioside antibodies should be measured in patients with nystagmus and acute ataxia of undetermined etiology.

  13. Eye-head coordination during optokinetic stimulation in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubo, T.; Igarashi, M.; Jensen, D. W.; Homick, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Head and eye movements in the yaw plane were recorded during and after optokinetic stimulation in squirrel monkeys. 1) Phasic or tonic head deviations to the side of the ocular quick phase occurred in 94% of total recordings (n = 50) during the perstimulus period, and in 75% of recordings (n = 49) during the poststimulus period. Magnitude of mean head deviation was significantly different between perstimulus and poststimulus periods. 2) Head nystagmus associated with eye nystagmus was consistently observed in seven of nine squirrel monkeys during optokinetic stimulation. Squirrel monkeys are thereby less prone to display head nystagmus than either guinea pigs, pigeons or chickens. 3) Slow phase speeds of coupled head and eye nystagmus were subjected to statistical analysis. A highly significant negative correlation was found between slow phase head and eye speeds. The correlation coefficient was - 0.81 at 60 degrees / sec stimulus (n = 119) and -0.72 at 100 degrees / sec stimulus (n = 131). The gaze speed, calculated by summing the head and eye speeds, was 59.1 plus or minus 6.8 / sec at 60 degrees / sec and 92.2 plus or minus 11.4 at 100 degrees / sec stimulus. There was no significant difference between the gaze speed in a free head condition and the eye speed when the head was fixed.

  14. Periodic alternating nystagmus during caloric stimulation.

    PubMed

    Taki, Masakatsu; Hasegawa, Tatsuhisa; Adachi, Naoko; Fujita, Tomoki; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Hisa, Yasuo

    2014-04-01

    Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is a form of horizontal jerk nystagmus characterized by periodic reversals in direction. We report a case who exhibited transient PAN induced by caloric stimulation. The patient was a 75-year-old male. He had experienced floating sensation in January 2010. Eight months later, he was referred to our university hospital. Gaze nystagmus and positional tests revealed no nystagmus. Only weak right-beating horizontal nystagmus was observed during left Dix-Hallpike maneuver. Electronystagmography showed normal saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements. The optokinetic nystagmus pattern test was also bilaterally normal. However, during the caloric stimulation to the right ear, at 166 s from the start of irrigation, the direction of nystagmus alternated from leftward to rightward, and thereafter this reversal of direction repeated 15 times. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no significant lesion except for chronic ischemia in the brain. The patient probably had some kind of latent lesion of impaired velocity storage and exhibited transient PAN induced by caloric stimulation. Caloric stimulation is useful and simple examination to disclose latent eye movement disorders of which velocity storage mechanism is impaired. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A case report of HTLV-I associated myelopathy presenting with cerebellar ataxia and nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Taki, Masakatsu; Nin, Fumiaki; Hasegawa, Tatsuhisa; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hisa, Yasuo; Azuma, Yumiko; Nakagawa, Masanori

    2011-06-01

    HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is characterized by spastic paraparesis in the lower extremities, and urinary disturbance. HAM/TSP has also been less frequently associated with cerebellar syndromes and nystagmus. We report a case of HAM/TSP presenting with cerebellar ataxia and nystagmus. The patient was a 73-year-old woman who was born in southern Japan. At age 41, she developed pain and spasticity in the bilateral lower limbs and gradually progressive gait disturbance. At age 57, she was diagnosed with HAM/TSP based on spastic paraparesis in the lower limbs, urinary disturbance and positive anti HTLV-I antibody in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. In June 2008, she was referred to our university and hospitalized for rehabilitation. Twenty days later, she experienced rotatory vertigo sensation. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed pontocerebellar atrophy. The patient presented with cerebellar signs in the upper limbs, gaze-evoked nystagmus in the sitting position and right-beating horizontal nystagmus in the supine and head-hanging positions. Electronystagmography (ENG) showed horizontal saccadic overshoot dysmetria and horizontal saccadic pursuit. Nystagmus is rare among the literature on HAM/TSP. ENG is helpful to evaluate and confirm the cerebellar syndromes of HAM/TSP. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Lithium-induced downbeat nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Schein, Flora; Manoli, Pierre; Cathébras, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    We report the case of a 76-year old lady under lithium carbonate for a bipolar disorder who presented with a suspected optic neuritis. A typical lithium-induced downbeat nystagmus was observed. Discontinuation of lithium therapy resulted in frank improvement in visual acuity and disappearance of the nystagmus.

  17. Hyperventilation-induced nystagmus in patients with vestibular schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Califano, Luigi; Iorio, Giuseppina; Salafia, Francesca; Mazzone, Salvatore; Califano, Maria

    2015-02-01

    To determine the utility of the hyperventilation test (HVT) in the diagnosis of vestibular schwannoma (VS). A retrospective analysis of hyperventilation-induced nystagmus (HVIN) in 45 patients with unilateral VS. A tertiary referral center. Forty-five patients with VS; 30 patients with chronic vestibular neuritis; 20 healthy subjects with normal hearing and without symptoms or a history of vertigo, migraine, or neurological diseases (control group). Audiological and vestibular examination; "side-stream" measurement of end-tidal CO2 pressure (P(EtCO2)) to standardize the procedure; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) centered on the cerebellopontine angle. An analysis of HVIN, its patterns, and its appearance threshold via the measurement of P(EtCO2) correlations with the tumor size. HVIN was observed in 40 of 45 cases (88.9%) in the schwannoma group and in 12 of 30 cases (40%) in the chronic vestibular neuritis group; HVIN was not observed in the control group (0/20 cases) (p < 0.001). In the schwannoma group, HVIN was evoked at a mean P(EtCO2) value of 16.5 ± 1.15 mm Hg. The hypofunctional labyrinth was identified with high sensibility and specificity through caloric test, head shaking test, and head thrust test. The excitatory pattern, which included HVIN with slow phases that beat toward the hypofunctional side, and the paretic pattern, which included HVIN with slow phases that beat toward the hypofunctional side, were not significantly associated with VS size (19.04 ± 10.56 mm for the excitatory pattern and 19.06 ± 11.01 mm for the paretic pattern). The difference in the VS size in HVIN+ (19.05 ± 10.60 mm) and HVIN- (8.40 ± 2.19 mm) cases was significant (p = 0.009). A 60-second hyperventilation event causes metabolic changes in the vestibular system and reveals a latent vestibular asymmetry. The presence of an excitatory pattern is the major criterion that suggests VS in patients with signs of unilateral vestibular deficit.

  18. Nucleus prepositus hypoglossi lesions produce a unique ocular motor syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Zee, David S.; du Lac, Sascha; Kim, Hyo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the ocular motor abnormalities in 9 patients with a lesion involving the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH), a key constituent of a vestibular-cerebellar-brainstem neural network that ensures that the eyes are held steady in all positions of gaze. Methods: We recorded eye movements, including the vestibulo-ocular reflex during head impulses, in patients with vertigo and a lesion involving the NPH. Results: Our patients showed an ipsilesional-beating spontaneous nystagmus, horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus more intense on looking toward the ipsilesional side, impaired pursuit more to the ipsilesional side, central patterns of head-shaking nystagmus, contralateral eye deviation, and decreased vestibulo-ocular reflex gain during contralesionally directed head impulses. Conclusions: We attribute these findings to an imbalance in the NPH–inferior olive–flocculus–vestibular nucleus loop, and the ocular motor abnormalities provide a new brainstem localization for patients with acute vertigo. PMID:27733568

  19. Orientation of human optokinetic nystagmus to gravity: a model-based approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gizzi, M.; Raphan, T.; Rudolph, S.; Cohen, B.

    1994-01-01

    Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) was induced by having subjects watch a moving display in a binocular, head-fixed apparatus. The display was composed of 3.3 degrees stripes moving at 35 degrees/s for 45 s. It subtended 88 degrees horizontally by 72 degrees vertically of the central visual field and could be oriented to rotate about axes that were upright or tilted 45 degrees or 90 degrees. The head was held upright or was tilted 45 degrees left or right on the body during stimulation. Head-horizontal (yaw axis) and head-vertical (pitch axis) components of OKN were recorded with electro-oculography (EOG). Slow phase velocity vectors were determined and compared with the axis of stimulation and the spatial vertical (gravity axis). With the head upright, the axis of eye rotation during yaw axis OKN was coincident with the stimulus axis and the spatial vertical. With the head tilted, a significant vertical component of eye velocity appeared during yaw axis stimulation. As a result the axis of eye rotation shifted from the stimulus axis toward the spatial vertical. Vertical components developed within 1-2 s of stimulus onset and persisted until the end of stimulation. In the six subjects there was a mean shift of the axis of eye rotation during yaw axis stimulation of approximately 18 degrees with the head tilted 45 degrees on the body. Oblique optokinetic stimulation with the head upright was associated with a mean shift of the axis of eye rotation toward the spatial vertical of 9.2 degrees. When the head was tilted and the same oblique stimulation was given, the axis of eye rotation rotated to the other side of the spatial vertical by 5.4 degrees. This counterrotation of the axis of eye rotation is similar to the "Muller (E) effect," in which the perception of the upright is counterrotated to the opposite side of the spatial vertical when subjects are tilted in darkness. The data were simulated by a model of OKN with a "direct" and "indirect" pathway. It was assumed that

  20. Vertigo and nystagmus in orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Choi, J-H; Seo, J-D; Kim, M-J; Choi, B-Y; Choi, Y R; Cho, B M; Kim, J S; Choi, K-D

    2015-04-01

    Generalized cerebral ischaemia from cardiovascular dysfunction usually leads to presyncopal dizziness, but several studies reported a higher frequency of rotatory vertigo in cardiovascular patients. Whether generalized cerebral ischaemia due to cardiovascular disorders may produce objective vestibular dysfunction was investigated. Thirty-three patients with orthostatic dizziness/vertigo due to profound orthostatic hypotension and 30 controls were recruited. All participants underwent recording of eye movements during two orthostatic challenging tests: the Schellong and the squatting-standing tests. Most patients had neuroimaging, and patients with abnormal eye movements were subjected to follow-up evaluations. Symptoms associated with orthostatic dizziness/vertigo included blurred vision, fainting and tinnitus. Ten (30%) of 33 patients developed rotatory vertigo and nystagmus during the Schellong (n = 5) or squatting-standing test (n = 5). Four of them showed pure downbeat nystagmus whilst five had downbeat and horizontal nystagmus with or without torsional component. Patients with orthostatic nystagmus had shorter duration of orthostatic intolerance than those without nystagmus (1.0 ± 1.6 vs. 11.0 ± 9.7 months, P < 0.001). In two patients, orthostatic nystagmus disappeared during follow-up despite the persistence of profound orthostatic hypotension. Generalized cerebral ischaemia caused by orthostatic hypotension induces rotatory vertigo due to objective vestibular dysfunction. The presence of orthostatic vertigo and nystagmus has an association with the duration of orthostatic intolerance. © 2014 EAN.

  1. A prospective clinical evaluation of augmented Anderson procedure for idiopathic infantile nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritesh; Sharma, Pradeep; Menon, Vimala

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the augmented Anderson procedure in idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN). Twelve consecutive patients older than 5 years having IIN with eccentric null position and anomalous head position were enrolled in an institution-based study. Best-corrected visual acuity (uniocular and binocular and in both null position and primary position), slit-lamp examination, fundus examination, ocular motility examination, and stereopsis using TNO were recorded. In all cases the augmented Anderson procedure, that is, recession of the yoke muscles (9-mm medial rectus and 12-mm lateral rectus), was performed. Eye movements were recorded before and 3 months after surgery in the primary position, right gaze 15 and 30 degrees, and left gaze 15 and 30 degrees. All patients had improvement in their anomalous head posture after surgery (p = 0.0001). The nystagmus intensity in the primary position decreased from 22.0 +/- 15.9 degrees cycles/s preoperatively to 10.6 +/- 10.2 degrees cycles/s at 3 months postoperatively. The change was statistically significant (p = 0.006). After surgery, binocular visual acuity using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart improved in primary position (p = 0.007). No patient developed more than mild limitation of horizontal movements after surgery. The augmented Anderson procedure is successful in correcting face turn in patients having IIN with eccentric null position, resulting in an increase in visual acuity and a decrease in nystagmus intensity in primary position. Further studies with a longer follow-up are required to assess the long-term efficacy of this procedure.

  2. Clinical evaluation of acute phase nystagmus associated with cerebellar lesions.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Otsuka, K; Hagiwara, A; Inagaki, T; Shimizu, S; Nagai, N; Konomi, U; Itani, S; Kondo, T; Suzuki, M

    2016-06-01

    To determine the characteristics of acute phase nystagmus in patients with cerebellar lesions, and to identify a useful indicator for differentiating central lesions from peripheral lesions. Acute phase nystagmus and the appearance of neurological symptoms were retrospectively investigated in 11 patients with cerebellar stroke. At the initial visit, there were no patients with vertical nystagmus, direction-changing gaze evoked nystagmus or pure rotatory nystagmus. There were four cases with no nystagmus and seven cases with horizontal nystagmus at the initial visit. There were no neurological symptoms, except for vertigo and hearing loss, in any cases at the initial visit. The direction and type of nystagmus changed with time, and neurological symptoms other than vertigo appeared subsequently to admission. It is important to observe the changes in nystagmus and other neurological findings for the differential diagnosis of central lesions.

  3. Probabilistic description of infant head kinematics in abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Lintern, T O; Nash, M P; Kelly, P; Bloomfield, F H; Taberner, A J; Nielsen, P M F

    2017-12-01

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a potentially fatal result of child abuse, but the mechanisms by which injury occur are often unclear. To investigate the contention that shaking alone can elicit the injuries observed, effective computational models are necessary. The aim of this study was to develop a probabilistic model describing infant head kinematics in AHT. A deterministic model incorporating an infant's mechanical properties, subjected to different shaking motions, was developed in OpenSim. A Monte Carlo analysis was used to simulate the range of infant kinematics produced as a result of varying both the mechanical properties and the type of shaking motions. By excluding physically unrealistic shaking motions, worst-case shaking scenarios were simulated and compared to existing injury criteria for a newborn, a 4.5 month-old, and a 12 month-old infant. In none of the three cases were head kinematics observed to exceed previously-estimated subdural haemorrhage injury thresholds. The results of this study provide no biomechanical evidence to demonstrate how shaking by a human alone can cause the injuries observed in AHT, suggesting either that additional factors, such as impact, are required, or that the current estimates of injury thresholds are incorrect.

  4. Extraocular Muscles in Patients With Infantile Nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kathleen T.; Hunter, David G.; Bothun, Erick D.; Antunes-Foschini, Rosalia; McLoon, Linda K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that the extraocular muscles (EOMs) of patients with infantile nystagmus have muscular and innervational adaptations that may have a role in the involuntary oscillations of the eyes. Methods Specimens of EOMs from 10 patients with infantile nystagmus and postmortem specimens from 10 control subjects were prepared for histologic examination. The following variables were quantified: mean myofiber cross-sectional area, myofiber central nucleation, myelinated nerve density, nerve fiber density, and neuromuscular junction density. Results In contrast to control EOMs, infantile nystagmus EOMs had significantly more centrally nucleated myofibers, consistent with cycles of degeneration and regeneration. The EOMs of patients with nystagmus also had a greater degree of heterogeneity in myofiber size than did those of controls, with no difference in mean myofiber cross-sectional area. Mean myelinated nerve density, nerve fiber density, and neuromuscular junction density were also significantly decreased in infantile nystagmus EOMs. Conclusions The EOMs of patients with infantile nystagmus displayed a distinct hypoinnervated phenotype. This represents the first quantification of changes in central nucleation and myofiber size heterogeneity, as well as decreased myelinated nerve, nerve fiber, and neuromuscular junction density. These results suggest that deficits in motor innervation are a potential basis for the primary loss of motor control. Clinical Relevance Improved understanding of the etiology of nystagmus may direct future diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:22411664

  5. Rebound upbeat nystagmus after lateral gaze in episodic ataxia type 2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Shin, Jin-Hong; Choi, Kwang-Dong; Zee, David S

    2014-06-01

    Rebound nystagmus is a transient nystagmus that occurs on resuming the straight-ahead position after prolonged eccentric gaze. Even though rebound nystagmus is commonly associated with gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN), development of rebound nystagmus in a different plane of gaze has not been described. We report a patient with episodic ataxia type 2 who showed transient upbeat nystagmus on resuming the straight-ahead position after sustained lateral gaze that had induced GEN and downbeat nystagmus. The rebound upbeat nystagmus may be ascribed to a shifting null in the vertical plane as a result of an adaptation to the downbeat nystagmus that developed during lateral gaze.

  6. [Clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of idiopathic congenital nystagmus in 224 patients].

    PubMed

    Ding, J; Zhao, K X; Li, Y P; Ma, H Z; Chen, X; Guo, X; Zhu, L N; Li, N D; Zhang, W

    2016-08-01

    To study clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of idiopathic congenital nystagmus (ICN). A retrospective study was conducted in 224 patients with ICN in Tianjin eye hospital from July 2007 to February 2013. There were 224 patients, 158 (70.54%) males and 66 (29.5%) females, mean age was (11.6±8.4) years and (11.4±6.4) years separately. Horizontal nystgamus happened in 215 cases, 3 cases were vertical type and 6 cases were mixed. 214 cases were with no history of operation and 10 patients had ever underwent surgeries before. Furthermore, 151 patients combined with strabismus and refractive error, anterior segment or retinal disorders, which accounting for 67.4% of all the patients. 48 patients were associated myopia, 30 patients with hyperopia, 43 patients with strabismus. Among them, 153 cases of compensatory head position direction were horizontal with face turn, 43 cases (43/153, 28.1%) showed face turning to the left, 110 cases (110/153, 71.9%) showed face turning to the right. Surgeries were designed according to the compensatory head position and head retroversion angle. For 15 patients with double intermediate zones, the position which was often used with good visual function was chosen for operation design. As for the patients with nystagmus and strabismus, the transfer null zone to primary position for the dominant eye and strabismus surgery for the other eye was chosen. And for complicated patients with compensative head position, the dominant head posture were designed for surgery. ICN is dominated by male with variable clinical manifestations. Surgical choice for ICN depends on the direction of head position and if there is strabismus accompanying it.The aim of ocular muscle surgery is to transfer null zone to primary position. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 574-578).

  7. [Case of acute ophthalmoparesis with gaze nystagmus].

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Naomi; Tada, Yukiko; Koga, Michiaki

    2012-01-01

    A 61-year-old man developed double vision subsequent to diarrheal illness. Mixed horizontal-vertical gaze palsy in both eyes, diminution of tendon reflexes, and gaze nystagmus were noted. His horizontal gaze palsy was accompanied by gaze nystagmus in the abducent direction, indicative of the disturbance in central nervous system. Neither limb weakness nor ataxia was noted. Serum anti-GQ1b antibody was detected. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were normal. The patient was diagnosed as having acute ophthalmoparesis. The ophthalmoparesis and nystagmus gradually disappeared in 3 months. The accompanying nystagmus suggests that central nervous system disturbance may also be present with acute ophthalmoparesis.

  8. Infantile nystagmus adapts to visual demand.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Debbie; Woodhouse, J Margaret; Margrain, Tom H; Harris, Christopher M; Erichsen, Jonathan T

    2007-05-01

    To determine the effect of visual demand on the nystagmus waveform. Individuals with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) commonly report that making an effort to see can intensify their nystagmus and adversely affect vision. However, such an effect has never been confirmed experimentally. The eye movement behavior of 11 subjects with INS were recorded at different gaze angles while the subjects viewed visual targets under two conditions: above and then at resolution threshold. Eye movements were recorded by infrared oculography and visual acuity (VA) was measured using Landolt C targets and a two-alternative, forced-choice (2AFC) staircase procedure. Eye movement data were analyzed at the null zone for changes in amplitude, frequency, intensity, and foveation characteristics. Waveform type was also noted under the two conditions. Data from 11 subjects revealed a significant reduction in nystagmus amplitude (P < 0.05), frequency (P < 0.05), and intensity (P < 0.01) when target size was at visual threshold. The percentage of time the eye spent within the low-velocity window (i.e., foveation) significantly increased when target size was at visual threshold (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a change in waveform type with increased visual demand was exhibited by two subjects. The results indicate that increased visual demand modifies the nystagmus waveform favorably (and possibly adaptively), producing a significant reduction in nystagmus intensity and prolonged foveation. These findings contradict previous anecdotal reports that visual effort intensifies the nystagmus eye movement at the cost of visual performance. This discrepancy may be attributable to the lack of psychological stress involved in the visual task reported here. This is consistent with the suggestion that it is the visual importance of the task to the individual rather than visual demand per se which exacerbates INS. Further studies are needed to investigate quantitatively the effects of stress and psychological

  9. Directional abnormalities of vestibular and optokinetic responses in cerebellar disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, M. F.; Zee, D. S.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Directional abnormalities of vestibular and optokinetic responses in patients with cerebellar degeneration are reported. Three-axis magnetic search-coil recordings of the eye and head were performed in eight cerebellar patients. Among these patients, examples of directional cross-coupling were found during (1) high-frequency, high-acceleration head thrusts; (2) constant-velocity chair rotations with the head fixed; (3) constant-velocity optokinetic stimulation; and (4) following repetitive head shaking. Cross-coupling during horizontal head thrusts consisted of an inappropriate upward eye-velocity component. In some patients, sustained constant-velocity yaw-axis chair rotations produced a mixed horizontal-torsional nystagmus and/or an increase in the baseline vertical slow-phase velocity. Following horizontal head shaking, some patients showed an increase in the slow-phase velocity of their downbeat nystagmus. These various forms of cross-coupling did not necessarily occur to the same degree in a given patient; this suggests that different mechanisms may be responsible. It is suggested that cross-coupling during head thrusts may reflect a loss of calibration of brainstem connections involved in the direct vestibular pathways, perhaps due to dysfunction of the flocculus. Cross-coupling during constant-velocity rotations and following head shaking may result from a misorientation of the angular eye-velocity vector in the velocity-storage system. Finally, responses to horizontal optokinetic stimulation included an inappropriate torsional component in some patients. This suggests that the underlying organization of horizontal optokinetic tracking is in labyrinthine coordinates. The findings are also consistent with prior animal-lesion studies that have shown a role for the vestibulocerebellum in the control of the direction of the VOR.

  10. Nystagmus using video-oculography in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kiyomizu, Kensuke; Matsuda, Keiji; Torihara, Koji; Nakayama, Meiho; Komaki, Shogo; Tono, Tetsuya; Ishida, Yasushi; Yoshida, Kensei; Kimitsuki, Takashi

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate whether nystagmus has clinical significance in psychiatric patients who have functional and/or organic brain dysfunction. We performed gaze, positional and positioning nystagmus tests on 227 patients with psychiatric diseases (144 men, 83 women, with an average age +/- SD of 62.5 +/- 14.0 years) in order to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of nystagmus. Patients were classified according to the underlying disease. Normal control subjects were 107 subjects (26 men, 81 women, with an average age +/- SD of 35.6 +/- 10.0 years). Nystagmus was observed in 56 (24.7%) of 227 cases. Nystagmus was seen in 16 (59.3%) of 27 cases of alcoholism, 14 (22.2%) of 63 cases of organic psychiatric disorders, 25 (20.2%) of 124 cases of schizophrenia, 1 (20.0%) of 5 cases of excited mental retardation, 0 (0.0%) of 7 cases of mood disorders, 0 (0.0%) of 1 case of anxiety disorders and 1 (0.9%) of 107 subjects of normal control. There was a significant difference between psychiatric diseases and normal control. These results indicate that nystagmus may also be a very important clinical finding not only in patients with neurological and neuro-otological diseases, but also in patients with psychiatric diseases.

  11. The Occupational Neuroses (including Miners' Nystagmus)

    PubMed Central

    Culpin, Millais

    1933-01-01

    These disorders seem to conform to the conception of “functional nervous disorder” in the narrow sense of the phrase. Specific difficulties in writers' cramp, however, often found to have symbolic significance to the patient. Cramp frequently one symptom in a larger syndrome. Both writers' and telegraphists' cramp are excrescences upon an underlying psychoneurosis, though associated symptoms are often overlooked. Miners' nystagmus supposed to be a physiological disorder that produces “neurasthenia”; ocular symptoms mostly psychoneurotic; the oscillation not a disability of itself. Night-blindness as a hysterical symptom. History of night-blindness in armies; its epidemic prevalence in Continental armies in the Great War and its comparative rarity in ours. Its absence in war pensioners and possible replacement by fear of the dark. Night-blindness in nystagmus probably a conversion of this fear. Accounts of nystagmus in crane-workers and train dispatchers. Cases of miners' nystagmus shown to be identical with psychoneuroses arising apart from nystagmus. The nervous symptoms increase as the nystagmus diminishes. Possibly the ocular disability behaves as a hysteria in guarding against further symptoms. Appearance of an occupational disorder among deep-sea divers, and the psychological investigation of individual cases described. Spurious unconsciousness was due to a condition of Angst which could be experimentally reproduced. The existence of a psychoneurotic basis and the possibility of foretelling the development of the specific disorder were demonstrated, Conclusion.—The occupational neuroses are to be regarded as minor psychoses (or psychoneuroses) and handled in accordance with modern principles of psychopathology. PMID:19989240

  12. Phenotypical characteristics of idiopathic infantile nystagmus with and without mutations in FRMD7.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shery; Proudlock, Frank A; Sarvananthan, Nagini; Roberts, Eryl O; Awan, Musarat; McLean, Rebecca; Surendran, Mylvaganam; Kumar, A S Anil; Farooq, Shegufta J; Degg, Chris; Gale, Richard P; Reinecke, Robert D; Woodruff, Geoffrey; Langmann, Andrea; Lindner, Susanne; Jain, Sunila; Tarpey, Patrick; Raymond, F Lucy; Gottlob, Irene

    2008-05-01

    Idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN) consists of involuntary oscillations of the eyes. The familial form is most commonly X-linked. We recently found mutations in a novel gene FRMD7 (Xq26.2), which provided an opportunity to investigate a genetically defined and homogeneous group of patients with nystagmus. We compared clinical features and eye movement recordings of 90 subjects with mutation in the gene (FRMD7 group) to 48 subjects without mutations but with clinical IIN (non-FRMD7 group). Fifty-eight female obligate carriers of the mutation were also investigated. The median visual acuity (VA) was 0.2 logMAR (Snellen equivalent 6/9) in both groups and most patients had good stereopsis. The prevalence of strabismus was also similar (FRMD7: 7.8%, non-FRMD7: 10%). The presence of anomalous head posture (AHP) was significantly higher in the non-FRMD7 group (P < 0.0001). The amplitude of nystagmus was more strongly dependent on the direction of gaze in the FRMD7 group being lower at primary position (P < 0.0001), compared to non-FRMD7 group (P = 0.83). Pendular nystagmus waveforms were also more frequent in the FRMD7 group (P = 0.003). Fifty-three percent of the obligate female carriers of an FRMD7 mutation were clinically affected. The VA's in affected females were slightly better compared to affected males (P = 0.014). Subnormal optokinetic responses were found in a subgroup of obligate unaffected carriers, which may be interpreted as a sub-clinical manifestation. FRMD7 is a major cause of X-linked IIN. Most clinical and eye movement characteristics were similar in the FRMD7 group and non-FRMD7 group with most patients having good VA and stereopsis and low incidence of strabismus. Fewer patients in the FRMD7 group had AHPs, their amplitude of nystagmus being lower in primary position. Our findings are helpful in the clinical identification of IIN and genetic counselling of nystagmus patients.

  13. The Development of a Nystagmus-Specific Quality-of-Life Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    McLean, Rebecca J; Maconachie, Gail D E; Gottlob, Irene; Maltby, John

    2016-09-01

    To develop a nystagmus-specific quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaire derived from patient concerns based on eudaimonic aspects of well-being. Cross-sectional study. A total of 206 participants with nystagmus for factor analysis phase and an additional 42 participants with nystagmus for construct validity phase. Questionnaire items were written on the basis of the 6 domains of everyday living affected by nystagmus that were elicited by previous semistructured interviews conducted with 21 people with nystagmus. After consultation with 8 nystagmus experts, 37 items were administered to 206 people with nystagmus. Factor analysis was used to identify latent factors among the items and identify items to propose new nystagmus QOL scales. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the internal reliability of the new scales. To assess for discriminate and concurrent validity between the new nystagmus scales and an existing vision-related QOL tool, the Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (VFQ-25) was administered to 42 additional participants. Questionnaire response scores on nystagmus-specific QOL items. The factor analysis revealed the retention of 29 items to form a measure comprising 2 distinct subscales reflecting "personal and social" and "physical and environmental" functioning as relating to nystagmus-specific QOL. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the "personal and social" functioning scale and "physical and environmental" functioning were 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Tests for validity of the measure, consistent with a priori predictions, when compared with the VFQ-25, revealed the "physical and environmental" subscale showed concurrent validity (0.88), whereas the "personal and social" subscale was demonstrated to have discriminative validity (0.81). We have developed a 29-item, nystagmus-specific QOL questionnaire (NYS-29) based on eudaimonic aspects of well-being with subscales that address not only physical functioning but also psycho-social issues. The NYS-29 is

  14. Horizontal angular VOR, nystagmus dumping, and sensation duration in spacelab SLS-1 crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, C. M.; Balkwill, M. D.; Young, L. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    In 1G, the apparent time constant (Td) of postrotatory SPV decay with the head tilted face down is 55% of that with head erect (Te). This phenomenon is called "nystagmus dumping" and has been attributed to G effects on VOR velocity storage. Similarly, postrotatory sensation duration with head tilted (Dd) is 32% of that when head erect (De). In parabolic flight, Te and De are 70% of 1-G values, but a pitch back dumping movement produces no further change. Te, Td, and Dd have not previously been measured in orbital flight. VOR and sensation duration was tested in 4 crewmembers in 4 preflight, 1 inflight (days 4 or 5) and 4 post flight sessions. Bitemporal EOG was recorded with eyes open in darkness. Instructions were to "gaze straight ahead," and indicate when "rotation sensation disappears or becomes ambiguous". Subjects were rotated CW and CCW head erect for 1 min at 120 degrees/s, stopped, and EOG was recorded for another 1 min. This procedure was then used to study dumping, except that immediately after chair stop, subjects pitched their head forward 90 degrees. SPV was calculated using order statistic filtering, and dropouts removed using an iterative model fitting method. Te and Td were determined by logarithmic linear regression of mean SPV for each subject. In orbit, 90 degrees pitch movement produced rapid subjective dumping, but not nystagmus dumping. Dd was noticeably shorter ("almost instantaneous") compared to preflight Dd. Te and Td in orbit were similar to preflight Te for 3/4 subjects (rather than to preflight Td as expected). No consistent VOR gain changes were seen in orbit. Although Te is known to decrease acutely in parabolic flight, a longer time constant was measured in 3/4 subjects after 4-5 days adaptation to weightlessness, suggesting a return of angular velocity storage.

  15. 21 CFR 886.1905 - Nystagmus tape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1905 Nystagmus tape. (a) Identification. Nystagmus tape is a device that is a long, narrow strip of fabric or other flexible material on which a series of objects are...

  16. Effect of Pitch Tilt on Vertical Optokinetic Nystagmus,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-23

    Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory NAMRL-1394 EFFECT OF PITCH TILT ON VERTICAL OPTOKINETIC NYSTAGMUS M. J. Correia, O. I. Kolev, A...MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY 51 HOVEY ROAD, PENSACOLA, FL 32508-1046 NAMRL-1394 EFFECT OF PITCH TILT ON VERTICAL OPTOKINETIC NYSTAGMUS M. J...Florida Pensacola, Florida Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. ABSTRACT Vertical optokinetic nystagmus (VOKN) and VOKN after

  17. Effects of topical brinzolamide on infantile nystagmus syndrome waveforms: eyedrops for nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Dell'osso, Louis F; Hertle, Richard W; Leigh, R John; Jacobs, Jonathan B; King, Susan; Yaniglos, Stacia

    2011-09-01

    Recent advances in infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) surgery have uncovered the therapeutic importance of proprioception. In this report, we test the hypothesis that the topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) brinzolamide (Azopt) has beneficial effects on measures of nystagmus foveation quality in a subject with INS. Eye movement data were taken, using a high-speed digital video recording system, before and after 3 days of the application of topical brinzolamide 3 times daily in each eye. Nystagmus waveforms were analyzed by applying the eXpanded Nystagmus Acuity Function (NAFX) at different gaze angles and determining the longest foveation domain (LFD) and compared to previously published data from the same subject after the use of a systemic CAI, contact lenses, and convergence and to other subjects before and after eye muscle surgery for INS. Topical brinzolamide improved foveation by both a 51.9% increase in the peak value of the NAFX function (from 0.395 to 0.600) and a 50% broadening of the NAFX vs Gaze Angle curve (the LFD increased from 20° to 30°). The improvements in NAFX after topical brinzolamide were equivalent to systemic acetazolamide or eye muscle surgery and were intermediate between those of soft contact lenses or convergence. Topical brinzolamide and contact lenses had equivalent LFD improvements and were less effective than convergence. In this subject with INS, topical brinzolamide resulted in improved-foveation INS waveforms over a broadened range of gaze angles. Its therapeutic effects were equivalent to systemic CAI. Although a prospective clinical trial is needed to prove efficacy or effectiveness in other subjects, an eyedrops-based therapy for INS may emerge as a viable addition to optical, surgical, behavioral, and systemic drug therapies.

  18. [MRI in congenital nystagmus].

    PubMed

    Denis, D; Girard, N; Toesca, E; Zanin, E; Gambarelli, N; Lebranchu, P; Mancini, J

    2010-03-01

    Congenital nystagmus (CN) that is present by the age of 3 months is the most common form of nystagmus in childhood. We present a prospective study (2001-2008) in which we report imaging findings in 48 children with CN. Twenty-six boys and 22 girls with CN underwent a complete ophthalmologic assessment and a cerebral MRI (mean age of examination under general anesthesia: 11 months). Three CN groups were formed: neurologic (n=27), sensory visual disturbance (n=14), and isolated (n=7). Cerebral MRI was interpreted by the same pediatric neuroradiologist (NG). Of the children studied, 98 % were born at term. The MRI abnormalities were classified as morphologic abnormalities (malformative or nonmalformative) and as signal abnormalities. The location of brain abnormalities was within the posterior fossa, (brain stem, cerebellum, dental nuclei, cisterna magna) and the cerebral hemisphere (white matter, perivascular spaces, midline commissures, basal ganglia). Pendular nystagmus was prevalent in sensory and neurologic nystagmus. On fundus examination, optic disc abnormalities were present in 70 % (19) of neurologic CN and associated with white matter abnormalities of the optic radiations in 40 % of cases. On MRI, malformative morphologic abnormalities were present in 27 cases, nonmalformative abnormalities were found in 67, and signal abnormalities in 68. Within the brain stem, signal abnormalities were found as a cockade appearance of the posterior pons in the reticular regions (neurologic n=14, sensory n=6, isolated n=3). Other bright (most frequent) signal abnormalities were found within the dentate nuclei of the posterior fossa (neurologic n=10, sensory n=3, isolated n=3) and the cerebral white matter (neurologic n=17, sensory n=7, isolated n=5) of which 24 (neurologic n=15, sensory n=5, isolated n=4) involved the optic radiations. Most of these abnormalities were related and were seen most frequently in neurologic nystagmus. The most frequent association was signal

  19. Hyperventilation-induced nystagmus in a large series of vestibular patients.

    PubMed

    Califano, L; Melillo, M G; Vassallo, A; Mazzone, S

    2011-02-01

    The Hyperventilation Test is widely used in the "bed-side examination" of vestibular patients. It can either activate a latent nystagmus in central or peripheral vestibular diseases or it can interact with a spontaneous nystagmus, by reducing it or increasing it. Aims of this study were to determine the incidence, patterns and temporal characteristics of Hyperventilation-induced nystagmus in patients suffering from vestibular diseases, as well as its contribution to the differential diagnosis between vestibular neuritis and neuroma of the 8(th) cranial nerve, and its behaviour in some central vestibular diseases. The present study includes 1202 patients featuring, at vestibular examination, at least one sign of vestibular system disorders or patients diagnosed with a "Migraine-related vertigo" or "Chronic subjective dizziness". The overall incidence of Hyperventilation-induced nystagmus was 21.9%. It was detected more frequently in retrocochlear vestibular diseases rather than in end-organ vestibular diseases: 5.3% in Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo, 37.1% in Menière's disease, 37.6% in compensated vestibular neuritis, 77.2% in acute vestibular neuritis and 91.7% in neuroma of the 8(th) cranial nerve. In acute vestibular neuritis, three HVIN patterns were observed: Paretic pattern: temporary enhancement of the spontaneous nystagmus; Excitatory pattern: temporary inhibition of the spontaneous nystagmus; Strong excitatory pattern: temporary inversion of the spontaneous nystagmus. Excitatory patterns proved to be time-dependent in that they disappeared and were replaced by the paretic pattern over a period of maximum 18 days since the beginning of the disorder. In acoustic neuroma, Hyperventilation-induced nystagmus was frequently observed (91.7%), either in the form of an excitatory pattern (fast phases towards the affected site) or in the form of a paretic pattern (fast phases towards the healthy side). The direction of the nystagmus is only partially related to

  20. Allelic variation of the FRMD7 gene in congenital idiopathic nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Self, James E; Shawkat, Fatima; Malpas, Crispin T; Thomas, N Simon; Harris, Christopher M; Hodgkins, Peter R; Chen, Xiaoli; Trump, Dorothy; Lotery, Andrew J

    2007-09-01

    To perform a genotype-phenotype correlation study in an X-linked congenital idiopathic nystagmus pedigree (pedigree 1) and to assess the allelic variance of the FRMD7 gene in congenital idiopathic nystagmus. Subjects from pedigree 1 underwent detailed clinical examination including nystagmology. Screening of FRMD7 was undertaken in pedigree 1 and in 37 other congenital idiopathic nystagmus probands and controls. Direct sequencing confirmed sequence changes. X-inactivation studies were performed in pedigree 1. The nystagmus phenotype was extremely variable in pedigree 1. We identified 2 FRMD7 mutations. However, 80% of X-linked families and 96% of simplex cases showed no mutations. X-inactivation studies demonstrated no clear causal link between skewing and variable penetrance. We confirm profound phenotypic variation in X-linked congenital idiopathic nystagmus pedigrees. We demonstrate that other congenital nystagmus genes exist besides FRMD7. We show that the role of X inactivation in variable penetrance is unclear in congenital idiopathic nystagmus. Clinical Relevance We demonstrate that phenotypic variation of nystagmus occurs in families with FRMD7 mutations. While FRMD7 mutations may be found in some cases of X-linked congenital idiopathic nystagmus, the diagnostic yield is low. X-inactivation assays are unhelpful as a test for carrier status for this disease.

  1. Reading strategies in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mervyn G; Gottlob, Irene; McLean, Rebecca J; Maconachie, Gail; Kumar, Anil; Proudlock, Frank A

    2011-10-17

    The adaptive strategies adopted by individuals with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) during reading are not clearly understood. Eye movement recordings were used to identify ocular motor strategies used by patients with INS during reading. Eye movements were recorded at 500 Hz in 25 volunteers with INS and 7 controls when reading paragraphs of text centered at horizontal gaze angles of -20°, -10°, 0°, 10°, and 20°. At each location, reading speeds were measured, along with logMAR visual acuity and nystagmus during gaze-holding. Adaptive strategies were identified from slow and quick-phase patterns in the nystagmus waveform. Median reading speeds were 204.3 words per minute in individuals with INS and 273.6 words per minute in controls. Adaptive strategies included (1) suppression of corrective quick phases allowing involuntary slow phases to achieve the desired goal, (2) voluntarily changing the character of the involuntary slow phases using quick phases, and (3) correction of involuntary slow phases using quick phases. Several individuals with INS read more rapidly than healthy control volunteers. These findings demonstrate that volunteers with INS learn to manipulate their nystagmus using a range of strategies to acquire visual information from the text. These strategies include taking advantage of the stereotypical and periodic nature of involuntary eye movements to allow the involuntary eye movements to achieve the desired goal. The versatility of these adaptations yields reading speeds in those with nystagmus that are often much better than might be expected, given the degree of foveal and ocular motor deficits.

  2. Clinical Correlation between Perverted Nystagmus and Brain MRI Abnormal Findings

    PubMed Central

    Han, Won-Gue; Yoon, Hee-Chul; Kim, Tae-Min; Rah, Yoon Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives To analyze the clinical correlation between perverted nystagmus and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormal findings and to evaluate whether perverted nystagmus is clinically significant results of brain abnormal lesions or not. Subjects and Methods We performed medical charts review from January 2008 to July 2014, retrospectively. Patients who were suspected central originated vertigo at Frenzel goggles test were included among patients who visited our hospital. To investigate the correlation with nystagmus suspected central originated vertigo and brain MRI abnormal findings, we confirmed whether performing brain MRI or not. Then we exclude that patients not performed brain MRI. Results The number of patients with perverted nystagmus was 15, upbeating was 1 and down-beating was 14. Among these patients, 5 patients have brain MRI abnormal findings. However, 2 patients with MRI abnormal findings were not associated correctly with perverted nystagmus and only 3 patients with perverted nystagmus were considered central originated vertigo and further evaluation and treatment was performed by the department of neurology. Conclusions Perverted nystagmus was considered to the abnormalities at brain lesions, especially cerebellum, but neurologic symptoms and further evaluation were needed for exact diagnosis of central originated vertigo. PMID:27626081

  3. [Analysis of 180 patients with sensory defect nystagmus (SDN) and congenital idiopathic nystagmus (CIN)].

    PubMed

    Lorenz, B; Gampe, E

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the diseases underlying congenital nystagmus in a series of patients registered during 6 years as a prerequisite for adequate counselling of the families. Retrospective study of all patients that presented between 1992 and 1998 with congenital nystagmus not related to visual deprivation or acquired pathologies of the visual pathways. The patients were examined clinically and in dependence on the findings also by electrophysiological (Ganzfeld ERG and VEP, Albino-flash-VEP), psychophysical (colour vision, dark adaptation, spectral sensitivity), and molecular genetic methods. When estimated necessary, family members affected by history and unaffected family members were also examined. In cases of complex neuroophthalmological diseases a neuropaediatric examination including neuroimaging was initiated. In total, 180 patients could be analysed. A sensory defect nystagmus (SDN) was present in 142 patients (79%). The diagnoses were as follows: albinism (any form) in 56 patients (30%), progressive photoreceptor dystrophy in 20 patients (11%), stationary cone dysfunction in 18 patients (10%), bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia in 15 patients (8%), chorioretinal or optic nerve colobomata in 10 patients (6%), aniridia and its variants in 10 patients (6%), familial isolated nystagmus in 8 patients (5%), and congenital stationary night blindness in 5 patients (3%). 38 patients (21%) could not (yet) be classified. The prevalence of SDN as the manifesting symptom of a variety of well defined diseases in the present series of at least 79% is similar to that of 90% reported earlier. The precise diagnosis is a prerequisite for counselling the families as to functional prognosis and recurrence risk. Unnecessary neurological examinations including neuroimaging can be avoided.

  4. Effectiveness of Botulinum Toxin Administered to Abolish Acquired Nystagmus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leigh, R. John; Tomsak, Robert L.; Grant, Michael P.; Remler, Bernd F.; Yaniglos, Stacy S.; Lystad, Lisa; Dell'Osso, Louis F.

    1992-01-01

    We injected botulinum toxin into the horizontal rectus muscles of the right eyes of two patients who had acquired pendular nystagmus with horizontal, vertical, and torsional components. This treatment successfully abolished the horizontal component of the nystagmus in the injected eye in both patients for approximately 2 months. Both patients showed a small but measurable improvement of vision in the injected eye that may have been limited by coexistent disease of the visual pathways. The vertical and torsional components of the nystagmus persisted in both patients. In one patient, the horizontal component of nystagmus in the noninjected eye increased; we ascribe this finding to plastic-adaptive changes in response to paresis caused by the botulinum toxin. Such plastic-adaptive changes and direct side effects of the injections - such as diplopia and ptosis - may limit the effectiveness of botulinum toxin in the treatment of acquired nystagmus. Neither patient elected to repeat the botulinum treatment.

  5. Suppression of spontaneous nystagmus during different visual fixation conditions.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Timo P; Juhola, Martti; Aalto, Heikki

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of spontaneous nystagmus is important in the evaluation of dizzy patients. The aim was to measure how different visual conditions affect the properties of nystagmus using three-dimensional video-oculography (VOG). We compared prevalence, frequency and slow phase velocity (SPV) of the spontaneous nystagmus with gaze fixation allowed, with Frenzel's glasses, and in total darkness. Twenty-five patients (35 measurements) with the peripheral vestibular pathologies were included. The prevalence of nystagmus with the gaze fixation was 40%, and it increased significantly to 66% with Frenzel's glasses and regular room lights on (p < 0.01). The prevalence increased significantly to 83% when the regular room lights were switched off (p = 0.014), and further to 100% in total darkness (p = 0.025). The mean SPV of nystagmus with visual fixation allowed was 1.0°/s. It increased to 2.4°/s with Frenzel's glasses and room lights on, and additionally to 3.1°/s, when the regular room lights were switched off. The mean SPV in total darkness was 6.9°/s. The difference was highly significant between all test conditions (p < 0.01). The frequency of nystagmus was 0.7 beats/s with gaze fixation, 0.8 beats/s in both the test conditions with Frenzel's glasses on, and 1.2 beats/s in total darkness. The frequency in total darkness was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than with Frenzel's glasses, and more so than with visual fixation (p = 0.003). The VOG in total darkness is superior in detecting nystagmus, since Frenzel's glasses allow visual suppression to happen, and this effect is reinforced with gaze fixation allowed. Strict control of visual surroundings is essential in interpreting peripheral nystagmus.

  6. Immediate postoperative nystagmus and vestibular symptoms after stapes surgery.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Timo P; Aalto, Heikki

    2013-08-01

    Vestibular disturbance is frequent, but mild even immediately after stapes surgery. Vestibular symptoms improved or disappeared quickly, and they did not correlate with nystagmus. Outpatient stapes surgery performed under local anaesthesia is a feasible approach. Vestibular symptoms are common and may prevent outpatient surgery. The time course of vestibular disturbance is unclear, and we aimed to evaluate it immediately after the operation in the recovery room. Twenty patients with otosclerosis undergoing stapedotomy were prospectively included in the study. Postoperative symptoms were collected and nystagmus was recorded with video-oculography (VOG) on average 29 min after the surgery. None of the patients had spontaneous nystagmus with gaze fixation. Nine patients (45%) had slow spontaneous horizontal nystagmus (mean slow phase velocity of 1.1°/s) in the primary position without gaze fixation. In seven of these, the nystagmus obeyed Alexander's law. Nine patients (45%) had vestibular symptoms at the end of the surgery, and four patients at the time of VOG recording. Vertigo was experienced immediately after the operation in five, floating sensation in two, and unspecific dizziness in two patients. Vestibular symptoms were mild or moderate in most patients. The occurrence of nystagmus did not correlate with vestibular symptoms (p > 0.05).

  7. Horizontal nystagmus and multiple sclerosis using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Iyer, P M; Fagan, A J; Meaney, J F; Colgan, N C; Meredith, S D; Driscoll, D O; Curran, K M; Bradley, D; Redmond, J

    2016-11-01

    Nystagmus in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is generally attributed to brainstem disease. Lesions in other regions may result in nystagmus. The identification of these other sites is enhanced by using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3TMRI) due to increased signal-to-noise ratio. We sought to evaluate the distribution of structural lesions and disruption of tracts in patients with horizontal nystagmus secondary to MS using 3TMRI. Twenty-four patients (20 women, 4 men; age range 26-55 years) with horizontal nystagmus secondary to MS underwent 3TMRI brain scans; and 18 patients had diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for tractography. Nystagmus was bidirectional in 11, right-sided in 6 and left-sided in 7. We identified 194 lesions in 20 regions within the neural integrator circuit in 24 patients; 140 were within the cortex and 54 were within the brainstem. Only two patients had no lesions in the cortex, and 9 had no lesions in the brainstem. There was no relationship between side of lesion and direction of nystagmus. Thirteen of 18 (72 %) had tract disruption with fractional anisotropy (FA) values below 0.2. FA was significantly lower in bidirectional compared to unidirectional nystagmus (p = 0.006). In MS patients with horizontal nystagmus, lesions in all cortical eye fields and their descending connections were evident. Technical improvements in tractography may help identify the specific site(s) resulting in nystagmus in MS.

  8. Oscillopsia in "inverse latent" infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abel, Larry A; Malesic, Linda A

    2007-11-01

    A possibly unique individual with infantile nystagmus syndrome presented with incessant oscillopsia but good stereopsis when viewing binocularly; her nystagmus was greatly reduced with left eye occlusion. We have attempted to explain this and to identify an intervention that preserves binocular vision while maximizing perceptual stability. Eye movements were recorded and analyzed for duration of foveation (% time when the target was on or near the fovea and the eye was moving at < or = 4 degrees /sec) under different viewing conditions. Changes in foveation were compared with the patient's reports of her perceptual stability. In her right gaze null with her right eye fixating, foveation was 52.9%. This fell to 32.3% for the same eye in primary position and to 0.8% when viewing binocularly in primary position. When viewing binocularly oscillopsia was incessant; when viewing with her right eye vision was stable except in left gaze. Prism correction of her phoria greatly reduced her oscillopsia when viewing binocularly while preserving stereopsis; foveation went up to 33.7%. The patient's ability to maintain good foveation only when viewing with her right eye forces her to choose between stereopsis and stable vision. This may result from the rare combination of (1) requiring good foveation for oscillopsia suppression and (2) nystagmus deteriorating under the stress of maintaining binocularity. There may be many other infantile nystagmus syndrome patients who do not develop oscillopsia but may suffer sufficient asthenopia from a phoria to exacerbate their nystagmus.

  9. Magnetic Oculomotor Prosthetics for Acquired Nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Nachev, Parashkev; Rose, Geoff E; Verity, David H; Manohar, Sanjay G; MacKenzie, Kelly; Adams, Gill; Theodorou, Maria; Pankhurst, Quentin A; Kennard, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Acquired nystagmus, a highly symptomatic consequence of damage to the substrates of oculomotor control, often is resistant to pharmacotherapy. Although heterogeneous in its neural cause, its expression is unified at the effector-the eye muscles themselves-where physical damping of the oscillation offers an alternative approach. Because direct surgical fixation would immobilize the globe, action at a distance is required to damp the oscillation at the point of fixation, allowing unhindered gaze shifts at other times. Implementing this idea magnetically, herein we describe the successful implantation of a novel magnetic oculomotor prosthesis in a patient. Case report of a pilot, experimental intervention. A 49-year-old man with longstanding, medication-resistant, upbeat nystagmus resulting from a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by stage 2A, grade I, nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's lymphoma. We designed a 2-part, titanium-encased, rare-earth magnet oculomotor prosthesis, powered to damp nystagmus without interfering with the larger forces involved in saccades. Its damping effects were confirmed when applied externally. We proceeded to implant the device in the patient, comparing visual functions and high-resolution oculography before and after implantation and monitoring the patient for more than 4 years after surgery. We recorded Snellen visual acuity before and after intervention, as well as the amplitude, drift velocity, frequency, and intensity of the nystagmus in each eye. The patient reported a clinically significant improvement of 1 line of Snellen acuity (from 6/9 bilaterally to 6/6 on the left and 6/5-2 on the right), reflecting an objectively measured reduction in the amplitude, drift velocity, frequency, and intensity of the nystagmus. These improvements were maintained throughout a follow-up of 4 years and enabled him to return to paid employment. This work opens a new field of implantable therapeutic devices-oculomotor prosthetics-designed to modify eye

  10. Downbeat nystagmus due to a paramedian medullary lesion.

    PubMed

    Nakamagoe, Kiyotaka; Shimizu, Kotone; Koganezawa, Tadachika; Tamaoka, Akira

    2012-11-01

    Cell groups of the paramedian tract, which are located in the paramedian region of the lower brainstem, are eye-movement-related neurons that project to the cerebellar flocculus. Their inactivation produces downbeat nystagmus, which resembles eye movement disorders resulting from lesions of the cerebellar flocculus in animal experiments. Therefore, paramedian tract cells are assumed to fulfill an important function in ocular movement control, such as gaze-holding and maintaining vestibular balance. This paper presents a 50-year-old female who manifested downbeat nystagmus due to damage to the paramedian tract cells caused by a localized ischemic lesion in the medulla oblongata. We found that a paramedian medullary lesion-induced nystagmus, similar to that observed following floccular lesions, clearly indicates that a subgroup of paramedian tract cells projecting to the flocculus was impaired. This finding has important implications in considering a brainstem-cerebellar feedback loop involved in vestibulo-oculomotor controls, such as vestibular balance. Although there have been a few reports of downbeat nystagmus caused by lesions in the midline region of the lower brainstem, to our knowledge none report the occurrence of nystagmus due to a strictly localized medullar lesion, such as the one described here. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Upbeat nystagmus in anti-Ma2 encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Reitboeck, Pablo; Thompson, Graham; Johns, Paul; Al Wahab, Yasir; Omer, Salah; Griffin, Colette

    2014-02-01

    Anti-Ma2 encephalitis is a paraneoplastic disorder characterised by brainstem and/or limbic involvement. Eye movement abnormalities can occur in this condition, often with confusion or somnolence. We describe a patient with progressive oscillopsia (with upbeat nystagmus) and unsteadiness, followed by acute pancreatitis. She did not respond to immunomodulatory treatment and subsequently died of complications related to pancreatitis and sepsis. There was no tumour identified at autopsy, but the anti-Ma2 antibodies in her serum and the discovery of a brainstem-predominant inflammatory infiltrate at autopsy strongly suggest a paraneoplastic disorder. Our case illustrates that upbeat nystagmus can be a predominant feature in anti-Ma2 encephalitis; clinicians should consider testing for anti-Ma2 antibodies in patients with upbeat nystagmus of unknown cause.

  12. Muscimol inactivation caudal to the interstitial nucleus of Cajal induces hemi-seesaw nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Das, Vallabh E; Leigh, R John; Swann, Michelle; Thurtell, Matthew J

    2010-09-01

    Hemi-seesaw nystagmus (hemi-SSN) is a jerk-waveform nystagmus with conjugate torsional and disjunctive vertical components. Halmagyi et al. in Brain 117(Pt 4):789-803 (1994), reported hemi-SSN in patients with unilateral lesions in the vicinity of the Interstitial Nucleus of Cajal (INC) and suggested that an imbalance in projections from the vestibular nuclei to the INC was the source of the nystagmus. However, this hypothesis was called into question by Helmchen et al. in Exp Brain Res 119(4):436-452 (1998), who inactivated INC in monkeys with muscimol (a GABA(A) agonist) and induced failure of vertical gaze-holding (neural integrator) function but not hemi-SSN. We injected 0.1-0.2 microl of 2% muscimol into the supraoculomotor area, 1-2 mm dorso-lateral to the right oculomotor nucleus and caudal to the right INC. A total of seven injections in two juvenile rhesus monkeys were performed. Hemi-SSN was noted within 5-10 min after injection for six of the injections. Around the time the hemi-SSN began, a small skew deviation also developed. However, there was no limitation of horizontal or vertical eye movements, suggesting that the nearby oculomotor nucleus was not initially compromised. Limitations in eye movement range developed about (1/2)-1 h following the injections. Clinical signs that were observed after the animal was released to his cage included a moderate to marked head tilt toward the left (contralesional) side, consistent with an ocular tilt reaction. We conclude that hemi-SSN can be caused by lesions just caudal to the INC, whereas lesions of the INC itself cause down-beat nystagmus and vertical gaze-holding failure, as demonstrated by Helmchen et al. Combined deficits may be encountered with lesions that involve several midbrain structures.

  13. Muscimol inactivation caudal to the interstitial nucleus of Cajal induces hemi-seesaw nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, R. John; Swann, Michelle; Thurtell, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Hemi-seesaw nystagmus (hemi-SSN) is a jerk-waveform nystagmus with conjugate torsional and disjunctive vertical components. Halmagyi et al. in Brain 117(Pt 4):789–803 (1994), reported hemi-SSN in patients with unilateral lesions in the vicinity of the Interstitial Nucleus of Cajal (INC) and suggested that an imbalance in projections from the vestibular nuclei to the INC was the source of the nystagmus. However, this hypothesis was called into question by Helmchen et al. in Exp Brain Res 119(4):436–452 (1998), who inactivated INC in monkeys with muscimol (a GABAA agonist) and induced failure of vertical gaze-holding (neural integrator) function but not hemi-SSN. We injected 0.1–0.2 μl of 2% muscimol into the supraoculomotor area, 1–2 mm dorso-lateral to the right oculomotor nucleus and caudal to the right INC. A total of seven injections in two juvenile rhesus monkeys were performed. Hemi-SSN was noted within 5–10 min after injection for six of the injections. Around the time the hemi-SSN began, a small skew deviation also developed. However, there was no limitation of horizontal or vertical eye movements, suggesting that the nearby oculomotor nucleus was not initially compromised. Limitations in eye movement range developed about ½–1 h following the injections. Clinical signs that were observed after the animal was released to his cage included a moderate to marked head tilt toward the left (contralesional) side, consistent with an ocular tilt reaction. We conclude that hemi-SSN can be caused by lesions just caudal to the INC, whereas lesions of the INC itself cause down-beat nystagmus and vertical gaze-holding failure, as demonstrated by Helmchen et al. Combined deficits may be encountered with lesions that involve several midbrain structures. PMID:20686890

  14. Pharmacological tests of hypotheses for acquired pendular nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Thurtell, Matthew J; Optican, Lance M; Leigh, R John

    2011-09-01

    Acquired pendular nystagmus (APN) occurs with multiple sclerosis (MS) and oculopalatal tremor (OPT); distinct features of the nystagmus have led to the development of separate models for their pathogenesis. APN in MS has been attributed to instability in the neural integrator, which normally ensures steady gaze. APN in OPT may result from electrotonic coupling between neurons in the hypertrophied inferior olivary nucleus, which induces maladaptive learning in cerebellar cortex. We tested these two hypotheses by analyzing the effects of gabapentin, memantine, and baclofen on both forms of nystagmus. No drug changed the dominant frequency of either form of APN, but the variability of frequency was affected with gabapentin and memantine in patients with OPT. The amplitude of APN in both MS and OPT was reduced with gabapentin and memantine, but not baclofen. Analyzing the effects of drug therapies on ocular oscillations provides a novel approach to test models of nystagmus. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Pharmacological tests of hypotheses for acquired pendular nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Thurtell, Matthew J.; Optican, Lance M.; Leigh, R. John

    2011-01-01

    Acquired pendular nystagmus (APN) occurs with multiple sclerosis (MS) and oculopalatal tremor (OPT); distinct features of the nystagmus have led to the development of separate models for the pathogenesis. APN in MS has been attributed to instability in the neural integrator, which normally ensures steady gaze. APN in OPT may result from electrotonic coupling between neurons in the hypertrophied inferior olivary nucleus, which induces maladaptive learning in cerebellar cortex. We tested these two hypotheses by analyzing the effects of gabapentin, memantine, and baclofen on both forms of nystagmus. No drug changed the dominant frequency of either form of APN, but the variability of frequency was affected with gabapentin and memantine in patients with OPT. The amplitude of APN in both MS and OPT was reduced with gabapentin and memantine, but not baclofen. Analyzing the effects of drug therapies on ocular oscillations provides a novel approach to test models of nystagmus. PMID:21951011

  16. Transition from upbeat to downbeat nystagmus observed in a patient with Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuo; Matsuda, Taisuke; Washio, Noriaki; Ohtsuka, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    We report an unusual case of Wernicke's encephalopathy presenting with transient upbeat nystagmus that changed to a persistent downbeat nystagmus. A 27-year-old man presented with upbeat nystagmus. Three months earlier, he had been diagnosed with Wernicke's encephalopathy after fasting for a month. This diagnosis was supported by his symptoms (ataxia, a confused state). Clinical recovery followed thiamine therapy. His upbeat nystagmus had linear slow phases with average amplitude and frequency (+/-SD) during fixation straight ahead of 2.8 +/- 0.7 degrees and 4.6 +/- 2.2 Hz, respectively. Two months later, the primary position upbeat nystagmus had diminished and downbeat nystagmus (0.9 +/- 0.5 degrees and 3.2 +/- 0.7 Hz on average) for a 20 degrees downward gaze had developed. Then, 8 months later, he showed only downbeat nystagmus, which obeyed Alexander's law. His primary position downbeat nystagmus was completely suppressed by clonazepam, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist. Owing to an underlying central vestibular imbalance, even after the recovery of acute neurological symptoms, Wernicke's encephalopathy can be complicated by persistent downbeat nystagmus, which can be treated by a GABA agonist.

  17. Artificial gravity: head movements during short-radius centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Hecht, H.; Lyne, L. E.; Sienko, K. H.; Cheung, C. C.; Kavelaars, J.

    2001-01-01

    Short-radius centrifugation is a potential countermeasure to long-term weightlessness. Unfortunately, head movements in a rotating environment induce serious discomfort, non-compensatory vestibulo-ocular reflexes, and subjective illusions of body tilt. In two experiments we investigated the effects of pitch and yaw head movements in participants placed supine on a rotating bed with their head at the center of rotation, feet at the rim. The vast majority of participants experienced motion sickness, inappropriate vertical nystagmus and illusory tilt and roll as predicted by a semicircular canal model. However, a small but significant number of the 28 participants experienced tilt in the predicted plane but in the opposite direction. Heart rate was elevated following one-second duration head turns. Significant adaptation occurred following a series of head turns in the light. Vertical nystagmus, motion sickness and illusory tilt all decreased with adaptation. Consequences for artificial gravity produced by short-radius centrifuges as a countermeasure are discussed. Grant numbers: NCC 9-58. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transtympanic gentamicin and fibrin tissue adhesive for treatment of unilateral Menière's disease: effects on vestibular function.

    PubMed

    Casani, Augusto; Nuti, Daniele; Franceschini, Stefano Sellari; Gaudini, Elisa; Dallan, Iacopo

    2005-12-01

    To determine the effects of transtympanic injections, with a mixture composed of gentamicin and fibrin tissue adhesive (FTA), on vestibular function of patients with intractable unilateral Menière's disease. This was an open, prospective study. The study was performed at 2 tertiary referral centers. Twenty-six patients affected by "definite" unilateral Menière's disease, unresponsive to medical therapy for at least 6 months, were enrolled. A buffered gentamicin solution mixed with FTA was injected in the middle ear until the development of bedside vestibular hypofunction signs and/or caloric weakness in the treated ear. Vestibular function was evaluated by 3 bedside vestibular tests (observation of spontaneous nystagmus, head shaking test, and head thrust test) and by a caloric test. Tests were performed on days 10 and 30 after completion of treatment. Tests were also performed 3, 6, and 12 months from completion of the gentamicin-FTA protocol. The effects of treatment were also assessed in terms of hearing levels, control of vertigo, and disability status. In 22 of the 26 patients, only 1 gentamicin-FTA injection was necessary to obtain 1 or more signs indicating a reduction of the vestibular function in the treated ear. Four patients needed another treatment because of the persistence of their incapacitating symptoms during the follow-up. Four patients needed more than 1 injection to obtain a vestibular hypofunction. None of the patients who received 1 or 2 injections presented hearing loss in direct temporal relationship to the treatment. A mixture of gentamicin and fibrin glue makes it possible to considerably reduce the number of administrations in patients with intractable unilateral Menière's disease. Spontaneous nystagmus, post head shaking nystagmus, and a head thrust sign are the clinical signs that indicate onset or progression of unilateral vestibular hypofunction. These signs were obtained with only 1 injection in 81% of patients.

  19. The clinical and molecular genetic features of idiopathic infantile periodic alternating nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mervyn G.; Crosier, Moira; Lindsay, Susan; Kumar, Anil; Thomas, Shery; Araki, Masasuke; Talbot, Chris J.; McLean, Rebecca J.; Surendran, Mylvaganam; Taylor, Katie; Leroy, Bart P.; Moore, Anthony T.; Hunter, David G.; Hertle, Richard W.; Tarpey, Patrick; Langmann, Andrea; Lindner, Susanne; Brandner, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Periodic alternating nystagmus consists of involuntary oscillations of the eyes with cyclical changes of nystagmus direction. It can occur during infancy (e.g. idiopathic infantile periodic alternating nystagmus) or later in life. Acquired forms are often associated with cerebellar dysfunction arising due to instability of the optokinetic-vestibular systems. Idiopathic infantile periodic alternating nystagmus can be familial or occur in isolation; however, very little is known about the clinical characteristics, genetic aetiology and neural substrates involved. Five loci (NYS1-5) have been identified for idiopathic infantile nystagmus; three are autosomal (NYS2, NYS3 and NYS4) and two are X-chromosomal (NYS1 and NYS5). We previously identified the FRMD7 gene on chromosome Xq26 (NYS1 locus); mutations of FRMD7 are causative of idiopathic infantile nystagmus influencing neuronal outgrowth and development. It is unclear whether the periodic alternating nystagmus phenotype is linked to NYS1, NYS5 (Xp11.4-p11.3) or a separate locus. From a cohort of 31 X-linked families and 14 singletons (70 patients) with idiopathic infantile nystagmus we identified 10 families and one singleton (21 patients) with periodic alternating nystagmus of which we describe clinical phenotype, genetic aetiology and neural substrates involved. Periodic alternating nystagmus was not detected clinically but only on eye movement recordings. The cycle duration varied from 90 to 280 s. Optokinetic reflex was not detectable horizontally. Mutations of the FRMD7 gene were found in all 10 families and the singleton (including three novel mutations). Periodic alternating nystagmus was predominantly associated with missense mutations within the FERM domain. There was significant sibship clustering of the phenotype although in some families not all affected members had periodic alternating nystagmus. In situ hybridization studies during mid-late human embryonic stages in normal tissue showed restricted

  20. Spontaneous nystagmus in dorsolateral medullary infarction indicates vestibular semicircular canal imbalance.

    PubMed

    Rambold, H; Helmchen, C

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous nystagmus caused by dorsolateral medullary infarction may be of vestibular origin. To test if imbalance of the central pathways of the semicircular canals contributes to spontaneous nystagmus in dorsolateral medullary syndrome. We examined four patients with dorsolateral medullary syndrome and recorded spontaneous nystagmus binocularly at gaze straight ahead with the three-dimensional search coil technique. The median slow phase velocity of the nystagmus was analysed in the light and in the dark, and the normalised velocity axes were compared with the rotation axes as predicted from anatomical data of the semicircular canal. The slow phase rotation axes of all patients aligned best with the rotation axes resulting from stimulation of the contralesional posterior and horizontal semicircular canals. This alignment cannot be explained by pure otolith imbalance. We propose that vestibular imbalance caused by an ipsilesional lesion of the central semicircular canal pathways of the horizontal and anterior semicircular canals largely accounts for spontaneous nystagmus in dorsolateral medullary syndrome.

  1. ShakeCast Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, Kuo-Wan; Wald, David J.

    2008-01-01

    ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users? facilities, and generates potential damage assessment notifications, facility damage maps, and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders.

  2. Nystagmus in SCA territory cerebellar infarction: pattern and a possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung; Kim, Hyun-Ah

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the frequency and pattern of nystagmus associated with isolated cerebellar infarction in the territory of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) and to discuss its possible mechanism. We identified 41 consecutive patients with isolated SCA territory cerebellar infarction diagnosed by MRI. Each patient completed a standardised dizziness questionnaire and underwent neurotological evaluations. Eye movements were recorded using 3-dimensional video-oculography during the acute period. Approximately half (19/41) of the patients experienced true vertigo early in the course of the SCA distribution infarct. 11 (27%) of the 41 patients showed spontaneous nystagmus (SN) or direction changed bidirectional gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN). SN was observed in 10 patients (24%) and the horizontal component of SN was predominant in most case (80%, 8/10) and always beat towards the lesion side. Direction changed bidirectional GEN was observed in five patients and was mostly (4/5) accompanied by SN. Lesion subtraction analyses revealed that damage to the rostral anterior cerebellum including the ala of the central lobule and part of the quadrangular lobule was more frequent in patients with nystagmus compared to patients without nystagmus (9/11, 82% vs 11/30, 37%) (p=0.015). In most (82%, 9/11) patients with SN or GEN, the nystagmus subsided within 1 week after hospitalisation. Vertigo and nystagmus in SCA territory cerebellar infarction are more common than previously thought. Ipsilesional SN may result from damage to the anterior lobe of the cerebellum, which transmits the vestibular output to the fastigial nucleus.

  3. Nystagmus as an early ocular alteration in Machado-Joseph disease (MJD/SCA3)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), also named spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is the most common autosomal dominant ataxia worldwide. Although nystagmus is one of the most frequently reported ocular alterations in MJD patients its behaviour during the course of the disease, namely in its early stages, has only recently started to be investigated. The main goal of this work was to characterize the frequency of nystagmus in symptomatic and presymptomatic carriers of the MJD mutation, and investigate its usefulness as an early indicator of the disease. Methods We conducted an observational study of Azorean MJD family members, comprising a total of 158 subjects which underwent neurological evaluation. Sixty eight were clinically and molecularly diagnosed with MJD, 48 were confirmed asymptomatic carriers and 42 were confirmed non-carriers of the MJD mutation. The frequency of nystagmus was calculated for the 3 groups. Results Nystagmus was present in 88% of the MJD patients. Seventeen percent of the at-risk subjects with a carrier result in the molecular test and none of the 42 individuals who received a non-carrier test result displayed nystagmus (p < 0.006). Although not reaching statistical significance, symptomatic subjects showing nystagmus had a tendency for a higher length of the CAG tract in the expanded allele, when compared to individuals who did not have nystagmus. Conclusions The frequency of nystagmus in asymptomatic carriers and its absence in non-carriers of the mutation, suggests that nystagmus may appear before gait disturbance and can thus be considered an early sign of MJD. PMID:24450306

  4. See-saw nystagmus and brainstem infarction: MRI findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanter, D. S.; Ruff, R. L.; Leigh, R. J.; Modic, M.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with see-saw nystagmus had a lesion localized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to the paramedian ventral midbrain with involvement of the right interstitial nucleus of Cajal. This the first MRI study of see-saw nystagmus associated with a presumed brainstem vascular event. Our findings support animal and human studies suggesting that dysfunction of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal or its connections is central in this disorder.

  5. Nystagmus Assessments Documented by Emergency Physicians in Acute Dizziness Presentations: A Target for Decision Support?

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Kevin A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Meurer, William J.; McLaughlin, Thomas; Hall, Pamela A.; Forman, Jane; Fendrick, A. Mark; Newman-Toker, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Dizziness is a common presenting complaint to the emergency department (ED), and emergency physicians (EPs) consider these presentations a priority for decision support. Assessing for nystagmus and defining its features are important steps for any acute dizziness decision algorithm. The authors sought to describe nystagmus documentation in routine ED care to determine if nystagmus assessments might be an important target in decision support efforts. Methods Medical records from ED visits for dizziness were captured as part of a surveillance study embedded within an ongoing population-based cohort study. Visits with documentation of a nystagmus assessment were reviewed and coded for presence or absence of nystagmus, ability to draw a meaningful inference from the description, and coherence with the final EP diagnosis when a peripheral vestibular diagnosis was made. Results Of 1,091 visits for dizziness, 887 (81.3%) documented a nystagmus assessment. Nystagmus was present in 185 out of 887 (20.9%) visits. When nystagmus was present, no further characteristics were recorded in 48 of the 185 visits (26%). The documentation of nystagmus (including all descriptors recorded) enabled a meaningful inference about the localization or cause in only 10 of the 185 (5.4%) visits. The nystagmus description conflicted with the EP diagnosis in 113 (80.7%) of the 140 visits that received a peripheral vestibular diagnosis. Conclusions Nystagmus assessments are frequently documented in acute dizziness presentations, but details do not generally enable a meaningful inference. Recorded descriptions usually conflict with the diagnosis when a peripheral vestibular diagnosis is rendered. Nystagmus assessments might be an important target in developing decision support for dizziness presentations. PMID:21676060

  6. [Reduced vision in Wernicke's syndrome with symptoms of nystagmus].

    PubMed

    Lindholt, Michael E

    2006-04-03

    A 42-year-old man presented in the Department of Ophthalmology of Holstebro Central Hospital with a history of alcohol abuse, vomiting and weight loss. The initial symptoms of beriberi were stiffness of the legs and a picture of Wernicke's syndrome. He had bilateral loss of horizontal eccentric gaze holding and upbeat nystagmus, and visual acuity was reduced to counting fingers. Visual acuity was tested in the down-gaze position and increased to 0.3 because of reduced nystagmus. The patient's oculomotor function improved dramatically after treatment with thiamine. Wernicke's encephalopathy and beriberi are discussed, highlighting that nystagmus may be the single ocular symptom. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral ophthalmoplegia even in the absence of altered mental status.

  7. Spontaneous nystagmus in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: is it a new sign?

    PubMed

    Hajiabolhassan, Fahimeh; Tavanai, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is a condition that indicates a benign inner ear disorder. It is generally believed that BPPV is due to the dislodged otoconial particles from otolith organs and unusual collection of them within any of semicircular canals or even in all three semicircular canals. Although the typical features of nystagmus in BPPV have been well-studied, very few studies (just four articles) have highlighted the presence of spontaneous nystagmus in BPPV recently. During the past 10 years, 2850 patients have been examined at the audiology unit of our department, and 254 patients have received diagnoses of BPPV but recently 2 patients presented with BPPV and spontaneous nystagmus, a new symptom that has been never observed in our clinical records. We herein describe this rare symptom in 2 case of BPPV. A 50-year-old woman with BPPV who showed an 18 degree spontaneous nystagmus treated with Epley maneuver and a 53-year-old man with 3 degree spontaneous nystagmus.

  8. Horizontal gaze nystagmus: a review of vision science and application issues.

    PubMed

    Rubenzer, Steven J; Stevenson, Scott B

    2010-03-01

    The Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN) test is one component of the Standardized Field Sobriety Test battery. This article reviews the literature on smooth pursuit eye movement and gaze nystagmus with a focus on normative responses, the influence of alcohol on these behaviors, and stimulus conditions similar to those used in the HGN sobriety test. Factors such as age, stimulus and background conditions, medical conditions, prescription medications, and psychiatric disorder were found to affect the smooth pursuit phase of HGN. Much less literature is available for gaze nystagmus, but onset of nystagmus may occur in some sober subjects at 45 degrees or less. We conclude that HGN is limited by large variability in the underlying normative behavior, from methods and testing environments that are often poorly controlled, and from a lack of rigorous validation in laboratory settings.

  9. Infantile Nystagmus and Abnormalities of Conjugate Eye Movements in Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Avery H; Kelly, John P; Phillips, James O

    2016-03-01

    Subjects with Down syndrome (DS) have an anatomical defect within the cerebellum that may impact downstream oculomotor areas. This study characterized gaze holding and gains for smooth pursuit, saccades, and optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) in DS children with infantile nystagmus (IN). Clinical data of 18 DS children with IN were reviewed retrospectively. Subjects with constant strabismus were excluded to remove any contribution of latent nystagmus. Gaze-holding, horizontal and vertical saccades to target steps, horizontal smooth pursuit of drifting targets, OKN in response to vertically or horizontally-oriented square wave gratings drifted at 15°/s, 30°/s, and 45°/s were recorded using binocular video-oculography. Seven subjects had additional optical coherence tomography imaging. Infantile nystagmus was associated with one or more gaze-holding instabilities (GHI) in each subject. The majority of subjects had a combination of conjugate horizontal jerk with constant or exponential slow-phase velocity, asymmetric or symmetric, and either monocular or binocular pendular nystagmus. Six of seven subjects had mild (Grade 0-1) persistence of retinal layers overlying the fovea, similar to that reported in DS children without nystagmus. All subjects had abnormal gains across one or more stimulus conditions (horizontal smooth pursuit, saccades, or OKN). Saccade velocities followed the main sequence. Down syndrome subjects with IN show a wide range of GHI and abnormalities of conjugate eye movements. We propose that these ocular motor abnormalities result from functional abnormalities of the cerebellum and/or downstream oculomotor circuits, perhaps due to extensive miswiring.

  10. A Sparse Matrix Approach for Simultaneous Quantification of Nystagmus and Saccade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.; Stone, Lee; Boyle, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) consists of two intermingled non-linear subsystems; namely, nystagmus and saccade. Typically, nystagmus is analysed using a single sufficiently long signal or a concatenation of them. Saccade information is not analysed and discarded due to insufficient data length to provide consistent and minimum variance estimates. This paper presents a novel sparse matrix approach to system identification of the VOR. It allows for the simultaneous estimation of both nystagmus and saccade signals. We show via simulation of the VOR that our technique provides consistent and unbiased estimates in the presence of output additive noise.

  11. Central oculomotor disturbances and nystagmus: a window into the brainstem and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Michael; Hüfner, Katharina; Sandmann, Ruth; Zwergal, Andreas; Dieterich, Marianne; Jahn, Klaus; Brandt, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Oculomotor disturbances and nystagmus are seen in many diseases of the nervous system, the vestibular apparatus, and the eyes, as well as in toxic and metabolic disorders. They often indicate a specific underlying cause. The key to diagnosis is systematic clinical examination of the patient's eye movements. This review deals mainly with central oculomotor disturbances, i.e., those involving smooth pursuit, saccades, gaze-holding, and central types of nystagmus. We searched the current literature for relevant publications on the diagnosis and treatment of oculomotor disturbances and nystagmus, and discuss them selectively in this review along with the German Neurological Society's guidelines on the topic. A detailed knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of eye movements usually enables the physician to localize the disturbance to a specific area in the brainstem or cerebellum. The examination of eye movements is an even more sensitive method than magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of acute vestibular syndromes and for the differentiation of peripheral from central lesions. For example, isolated dysfunction of horizontal saccades is due to a pontine lesion, while isolated dysfunction of vertical saccades is due to a midbrain lesion. Generalized gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN) has multiple causes; purely vertical GEN is due to a midbrain lesion, while purely horizontal GEN is due to a pontomedullary lesion. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia involves a constellation of findings, the most prominent of which is impaired adduction to the side of the causative lesion in the ipsilateral medial longitudinal fasciculus. The most common pathological types of central nystagmus are downbeat and upbeat nystagmus (DBN, UBN). DBN is generally due to cerebellar dysfunction, e.g., because of a neurodegenerative disease. This short review focuses on the clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and current treatment of oculomotor disorders and nystagmus.

  12. Preoperative vestibular assessment protocol of cochlear implant surgery: an analytical descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; Sato, Eduardo Setsuo; Ribeiro, Douglas Jósimo Silva; Tsuji, Robinson Koji

    Cochlear implants are undeniably an effective method for the recovery of hearing function in patients with hearing loss. To describe the preoperative vestibular assessment protocol in subjects who will be submitted to cochlear implants. Our institutional protocol provides the vestibular diagnosis through six simple tests: Romberg and Fukuda tests, assessment for spontaneous nystagmus, Head Impulse Test, evaluation for Head Shaking Nystagmus and caloric test. 21 patients were evaluated with a mean age of 42.75±14.38 years. Only 28% of the sample had all normal test results. The presence of asymmetric vestibular information was documented through the caloric test in 32% of the sample and spontaneous nystagmus was an important clue for the diagnosis. Bilateral vestibular areflexia was present in four subjects, unilateral arreflexia in three and bilateral hyporeflexia in two. The Head Impulse Test was a significant indicator for the diagnosis of areflexia in the tested ear (p=0.0001). The sensitized Romberg test using a foam pad was able to diagnose severe vestibular function impairment (p=0.003). The six clinical tests were able to identify the presence or absence of vestibular function and function asymmetry between the ears of the same individual. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Dizziness and Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Barber, H. O.

    1965-01-01

    Dizziness, whether vague or specifically rotational, is a common sequel to head injury, and is often postural. One hundred and sixty-five patients with this symptom were examined. The simple posture tests employed to detect positional nystagmus are described. This physical finding was present in one-quarter of the entire group, and in nearly one-half of cases of longitudinal fracture of temporal bone. In such cases, it is an objective finding that corresponds precisely to the patient's complaint of vertigo. Transverse fracture of temporal bone destroys the inner ear in both cochlear and vestibular parts. Longitudinal fracture is commoner and causes bleeding from the ear; inner-ear damage is usually minor. In the rare cases where persisting postural vertigo and positional nystagmus are disabling, relief of the symptom may be achieved by vestibular denervation of the affected side. PMID:14285289

  14. DIZZINESS AND HEAD INJURY.

    PubMed

    BARBER, H O

    1965-05-01

    Dizziness, whether vague or specifically rotational, is a common sequel to head injury, and is often postural. One hundred and sixty-five patients with this symptom were examined. The simple posture tests employed to detect positional nystagmus are described. This physical finding was present in one-quarter of the entire group, and in nearly one-half of cases of longitudinal fracture of temporal bone. In such cases, it is an objective finding that corresponds precisely to the patient's complaint of vertigo.Transverse fracture of temporal bone destroys the inner ear in both cochlear and vestibular parts. Longitudinal fracture is commoner and causes bleeding from the ear; inner-ear damage is usually minor.In the rare cases where persisting postural vertigo and positional nystagmus are disabling, relief of the symptom may be achieved by vestibular denervation of the affected side.

  15. Fusion maldevelopment (latent/manifest latent) nystagmus syndrome: effects of four-muscle tenotomy and reattachment.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Louis F; Orge, Faruk H; Jacobs, Jonathan B; Wang, Zhong I

    2014-01-01

    To examine the waveform and clinical effects of the four-muscle tenotomy and reattachment procedure in fusion maldevelopment nystagmus syndrome (FMNS) and to compare them to those documented in infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) and acquired nystagmus. Both infrared reflection and high-speed digital video systems were used to record the eye movements in a patient with FMNS (before and after tenotomy and reattachment). Data were analyzed using the eXpanded Nystagmus Acuity Function (NAFX) that is part of the OMtools software. Model simulations and predictions were performed using the authors' behavioral ocular motor system model in MATLAB Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA). The model predicted, and the patient's data confirmed, that the tenotomy and reattachment procedure produces improvements in FMN waveforms across a broader field of gaze and decreases the Alexander's law variation. The patient's tenotomy and reattachment plots of NAFX after surgery versus gaze angle were higher and had lower slope than before surgery. Clinically, despite moderate improvements in both peak measured acuity and stereoacuity, dramatic improvements in the patient's abilities and lifestyle resulted. The four-muscle tenotomy and reattachment nystagmus surgery produced beneficial therapeutic effects on FMN waveforms that are similar to those demonstrated in INS and acquired nystagmus. These results support the authors' prior recommendation that tenotomy and reattachment nystagmus should be added to required strabismus procedures in patients who also have FMNS (ie, perform tenotomy and reattachment on all unoperated muscles in the plane of the nystagmus). Furthermore, when strabismus surgery is not required, four-muscle tenotomy and reattachment may be used to improve FMN waveforms and visual function. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Effect of 3,4-diaminopyridine on the postural control in patients with downbeat nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Andreas; Zils, Elisabeth; Rambold, Holger; Sander, Thurid; Helmchen, Christoph

    2005-04-01

    Downbeat nystagmus (DBN) is a common, usually persistent ocular motor sign in vestibulocerebellar midline lesions. Postural imbalance in DBN may increase on lateral gaze when downbeat nystagmus increases. 3,4-Diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) has been shown to suppress the slow-phase velocity component of downbeat nystagmus and its gravity-dependent component with concomitant improvement of oscillopsia. Because the pharmacological effect is thought to be caused by improvement of the vestibulocerebellar Purkinje cell activity, the effect of 3,4-DAP on the postural control of patients with downbeat nystagmus syndrome was examined. Eye movements were recorded with the video-based Eyelink II system. Postural sway and pathway were assessed by posturography in lateral gaze in the light and on eye closure. Two out of four patients showed an improvement of the area of postural sway by 57% of control (baseline) on eye closure. In contrast, downbeat nystagmus in gaze straight ahead and on lateral gaze did not benefit in these two patients, implying a specific influence of 3,4-DAP on the vestibulocerebellar control of posture. It was concluded that 3,4-DAP may particularly influence the postural performance in patients with downbeat nystagmus.

  17. Modelling drug modulation of nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Glasauer, Stefan; Rössert, Christian

    2008-01-01

    A better understanding of the neural and functional mechanisms underlying drug-induced changes in pathological nystagmus is likely to improve medical treatment. A treatment option for downbeat nystagmus (DBN), a common form of acquired fixation nystagmus that often occurs with cerebellar degeneration, is low doses of the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). The upward ocular drift in DBN has a spontaneous and a vertical gaze-evoked component. Detailed analysis of the effect of 4-AP in patients showed that the drug consistently improved the gaze-evoked component, but had less effect in reducing the spontaneous drift. We show by a combination of computational modelling at the systems level and at the neuronal level how this differential effect can be investigated. We have previously postulated that DBN is caused by damage to the floccular lobe (FL). 4-AP, which has been shown to increase the excitability of Purkinje cells (PCs) in slice experiments, may thus suppress DBN by partly restoring floccular function. We simulated the effect of low concentrations of 4-AP on the cellular level using a multicompartment model of a PC, in which we changed ion channel properties to simulate damage. The transition from the cellular level to the systems level was achieved by constructing a population response. Systems level modelling predicted that the effect of 4-AP on the PCs should reduce DBN, but the predicted effect on the gaze-dependent component was less than is observed in patients. Our results suggest that the beneficial effect of 4-AP on DBN cannot be solely explained by its effect at the neuronal level of PCs, and suggests added effects at the level of the population of neurons.

  18. Role of irregular otolith afferents in the steady-state nystagmus during off-vertical axis rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Perachio, A. A.; Mustari, M. J.; Strunk, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    1. During constant velocity off-vertical axis rotations (OVAR) in the dark a compensatory ocular nystagmus is present throughout rotation despite the lack of a maintained signal from the semicircular canals. Lesion experiments and canal plugging have attributed the steady-state ocular nystagmus during OVAR to inputs from the otolith organs and have demonstrated that it depends on an intact velocity storage mechanism. 2. To test whether irregularly discharging otolith afferents play a crucial role in the generation of the steady-state eye nystagmus during OVAR, we have used anodal (inhibitory) currents bilaterally to selectively and reversibly block irregular vestibular afferent discharge. During delivery of DC anodal currents (100 microA) bilaterally to both ears, the slow phase eye velocity of the steady-state nystagmus during OVAR was reduced or completely abolished. The disruption of the steady-state nystagmus was transient and lasted only during the period of galvanic stimulation. 3. To distinguish a possible effect of ablation of the background discharge rates of irregular vestibular afferents on the velocity storage mechanism from specific contributions of the dynamic responses from irregular otolith afferents to the circuit responsible for the generation of the steady-state nystagmus, bilateral DC anodal galvanic stimulation was applied during optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN). No change in OKN and OKAN was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  19. [Efficacy of surgery on congenital nystagmus with convergence damping].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Qian; Bai, Dayong; Cao, Wenhong; Cui, Yanhui; Fan, Yunwei; Hu, Shoulong; Yu, Gang

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of surgery in the treatment of congenital nystagmus with convergence damping. Retrospective and comparative case series. Eight patients diagnosed as congenital nystagmus with convergence damping at Beijing Children's Hospital between September 2010 and September 2012 were enrolled in this study. The ages were 9.5 (12, 6) years old, and follow-up was 9 (24, 6) months. All patients received prism induced convergence and the same surgery of bimedial rectus recession and bilateral rectus tenotomy. The best corrected visual acuity, the range of fusion and the nystagmus waveforms were analyzed before and after surgery. The range of fusion was -3.75±1.83° to +19.38±3.16° before surgery and -3.88±1.55° to +19.00±3.02° after surgery; there was no significant difference (t=0.24, P=0.82). The binocular visual acuity increased from 0.21±0.15 without convergence to 0.28±0.18 using convergence; there was significant difference (t=-4.43, P=0.00). The visual acuity was 0.32±0.20 after surgery, significantly different from that before surgery without convergence (t=-5.29, P=0.00), but not significantly different from that before surgery using convergence (t=-2.12, P=0.07). Patients had significant improvements in the frequency (t=3.28, 3.02, P<0.05) and intensity of the nystagmus waveforms when using convergence and postoperatively (t=3.27, 3.48; P<0.05), but there was no significant improvement in the amplitude of the waveforms (t=1.31, 1.57, 0.31, P>0.05). Surgery for congenital nystagmus with convergence damping can provide expectations for ocular motor and visual results. The range of fusion should be wide enough, and the effect of convergence on the frequency is greater than that on the amplitude.

  20. A probable cavernoma in the medulla oblongata presenting only as upbeat nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hojin; Kim, Chang-Hun; Lee, Kyu-Yong; Lee, Young Joo; Koh, Seong-Ho

    2011-11-01

    A cavernoma is a vascular malformation in the central nervous system. Brainstem cavernoma are relatively common and induce variable neurological symptoms. A 19-year-old woman visited our hospital with complaints of continuous dizziness. On a neurological examination, continuous conjugated upbeat nystagmus was observed in the primary position of gaze. A brain CT scan and MRI showed focal hemorrhagic signals in the central caudal medulla caused by a cavernoma. The spontaneous upbeat nystagmus disappeared gradually. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a probable cavernoma in the medulla oblongata presenting with upbeat nystagmus only. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ShakeCast: Automating and Improving the Use of ShakeMap for Post-Earthquake Decision- Making and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, K.; Wald, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users" facilities, sends notifications of potential damage to responsible parties, and generates facility damage maps and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders. ShakeMap, a tool used to portray the extent of potentially damaging shaking following an earthquake, provides overall information regarding the affected areas. When a potentially damaging earthquake occurs, utility and other lifeline managers, emergency responders, and other critical users have an urgent need for information about the impact on their particular facilities so they can make appropriate decisions and take quick actions to ensure safety and restore system functionality. To this end, ShakeCast estimates the potential damage to a user's widely distributed facilities by comparing the complex shaking distribution with the potentially highly variable damageability of their inventory to provide a simple, hierarchical list and maps showing structures or facilities most likely impacted. All ShakeMap and ShakeCast files and products are non-propriety to simplify interfacing with existing users" response tools and to encourage user-made enhancement to the software. ShakeCast uses standard RSS and HTTP requests to communicate with the USGS Web servers that host ShakeMaps, which are widely-distributed and heavily mirrored. The RSS approach allows ShakeCast users to initiate and receive selected ShakeMap products and information on software updates. To assess facility damage estimates, ShakeCast users can combine measured or estimated ground motion parameters with damage relationships that can be pre-computed, use one of these ground motion parameters as input, and produce a multi-state discrete output of damage likelihood. Presently three common approaches are being used to provide users with an

  2. A gene for nystagmus-associated episodic ataxia maps to chromosome 19p

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kramer, P.L.; Root, D.; Gancher, S.

    1994-09-01

    Episodic ataxia (EA) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by attacks of generalized ataxia and relatively normal neurological function between attacks. Onset occurs in childhood or adolescence and persists through adulthood. Penetrance is nearly complete. EA is clinically heterogeneous, including at least two distinct entities: (1) episodes of ataxia and dysarthria lasting hours to days, generally with interictal nystagmus (MIM 108500); (2) episodes of ataxia and dysarthria lasting only minutes, with interictal myokymia (MMM 160120). The EA/nystagmus patients sometimes develop persistent ataxia and cerebellar atrophy. Previously we reported linkage in four EA/myokymia families to a K{sup +} channel genemore » on chromosome 12p. We excluded this region in a large family with EA/nystagmus. We now report evidence for linkage to chromosome 19p in this and in one other EA/nystagmus family, based on eight microsatellite markers which span approximately 30 cM. The region is flanked distally by D19S209 and proximally by D19S226. All six markers within this region gave positive evidence for linkage; the highest total two-point lod scores occurred wtih D19S221 (3.98 at theta = 0.10) and D19S413 (3.37 at theta = 0.05). Interestingly, Joutel et al. (1993) mapped a gene for familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) to the region around D19S221. Some individuals in these families have ataxia, cerebellar atrophy and interictal nystagmus, but no episodic ataxia. These results demonstrate that the clinical heterogeneity in EA reflects underlying genetic hetreogeneity. In addition, they suggest that EA/nystagmus and some FHM may represent different mutations in the same gene locus on chromosome 19p.« less

  3. The ataxic mouse as a model for studying downbeat nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Stahl, John S; Thumser, Zachary C; Oommen, Brian S

    2012-01-01

    Downbeat nystagmus (DBN) is a common eye movement complication of cerebellar disease. Use of mice to study pathophysiology of vestibulocerebellar disease is increasing, but it is unclear if mice can be used to study DBN; it has not been reported in this species. We determined whether DBN occurs in the ataxic mutant tottering, which carries a mutation in the Cacna1a gene for P/Q calcium channels. Spontaneous DBN occurred only rarely, and its magnitude did not exhibit the relationship to head tilt seen in human patients. DBN during yaw rotation was more common and shares some properties with the tilt-independent, gaze-independent component of human DBN, but differs in its dependence on vision. Hyperactivity of otolith circuits responding to pitch tilts is hypothesized to contribute to the gaze-independent component of human DBN. Mutants exhibited hyperactivity of the tilt maculo-ocular reflex (tiltMOR) in pitch. The hyperactivity may serve as a surrogate for DBN in mouse studies. TiltMOR hyperactivity correlates with hyperdeviation of the eyes and upward deviation of the head during ambulation; these may be alternative surrogates. Muscimol inactivation of the cerebellar flocculus suggests a floccular role in the tiltMOR hyperactivity and provides insight into the rarity of frank DBN in ataxic mice.

  4. The ataxic mouse as a model for studying downbeat nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, John S.; Thumser, Zachary C.; Oommen, Brian S.

    2016-01-01

    Downbeat nystagmus (DBN) is a common eye movement complication of cerebellar disease. Use of mice to study pathophysiology of vestibulocerebellar disease is increasing, but it is unclear if mice can be used to study DBN; it has not been reported in this species. We determined whether DBN occurs in the ataxic mutant tottering, which carries a mutation in the Cacna1a gene for P/Q calcium channels. Spontaneous DBN occurred only rarely, and its magnitude did not exhibit the relationship to head tilt seen in human patients. DBN during yaw rotation was more common and shares some properties with the tilt-independent, gaze-independent component of human DBN, but differs in its dependence on vision. Hyperactivity of otolith circuits responding to pitch tilts is hypothesized to contribute to the gaze-independent component of human DBN. Mutants exhibited hyperactivity of the tilt maculo-ocular reflex (tiltMOR) in pitch. The hyperactivity may serve as a surrogate for DBN in mouse studies. TiltMOR hyperactivity correlates with hyperdeviation of the eyes and upward deviation of the head during ambulation; these may be alternative surrogates. Muscimol inactivation of the cerebellar flocculus suggests a floccular role in the tiltMOR hyperactivity and provides insight into the rarity of frank DBN in ataxic mice. PMID:23302704

  5. Real-time computer-based visual feedback improves visual acuity in downbeat nystagmus - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Teufel, Julian; Bardins, S; Spiegel, Rainer; Kremmyda, O; Schneider, E; Strupp, M; Kalla, R

    2016-01-04

    Patients with downbeat nystagmus syndrome suffer from oscillopsia, which leads to an unstable visual perception and therefore impaired visual acuity. The aim of this study was to use real-time computer-based visual feedback to compensate for the destabilizing slow phase eye movements. The patients were sitting in front of a computer screen with the head fixed on a chin rest. The eye movements were recorded by an eye tracking system (EyeSeeCam®). We tested the visual acuity with a fixed Landolt C (static) and during real-time feedback driven condition (dynamic) in gaze straight ahead and (20°) sideward gaze. In the dynamic condition, the Landolt C moved according to the slow phase eye velocity of the downbeat nystagmus. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to test for normal distribution and one-way ANOVA for comparison. Ten patients with downbeat nystagmus were included in the study. Median age was 76 years and the median duration of symptoms was 6.3 years (SD +/- 3.1y). The mean slow phase velocity was moderate during gaze straight ahead (1.44°/s, SD +/- 1.18°/s) and increased significantly in sideward gaze (mean left 3.36°/s; right 3.58°/s). In gaze straight ahead, we found no difference between the static and feedback driven condition. In sideward gaze, visual acuity improved in five out of ten subjects during the feedback-driven condition (p = 0.043). This study provides proof of concept that non-invasive real-time computer-based visual feedback compensates for the SPV in DBN. Therefore, real-time visual feedback may be a promising aid for patients suffering from oscillopsia and impaired text reading on screen. Recent technological advances in the area of virtual reality displays might soon render this approach feasible in fully mobile settings.

  6. The Relationship Between Duration of Postrotary Nystagmus and Driver Behavior: Learning Theory Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geier, Suzanne Smith; Young, Barbara

    It was hypothesized that behavior patterns, learned early in life and maintained by almost continuous reinforcement, are determined by basic physiology, which in this study is represented by the duration of postrotary nystagmus (involuntary eyeball movement following rotational stimulation). The Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test was…

  7. Exercise-induced downbeat nystagmus in a Korean family with a nonsense mutation in CACNA1A.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Hwan; Seo, Jae-Deuk; Choi, Yu Ri; Kim, Min-Ji; Shin, Jin-Hong; Kim, Ji Soo; Choi, Kwang-Dong

    2015-08-01

    Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) is characterized by recurrent attacks of vertigo and ataxia lasting hours triggered by emotional stress or exercise. Although interictal horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus and rebound nystagmus are commonly observed in patients with EA2, the nystagmus has been rarely reported during the vertigo attack. To better describe exercise-induced nystagmus in EA2, four affected members from three generations of a Korean family with EA2 received full neurological and neuro-otological evaluations. Vertigo was provoked in the proband with running for 10 min to record eye movements during the vertigo attack. We performed a polymerase chain reaction-based direct sequence analysis of all coding regions of CACNA1A in all participants. The four affected members had a history of exertional vertigo, imbalance, childhood epilepsy, headache, and paresthesia. The provocation induced severe vertigo and imbalance lasting several hours, and oculography documented pure downbeat nystagmus during the attack. Genetic analyses identified a nonsense mutation in exon 23 which has been registered in dbSNP as a pathogenic allele (c.3832C>T, p.R1278X) in all the affected members. Ictal downbeat nystagmus in the studied family indicates cerebellar dysfunction during the vertigo attack in EA2. In patients with episodic vertigo and ataxia, the observation of exercise-induced nystagmus would provide a clue for EA2.

  8. Upward gaze-evoked nystagmus with organoarsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Nakamagoe, Kiyotaka; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Tamaoka, Akira; Shoji, Shin'ichi

    2006-01-10

    The authors report assessment of abnormal ocular movements in three patients after organoarsenic poisoning from diphenylarsinic acid. The characteristic and principal sign is upward gaze-evoked nystagmus. Moreover, vertical gaze holding impairment was shown by electronystagmography on direct current recording.

  9. Dark as a dungeon - The rise and fall of coal miners' nystagmus

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fishman, R.S.

    2006-11-15

    Coal miners' nystagmus was one of the first occupational illnesses ever recognized as being due to a hazardous working environment. It aroused great concern and much controversy in Great Britain in the first half of the 20th century but was not seen in the United States. Miners' nystagmus became a significant financial problem for the British workmen's compensation program, and the British medical literature became a forum for speculation as to the nature of the condition. Although new cases of miners' nystagmus were rare after World War II, the condition continued to be discussed in textbooks through the 1970s, aftermore » which it abruptly disappeared without any authoritative summing-up, and thereby hangs a tale.« less

  10. Cross-Over Trial of Gabapentin and Memantine as Treatment for Acquired Nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Thurtell, Matthew J.; Joshi, Anand C.; Leone, Alice C.; Tomsak, Robert L.; Kosmorsky, Gregory S.; Stahl, John S.; Leigh, R. John

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a masked, cross-over, therapeutic trial of gabapentin (1200mg/day) versus memantine (40mg/day) for acquired nystagmus in 10 patients (28–61 years; 7 female; MS: 3, post-stroke: 6, post-traumatic: 1). Nystagmus was pendular in 6 patients (oculopalatal tremor: 4, MS: 2) and jerk upbeat, hemi-seesaw, torsional, or upbeat-diagonal in each of the others. Both drugs reduced median eye speed (p<0.001), gabapentin by 32.8% and memantine by 27.8%, and improved visual acuity (p<0.05). Each patient improved with one or both drugs. Side-effects included unsteadiness with gabapentin and lethargy with memantine. Both drugs should be considered as treatment for acquired forms of nystagmus. PMID:20437565

  11. Correlation between shaking behaviors and seizure severity in five animal models of convulsive seizures.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcelo Cairrão Araújo; Rossetti, Franco; Foresti, Maira Licia; Arisi, Gabriel Maisonnave; Furtado, Márcio Araújo; Dal-Cól, Maria Luiza Cleto; Bertti, Poliana; Fernandes, Artur; Santos, Francisco Leite; Del Vecchio, Flávio; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2005-05-01

    Wet dog shakes (WDS) and head shakes (HS) are associated with experimentally induced convulsive seizures. We sought to determine whether these behaviors are correlated or not with major (status epilepticus (SE) or fully kindled animals) or minor (non-SE or partially kindled animals) seizure severity. WDS are directly correlated with SE induced by intracerebral star fruit extract (Averrhoa carambola) injection and with kindled animals in the amygdala fast kindling model. On the other hand, WDS are inversely correlated with SE induced by intracerebral bicuculline and pilocarpine injections. Systemic pilocarpine in animals pretreated with methyl-scopolamine barely induced WDS or HS. The role of shaking behaviors may vary from ictal to anticonvulsant depending on the experimental seizure model, circuitries involved, and stimulus intensity. The physical presence of acrylic helmets may per se inhibit the HS response. Also, methyl-scopolamine, a drug incapable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, can induce HS in animals without acrylic helmets.

  12. Tree shaking machine aids cone collection in a Douglas-fir seed orchard.

    Treesearch

    Donald L. Copes; William K. Randall

    1983-01-01

    A boom-type tree shaker was used in a Douglas-fir seed orchard to remove cones from 7- to 9-meter tall grafted Douglas-fir trees. An average of 55 percent of the cones were removed by shaking, while damage inflicted to the upper crown was confined primarily to branch and leader breakage in the top three internodes. Damage to the lower bole, where the shaker head...

  13. Phenotypical Characteristics of Idiopathic Infantile Nystagmus with and without Mutations in "FRMD7"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Shery; Proudlock, Frank A.; Sarvananthan, Nagini; Roberts, Eryl O.; Awan, Musarat; McLean, Rebecca; Surendran, Mylvaganam; Kumar, A. S. Anil; Farooq, Shegufta J.; Degg, Chris; Gale, Richard P.; Reinecke, Robert D.; Woodruff, Geoffrey; Langmann, Andrea; Lindner, Susanne; Jain, Sunila; Tarpey, Patrick; Raymond, F. Lucy; Gottlob, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN) consists of involuntary oscillations of the eyes. The familial form is most commonly X-linked. We recently found mutations in a novel gene "FRMD7" (Xq26.2), which provided an opportunity to investigate a genetically defined and homogeneous group of patients with nystagmus. We compared clinical features and eye…

  14. Effect of 4-aminopyridine on gravity dependence and neural integrator function in patients with idiopathic downbeat nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Sander, T; Sprenger, A; Marti, S; Naumann, T; Straumann, D; Helmchen, C

    2011-04-01

    Downbeat nystagmus (DBN) is a frequent sign in patients with cerebellar degeneration. It consists of an upward drift of the eye that does not depend on vertical head position (spontaneous drift, SD), a gravity-dependent component (GD), and a gaze-evoked drift reflecting gaze-holding impairment (deficient neural integrator function). The potassium-channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) is reported to reduce DBN in patients with cerebellar atrophy but with little or no effect in patients with idiopathic DBN. We prospectively studied the effect of 4-AP on all three components in a large (n = 24) group of the clinically frequent idiopathic DBN. DBN was reduced by 22-31% when the head was off the head erect position. In contrast, there was no effect on vertical gaze-evoked drift. This indicates the therapeutic efficacy of 4-AP not only in patients with cerebellar atrophy but also in idiopathic DBN patients. This beneficial effect, which might be missed when gravity-dependent head positions are not tested, was not related to an improvement of gaze-holding deficit. We suggest it may be related to the restored inhibition of the overacting otolith-ocular reflex.

  15. [Dissociated nystagmus in side gaze. Major symptoms in the diagnosis of an internuclear ophthalmoplegia].

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, P; Neugebauer, A; Fricke, J; Michel, O

    2004-07-01

    A prerequisite for a qualified analysis of nystagmus is the recognition of uncommon forms of this condition. In internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), a dissociated nystagmus in side gaze is typical. This is accompanied by limited medial excursion of the adducted eye together with a dissociated nystagmus, which is stronger in the abducting fellow eye. This motility disturbance stems from a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus running in the brain stem between the sixth and the third nerve nuclei. The lesion is often due to multiple sclerosis, but can also be ischemic, traumatic, neoplastic or inflammatory (e.g. HIV infection).

  16. Quick Phases of Infantile Nystagmus Show the Saccadic Inhibition Effect

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, James J.; Sumner, Petroc; Dunn, Matt J.; Erichsen, Jonathan T.; Freeman, Tom C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Infantile nystagmus (IN) is a pathological, involuntary oscillation of the eyes consisting of slow, drifting eye movements interspersed with rapid reorienting quick phases. The extent to which quick phases of IN are programmed similarly to saccadic eye movements remains unknown. We investigated whether IN quick phases exhibit ‘saccadic inhibition,' a phenomenon typically related to normal targeting saccades, in which the initiation of the eye movement is systematically delayed by task-irrelevant visual distractors. Methods. We recorded eye position from 10 observers with early-onset idiopathic nystagmus while task-irrelevant distractor stimuli were flashed along the top and bottom of a large screen at ±10° eccentricity. The latency distributions of quick phases were measured with respect to these distractor flashes. Two additional participants, one with possible albinism and one with fusion maldevelopment nystagmus syndrome, were also tested. Results. All observers showed that a distractor flash delayed the execution of quick phases that would otherwise have occurred approximately 100 ms later, exactly as in the standard saccadic inhibition effect. The delay did not appear to differ between the two main nystagmus types under investigation (idiopathic IN with unidirectional and bidirectional jerk). Conclusions. The presence of the saccadic inhibition effect in IN quick phases is consistent with the idea that quick phases and saccades share a common programming pathway. This could allow quick phases to take on flexible, goal-directed behavior, at odds with the view that IN quick phases are stereotyped, involuntary eye movements. PMID:25670485

  17. General purpose algorithms for characterization of slow and fast phase nystagmus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessard, Charles S.

    1987-01-01

    In the overall aim for a better understanding of the vestibular and optokinetic systems and their roles in space motion sickness, the eye movement responses to various dynamic stimuli are measured. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and the optokinetic response, as the eye movement responses are known, consist of slow phase and fast phase nystagmus. The specific objective is to develop software programs necessary to characterize the vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic responses by distinguishing between the two phases of nystagmus. The overall program is to handle large volumes of highly variable data with minimum operator interaction. The programs include digital filters, differentiation, identification of fast phases, and reconstruction of the slow phase with a least squares fit such that sinusoidal or psuedorandom data may be processed with accurate results. The resultant waveform, slow phase velocity eye movements, serves as input data to the spectral analysis programs previously developed for NASA to analyze nystagmus responses to pseudorandom angular velocity inputs.

  18. The robustness of the horizontal gaze nystagmus test

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-09-01

    Police officers follow procedures set forth in the NHTSA/IACP curriculum when they administer the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFSTs) to suspected alcohol-impaired drivers. The SFSTs include Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN) test, Walk-and-Turn (...

  19. The clinical evaluation of infantile nystagmus: What to do first and why

    PubMed Central

    Bertsch, Morgan; Floyd, Michael; Kehoe, Taylor; Pfeifer, Wanda; Drack, Arlene V.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Infantile nystagmus has many causes, some life threatening. We determined the most common diagnoses in order to develop a testing algorithm. Methods Retrospective chart review. Exclusion criteria were no nystagmus, acquired after 6 months, or lack of examination. Data collected: pediatric eye examination findings, ancillary testing, order of testing, referral, and final diagnoses. Final diagnosis was defined as meeting published clinical criteria and/or confirmed by diagnostic testing. Patients with a diagnosis not meeting the definition were “unknown.” Patients with incomplete testing were “incomplete.” Patients with multiple plausible etiologies were “multifactorial.” Patients with negative complete workup were “motor.” Results 284 charts were identified; 202 met inclusion criteria. The 3 most common causes were Albinism(19%), Leber Congenital Amaurosis(LCA)(14%) and Non-LCA retinal dystrophy (13%). Anatomic retinal disorders comprised 10%, motor another 10%. The most common first test was MRI (74/202) with a diagnostic yield of 16%. For 28 MRI-first patients, nystagmus alone was the indication; for 46 MRI-first patients other neurologic signs were present. 0/28 nystagmus-only patients had a diagnostic MRI while 14/46 (30%) with neurologic signs did. Yield of ERG as first test was 56%, OCT 55%, and molecular genetic testing 47%. 90% of patients had an etiology identified. Conclusion The most common causes of infantile nystagmus were retinal disorders (56%), however the most common first test was brain MRI. For patients without other neurologic stigmata complete pediatric eye examination, ERG, OCT and molecular genetic testing had a higher yield than MRI scan. If MRI is not diagnostic, a complete ophthalmologic workup should be pursued. PMID:28177849

  20. Downbeating nystagmus and muscle spasms in a patient with glutamic-acid decarboxylase antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ances, Beau M; Dalmau, Josep O; Tsai, Jean; Hasbani, M Josh; Galetta, Steven L

    2005-07-01

    To report the ophthalmic findings and response to treatment in a patient with glutamic-acid decarboxylase antibodies. Case report. A 55-year-old woman developed progressive, painful, low back muscle spasms, vertical diplopia, downbeating nystagmus, and asymmetric appendicular ataxia. Downbeating nystagmus was present in primary gaze with an alternating skew deviation in lateral gaze. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid GAD antibodies were detected. Treatment with diazepam led to resolution of spasticity, whereas repeated courses of intravenous immunoglobulin improved cerebellar function, including appendicular ataxia and downbeating nystagmus. Patients with GAD antibodies may have elements of both Stiff-person syndrome (muscle rigidity and spasms) and prominent cerebellar dysfunction. Treatment with diazepam rapidly improved Stiff-person symptoms, whereas IVIg was partially effective at the early stage of cerebellar dysfunction.

  1. Beat-to-beat control of human optokinetic nystagmus slow phase durations

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides the first clear evidence that the generation of optokinetic nystagmus fast phases (FPs) is a decision process that is influenced by performance of a concurrent disjunctive reaction time task (DRT). Ten subjects performed an auditory DRT during constant velocity optokinetic stimulation. Eye movements were measured in three dimensions with a magnetic search coil. Slow phase (SP) durations were defined as the interval between FPs. There were three main findings. Firstly, human optokinetic nystagmus SP durations are consistent with a model of a Gaussian basic interval generator (a type of biological clock), such that FPs can be triggered randomly at the end of a clock cycle (mean duration: 200–250 ms). Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests could not reject the modeled cumulative distribution for any data trials. Secondly, the FP need not be triggered at the end of a clock cycle, so that individual SP durations represent single or multiple clock cycles. Thirdly, the probability of generating a FP at the end of each interval generator cycle decreases significantly during performance of a DRT. These findings indicate that the alternation between SPs and FPs of optokinetic nystagmus is not purely reflexive. Rather, the triggering of the next FP is postponed more frequently if a recently presented DRT trial is pending action when the timing cycle expires. Hence, optokinetic nystagmus FPs show dual-task interference in a manner usually attributed to voluntary movements, including saccades. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study provides the first clear evidence that the generation of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) fast phases is a decision process that is influenced by performance of a concurrent disjunctive reaction time task (DRT). The slow phase (SP) durations are consistent with a Gaussian basic interval generator and multiple interval SP durations occur more frequently in the presence of the DRT. Hence, OKN shows dual-task interference in a manner observed in voluntary

  2. Beat-to-beat control of human optokinetic nystagmus slow phase durations.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Carey D; Furman, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    This study provides the first clear evidence that the generation of optokinetic nystagmus fast phases (FPs) is a decision process that is influenced by performance of a concurrent disjunctive reaction time task (DRT). Ten subjects performed an auditory DRT during constant velocity optokinetic stimulation. Eye movements were measured in three dimensions with a magnetic search coil. Slow phase (SP) durations were defined as the interval between FPs. There were three main findings. Firstly, human optokinetic nystagmus SP durations are consistent with a model of a Gaussian basic interval generator (a type of biological clock), such that FPs can be triggered randomly at the end of a clock cycle (mean duration: 200-250 ms). Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests could not reject the modeled cumulative distribution for any data trials. Secondly, the FP need not be triggered at the end of a clock cycle, so that individual SP durations represent single or multiple clock cycles. Thirdly, the probability of generating a FP at the end of each interval generator cycle decreases significantly during performance of a DRT. These findings indicate that the alternation between SPs and FPs of optokinetic nystagmus is not purely reflexive. Rather, the triggering of the next FP is postponed more frequently if a recently presented DRT trial is pending action when the timing cycle expires. Hence, optokinetic nystagmus FPs show dual-task interference in a manner usually attributed to voluntary movements, including saccades. This study provides the first clear evidence that the generation of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) fast phases is a decision process that is influenced by performance of a concurrent disjunctive reaction time task (DRT). The slow phase (SP) durations are consistent with a Gaussian basic interval generator and multiple interval SP durations occur more frequently in the presence of the DRT. Hence, OKN shows dual-task interference in a manner observed in voluntary movements, such as

  3. Can upbeat nystagmus increase in downward, but not upward, gaze?

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Yi, Hyon-Ah; Lee, Hyung

    2012-04-01

    Upbeat nystagmus (UBN) is typically increased with upward gaze and decreased with downward gaze. We describe a patient with acute multiple sclerosis who developed primary position UBN with a linear slow phase waveform, in which the velocity of nystagmus was intensified in downward gaze and decreased during upward gaze. Brain MRI showed high signal lesions in the paramedian dorsal area of the caudal medulla encompassing the most caudal part of the perihypoglossal nuclei. Clinicians should be aware of possibility of a caudal medullary lesion in a patient with UBN, especially when the velocity of the UBN is increased in downward gaze. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nystagmus as a Sign of Labyrinthine Disorders-Three-Dimensional Analysis of Nystagmus-

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In order to diagnose the pathological condition of vertiginous patients, a detailed observation of nystagmus in addition to examination of body equilibrium and other neurotological tests are essential. How to precisely record the eye movements is one of the goals of the researchers and clinicians who are interested in the analysis of eye movements for a long time. For considering that, one has to think about the optimal method for recording eye movements. In this review, the author introduced a new method, that is, an analysis of vestibular induced eye movements in three-dimensions and discussed the advantages and limitations of this method. PMID:19434275

  5. Chiari I malformation presenting as downbeat nystagmus: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Denise; Halvorson, Ami R

    2012-02-15

    Chiari I malformation is a congenital, neurological condition that is characterized by defects of the skull base resulting in herniation of the cerebellum through the foramen magnum into the cervical spinal canal. Because the condition can result in visual symptoms, patients will often search for answers from their eye care providers; A 28-year-old Hispanic diabetic male with a 10-year history of nystagmus was referred to the neuro-ophthalmic disease clinic following the initiation of oscillopsia 1 year previous. Downbeat nystagmus, which worsened in right and down gaze, was evident. Cranial nerve testing was unremarkable, but the patient did report trouble with choking on food and drink. Neuroimaging revealed Chiari I malformation. The patient underwent a suboccipital craniectomy which resulted in lessened nystagmus and improved symptoms; The majority of patients with Chiari I malformation have an onset of symptoms in the second or third decade of life. Most commonly, a suboccipital headache that worsens with Valsalva maneuver is present. Visual symptoms include retro-orbital pain, flashing lights or floaters, blurred vision, photophobia, diplopia, transient vision loss, and peripheral vision loss. Objective evidence is often lacking in these patients; however, horizontal or vertical nystagmus is present in up to 45% of those with Chiari I malformation. Surgery has proven to be an effective and safe method to treat symptomatic Chiari I malformation. American Optometric Association.

  6. Finger extension weakness and downbeat nystagmus motor neuron disease syndrome: A novel motor neuron disorder?

    PubMed

    Delva, Aline; Thakore, Nimish; Pioro, Erik P; Poesen, Koen; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Meijer, Inge A; Rucker, Janet C; Kissel, John T; Van Damme, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Disturbances of eye movements are infrequently encountered in motor neuron diseases (MNDs) or motor neuropathies, and there is no known syndrome that combines progressive muscle weakness with downbeat nystagmus. To describe the core clinical features of a syndrome of MND associated with downbeat nystagmus, clinical features were collected from 6 patients. All patients had slowly progressive muscle weakness and wasting in combination with downbeat nystagmus, which was clinically most obvious in downward and lateral gaze. Onset was in the second to fourth decade with finger extension weakness, progressing to other distal and sometimes more proximal muscles. Visual complaints were not always present. Electrodiagnostic testing showed signs of regional motor axonal loss in all patients. The etiology of this syndrome remains elusive. Because finger extension weakness and downbeat nystagmus are the discriminating clinical features of this MND, we propose the name FEWDON-MND syndrome. Muscle Nerve 56: 1164-1168, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Muscle & Nerve Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Finger extension weakness and downbeat nystagmus motor neuron disease syndrome: A novel motor neuron disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Aline; Thakore, Nimish; Pioro, Erik P.; Poesen, Koen; Saunders‐Pullman, Rachel; Meijer, Inge A.; Rucker, Janet C.; Kissel, John T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTACT Introduction: Disturbances of eye movements are infrequently encountered in motor neuron diseases (MNDs) or motor neuropathies, and there is no known syndrome that combines progressive muscle weakness with downbeat nystagmus. Methods: To describe the core clinical features of a syndrome of MND associated with downbeat nystagmus, clinical features were collected from 6 patients. Results: All patients had slowly progressive muscle weakness and wasting in combination with downbeat nystagmus, which was clinically most obvious in downward and lateral gaze. Onset was in the second to fourth decade with finger extension weakness, progressing to other distal and sometimes more proximal muscles. Visual complaints were not always present. Electrodiagnostic testing showed signs of regional motor axonal loss in all patients. Discussion: The etiology of this syndrome remains elusive. Because finger extension weakness and downbeat nystagmus are the discriminating clinical features of this MND, we propose the name FEWDON‐MND syndrome. Muscle Nerve 56: 1164–1168, 2017 PMID:28440863

  8. USGS ShakeMap Developments, Implementation, and Derivative Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, D. J.; Lin, K.; Quitoriano, V.; Worden, B.

    2007-12-01

    We discuss ongoing development and enhancements of ShakeMap, a system for automatically generating maps of ground shaking and intensity in the minutes following an earthquake. The rapid availability of these maps is of particular value to emergency response organizations, utilities, insurance companies, government decision- makers, the media, and the general public. ShakeMap Version 3.2 was released in March, 2007, on a download site which allows ShakeMap developers to track operators' updates and provide follow-up information; V3.2 has now been downloaded in 15 countries. The V3.2 release supports LINUX in addition to other UNIX operating systems and adds enhancements to XML, KML, metadata, and other products. We have also added an uncertainty measure, quantified as a function of spatial location. Uncertainty is essential for evaluating the range of possible losses. Though not released in V3.2, we will describe a new quantitative uncertainty letter grading for each ShakeMap produced, allowing users to gauge the appropriate level of confidence when using rapidly produced ShakeMaps as part of their post-earthquake critical decision-making process. Since the V3.2 release, several new ground motion predictions equations have also been added to the prediction equation modules. ShakeMap is implemented in several new regions as reported in this Session. Within the U.S., robust systems serve California, Nevada, Utah, Washington and Oregon, Hawaii, and Anchorage. Additional systems are in development and efforts to provide backup capabilities for all Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regions at the National Earthquake Information Center are underway. Outside the U.S., this Session has descriptions of ShakeMap systems in Italy, Switzerland, Romania, and Turkey, among other countries. We also describe our predictive global ShakeMap system for the rapid evaluation of significant earthquakes globally for the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER

  9. A gene for autosomal dominant congenital nystagmus localizes to 6p12

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kerrison, J.B.; Arnould, V.J.; Koenekoop, R.K.

    1996-05-01

    Congenital nystagmus is an idiopathic disorder characterized by bilateral ocular oscillations usually manifest during infancy. Vision is typically decreased due to slippage of images across the fovea. As such, visual acuity correlates with nystagmus intensity, which is the amplitude and frequency of eye movements at a given position of gaze. X-linked, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive pedigrees have been described, but no mapping studies have been published. We recently described a large pedigree with autosomal dominant congenital nystagmus. A genome-wide search resulted in six markers on 6p linked by two-point analysis at {theta} = 0 (D6S459, D6S452, D6S465, FTHP1, D6S257,more » D6S430). Haplotype analysis localizes the gene for autosomal dominant congenital motor mystagmus to an 18-cM region between D6S271 and D6S455. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.« less

  10. [A sporadic case of episodic ataxia with nystagmus (EA-2)].

    PubMed

    Namekawa, M; Takiyama, Y; Ueno, N; Nishizawa, M

    1998-05-01

    A 39-year-old man with episodic ataxia with nystagmus (EA-2) was reported. He showed intermittent cerebellar dysfunction, i.e., ataxia, nystagmus, dysarthria and vertigo, since he was 10 years old. Although this attack lasted for several hours, he was normal with exception of interictal nystagmus. His parents and sister showed no episodic ataxia. We ruled out the diseases, which may cause episodic ataxia, such as multiple sclerosis, vascular disorders, metabolic disorders and congenital anomalies. He was released from the attack by treatment with acetazolamide. EA-2 has been associated with mutations in the alpha 1A-voltage dependent calcium channel gene (CACNL1A4), which is also affected in familial hemiplegic migraine (FMH) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). In EA-2, frame-shift mutation leading to premature stop and splice-site mutation leading to truncated, non-functional channel protein have been reported. However, our patient did not have the mutations in the CACNL1A4 gene that were previously reported. In addition, our patient did not have an expanded CAG allele in the CACNL1A4 gene which is responsible for SCA6. Further examination is required to address whether a new mutation exists in the CACNL1A4 gene in our patient.

  11. Motor neuronopathy with dropped hands and downbeat nystagmus: a distinctive disorder? A case report.

    PubMed

    Thakore, Nimish J; Pioro, Erik P; Rucker, Janet C; Leigh, R John

    2006-01-12

    Eye movements are clinically normal in most patients with motor neuron disorders until late in the disease course. Rare patients are reported to show slow vertical saccades, impaired smooth pursuit, and gaze-evoked nystagmus. We report clinical and oculomotor findings in three patients with motor neuronopathy and downbeat nystagmus, a classic sign of vestibulocerebellar disease. All patients had clinical and electrodiagnostic features of anterior horn cell disease. Involvement of finger and wrist extensors predominated, causing finger and wrist drop. Bulbar or respiratory dysfunction did not occur. All three had clinically evident downbeat nystagmus worse on lateral and downgaze, confirmed on eye movement recordings using the magnetic search coil technique in two patients. Additional oculomotor findings included alternating skew deviation and intermittent horizontal saccadic oscillations, in one patient each. One patient had mild cerebellar atrophy, while the other two had no cerebellar or brainstem abnormality on neuroimaging. The disorder is slowly progressive, with survival up to 30 years from the time of onset. The combination of motor neuronopathy, characterized by early and prominent wrist and finger extensor weakness, and downbeat nystagmus with or without other cerebellar eye movement abnormalities may represent a novel motor neuron syndrome.

  12. Autosomal-dominant nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia and presenile cataract associated with a novel PAX6 mutation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shery; Thomas, Mervyn G; Andrews, Caroline; Chan, Wai-Man; Proudlock, Frank A; McLean, Rebecca J; Pradeep, Archana; Engle, Elizabeth C; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-03-01

    Autosomal-dominant idiopathic infantile nystagmus has been linked to 6p12 (OMIM 164100), 7p11.2 (OMIM 608345) and 13q31-q33 (OMIM 193003). PAX6 (11p13, OMIM 607108) mutations can also cause autosomal-dominant nystagmus, typically in association with aniridia or iris hypoplasia. We studied a large multigenerational white British family with autosomal-dominant nystagmus, normal irides and presenile cataracts. An SNP-based genome-wide analysis revealed a linkage to a 13.4-MB region on chromosome 11p13 with a maximum lod score of 2.93. A mutation analysis of the entire coding region and splice junctions of the PAX6 gene revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.227C>G) that segregated with the phenotype and is predicted to result in the amino-acid substitution of proline by arginine at codon 76 p.(P76R). The amino-acid variation p.(P76R) within the paired box domain is likely to destabilise the protein due to steric hindrance as a result of the introduction of a polar and larger amino acid. Eye movement recordings showed a significant intrafamilial variability of horizontal, vertical and torsional nystagmus. High-resolution in vivo imaging of the retina using optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed features of foveal hypoplasia, including rudimentary foveal pit, incursion of inner retinal layers, short photoreceptor outer segments and optic nerve hypoplasia. Thus, this study presents a family that segregates a PAX6 mutation with nystagmus and foveal hypoplasia in the absence of iris abnormalities. Moreover, it is the first study showing detailed characteristics using eye movement recordings of autosomal-dominant nystagmus in a multigenerational family with a novel PAX6 mutation.

  13. Posture, head stability, and orientation recovery during vestibular regeneration in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Dickman, J David; Lim, Insook

    2004-09-01

    Compensatory behavior such as oculomotor, gaze, and postural responses that occur during movement largely depend upon a functioning vestibular system. In the present study, the initial loss and subsequent recovery of postural and head stability in pigeons undergoing vestibular regeneration were examined. Adult pigeons were trained to manipulate a straight run chamber to peck an illuminated key for fluid reward. Six behavioral measures assessing performance, posture, and head stability were quantified. These included run latency, steps (walking), path negotiation (lane changes), gaze saccades, head bobs, and head shakes. Once normative values were obtained for four birds, complete lesion of all receptor cells and denervation of the epithelia in the vestibular endorgans were produced using a single intralabyrinthine application of streptomycin sulfate. Each bird was then tested at specific times during regeneration and the same behavioral measures examined. At 7 days post-streptomycin treatment (PST), all birds exhibited severe postural and head instability, with tremors, head shakes, staggering, and circling predominating. No normal trial runs, walking, gaze saccades, or head bobs were present. Many of these dysfunctions persisted through 3-4 weeks PST. Gradually, tremor and head shakes diminished and were replaced with an increasing number of normal head bobs during steps and gaze saccades. Beginning at 4 weeks PST, but largely inaccurate, was the observed initiation of directed steps, less staggering, and some successful path negotiation. As regeneration progressed, spatial orientation and navigation ability increased and, by 49 days PST, most trials were successful. By 70 days PST, all birds had recovered to pretreatment levels. Thus, it was observed that ataxia must subside, coincident with normalized head and postural stability prior to the recovery of spatial orientation and path navigation recovery. Parallels in recovery were drawn to hair cell regeneration

  14. Topical brinzolamide (Azopt) versus placebo in the treatment of infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS).

    PubMed

    Hertle, Richard W; Yang, Dongsheng; Adkinson, Tonia; Reed, Michael

    2015-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that the topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor brinzolamide (Azopt) has beneficial effects versus placebo on measures of nystagmus and visual acuity in adult subjects with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS). Prospective, cross-over, double masked clinical trial. Single centre. Five subjects ≥18 years old with typical INS and best-binocular visual acuity in their primary position null zone ETDRS 55 letters to 85 letters (20/200 to 20/50) and had no previous treatment for nystagmus. In a randomised order, each subject received one drop of Azopt or placebo in both eyes three times a day separated by a washout period of at least a week followed by Azopt or placebo in both eyes three times a day; thus each subject got the drug and placebo, each acting as his or her own control. The nystagmus acuity function and INS waveforms obtained from eye movement recordings, binocular optotype visual acuity, using the ETDRS protocol analysed individually and as a group before and after Azopt and placebo. Versus placebo and baseline measures, topical Azopt significantly improved; INS waveform characteristics in the primary position null zone, group mean values of the nystagmus acuity function across gaze (p<0.01) and group mean ETDRS binocular letter visual acuity (p<0.05). There was a predictable decrease in intraocular pressure (IOP) without any systemic or ocular adverse events. Although a prospective large-scale clinical trial is needed to prove effectiveness, an eye-drop-based therapy for INS may emerge as a viable addition to optical, surgical, behavioural and systemic drug therapies for INS. NCT01312402. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Effects of tenotomy on patients with infantile nystagmus syndrome: foveation improvement over a broadened visual field.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong; Dell'Osso, Louis F; Jacobs, Jonathan B; Burnstine, Robert A; Tomsak, Robert L

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the effects of four-muscle tenotomy on visual function and gaze angle in patients with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS). Eye movements of nine patients with infantile nystagmus were recorded using infrared reflection or high-speed digital video techniques. Experimental protocols were designed to record the patients' eye-movement waveforms, pre- and post-tenotomy, at different gaze angles. We used the eXpanded Nystagmus Acuity Function (NAFX) to measure tenotomy-induced changes in the nystagmus at primary position and various gaze angles. The longest foveation domains (LFD) were measured from fitted curves. Peak-to-peak nystagmus amplitudes and foveation-period durations were also measured. All measurements were made unmasked. All seven patients with narrow, high-NAFX, gaze-angle regions showed broadening of these regions of higher visual function. Three patients showed moderate NAFX improvement (13.9-32.6%) at primary position, five showed large improvement (39.9-162.4%), and one showed no NAFX change (due to his high pretenotomy NAFX). Primary position measured acuities improved in six patients. All patients had reductions in nystagmus amplitudes ranging from 14.6 to 37%. The duration of the foveation period increased in all nine patients (11.2-200%). The percentage improvements in both the NAFX and the LFD decreased with higher pretenotomy values. In addition to elevating primary position NAFX, tenotomy also broadens the high-NAFX regions. This broadening effect is more prominent in patients who had sharp pretenotomy NAFX peaks. Four-muscle tenotomy produces higher primary position NAFX increases in infantile nystagmus patients whose pretenotomy values are relatively low, with the improvement decreasing at higher pretenotomy values. The tenotomy procedure improves visual function beyond primary position acuity. This extends the utility of surgical therapy to several different classes of patients with INS for whom other procedures are

  16. Gaze failure, drifting eye movements, and centripetal nystagmus in cerebellar disease.

    PubMed Central

    Leech, J; Gresty, M; Hess, K; Rudge, P

    1977-01-01

    Three abnormalities of eye movement in man are described which are indicative of cerebellar system disorder, namely, centripetally beating nystagmus, failure to maintain lateral gaze either in darkness or with eye closure, and slow drifting movements of the eyes in the absence of fixation. Similar eye movement signs follow cerebellectomy in the primate and the cat. These abnormalities of eye movement, together with other signs of cerebellar disease, such as rebound alternating, and gaze paretic nystagmus, are explained by the hypothesis that the cerebellum helps to maintain lateral gaze and that brain stem mechanisms which monitor gaze position generate compensatory biases in the absence of normal cerebellar function. PMID:603785

  17. Abusive head trauma and the triad: a critique on behalf of RCPCH of 'Traumatic shaking: the role of the triad in medical investigations of suspected traumatic shaking'.

    PubMed

    Debelle, Geoffrey David; Maguire, Sabine; Watts, Patrick; Nieto Hernandez, Rosa; Kemp, Alison Mary

    2018-06-01

    The Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services (SBU) has recently published what they purported to be a systematic review of the literature on 'isolated traumatic shaking' in infants, concluding that 'there is limited evidence that the so-called triad (encephalopathy, subdural haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhage) and therefore its components can be associated with traumatic shaking'. This flawed report, from a national body, demands a robust response. The conclusions of the original report have the potential to undermine medico-legal practice. We have conducted a critique of the methodology used in the SBU review and have found it to be flawed, to the extent that children's lives may be put at risk. Thus, we call on this review to be withdrawn or to be subjected to international scrutiny. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Incidence and anatomy of gaze-evoked nystagmus in patients with cerebellar lesions.

    PubMed

    Baier, Bernhard; Dieterich, Marianne

    2011-01-25

    Disorders of gaze-holding--organized by a neural network located in the brainstem or the cerebellum--may lead to nystagmus. Based on previous animal studies it was concluded that one key player of the cerebellar part of this gaze-holding neural network is the flocculus. Up to now, in humans there are no systematic studies in patients with cerebellar lesions examining one of the most common forms of nystagmus: gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN). The aim of our present study was to clarify which cerebellar structures are involved in the generation of GEN. Twenty-one patients with acute unilateral cerebellar stroke were analyzed by means of modern MRI-based voxel-wise lesion-behavior mapping. Our data indicate that cerebellar structures such as the vermal pyramid, the uvula, and the tonsil, but also parts of the biventer lobule and the inferior semilunar lobule, were affected in horizontal GEN. It seems that these structures are part of a gaze-holding neural integrator control system. Furthermore, GEN might present a diagnostic sign pointing toward ipsilesionally located lesions of midline and lower cerebellar structures.

  19. Earthquake Shaking - Finding the "Hot Spots"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, Edward; Jones, Lucile; Jordan, Tom; Benthien, Mark; Wald, Lisa

    2001-01-01

    A new Southern California Earthquake Center study has quantified how local geologic conditions affect the shaking experienced in an earthquake. The important geologic factors at a site are softness of the rock or soil near the surface and thickness of the sediments above hard bedrock. Even when these 'site effects' are taken into account, however, each earthquake exhibits unique 'hotspots' of anomalously strong shaking. Better predictions of strong ground shaking will therefore require additional geologic data and more comprehensive computer simulations of individual earthquakes.

  20. Quantifying and Qualifying USGS ShakeMap Uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.; Lin, Kuo-Wan; Quitoriano, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    We describe algorithms for quantifying and qualifying uncertainties associated with USGS ShakeMap ground motions. The uncertainty values computed consist of latitude/longitude grid-based multiplicative factors that scale the standard deviation associated with the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) used within the ShakeMap algorithm for estimating ground motions. The resulting grid-based 'uncertainty map' is essential for evaluation of losses derived using ShakeMaps as the hazard input. For ShakeMap, ground motion uncertainty at any point is dominated by two main factors: (i) the influence of any proximal ground motion observations, and (ii) the uncertainty of estimating ground motions from the GMPE, most notably, elevated uncertainty due to initial, unconstrained source rupture geometry. The uncertainty is highest for larger magnitude earthquakes when source finiteness is not yet constrained and, hence, the distance to rupture is also uncertain. In addition to a spatially-dependant, quantitative assessment, many users may prefer a simple, qualitative grading for the entire ShakeMap. We developed a grading scale that allows one to quickly gauge the appropriate level of confidence when using rapidly produced ShakeMaps as part of the post-earthquake decision-making process or for qualitative assessments of archived or historical earthquake ShakeMaps. We describe an uncertainty letter grading ('A' through 'F', for high to poor quality, respectively) based on the uncertainty map. A middle-range ('C') grade corresponds to a ShakeMap for a moderate-magnitude earthquake suitably represented with a point-source location. Lower grades 'D' and 'F' are assigned for larger events (M>6) where finite-source dimensions are not yet constrained. The addition of ground motion observations (or observed macroseismic intensities) reduces uncertainties over data-constrained portions of the map. Higher grades ('A' and 'B') correspond to ShakeMaps with constrained fault dimensions

  1. Motor neuronopathy with dropped hands and downbeat nystagmus: A distinctive disorder? A case report

    PubMed Central

    Thakore, Nimish J; Pioro, Erik P; Rucker, Janet C; Leigh, R John

    2006-01-01

    Background Eye movements are clinically normal in most patients with motor neuron disorders until late in the disease course. Rare patients are reported to show slow vertical saccades, impaired smooth pursuit, and gaze-evoked nystagmus. We report clinical and oculomotor findings in three patients with motor neuronopathy and downbeat nystagmus, a classic sign of vestibulocerebellar disease. Case presentation All patients had clinical and electrodiagnostic features of anterior horn cell disease. Involvement of finger and wrist extensors predominated, causing finger and wrist drop. Bulbar or respiratory dysfunction did not occur. All three had clinically evident downbeat nystagmus worse on lateral and downgaze, confirmed on eye movement recordings using the magnetic search coil technique in two patients. Additional oculomotor findings included alternating skew deviation and intermittent horizontal saccadic oscillations, in one patient each. One patient had mild cerebellar atrophy, while the other two had no cerebellar or brainstem abnormality on neuroimaging. The disorder is slowly progressive, with survival up to 30 years from the time of onset. Conclusion The combination of motor neuronopathy, characterized by early and prominent wrist and finger extensor weakness, and downbeat nystagmus with or without other cerebellar eye movement abnormalities may represent a novel motor neuron syndrome. PMID:16409626

  2. Shake Warning: Helping People Stay Safe With Lots of Small Boxes in the Ground to Warn Them About Strong Shaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, M.

    2017-12-01

    A group of people at schools are joining with the group of people in control of making pictures of the state of rocks on the ground and water in our land. They are working on a plan to help all people be safe in the case of very big ground shaking (when ground breaks in sight or under ground). They will put many small boxes all over the states in the direction of where the sun sets to look for the first shake that might be a sign of an even bigger shake to come. They tell a big computer (with much power) in several large cities in those states. These computers will decide if the first shake is a sign of a very large and close ground shake, a far-away ground shake, a small but close ground shake, or even just a sign of a shake that people wanted to make. If it is a sign of a close and really big shake, then the computers will tell the phones and computers of many people to help them take safe steps before the big shaking arrives where they are. This warning might be several seconds or maybe a couple of minutes. People will be able to hide, take cover, and hold on under tables and desks in case things fall from walls and places up high in their home and work. Doctors will be able to pause hard work and boxes that move people up and down in homes, businesses, and stores will be able to stop on the next floor and open their doors to let people out and not get stuck. It will help slow down trains to be safe and not fly off of the track as well as it will help to shut off water and air that warms homes and is used for when you make food hot. To make this plan become real, people who work for these groups are putting more small boxes in areas where there are not enough and that there are many people. They are also putting small boxes in places where there are no boxes but the big shake might come from that direction. There are problems to get past such as needing many more small boxes, more people to help with this plan, and getting all people who live in these areas to

  3. Damping of monocular pendular nystagmus with vibration in a patient with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Beh, Shin C; Tehrani, Ali Saber; Kheradmand, Amir; Zee, David S

    2014-04-15

    Acquired pendular nystagmus (PN) occurs commonly in multiple sclerosis (MS) and results in a highly disabling oscillopsia that impairs vision. It usually consists of pseudo-sinusoidal oscillations at a single frequency (3-5 Hz) that often briefly stop for a few hundred milliseconds after saccades and blinks. The oscillations are thought to arise from instability in the gaze-holding networks ("neural integrator") in the brainstem and cerebellum.(1,2) Here we describe a patient with monocular PN in whom vibration on the skull from a handheld muscle massager strikingly diminished or stopped her nystagmus.

  4. MyShake - Smartphone seismic network powered by citizen scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Schreier, L.; Strauss, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    MyShake is a global smartphone seismic network that harnesses the power of crowdsourcing. It is driven by the citizen scientists that run MyShake on their personal smartphones. It has two components: an android application running on the smartphones to detect earthquake-like motion, and a network detection algorithm to aggregate results from multiple smartphones to confirm when an earthquake occurs. The MyShake application was released to the public on Feb 12th 2016. Within the first year, more than 250,000 people downloaded MyShake app around the world. There are more than 500 earthquakes recorded by the smartphones in this period, including events in Chile, Argentina, Mexico, Morocco, Greece, Nepal, New Zealand, Taiwan, Japan, and across North America. Currently, we are working on earthquake early warning with MyShake network and the shaking data provided by MyShake is a unique dataset that can be used for the research community.

  5. Viewing condition dependence of the gaze-evoked nystagmus in Arnold Chiari type 1 malformation.

    PubMed

    Ghasia, Fatema F; Gulati, Deepak; Westbrook, Edward L; Shaikh, Aasef G

    2014-04-15

    Saccadic eye movements rapidly shift gaze to the target of interest. Once the eyes reach a given target, the brainstem ocular motor integrator utilizes feedback from various sources to assure steady gaze. One of such sources is cerebellum whose lesion can impair neural integration leading to gaze-evoked nystagmus. The gaze evoked nystagmus is characterized by drifts moving the eyes away from the target and a null position where the drifts are absent. The extent of impairment in the neural integration for two opposite eccentricities might determine the location of the null position. Eye in the orbit position might also determine the location of the null. We report this phenomenon in a patient with Arnold Chiari type 1 malformation who had intermittent esotropia and horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus with a shift in the null position. During binocular viewing, the null was shifted to the right. During monocular viewing, when the eye under cover drifted nasally (secondary to the esotropia), the null of the gaze-evoked nystagmus reorganized toward the center. We speculate that the output of the neural integrator is altered from the bilateral conflicting eye in the orbit position secondary to the strabismus. This could possibly explain the reorganization of the location of the null position. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeCast: A cloud-based future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.; Lin, Kuo-Wan; Turner, Loren; Bekiri, Nebi

    2014-01-01

    When an earthquake occurs, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) ShakeMap portrays the extent of potentially damaging shaking. In turn, the ShakeCast system, a freely-available, post-earthquake situational awareness application, automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users’ facilities, sends notifications of potential damage to responsible parties, and generates facility damage assessment maps and other web-based products for emergency managers and responders. ShakeCast is particularly suitable for earthquake planning and response purposes by Departments of Transportation (DOTs), critical facility and lifeline utilities, large businesses, engineering and financial services, and loss and risk modelers. Recent important developments to the ShakeCast system and its user base are described. The newly-released Version 3 of the ShakeCast system encompasses advancements in seismology, earthquake engineering, and information technology applicable to the legacy ShakeCast installation (Version 2). In particular, this upgrade includes a full statistical fragility analysis framework for general assessment of structures as part of the near real-time system, direct access to additional earthquake-specific USGS products besides ShakeMap (PAGER, DYFI?, tectonic summary, etc.), significant improvements in the graphical user interface, including a console view for operations centers, and custom, user-defined hazard and loss modules. The release also introduces a new adaption option to port ShakeCast to the "cloud". Employing Amazon Web Services (AWS), users now have a low-cost alternative to local hosting, by fully offloading hardware, software, and communication obligations to the cloud. Other advantages of the "ShakeCast Cloud" strategy include (1) Reliability and robustness of offsite operations, (2) Scalability naturally accommodated, (3), Serviceability, problems reduced due to software and hardware uniformity, (4

  7. Mango Shake

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/mangoshake.html Mango Shake To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prep time: 5 minutes Cook time: 0 minutes ... cup low-fat (1 percent) milk 4 Tbsp frozen mango juice (or 1 fresh pitted mango) 1 small ...

  8. Novel Eye Movement Disorders in Whipple's Disease-Staircase Horizontal Saccades, Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus, and Esotropia.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Ghasia, Fatema F

    2017-01-01

    Whipple's disease, a rare systemic infectious disorder, is complicated by the involvement of the central nervous system in about 5% of cases. Oscillations of the eyes and the jaw, called oculo-masticatory myorhythmia, are pathognomonic of the central nervous system involvement but are often absent. Typical manifestations of the central nervous system Whipple's disease are cognitive impairment, parkinsonism mimicking progressive supranuclear palsy with vertical saccade slowing, and up-gaze range limitation. We describe a unique patient with the central nervous system Whipple's disease who had typical features, including parkinsonism, cognitive impairment, and up-gaze limitation; but also had diplopia, esotropia with mild horizontal (abduction more than adduction) limitation, and vertigo. The patient also had gaze-evoked nystagmus and staircase horizontal saccades. Latter were thought to be due to mal-programmed small saccades followed by a series of corrective saccades. The saccades were disconjugate due to the concurrent strabismus. Also, we noted disconjugacy in the slow phase of gaze-evoked nystagmus. The disconjugacy of the slow phase of gaze-evoked nystagmus was larger during monocular viewing condition. We propose that interaction of the strabismic drifts of the covered eyes and the nystagmus drift, putatively at the final common pathway might lead to such disconjugacy.

  9. Cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumour presenting with bilateral gaze nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Han, I B; Huh, R; Chung, S S; Kim, O J

    2008-06-01

    Vestibular symptoms have been rarely described in cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumours. We report a case of CPA epidermoid tumour presenting with subacute onset of vestibular symptoms such as vertigo, gait ataxia, and nystagmus masquerading as acute vestibular neuritis or central vertigo. The vestibular symptoms disappeared after excision of the tumour.

  10. The effect of mental alerting on peripheral vestibular nystagmus during spontaneous, gaze (30 degrees left, 30 degrees right) and body positional (left & right lateral lying) testing using electronystagmography (ENG).

    PubMed

    McGovern, Tracey N; Fitzgerald, John E

    2008-10-01

    The performance of mental alerting during caloric testing has always been considered important, however its use/benefit during electronystagmography (ENG)/videonystagmography (VNG) testing has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mental alerting tasks on peripheral type vestibular nystagmus recorded during ENG. Thirty patients with significant spontaneous/gaze or positional nystagmus (slow phase velocity >or= 6 degrees /s) were recruited from consecutive referrals for vestibular assessment. Nystagmus was recorded by ENG both in the presence and absence of mental alerting for each patient. Investigation of nystagmus by analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly larger nystagmus (higher value SPV) with mental alerting than with no alerting (p<0.001), and for some patients nystagmus traces were reduced to a flat line (no nystagmus) with no alerting. The study demonstrates the importance of mental alerting in helping overcome central suppression of nystagmus and highlights its importance to help identify peripheral type nystagmus during ENG.

  11. Gaze-evoked and rebound nystagmus in a case of migrainous vertigo.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sun-Young; Seo, Man-Wook; Kim, Young-Hyun; Choi, Kwang-Dong; Kim, Dae-Seong; Shin, Byoung-Soo

    2009-03-01

    A patient with migrainous vertigo showed pronounced gaze-evoked and rebound nystagmus during an attack. These findings, which have not been previously documented, suggest that migrainous vertigo is based on central vestibular dysfunction.

  12. Shaking video stabilization with content completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yi; Ye, Qixiang; Liu, Yanmei; Jiao, Jianbin

    2009-01-01

    A new stabilization algorithm to counterbalance the shaking motion in a video based on classical Kandade-Lucas- Tomasi (KLT) method is presented in this paper. Feature points are evaluated with law of large numbers and clustering algorithm to reduce the side effect of moving foreground. Analysis on the change of motion direction is also carried out to detect the existence of shaking. For video clips with detected shaking, an affine transformation is performed to warp the current frame to the reference one. In addition, the missing content of a frame during the stabilization is completed with optical flow analysis and mosaicking operation. Experiments on video clips demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Effects of bilateral caloric habituation of nystagmus responses of the cat.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1964-09-01

    It has been suggested that the decline (habituation) of the nystagmus response to repeated vestibular stimulation is a form of learning in that it possesses the necessary features of learned behavior - acquisition, retention, and transfer.

  14. An Orientation Sensor-Based Head Tracking System for Driver Behaviour Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Görne, Lorenz; Yuen, Iek-Man; Cao, Dongpu; Sullman, Mark; Auger, Daniel; Lv, Chen; Wang, Huaji; Matthias, Rebecca; Skrypchuk, Lee; Mouzakitis, Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Although at present legislation does not allow drivers in a Level 3 autonomous vehicle to engage in a secondary task, there may become a time when it does. Monitoring the behaviour of drivers engaging in various non-driving activities (NDAs) is crucial to decide how well the driver will be able to take over control of the vehicle. One limitation of the commonly used face-based head tracking system, using cameras, is that sufficient features of the face must be visible, which limits the detectable angle of head movement and thereby measurable NDAs, unless multiple cameras are used. This paper proposes a novel orientation sensor based head tracking system that includes twin devices, one of which measures the movement of the vehicle while the other measures the absolute movement of the head. Measurement error in the shaking and nodding axes were less than 0.4°, while error in the rolling axis was less than 2°. Comparison with a camera-based system, through in-house tests and on-road tests, showed that the main advantage of the proposed system is the ability to detect angles larger than 20° in the shaking and nodding axes. Finally, a case study demonstrated that the measurement of the shaking and nodding angles, produced from the proposed system, can effectively characterise the drivers’ behaviour while engaged in the NDAs of chatting to a passenger and playing on a smartphone. PMID:29165331

  15. An Orientation Sensor-Based Head Tracking System for Driver Behaviour Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yifan; Görne, Lorenz; Yuen, Iek-Man; Cao, Dongpu; Sullman, Mark; Auger, Daniel; Lv, Chen; Wang, Huaji; Matthias, Rebecca; Skrypchuk, Lee; Mouzakitis, Alexandros

    2017-11-22

    Although at present legislation does not allow drivers in a Level 3 autonomous vehicle to engage in a secondary task, there may become a time when it does. Monitoring the behaviour of drivers engaging in various non-driving activities (NDAs) is crucial to decide how well the driver will be able to take over control of the vehicle. One limitation of the commonly used face-based head tracking system, using cameras, is that sufficient features of the face must be visible, which limits the detectable angle of head movement and thereby measurable NDAs, unless multiple cameras are used. This paper proposes a novel orientation sensor based head tracking system that includes twin devices, one of which measures the movement of the vehicle while the other measures the absolute movement of the head. Measurement error in the shaking and nodding axes were less than 0.4°, while error in the rolling axis was less than 2°. Comparison with a camera-based system, through in-house tests and on-road tests, showed that the main advantage of the proposed system is the ability to detect angles larger than 20° in the shaking and nodding axes. Finally, a case study demonstrated that the measurement of the shaking and nodding angles, produced from the proposed system, can effectively characterise the drivers' behaviour while engaged in the NDAs of chatting to a passenger and playing on a smartphone.

  16. Perceptual Learning in Children With Infantile Nystagmus: Effects on 2D Oculomotor Behavior.

    PubMed

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke; Goossens, Jeroen

    2016-08-01

    To determine changes in oculomotor behavior after 10 sessions of perceptual learning on a letter discrimination task in children with infantile nystagmus (IN). Children with IN (18 children with idiopathic IN and 18 with oculocutaneous albinism accompanied by IN) aged 6 to 11 years were divided into two training groups matched on diagnosis: an uncrowded training group (n = 18) and a crowded training group (n = 18). Target letters always appeared briefly (500 ms) at an eccentric location, forcing subjects to quickly redirect their gaze. Training occurred twice per week for 5 consecutive weeks (3500 trials total). Norm data and test-retest values were collected from children with normal vision (n = 11). Outcome measures were: nystagmus characteristics (amplitude, frequency, intensity, and the expanded nystagmus acuity function); fixation stability (the bivariate contour ellipse area and foveation time); and saccadic eye movements (latencies and accuracy) made during a simple saccade task and a crowded letter-identification task. After training, saccadic responses of children with IN improved on the saccade task (latencies decreased by 14 ± 4 ms and gains increased by 0.03 ± 0.01), but not on the crowded letter task. There were also no training-induced changes in nystagmus characteristics and fixation stability. Although children with normal vision had shorter latencies in the saccade task (47 ± 14 ms at baseline), test-retest changes in their saccade gains and latencies were almost equal to the training effects observed in children with IN. Our results suggest that the improvement in visual performance after perceptual learning in children with IN is primarily due to improved sensory processing rather than improved two-dimensional oculomotor behavior.

  17. Characterization of slow and fast phase nystagmus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessard, Charles S.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Carlos A.; Wong, Wing Chan; Im, Jae J.; Schmidt, Glenn F.

    1991-01-01

    A current literature review of the analog and digital process of vestibular and optical kinetic nystagmus reveals little agreement in the methods used by various labs. The strategies for detection of saccade (fast phase velocity component of nystagmus) vary between labs, and most of the process have not been evaluated and validated with a standard database. A survey was made of major vestibular labs in the U.S. that perform computer analyses of vestibular and optokinetic reflexes to stimuli, and a baseline was established from which to standardize data acquisition and analysis programs. The concept of an Error Index was employed as the criterium for evaluating the performance of the vestibular analysis software programs. The performance criterium is based on the detection of saccades and is the average of the percentages of missed detections and false detections. Evaluation of the programs produced results for lateral gaze with saccadic amplitude of one, two, three, five, and ten degrees with various signal-to-noise ratios. In addition, results were obtained for sinusoidal pursuit of 0.05, 0.10, and 0.50 Hz with saccades from one to ten degrees at various signal-to-noise ratios. Selection of the best program was made from the performance in the lateral gaze with three degrees of saccadic amplitude and in the 0.10 Hz sinusoid with three degrees of saccadic amplitude.

  18. The ShakeOut Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Lucile M.; Bernknopf, Richard; Cox, Dale; Goltz, James; Hudnut, Kenneth; Mileti, Dennis; Perry, Suzanne; Ponti, Daniel; Porter, Keith; Reichle, Michael; Seligson, Hope; Shoaf, Kimberley; Treiman, Jerry; Wein, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This is the initial publication of the results of a cooperative project to examine the implications of a major earthquake in southern California. The study comprised eight counties: Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura. Its results will be used as the basis of an emergency response and preparedness exercise, the Great Southern California ShakeOut, and for this purpose we defined our earthquake as occurring at 10:00 a.m. on November 13, 2008. As members of the southern California community use the ShakeOut Scenario to plan and execute the exercise, we anticipate discussion and feedback. This community input will be used to refine our assessment and will lead to a formal publication in early 2009. Our goal in the ShakeOut Scenario is to identify the physical, social and economic consequences of a major earthquake in southern California and in so doing, enable the users of our results to identify what they can change now?before the earthquake?to avoid catastrophic impact after the inevitable earthquake occurs. To do so, we had to determine the physical damages (casualties and losses) caused by the earthquake and the impact of those damages on the region?s social and economic systems. To do this, we needed to know about the earthquake ground shaking and fault rupture. So we first constructed an earthquake, taking all available earthquake research information, from trenching and exposed evidence of prehistoric earthquakes, to analysis of instrumental recordings of large earthquakes and the latest theory in earthquake source physics. We modeled a magnitude (M) 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault, a plausible event on the fault most likely to produce a major earthquake. This information was then fed forward into the rest of the ShakeOut Scenario. The damage impacts of the scenario earthquake were estimated using both HAZUS-MH and expert opinion through 13 special studies and 6 expert panels, and fall into four

  19. A Case Report of Nystagmus with Acute Comitant Esotropia Secondary to Heroin Withdrawal: A Novel Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute comitant esotropia secondary to heroin withdrawal is a rarely reported phenomenon that has never been described with nystagmus. Adverse effects of heroin on eye alignment were first reported in soldiers returning from Vietnam, yet no theory is generally accepted as the cause of these abnormalities. Method We present a case of a 22-year-old female who developed 40 prism diopters of alternating comitant esotropia with nystagmus 8 days after abrupt heroin cessation, review the existing literature, and propose a novel hypothesis for this phenomenon. Results After 76 days, her esotropia resolved, and she was left with 7 prism diopters of esophoria. Conclusion This case demonstrates that acquired nystagmus can present in addition to acute-onset esotropia after abrupt heroin cessation. We compare and contrast the theories of this mechanism and review the literature. PMID:26483678

  20. Two hypothetical nystagmus procedures: augmented tenotomy and reattachment and augmented tendon suture (Sans tenotomy).

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Louis F; Tomsak, Robert L; Thurtell, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    To review the hypothetical mechanism and therapeutic benefits of the four-muscle tenotomy and reattachment (T&R) procedure using knowledge accrued over the 10 years since its proposal; to describe an augmented tendon suture (ATS) technique to improve the procedure based on one of the originally suggested alternative methods (mechanical); and to hypothesize a new ATS procedure to achieve the same therapeutic benefits without extraocular muscle tenotomy or reattachment to the globe. Standard surgical methods were used. The T&R procedure damps and improves infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) waveforms, improves eXtended Nystagmus Acuity Function (NAFX) values, broadens the NAFX peak versus gaze angle, and damps slow eye movements but not saccades. The T&R procedure also damps acquired pendular and downbeat nystagmus, decreasing the patients' oscillopsia, and lowers the target acquisition time in INS. The T&R procedure directly affects only the enthesis of the tendon; there is idiosyncratic variation in the distribution of afferent fibers in the tendons. The ATS technique consists of placing several additional sutures in the tendon proximal to the tenotomy. Based on the hypothetical proprioceptive mechanism for the beneficial effects of the T&R procedure, the authors hypothesize that the ATS technique will maximize the therapeutic benefits and that an ATS procedure, using only tendon sutures without tenotomy, will duplicate the therapeutic effects of T&R. Eliminating the tenotomy component results in a simpler procedure more suitable for single-session, multi-muscle surgery that may be required for improving the waveforms of multiplanar nystagmus and less prone to cause complications. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Eye and Head Response to Peripheral Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    nystagmus movements of the eyes. These move- ments tend to be oscillatory or unstable in nature and can be elicited in three ways: stimuli 2 in the...Hall and Cusack, 1972). Nystagmus can best be described through example. As mentioned previously, the com- pensatory eye movements serve to stabilize...movements are what are referred to as nystagmus . The direction of the nystagmus is identified by the movement of the fast phase, that is, the direction

  2. An atlas of ShakeMaps for selected global earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Trevor I.; Wald, David J.; Hotovec, Alicia J.; Lin, Kuo-Wan; Earle, Paul S.; Marano, Kristin D.

    2008-01-01

    An atlas of maps of peak ground motions and intensity 'ShakeMaps' has been developed for almost 5,000 recent and historical global earthquakes. These maps are produced using established ShakeMap methodology (Wald and others, 1999c; Wald and others, 2005) and constraints from macroseismic intensity data, instrumental ground motions, regional topographically-based site amplifications, and published earthquake-rupture models. Applying the ShakeMap methodology allows a consistent approach to combine point observations with ground-motion predictions to produce descriptions of peak ground motions and intensity for each event. We also calculate an estimated ground-motion uncertainty grid for each earthquake. The Atlas of ShakeMaps provides a consistent and quantitative description of the distribution and intensity of shaking for recent global earthquakes (1973-2007) as well as selected historic events. As such, the Atlas was developed specifically for calibrating global earthquake loss estimation methodologies to be used in the U.S. Geological Survey Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) Project. PAGER will employ these loss models to rapidly estimate the impact of global earthquakes as part of the USGS National Earthquake Information Center's earthquake-response protocol. The development of the Atlas of ShakeMaps has also led to several key improvements to the Global ShakeMap system. The key upgrades include: addition of uncertainties in the ground motion mapping, introduction of modern ground-motion prediction equations, improved estimates of global seismic-site conditions (VS30), and improved definition of stable continental region polygons. Finally, we have merged all of the ShakeMaps in the Atlas to provide a global perspective of earthquake ground shaking for the past 35 years, allowing comparison with probabilistic hazard maps. The online Atlas and supporting databases can be found at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/shakemap/atlas.php/.

  3. On the characteristics of caloric nystagmus in healthy persons. [in response to caloric stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodo, D.; Baranova, V. P.; Matsnev, E. I.; Yakovleva, M. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The asymmetry of reflex activity of labyrinths and directional preponderance of the reaction were studied on healthy persons subjected to caloric tests. Calorization with hot water was accompanied by less pronounced reactions in all parameters of nystagmus than analogous indices at cold water stimulation. The symmetry of labyrinth function shifted to the right in individuals with greater activity of the left central vestibular formations, analogous to right handedness behavior. It is concluded that asymmetry of reflex nystagmus in healthy persons can be due to a certain preponderance of functional activity in structures of the left hemisphere of the brain.

  4. Radial shakes and "frost cracks" in living oak trees

    Treesearch

    Heinz Butin; Alex L. Shigo

    1981-01-01

    Dissections of hundreds of living, mature oak trees over a 25-year period revealed that radial shakes (or "frost cracks") and ring shakes are associated with a variety of wounds and stubs of branches and basal sprouts. A more intensive study of radial shakes that included dissections of more than 30 oaks confirmed the earlier finds, and provided additional...

  5. Effect of Gabapentin/Memantine on the Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome in the Zebrafish Model: Implications for the Therapy of Ocular Motor Diseases.

    PubMed

    Bögli, Stefan Yu; Afthinos, Maresa; Huang, Melody Ying-Yu

    2017-06-01

    Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is a disorder characterized by typical horizontal eye oscillations. Due to the uncertain etiology of INS, developing specific treatments remains difficult. Single reports demonstrated, on limited measures, alleviating effects of gabapentin and memantine. In the current study, we employed the zebrafish INS model belladonna (bel) to conduct an in-depth study of how gabapentin and memantine interventions alleviate INS signs, which may further restore visual conditions in affected subjects. Moreover, we described the influence of both medications on ocular motor functions in healthy zebrafish, evaluating possible iatrogenic effects. Ocular motor function and INS characteristics were assessed by eliciting optokinetic response, spontaneous nystagmus, and spontaneous saccades in light and in dark, in 5- to 6-day postfertilization bel larvae and heterozygous siblings. Single larvae were recorded before and after a 1-hour drug treatment (200 mM gabapentin/0.2 mM memantine). Both interventions significantly reduced nystagmus intensity (gabapentin: 59.98%, memantine: 39.59%). However, while the application of gabapentin affected all tested ocular motor functions, memantine specifically reduced nystagmus amplitude and intensity, and thus left controls completely unaffected. Finally, both drug treatments resulted in specific changes in nystagmus waveform and velocity. Our study provides deeper insight into gabapentin and memantine treatment effect in the zebrafish INS model. Moreover, this study should establish zebrafish as a pharmacologic animal model for treating nystagmus and ocular motor disease, serving as a basis for future large-scale drug screenings.

  6. Insights into earthquake hazard map performance from shaking history simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S.; Vanneste, K.; Camelbeeck, T.; Vleminckx, B.

    2017-12-01

    Why recent large earthquakes caused shaking stronger than predicted by earthquake hazard maps is under debate. This issue has two parts. Verification involves how well maps implement probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) ("have we built the map right?"). Validation asks how well maps forecast shaking ("have we built the right map?"). We explore how well a map can ideally perform by simulating an area's shaking history and comparing "observed" shaking to that predicted by a map generated for the same parameters. The simulations yield shaking distributions whose mean is consistent with the map, but individual shaking histories show large scatter. Infrequent large earthquakes cause shaking much stronger than mapped, as observed. Hence, PSHA seems internally consistent and can be regarded as verified. Validation is harder because an earthquake history can yield shaking higher or lower than that predicted while being consistent with the hazard map. The scatter decreases for longer observation times because the largest earthquakes and resulting shaking are increasingly likely to have occurred. For the same reason, scatter is much less for the more active plate boundary than for a continental interior. For a continental interior, where the mapped hazard is low, even an M4 event produces exceedances at some sites. Larger earthquakes produce exceedances at more sites. Thus many exceedances result from small earthquakes, but infrequent large ones may cause very large exceedances. However, for a plate boundary, an M6 event produces exceedance at only a few sites, and an M7 produces them in a larger, but still relatively small, portion of the study area. As reality gives only one history, and a real map involves assumptions about more complicated source geometries and occurrence rates, which are unlikely to be exactly correct and thus will contribute additional scatter, it is hard to assess whether misfit between actual shaking and a map — notably higher

  7. Optimizing CyberShake Seismic Hazard Workflows for Large HPC Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Juve, G.; Vahi, K.; Deelman, E.; Jordan, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The CyberShake computational platform is a well-integrated collection of scientific software and middleware that calculates 3D simulation-based probabilistic seismic hazard curves and hazard maps for the Los Angeles region. Currently each CyberShake model comprises about 235 million synthetic seismograms from about 415,000 rupture variations computed at 286 sites. CyberShake integrates large-scale parallel and high-throughput serial seismological research codes into a processing framework in which early stages produce files used as inputs by later stages. Scientific workflow tools are used to manage the jobs, data, and metadata. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) developed the CyberShake platform using USC High Performance Computing and Communications systems and open-science NSF resources.CyberShake calculations were migrated to the NSF Track 1 system NCSA Blue Waters when it became operational in 2013, via an interdisciplinary team approach including domain scientists, computer scientists, and middleware developers. Due to the excellent performance of Blue Waters and CyberShake software optimizations, we reduced the makespan (a measure of wallclock time-to-solution) of a CyberShake study from 1467 to 342 hours. We will describe the technical enhancements behind this improvement, including judicious introduction of new GPU software, improved scientific software components, increased workflow-based automation, and Blue Waters-specific workflow optimizations.Our CyberShake performance improvements highlight the benefits of scientific workflow tools. The CyberShake workflow software stack includes the Pegasus Workflow Management System (Pegasus-WMS, which includes Condor DAGMan), HTCondor, and Globus GRAM, with Pegasus-mpi-cluster managing the high-throughput tasks on the HPC resources. The workflow tools handle data management, automatically transferring about 13 TB back to SCEC storage.We will present performance metrics from the most recent CyberShake

  8. Developing ShakeCast statistical fragility analysis framework for rapid post-earthquake assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, K.-W.; Wald, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    When an earthquake occurs, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) ShakeMap estimates the extent of potentially damaging shaking and provides overall information regarding the affected areas. The USGS ShakeCast system is a freely-available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users’ facilities, sends notifications of potential damage to responsible parties, and generates facility damage assessment maps and other web-based products for emergency managers and responders. We describe notable improvements of the ShakeMap and the ShakeCast applications. We present a design for comprehensive fragility implementation, integrating spatially-varying ground-motion uncertainties into fragility curves for ShakeCast operations. For each facility, an overall inspection priority (or damage assessment) is assigned on the basis of combined component-based fragility curves using pre-defined logic. While regular ShakeCast users receive overall inspection priority designations for each facility, engineers can access the full fragility analyses for further evaluation.

  9. Reversible cerebellar dysfunction associated with ciguatera fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sun-Young; Kim, Do-Hyung; Seo, Man-Wook; Shin, Byoung-Soo

    2012-10-01

    Ciguatera-fish poisoning (or ciguatera) is a common but underdiagnosed food-borne illness related to fish consumption that is characterized by nausea, vomiting and neurologic symptoms such as tingling in the fingers or toes. We describe the case of a young man who suffered from diarrhea and abdominal pain after eating raw fish and who also developed severe ataxia with spontaneous downbeat and perverted head-shaking nystagmus. The patient experienced visual fixation suppression failure during the bithermal caloric test and bilateral smooth-pursuit impairment. Oculomotor findings suggested dysfunction of the vestibulocerebellum, especially the flocculus. These findings suggest that both the peripheral and the central nervous systems can be involved in ciguatera. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gaze-evoked nystagmus: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Rett, Doug

    2007-09-01

    A sustained gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN) is an important ocular finding that may indicate serious neurologic pathology. It is also a finding that can be missed easily during routine extraocular muscle (EOM) testing. This report presents a case that should familiarize the reader with GEN and presents a novel approach to testing EOM function. The mother of an otherwise healthy 4-year-old girl noted that her daughter's eyes crossed occasionally, the right lid drooped on one occasion, and she had been having strange headaches. An asymmetric, sustained, gaze-evoked nystagmus was detected using a different approach to EOM testing. Magnetic resonance imaging found a large, brainstem astrocytoma in the cerebellar-pontine angle. EOM function often is overlooked or underperformed but is an important part of the battery of clinical tests to rule out neurologic problems. Most forms of EOM testing will check for muscle palsies but little else. If the time is taken to extend the patient's gaze to the extreme ends, to attempt to hold the gaze in all 9 positions, and to maintain an accurate speed, the clinician can stand to gain much more information regarding the neurologic system.

  11. Raspberry Shake- A World-Wide Citizen Seismograph Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, B. C.; Blanco Chia, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Raspberry Shake was conceived as an inexpensive plug-and-play solution to satisfy the need for universal, quick and accurate earthquake detections. First launched on Kickstarter's crowdfunding platform in July of 2016, the Raspberry Shake project was funded within hours of the launch date and, by the end of the campaign, reached more than 1000% of its initial funding goal. This demonstrated for the first time that there exists a strong interest among Makers, Hobbyists and Do It Yourselfers for personal seismographs. From here, a citizen scientist network was created and it has steadily been growing. The Raspberry Shake network is currently being used in conjunction with publicly available broadband data from the GSN and other state-run seismic networks available through the IRIS, Geoscope and GEOFON data centers to detect and locate earthquakes large and small around the globe. Raspberry Shake looks well positioned to improve local monitoring of earthquakes on a global scale, deepen community's understanding of earthquakes, and serve as a formidable teaching tool. We present the main results of the project, the current state of the network, and the new Raspberry Shake models that are being built.

  12. Alcohol and disorientation-related responses. II, Nystagmus and "vertigo" during angular acceleration.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1971-04-01

    The integrity of the visual and vestibular systems is important in the maintenance of orientation during flight. Although alcohol is known to affect the vestibular system through the development of a positional alcohol nystagmus, information concerni...

  13. A model-based theory on the origin of downbeat nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Marti, Sarah; Straumann, Dominik; Büttner, Ulrich; Glasauer, Stefan

    2008-07-01

    The pathomechanism of downbeat nystagmus (DBN), an ocular motor sign typical for vestibulo-cerebellar lesions, remains unclear. Previous hypotheses conjectured various deficits such as an imbalance of central vertical vestibular or smooth pursuit pathways to be causative for the generation of spontaneous upward drift. However, none of the previous theories explains the full range of ocular motor deficits associated with DBN, i.e., impaired vertical smooth pursuit (SP), gaze evoked nystagmus, and gravity dependence of the upward drift. We propose a new hypothesis, which explains the ocular motor signs of DBN by damage of the inhibitory vertical gaze-velocity sensitive Purkinje cells (PCs) in the cerebellar flocculus (FL). These PCs show spontaneous activity and a physiological asymmetry in that most of them exhibit downward on-directions. Accordingly, a loss of vertical floccular PCs will lead to disinhibition of their brainstem target neurons and, consequently, to spontaneous upward drift, i.e., DBN. Since the FL is involved in generation and control of SP and gaze holding, a single lesion, e.g., damage to vertical floccular PCs, may also explain the associated ocular motor deficits. To test our hypothesis, we developed a computational model of vertical eye movements based on known ocular motor anatomy and physiology, which illustrates how cortical, cerebellar, and brainstem regions interact to generate the range of vertical eye movements seen in healthy subjects. Model simulation of the effect of extensive loss of floccular PCs resulted in ocular motor features typically associated with cerebellar DBN: (1) spontaneous upward drift due to decreased spontaneous PC activity, (2) gaze evoked nystagmus corresponding to failure of the cerebellar loop supporting neural integrator function, (3) asymmetric vertical SP deficit due to low gain and asymmetric attenuation of PC firing, and (4) gravity-dependence of DBN caused by an interaction of otolith-ocular pathways with

  14. Next-Level ShakeZoning for Earthquake Hazard Definition in Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, J. N.; Savran, W. H.; Flinchum, B. A.; Dudley, C.; Prina, N.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Pancha, A.

    2011-12-01

    We are developing "Next-Level ShakeZoning" procedures tailored for defining earthquake hazards in Nevada. The current Federally sponsored tools- the USGS hazard maps and ShakeMap, and FEMA HAZUS- were developed as statistical summaries to match earthquake data from California, Japan, and Taiwan. The 2008 Wells and Mogul events in Nevada showed in particular that the generalized statistical approach taken by ShakeMap cannot match actual data on shaking from earthquakes in the Intermountain West, even to first order. Next-Level ShakeZoning relies on physics and geology to define earthquake shaking hazards, rather than statistics. It follows theoretical and computational developments made over the past 20 years, to capitalize on detailed and specific local data sets to more accurately model the propagation and amplification of earthquake waves through the multiple geologic basins of the Intermountain West. Excellent new data sets are now available for Las Vegas Valley. Clark County, Nevada has completed the nation's very first effort to map earthquake hazard class systematically through an entire urban area using Optim's SeisOpt° ReMi technique, which was adapted for large-scale data collection. Using the new Parcel Map in computing shaking in the Valley for scenario earthquakes is crucial for obtaining realistic predictions of ground motions. In an educational element of the project, a dozen undergraduate students have been computing 50 separate earthquake scenarios affecting Las Vegas Valley, using the Next-Level ShakeZoning process. Despite affecting only the upper 30 meters, the Vs30 geotechnical shear-velocity from the Parcel Map shows clear effects on 3-d shaking predictions computed so far at frequencies from 0.1 Hz up to 1.0 Hz. The effect of the Parcel Map on even the 0.1-Hz waves is prominent even with the large mismatch of wavelength to geotechnical depths. Amplifications and de-amplifications affected by the Parcel Map exceed a factor of two, and are

  15. CyberShake Physics-Based PSHA in Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Goulet, C. A.; Milner, K. R.; Graves, R. W.; Olsen, K. B.; Jordan, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed a simulation platform, CyberShake, which performs physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard analyis (PSHA) using 3D deterministic wave propagation simulations. CyberShake performs PSHA by simulating a wavefield of Strain Green Tensors. An earthquake rupture forecast (ERF) is then extended by varying hypocenters and slips on finite faults, generating about 500,000 events per site of interest. Seismic reciprocity is used to calculate synthetic seismograms, which are processed to obtain intensity measures (IMs) such as RotD100. These are combined with ERF probabilities to produce hazard curves. PSHA results from hundreds of locations across a region are interpolated to produce a hazard map. CyberShake simulations with SCEC 3D Community Velocity Models have shown how the site and path effects vary with differences in upper crustal structure, and they are particularly informative about epistemic uncertainties in basin effects, which are not well parameterized by depths to iso-velocity surfaces, common inputs to GMPEs. In 2017, SCEC performed CyberShake Study 17.3, expanding into Central California for the first time. Seismic hazard calculations were performed at 1 Hz at 438 sites, using both a 3D tomographically-derived central California velocity model and a regionally averaged 1D model. Our simulation volumes extended outside of Central California, so we included other SCEC velocity models and developed a smoothing algorithm to minimize reflection and refraction effects along interfaces. CyberShake Study 17.3 ran for 31 days on NCSA's Blue Waters and ORNL's Titan supercomputers, burning 21.6 million core-hours and producing 285 million two-component seismograms and 43 billion IMs. These results demonstrate that CyberShake can be successfully expanded into new regions, and lend insights into the effects of directivity-basin coupling associated with basins near major faults such as the San Andreas. In

  16. Rare frequency of downbeat positioning nystagmus in spinocerebellar ataxia type 31.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Ichiro; Matsushima, Masaaki; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Ishikawa, Kinya; Shirai, Shinichi; Takahashi, Ikuko; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2015-03-15

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 (SCA31) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) are the most frequent types of spinocerebellar degeneration in Japan. Previous reports described that it was difficult to distinguish SCA6 and SCA31 in clinical situations. There is not much difference except that the onset age of SCA31 is slightly higher than that of SCA6. Therefore we surveyed our medical records retrospectively, and then compared clinical symptoms of SCA6 and SCA31. As previously stated, the onset age of SCA31 is higher than that of SCA6. Gaze-evoked nystagmus is more frequent in SCA6 than in SCA31. The percentage in downbeat positioning nystagmus (DPN) is as high as 63% in SCA6. In contrast, DPN in SCA31 is rare and subtle. Our study suggests that the presence of DPN is an important sign that can differentiate SCA6 from SCA31 clinically. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gaze-stabilizing deficits and latent nystagmus in monkeys with brief, early-onset visual deprivation: eye movement recordings.

    PubMed

    Tusa, R J; Mustari, M J; Burrows, A F; Fuchs, A F

    2001-08-01

    The normal development and the capacity to calibrate gaze-stabilizing systems may depend on normal vision during infancy. At the end of 1 yr of dark rearing, cats have gaze-stabilizing deficits similar to that of the newborn human infant including decreased monocular optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) in the nasal to temporal (N-T) direction and decreased velocity storage in the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR). The purpose of this study is to determine to what extent restricted vision during the first 2 mo of life in monkeys affects the development of gaze-stabilizing systems. The eyelids of both eyes were sutured closed in three rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at birth. Eyelids were opened at 25 days in one monkey and 40 and 55 days in the other two animals. Eye movements were recorded from each eye using scleral search coils. The VOR, OKN, and fixation were examined at 6 and 12 mo of age. We also examined ocular alignment, refraction, and visual acuity in these animals. At 1 yr of age, visual acuity ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 LogMAR (20/40-20/80). All animals showed a defect in monocular OKN in the N-T direction. The velocity-storage component of OKN (i.e., OKAN) was the most impaired. All animals had a mild reduction in VOR gain but had a normal time constant. The animals deprived for 40 and 55 days had a persistent strabismus. All animals showed a nystagmus similar to latent nystagmus (LN) in human subjects. The amount of LN and OKN defect correlated positively with the duration of deprivation. In addition, the animal deprived for 55 days demonstrated a pattern of nystagmus similar to congenital nystagmus in human subjects. We found that restricted visual input during the first 2 mo of life impairs certain gaze-stabilizing systems and causes LN in primates.

  18. Refractory Positional Vertigo With Apogeotropic Horizontal Nystagmus After Labyrinthitis: Surgical Treatment and Identification of Dysmorphic Ampullae.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sameer; Heidenreich, Katherine D; McHugh, Jonathan B; Altschuler, Richard A; Carender, Wendy J; Telian, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    To describe the rationale, intraoperative details, and histopathologic findings discovered when treating an unusual case of apogeotropic horizontal canal positional vertigo with a transmastoid labyrinthectomy. A single case report. Therapeutic. Resolution of apogeotropic nystagmus and improvement of positional vertigo. The apogeotropic variant of horizontal canal positional vertigo can be a difficult entity to treat. This report describes a patient who developed profound sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo after an acute left labyrinthitis. Ten months later, she developed vertigo with apogeotropic positional nystagmus involving the left horizontal semicircular canal. Particle repositioning maneuvers and vestibular physical therapy were unsuccessful. In addition, she developed intermittent positional vertigo affecting the ipsilateral vertical semicircular canals. Given the persistence of her vertigo, multiple canal involvement, and patient preference for definitive treatment, a transmastoid labyrinthectomy was performed. Intraoperatively, the ampulla of the horizontal canal as well as that of the other canals was grossly abnormal as later confirmed on histology. After surgery, her apogeotropic nystagmus and vertigo resolved, and her balance ability gradually improved to a highly functional level. This case illustrates a unique form of positional vertigo that developed and persisted after acute labyrinthitis. Conservative measures were unsuccessful and a transmastoid labyrinthectomy documented dense inflammatory tissue involving all three ampullae. We postulate that the post-labyrinthitic inflammatory changes resulted in mass loading of the membranous ampullae, causing abnormal nystagmus patterns and positional vertigo, which resolved after the labyrinthectomy.

  19. ShakeMap manual: technical manual, user's guide, and software guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.; Worden, Bruce C.; Quitoriano, Vincent; Pankow, Kris L.

    2005-01-01

    ShakeMap (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/shakemap) --rapidly, automatically generated shaking and intensity maps--combines instrumental measurements of shaking with information about local geology and earthquake location and magnitude to estimate shaking variations throughout a geographic area. The results are rapidly available via the Web through a variety of map formats, including Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages. These maps have become a valuable tool for emergency response, public information, loss estimation, earthquake planning, and post-earthquake engineering and scientific analyses. With the adoption of ShakeMap as a standard tool for a wide array of users and uses came an impressive demand for up-to-date technical documentation and more general guidelines for users and software developers. This manual is meant to address this need. ShakeMap, and associated Web and data products, are rapidly evolving as new advances in communications, earthquake science, and user needs drive improvements. As such, this documentation is organic in nature. We will make every effort to keep it current, but undoubtedly necessary changes in operational systems take precedence over producing and making documentation publishable.

  20. The gait disorder in downbeat nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schniepp, Roman; Wuehr, Max; Huth, Sabrina; Pradhan, Cauchy; Schlick, Cornelia; Brandt, Thomas; Jahn, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Downbeat nystagmus (DBN) is a common form of acquired fixation nystagmus with key symptoms of oscillopsia and gait disturbance. Gait disturbance could be a result of impaired visual feedback due to the involuntary ocular oscillations. Alternatively, a malfunction of cerebellar locomotor control might be involved, since DBN is considered a vestibulocerebellar disorder. Investigation of walking in 50 DBN patients (age 72 ± 11 years, 23 females) and 50 healthy controls (HS) (age 70 ± 11 years, 23 females) using a pressure sensitive carpet (GAITRite). The patient cohort comprised subjects with only ocular motor signs (DBN) and subjects with an additional limb ataxia (DBNCA). Gait investigation comprised different walking speeds and walking with eyes closed. In DBN, gait velocity was reduced (p<0.001) with a reduced stride length (p<0.001), increased base of support (p<0.050), and increased double support (p<0.001). Walking with eyes closed led to significant gait changes in both HS and DBN. These changes were more pronounced in DBN patients (p<0.001). Speed-dependency of gait variability revealed significant differences between the subgroups of DBN and DBNCA (p<0.050). (I) Impaired visual control caused by involuntary ocular oscillations cannot sufficiently explain the gait disorder. (II) The gait of patients with DBN is impaired in a speed dependent manner. (III) Analysis of gait variability allows distinguishing DBN from DBNCA: Patients with pure DBN show a speed dependency of gait variability similar to that of patients with afferent vestibular deficits. In DBNCA, gait variability resembles the pattern found in cerebellar ataxia.

  1. Motion sickness is linked to nystagmus-related trigeminal brain stem input: a new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Motion sickness is a common and distressing but poorly understood syndrome associated with nausea/vomiting and autonomic nervous system accompaniments that develops in the air or space as well as on sea or land. A bidirectional aetiologic link prevails between migraine and motion-sickness. Motion sickness provokes jerk nystagmus induced by both optokinetic and vestibular stimulation. Fixation of gaze or closure of eyes generally prevents motion sickness while vestibular otolithic function is eliminated in microgravity of space, indicating a predominant pathogenetic role for visuo-sensory input. Scopolamine, dimenhydrinate, and promethazine reduce motion-related nystagmus. Contraction of extraocular muscles generates proprioceptive neural traffic and can provoke an ocular hypertensive response. It is proposed that repetitive contractions of the extraocular muscles during motion-related jerk nystagmus rapidly augment brain stem afferent input by increasing proprioceptive neural traffic through connections of the oculomotor nerves with the ophthalmic nerve in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus as well as by raising the intraocular pressure thereby stimulating anterior segment ocular trigeminal nerve fibers. This verifiable hypothesis defines the pathophysiological basis of individual susceptibility to motion sickness, elucidates the preventive mechanism of gaze fixation or ocular closure, advances the aetiologic link between MS and migraine, rationalizes the mechanism of known preventive drugs, and explores new therapeutic possibilities.

  2. Effect of head pitch and roll orientations on magnetically induced vertigo.

    PubMed

    Mian, Omar S; Li, Yan; Antunes, Andre; Glover, Paul M; Day, Brian L

    2016-02-15

    Lying supine in a strong magnetic field, such as in magnetic resonance imaging scanners, can induce a perception of whole-body rotation. The leading hypothesis to explain this invokes a Lorentz force mechanism acting on vestibular endolymph that acts to stimulate semicircular canals. The hypothesis predicts that the perception of whole-body rotation will depend on head orientation in the field. Results showed that the direction and magnitude of apparent whole-body rotation while stationary in a 7 T magnetic field is influenced by head orientation. The data are compatible with the Lorentz force hypothesis of magnetic vestibular stimulation and furthermore demonstrate the operation of a spatial transformation process from head-referenced vestibular signals to Earth-referenced body motion. High strength static magnetic fields are known to induce vertigo, believed to be via stimulation of the vestibular system. The leading hypothesis (Lorentz forces) predicts that the induced vertigo should depend on the orientation of the magnetic field relative to the head. In this study we examined the effect of static head pitch (-80 to +40 deg; 12 participants) and roll (-40 to +40 deg; 11 participants) on qualitative and quantitative aspects of vertigo experienced in the dark by healthy humans when exposed to the static uniform magnetic field inside a 7 T MRI scanner. Three participants were additionally examined at 180 deg pitch and roll orientations. The effect of roll orientation on horizontal and vertical nystagmus was also measured and was found to affect only the vertical component. Vertigo was most discomforting when head pitch was around 60 deg extension and was mildest when it was around 20 deg flexion. Quantitative analysis of vertigo focused on the induced perception of horizontal-plane rotation reported online with the aid of hand-held switches. Head orientation had effects on both the magnitude and the direction of this perceived rotation. The data suggest

  3. Gaze-evoked nystagmus induced by alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Romano, Fausto; Tarnutzer, Alexander A; Straumann, Dominik; Ramat, Stefano; Bertolini, Giovanni

    2017-03-15

    The cerebellum is the core structure controlling gaze stability. Chronic cerebellar diseases and acute alcohol intoxication affect cerebellar function, inducing, among others, gaze instability as gaze-evoked nystagmus. Gaze-evoked nystagmus is characterized by increased centripetal eye-drift. It is used as an important diagnostic sign for patients with cerebellar degeneration and to assess the 'driving while intoxicated' condition. We quantified the effect of alcohol on gaze-holding using an approach allowing, for the first time, the comparison of deficits induced by alcohol intoxication and cerebellar degeneration. Our results showed that alcohol intoxication induces a two-fold increase of centripetal eye-drift. We establish analysis techniques for using controlled alcohol intake as a model to support the study of cerebellar deficits. The observed similarity between the effect of alcohol and the clinical signs observed in cerebellar patients suggests a possible pathomechanism for gaze-holding deficits. Gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN) is an ocular-motor finding commonly observed in cerebellar disease, characterized by increased centripetal eye-drift with centrifugal correcting saccades at eccentric gaze. With cerebellar degeneration being a rare and clinically heterogeneous disease, data from patients are limited. We hypothesized that a transient inhibition of cerebellar function by defined amounts of alcohol may provide a suitable model to study gaze-holding deficits in cerebellar disease. We recorded gaze-holding at varying horizontal eye positions in 15 healthy participants before and 30 min after alcohol intake required to reach 0.6‰ blood alcohol content (BAC). Changes in ocular-motor behaviour were quantified measuring eye-drift velocity as a continuous function of gaze eccentricity over a large range (±40 deg) of horizontal gaze angles and characterized using a two-parameter tangent model. The effect of alcohol on gaze stability was assessed analysing: (1

  4. Gaze‐evoked nystagmus induced by alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Tarnutzer, Alexander A.; Straumann, Dominik; Ramat, Stefano; Bertolini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Key points The cerebellum is the core structure controlling gaze stability. Chronic cerebellar diseases and acute alcohol intoxication affect cerebellar function, inducing, among others, gaze instability as gaze‐evoked nystagmus.Gaze‐evoked nystagmus is characterized by increased centripetal eye‐drift. It is used as an important diagnostic sign for patients with cerebellar degeneration and to assess the ‘driving while intoxicated’ condition.We quantified the effect of alcohol on gaze‐holding using an approach allowing, for the first time, the comparison of deficits induced by alcohol intoxication and cerebellar degeneration.Our results showed that alcohol intoxication induces a two‐fold increase of centripetal eye‐drift.We establish analysis techniques for using controlled alcohol intake as a model to support the study of cerebellar deficits.The observed similarity between the effect of alcohol and the clinical signs observed in cerebellar patients suggests a possible pathomechanism for gaze‐holding deficits. Abstract Gaze‐evoked nystagmus (GEN) is an ocular‐motor finding commonly observed in cerebellar disease, characterized by increased centripetal eye‐drift with centrifugal correcting saccades at eccentric gaze. With cerebellar degeneration being a rare and clinically heterogeneous disease, data from patients are limited. We hypothesized that a transient inhibition of cerebellar function by defined amounts of alcohol may provide a suitable model to study gaze‐holding deficits in cerebellar disease. We recorded gaze‐holding at varying horizontal eye positions in 15 healthy participants before and 30 min after alcohol intake required to reach 0.6‰ blood alcohol content (BAC). Changes in ocular‐motor behaviour were quantified measuring eye‐drift velocity as a continuous function of gaze eccentricity over a large range (±40 deg) of horizontal gaze angles and characterized using a two‐parameter tangent model. The effect of

  5. Visual suppression of the vestibulo-ocular reflex during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.; Thornton, William E.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.

    1989-01-01

    Visual suppression of the vestibulo-ocular reflex was studied in 16 subjects on 4 Space Shuttle missions. Eye movements were recorded by electro-oculography while subjects fixated a head mounted target during active sinusoidal head oscillation at 0.3 Hz. Adequacy of suppression was evaluated by the number of nystagmus beats, the mean amplitude of each beat, and the cumulative amplitude of nystagmus during two head oscillation cycles. Vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression was unaffected by space flight. Subjects with space motion sickness during flight had significantly more nystagmus beats than unaffected individuals. These susceptible subjects also tended to have more nystagmus beats before flight.

  6. [Convergence nystagmus and vertical gaze palsy of vascular origin].

    PubMed

    Jouvent, E; Benisty, S; Fenelon, G; Créange, A; Pierrot-Deseilligny, C

    2005-05-01

    A case of convergence-retraction nystagmus with upward vertical gaze paralysis and skew deviation (right hypotropia), without any other neurological signs, is reported. The probably vascular lesion was located at the mesodiencephalic junction, lying between the right border of the posterior commissure, the right interstitial nucleus of Cajal and the periaqueductal grey matter, accounting for the three ocular motor signs. The particular interest of this case is due to the relative smallness of the lesion.

  7. MyEEW: A Smartphone App for the ShakeAlert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, J. A.; Allen, S.; Allen, R. M.; Hellweg, M.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a system that can provide a few to tens of seconds warning prior to ground shaking at a user's location. The goal and purpose of such a system is to reduce, or minimize, the damage, costs, and casualties resulting from an earthquake. A demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) is undergoing testing in the United States by the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, Caltech, ETH Zurich, University of Washington, the USGS, and beta users in California and the Pacific Northwest. The UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory has created a smartphone app called MyEEW, which interfaces with the ShakeAlert system to deliver early warnings to individual users. Many critical facilities (transportation, police, and fire) have control rooms, which could run a centralized interface, but our ShakeAlert Beta Testers have also expressed their need for mobile options. This app augments the basic ShakeAlert Java desktop applet by allowing workers off-site (or merely out of hearing range) to be informed of coming hazards. MyEEW receives information from the ShakeAlert system to provide users with real-time information about shaking that is about to happen at their individual location. It includes a map, timer, and earthquake information similar to the Java desktop User Display. The app will also feature educational material to help users craft their own response and resiliency strategies. The app will be open to UC Berkeley Earthquake Research Affiliates members for testing in the near future.

  8. The neural mechanism for Latent (fusion maldevelopment) nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Tychsen, Lawrence; Richards, Michael; Wong, Agnes; Foeller, Paul; Bradley, Dolores; Burkhalter, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    Latent nystagmus (LN) is the by-product of fusion maldevelopment in infancy. Because fusion maldevelopment--in the form of strabismus and amblyopia--is common, LN is a prevalent form of pathologic nystagmus encountered in clinical practice. It originates as an afferent visual pathway disorder. To unravel the mechanism for LN, we studied patients and nonhuman primates with maldeveloped fusion. These experiments have revealed that loss of binocular connections within striate cortex (area V1) in the first months of life is the necessary and sufficient cause of LN. The severity of LN increases systematically with longer durations of binocular decorrelation and greater losses of V1 connections. Decorrelation durations that exceed the equivalent of 2-3 months in human development result in an LN prevalence of 100%. No manipulation of brain stem motor pathways is required. The binocular maldevelopment originating in area V1 is passed on to downstream extrastriate regions of cerebral cortex that drive conjugate gaze, notably MSTd. Conjugate gaze is stable when MSTd neurons of the right and left cerebral hemispheres have balanced binocular activity. Fusion maldevelopment in infancy causes unbalanced monocular activity. If input from one eye dominates and the other is suppressed, MSTd in one hemisphere becomes more active. Acting through downstream projections to the ipsilateral nucleus of the optic tract, the eyes are driven conjugately to that side. The unbalanced MSTd drive is evident as the nasalward gaze-holding bias of LN when viewing with either eye.

  9. The Gait Disorder in Downbeat Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schniepp, Roman; Wuehr, Max; Huth, Sabrina; Pradhan, Cauchy; Schlick, Cornelia; Brandt, Thomas; Jahn, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Downbeat nystagmus (DBN) is a common form of acquired fixation nystagmus with key symptoms of oscillopsia and gait disturbance. Gait disturbance could be a result of impaired visual feedback due to the involuntary ocular oscillations. Alternatively, a malfunction of cerebellar locomotor control might be involved, since DBN is considered a vestibulocerebellar disorder. Methods Investigation of walking in 50 DBN patients (age 72±11 years, 23 females) and 50 healthy controls (HS) (age 70±11 years, 23 females) using a pressure sensitive carpet (GAITRite). The patient cohort comprised subjects with only ocular motor signs (DBN) and subjects with an additional limb ataxia (DBNCA). Gait investigation comprised different walking speeds and walking with eyes closed. Results In DBN, gait velocity was reduced (p<0.001) with a reduced stride length (p<0.001), increased base of support (p<0.050), and increased double support (p<0.001). Walking with eyes closed led to significant gait changes in both HS and DBN. These changes were more pronounced in DBN patients (p<0.001). Speed-dependency of gait variability revealed significant differences between the subgroups of DBN and DBNCA (p<0.050). Conclusions (I) Impaired visual control caused by involuntary ocular oscillations cannot sufficiently explain the gait disorder. (II) The gait of patients with DBN is impaired in a speed dependent manner. (III) Analysis of gait variability allows distinguishing DBN from DBNCA: Patients with pure DBN show a speed dependency of gait variability similar to that of patients with afferent vestibular deficits. In DBNCA, gait variability resembles the pattern found in cerebellar ataxia. PMID:25140517

  10. ShakeMap Atlas 2.0: an improved suite of recent historical earthquake ShakeMaps for global hazard analyses and loss model calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, D.; Mah, R.T.; Johnson, K.L.; Hearne, M.G.; Marano, K.D.; Lin, K.-W.; Wald, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the second version of the U.S. Geological Survey ShakeMap Atlas, which is an openly-available compilation of nearly 8,000 ShakeMaps of the most significant global earthquakes between 1973 and 2011. This revision of the Atlas includes: (1) a new version of the ShakeMap software that improves data usage and uncertainty estimations; (2) an updated earthquake source catalogue that includes regional locations and finite fault models; (3) a refined strategy to select prediction and conversion equations based on a new seismotectonic regionalization scheme; and (4) vastly more macroseismic intensity and ground-motion data from regional agencies All these changes make the new Atlas a self-consistent, calibrated ShakeMap catalogue that constitutes an invaluable resource for investigating near-source strong ground-motion, as well as for seismic hazard, scenario, risk, and loss-model development. To this end, the Atlas will provide a hazard base layer for PAGER loss calibration and for the Earthquake Consequences Database within the Global Earthquake Model initiative.

  11. Practices of shake-flask culture and advances in monitoring CO2 and O2.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masato; Aoyagi, Hideki

    2018-05-01

    About 85 years have passed since the shaking culture was devised. Since then, various monitoring devices have been developed to measure culture parameters. O 2 consumed and CO 2 produced by the respiration of cells in shaking cultures are of paramount importance due to their presence in both the culture broth and headspace of shake flask. Monitoring in situ conditions during shake-flask culture is useful for analysing the behaviour of O 2 and CO 2 , which interact according to Henry's law, and is more convenient than conventional sampling that requires interruption of shaking. In situ monitoring devices for shake-flask cultures are classified as direct or the recently developed bypass type. It is important to understand the characteristics of each type along with their unintended effect on shake-flask cultures, in order to improve the existing devices and culture conditions. Technical developments in the bypass monitoring devices are strongly desired in the future. It is also necessary to understand the mechanism underlying conventional shake-flask culture. The existing shaking culture methodology can be expanded into next-generation shake-flask cultures constituting a novel culture environment through a judicious selection of monitoring devices depending on the intended purpose of shake-flask culture. Construction and sharing the databases compatible with the various types of the monitoring devices and measurement instruments adapted for shaking culture can provide a valuable resource for broadening the application of cells with shake-flask culture.

  12. Practical Applications for Earthquake Scenarios Using ShakeMap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, D. J.; Worden, B.; Quitoriano, V.; Goltz, J.

    2001-12-01

    In planning and coordinating emergency response, utilities, local government, and other organizations are best served by conducting training exercises based on realistic earthquake situations-ones that they are most likely to face. Scenario earthquakes can fill this role; they can be generated for any geologically plausible earthquake or for actual historic earthquakes. ShakeMap Web pages now display selected earthquake scenarios (www.trinet.org/shake/archive/scenario/html) and more events will be added as they are requested and produced. We will discuss the methodology and provide practical examples where these scenarios are used directly for risk reduction. Given a selected event, we have developed tools to make it relatively easy to generate a ShakeMap earthquake scenario using the following steps: 1) Assume a particular fault or fault segment will (or did) rupture over a certain length, 2) Determine the magnitude of the earthquake based on assumed rupture dimensions, 3) Estimate the ground shaking at all locations in the chosen area around the fault, and 4) Represent these motions visually by producing ShakeMaps and generating ground motion input for loss estimation modeling (e.g., FEMA's HAZUS). At present, ground motions are estimated using empirical attenuation relationships to estimate peak ground motions on rock conditions. We then correct the amplitude at that location based on the local site soil (NEHRP) conditions as we do in the general ShakeMap interpolation scheme. Finiteness is included explicitly, but directivity enters only through the empirical relations. Although current ShakeMap earthquake scenarios are empirically based, substantial improvements in numerical ground motion modeling have been made in recent years. However, loss estimation tools, HAZUS for example, typically require relatively high frequency (3 Hz) input for predicting losses, above the range of frequencies successfully modeled to date. Achieving full-synthetic ground motion

  13. Ring Shake in Eastern Hemlock: Frequency and Relationship to Tree Attributes

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; Paul E. Sendak; David L. Sonderman; David L. Sonderman

    2000-01-01

    Ring shake is a barrier to improved utilization of eastern hemlock, an important component of the total softwood timber resource in the Eastern United States and Canada. Ring shake is the lengthwise separation of wood that occurs between and parallel to growth rings, diminishing lumber yields and values. Evaluating the potential for ring shake is essential to improving...

  14. Ring shake in eastern hemlock: frequency and relationship to tree attributes

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; Paul E. Sendak; David L. Sonderman

    2000-01-01

    Ring shake is a barrier to improved utilization of eastern hemlock, an important component of the total softwood timber resource in the Eastern United States and Canada. Ring shake is the lengthwise separation of wood that occurs between and parallel to growth rings, diminishing lumber yields and values. Evaluating the potential for ring shake is essential to improving...

  15. Auditory, Vestibular and Cognitive Effects due to Repeated Blast Exposure on the Warfighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Gaze Horizontal (Left and Right) Description: The primary purpose of the Gaze Horizontal subtest was to detect nystagmus when the head is fixed and...to detect nystagmus when the head is fixed and the eyes are gazing off center from the primary (straight ahead) gaze position. This test is designed...physiological target area and examiner instructions for testing): Spontaneous Nystagmus Smooth Harmonic Acceleration (.01, .08, .32, .64, 1.75

  16. Linking ShakeMap and Emergency Managers in the Utah Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankow, K.; Bausch, D.; Carey, B.

    2007-12-01

    In 2001, the University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) locally customized and began producing automatic ShakeMaps in Utah's Wasatch Front urban corridor as part of a new real-time earthquake information system developed under the Advanced National Seismic System. In 2005, motivated by requests from Utah's Division of Homeland Security and FEMA, ShakeMap capabilities were expanded to cover the entire Utah region. Now in 2007, ShakeMap capabilities throughout the region will again be enhanced by increased station coverage. The increased station coverage comes both from permanent stations funded by a state initiative and from the temporary deployment of EarthScope USArray stations. The state initiative will add ~22 strong-motion instruments and ~10 broadband instruments to the UUSS network. The majority of these stations will be located in southwestern Utah--one of the fastest growing regions in the U.S. EarthScope will evenly distribute 70 broadband stations in the region during 2007 that will be removed after 18 to 24 months. In addition to the enhanced station coverage for producing ShakeMaps in the Utah region, the transfer of information to the emergency response community is also being enhanced. First, tools are being developed that will link ShakeMap data with HAZUS loss-estimation software in near-real-time for rapid impact assessment. Second, ShakeMap scenarios are being used in conjunction with HAZUS loss-estimation software to produce customized maps for planning and preparedness exercises and also for developing templates that can be used following a significant regional earthquake. With the improvements to ShakeMap and the improved dialogue with the emergency managers, a suite of maps and information products were developed based on scenario earthquakes for training and exercise purposes. These products will be available in a timely fashion following a significant earthquake in the Utah region.

  17. CISN ShakeAlert: Using early warnings for earthquakes in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, M.; Hellweg, M.; Jones, L. M.; Khainovski, O.; Schwartz, K.; Lehrer, D.; Allen, R. M.; Neuhauser, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    Educated users who have developed response plans and procedures are just as important for an earthquake early warning (EEW) system as are the algorithms and computers that process the data and produce the warnings. In Japan, for example, the implementation of the EEW system which now provides advanced alerts of ground shaking included intense outreach efforts to both institutional and individual recipients. Alerts are now used in automatic control systems that stop trains, place sensitive equipment in safe mode and isolate hazards while the public takes cover. In California, the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is now developing and implementing components of a prototype system for EEW, ShakeAlert. As this processing system is developed, we invite a suite of perspective users from critical industries and institutions throughout California to partner with us in developing useful ShakeAlert products and procedures. At the same time, we will support their efforts to determine and implement appropriate responses to an early warning of earthquake shaking. As a first step, in a collaboration with BART, we have developed a basic system allowing BART’s operation center to receive realtime ground shaking information from more than 150 seismic stations operating in the San Francisco Bay Area. BART engineers are implementing a display system for this information. Later phases will include the development of improved response procedures utilizing this information. We plan to continue this collaboration to include more sophisticated information from the prototype CISN ShakeAlert system.

  18. Urban Earthquake Shaking and Loss Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancilar, U.; Tuzun, C.; Yenidogan, C.; Zulfikar, C.; Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    This study, conducted under the JRA-3 component of the EU NERIES Project, develops a methodology and software (ELER) for the rapid estimation of earthquake shaking and losses the Euro-Mediterranean region. This multi-level methodology developed together with researchers from Imperial College, NORSAR and ETH-Zurich is capable of incorporating regional variability and sources of uncertainty stemming from ground motion predictions, fault finiteness, site modifications, inventory of physical and social elements subjected to earthquake hazard and the associated vulnerability relationships. GRM Risk Management, Inc. of Istanbul serves as sub-contractor tor the coding of the ELER software. The methodology encompasses the following general steps: 1. Finding of the most likely location of the source of the earthquake using regional seismotectonic data base and basic source parameters, and if and when possible, by the estimation of fault rupture parameters from rapid inversion of data from on-line stations. 2. Estimation of the spatial distribution of selected ground motion parameters through region specific ground motion attenuation relationships and using shear wave velocity distributions.(Shake Mapping) 4. Incorporation of strong ground motion and other empirical macroseismic data for the improvement of Shake Map 5. Estimation of the losses (damage, casualty and economic) at different levels of sophistication (0, 1 and 2) that commensurate with the availability of inventory of human built environment (Loss Mapping) Level 2 analysis of the ELER Software (similar to HAZUS and SELENA) is essentially intended for earthquake risk assessment (building damage, consequential human casualties and macro economic loss quantifiers) in urban areas. The basic Shake Mapping is similar to the Level 0 and Level 1 analysis however, options are available for more sophisticated treatment of site response through externally entered data and improvement of the shake map through incorporation

  19. The Shaking Torch: Another Variation on the Inductive Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Frank

    2010-01-01

    A recent article showed how the influx of neodymium magnets has provided striking demonstrations of the interactions between magnets and conductors. The "shaking torch" is yet another example. Many of these torches require no batteries and can be submerged in water--indeed, a light for life. In this article, the author disassembles a shaking torch…

  20. Postural Ataxia in Cerebellar Downbeat Nystagmus: Its Relation to Visual, Proprioceptive and Vestibular Signals and Cerebellar Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Helmchen, Christoph; Kirchhoff, Jan-Birger; Göttlich, Martin; Sprenger, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The cerebellum integrates proprioceptive, vestibular and visual signals for postural control. Cerebellar patients with downbeat nystagmus (DBN) complain of unsteadiness of stance and gait as well as blurred vision and oscillopsia. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of visual input, gaze eccentricity, vestibular and proprioceptive input on the postural stability in a large cohort of cerebellar patients with DBN, in comparison to healthy age-matched control subjects. Oculomotor (nystagmus, smooth pursuit eye movements) and postural (postural sway speed) parameters were recorded and related to each other and volumetric changes of the cerebellum (voxel-based morphometry, SPM). Twenty-seven patients showed larger postural instability in all experimental conditions. Postural sway increased with nystagmus in the eyes closed condition but not with the eyes open. Romberg's ratio remained stable and was not different from healthy controls. Postural sway did not change with gaze position or graviceptive input. It increased with attenuated proprioceptive input and on tandem stance in both groups but Romberg's ratio also did not differ. Cerebellar atrophy (vermal lobule VI, VIII) correlated with the severity of impaired smooth pursuit eye movements of DBN patients. Postural ataxia of cerebellar patients with DBN cannot be explained by impaired visual feedback. Despite oscillopsia visual feedback control on cerebellar postural control seems to be preserved as postural sway was strongest on visual deprivation. The increase in postural ataxia is neither related to modulations of single components characterizing nystagmus nor to deprivation of single sensory (visual, proprioceptive) inputs usually stabilizing stance. Re-weighting of multisensory signals and/or inappropriate cerebellar motor commands might account for this postural ataxia.

  1. Postural Ataxia in Cerebellar Downbeat Nystagmus: Its Relation to Visual, Proprioceptive and Vestibular Signals and Cerebellar Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Helmchen, Christoph; Kirchhoff, Jan-Birger; Göttlich, Martin; Sprenger, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Background The cerebellum integrates proprioceptive, vestibular and visual signals for postural control. Cerebellar patients with downbeat nystagmus (DBN) complain of unsteadiness of stance and gait as well as blurred vision and oscillopsia. Objectives The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of visual input, gaze eccentricity, vestibular and proprioceptive input on the postural stability in a large cohort of cerebellar patients with DBN, in comparison to healthy age-matched control subjects. Methods Oculomotor (nystagmus, smooth pursuit eye movements) and postural (postural sway speed) parameters were recorded and related to each other and volumetric changes of the cerebellum (voxel-based morphometry, SPM). Results Twenty-seven patients showed larger postural instability in all experimental conditions. Postural sway increased with nystagmus in the eyes closed condition but not with the eyes open. Romberg’s ratio remained stable and was not different from healthy controls. Postural sway did not change with gaze position or graviceptive input. It increased with attenuated proprioceptive input and on tandem stance in both groups but Romberg’s ratio also did not differ. Cerebellar atrophy (vermal lobule VI, VIII) correlated with the severity of impaired smooth pursuit eye movements of DBN patients. Conclusions Postural ataxia of cerebellar patients with DBN cannot be explained by impaired visual feedback. Despite oscillopsia visual feedback control on cerebellar postural control seems to be preserved as postural sway was strongest on visual deprivation. The increase in postural ataxia is neither related to modulations of single components characterizing nystagmus nor to deprivation of single sensory (visual, proprioceptive) inputs usually stabilizing stance. Re-weighting of multisensory signals and/or inappropriate cerebellar motor commands might account for this postural ataxia. PMID:28056109

  2. Earthquake Early Warning ShakeAlert System: Testing and certification platform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Kohler, Monica D.; Given, Douglas; Guiwits, Stephen; Andrews, Jennifer; Meier, Men-Andrin; Ahmad, Mohammad; Henson, Ivan; Hartog, Renate; Smith, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Earthquake early warning systems provide warnings to end users of incoming moderate to strong ground shaking from earthquakes. An earthquake early warning system, ShakeAlert, is providing alerts to beta end users in the western United States, specifically California, Oregon, and Washington. An essential aspect of the earthquake early warning system is the development of a framework to test modifications to code to ensure functionality and assess performance. In 2016, a Testing and Certification Platform (TCP) was included in the development of the Production Prototype version of ShakeAlert. The purpose of the TCP is to evaluate the robustness of candidate code that is proposed for deployment on ShakeAlert Production Prototype servers. TCP consists of two main components: a real‐time in situ test that replicates the real‐time production system and an offline playback system to replay test suites. The real‐time tests of system performance assess code optimization and stability. The offline tests comprise a stress test of candidate code to assess if the code is production ready. The test suite includes over 120 events including local, regional, and teleseismic historic earthquakes, recentering and calibration events, and other anomalous and potentially problematic signals. Two assessments of alert performance are conducted. First, point‐source assessments are undertaken to compare magnitude, epicentral location, and origin time with the Advanced National Seismic System Comprehensive Catalog, as well as to evaluate alert latency. Second, we describe assessment of the quality of ground‐motion predictions at end‐user sites by comparing predicted shaking intensities to ShakeMaps for historic events and implement a threshold‐based approach that assesses how often end users initiate the appropriate action, based on their ground‐shaking threshold. TCP has been developed to be a convenient streamlined procedure for objectively testing algorithms, and it has

  3. Bucket shaking stops bunch dancing in Tevatron

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Burov, A.; Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Bunches in Tevatron are known to be longitudinally unstable: their collective oscillations, also called dancing bunches, persist without any signs of decay. Typically, a damper is used to stop these oscillations, but recently, it was theoretically predicted that the oscillations can be stabilized by means of small bucket shaking. Dedicated measurements in Tevatron have shown that this method does stop the dancing. According to predictions of Refs. [2,3], the flattening of the bunch distribution at low amplitudes should make the bunch more stable against LLD. An experiment has been devised to flatten the distribution by modulating the RF phase atmore » the low-amplitude synchrotron frequency for a few degrees of amplitude. These beam studies show that stabilisation really happens. After several consecutive shakings, the dancing disappears and the resulting bunch profile becomes smoother at the top. Although not shown in this report, sometimes a little divot forms at the centre of the distribution. These experiments confirm that resonant RF shaking flattens the bunch distribution at low amplitudes, and the dancing stops.« less

  4. Wood Shakes and Shingles for Roof Applications: Tips for Longer Life

    Treesearch

    Mark T. Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Many wood shakes and shingles have been replaced by composition or asphalt-based shingles. Nevertheless, wood shakes and shingles are still widely used on commercial structures and residential houses.

  5. Effects of 4-aminopyridine on nystagmus and vestibulo-ocular reflex in ataxia-telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Marti, Sarah; Tarnutzer, Alexander A; Palla, Antonella; Crawford, Thomas O; Zee, David S; Straumann, Dominik

    2013-11-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with prominent eye movement deficits localizing to the cerebellum. We sought to determine if 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), which putatively enhances the precision of Purkinje neurons, could improve the disorders of eye movements and vestibular function in A-T. The influence of 4-AP on disorders of eye movements and vestibular function was studied in four A-T patients. The effects on the cerebellar control of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was quantitatively assessed by the decay time constant of per- and post-rotational nystagmus during constant velocity en bloc rotations. The length of the VOR time constant determines the fidelity of the vestibular velocity storage, a neural mechanism that increases the bandwidth of VOR under cerebellar control. The VOR time constant was not increased in A-T patients. The latter is explained by the extent of cerebellar lesion as previously described in A-T and other cerebellar disorders. Nevertheless, 4-AP shortened the VOR time constant during horizontal rotations. Severe disinhibition of velocity storage in subjects with putatively profound cerebellar degeneration manifest periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN). Among two A-T subjects who manifested PAN, 4-AP reduced the peak slow phase velocity of the more severely affected individual and abrogated the PAN in the other. Two A-T subjects manifested horizontal and vertical spontaneous nystagmus (SN) in primary gaze, 4-AP reduced its slow phase velocity. We conclude that in subjects with A-T 4-AP has a prominent effect on the ocular motor and vestibular deficits that are ascribed to the loss of cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

  6. A new wireless system for decentralised measurement of physiological parameters from shake flasks

    PubMed Central

    Vasala, Antti; Panula, Johanna; Bollók, Monika; Illmann, Lutz; Hälsig, Christian; Neubauer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background Shake flasks are widely used because of their low price and simple handling. Many researcher are, however, not aware of the physiological consequences of oxygen limitation and substrate overflow metabolism that occur in shake flasks. Availability of a wireless measuring system brings the possibilities for quality control and design of cultivation conditions. Results Here we present a new wireless solution for the measurement of pH and oxygen from shake flasks with standard sensors, which allows data transmission over a distance of more than 100 metres in laboratory environments. This new system was applied to monitoring of cultivation conditions in shake flasks. The at-time monitoring of the growth conditions became possible by simple means. Here we demonstrate that with typical protocols E. coli shake flask cultures run into severe oxygen limitation and the medium is strongly acidified. Additionally the strength of the new system is demonstrated by continuous monitoring of the oxygen level in methanol-fed Pichia pastoris shake flask cultures, which allows the optimisation of substrate feeding for preventing starvation or methanol overfeed. 40 % higher cell density was obtained by preventing starvation phases which occur in standard shake flask protocols by adding methanol when the respiration activity decreased in the cultures. Conclusion The here introduced wireless system can read parallel sensor data over long distances from shake flasks that are under vigorous shaking in cultivation rooms or closed incubators. The presented technology allows centralised monitoring of decentralised targets. It is useful for the monitoring of pH and dissolved oxygen in shake flask cultures. It is not limited to standard sensors, but can be easily adopted to new types of sensors and measurement places (e.g., new sensor points in large-scale bioreactors). PMID:16504107

  7. Association of adverse childhood experiences with shaking and smothering behaviors among Japanese caregivers.

    PubMed

    Isumi, Aya; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-07-01

    Shaking and smothering in response to infant crying are life-threatening child abuse. Parental childhood abuse history is known to be one of the most robust risk factors for abusing their offspring. In addition to childhood abuse history, other adverse childhood exposures (ACEs) need to be considered due to co-occurrence. However, few studies have investigated the impact of ACEs on caregivers shaking and smothering their infant. This study aims to investigate the association of ACEs with shaking and smothering among caregivers of infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to caregivers participating in a four-month health checkup between September 2013 and August 2014 in Chiba City, Japan, to assess their ACEs (parental death, parental divorce, mentally ill parents, witness of intimate partner violence, physical abuse, neglect, psychological abuse and economic hardship), and shaking and smothering toward their infants (N=4297). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the cumulative and individual impacts of ACEs on shaking and smothering. Analyses were conducted in 2015. A total of 28.3% reported having experienced at least one ACE during their childhood. We found that only witness of IPV had a significant association with shaking of infant (OR=1.93, 95% CI: 1.03-3.61). The total number of ACEs was not associated with either shaking or smothering. Our findings suggest that shaking and smothering in response to crying can occur regardless of ACEs. Population-based strategies that target all caregivers to prevent shaking and smothering of infants are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Atlas of ShakeMaps for Landslide and Liquefaction Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nowicki, M. A.; Mah, R. T.; Garcia, D.; Harp, E. L.; Godt, J. W.; Lin, K.; Wald, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The human consequences of a seismic event are often a result of subsequent hazards induced by the earthquake, such as landslides. While the United States Geological Survey (USGS) ShakeMap and Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) systems are, in conjunction, capable of estimating the damage potential of earthquake shaking in near-real time, they do not currently provide estimates for the potential of further damage by secondary processes. We are developing a sound basis for providing estimates of the likelihood and spatial distribution of landslides for any global earthquake under the PAGER system. Here we discuss several important ingredients in this effort. First, we report on the development of a standardized hazard layer from which to calibrate observed landslide distributions; in contrast, prior studies have used a wide variety of means for estimating the hazard input. This layer now takes the form of a ShakeMap, a standardized approach for computing geospatial estimates for a variety of shaking metrics (both peak ground motions and shaking intensity) from any well-recorded earthquake. We have created ShakeMaps for about 20 historical landslide "case history" events, significant in terms of their landslide occurrence, as part of an updated release of the USGS ShakeMap Atlas. We have also collected digitized landslide data from open-source databases for many of the earthquake events of interest. When these are combined with up-to-date topographic and geologic maps, we have the basic ingredients for calibrating landslide probabilities for a significant collection of earthquakes. In terms of modeling, rather than focusing on mechanistic models of landsliding, we adopt a strictly statistical approach to quantify landslide likelihood. We incorporate geology, slope, peak ground acceleration, and landslide data as variables in a logistic regression, selecting the best explanatory variables given the standardized new hazard layers (see Nowicki

  9. 4-aminopyridine restores vertical and horizontal neural integrator function in downbeat nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Kalla, Roger; Glasauer, Stefan; Büttner, Ulrich; Brandt, Thomas; Strupp, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Downbeat nystagmus (DBN), the most common form of acquired fixation nystagmus, is often caused by cerebellar degeneration, especially if the vestibulo-cerebellum is involved. The upward ocular drift in DBN has a spontaneous and a vertical gaze-evoked component. Since cerebellar involvement is suspected to be the underlying pathomechanism of DBN, we tested in 15 patients with DBN whether the application of the potassium-channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), which increases the excitability of cerebellar Purkinje cells as shown in animal experiments, reduces the vertical ocular drift leading to nystagmus. Fifteen age-matched healthy subjects served as the control group. 4-AP may affect spontaneous drift or gaze-evoked drift by either enhancing visual fixation ability or restoring vision-independent gaze holding. We therefore recorded 3D slow-phase eye movements using search coils during attempted fixation in nine different eye positions and with or without a continuously visible target before and 45 min after ingestion of 10mg 4-AP. Since the effect of 4-AP may depend on the associated etiology, we divided our patients into three groups (cerebellar atrophy, n = 4; idiopathic DBN, n = 5; other etiology, n = 6). 4-AP decreased DBN during gaze straight ahead in 12 of 15 patients. Statistical analysis showed that improvement occurred predominantly in patients with cerebellar atrophy, in whom the drift was reduced from -4.99 +/- 1.07 deg/s (mean +/- SE) before treatment to -0.60 +/- 0.82 deg/s afterwards. Regression analysis of slow-phase velocity (SPV) in different eye positions revealed that vertical and horizontal gaze-evoked drift was significantly reduced independently of the patient group and caused perfect gaze holding on the average. Since the observed improvements were independent of target visibility, 4-AP improved fixation by restoring gaze-holding ability. All in all, the present study demonstrates that 4-AP has a differential effect on DBN: drift with gaze

  10. Direct Lattice Shaking of Bose Condensates: Finite Momentum Superfluids

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Brandon M.; Clark, Logan W.; Crawford, J

    2017-05-31

    Here, we address band engineering in the presence of periodic driving by numerically shaking a lattice containing a bosonic condensate. By not restricting to simplified band structure models we are able to address arbitrary values of the shaking frequency, amplitude, and interaction strengths g. For "near-resonant" shaking frequencies with moderate g, a quantum phase transition to a finite momentum superfluid is obtained with Kibble-Zurek scaling and quantitative agreement with experiment. We use this successful calibration as a platform to support a more general investigation of the interplay between (one particle) Floquet theory and the effects associated with arbitrary g. Bandmore » crossings lead to superfluid destabilization, but where this occurs depends on g in a complicated fashion.« less

  11. Acute vestibular syndrome: clinical head impulse test versus video head impulse test.

    PubMed

    Celebisoy, Nese

    2018-03-05

    HINTS battery involving head impulse test (HIT), nystagmus, and test of skew is the critical bedside examination to differentiate acute unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy from posterior circulation stroke (PCS) in acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). The highest sensitivity component of the battery has been reported to be the horizontal HIT, whereas skew deviation is defined as the most specific but non-sensitive sign for PCS. Video-oculography-based HIT (vHIT) may have an additional power in making the differentiation. If vHIT is undertaken, then both gain and gain asymmetry should be taken into account as anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) strokes are at risk of being misclassified based on VOR gain alone. Further refinement in video technology, increased operator proficiency and incorporation with saccade analysis will increase the sensitivity of vHIT for PCS diagnosis. For the time being, clinical examination seems adequate in frontline diagnostic evaluation of AVS.

  12. MyShake: Initial observations from a global smartphone seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Qingkai; Allen, Richard M.; Schreier, Louis

    2016-09-01

    MyShake is a global smartphone seismic network that harnesses the power of crowdsourcing. In the first 6 months since the release of the MyShake app, there were almost 200,000 downloads. On a typical day about 8000 phones provide acceleration waveform data to the MyShake archive. The on-phone app can detect and trigger on P waves and is capable of recording magnitude 2.5 and larger events. More than 200 seismic events have been recorded so far, including events in Chile, Argentina, Mexico, Morocco, Nepal, New Zealand, Taiwan, Japan, and across North America. The largest number of waveforms from a single earthquake to date comes from the M5.2 Borrego Springs earthquake in Southern California, for which MyShake collected 103 useful three-component waveforms. The network continues to grow with new downloads from the Google Play store everyday and expands rapidly when public interest in earthquakes peaks such as during an earthquake sequence.

  13. ShakeMapple : tapping laptop motion sensors to map the felt extents of an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, Remy; McGilvary, Gary; Kamb, Linus

    2010-05-01

    There is a significant pool of untapped sensor resources available in portable computer embedded motion sensors. Included primarily to detect sudden strong motion in order to park the disk heads to prevent damage to the disks in the event of a fall or other severe motion, these sensors may also be tapped for other uses as well. We have developed a system that takes advantage of the Apple Macintosh laptops' embedded Sudden Motion Sensors to record earthquake strong motion data to rapidly build maps of where and to what extent an earthquake has been felt. After an earthquake, it is vital to understand the damage caused especially in urban environments as this is often the scene for large amounts of damage caused by earthquakes. Gathering as much information from these impacts to determine where the areas that are likely to be most effected, can aid in distributing emergency services effectively. The ShakeMapple system operates in the background, continuously saving the most recent data from the motion sensors. After an earthquake has occurred, the ShakeMapple system calculates the peak acceleration within a time window around the expected arrival and sends that to servers at the EMSC. A map plotting the felt responses is then generated and presented on the web. Because large-scale testing of such an application is inherently difficult, we propose to organize a broadly distributed "simulated event" test. The software will be available for download in April, after which we plan to organize a large-scale test by the summer. At a specified time, participating testers will be asked to create their own strong motion to be registered and submitted by the ShakeMapple client. From these responses, a felt map will be produced representing the broadly-felt effects of the simulated event.

  14. Installation, care, and maintenance of wood shake and shingle siding

    Treesearch

    Jack Dwyer; Tony Bonura; Arnie Nebelsick; Sam Williams; Christopher G. Hunt

    2011-01-01

    This article gives general guidelines for selection, installation, finishing, and maintenance of wood shakes and shingles. The authors gathered information from a variety of sources: research publications on wood finishing, technical data sheets from paint manufacturers, installation instructions for shake and shingle siding, and interviews with experts having...

  15. An Overview and Parametric Evaluation of the CGS ShakeMap Automated System in CISN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagos, L. Z.; Haddadi, H. R.; Shakal, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    In the recent years, ShakeMap has been extensively used in California for earthquake rapid response. Serving as a backup to the Northern and Southern seismic regions of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN), the California Geological Survey (CGS) is running a ShakeMap system configured such that it effectively produces ShakeMaps for earthquakes occurring in both regions. In achieving this goal, CGS has worked to improve the robustness of its ShakeMap system and the quality of its products. Peak ground motion amplitude data are exchanged between the CISN data centers to provide robust generation of ShakeMap. Most exchanged ground motion packets come associated with an earthquake by the authoritative network. However, for ground motion packets that come unassociated, CGS employs an event association scheme to associate them with the corresponding earthquake. The generated ShakeMap products are published to the CGS server which can also be accessed through the CISN website. The backup function is designed to publish ShakeMap products to the USGS NEIC server without collision with the regional networks, only acting in cases where the authoritative region encounters a system failure. Depending on the size, location and significance of the earthquake, review of ShakeMap products by a seismologist may involve changes to ShakeMap parameters from the default. We present an overview of the CGS ShakeMap system and highlight some of the parameters a seismologist may adjust including parameters related to basin effects, directivity effects when finite fault models are available, site corrections, etc. We also analyze the sensitivity and dependence of the ShakeMap intensity and ground motion maps on the number of observed data included in the computation. In light of the available strong motion amplitude data, we attempt to address the question of what constitutes an adequate quality ShakeMap in the tradeoff between rapidity and completeness. We also present a brief

  16. The Great California ShakeOut: Science-Based Preparedness Advocacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthien, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Great Southern California ShakeOut in November 2008 was the largest earthquake drill in U.S. history, involving over 5 million southern Californians through a broad-based outreach program, media partnerships, and public advocacy by hundreds of partners. The basis of the drill was a comprehensive scenario for a magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault, which would cause broad devastation. In early 2009 the decision was made to hold the drill statewide on the third Thursday of October each year (October 15 in 2009). Results of the 2008 and 2009 drills will be shared in this session. In addition, prospects of early warning systems will be described, that will one day provide the needed seconds before strong shaking arrives in which critical systems and be shut down, and people can do what they've been practicing in the ShakeOut drills: drop, cover, and hold on. A key aspect of the ShakeOut is the integration of a comprehensive earthquake scenario (incorporating earth science, engineering, policy, economics, public health, and other disciplines) and the lessons learned from decades of social science research about why people get prepared. The result is a “teachable moment” on par with having an actual earthquake (often followed by increased interest in getting ready for earthquakes). ShakeOut creates the sense of urgency that is needed for people, organizations, and communities to get prepared, to practice what to do to be safe, and to learn what plans need to be improved.

  17. Installation, care, and maintenance of wood shake and shingle roofs

    Treesearch

    Tony Bonura; Jack Dwyer; Arnie Nebelsick; Brent Stuart; R. Sam Williams; Christopher Hunt

    2011-01-01

    This article gives general guidelines for selection, installation, finishing, and maintenance of wood shake and shingle roofs. The authors have gathered information from a variety of sources: research publications on wood finishing, technical data sheets from paint manufacturers, installation instructions for shake and shingle roofs, and interviews with experts having...

  18. Clinical and ocular motor analysis of the infantile nystagmus syndrome in the first 6 months of life.

    PubMed

    Hertle, R W; Maldanado, V K; Maybodi, M; Yang, D

    2002-06-01

    The infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) usually begins in infancy and may or may not be associated with visual sensory system abnormalities. Little is known about its specific waveforms in the first 6 months of life or their relation to the developing visual system. This study identifies the clinical and ocular motility characteristics of the INS and establishes the range of waveforms present in the first 6 months of life. 27 infants with involuntary ocular oscillations typical of INS are included in this analysis. They were evaluated both clinically and with motility recordings. Eye movement analysis was performed off line from computer analysis of digitised data. Variables analysed included age, sex, vision, ocular abnormalities, head position, and null zone, neutral zone characteristics, symmetry, conjugacy, waveforms, frequencies, and foveation times. Ages ranged from 3 to 6.5 months (average 4.9 months). 15 patients (56%) had abnormal vision for age, nine (33%) had strabismus, five (19%) had an anomalous head posture, 13 (48%) had oculographic null and neutral positions, nine (33%) had binocular asymmetry, and only two showed consistent dysconjugacy. Average binocular frequency was 3.3 Hz, monocular frequency 6.6 Hz. Average foveation periods were longer and more "jerk" wave forms were observed in those patients with normal vision. Common clinical characteristics and eye movement waveforms of INS begin in the first few months of infancy and waveform analysis at this time may help with both diagnosis and visual status.

  19. [A Case of Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis Presented with Limb-Shaking TIA].

    PubMed

    Uno, Junji; Mineta, Haruyuki; Ren, Nice; Takagishi, Sou; Nagaoka, Shintarou; Kameda, Katsuharu; Maeda, Kazushi; Ikai, Yoshiaki; Gi, Hidefuku

    2016-07-01

    Involuntary movement is a rare clinical manifestation of transient ischemic attack (TIA). However, limb-shaking TIA is well described presentation of carotid occlusive disease. We present the case of a patient who developed limb-shaking TIA associated with high-grade stenosis of middle cerebral artery (M1), which was treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The procedure was performed successfully without complication and the symptom disappeared immediately after the procedure. The patient remained free of symptoms at the 38-month follow-up. There was no tendency of restenosis of M1. In this case, PTA was technically feasible and beneficial for limb-shaking TIA with M1 stenosis. Limb-shaking TIA can be a symptom of high-grade stenosis of M1.

  20. An Atlas of ShakeMaps and population exposure catalog for earthquake loss modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, T.I.; Wald, D.J.; Earle, P.S.; Marano, K.D.; Hotovec, A.J.; Lin, K.; Hearne, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    We present an Atlas of ShakeMaps and a catalog of human population exposures to moderate-to-strong ground shaking (EXPO-CAT) for recent historical earthquakes (1973-2007). The common purpose of the Atlas and exposure catalog is to calibrate earthquake loss models to be used in the US Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER). The full ShakeMap Atlas currently comprises over 5,600 earthquakes from January 1973 through December 2007, with almost 500 of these maps constrained-to varying degrees-by instrumental ground motions, macroseismic intensity data, community internet intensity observations, and published earthquake rupture models. The catalog of human exposures is derived using current PAGER methodologies. Exposure to discrete levels of shaking intensity is obtained by correlating Atlas ShakeMaps with a global population database. Combining this population exposure dataset with historical earthquake loss data, such as PAGER-CAT, provides a useful resource for calibrating loss methodologies against a systematically-derived set of ShakeMap hazard outputs. We illustrate two example uses for EXPO-CAT; (1) simple objective ranking of country vulnerability to earthquakes, and; (2) the influence of time-of-day on earthquake mortality. In general, we observe that countries in similar geographic regions with similar construction practices tend to cluster spatially in terms of relative vulnerability. We also find little quantitative evidence to suggest that time-of-day is a significant factor in earthquake mortality. Moreover, earthquake mortality appears to be more systematically linked to the population exposed to severe ground shaking (Modified Mercalli Intensity VIII+). Finally, equipped with the full Atlas of ShakeMaps, we merge each of these maps and find the maximum estimated peak ground acceleration at any grid point in the world for the past 35 years. We subsequently compare this "composite ShakeMap" with existing global

  1. MyShake: Smartphone-based detection and analysis of Oklahoma earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Schreier, L.

    2016-12-01

    MyShake is a global smartphone seismic network that harnesses the power of crowdsourcing (myshake.berkeley.edu). It uses the accelerometer data from phones to detect earthquake-like motion, and then uploads triggers and waveform data to a server for aggregation of the results. Since the public release in Feb 2016, more than 200,000 android-phone owners have installed the app, and the global network has recorded more than 300 earthquakes. In Oklahoma, there are about 200 active users each day providing enough data for the network to detect earthquakes and for us to perform analysis of the events. MyShake has recorded waveform data for M2.6 to M5.8 earthquakes in the state. For the September 3, 2016, M5.8 earthquake 14 phones detected the event and we can use the waveforms to determine event characteristics. MyShake data provides a location 3.95 km from the ANSS location and a magnitude of 5.7. We can also use MyShake data to estimate a stress drop of 7.4 MPa. MyShake is still a rapidly expanding network that has the ability to grow by thousands of stations/phones in a matter of hours as public interest increases. These initial results suggest that the data will be useful for a variety of scientific studies of induced seismicity phenomena in Oklahoma as well as having the potential to provide earthquake early warning in the future.

  2. Earthquake early Warning ShakeAlert system: West coast wide production prototype

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohler, Monica D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Given, Douglas; Guiwits, Stephen; Neuhauser, Doug; Hensen, Ivan; Hartog, Renate; Bodin, Paul; Kress, Victor; Thompson, Stephen; Felizardo, Claude; Brody, Jeff; Bhadha, Rayo; Schwarz, Stan

    2017-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) is an application of seismological science that can give people, as well as mechanical and electrical systems, up to tens of seconds to take protective actions before peak earthquake shaking arrives at a location. Since 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in collaboration with several partners to develop EEW for the United States. The goal is to create and operate an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the highest risk areas of the United States, starting with the West Coast states of California, Oregon, and Washington. In early 2016, the Production Prototype v.1.0 was established for California; then, in early 2017, v.1.2 was established for the West Coast, with earthquake notifications being distributed to a group of beta users in California, Oregon, and Washington. The new ShakeAlert Production Prototype was an outgrowth from an earlier demonstration EEW system that began sending test notifications to selected users in California in January 2012. ShakeAlert leverages the considerable physical, technical, and organizational earthquake monitoring infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System, a nationwide federation of cooperating seismic networks. When fully implemented, the ShakeAlert system may reduce damage and injury caused by large earthquakes, improve the nation’s resilience, and speed recovery.

  3. MyShake - A smartphone app to detect earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Schreier, L.; Kwon, Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    We designed an android app that harnesses the accelerometers in personal smartphones to record earthquake-shaking data for research, hazard information and warnings. The app has the function to distinguish earthquake shakings from daily human activities based on the different patterns behind the movements. It also can be triggered by the traditional earthquake early warning (EEW) system to record for a certain amount of time to collect earthquake data. When the app is triggered by the earthquake-like movements, it sends the trigger information back to our server which contains time and location of the trigger, at the same time, it stores the waveform data on local phone first, and upload to our server later. Trigger information from multiple phones will be processed in real time on the server to find the coherent signal to confirm the earthquakes. Therefore, the app provides the basis to form a smartphone seismic network that can detect earthquake and even provide warnings. A planned public roll-out of MyShake could collect millions of seismic recordings for large earthquakes in many regions around the world.

  4. Proprioceptive influence on the optokinetic nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Botti, F; Anastasopoulos, D; Kostadima, V; Bambagioni, D; Pettorossi, V E

    2001-01-01

    The influence of neck and leg proprioceptive inputs on optokinetic-induced quick phases was studied in humans. Ten subjects received unidirectional horizontal optokinetic stimulation (10-20%/s) during sinusoidal neck, leg and combined neck + leg proprioceptive stimulation. The optokinetic reflex was measured by electro-oculography. Neck stimulation induced a shift in the nystagmus beating field in the opposite direction to body movement (gain 0.3 0.4, phase 140-180 degrees). The beating field shift resulted totally from the amplitude and frequency modulation of optokinetic quick phases, as slow phases were not affected. Leg proprioceptive stimulation induced a similar effect, but the phase of the response lagged by approximately 90 degrees compared with that of neck response. With combined neck + leg stimulation, the amplitude of the effect was a sum of the separate effects, but the phase coincided with that of the leg response. This suggests that neck and leg proprioceptive signals do not add linearly and that the leg signal determines the time of the response.

  5. iShake: Mobile Phones as Seismic Sensors (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashti, S.; Reilly, J.; Bray, J. D.; Bayen, A. M.; Glaser, S. D.; Mari, E.

    2010-12-01

    Emergency responders must “see” the effects of an earthquake clearly and rapidly so that they can respond effectively to the damage it has produced. Great strides have been made recently in developing methodologies that deliver rapid and accurate post-earthquake information. However, shortcomings still exist. The iShake project is an innovative use of cell phones and information technology to bridge the gap between the high quality, but sparse, ground motion instrument data that are used to help develop ShakeMap and the low quality, but large quantity, human observational data collected to construct a “Did You Feel It?” (DYFI)-based map. Rather than using people as measurement “devices” as is being done through DYFI, the iShake project is using their cell phones to measure ground motion intensity parameters and automatically deliver the data to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for processing and dissemination. In this participatory sensing paradigm, quantitative shaking data from numerous cellular phones will enable the USGS to produce shaking intensity maps more accurately than presently possible. The phone sensor, however, is an imperfect device with performance variations among phones of a given model as well as between models. The sensor is the entire phone, not just the micro-machined transducer inside. A series of 1-D and 3-D shaking table tests were performed at UC San Diego and UC Berkeley, respectively, to evaluate the performance of a class of cell phones. In these tests, seven iPhones and iPod Touch devices that were mounted at different orientations were subjected to 124 earthquake ground motions to characterize their response and reliability as seismic sensors. The testing also provided insight into the seismic response of unsecured and falling instruments. The cell phones measured seismic parameters such as peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), peak ground displacement (PGD), and 5% damped spectral accelerations well

  6. ShakeCast: Automating and improving the use of shakemap for post-earthquake deeision-making and response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.; Lin, K.-W.; Porter, K.; Turner, Loren

    2008-01-01

    When a potentially damaging earthquake occurs, utility and other lifeline managers, emergency responders, and other critical users have an urgent need for information about the impact on their particular facilities so they can make appropriate decisions and take quick actions to ensure safety and restore system functionality. ShakeMap, a tool used to portray the extent of potentially damaging shaking following an earthquake, on its own can be useful for emergency response, loss estimation, and public information. However, to take full advantage of the potential of ShakeMap, we introduce ShakeCast. ShakeCast facilitates the complicated assessment of potential damage to a user's widely distributed facilities by comparing the complex shaking distribution with the potentially highly variable damageability of their inventory to provide a simple, hierarchical list and maps of structures or facilities most likely impacted. ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users' facilities, sends notifications of potential damage to responsible parties, and generates facility damage maps and other Web-based products for both public and private emergency managers and responders. ?? 2008, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  7. Optimization of gold ore Sumbawa separation using gravity method: Shaking table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdana, Achmad Dhaefi; Petrus, Himawan Tri Bayu Murti; Bendiyasa, I. Made; Prijambada, Irfan Dwidya; Hamada, Fumio; Sachiko, Takahi

    2018-04-01

    Most of artisanal small gold mining in Indonesia has been using amalgamation method, which caused negative impact to the environment around ore processing area due to the usage of mercury. One of the more environmental-friendly method for gold processing is gravity method. Shaking table is one of separation equipment of gravity method used to increase concentrate based on difference of specific gravity. The optimum concentration result is influenced by several variables, such as rotational speed shaking, particle size and deck slope. In this research, the range of rotational speed shaking was between 100 rpm and 200 rpm, the particle size was between -100 + 200 mesh and -200 + 300 mesh and deck slope was between 3° and 7°. Gold concentration in concentrate was measured by EDX. The result shows that the optimum condition is obtained at a shaking speed of 200 rpm, with a slope of 7° and particle size of -100 + 200 mesh.

  8. Changes of ampulla pressure in the semicircular canal of pigeons by caloric stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Satoru

    Still now several hypotheses about the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus have been in conclusive. In this study we confirmed the convection effect and the volume change effect of the endolymph in horizontal semicircular canal following the caloric stimulation using pigeons ( Columba livia). Although the direction of the caloric nystagmus depended on the head position and the stimulus site of calorization, the caloric nystagmus disappeared after plugging of horizontal semicircular canal. On the other hand, the ampulla pressure increased by cold calorization and decreased by hot calorization and these pressure changes had no relation to the head position. These results show that the main role of the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus under 1G is the convection effect but the volume change effect may act on the caloric nystagmus not only under 1G but also under microgravity.

  9. Regional Earthquake Shaking and Loss Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesetyan, K.; Demircioglu, M. B.; Zulfikar, C.; Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    This study, conducted under the JRA-3 component of the EU NERIES Project, develops a methodology and software (ELER) for the rapid estimation of earthquake shaking and losses in the Euro-Mediterranean region. This multi-level methodology developed together with researchers from Imperial College, NORSAR and ETH-Zurich is capable of incorporating regional variability and sources of uncertainty stemming from ground motion predictions, fault finiteness, site modifications, inventory of physical and social elements subjected to earthquake hazard and the associated vulnerability relationships. GRM Risk Management, Inc. of Istanbul serves as sub-contractor tor the coding of the ELER software. The methodology encompasses the following general steps: 1. Finding of the most likely location of the source of the earthquake using regional seismotectonic data base and basic source parameters, and if and when possible, by the estimation of fault rupture parameters from rapid inversion of data from on-line stations. 2. Estimation of the spatial distribution of selected ground motion parameters through region specific ground motion attenuation relationships and using shear wave velocity distributions.(Shake Mapping) 4. Incorporation of strong ground motion and other empirical macroseismic data for the improvement of Shake Map 5. Estimation of the losses (damage, casualty and economic) at different levels of sophistication (0, 1 and 2) that commensurate with the availability of inventory of human built environment (Loss Mapping) Both Level 0 (similar to PAGER system of USGS) and Level 1 analyses of the ELER routine are based on obtaining intensity distributions analytically and estimating total number of casualties and their geographic distribution either using regionally adjusted intensity-casualty or magnitude-casualty correlations (Level 0) of using regional building inventory data bases (Level 1). Level 0 analysis is similar to the PAGER system being developed by USGS. For given

  10. MyShake: Initial Observations from a Global Smartphone Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Schreier, L.

    2016-12-01

    MyShake is a global smartphone seismic network that harnesses the power of crowdsourcing. It has two component: an android application running on the personal smartphones to detect earthquake-like motion, and a network detection algorithm to aggregate results from multiple smartphones to detect earthquakes. The MyShake application was released to the public on Feb 12th 2016. Within the first 5 months, there are more than 200 earthquakes recorded by the smartphones all over the world, including events in Chile, Argentina, Mexico, Morocco, Greece, Nepal, New Zealand, Taiwan, Japan, and across North America. In this presentation, we will show the waveforms we recorded from the smartphones for different earthquakes, and the evidences for using this data as a supplementary to the current earthquake early warning system. We will also show the performance of MyShake system during the some earthquakes in US. In short, MyShake smartphone seismic network can be a nice complementary system to the current traditional seismic network, at the same time, it can be a standalone system in places where few seismic stations were installed to reduce the earthquake hazards.

  11. Anophthalmia, cleft lip/palate, absent vomer bone, nystagmus, and mental-motor retardation: a new syndrome or Fryns "anophthalmia-plus" syndrome?

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, Derya; Sağlam, Ibrahim; SIlan, Fatma; Sezen, Gülbin; Unveren, Toygar

    2008-05-01

    We report that a 4-year-old boy presented with right unilateral complete cleft lip and palate, right anophthalmos, left congenital nystagmus, absence of the vomer bone, mental-motor retardation, and normal lymphocyte karyotype (46, XY). For reconstruction of the deformities, we performed cleft lip repair by Millard's rotation-advancement technique and planned cleft palate repair. This combination of cleft lip and palate, anophthalmos, congenital nystagmus, absent vomer bone, and mental-motor retardation has not, to our knowledge, previously been described. We suggest that this represents either another case of the rare Fryns "anophthalmia-plus" syndrome or a new syndrome.

  12. A FRMD7 variant in a Japanese family causes congenital nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Nana; Satomura, Shigeko; Naruto, Takuya; Komori, Takahide; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Imoto, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic congenital nystagmus (ICN) is a genetically heterogeneous eye movement disorder that causes a large proportion of childhood visual impairment. Here we describe a missense variant (p.L292P) within a mutation-rich region of FRMD7 detected in three affected male siblings in a Japanese family with X-linked ICN. Combining sequence analysis and results from structural and functional predictions, we report p.L292P as a variant potentially disrupting FRMD7 function associated with X-linked ICN.

  13. A FRMD7 variant in a Japanese family causes congenital nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Nana; Satomura, Shigeko; Naruto, Takuya; Komori, Takahide; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Imoto, Issei

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic congenital nystagmus (ICN) is a genetically heterogeneous eye movement disorder that causes a large proportion of childhood visual impairment. Here we describe a missense variant (p.L292P) within a mutation-rich region of FRMD7 detected in three affected male siblings in a Japanese family with X-linked ICN. Combining sequence analysis and results from structural and functional predictions, we report p.L292P as a variant potentially disrupting FRMD7 function associated with X-linked ICN. PMID:27081518

  14. Preparation of edge states by shaking boundaries

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shi, Z.C.; Center for Quantum Sciences and School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024; Hou, S.C.

    2016-10-15

    Preparing topological states of quantum matter, such as edge states, is one of the most important directions in condensed matter physics. In this work, we present a proposal to prepare edge states in Aubry–André–Harper (AAH) model with open boundaries, which takes advantage of Lyapunov control to design operations. We show that edge states can be obtained with almost arbitrary initial states. A numerical optimalization for the control is performed and the dependence of control process on the system size is discussed. The merit of this proposal is that the shaking exerts only on the boundaries of the model. As amore » by-product, a topological entangled state is achieved by elaborately designing the shaking scheme.« less

  15. Clinical and anatomical observations of a two-headed lamb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, K R; Partlow, G D; Walker, A F

    1986-04-01

    The clinical and anatomical features of a live-born diprosopic lamb are described. There are no complete anatomical analyses of two-faced lambs in the literature despite the frequency of conjoined twinning in sheep. The lamb had two heads fused in the occipital region. Each head had two eyes. The pinnae of the medial ears were fused. Caudal to the neck the lamb appeared grossly normal. The lamb was unable to raise its heads or stand. Both heads showed synchronous sucking motions and cranial reflexes were present. Nystagmus, strabismus, and limb incoordination were present. The respiratory and heart rates were elevated. There was a grade IV murmur over the left heart base and a palpable thrill on the left side. Each head possessed a normal nasopharynx, oropharynx, and tongue. There was a singular laryngopharnyx and esophagus although the hyoid apparatus was partially duplicated. The cranial and cervical musculature reflected the head duplications. The aortic trunk emerged from the right ventricle just to the right of the conus arteriosus. A ventricular septal defect, patent foramen ovale, and ductus arteriosus were present along with malformed atrioventricular valves. Brainstem fusion began at the cranial medulla oblongata between cranial nerves IX and XII. The cerebella were separate but small. The ventromedial structures from each medulla oblongata were compressed into an extraneous midline remnant of tissue which extended caudally to the level of T2. The clinical signs therefore reflected the anatomical anomalies. A possible etiology for this diprosopus might be the presence early in development of an excessively large block of chordamesoderm. This would allow for the formation of two head folds and hence two "heads."

  16. Observations on the elicitation of secondary and inverted primary nystagmus from the cat by unilateral caloric irrigation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1963-02-01

    Vestibular stimulation by repeated unilateral caloric irrigation of cats occasioned the appearance of secondary, tertiary, and inverted primary nystagmus in some animals. These inverse responses were recorded with stimulus temperatures of 5, 23.5, an...

  17. Fan Blade Shake Test Results for the 40- by 80-/80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warmbrodt, W.; Graham, T.

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the shake tests performed on the first set of hydulignum fan blades for the 40- by 80-/80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. The purpose of the shake test program is described. The test equipment and test procedures are reviewed. Results from each shake test are presented and the overall findings of the shake test program are discussed.

  18. Vortex shaking study of REBCO tape with consideration of anisotropic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Fei; Qu, Timing; Zhang, Zhenyu; Sheng, Jie; Yuan, Weijia; Iwasa, Yukikazu; Zhang, Min

    2017-09-01

    The second generation high temperature superconductor, specifically REBCO, has become a new research focus in the development of a new generation of high-field (>25 T) magnets. One of the main challenges in the application of the magnets is the current screening problem. Previous research shows that for magnetized superconducting stacks and bulks the application of an AC field in plane with the circulating current will lead to demagnetization due to vortex shaking, which provides a possible solution to remove the shielding current. This paper provides an in-depth study, both experimentally and numerically, to unveil the vortex shaking mechanism of REBCO stacks. A new experiment was carried out to measure the demagnetization rate of REBCO stacks exposed to an in-plane AC magnetic field. Meanwhile, 2D finite element models, based on the E-J power law, are developed for simulating the vortex shaking effect of the AC magnetic field. Qualitative agreement was obtained between the experimental and the simulation results. Our results show that the applied in-plane magnetic field leads to a sudden decay of trapped magnetic field in the first half shaking cycle, which is caused by the magnetic field dependence of critical current. Furthermore, the decline of demagnetization rate with the increase of tape number is mainly due to the cross-magnetic field being screened by the top and bottom stacks during the shaking process, which leads to lower demagnetization rate of inner layers. We also demonstrate that the frequency of the applied AC magnetic field has little impact on the demagnetization process. Our modeling tool and findings perfect the vortex shaking theory and provide helpful guidance for eliminating screening current in the new generation REBCO magnets.

  19. Drosophila Shaking-B protein forms gap junctions in paired Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Phelan, P; Stebbings, L A; Baines, R A; Bacon, J P; Davies, J A; Ford, C

    1998-01-08

    In most multicellular organisms direct cell-cell communication is mediated by the intercellular channels of gap junctions. These channels allow the exchange of ions and molecules that are believed to be essential for cell signalling during development and in some differentiated tissues. Proteins called connexins, which are products of a multigene family, are the structural components of vertebrate gap junctions. Surprisingly, molecular homologues of the connexins have not been described in any invertebrate. A separate gene family, which includes the Drosophila genes shaking-B and l(1)ogre, and the Caenorhabditis elegans genes unc-7 and eat-5, encodes transmembrane proteins with a predicted structure similar to that of the connexins. shaking-B and eat-5 are required for the formation of functional gap junctions. To test directly whether Shaking-B is a channel protein, we expressed it in paired Xenopus oocytes. Here we show that Shaking-B localizes to the membrane, and that its presence induces the formation of functional intercellular channels. To our knowledge, this is the first structural component of an invertebrate gap junction to be characterized.

  20. Three-dimensional (3D) evaluation of liquid distribution in shake flask using an optical fluorescence technique.

    PubMed

    Azizan, Amizon; Büchs, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Biotechnological development in shake flask necessitates vital engineering parameters e.g. volumetric power input, mixing time, gas liquid mass transfer coefficient, hydromechanical stress and effective shear rate. Determination and optimization of these parameters through experiments are labor-intensive and time-consuming. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) provides the ability to predict and validate these parameters in bioprocess engineering. This work provides ample experimental data which are easily accessible for future validations to represent the hydrodynamics of the fluid flow in the shake flask. A non-invasive measuring technique using an optical fluorescence method was developed for shake flasks containing a fluorescent solution with a waterlike viscosity at varying filling volume (V L  = 15 to 40 mL) and shaking frequency ( n  = 150 to 450 rpm) at a constant shaking diameter (d o  = 25 mm). The method detected the leading edge (LB) and tail of the rotating bulk liquid (TB) relative to the direction of the centrifugal acceleration at varying circumferential heights from the base of the shake flask. The determined LB and TB points were translated into three-dimensional (3D) circumferential liquid distribution plots. The maximum liquid height (H max ) of the bulk liquid increased with increasing filling volume and shaking frequency of the shaking flask, as expected. The toroidal shapes of LB and TB are clearly asymmetrical and the measured TB differed by the elongation of the liquid particularly towards the torus part of the shake flask. The 3D liquid distribution data collected at varying filling volume and shaking frequency, comprising of LB and TB values relative to the direction of the centrifugal acceleration are essential for validating future numerical solutions using CFD to predict vital engineering parameters in shake flask.

  1. Successful Demonstration of New Isolated Bridge System at UCB Shaking Table

    Science.gov Websites

    other events Successful Demonstration of New Isolated Bridge System at UCB Shaking Table PEER Events Successful Demonstration of New Isolated Bridge System at UCB Shaking Table On May 26, 2010 over 100 demonstration of a new isolated bridge system at the PEER Earthquake Simulator Laboratory at UC Berkeley’s

  2. ShakeAlert Users Transition to the Production Prototype System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, J. A.; Vinci, M.; Steele, W. P.; Hellweg, M.; Allen, R. M.; DeGroot, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning system transitioned from the demonstration system into the fully-fledged production prototype system this year. Users were migrated over to the new system concurrent with the release of the ShakeAlert UserDisplay Version 2.5.0. The production prototype system provides robust connectivity, fail-over mechanisms to ensure that alarms are deliverd even if one connection fails, and provides a framework to connect future stations, participants, and other sources as the project expands to the full public system. We will present an overview of key user sectors that are either testing or launching pilot projects for the system within their organizations. We will outline the implementation of certain actions, and highlight accomplishments and challenges the Beta Users encounter in fully implementing ShakeAlert within their organizations. By better studying these issues, project partners can better assist the users in incorporating early warning in their operations. Opening up the system to allow for pilot projects enables ShakeAlert users to develop hardware, software, and policy solutions for actions in response to early warning alerts in a controlled environment. This is the first step on the path toward limited rollouts. The pilot groups leverage the expertise of our stakeholders to develop the `last mile' alert distribution and responses. The transition went smoothly in February 2015, for users in California, and we expect to connect with more beta users and pilot groups in this next phase. User transition is planned for Fall 2016 for users in the Pacific Northwest. Beta Users, such as municipalities, emergency response groups, and county officials, lifelines, schools, and private industry continue to meet with ShakeAlert partners to 1) further education and training on both benefits and limitations 2) strategize on implementation actions, such as opening fire house bay doors in response to an alarm, and 3) coordinate continued

  3. Detection on vehicle vibration induced by the engine shaking based on the laser triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenxue; Yang, Biwu; Ni, Zhibin; Hu, Xinhan; Han, Tieqiang; Hu, Yaocheng; Zhang, Wu; Wang, Yunfeng

    2017-10-01

    The magnitude of engine shaking is chosen to evaluate the vehicle performance. The engine shaking is evaluated by the vehicle vibration. Based on the laser triangulation, the vehicle vibration is measured by detecting the distance variation between the bodywork and road surface. The results represent the magnitude of engine shaking. The principle and configuration of the laser triangulation is also introduced in this paper.

  4. Reconstituting botulinum toxin drugs: shaking, stirring or what?

    PubMed

    Dressler, Dirk; Bigalke, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Most botulinum toxin (BT) drugs are stored as powders which need to be reconstituted with normal saline before clinical use. As botulinum neurotoxin (BNT), the therapeutically active ingredient, is a large double-stranded protein the process of reconstitution should be performed with special attention to mechanical stress applied. We wanted to test the mechanical stability of BNT during the reconstitution process. For this, 100 MU onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox(®), Irvine, CA, USA) was reconstituted with 2.0 ml of NaCl/H2O. Gentle reconstitution (GR) was performed with a 5 ml syringe, a 0.90 × 70 mm injection needle, one cycle of injection-aspiration-injection and two gentle shakes of the vial. Aggressive reconstitution (AR) was performed with a 5 ml syringe, a 0.40 × 40 mm injection needle, ten injection-aspiration-injection cycles and 30 s of continuous shaking of the vial. AR increased the time to paralysis in the mouse hemidiaphragm assay (HDA) from 72.0 ± 4.6 to 106.0 ± 16.0 min (*p = 0.002, two-tailed t test after Kolmogorov-Smirnova test with Lilliefors correction for normal distribution). Construction of a calibration curve revealed that the increase in the time to paralysis was correlated with a loss of potency of from 100 to 58 MU (-42 %). BT users should use large diameter injection needles for reconstitution, apply two or three injection-aspiration-injection cycles and, maybe, shake the vials a few times to rinse the entire glass wall. Aggressive reconstitution with small diameter needles, prolonged injection-aspiration-injection and violent shaking should be avoided.

  5. CyberShake: Running Seismic Hazard Workflows on Distributed HPC Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Graves, R. W.; Gill, D.; Olsen, K. B.; Milner, K. R.; Yu, J.; Jordan, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    As part of its program of earthquake system science research, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed a simulation platform, CyberShake, to perform physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) using 3D deterministic wave propagation simulations. CyberShake performs PSHA by simulating a tensor-valued wavefield of Strain Green Tensors, and then using seismic reciprocity to calculate synthetic seismograms for about 415,000 events per site of interest. These seismograms are processed to compute ground motion intensity measures, which are then combined with probabilities from an earthquake rupture forecast to produce a site-specific hazard curve. Seismic hazard curves for hundreds of sites in a region can be used to calculate a seismic hazard map, representing the seismic hazard for a region. We present a recently completed PHSA study in which we calculated four CyberShake seismic hazard maps for the Southern California area to compare how CyberShake hazard results are affected by different SGT computational codes (AWP-ODC and AWP-RWG) and different community velocity models (Community Velocity Model - SCEC (CVM-S4) v11.11 and Community Velocity Model - Harvard (CVM-H) v11.9). We present our approach to running workflow applications on distributed HPC resources, including systems without support for remote job submission. We show how our approach extends the benefits of scientific workflows, such as job and data management, to large-scale applications on Track 1 and Leadership class open-science HPC resources. We used our distributed workflow approach to perform CyberShake Study 13.4 on two new NSF open-science HPC computing resources, Blue Waters and Stampede, executing over 470 million tasks to calculate physics-based hazard curves for 286 locations in the Southern California region. For each location, we calculated seismic hazard curves with two different community velocity models and two different SGT codes, resulting in over

  6. The ShakeMap Atlas for the City of Naples, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Faenza, Licia; Camassi, Romano; Michelini, Alberto; Ercolani, Emanuela; Lauciani, Valentino

    2016-04-01

    Naples is one of the most vulnerable cities in the world because it is threatened by several natural and man-made hazards: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, landslides, hydrogeological disasters, and morphologic alterations due to human interference. In addition, the risk is increased by the high density of population (Naples and the surrounding area are among the most populated in Italy), and by the type and condition of buildings and monuments. In light of this, it is crucial to assess the ground shaking suffered by the city. We take into account and integrate data information from five Italian databases and catalogues (DBMI11; CPTI11; CAMAL11; MOLAL08; ITACA) to build a reliable ShakeMap atlas for the area and to recreate the seismic history of the city from historical to recent times (1293 to 1999). This large amount of data gives the opportunity to explore several sources of information, expanding the completeness of our data set in both time and magnitude. 84 earthquakes have been analyzed and for each event, a Shakemap set has been computed using an ad hoc implementation developed for this application: (1) specific ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) accounting for the different attenuation properties in volcanic areas compared with the tectonic ones, and (2) detailed local microzonation to include the site effects. The ShakeMap atlas has two main applications: a) it is an important instrument in seismic risk management. It quantifies the level of shaking suffered by a city during its history, and it could be implemented to the quantification of the number of people exposed to certain degrees of shaking. Intensity data provide the evaluation of the damage caused by earthquakes; the damage is closely linked with the ground shaking, building type, and vulnerability, and it is not possible to separate these contributions; b) the Atlas can be used as starting point for Bayesian estimation of seismic hazard. This technique allows for the merging

  7. Test and evaluation of the attic temperature reduction potential of plastic roof shakes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Holton, J.K.; Beggs, T.R.

    1999-07-01

    While monitoring the comparative performance of two test houses in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, it was noticed that the attic air temperature of one house with a plastic shake roof was consistently 20 F (11 C) cooler than its twin with asphalt shingles during peak summer cooling periods. More detailed monitoring of the temperatures on the plastic shake, the roof deck, and the attic showed this effect to be largely due to the plastic shake and not to better roof venting or other heat loss mechanisms.

  8. A dynamic model of the eye nystagmus response to high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Glover, Paul M; Li, Yan; Antunes, Andre; Mian, Omar S; Day, Brian L

    2014-02-07

    It was recently shown that high magnetic fields evoke nystagmus in human subjects with functioning vestibular systems. The proposed mechanism involves interaction between ionic currents in the endolymph of the vestibular labyrinth and the static magnetic field. This results in a Lorentz force that causes endolymph flow to deflect the cupulae of the semi-circular canals to evoke a vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR). This should be analogous to stimulation by angular acceleration or caloric irrigation. We made measurements of nystagmus slow-phase velocities in healthy adults experiencing variable magnetic field profiles of up to 7 T while supine on a bed that could be moved smoothly into the bore of an MRI machine. The horizontal slow-phase velocity data were reliably modelled by a linear transfer function incorporating a low-pass term and a high-pass adaptation term. The adaptation time constant was estimated at 39.3 s from long exposure trials. When constrained to this value, the low-pass time constant was estimated at 13.6 ± 3.6 s (to 95% confidence) from both short and long exposure trials. This confidence interval overlaps with values obtained previously using angular acceleration and caloric stimulation. Hence it is compatible with endolymph flow causing a cupular deflection and therefore supports the hypothesis that the Lorentz force is a likely transduction mechanism of the magnetic field-evoked VOR.

  9. Shake Test Results and Dynamic Calibration Efforts for the Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Carl R.

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the full-scale wind tunnel test of the UH-60A Airloads rotor, a shake test was completed on the Large Rotor Test Apparatus. The goal of the shake test was to characterize the oscillatory response of the test rig and provide a dynamic calibration of the balance to accurately measure vibratory hub loads. This paper provides a summary of the shake test results, including balance, shaft bending gauge, and accelerometer measurements. Sensitivity to hub mass and angle of attack were investigated during the shake test. Hub mass was found to have an important impact on the vibratory forces and moments measured at the balance, especially near the UH-60A 4/rev frequency. Comparisons were made between the accelerometer data and an existing finite-element model, showing agreement on mode shapes, but not on natural frequencies. Finally, the results of a simple dynamic calibration are presented, showing the effects of changes in hub mass. The results show that the shake test data can be used to correct in-plane loads measurements up to 10 Hz and normal loads up to 30 Hz.

  10. Expanding CyberShake Physics-Based Seismic Hazard Calculations to Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F.; Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Goulet, C. A.; Milner, K. R.; Graves, R. W.; Olsen, K. B.; Jordan, T. H.

    2016-12-01

    As part of its program of earthquake system science, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed a simulation platform, CyberShake, to perform physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) using 3D deterministic wave propagation simulations. CyberShake performs PSHA by first simulating a tensor-valued wavefield of Strain Green Tensors. CyberShake then takes an earthquake rupture forecast and extends it by varying the hypocenter location and slip distribution, resulting in about 500,000 rupture variations. Seismic reciprocity is used to calculate synthetic seismograms for each rupture variation at each computation site. These seismograms are processed to obtain intensity measures, such as spectral acceleration, which are then combined with probabilities from the earthquake rupture forecast to produce a hazard curve. Hazard curves are calculated at seismic frequencies up to 1 Hz for hundreds of sites in a region and the results interpolated to obtain a hazard map. In developing and verifying CyberShake, we have focused our modeling in the greater Los Angeles region. We are now expanding the hazard calculations into Central California. Using workflow tools running jobs across two large-scale open-science supercomputers, NCSA Blue Waters and OLCF Titan, we calculated 1-Hz PSHA results for over 400 locations in Central California. For each location, we produced hazard curves using both a 3D central California velocity model created via tomographic inversion, and a regionally averaged 1D model. These new results provide low-frequency exceedance probabilities for the rapidly expanding metropolitan areas of Santa Barbara, Bakersfield, and San Luis Obispo, and lend new insights into the effects of directivity-basin coupling associated with basins juxtaposed to major faults such as the San Andreas. Particularly interesting are the basin effects associated with the deep sediments of the southern San Joaquin Valley. We will compare hazard

  11. Recovering from the ShakeOut earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wein, Anne; Johnson, Laurie; Bernknopf, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Recovery from an earthquake like the M7.8 ShakeOut Scenario will be a major endeavor taking many years to complete. Hundreds of Southern California municipalities will be affected; most lack recovery plans or previous disaster experience. To support recovery planning this paper 1) extends the regional ShakeOut Scenario analysis into the recovery period using a recovery model, 2) localizes analyses to identify longer-term impacts and issues in two communities, and 3) considers the regional context of local recovery.Key community insights about preparing for post-disaster recovery include the need to: geographically diversify city procurement; set earthquake mitigation priorities for critical infrastructure (e.g., airport), plan to replace mobile homes with earthquake safety measures, consider post-earthquake redevelopment opportunities ahead of time, and develop post-disaster recovery management and governance structures. This work also showed that communities with minor damages are still sensitive to regional infrastructure damages and their potential long-term impacts on community recovery. This highlights the importance of community and infrastructure resilience strategies as well.

  12. Finite-Fault and Other New Capabilities of CISN ShakeAlert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boese, M.; Felizardo, C.; Heaton, T. H.; Hudnut, K. W.; Hauksson, E.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past 6 years, scientists at Caltech, UC Berkeley, the Univ. of Southern California, the Univ. of Washington, the US Geological Survey, and ETH Zurich (Switzerland) have developed the 'ShakeAlert' earthquake early warning demonstration system for California and the Pacific Northwest. We have now started to transform this system into a stable end-to-end production system that will be integrated into the daily routine operations of the CISN and PNSN networks. To quickly determine the earthquake magnitude and location, ShakeAlert currently processes and interprets real-time data-streams from several hundred seismic stations within the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) and the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN). Based on these parameters, the 'UserDisplay' software predicts and displays the arrival and intensity of shaking at a given user site. Real-time ShakeAlert feeds are currently being shared with around 160 individuals, companies, and emergency response organizations to gather feedback about the system performance, to educate potential users about EEW, and to identify needs and applications of EEW in a future operational warning system. To improve the performance during large earthquakes (M>6.5), we have started to develop, implement, and test a number of new algorithms for the ShakeAlert system: the 'FinDer' (Finite Fault Rupture Detector) algorithm provides real-time estimates of locations and extents of finite-fault ruptures from high-frequency seismic data. The 'GPSlip' algorithm estimates the fault slip along these ruptures using high-rate real-time GPS data. And, third, a new type of ground-motion prediction models derived from over 415,000 rupture simulations along active faults in southern California improves MMI intensity predictions for large earthquakes with consideration of finite-fault, rupture directivity, and basin response effects. FinDer and GPSlip are currently being real-time and offline tested in a separate internal

  13. Economic impacts of the ShakeOut scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, A.; Wei, D.; Wein, A.

    2011-01-01

    For the ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario, we estimate $68 billion in direct and indirect business interruption (BI) and $11 billion in related costs in addition to the $113 billion in property damage in an eight-county Southern California region. The modeled conduits of shock to the economy are property damage and lifeline service outages that affect the economy’s ability to produce. Property damage from fire is 50% greater than property damage from shaking because fire is more devastating. BI from water service disruption and fire each represent around one-third of total BI losses because of the long duration of service outage or long restoration and reconstruction periods. Total BI losses are 4.3% of annual gross output in the affected region, an impact far larger than most conventional economic recessions. These losses are still much lower than they potentially could be due to the resilience of the economy.

  14. ShakeAlert—An earthquake early warning system for the United States west coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, Erin R.; Given, Douglas D.; Jones, Lucile M.

    2014-08-29

    Earthquake early warning systems use earthquake science and the technology of monitoring systems to alert devices and people when shaking waves generated by an earthquake are expected to arrive at their location. The seconds to minutes of advance warning can allow people and systems to take actions to protect life and property from destructive shaking. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with several partners, has been working to develop an early warning system for the United States. ShakeAlert, a system currently under development, is designed to cover the West Coast States of California, Oregon, and Washington.

  15. Specific Signature of Seismic Shaking in Landslide Inventories: Case of the Chichi Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, P.; Rault, C.; Marc, O.; Hovius, N.

    2017-12-01

    The 1999 Chichi earthquake triggered 10 000 landslides in its epicentral area. In addition to coseismic landsliding, directly induced by the shaking, the hillslopes response extended to several years after the main shock, during which landslide susceptibility remained higher than during the pre-seismic period. We attribute this elevated rate to weakening effects caused by the shaking. The characteristics of the coseismic landslide catalogues (clustering,slope and azimuth distribution) bears the signature of the seismic triggering. Extended landslide mapping (1994-2004) allows to track changes in these signatures in order to better interpret them. We present a summary of the change of these signatures through time and space. At the scale of the epicentral area, we show that coseismic landslide clustering did clearly occur along the fault where the shaking is strong. In 3 sub-catchments of the Choshui river, a finer analysis of the landslide time series reveals a mixed signature of both geology and shaking. Pre-quake rain-induced landslides preferentially occurred down slope and along the bedding planes while coseismic landslides locate higher in the landscape, on slopes strongly affected by site effects. However, during the post seismic period, the signature of the shaking is not present while landslide rate remains high, suggesting that weakening effects seemed homogeneously distributed in the landscape.

  16. Specific signature of seismic shaking in landslide catalogues: Case of the Chichi earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Patrick; Rault, Claire; Marc, Odin; Hovius, Niels

    2017-04-01

    The 1999 Chichi earthquake triggered 10 000 landslides in its epicentral area. In addition to coseismic landsliding, directly induced by the shaking, the hillslopes response extended to several years after the main shock, during which landslide susceptibility remained higher than during the pre-seismic period. We attribute this elevated rate to weakening effects caused by the shaking. The characteristics of the coseismic landslide catalogues (clustering, slope and azimuth distribution) bears the signature of the seismic triggering. Extended landslide mapping (1994-2004) allows to track changes in these signatures in order to better interpret them. We present a summary of the change of these signatures through time and space. At the scale of the epicentral area, we show that coseismic landslide clustering did clearly occur along the fault where the shaking is strong. In 3 sub-catchments of the Choshui river, a finer analysis of the landslide time series reveals a mixed signature of both geology and shaking. Pre-quake rain-induced landslides preferentially occurred down slope and along the bedding planes while coseismic landslides locate higher in the landscape, on slopes strongly affected by site effects. However, during the post seismic period, the signature of the shaking is not present while landslide rate remains high, suggesting that weakening effects seemed homogeneously distributed in the landscape.

  17. Modeling eye-head gaze shifts in multiple contexts without motor planning

    PubMed Central

    Haji-Abolhassani, Iman; Guitton, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    During gaze shifts, the eyes and head collaborate to rapidly capture a target (saccade) and fixate it. Accordingly, models of gaze shift control should embed both saccadic and fixation modes and a mechanism for switching between them. We demonstrate a model in which the eye and head platforms are driven by a shared gaze error signal. To limit the number of free parameters, we implement a model reduction approach in which steady-state cerebellar effects at each of their projection sites are lumped with the parameter of that site. The model topology is consistent with anatomy and neurophysiology, and can replicate eye-head responses observed in multiple experimental contexts: 1) observed gaze characteristics across species and subjects can emerge from this structure with minor parametric changes; 2) gaze can move to a goal while in the fixation mode; 3) ocular compensation for head perturbations during saccades could rely on vestibular-only cells in the vestibular nuclei with postulated projections to burst neurons; 4) two nonlinearities suffice, i.e., the experimentally-determined mapping of tectoreticular cells onto brain stem targets and the increased recruitment of the head for larger target eccentricities; 5) the effects of initial conditions on eye/head trajectories are due to neural circuit dynamics, not planning; and 6) “compensatory” ocular slow phases exist even after semicircular canal plugging, because of interconnections linking eye-head circuits. Our model structure also simulates classical vestibulo-ocular reflex and pursuit nystagmus, and provides novel neural circuit and behavioral predictions, notably that both eye-head coordination and segmental limb coordination are possible without trajectory planning. PMID:27440248

  18. Paraneoplastic downbeat nystagmus associated with cerebellar hypermetabolism especially in the nodulus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seo Young; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2014-08-15

    A 52-year-old man with vertigo and imbalance for two weeks showed spontaneous downbeat (DBN), horizontal gaze-evoked, and positional apogeotropic nystagmus along with severe limb and truncal ataxia. Gadolinium-enhanced brain MRI was normal, but whole body and brain 2-deoxy-2-[F18]fluoro-d-glucose-positron emission tomography revealed hypermetabolism in the right lower lobe of the lung and the cerebellum, especially in the nodulus. The lesion in the lung was confirmed as mixed cell carcinoma. Paraneoplastic DBN may be associated with cerebellar hypermetabolism, especially in the nodulus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Automated nystagmus analysis. [on-line computer technique for eye data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, C. M.; Allum, J. H. J.; Tole, J. R.; Young, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    Several methods have recently been used for on-line analysis of nystagmus: A digital computer program has been developed to accept sampled records of eye position, detect fast phase components, and output cumulative slow phase position, continuous slow phase velocity, instantaneous fast phase frequency, and other parameters. The slow phase velocity is obtained by differentiation of the calculated cumulative position rather than the original eye movement record. Also, a prototype analog device has been devised which calculates the velocity of the slow phase component during caloric testing. Examples of clinical and research eye movement records analyzed with these devices are shown.

  20. Development and utilization of USGS ShakeCast for rapid post-earthquake assessment of critical facilities and infrastructure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.; Lin, Kuo-wan; Kircher, C.A.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Luco, Nicolas; Turner, L.; Slosky, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The ShakeCast system is an openly available, near real-time post-earthquake information management system. ShakeCast is widely used by public and private emergency planners and responders, lifeline utility operators and transportation engineers to automatically receive and process ShakeMap products for situational awareness, inspection priority, or damage assessment of their own infrastructure or building portfolios. The success of ShakeCast to date and its broad, critical-user base mandates improved software usability and functionality, including improved engineering-based damage and loss functions. In order to make the software more accessible to novice users—while still utilizing advanced users’ technical and engineering background—we have developed a “ShakeCast Workbook”, a well documented, Excel spreadsheet-based user interface that allows users to input notification and inventory data and export XML files requisite for operating the ShakeCast system. Users will be able to select structure based on a minimum set of user-specified facility (building location, size, height, use, construction age, etc.). “Expert” users will be able to import user-modified structural response properties into facility inventory associated with the HAZUS Advanced Engineering Building Modules (AEBM). The goal of the ShakeCast system is to provide simplified real-time potential impact and inspection metrics (i.e., green, yellow, orange and red priority ratings) to allow users to institute customized earthquake response protocols. Previously, fragilities were approximated using individual ShakeMap intensity measures (IMs, specifically PGA and 0.3 and 1s spectral accelerations) for each facility but we are now performing capacity-spectrum damage state calculations using a more robust characterization of spectral deamnd.We are also developing methods for the direct import of ShakeMap’s multi-period spectra in lieu of the assumed three-domain design spectrum (at 0.3s for

  1. Successful ShakeAlert Performance for the Napa Quake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Given, D. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Vidale, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    ShakeAlert, the demonstration earthquake early warning system, developed by the USGS, UC Berkeley, Caltech, ETH, and the University of Washington, functioned as expected for the August 24, 2014, M6.0 Napa earthquake. The first ShakeAlert was generated by the ElarmS algorithm 5.1 sec after the origin time of the earthquake, and 3.3 sec after the P-wave arrived at the closest station 6.5 km from the epicenter. This initial alert, based on P-wave triggers from four stations, estimated the magnitude to be 5.7. The warning was received at the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory 5 seconds before the S-wave and about 10 sec prior to the onset of the strongest shaking. ShakeAlert beta-testers across the San Francisco Bay Area simultaneously received the alert, including the San Francisco 911 center with 8 sec warning, and the BART train system. BART has implemented an automated train-stopping system that was activated (although no trains were running at 3:20 am). With the available network geometry and communications, the blind zone of the first alert had a radius of 16 km. The four stations that contributed to the first alert all encapsulate data into 1-second packets, but the latency in transmitting data to the processing center ranged from 0.27 to 2.62 seconds. If all the stations were to deliver data in 0.27 seconds, then the alert would have been available 2.3 sec sooner and the blind zone would be reduced to about 8 km. This would also mean that the city of Napa would have received about 1 second of warning. The magnitude estimate and event location were accurate from the initial alert onwards. The magnitude estimate did first increase to 5.8 and then dip to 5.4 2.6 sec after the initial alert, stayed at that level for 2 sec, and then returned to 5.7. The final magnitude estimate was 6.0, consistent with the ANSS catalog.

  2. The Sidebar Computer Program, a seismic-shaking intensity meter: users' manual and software description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, John R.

    2003-01-01

    The SideBar computer program provides a visual display of seismic shaking intensity as recorded at one specific seismograph. This software allows a user to tap into the seismic data recorded on that specific seismograph and to display the overall level of shaking at the single location where that seismograph resides (usually the same place the user is). From this shaking level, SideBar also estimates the potential for damage nearby. SideBar cannot tell you the “Richter magnitude” of the earthquake (see box), only how hard the ground shook locally and this estimate of how much damage is likely in the neighborhood. This combination of local effects is called the “seismic intensity”. SideBar runs on a standard desktop or laptop PC, and is intended for the media, schools, emergency responders, and any other group hosting a seismograph and who want to know immediately after an earthquake the levels of shaking measured by that instrument. These local values can be used to inform the public and help initiate appropriate local emergency response activities in the minutes between the earthquake and availability of the broader coverage provided by the USGS over the Web, notably by ShakeMap. For example, for instruments installed in schools, the level of shaking and likely damage at the school could immediately be Web broadcast and parents could quickly determine the likely safety of their children—their biggest postearthquake concern. Also, in the event of a Web outage, SideBar may be a continuing primary source of local emergency response information for some additional minutes. Specifically, SideBar interprets the peak level of acceleration (that is, the force of shaking, as a percentage of the force of gravity) as well as the peak velocity, or highest speed, at which the ground moves. Using these two basic measurements, SideBar computes what is called Instrumental Intensity—a close approximation of the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale, or “MMI” (using the

  3. Nystagmus responses of the cat to rotation and to directionally equivalent and non-equivalent stimuli after unitaleral caloric habituation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1963-08-01

    Six cats were exposed to mild angular acceleration before and after an intervening serried of 15 caloric irrigations. All trials were in total darkness. Slowphase displacement of the eyes, beat frequency, and duration of nystagmus were scored. All...

  4. Effects of weightlessness on the development of the vestibular apparatus and ocular nystagmus in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    The chronic 2g centrifuge was constructed for testing weightlessness effects on development of vestibular apparatus and ocular nystagmus in the rat. Both the stationary and rotating rail tests were performed. A physiological review is presented on vestibular apparatus, along with a system analysis. Time constants and input threshold level of the system are also considered.

  5. Economic resilience lessons from the ShakeOut earthquake scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wein, A.; Rose, A.

    2011-01-01

    Following a damaging earthquake, “business interruption” (BI)—reduced production of goods and services—begins and continues long after the ground shaking stops. Economic resilience reduces BI losses by making the best use of the resources available at a given point in time (static resilience) or by speeding recovery through repair and reconstruction (dynamic resilience), in contrast to mitigation that prevents damage in the first place. Economic resilience is an important concept to incorporate into economic loss modeling and in recovery and contingency planning. Economic resilience framework includes the applicability of resilience strategies to production inputs and output, demand- and supply-side effects, inherent and adaptive abilities, and levels of the economy. We use our resilience framework to organize and share strategies that enhance economic resilience, identify overlooked resilience strategies, and present evidence and structure of resilience strategies for economic loss modelers. Numerous resilience strategies are compiled from stakeholder discussions about the ShakeOut Scenario (Jones et. al. 2008). Modeled results of ShakeOut BI sector losses reveal variable effectiveness of resilience strategies for lengthy disruptions caused by fire-damaged buildings and water service outages. Resilience is a complement to mitigation and may, in fact, have cost and all-hazards advantages.

  6. Using CyberShake Workflows to Manage Big Seismic Hazard Data on Large-Scale Open-Science HPC Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Juve, G.; Vahi, K.; Deelman, E.; Jordan, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    The CyberShake computational platform, developed by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), is an integrated collection of scientific software and middleware that performs 3D physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Southern California. CyberShake integrates large-scale and high-throughput research codes to produce probabilistic seismic hazard curves for individual locations of interest and hazard maps for an entire region. A recent CyberShake calculation produced about 500,000 two-component seismograms for each of 336 locations, resulting in over 300 million synthetic seismograms in a Los Angeles-area probabilistic seismic hazard model. CyberShake calculations require a series of scientific software programs. Early computational stages produce data used as inputs by later stages, so we describe CyberShake calculations using a workflow definition language. Scientific workflow tools automate and manage the input and output data and enable remote job execution on large-scale HPC systems. To satisfy the requests of broad impact users of CyberShake data, such as seismologists, utility companies, and building code engineers, we successfully completed CyberShake Study 15.4 in April and May 2015, calculating a 1 Hz urban seismic hazard map for Los Angeles. We distributed the calculation between the NSF Track 1 system NCSA Blue Waters, the DOE Leadership-class system OLCF Titan, and USC's Center for High Performance Computing. This study ran for over 5 weeks, burning about 1.1 million node-hours and producing over half a petabyte of data. The CyberShake Study 15.4 results doubled the maximum simulated seismic frequency from 0.5 Hz to 1.0 Hz as compared to previous studies, representing a factor of 16 increase in computational complexity. We will describe how our workflow tools supported splitting the calculation across multiple systems. We will explain how we modified CyberShake software components, including GPU implementations and

  7. Topographic analysis of the skull vibration-induced nystagmus test with piezoelectric accelerometers and force sensors.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Georges; Lion, Alexis; Perrin, Philippe; Ouedraogo, Evariste; Schmerber, Sébastien

    2016-03-23

    Vibration-induced nystagmus is elicited by skull or posterior cervical muscle stimulations in patients with vestibular diseases. Skull vibrations delivered by the skull vibration-induced nystagmus test are known to stimulate the inner ear structures directly. This study aimed to measure the vibration transfer at different cranium locations and posterior cervical regions to contribute toward stimulus topographic optimization (experiment 1) and to determine the force applied on the skull with a hand-held vibrator to study the test reproducibility and provide recommendations for good clinical practices (experiment 2). In experiment 1, a 100 Hz hand-held vibrator was applied on the skull (vertex, mastoids) and posterior cervical muscles in 11 healthy participants. Vibration transfer was measured by piezoelectric sensors. In experiment 2, the vibrator was applied 30 times by two experimenters with dominant and nondominant hands on a mannequin equipped to measure the force. Experiment 1 showed that after unilateral mastoid vibratory stimulation, the signal transfer was higher when recorded on the contralateral mastoid than on the vertex or posterior cervical muscles (P<0.001). No difference was observed between the different vibratory locations when vibration transfer was measured on vertex and posterior cervical muscles. Experiment 2 showed that the force applied to the mannequin varied according to the experimenters and the handedness, higher forces being observed with the most experienced experimenter and with the dominant hand (10.3 ± 1.0 and 7.8 ± 2.9 N, respectively). The variation ranged from 9.8 to 29.4% within the same experimenter. Bone transcranial vibration transfer is more efficient from one mastoid to the other mastoid than other anatomical sites. The mastoid is therefore the optimal site for skull vibration-induced nystagmus test in patients with unilateral vestibular lesions and enables a stronger stimulation of the healthy side. In clinical practice

  8. Strong Effects of Vs30 Heterogeneity on Physics-Based Scenario Ground-Shaking Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, J. N.; Pullammanappallil, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Hazard mapping and building codes worldwide use the vertically time-averaged shear-wave velocity between the surface and 30 meters depth, Vs30, as one predictor of earthquake ground shaking. Intensive field campaigns a decade ago in Reno, Los Angeles, and Las Vegas measured urban Vs30 transects with 0.3-km spacing. The Clark County, Nevada, Parcel Map includes urban Las Vegas and comprises over 10,000 site measurements over 1500 km2, completed in 2010. All of these data demonstrate fractal spatial statistics, with a fractal dimension of 1.5-1.8 at scale lengths from 0.5 km to 50 km. Vs measurements in boreholes up to 400 m deep show very similar statistics at 1 m to 200 m lengths. When included in physics-based earthquake-scenario ground-shaking computations, the highly heterogeneous Vs30 maps exhibit unexpectedly strong influence. In sensitivity tests (image below), low-frequency computations at 0.1 Hz display amplifications (as well as de-amplifications) of 20% due solely to Vs30. In 0.5-1.0 Hz computations, the amplifications are a factor of two or more. At 0.5 Hz and higher frequencies the amplifications can be larger than what the 1-d Building Code equations would predict from the Vs30 variations. Vs30 heterogeneities at one location have strong influence on amplifications at other locations, stretching out in the predominant direction of wave propagation for that scenario. The sensitivity tests show that shaking and amplifications are highly scenario-dependent. Animations of computed ground motions and how they evolve with time suggest that the fractal Vs30 variance acts to trap wave energy and increases the duration of shaking. Validations of the computations against recorded ground motions, possible in Las Vegas Valley due to the measurements of the Clark County Parcel Map, show that ground motion levels and amplifications match, while recorded shaking has longer duration than computed shaking. Several mechanisms may explain the amplification and increased

  9. Forecasting probabilistic seismic shaking for greater Tokyo from 400 years of intensity observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bozkurt, S.B.; Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.

    2007-01-01

    The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past shaking. We calculate the time-averaged (Poisson) probability of severe shaking by using more than 10,000 intensity observations recorded since AD 1600 in a 350 km-wide box centered on Tokyo. Unlike other hazard-assessment methods, source and site effects are included without modeling, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake nor the location and slip rate of any fault. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same, and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct here suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA ??? 6 shaking (??? PGA ??? 0.4 g or MMI ??? IX) is 30%-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10% 15% in Chiba and Tsukuba. This result means that there is a 30% chance that 4 million people will be subjected to IJMA ??? 6 shaking during an average 30-year period. We also produce exceedance maps of PGA for building-code regulations, and calculate short-term hazard associated with a hypothetical catastrophe bond. Our results resemble an independent assessment developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis for greater Tokyo. ?? 2007, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  10. Molecular genetic analysis of patients with sporadic and X-linked infantile nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Huang, Xiu-Feng; Zheng, Zhi-Li; Deng, Wen-Li; Lei, Xin-Lan; Xing, Dong-Jun; Ye, Liang; Xu, Su-Zhong; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Fang; Yu, Xin-Ping; Jin, Zi-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infantile nystagmus (IN) is a genetically heterogeneous condition characterised by involuntary rhythmic oscillations of the eyes accompanied by different degrees of vision impairment. Two genes have been identified as mainly causing IN: FRMD7 and GPR143. The aim of our study was to identify the genetic basis of both sporadic IN and X-linked IN. Design Prospective analysis. Patients Twenty Chinese patients, including 15 sporadic IN cases and 5 from X-linked IN families, were recruited and underwent molecular genetic analysis. We first performed PCR-based DNA sequencing of the entire coding region and the splice junctions of the FRMD7 and GPR143 genes in participants. Mutational analysis and co-segregation confirmation were then performed. Setting All clinical examinations and genetic experiments were performed in the Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. Results Two mutations in the FRMD7 gene, including one novel nonsense mutation (c.1090C>T, p.Q364X) and one reported missense mutation (c.781C>G, p.R261G), were identified in two of the five (40%) X-linked IN families. However, none of putative mutations were identified in FRMD7 or GPR143 in any of the sporadic cases. Conclusions The results suggest that mutations in FRMD7 appeared to be the major genetic cause of X-linked IN, but not of sporadic IN. Our findings provide further insights into FRMD7 mutations, which could be helpful for future genetic diagnosis and genetic counselling of Chinese patients with nystagmus. PMID:27036142

  11. The TeraShake Computational Platform for Large-Scale Earthquake Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yifeng; Olsen, Kim; Chourasia, Amit; Moore, Reagan; Maechling, Philip; Jordan, Thomas

    Geoscientific and computer science researchers with the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) are conducting a large-scale, physics-based, computationally demanding earthquake system science research program with the goal of developing predictive models of earthquake processes. The computational demands of this program continue to increase rapidly as these researchers seek to perform physics-based numerical simulations of earthquake processes for larger meet the needs of this research program, a multiple-institution team coordinated by SCEC has integrated several scientific codes into a numerical modeling-based research tool we call the TeraShake computational platform (TSCP). A central component in the TSCP is a highly scalable earthquake wave propagation simulation program called the TeraShake anelastic wave propagation (TS-AWP) code. In this chapter, we describe how we extended an existing, stand-alone, wellvalidated, finite-difference, anelastic wave propagation modeling code into the highly scalable and widely used TS-AWP and then integrated this code into the TeraShake computational platform that provides end-to-end (initialization to analysis) research capabilities. We also describe the techniques used to enhance the TS-AWP parallel performance on TeraGrid supercomputers, as well as the TeraShake simulations phases including input preparation, run time, data archive management, and visualization. As a result of our efforts to improve its parallel efficiency, the TS-AWP has now shown highly efficient strong scaling on over 40K processors on IBM’s BlueGene/L Watson computer. In addition, the TSCP has developed into a computational system that is useful to many members of the SCEC community for performing large-scale earthquake simulations.

  12. The ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario - A Story That Southern Californians Are Writing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Suzanne; Cox, Dale; Jones, Lucile; Bernknopf, Richard; Goltz, James; Hudnut, Kenneth; Mileti, Dennis; Ponti, Daniel; Porter, Keith; Reichle, Michael; Seligson, Hope; Shoaf, Kimberley; Treiman, Jerry; Wein, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The question is not if but when southern California will be hit by a major earthquake - one so damaging that it will permanently change lives and livelihoods in the region. How severe the changes will be depends on the actions that individuals, schools, businesses, organizations, communities, and governments take to get ready. To help prepare for this event, scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have changed the way that earthquake scenarios are done, uniting a multidisciplinary team that spans an unprecedented number of specialties. The team includes the California Geological Survey, Southern California Earthquake Center, and nearly 200 other partners in government, academia, emergency response, and industry, working to understand the long-term impacts of an enormous earthquake on the complicated social and economic interactions that sustain southern California society. This project, the ShakeOut Scenario, has applied the best current scientific understanding to identify what can be done now to avoid an earthquake catastrophe. More information on the science behind this project will be available in The ShakeOut Scenario (USGS Open-File Report 2008-1150; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1150/). The 'what if?' earthquake modeled in the ShakeOut Scenario is a magnitude 7.8 on the southern San Andreas Fault. Geologists selected the details of this hypothetical earthquake by considering the amount of stored strain on that part of the fault with the greatest risk of imminent rupture. From this, seismologists and computer scientists modeled the ground shaking that would occur in this earthquake. Engineers and other professionals used the shaking to produce a realistic picture of this earthquake's damage to buildings, roads, pipelines, and other infrastructure. From these damages, social scientists projected casualties, emergency response, and the impact of the scenario earthquake on southern California's economy and society. The earthquake, its damages, and

  13. Maximal subtotal extirpation of the horizontal rectus extraocular muscles for the treatment of nystagmus with no null point. A report of four successful human cases.

    PubMed

    Sinskey, Robert M; Eshete, Almaz

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the visual and restoration of normal appearance results of maximal excision of the horizontal rectus muscles in nystagmus patients. Menelik II Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and the Sinskey Eye Institute, Santa Monica, California. The medial and lateral rectus muscles were extirpated as far back as possible with an enucleation snare in four patients with horizontal nystagmus. A complete eye examination was performed pre- and postoperatively. Using a camcorder, ocular movements were recorded before surgery, and at postop; days 1 and 40, and months 1, 3 and 10. All four patients had a marked reduction in both abnormal and normal horizontal eye movement, and improvement in objective visual acuity. Postoperative residual intermittent fine horizontal movement was recorded in the left eye in a 6 year old and in both eyes of a 41 year old patient. A residual rotary component was recorded in a 15 year-old patient. The 6 and 9 year-old patients each developed a moderate exotropia. The 15 and 41 year-old patients maintained binocular fusion with some residual ability to converge. Vision increased subjectively in all cases. Subtotal myectomy of the horizontal muscles in horizontal nystagmus with no null point was very effective in improving and/or eliminating horizontal eye movement. Restoration of normal or near normal appearance and improvement in visual acuity occurred in all cases. None of the patients complained of their loss of horizontal gaze and eye movement. More complete myectomy of the muscles should produce total elimination of both normal and abnormal horizontal eye movement including nystagmus.

  14. Effects of acetazolamide on infantile nystagmus syndrome waveforms: comparisons to contact lenses and convergence in a well-studied subject.

    PubMed

    Thurtell, M J; Dell'osso, L F; Leigh, R J; Matta, M; Jacobs, J B; Tomsak, R L

    2010-07-29

    To determine if acetazolamide, an effective treatment for certain inherited channelopathies, has therapeutic effects on infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) in a well-studied subject, compare them to other therapies in the same subject and to tenotomy and reattachment (T&R) in other subjects. Eye-movement data were taken using a high-speed digital video recording system. Nystagmus waveforms were analyzed by applying an eXpanded Nystagmus Acuity Function (NAFX) at different gaze angles and determining the Longest Foveation Domain (LFD). Acetazolamide improved foveation by both a 59.7% increase in the peak value of the NAFX function (from 0.395 to 0.580) and a 70% broadening of the NAFX vs Gaze Angle curve (the LFD increased from 20° to 34°). The resulting U-shaped improvement in the percent NAFX vs Gaze Angle curve, varied from ~60% near the NAFX peak to over 1000% laterally. The therapeutic improvements in NAFX from acetazolamide (similar to T&R) were intermediate between those of soft contact lenses and convergence, the latter was best; for LFD improvements, acetazolamide and contact lenses were equivalent and less effective than convergence. Computer simulations suggested that damping the central oscillation driving INS was insufficient to produce the foveation improvements and increased NAFX values. Acetazolamide resulted in improved-foveation INS waveforms over a broadened range of gaze angles, probably acting at more than one site. This raises the question of whether hereditary INS involves an inherited channelopathy, and whether other agents with known effects on ion channels should be investigated as therapy for this condition.

  15. ShakeNet: a portable wireless sensor network for instrumenting large civil structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohler, Monica D.; Hao, Shuai; Mishra, Nilesh; Govindan, Ramesh; Nigbor, Robert

    2015-08-03

    We report our findings from a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program-funded project to develop and test a wireless, portable, strong-motion network of up to 40 triaxial accelerometers for structural health monitoring. The overall goal of the project was to record ambient vibrations for several days from USGS-instrumented structures. Structural health monitoring has important applications in fields like civil engineering and the study of earthquakes. The emergence of wireless sensor networks provides a promising means to such applications. However, while most wireless sensor networks are still in the experimentation stage, very few take into consideration the realistic earthquake engineering application requirements. To collect comprehensive data for structural health monitoring for civil engineers, high-resolution vibration sensors and sufficient sampling rates should be adopted, which makes it challenging for current wireless sensor network technology in the following ways: processing capabilities, storage limit, and communication bandwidth. The wireless sensor network has to meet expectations set by wired sensor devices prevalent in the structural health monitoring community. For this project, we built and tested an application-realistic, commercially based, portable, wireless sensor network called ShakeNet for instrumentation of large civil structures, especially for buildings, bridges, or dams after earthquakes. Two to three people can deploy ShakeNet sensors within hours after an earthquake to measure the structural response of the building or bridge during aftershocks. ShakeNet involved the development of a new sensing platform (ShakeBox) running a software suite for networking, data collection, and monitoring. Deployments reported here on a tall building and a large dam were real-world tests of ShakeNet operation, and helped to refine both hardware and software. 

  16. Nystagmus responses in a group of normal humans during earth-horizontal axis rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal eye movement responses to earth-horizontal yaw axis rotation were evaluated in 50 normal human subjects who were uniformly distributed in age (20-69 years) and each age group was then divided by gender. Subjects were rotated with eyes open in the dark, using clockwise and counter-clockwise 60 deg velocity trapezoids. The nystagmus slow component velocity is analyzed. It is shown that, despite large intersubject variability, parameters which describe earth-horizontal yaw axis responses are loosely interrelated, and some of them vary significantly with gender and age.

  17. Response of Global Navigation Satellite System receivers to known shaking between 0.2 and 20 Hertz

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, John; Evans, John R.; Blume, Fredrick; Johanson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Similar to Wang and others (2012), we also examined the GPS displacement records using standard spectral techniques. However, we extended their work by evaluating several models of GNSS receivers using a variety of input frequencies. Because our shake table was limited on acceleration and displacement, we did not attempt to duplicate the high shaking associated with high magnitude earthquakes. However, because our shake table could measure the table displacement, we could directly compare the measured GPS displacements with the true displacements.

  18. Maybe Some Big Ground Shakes One Hundred Years Ago in a Big State Near the Ocean Were Caused by People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Tsai, V. C.; Walker, R.; Page, M. T.; Aminzadeh, F.

    2016-12-01

    Sometimes people put water deep into the ground to make it go away and sometimes this causes the ground to shake. Sometimes people take other stuff out of the ground because a lot of people buy this stuff to power cars. Usually when people take this stuff out of the ground it does not cause ground shakes. At least this is what we used to believe. For our study, we looked at ground shakes that caused houses to fall down almost 100 years ago in a big state near the water. They were large ground shakes. One was close to a big city where people make movies and one was a really big shake in another city in the same state. We asked the question, is it possible that these ground shakes happened because people took stuff out of the ground? We considered the places where the ground shakes happened and the places where people took a lot of stuff out of the ground. We show there is a pretty good chance that taking stuff out of the ground caused some pretty big ground shakes. We explain how ground shakes can happen when people take stuff out of the ground. Ground shakes happen on things called faults. When you take stuff out of the ground, usually that makes it harder for the fault to move. This is a good thing. But when the stuff is still deep under the ground, sometimes it also pushes against faults that are close by and helps keep them from moving. So when you take stuff out, it does not push on faults as much, and so sometimes that close-by fault can move and cause ground shakes. We use a computer to show that our idea can explain some of what we see. The idea is not perfect but we think it is a pretty good idea. Our idea explains why it does not usually cause ground shakes when people take stuff out of the ground, but sometimes big ground shakes happen. Our idea suggests that ground shakes caused by people can sometimes be very large. So if people take stuff out of the ground or put stuff in the ground, they need to know if there are faults close by.

  19. Facile mechanical shaking method is an improved isolation approach for islet preparation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Nina; Chen, Tao; Yu, Yuling; Han, Yongming; Yan, Fei; Zheng, Zhou; Chen, Zebin

    2016-12-01

    Successful islet isolation is crucial for islet transplantation and cell treatment for type 1 diabetes. Current isolation methods are able to obtain 500-1,000 islets per rat, which results in a waste of ≥50% of total islets. In the present study, a facile mechanical shaking method for improving islet yield (up to 1,500 per rat) was developed and summarized, which was demonstrated to be more effective than the existing well-established stationary method. The present results showed that isolated islets have a maximum yield of 1,326±152 when shaking for 15 min for the fully-cannulated pancreas. For both fully-cannulated and half-cannulated pancreas in the presence of rat DNAse inhibitor, the optimal shaking time was amended to 20 min with a further increased yield of 1,344±134 and 1,286±124 islets, respectively. Furthermore, the majority of the isolated islets were morphologically intact with a well-defined surface and almost no central necrotic zone, which suggested that the condition of islets obtained via the mechanical shaking method was consistent with the stationary method. Islet size distribution was also calculated and it was demonstrated that islets from the stationary method exhibited the same size distribution as the non-cannulated group, which had more larger islets than the fully-cannulated and half-cannulated groups isolated via the shaking method. In addition, the results of glucose challenge showed that the refraction index of each group was >2.5, which indicated the well-preserved function of isolated islets. Furthermore, the transplanted islets exhibited a therapeutic effect after 1 day of transplantation; however, they failed to control blood glucose levels after ~7 days of transplantation. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the facile mechanical shaking method may markedly improve the yield of rat islet isolation, and in vitro and in vivo investigation demonstrated the well-preserved function of isolated islets in the control of

  20. Downbeat nystagmus due to ranitidine in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Butragueño Laiseca, Laura; Toledo Del Castillo, Blanca; Rodríguez Jimenez, Cristina; Manrique-Rodríguez, Silvia; Pérez Moreno, Jimena

    2017-07-01

    Ranitidine has not been considered as a potential cause of ocular movement conditions. However, it is known that the vestibular nucleus complex, that has a key role in gaze control and vestibule-ocular reflexes, receives hypothalamic histaminergic innervations. Some studies reported the effect of ranitidine blocking the excitatory responses of vestibular nuclei neurons to histamine. We report the first case of a downbeat nystagmus secondary to ranitidine in an infant. A 3-month-old female developed a downbeat gaze after starting treatment with ranitidine for a pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease. Microbiological test were negative and neuroblastoma evaluation was normal. As ranitidine is widely prescribed in the pediatric population, clinicians should be aware of its potential to cause ocular movements disorders. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seismic shaking in the North China Basin expected from ruptures of a possible seismic gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Benchun; Liu, Dunyu; Yin, An

    2017-05-01

    A 160 km long seismic gap, which has not been ruptured over 8000 years, was identified recently in North China. In this study, we use a dynamic source model and a newly available high-resolution 3-D velocity structure to simulate long-period ground motion (up to 0.5 Hz) from possibly worst case rupture scenarios of the seismic gap. We find that the characteristics of the earthquake source and the local geologic structure play a critical role in controlling the amplitude and distribution of the simulated strong ground shaking. Rupture directivity and slip asperities can result in large-amplitude (i.e., >1 m/s) ground shaking near the fault, whereas long-duration shaking may occur within sedimentary basins. In particular, a deep and closed Quaternary basin between Beijing and Tianjin can lead to ground shaking of several tens of cm/s for more than 1 min. These results may provide a sound basis for seismic mitigation in one of the most populated regions in the world.

  2. Experimental/analytical approaches to modeling, calibrating and optimizing shaking table dynamics for structural dynamic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trombetti, Tomaso

    This thesis presents an Experimental/Analytical approach to modeling and calibrating shaking tables for structural dynamic applications. This approach was successfully applied to the shaking table recently built in the structural laboratory of the Civil Engineering Department at Rice University. This shaking table is capable of reproducing model earthquake ground motions with a peak acceleration of 6 g's, a peak velocity of 40 inches per second, and a peak displacement of 3 inches, for a maximum payload of 1500 pounds. It has a frequency bandwidth of approximately 70 Hz and is designed to test structural specimens up to 1/5 scale. The rail/table system is mounted on a reaction mass of about 70,000 pounds consisting of three 12 ft x 12 ft x 1 ft reinforced concrete slabs, post-tensioned together and connected to the strong laboratory floor. The slip table is driven by a hydraulic actuator governed by a 407 MTS controller which employs a proportional-integral-derivative-feedforward-differential pressure algorithm to control the actuator displacement. Feedback signals are provided by two LVDT's (monitoring the slip table relative displacement and the servovalve main stage spool position) and by one differential pressure transducer (monitoring the actuator force). The dynamic actuator-foundation-specimen system is modeled and analyzed by combining linear control theory and linear structural dynamics. The analytical model developed accounts for the effects of actuator oil compressibility, oil leakage in the actuator, time delay in the response of the servovalve spool to a given electrical signal, foundation flexibility, and dynamic characteristics of multi-degree-of-freedom specimens. In order to study the actual dynamic behavior of the shaking table, the transfer function between target and actual table accelerations were identified using experimental results and spectral estimation techniques. The power spectral density of the system input and the cross power spectral

  3. MyShake: A smartphone seismic network for earthquake early warning and beyond.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingkai; Allen, Richard M; Schreier, Louis; Kwon, Young-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Large magnitude earthquakes in urban environments continue to kill and injure tens to hundreds of thousands of people, inflicting lasting societal and economic disasters. Earthquake early warning (EEW) provides seconds to minutes of warning, allowing people to move to safe zones and automated slowdown and shutdown of transit and other machinery. The handful of EEW systems operating around the world use traditional seismic and geodetic networks that exist only in a few nations. Smartphones are much more prevalent than traditional networks and contain accelerometers that can also be used to detect earthquakes. We report on the development of a new type of seismic system, MyShake, that harnesses personal/private smartphone sensors to collect data and analyze earthquakes. We show that smartphones can record magnitude 5 earthquakes at distances of 10 km or less and develop an on-phone detection capability to separate earthquakes from other everyday shakes. Our proof-of-concept system then collects earthquake data at a central site where a network detection algorithm confirms that an earthquake is under way and estimates the location and magnitude in real time. This information can then be used to issue an alert of forthcoming ground shaking. MyShake could be used to enhance EEW in regions with traditional networks and could provide the only EEW capability in regions without. In addition, the seismic waveforms recorded could be used to deliver rapid microseism maps, study impacts on buildings, and possibly image shallow earth structure and earthquake rupture kinematics.

  4. Introducing ShakeMap to potential users in Puerto Rico using scenarios of damaging historical and probable earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerfano, V. A.; Cua, G.; von Hillebrandt, C.; Saffar, A.

    2007-12-01

    The island of Puerto Rico has a long history of damaging earthquakes. Major earthquakes from off-shore sources have affected Puerto Rico in 1520, 1615, 1670, 1751, 1787, 1867, and 1918 (Mueller et al, 2003; PRSN Catalogue). Recent trenching has also yielded evidence of possible M7.0 events inland (Prentice, 2000). The high seismic hazard, large population, high tsunami potential and relatively poor construction practice can result in a potentially devastating combination. Efficient emergency response in event of a large earthquake will be crucial to minimizing the loss of life and disruption of lifeline systems in Puerto Rico. The ShakeMap system (Wald et al, 2004) developed by the USGS to rapidly display and disseminate information about the geographical distribution of ground shaking (and hence potential damage) following a large earthquake has proven to be a vital tool for post earthquake emergency response efforts, and is being adopted/emulated in various seismically active regions worldwide. Implementing a robust ShakeMap system is among the top priorities of the Puerto Rico Seismic Network. However, the ultimate effectiveness of ShakeMap in post- earthquake response depends not only on its rapid availability, but also on the effective use of the information it provides. We developed ShakeMap scenarios of a suite of damaging historical and probable earthquakes that severely impact San Juan, Ponce, and Mayagüez, the 3 largest cities in Puerto Rico. Earthquake source parameters were obtained from McCann and Mercado (1998); and Huérfano (2004). For historical earthquakes that generated tsunamis, tsunami inundation maps were generated using the TIME method (Shuto, 1991). The ShakeMap ground shaking maps were presented to local and regional governmental and emergency response agencies at the 2007 Annual conference of the Puerto Rico Emergency Management and Disaster Administration in San Juan, PR, and at numerous other emergency management talks and training

  5. 117. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, OF DIESTER MODEL 6 CONCENTRATING (SHAKING) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, OF DIESTER MODEL 6 CONCENTRATING (SHAKING) TABLE, USED FOR PRIMARY, MECHANICAL SEPARATION OF GOLD FROM ORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  6. Behavioral Response in the Immediate Aftermath of Shaking: Earthquakes in Christchurch and Wellington, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Jon, Ihnji; Lindell, Michael K.; Prater, Carla S.; Huang, Shih-Kai; Wu, Hao-Che; Johnston, David M.; Becker, Julia S.; Shiroshita, Hideyuki; Doyle, Emma E.H.; Potter, Sally H.; McClure, John; Lambie, Emily

    2016-01-01

    This study examines people’s response actions in the first 30 min after shaking stopped following earthquakes in Christchurch and Wellington, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan. Data collected from 257 respondents in Christchurch, 332 respondents in Hitachi, and 204 respondents in Wellington revealed notable similarities in some response actions immediately after the shaking stopped. In all four events, people were most likely to contact family members and seek additional information about the situation. However, there were notable differences among events in the frequency of resuming previous activities. Actions taken in the first 30 min were weakly related to: demographic variables, earthquake experience, contextual variables, and actions taken during the shaking, but were significantly related to perceived shaking intensity, risk perception and affective responses to the shaking, and damage/infrastructure disruption. These results have important implications for future research and practice because they identify promising avenues for emergency managers to communicate seismic risks and appropriate responses to risk area populations. PMID:27854306

  7. Behavioral Response in the Immediate Aftermath of Shaking: Earthquakes in Christchurch and Wellington, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan.

    PubMed

    Jon, Ihnji; Lindell, Michael K; Prater, Carla S; Huang, Shih-Kai; Wu, Hao-Che; Johnston, David M; Becker, Julia S; Shiroshita, Hideyuki; Doyle, Emma E H; Potter, Sally H; McClure, John; Lambie, Emily

    2016-11-15

    This study examines people's response actions in the first 30 min after shaking stopped following earthquakes in Christchurch and Wellington, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan. Data collected from 257 respondents in Christchurch, 332 respondents in Hitachi, and 204 respondents in Wellington revealed notable similarities in some response actions immediately after the shaking stopped. In all four events, people were most likely to contact family members and seek additional information about the situation. However, there were notable differences among events in the frequency of resuming previous activities. Actions taken in the first 30 min were weakly related to: demographic variables, earthquake experience, contextual variables, and actions taken during the shaking, but were significantly related to perceived shaking intensity, risk perception and affective responses to the shaking, and damage/infrastructure disruption. These results have important implications for future research and practice because they identify promising avenues for emergency managers to communicate seismic risks and appropriate responses to risk area populations.

  8. ShakeMap fed by macroseismic data in France: feedbacks and contribution for improving SHA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlupp, A.

    2016-12-01

    We are using the USGS ShakeMap software V3.5 that allows including intensity as input in association with instrumental data. We have been collecting citizen testimonies for 17 years in France, a region of moderate seismicity for the metropolitan part and in a subduction context for the West Indies part. We collect frequently several thousands testimonies after Mw>≈4.5. Thanks to the selection of "intensity characteristic thumbnails", we can provide in real time a single questionnary intensity (SQI) averaged at the city scale for a preliminary EMS98 intensity. We observed that about 65% of these "thumbnails SQI" are identical to the "final expert SQI" and the remaining part is shifted by only an intensity degree. With about 36000 cities (1 per 14 square km), we are able to sample in details the territory when the about 400 seismic stations give irreplaceable precise ground motion parameters but very local and most of the times at a farther epicentral distance. Since 2012, we contribute as intensity provider for ShakeMap in Pyrenees range (www.SisPyr.eu). Since spring 2016, we run the ShakeMap V3.5 in a "beta version" for the whole territory of France with several adaptations for region with moderate size events. The BCSF provides Intensities (www.franceseisme.fr), RESIF the instrumental data (www.resif.fr) with the West Indies observatories (OVSG-OVSM) and few stations of bordering countries. Feedbacks are: a huge improvement at any distance by including intensities, need to use regional attenuation law, detection of important ML overestimation in few regions, strong dependence to the epicenter localization, recent published GMICE well adapted, difficulty to represent non circular isoseismals. What we learn from ShakeMap is also a valuable contribution for hazard assessment. We aim to continuously improve the results for a state reference ShakeMap through a specific "ShakeMap transverse action" and its working group in the frame of RESIF.

  9. Modeling continuous seismic velocity changes due to ground shaking in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassenmeier, Martina; Richter, Tom; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Korn, Michael; Tilmann, Frederik

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate temporal seismic velocity changes due to earthquake related processes and environmental forcing, we analyze 8 years of ambient seismic noise recorded by the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) network in northern Chile between 18° and 25° S. The Mw 7.7 Tocopilla earthquake in 2007 and the Mw 8.1 Iquique earthquake in 2014 as well as numerous smaller events occurred in this area. By autocorrelation of the ambient seismic noise field, approximations of the Green's functions are retrieved. The recovered function represents backscattered or multiply scattered energy from the immediate neighborhood of the station. To detect relative changes of the seismic velocities we apply the stretching method, which compares individual autocorrelation functions to stretched or compressed versions of a long term averaged reference autocorrelation function. We use time windows in the coda of the autocorrelations, that contain scattered waves which are highly sensitive to minute changes in the velocity. At station PATCX we observe seasonal changes in seismic velocity as well as temporary velocity reductions in the frequency range of 4-6 Hz. The seasonal changes can be attributed to thermal stress changes in the subsurface related to variations of the atmospheric temperature. This effect can be modeled well by a sine curve and is subtracted for further analysis of short term variations. Temporary velocity reductions occur at the time of ground shaking usually caused by earthquakes and are followed by a recovery. We present an empirical model that describes the seismic velocity variations based on continuous observations of the local ground acceleration. Our hypothesis is that not only the shaking of earthquakes provokes velocity drops, but any small vibrations continuously induce minor velocity variations that are immediately compensated by healing in the steady state. We show that the shaking effect is accumulated over time and best described by

  10. Real-time 3-D space numerical shake prediction for earthquake early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyun; Jin, Xing; Huang, Yandan; Wei, Yongxiang

    2017-12-01

    In earthquake early warning systems, real-time shake prediction through wave propagation simulation is a promising approach. Compared with traditional methods, it does not suffer from the inaccurate estimation of source parameters. For computation efficiency, wave direction is assumed to propagate on the 2-D surface of the earth in these methods. In fact, since the seismic wave propagates in the 3-D sphere of the earth, the 2-D space modeling of wave direction results in inaccurate wave estimation. In this paper, we propose a 3-D space numerical shake prediction method, which simulates the wave propagation in 3-D space using radiative transfer theory, and incorporate data assimilation technique to estimate the distribution of wave energy. 2011 Tohoku earthquake is studied as an example to show the validity of the proposed model. 2-D space model and 3-D space model are compared in this article, and the prediction results show that numerical shake prediction based on 3-D space model can estimate the real-time ground motion precisely, and overprediction is alleviated when using 3-D space model.

  11. Shake table test of soil-pile groups-bridge structure interaction in liquefiable ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Liang; Ling, Xianzhang; Xu, Pengju; Gao, Xia; Wang, Dongsheng

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes a shake table test study on the seismic response of low-cap pile groups and a bridge structure in liquefiable ground. The soil profile, contained in a large-scale laminar shear box, consisted of a horizontally saturated sand layer overlaid with a silty clay layer, with the simulated low-cap pile groups embedded. The container was excited in three El Centro earthquake events of different levels. Test results indicate that excessive pore pressure (EPP) during slight shaking only slightly accumulated, and the accumulation mainly occurred during strong shaking. The EPP was gradually enhanced as the amplitude and duration of the input acceleration increased. The acceleration response of the sand was remarkably influenced by soil liquefaction. As soil liquefaction occurred, the peak sand displacement gradually lagged behind the input acceleration; meanwhile, the sand displacement exhibited an increasing effect on the bending moment of the pile, and acceleration responses of the pile and the sand layer gradually changed from decreasing to increasing in the vertical direction from the bottom to the top. A jump variation of the bending moment on the pile was observed near the soil interface in all three input earthquake events. It is thought that the shake table tests could provide the groundwork for further seismic performance studies of low-cap pile groups used in bridges located on liquefiable groun.

  12. SHAKING TABLE TESTS ON SEISMIC DEFORMATION OF PILE SUPPORTED PIER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Daiki; Kohama, Eiji; Takenobu, Masahiro; Yoshida, Makoto; Kiku, Hiroyoshi

    The seismic deformation characeteristics of a pile supported pier was examined with the shake table test, especially focusing on the pier after its deformation during earthquakes. The model based on the similitude of the fully-plastic moment in piles was prepared to confirm the deformation and stress characteristic after reaching the fully-plastic moment. Moreover, assuming transportation of emergency supplies and occurrence of after shock in the post-disaster period, the pile supported pier was loaded with weight after reaching fully-plastic moment and excited with the shaking table. As the result, it is identified that the displacement of the pile supported pier is comparatively small if bending strength of piles does not decrease after reaching fully-plastic moment due to nonoccourrence of local backling or strain hardening.

  13. MyShake: A smartphone seismic network for earthquake early warning and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qingkai; Allen, Richard M.; Schreier, Louis; Kwon, Young-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Large magnitude earthquakes in urban environments continue to kill and injure tens to hundreds of thousands of people, inflicting lasting societal and economic disasters. Earthquake early warning (EEW) provides seconds to minutes of warning, allowing people to move to safe zones and automated slowdown and shutdown of transit and other machinery. The handful of EEW systems operating around the world use traditional seismic and geodetic networks that exist only in a few nations. Smartphones are much more prevalent than traditional networks and contain accelerometers that can also be used to detect earthquakes. We report on the development of a new type of seismic system, MyShake, that harnesses personal/private smartphone sensors to collect data and analyze earthquakes. We show that smartphones can record magnitude 5 earthquakes at distances of 10 km or less and develop an on-phone detection capability to separate earthquakes from other everyday shakes. Our proof-of-concept system then collects earthquake data at a central site where a network detection algorithm confirms that an earthquake is under way and estimates the location and magnitude in real time. This information can then be used to issue an alert of forthcoming ground shaking. MyShake could be used to enhance EEW in regions with traditional networks and could provide the only EEW capability in regions without. In addition, the seismic waveforms recorded could be used to deliver rapid microseism maps, study impacts on buildings, and possibly image shallow earth structure and earthquake rupture kinematics. PMID:26933682

  14. A Simple Algorithm for Predicting Bacteremia Using Food Consumption and Shaking Chills: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Takahashi, Erika; Mishima, Kentaro; Toyoda, Takeo; Saitoh, Fumihiro; Yasuda, Akari; Matsuoka, Joe; Sugita, Manabu; Branch, Joel; Aoki, Makoto; Tierney, Lawrence; Inoue, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    Predicting the presence of true bacteremia based on clinical examination is unreliable. We aimed to construct a simple algorithm for predicting true bacteremia by using food consumption and shaking chills. A prospective multicenter observational study. Three hospital centers in a large Japanese city. In total, 1,943 hospitalized patients aged 14 to 96 years who underwent blood culture acquisitions between April 2013 and August 2014 were enrolled. Patients with anorexia-inducing conditions were excluded. We assessed the patients' oral food intake based on the meal immediately prior to the blood culture with definition as "normal food consumption" when >80% of a meal was consumed and "poor food consumption" when <80% was consumed. We also concurrently evaluated for a history of shaking chills. We calculated the statistical characteristics of food consumption and shaking chills for the presence of true bacteremia, and subsequently built the algorithm by using recursive partitioning analysis. Among 1,943 patients, 223 cases were true bacteremia. Among patients with normal food consumption, without shaking chills, the incidence of true bacteremia was 2.4% (13/552). Among patients with poor food consumption and shaking chills, the incidence of true bacteremia was 47.7% (51/107). The presence of poor food consumption had a sensitivity of 93.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.4%-97.9%) for true bacteremia, and the absence of poor food consumption (ie, normal food consumption) had a negative likelihood ratio (LR) of 0.18 (95% CI, 0.17-0.19) for excluding true bacteremia, respectively. Conversely, the presence of the shaking chills had a specificity of 95.1% (95% CI, 90.7%-99.4%) and a positive LR of 4.78 (95% CI, 4.56-5.00) for true bacteremia. A 2-item screening checklist for food consumption and shaking chills had excellent statistical properties as a brief screening instrument for predicting true bacteremia. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine

  15. Shaking table test and dynamic response prediction on an earthquake-damaged RC building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianguo, Ye; Jiaru, Qian; Kangning, Li

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents the results from shaking table tests of a one-tenth-scale reinforced concrete (RC) building model. The test model is a protype of a building that was seriously damaged during the 1985 Mexico earthquake. The input ground excitation used during the test was from the records obtained near the site of the prototype building during the 1985 and 1995 Mexico earthquakes. The tests showed that the damage pattern of the test model agreed well with that of the prototype building. Analytical prediction of earthquake response has been conducted for the prototype building using a sophisticated 3-D frame model. The input motion used for the dynamic analysis was the shaking table test measurements with similarity transformation. The comparison of the analytical results and the shaking table test results indicates that the response of the RC building to minor and the moderate earthquakes can be predicated well. However, there is difference between the predication and the actual response to the major earthquake.

  16. Abusive head trauma in children: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Nahara R L; Eisenstein, Evelyn; Williams, Lúcia C A

    2013-01-01

    To review the scientific literature on pediatric abusive head trauma as a form of physical abuse against infants and young children, highlighting the prevalence, signs and symptoms, consequences, risk factors for its occurrence, and prevention strategies. The MEDLINE, SciELO, LILACS, and Web of Science databases from 2001 to 2012 were reviewed, using the terms "shaken baby syndrome" and "abusive head trauma" in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. Pediatric abusive head trauma is defined as injury to the skull or intracranial contents of a infant or child younger than 5 years due to intentional abrupt impact and/or violent shaking. It occurs mainly in infants and children under 1 year of age, and may result in severe consequences, from physical or mental disabilities to death. Although there are specific signs for this form of abuse, they can be mistaken for common illnesses in children or accidental head injury; thus, clinical training of professionals involved in the assessment of cases to attain the correct diagnosis is crucial. Prevention strategies should include early identification of cases, as well as parental education on child development, especially on the infant's crying pattern. Considering the severity of abusive head trauma in children, it is critical that prevention strategies be implemented and evaluated in the Brazilian context. It is suggested that its incidence indicators be assessed at the national level. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Differential diagnosis between peripheral and central spontaneous nystagmus can be difficult to classify (as peripheral or central) even on the basis of criteria recommended in the recent literature. The aim of this paper is to use the combination of spontaneous nystagmus and ocular tilt reaction to determine the site of origin of the disease that causes nystagmus. We propose to classify the nystagmus in: 1) "Uphill" nystagmus in which the nystagmus takes on an inclined plane and the direction of the fast phase is towards the hypertropic eye (this type of nystagmus is likely peripheral); 2) "Downhill" nystagmus when the nystagmus beats toward the hypotropic eye (this type of nystagmus is likely central); 3) "Flat" nystagmus when the plane on which nystagmus beats is perfectly horizontal: in this case, we cannot say anything about the site of lesion (it was only detected in 15% of cases). The spatial position of nystagmus vector has to be considered as an intrinsic characteristic of the nystagmus itself (as direction, frequency, angular velocity etc.) and must be reported in the description, possibly giving an indication of the site of damage (peripheral or central). In particular, similar results are obtained by comparing the inclination of the nystagmus with the head impulse test (HIT, considered the best bedside test now available). It seems that this sign may confirm HIT for safer diagnosis or replace it in case of doubt. In contrast, in case of "Flat" nystagmus (probably attributable to the fact that the utricular maculae are spared), HIT can replace observation of the plane of the nystagmus. Thus, the two signs confirm and integrate each other. The test does not require additional time and is not tedious for the patient. It is proposed that it be included in the evaluation of spontaneous nystagmus in everyday clinical practice. PMID:29327737

  18. Shaking Table Experiment of Trampoline Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.; Fujiwara, H.

    2010-12-01

    It has been widely thought that soil response to ground shaking do not experience asymmetry in ground motion. An extreme vertical acceleration near four times gravity was recorded during the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi earthquake at IWTH25 station. This record is distinctly asymmetric in shape; the waveform envelope amplitude is about 1.6 times larger in the upward direction compared to the downward direction. To explain this phenomenon, Aoi et al. (2008) proposed a simple model of a mass bouncing on a trampoline. In this study we perform a shaking table experiment of a soil prototype to try to reproduce the asymmetric ground motion and to investigate the physics of this asymmetric behavior. A soil chamber made of an acrylic resin cylinder with 200 mm in diameter and 500 mm in height was tightly anchored to the shaking table and vertically shaken. We used four different sample materials; Toyoura standard sands, grass beads (particle size of 0.1 and 0.4 mm) and sawdust. Sample was uniformly stacked to a depth of 450 mm and, to measure the vertical motions, accelerometers was installed inside the material (at depths of 50, 220, and 390 mm) and on the frame of the chamber. Pictures were taken from a side by a high speed camera (1000 frames/sec) to capture the motions of particles. The chamber was shaken by sinusoidal wave (5, 10, and 20 Hz) with maximum amplitudes from 0.1 to 4.0 g. When the accelerations roughly exceeded gravity, for all samples, granular behaviors of sample materials became dominant and the asymmetric motions were successfully reproduced. Pictures taken by the high speed camera showed that the motions of the particles are clearly different from the motion of the chamber which is identical to the sinusoidal motion of the shaking table (input motion). Particles are rapidly flung up and freely pulled down by gravity, and the downward motion of the particles is slower than the upward motion. It was also observed that the timing difference of the falling motions

  19. Isolating social influences on vulnerability to earthquake shaking: identifying cost-effective mitigation strategies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhloscaidh, Mairead Nic; McCloskey, John; Pelling, Mark; Naylor, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Until expensive engineering solutions become more universally available, the objective targeting of resources at demonstrably effective, low-cost interventions might help reverse the trend of increasing mortality in earthquakes. Death tolls in earthquakes are the result of complex interactions between physical effects, such as the exposure of the population to strong shaking, and the resilience of the exposed population along with supporting critical infrastructures and institutions. The identification of socio-economic factors that contribute to earthquake mortality is crucial to identifying and developing successful risk management strategies. Here we develop a quantitative methodology more objectively to assess the ability of communities to withstand earthquake shaking, focusing on, in particular, those cases where risk management performance appears to exceed or fall below expectations based on economic status. Using only published estimates of the shaking intensity and population exposure for each earthquake, data that is available for earthquakes in countries irrespective of their level of economic development, we develop a model for mortality based on the contribution of population exposure to shaking only. This represents an attempt to remove, as far as possible, the physical causes of mortality from our analysis (where we consider earthquake engineering to reduce building collapse among the socio-economic influences). The systematic part of the variance with respect to this model can therefore be expected to be dominated by socio-economic factors. We find, as expected, that this purely physical analysis partitions countries in terms of basic socio-economic measures, for example GDP, focusing analytical attention on the power of economic measures to explain variance in observed distributions of earthquake risk. The model allows the definition of a vulnerability index which, although broadly it demonstrates the expected income-dependence of vulnerability to

  20. Spatial orientation of optokinetic nystagmus and ocular pursuit during orbital space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Steven T.; Cohen, Bernard; Raphan, Theodore; Berthoz, Alain; Clement, Gilles

    2005-01-01

    On Earth, eye velocity of horizontal optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) orients to gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA), the sum of linear accelerations acting on the head and body. We determined whether adaptation to micro-gravity altered this orientation and whether ocular pursuit exhibited similar properties. Eye movements of four astronauts were recorded with three-dimensional video-oculography. Optokinetic stimuli were stripes moving horizontally, vertically, and obliquely at 30 degrees/s. Ocular pursuit was produced by a spot moving horizontally or vertically at 20 degrees/s. Subjects were either stationary or were centrifuged during OKN with 1 or 0.5 g of interaural or dorsoventral centripetal linear acceleration. Average eye position during OKN (the beating field) moved into the quick-phase direction by 10 degrees during lateral and upward field movement in all conditions. The beating field did not shift up during downward OKN on Earth, but there was a strong upward movement of the beating field (9 degrees) during downward OKN in the absence of gravity; this likely represents an adaptation to the lack of a vertical 1-g bias in-flight. The horizontal OKN velocity axis tilted 9 degrees in the roll plane toward the GIA during interaural centrifugation, both on Earth and in space. During oblique OKN, the velocity vector tilted towards the GIA in the roll plane when there was a disparity between the direction of stripe motion and the GIA, but not when the two were aligned. In contrast, dorsoventral acceleration tilted the horizontal OKN velocity vector 6 degrees in pitch away from the GIA. Roll tilts of the horizontal OKN velocity vector toward the GIA during interaural centrifugation are consistent with the orientation properties of velocity storage, but pitch tilts away from the GIA when centrifuged while supine are not. We speculate that visual suppression during OKN may have caused the velocity vector to tilt away from the GIA during dorsoventral centrifugation

  1. HINTS to diagnose stroke in the acute vestibular syndrome: three-step bedside oculomotor examination more sensitive than early MRI diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Kattah, Jorge C; Talkad, Arun V; Wang, David Z; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Newman-Toker, David E

    2009-11-01

    Acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) is often due to vestibular neuritis but can result from vertebrobasilar strokes. Misdiagnosis of posterior fossa infarcts in emergency care settings is frequent. Bedside oculomotor findings may reliably identify stroke in AVS, but prospective studies have been lacking. The authors conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study at an academic hospital. Consecutive patients with AVS (vertigo, nystagmus, nausea/vomiting, head-motion intolerance, unsteady gait) with >or=1 stroke risk factor underwent structured examination, including horizontal head impulse test of vestibulo-ocular reflex function, observation of nystagmus in different gaze positions, and prism cross-cover test of ocular alignment. All underwent neuroimaging and admission (generally <72 hours after symptom onset). Strokes were diagnosed by MRI or CT. Peripheral lesions were diagnosed by normal MRI and clinical follow-up. One hundred one high-risk patients with AVS included 25 peripheral and 76 central lesions (69 ischemic strokes, 4 hemorrhages, 3 other). The presence of normal horizontal head impulse test, direction-changing nystagmus in eccentric gaze, or skew deviation (vertical ocular misalignment) was 100% sensitive and 96% specific for stroke. Skew was present in 17% and associated with brainstem lesions (4% peripheral, 4% pure cerebellar, 30% brainstem involvement; chi(2), P=0.003). Skew correctly predicted lateral pontine stroke in 2 of 3 cases in which an abnormal horizontal head impulse test erroneously suggested peripheral localization. Initial MRI diffusion-weighted imaging was falsely negative in 12% (all <48 hours after symptom onset). Skew predicts brainstem involvement in AVS and can identify stroke when an abnormal horizontal head impulse test falsely suggests a peripheral lesion. A 3-step bedside oculomotor examination (HINTS: Head-Impulse-Nystagmus-Test-of-Skew) appears more sensitive for stroke than early MRI in AVS.

  2. Liquid films on shake flask walls explain increasing maximum oxygen transfer capacities with elevating viscosity.

    PubMed

    Giese, Heiner; Azizan, Amizon; Kümmel, Anne; Liao, Anping; Peter, Cyril P; Fonseca, João A; Hermann, Robert; Duarte, Tiago M; Büchs, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    In biotechnological screening and production, oxygen supply is a crucial parameter. Even though oxygen transfer is well documented for viscous cultivations in stirred tanks, little is known about the gas/liquid oxygen transfer in shake flask cultures that become increasingly viscous during cultivation. Especially the oxygen transfer into the liquid film, adhering on the shake flask wall, has not yet been described for such cultivations. In this study, the oxygen transfer of chemical and microbial model experiments was measured and the suitability of the widely applied film theory of Higbie was studied. With numerical simulations of Fick's law of diffusion, it was demonstrated that Higbie's film theory does not apply for cultivations which occur at viscosities up to 10 mPa s. For the first time, it was experimentally shown that the maximum oxygen transfer capacity OTRmax increases in shake flasks when viscosity is increased from 1 to 10 mPa s, leading to an improved oxygen supply for microorganisms. Additionally, the OTRmax does not significantly undermatch the OTRmax at waterlike viscosities, even at elevated viscosities of up to 80 mPa s. In this range, a shake flask is a somehow self-regulating system with respect to oxygen supply. This is in contrary to stirred tanks, where the oxygen supply is steadily reduced to only 5% at 80 mPa s. Since, the liquid film formation at shake flask walls inherently promotes the oxygen supply at moderate and at elevated viscosities, these results have significant implications for scale-up. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A novel mutation in FRMD7 causing X-linked idiopathic congenital nystagmus in a large family

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiang; Gu, Feng; Wang, Yujing; Yan, Jinting; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Shangzhi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To identify the gene responsible for causing an X-linked idiopathic congenital nystagmus (XLICN) in a six-generation Chinese family. Methods Forty-nine members of an XLICN family were recruited and examined after obtaining informed consent. Affected male individuals were genotyped with microsatellite markers around the FRMD7 locus. Mutations were comprehensively screened by direct sequencing using gene specific primers. An X-inactivation pattern was investigated by X chromosome methylation analysis. Results The patients showed phenotypes consistent with XLICN. Genotype analysis showed that male affected individuals in the family shared a common haplotype with the selected markers. Sequencing FRMD7 revealed a G>T transversion (c.812G>T) in exon 9, which caused a conservative substitution of Cys to Phe at codon 271 (p.C271F). This mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals and was present in the obligate, non-penetrant female carriers. However, the mutation was not observed in unaffected familial males or 400 control males. Females with the mutant gene could be affected or carrier and they shared the same inactivated X chromosome harboring the mutation in blood cells, which showed there is no clear causal link between X-inactivation pattern and phenotype. Conclusions We identified a novel mutation in FRMD7 and confirmed the role of this mutation in the pathogenesis of X-linked congenital nystagmus. PMID:18246032

  4. Applied research of shaking table for scandium concentration from a silicate ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, P.; Zhang, G. F.; Gao, L.; Shi, B. H.; Shi, Z.; Yang, Y. D.

    2018-03-01

    A poor magnetite iron ore is a super large independent scandium deposit with over the multi-billion potential utilizable value. Shaking table separation is very useful for impurities removing and scandium content increasing as a follow-up step of high-intensity magnetic separation. In the present study, a satisfactory index, namely scandium content of 83.10 g/t and recovery rate of 79.45 wt%, was obtained by shaking table separation. The good result was achieved under the conditions which the parameters were feed concentrate of 18 wt%, feeding quantity of 11 L/min, stroke frequency of 275 times/min and stroke of 17mm.

  5. Measurement of the electron shake-off in the β-decay of laser-trapped 6He atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ran; Bagdasarova, Yelena; Garcia, Alejandro; Storm, Derek; Sternberg, Matthew; Swanson, Erik; Wauters, Frederik; Zumwalt, David; Bailey, Kevin; Leredde, Arnaud; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas; Flechard, Xavier; Liennard, Etienne; Knecht, Andreas; Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar

    2016-03-01

    Electron shake-off is an important process in many high precision nuclear β-decay measurements searching for physics beyond the standard model. 6He being one of the lightest β-decaying isotopes, has a simple atomic structure. Thus, it is well suited for testing calculations of shake-off effects. Shake-off probabilities from the 23S1 and 23P2 initial states of laser trapped 6He matter for the on-going beta-neutrino correlation study at the University of Washington. These probabilities are obtained by analyzing the time-of-flight distribution of the recoil ions detected in coincidence with the beta particles. A β-neutrino correlation independent analysis approach was developed. The measured upper limit of the double shake-off probability is 2 ×10-4 at 90% confidence level. This result is ~100 times lower than the most recent calculation by Schulhoff and Drake. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract Nos. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  6. Optokinetic and vestibular stimulation determines the spatial orientation of negative optokinetic afternystagmus in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Pettorossi, V E; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A; Barmack, N H

    1999-02-15

    Prolonged binocular optokinetic stimulation (OKS) in the rabbit induces a high-velocity negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II) that persists for several hours. We have taken advantage of this uniform nystagmus to study how changes in static head orientation in the pitch plane might influence the orientation of the nystagmus. After horizontal OKS, the rotation axis of the OKAN II remained almost constant in space as it was kept aligned with the gravity vector when the head was pitched by as much as 80 degrees up and 35 degrees down. Moreover, during reorientation, slow-phase eye velocity decreased according to the head pitch angle. Thereafter, we analyzed the space orientation of OKAN II after optokinetic stimulation during which the head and/or the OKS were pitched upward and downward. The rotation axis of OKAN II did not remain aligned with an earth vertical axis nor a head vertical axis, but it tended to be aligned with that of the OKS respace. The slow-phase eye velocity of OKAN II was also affected by the head pitch angle during OKS, because maximal OKAN II velocity occurred at the same head pitch angle as that during optokinetic stimulation. We suggest that OKAN II is coded in gravity-centered rather than in head-centered coordinates, but that this coordinate system may be influenced by optokinetic and vestibular stimulation. Moreover, the velocity attenuation of OKAN II seems to depend on the mismatch between the space-centered nystagmus rotation axis orientation and that of the "remembered" head-centered optokinetic pathway activated by OKS.

  7. Tonic Investigation Concept of Cervico-vestibular Muscle Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Linda Josephine; Lappat, Annabelle; Neuhuber, Winfried; Scherer, Hans; Olze, Heidi; Hölzl, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interdisciplinary research has contributed greatly to an improved understanding of the vestibular system. To date, however, very little research has focused on the vestibular system's somatosensory afferents. To ensure the diagnostic quality of vestibular somatosensory afferent data, especially the extra cranial afferents, stimulation of the vestibular balance system has to be precluded. Objective Sophisticated movements require intra- and extra cranial vestibular receptors. The study's objective is to evaluate an investigation concept for cervico-vestibular afferents with respect to clinical feasibility. Methods A dedicated chair was constructed, permitting three-dimensional trunk excursions, during which the volunteer's head remains fixed. Whether or not a cervicotonic provocation nystagmus (c-PN) can be induced with static trunk excursion is to be evaluated and if this can be influenced by cervical monophasic transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (c-TENS) with a randomized test group. 3D-video-oculography (VOG) was used to record any change in cervico-ocular examination parameters. The occurring nystagmuses were evaluated visually due to the small caliber of nystagmus amplitudes in healthy volunteers. Results The results demonstrate: no influence of placebo-controlled c-TENS on the spontaneous nystagmus; a significant increase of the vertical nystagmus on the 3D-trunk-excursion chair in static trunk flexion with cervical provocation in all young healthy volunteers (n = 49); and a significant difference between vertical and horizontal nystagmuses during static trunk excursion after placebo-controlled c-TENS, except for the horizontal nystagmus during trunk torsion. Conclusion We hope this cervicotonic investigation concept on the 3D trunk-excursion chair will contribute to new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives on cervical pathologies in vestibular head-to-trunk alignment. PMID:28050208

  8. [Diagnosis and treatment options in vertigo syndromes].

    PubMed

    Strupp, M; Dieterich, M; Zwergal, A; Brandt, T

    2015-10-01

    The key to diagnosing vertigo and balance disorders is systematic analysis of case history with clinical examination of the vestibular, oculomotor, and cerebral systems in particular. Important criteria for differentiating between the various vertigo syndromes are 1) the time course of symptoms, 2) the type of symptoms, 3) modulating factors, and 4) associated symptoms. For clinical examination of the vestibular system, six important tests are available: assessment of spontaneous nystagmus, head impulse test, dynamic visual acuity, subjective visual verticality, positioning manoeuvre, and the Romberg test/gait analysis with eyes open and closed. On the basis of five clinical signs (vertical divergence, central fixation nystagmus, gaze-evoked nystagmus, saccades, normal head impulse test), the clinical examination is able to differentiate between acute central and peripheral vestibular syndromes with a sensitivity and specificity of over 90%. The most relevant laboratory examinations are caloric irrigation and the video head-impulse test for canal function and the vestibular evoked myogenic potentials for otolith function. Finally, treatment is based upon four therapeutic principles: physiotherapy, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and in rare cases, surgery.

  9. Ocular stability and set-point adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Jareonsettasin, P.; Leigh, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental challenge to the brain is how to prevent intrusive movements when quiet is needed. Unwanted limb movements such as tremor impair fine motor control and unwanted eye drifts such as nystagmus impair vision. A stable platform is also necessary to launch accurate movements. Accordingly, nature has designed control systems with agonist (excitation) and antagonist (inhibition) muscle pairs functioning in push–pull, around a steady level of balanced tonic activity, the set-point. Sensory information can be organized similarly, as in the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which generates eye movements that compensate for head movements. The semicircular canals, working in coplanar pairs, one in each labyrinth, are reciprocally excited and inhibited as they transduce head rotations. The relative change in activity is relayed to the vestibular nuclei, which operate around a set-point of stable balanced activity. When a pathological imbalance occurs, producing unwanted nystagmus without head movement, an adaptive mechanism restores the proper set-point and eliminates the nystagmus. Here we used 90 min of continuous 7 T magnetic field labyrinthine stimulation (MVS) in normal humans to produce sustained nystagmus simulating vestibular imbalance. We identified multiple time-scale processes towards a new zero set-point showing that MVS is an excellent paradigm to investigate the neurobiology of set-point adaptation. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Movement suppression: brain mechanisms for stopping and stillness’. PMID:28242733

  10. Consensus statement on abusive head trauma in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Arabinda Kumar; Servaes, Sabah; Slovis, Thomas L; Palusci, Vincent J; Hedlund, Gary L; Narang, Sandeep K; Moreno, Joëlle Anne; Dias, Mark S; Christian, Cindy W; Nelson, Marvin D; Silvera, V Michelle; Palasis, Susan; Raissaki, Maria; Rossi, Andrea; Offiah, Amaka C

    2018-05-23

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the leading cause of fatal head injuries in children younger than 2 years. A multidisciplinary team bases this diagnosis on history, physical examination, imaging and laboratory findings. Because the etiology of the injury is multifactorial (shaking, shaking and impact, impact, etc.) the current best and inclusive term is AHT. There is no controversy concerning the medical validity of the existence of AHT, with multiple components including subdural hematoma, intracranial and spinal changes, complex retinal hemorrhages, and rib and other fractures that are inconsistent with the provided mechanism of trauma. The workup must exclude medical diseases that can mimic AHT. However, the courtroom has become a forum for speculative theories that cannot be reconciled with generally accepted medical literature. There is no reliable medical evidence that the following processes are causative in the constellation of injuries of AHT: cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, hypoxic-ischemic injury, lumbar puncture or dysphagic choking/vomiting. There is no substantiation, at a time remote from birth, that an asymptomatic birth-related subdural hemorrhage can result in rebleeding and sudden collapse. Further, a diagnosis of AHT is a medical conclusion, not a legal determination of the intent of the perpetrator or a diagnosis of murder. We hope that this consensus document reduces confusion by recommending to judges and jurors the tools necessary to distinguish genuine evidence-based opinions of the relevant medical community from legal arguments or etiological speculations that are unwarranted by the clinical findings, medical evidence and evidence-based literature.

  11. Preparing a population for an earthquake like Chi-Chi: The Great Southern California ShakeOut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Lucile M.; ,

    2009-01-01

    The Great Southern California ShakeOut was a week of special events featuring the largest earthquake drill in United States history. On November 13, 2008, over 5 million southern Californians pretended that a magnitude-7.8 earthquake had occurred and practiced actions that could reduce its impact on their lives. The primary message of the ShakeOut is that what we do now, before a big earthquake, will determine what our lives will be like after. The drill was based on a scenario of the impacts and consequences of such an earthquake on the Southern San Andreas Fault, developed by over 300 experts led by the U.S. Geological Survey in partnership with the California Geological Survey, the Southern California Earthquake Center, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, lifeline operators, emergency services and many other organizations. The ShakeOut campaign was designed and implemented by earthquake scientists, emergency managers, sociologists, art designers and community participants. The means of communication were developed using results from sociological research on what encouraged people to take action. This was structured around four objectives: 1) consistent messages – people are more inclined to believe something when they hear the same thing from multiple sources; 2) visual reinforcement – people are more inclined to do something they see other people doing; 3) encourage “milling” or discussing contemplated action – people need to discuss an action with others they care about before committing to undertaking it; and 4) focus on concrete actions – people are more likely to prepare for a set of concrete consequences of a particular hazard than for an abstract concept of risk. The goals of the ShakeOut were established in Spring 2008 and were: 1) to register 5 million people to participate in the drill; 2) to change the culture of earthquake preparedness in southern California; and 3) to reduce earthquake losses in southern California. All of these

  12. Tolerance to LSD and DOB induced shaking behaviour: differential adaptations of frontocortical 5-HT(2A) and glutamate receptor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Buchborn, Tobias; Schröder, Helmut; Dieterich, Daniela C; Grecksch, Gisela; Höllt, Volker

    2015-03-15

    Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and dimethoxy-bromoamphetamine (DOB), provoke stereotype-like shaking behaviour in rodents, which is hypothesised to engage frontocortical glutamate receptor activation secondary to serotonin2A (5-HT2A) related glutamate release. Challenging this hypothesis, we here investigate whether tolerance to LSD and DOB correlates with frontocortical adaptations of 5-HT2A and/or overall-glutamate binding sites. LSD and DOB (0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) induce a ketanserin-sensitive (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., 30-min pretreatment) increase in shaking behaviour (including head twitches and wet dog shakes), which with repeated application (7× in 4 ds) is undermined by tolerance. Tolerance to DOB, as indexed by DOB-sensitive [(3)H]spiroperidol and DOB induced [(35)S]GTP-gamma-S binding, is accompanied by a frontocortical decrease in 5-HT2A binding sites and 5-HT2 signalling, respectively; glutamate-sensitive [(3)H]glutamate binding sites, in contrast, remain unchanged. As to LSD, 5-HT2 signalling and 5-HT2A binding, respectively, are not or only marginally affected, yet [(3)H]glutamate binding is significantly decreased. Correlation analysis interrelates tolerance to DOB to the reduced 5-HT2A (r=.80) as well as the unchanged [(3)H]glutamate binding sites (r=.84); tolerance to LSD, as opposed, shares variance with the reduction in [(3)H]glutamate binding sites only (r=.86). Given that DOB and LSD both induce tolerance, one correlating with 5-HT2A, the other with glutamate receptor adaptations, it might be inferred that tolerance can arise at either level. That is, if a hallucinogen (like LSD in our study) fails to induce 5-HT2A (down-)regulation, glutamate receptors (activated postsynaptic to 5-HT2A related glutamate release) might instead adapt and thus prevent further overstimulation of the cortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CyberShake-derived ground-motion prediction models for the Los Angeles region with application to earthquake early warning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bose, Maren; Graves, Robert; Gill, David; Callaghan, Scott; Maechling, Phillip J.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time applications such as earthquake early warning (EEW) typically use empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) along with event magnitude and source-to-site distances to estimate expected shaking levels. In this simplified approach, effects due to finite-fault geometry, directivity and site and basin response are often generalized, which may lead to a significant under- or overestimation of shaking from large earthquakes (M > 6.5) in some locations. For enhanced site-specific ground-motion predictions considering 3-D wave-propagation effects, we develop support vector regression (SVR) models from the SCEC CyberShake low-frequency (<0.5 Hz) and broad-band (0–10 Hz) data sets. CyberShake encompasses 3-D wave-propagation simulations of >415 000 finite-fault rupture scenarios (6.5 ≤ M ≤ 8.5) for southern California defined in UCERF 2.0. We use CyberShake to demonstrate the application of synthetic waveform data to EEW as a ‘proof of concept’, being aware that these simulations are not yet fully validated and might not appropriately sample the range of rupture uncertainty. Our regression models predict the maximum and the temporal evolution of instrumental intensity (MMI) at 71 selected test sites using only the hypocentre, magnitude and rupture ratio, which characterizes uni- and bilateral rupture propagation. Our regression approach is completely data-driven (where here the CyberShake simulations are considered data) and does not enforce pre-defined functional forms or dependencies among input parameters. The models were established from a subset (∼20 per cent) of CyberShake simulations, but can explain MMI values of all >400 k rupture scenarios with a standard deviation of about 0.4 intensity units. We apply our models to determine threshold magnitudes (and warning times) for various active faults in southern California that earthquakes need to exceed to cause at least ‘moderate’, ‘strong’ or ‘very strong’ shaking

  14. Shaking Alone Induces De Novo Conversion of Recombinant Prion Proteins to β-Sheet Rich Oligomers and Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Ladner-Keay, Carol L.; Griffith, Bethany J.; Wishart, David S.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of β-sheet rich prion oligomers and fibrils from native prion protein (PrP) is thought to be a key step in the development of prion diseases. Many methods are available to convert recombinant prion protein into β-sheet rich fibrils using various chemical denaturants (urea, SDS, GdnHCl), high temperature, phospholipids, or mildly acidic conditions (pH 4). Many of these methods also require shaking or another form of agitation to complete the conversion process. We have identified that shaking alone causes the conversion of recombinant PrP to β-sheet rich oligomers and fibrils at near physiological pH (pH 5.5 to pH 6.2) and temperature. This conversion does not require any denaturant, detergent, or any other chemical cofactor. Interestingly, this conversion does not occur when the water-air interface is eliminated in the shaken sample. We have analyzed shaking-induced conversion using circular dichroism, resolution enhanced native acidic gel electrophoresis (RENAGE), electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thioflavin T fluorescence and proteinase K resistance. Our results show that shaking causes the formation of β-sheet rich oligomers with a population distribution ranging from octamers to dodecamers and that further shaking causes a transition to β-sheet fibrils. In addition, we show that shaking-induced conversion occurs for a wide range of full-length and truncated constructs of mouse, hamster and cervid prion proteins. We propose that this method of conversion provides a robust, reproducible and easily accessible model for scrapie-like amyloid formation, allowing the generation of milligram quantities of physiologically stable β-sheet rich oligomers and fibrils. These results may also have interesting implications regarding our understanding of prion conversion and propagation both within the brain and via techniques such as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) and quaking induced conversion (QuIC). PMID

  15. Motion sickness susceptibility in parabolic flight and velocity storage activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dizio, Paul; Lackner, James R.

    1991-01-01

    In parabolic flight experiments, postrotary nystagmus is as found to be differentially suppressed in free fall (G) and in a high gravitoinertial force (1.8 G) background relative to 1 G. In addition, the influence of postrotary head movements on nystagmus suppression was found to be contingent on G-dependency of the velocity storage and dumping mechanisms. Here, susceptibility to motion sickness during head movements in 0 G and 1.8 G was rank-correlated with the following: (1) the decay time constant of the slow phase velocity of postrotary nystagmus under 1 G, no head movement, baseline conditions, (2) the extent of time constant reduction elicited in 0 G and 1.8 G; (3) the extent of time constant reduction elicited by head tilts in 1 G; and (4) changes in the extent of time constants reduction in 0 G and 1.8 G over repeated tests. Susceptibility was significantly correlated with the extent to which a head movement reduced the time constant in 1 G, was weakly correlated with the baseline time constant, but was not correlated with the extent of reduction in 0 G or 1.8 G. This pattern suggests a link between mechanisms evoking symptoms of space motion sickness and the mechanisms of velocity storage and dumping. Experimental means of evaluating this link are described.

  16. SHAKING TABLE TEST AND EFFECTIVE STRESS ANALYSIS ON SEISMIC PERFORMANCE WITH SEISMIC ISOLATION RUBBER TO THE INTERMEDIATE PART OF PILE FOUNDATION IN LIQUEFACTION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kunihiko; Otsuka, Hisanori; Mitou, Masaaki

    The pile foundation is heavily damaged at the boundary division of the ground types, liquefied ground and non-liquefied ground, during an earthquake and there is a possibility of the collapse of the piles. In this study, we conduct a shaking table test and effective stress analysis of the influence of soil liquefaction and the seismic inertial force exerted on the pile foundation. When the intermediate part of the pile, there is at the boundary division, is subjected to section force, this part increases in size as compared to the pile head in certain instances. Further, we develop a seismic resistance method for a pile foundation in liquefaction using seismic isolation rubber and it is shown the middle part seismic isolation system is very effective.

  17. Leaching of Chalcopyrite with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Effect of Surfactants and Shaking

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, D. W.; Trussell, P. C.; Walden, C. C.

    1964-01-01

    The rate of leaching of chalcopyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans has been greatly accelerated by using shaken flasks in place of stationary bottles or percolators. A further increase in rate and extent of leaching was obtained by the use of Tween 20, 40, 60, and 80, Triton X-100, Quaker TT 5386, and Hyamine 2389. Tween 20 was the most effective surfactant. No individual component of the Tween molecule was responsible for the improved leaching. The Tween-to-chalcopyrite ratio is more important than the Tween-to-medium ratio. The effect of the surfactants is probably due to increased contact between the mineral surface and the organism, and shaking provides the necessary oxygen. Rates and yields obtained by use of surfactants and shaking as aids to microbiological leaching approach those obtained with acidified erric sulfate leaching. PMID:14131359

  18. Hyperventilation-induced nystagmus in vestibular schwannoma and unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Mandalà, Marco; Giannuzzi, Annalisa; Astore, Serena; Trabalzini, Franco; Nuti, Daniele

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the incidence and characteristics of hyperventilation-induced nystagmus (HVN) in 49 patients with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging evidence of vestibular schwannoma and 53 patients with idiopathic unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and normal radiological findings. The sensitivity and specificity of the hyperventilation test were compared with other audio-vestibular diagnostic tests (bedside examination of eye movements, caloric test, auditory brainstem responses) in the two groups of patients. The hyperventilation test scored the highest diagnostic efficiency (sensitivity 65.3 %; specificity 98.1 %) of the four tests in the differential diagnosis of vestibular schwannoma and idiopathic unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Small tumors with a normal caloric response or caloric paresis were associated with ipsilateral HVN and larger tumors and severe caloric deficits with contralateral HVN. These results confirm that the hyperventilation test is a useful diagnostic test for predicting vestibular schwannoma in patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

  19. The origin of downbeat nystagmus: an asymmetry in the distribution of on-directions of vertical gaze-velocity Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Marti, Sarah; Straumann, Dominik; Glasauer, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    Various hypotheses on the origin of cerebellar downbeat nystagmus (DBN) have been presented; the exact pathomechanism, however, is still not known. Based on previous anatomical and electrophysiological studies, we propose that an asymmetry in the distribution of on-directions of vertical gaze-velocity Purkinje cells leads to spontaneous upward ocular drift in cerebellar disease, and therefore, to DBN. Our hypothesis is supported by a computational model for vertical eye movements.

  20. Earthquake shaking hazard estimates and exposure changes in the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor S.; Petersen, Mark D.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Leith, William S.

    2015-01-01

    A large portion of the population of the United States lives in areas vulnerable to earthquake hazards. This investigation aims to quantify population and infrastructure exposure within the conterminous U.S. that are subjected to varying levels of earthquake ground motions by systematically analyzing the last four cycles of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Models (published in 1996, 2002, 2008 and 2014). Using the 2013 LandScan data, we estimate the numbers of people who are exposed to potentially damaging ground motions (peak ground accelerations at or above 0.1g). At least 28 million (~9% of the total population) may experience 0.1g level of shaking at relatively frequent intervals (annual rate of 1 in 72 years or 50% probability of exceedance (PE) in 50 years), 57 million (~18% of the total population) may experience this level of shaking at moderately frequent intervals (annual rate of 1 in 475 years or 10% PE in 50 years), and 143 million (~46% of the total population) may experience such shaking at relatively infrequent intervals (annual rate of 1 in 2,475 years or 2% PE in 50 years). We also show that there is a significant number of critical infrastructure facilities located in high earthquake-hazard areas (Modified Mercalli Intensity ≥ VII with moderately frequent recurrence interval).

  1. CyberShake: A Physics-Based Seismic Hazard Model for Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Robert; Jordan, Thomas H.; Callaghan, Scott; Deelman, Ewa; Field, Edward; Juve, Gideon; Kesselman, Carl; Maechling, Philip; Mehta, Gaurang; Milner, Kevin; Okaya, David; Small, Patrick; Vahi, Karan

    2011-03-01

    CyberShake, as part of the Southern California Earthquake Center's (SCEC) Community Modeling Environment, is developing a methodology that explicitly incorporates deterministic source and wave propagation effects within seismic hazard calculations through the use of physics-based 3D ground motion simulations. To calculate a waveform-based seismic hazard estimate for a site of interest, we begin with Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2.0 (UCERF2.0) and identify all ruptures within 200 km of the site of interest. We convert the UCERF2.0 rupture definition into multiple rupture variations with differing hypocenter locations and slip distributions, resulting in about 415,000 rupture variations per site. Strain Green Tensors are calculated for the site of interest using the SCEC Community Velocity Model, Version 4 (CVM4), and then, using reciprocity, we calculate synthetic seismograms for each rupture variation. Peak intensity measures are then extracted from these synthetics and combined with the original rupture probabilities to produce probabilistic seismic hazard curves for the site. Being explicitly site-based, CyberShake directly samples the ground motion variability at that site over many earthquake cycles (i.e., rupture scenarios) and alleviates the need for the ergodic assumption that is implicitly included in traditional empirically based calculations. Thus far, we have simulated ruptures at over 200 sites in the Los Angeles region for ground shaking periods of 2 s and longer, providing the basis for the first generation CyberShake hazard maps. Our results indicate that the combination of rupture directivity and basin response effects can lead to an increase in the hazard level for some sites, relative to that given by a conventional Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE). Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, we find that the physics-based hazard results are much more sensitive to the assumed magnitude-area relations and

  2. CyberShake: A Physics-Based Seismic Hazard Model for Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, R.; Jordan, T.H.; Callaghan, S.; Deelman, E.; Field, E.; Juve, G.; Kesselman, C.; Maechling, P.; Mehta, G.; Milner, K.; Okaya, D.; Small, P.; Vahi, K.

    2011-01-01

    CyberShake, as part of the Southern California Earthquake Center's (SCEC) Community Modeling Environment, is developing a methodology that explicitly incorporates deterministic source and wave propagation effects within seismic hazard calculations through the use of physics-based 3D ground motion simulations. To calculate a waveform-based seismic hazard estimate for a site of interest, we begin with Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2.0 (UCERF2.0) and identify all ruptures within 200 km of the site of interest. We convert the UCERF2.0 rupture definition into multiple rupture variations with differing hypocenter locations and slip distributions, resulting in about 415,000 rupture variations per site. Strain Green Tensors are calculated for the site of interest using the SCEC Community Velocity Model, Version 4 (CVM4), and then, using reciprocity, we calculate synthetic seismograms for each rupture variation. Peak intensity measures are then extracted from these synthetics and combined with the original rupture probabilities to produce probabilistic seismic hazard curves for the site. Being explicitly site-based, CyberShake directly samples the ground motion variability at that site over many earthquake cycles (i. e., rupture scenarios) and alleviates the need for the ergodic assumption that is implicitly included in traditional empirically based calculations. Thus far, we have simulated ruptures at over 200 sites in the Los Angeles region for ground shaking periods of 2 s and longer, providing the basis for the first generation CyberShake hazard maps. Our results indicate that the combination of rupture directivity and basin response effects can lead to an increase in the hazard level for some sites, relative to that given by a conventional Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE). Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, we find that the physics-based hazard results are much more sensitive to the assumed magnitude-area relations and

  3. Revisiting Molecular Dynamics on a CPU/GPU system: Water Kernel and SHAKE Parallelization.

    PubMed

    Ruymgaart, A Peter; Elber, Ron

    2012-11-13

    We report Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and Open-MP parallel implementations of water-specific force calculations and of bond constraints for use in Molecular Dynamics simulations. We focus on a typical laboratory computing-environment in which a CPU with a few cores is attached to a GPU. We discuss in detail the design of the code and we illustrate performance comparable to highly optimized codes such as GROMACS. Beside speed our code shows excellent energy conservation. Utilization of water-specific lists allows the efficient calculations of non-bonded interactions that include water molecules and results in a speed-up factor of more than 40 on the GPU compared to code optimized on a single CPU core for systems larger than 20,000 atoms. This is up four-fold from a factor of 10 reported in our initial GPU implementation that did not include a water-specific code. Another optimization is the implementation of constrained dynamics entirely on the GPU. The routine, which enforces constraints of all bonds, runs in parallel on multiple Open-MP cores or entirely on the GPU. It is based on Conjugate Gradient solution of the Lagrange multipliers (CG SHAKE). The GPU implementation is partially in double precision and requires no communication with the CPU during the execution of the SHAKE algorithm. The (parallel) implementation of SHAKE allows an increase of the time step to 2.0fs while maintaining excellent energy conservation. Interestingly, CG SHAKE is faster than the usual bond relaxation algorithm even on a single core if high accuracy is expected. The significant speedup of the optimized components transfers the computational bottleneck of the MD calculation to the reciprocal part of Particle Mesh Ewald (PME).

  4. Future Earth: Reducing Loss By Automating Response to Earthquake Shaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes pose a significant threat to society in the U.S. and around the world. The risk is easily forgotten given the infrequent recurrence of major damaging events, yet the likelihood of a major earthquake in California in the next 30 years is greater than 99%. As our societal infrastructure becomes ever more interconnected, the potential impacts of these future events are difficult to predict. Yet, the same inter-connected infrastructure also allows us to rapidly detect earthquakes as they begin, and provide seconds, tens or seconds, or a few minutes warning. A demonstration earthquake early warning system is now operating in California and is being expanded to the west coast (www.ShakeAlert.org). In recent earthquakes in the Los Angeles region, alerts were generated that could have provided warning to the vast majority of Los Angelinos who experienced the shaking. Efforts are underway to build a public system. Smartphone technology will be used not only to issue that alerts, but could also be used to collect data, and improve the warnings. The MyShake project at UC Berkeley is currently testing an app that attempts to turn millions of smartphones into earthquake-detectors. As our development of the technology continues, we can anticipate ever-more automated response to earthquake alerts. Already, the BART system in the San Francisco Bay Area automatically stops trains based on the alerts. In the future, elevators will stop, machinery will pause, hazardous materials will be isolated, and self-driving cars will pull-over to the side of the road. In this presentation we will review the current status of the earthquake early warning system in the US. We will illustrate how smartphones can contribute to the system. Finally, we will review applications of the information to reduce future losses.

  5. Role of nuclear charge change and nuclear recoil on shaking processes and their possible implication on physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prashant

    2017-12-01

    The probable role of the sudden nuclear charge change and nuclear recoil in the shaking processes during the neutron- or heavy-ion-induced nuclear reactions and weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus scattering has been investigated in the present work. Using hydrogenic wavefunctions, general analytical expressions of survival, shakeup/shakedown, and shakeoff probability have been derived for various subshells of hydrogen-like atomic systems. These expressions are employed to calculate the shaking, shakeup/shakedown, and shakeoff probabilities in some important cases of interest in the nuclear astrophysics and the dark matter search experiments. The results underline that the shaking processes are one of the probable channels of electronic transitions during the weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus scattering, which can be used to probe the dark matter in the sub-GeV regime. Further, it is found that the shaking processes initiating due to nuclear charge change and nuclear recoil during the nuclear reactions may influence the electronic configuration of the participating atomic systems and thus may affect the nuclear reaction measurements at astrophysically relevant energies.

  6. Three dimensional eye movements of squirrel monkeys following postrotatory tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merfeld, D. M.; Young, L. R.; Paige, G. D.; Tomko, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional squirrel monkey eye movements were recorded during and immediately following rotation around an earth-vertical yaw axis (160 degrees/s steady state, 100 degrees/s2 acceleration and deceleration). To study interactions between the horizontal angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and head orientation, postrotatory VOR alignment was changed relative to gravity by tilting the head out of the horizontal plane (pitch or roll tilt between 15 degrees and 90 degrees) immediately after cessation of motion. Results showed that in addition to post rotatory horizontal nystagmus, vertical nystagmus followed tilts to the left or right (roll), and torsional nystagmus followed forward or backward (pitch) tilts. When the time course and spatial orientation of eye velocity were considered in three dimensions, the axis of eye rotation always shifted toward alignment with gravity, and the postrotatory horizontal VOR decay was accelerated by the tilts. These phenomena may reflect a neural process that resolves the sensory conflict induced by this postrotatory tilt paradigm.

  7. High-speed shaking of frozen blood clots for extraction of human and malaria parasite DNA.

    PubMed

    Lundblom, Klara; Macharia, Alex; Lebbad, Marianne; Mohammed, Adan; Färnert, Anna

    2011-08-08

    Frozen blood clots remaining after serum collection is an often disregarded source of host and pathogen DNA due to troublesome handling and suboptimal outcome. High-speed shaking of clot samples in a cell disruptor manufactured for homogenization of tissue and faecal specimens was evaluated for processing frozen blood clots for DNA extraction. The method was compared to two commercial clot protocols based on a chemical kit and centrifugation through a plastic sieve, followed by the same DNA extraction protocol. Blood clots with different levels of parasitaemia (1-1,000 p/μl) were prepared from parasite cultures to assess sensitivity of PCR detection. In addition, clots retrieved from serum samples collected within two epidemiological studies in Kenya (n = 630) were processed by high speed shaking and analysed by PCR for detection of malaria parasites and the human α-thalassaemia gene. High speed shaking succeeded in fully dispersing the clots and the method generated the highest DNA yield. The level of PCR detection of P. falciparum parasites and the human thalassaemia gene was the same as samples optimally collected with an anticoagulant. The commercial clot protocol and centrifugation through a sieve failed to fully dissolve the clots and resulted in lower sensitivity of PCR detection. High speed shaking was a simple and efficacious method for homogenizing frozen blood clots before DNA purification and resulted in PCR templates of high quality both from humans and malaria parasites. This novel method enables genetic studies from stored blood clots.

  8. Field observations of seismic velocity changes caused by shaking-induced damage and healing due to mesoscopic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassenmeier, M.; Sens-Schönfelder, C.; Eulenfeld, T.; Bartsch, M.; Victor, P.; Tilmann, F.; Korn, M.

    2016-03-01

    To investigate temporal seismic velocity changes due to earthquake related processes and environmental forcing in Northern Chile, we analyse 8 yr of ambient seismic noise recorded by the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC). By autocorrelating the ambient seismic noise field measured on the vertical components, approximations of the Green's functions are retrieved and velocity changes are measured with Coda Wave Interferometry. At station PATCX, we observe seasonal changes in seismic velocity caused by thermal stress as well as transient velocity reductions in the frequency range of 4-6 Hz. Sudden velocity drops occur at the time of mostly earthquake-induced ground shaking and recover over a variable period of time. We present an empirical model that describes the seismic velocity variations based on continuous observations of the local ground acceleration. The model assumes that not only the shaking of large earthquakes causes velocity drops, but any small vibrations continuously induce minor velocity variations that are immediately compensated by healing in the steady state. We show that the shaking effect is accumulated over time and best described by the integrated envelope of the ground acceleration over the discretization interval of the velocity measurements, which is one day. In our model, the amplitude of the velocity reduction as well as the recovery time are proportional to the size of the excitation. This model with two free scaling parameters fits the data of the shaking induced velocity variation in remarkable detail. Additionally, a linear trend is observed that might be related to a recovery process from one or more earthquakes before our measurement period. A clear relationship between ground shaking and induced velocity reductions is not visible at other stations. We attribute the outstanding sensitivity of PATCX to ground shaking and thermal stress to the special geological setting of the station, where the subsurface material

  9. Vestibulo-Cervico-Ocular Responses and Tracking Eye Movements after Prolonged Exposure to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornilova, L. N.; Naumov, I. A.; Azarov, K. A.; Sagalovitch, S. V.; Reschke, Millard F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2007-01-01

    The vestibular function and tracking eye movements were investigated in 12 Russian crew members of ISS missions on days 1(2), 4(5-6), and 8(9-10) after prolonged exposure to microgravity (126 to 195 days). The spontaneous oculomotor activity, static torsional otolith-cervico-ocular reflex, dynamic vestibulo-cervico-ocular responses, vestibular reactivity, tracking eye movements, and gaze-holding were studied using videooculography (VOG) and electrooculography (EOG) for parallel eye movement recording. On post-flight days 1-2 (R+1-2) some cosmonauts demonstrated: - an increased spontaneous oculomotor activity (floating eye movements, spontaneous nystagmus of the typical and atypical form, square wave jerks, gaze nystagmus) with the head held in the vertical position; - suppressed otolith function (absent or reduced by one half amplitude of torsional compensatory eye counter-rolling) with the head inclined statically right- or leftward by 300; - increased vestibular reactivity (lowered threshold and increased intensity of the vestibular nystagmus) during head turns around the longitudinal body axis at 0.125 Hz; - a significant change in the accuracy, velocity, and temporal characteristics of the eye tracking. The pattern, depth, dynamics, and velocity of the vestibular function and tracking eye movements recovery varied with individual participants in the investigation. However, there were also regular responses during readaptation to the normal gravity: - suppression of the otolith function was typically accompanied by an exaggerated vestibular reactivity; - the structure of visual tracking (the accuracy of fixational eye rotations, smooth tracking, and gaze-holding) was disturbed (the appearance of correcting saccades, the transition of smooth tracking to saccadic tracking) only in those cosmonauts who, in parallel to an increased reactivity of the vestibular input, also had central changes in the oculomotor system (spontaneous nystagmus, gaze nystagmus).

  10. On the predictive control of foveal eye tracking and slow phases of optokinetic and vestibular nystagmus.

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, S; Young, L R

    1984-01-01

    Smooth pursuit and saccadic components of foveal visual tracking as well as more involuntary ocular movements of optokinetic (o.k.n.) and vestibular nystagmus slow phase components were investigated in man, with particular attention given to their possible input-adaptive or predictive behaviour. Each component in question was isolated from the eye movement records through a computer-aided procedure. The frequency response method was used with sinusoidal (predictable) and pseudo-random (unpredictable) stimuli. When the target motion was pseudo-random, the frequency response of pursuit eye movements revealed a large phase lead (up to about 90 degrees) at low stimulus frequencies. It is possible to interpret this result as a predictive effect, even though the stimulation was pseudo-random and thus 'unpredictable'. The pseudo-random-input frequency response intrinsic to the saccadic system was estimated in an indirect way from the pursuit and composite (pursuit + saccade) frequency response data. The result was fitted well by a servo-mechanism model, which has a simple anticipatory mechanism to compensate for the inherent neuromuscular saccadic delay by utilizing the retinal slip velocity signal. The o.k.n. slow phase also exhibited a predictive effect with sinusoidal inputs; however, pseudo-random stimuli did not produce such phase lead as found in the pursuit case. The vestibular nystagmus slow phase showed no noticeable sign of prediction in the frequency range examined (0 approximately 0.7 Hz), in contrast to the results of the visually driven eye movements (i.e. saccade, pursuit and o.k.n. slow phase) at comparable stimulus frequencies. PMID:6707954

  11. Project of Near-Real-Time Generation of ShakeMaps and a New Hazard Map in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yan; Weginger, Stefan; Horn, Nikolaus; Hausmann, Helmut; Lenhardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Target-orientated prevention and effective crisis management can reduce or avoid damage and save lives in case of a strong earthquake. To achieve this goal, a project for automatic generated ShakeMaps (maps of ground motion and shaking intensity) and updating the Austrian hazard map was started at ZAMG (Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik) in 2015. The first goal of the project is set for a near-real-time generation of ShakeMaps following strong earthquakes in Austria to provide rapid, accurate and official information to support the governmental crisis management. Using newly developed methods and software by SHARE (Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe) and GEM (Global Earthquake Model), which allows a transnational analysis at European level, a new generation of Austrian hazard maps will be ultimately calculated. More information and a status of our project will be given by this presentation.

  12. Superheat recovery system shakes savings out of A/C systems

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    One of the most productive and least expensive methods of recovering waste heat is a system that reclaims the excess energy or superheat generated by closed-loop-air conditioning or refrigeration cycles. Installed recently in 72 Steak N' Shakes restaurants as part of a total energy conservation package, it has helped cut gas bills by more than 70%.

  13. Validation of the shake test for detecting freeze damage to adsorbed vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kartoglu, Umit; Ozgüler, Nejat Kenan; Wolfson, Lara J; Kurzatkowski, Wiesław

    2010-08-01

    To determine the validity of the shake test for detecting freeze damage in aluminium-based, adsorbed, freeze-sensitive vaccines. A double-blind crossover design was used to compare the performance of the shake test conducted by trained health-care workers (HCWs) with that of phase contrast microscopy as a "gold standard". A total of 475 vials of 8 different types of World Health Organization prequalified freeze-sensitive vaccines from 10 different manufacturers were used. Vaccines were kept at 5 degrees C. Selected numbers of vials from each type were then exposed to -25 degrees C and -2 degrees C for 24-hour periods. There was complete concordance between HCWs and phase-contrast microscopy in identifying freeze-damaged vials and non-frozen samples. Non-frozen samples showed a fine-grain structure under phase contrast microscopy, but freeze-damaged samples showed large conglomerates of massed precipitates with amorphous, crystalline, solid and needle-like structures. Particles in the non-frozen samples measured from 1 microm (vaccines against diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis; Haemophilus influenzae type b; hepatitis B; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B) to 20 microm (diphtheria and tetanus vaccines, alone or in combination). By contrast, aggregates in the freeze-damaged samples measured up to 700 microm (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis) and 350 microm on average. The shake test had 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value in this study, which confirms its validity for detecting freeze damage to aluminium-based freeze-sensitive vaccines.

  14. The Great British Columbia ShakeOut - Seismology and kinaesthetic learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, P.

    2011-12-01

    By the time this paper is presented British Columbia will have experienced two, province wide ShakeOut drills. In the first drill over 10% of the population (470,000 people) participated in the "Drop, Cover and Hold On" drill. Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) was one of several federal, provincial, municipal, non-governmental and private sector agencies who organized the drill under the auspices of the BC Earthquake Alliance. The BC drill followed the Great California ShakeOut model (which is coordinated by the Earthquake Country Alliance) and received tremendous support from the Southern California Earthquake Center. NRCan is responsible for the monitoring and research of earthquakes in Canada and is a science-based department. The ShakeOut drill afforded us an opportunity to take our authoritative science straight to the people and help them better understand the seismic hazard in the province. Universities, public schools, daycares, and entire offices participated in the drill and it became the subject of dinner-time conversations across the province. The drill prompted questions like: "How worried should we be about earthquakes?" "How prepared are we as a family or as a work place?" "What else do we need to do, to be prepared?". The kinaesthetic aspect of the drill, physically dropping to the ground, taking cover, and holding on makes it memorable - you end up in a bit of a silly position, so there are lots of giggles. Being memorable is important because in a real earthquake the natural instinct is to run - the very thing you must not do. The drill provides an opportunity for people to attain a body-memory, to practice appropriate behaviour so they know what to do, without thinking, in a real earthquake. The first drill was on January 26th, 2011 the date of the last Cascadia megathrust earthquake. That date conflicted with province wide high school exams, so almost no high schools participated in the drill - they represent an important target demographic

  15. TriNet "ShakeMaps": Rapid generation of peak ground motion and intensity maps for earthquakes in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Quitoriano, V.; Heaton, T.H.; Kanamori, H.; Scrivner, C.W.; Worden, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    Rapid (3-5 minutes) generation of maps of instrumental ground-motion and shaking intensity is accomplished through advances in real-time seismographic data acquisition combined with newly developed relationships between recorded ground-motion parameters and expected shaking intensity values. Estimation of shaking over the entire regional extent of southern California is obtained by the spatial interpolation of the measured ground motions with geologically based frequency and amplitude-dependent site corrections. Production of the maps is automatic, triggered by any significant earthquake in southern California. Maps are now made available within several minutes of the earthquake for public and scientific consumption via the World Wide Web; they will be made available with dedicated communications for emergency response agencies and critical users.

  16. High-speed shaking of frozen blood clots for extraction of human and malaria parasite DNA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Frozen blood clots remaining after serum collection is an often disregarded source of host and pathogen DNA due to troublesome handling and suboptimal outcome. Methods High-speed shaking of clot samples in a cell disruptor manufactured for homogenization of tissue and faecal specimens was evaluated for processing frozen blood clots for DNA extraction. The method was compared to two commercial clot protocols based on a chemical kit and centrifugation through a plastic sieve, followed by the same DNA extraction protocol. Blood clots with different levels of parasitaemia (1-1,000 p/μl) were prepared from parasite cultures to assess sensitivity of PCR detection. In addition, clots retrieved from serum samples collected within two epidemiological studies in Kenya (n = 630) were processed by high speed shaking and analysed by PCR for detection of malaria parasites and the human α-thalassaemia gene. Results High speed shaking succeeded in fully dispersing the clots and the method generated the highest DNA yield. The level of PCR detection of P. falciparum parasites and the human thalassaemia gene was the same as samples optimally collected with an anticoagulant. The commercial clot protocol and centrifugation through a sieve failed to fully dissolve the clots and resulted in lower sensitivity of PCR detection. Conclusions High speed shaking was a simple and efficacious method for homogenizing frozen blood clots before DNA purification and resulted in PCR templates of high quality both from humans and malaria parasites. This novel method enables genetic studies from stored blood clots. PMID:21824391

  17. Communication during copulation in the sex-role reversed wolf spider Allocosa brasiliensis: Female shakes for soliciting new ejaculations?

    PubMed

    Garcia Diaz, Virginia; Aisenberg, Anita; Peretti, Alfredo V

    2015-07-01

    Traditional studies on sexual communication have focused on the exchange of signals during courtship. However, communication between the sexes can also occur during or after copulation. Allocosa brasiliensis is a wolf spider that shows a reversal in typical sex roles and of the usual sexual size dimorphism expected for spiders. Females are smaller than males and they are the roving sex that initiates courtship. Occasional previous observations suggested that females performed body shaking behaviors during copulation. Our objective was to analyze if female body shaking is associated with male copulatory behavior in A. brasiliensis, and determine if this female behavior has a communicatory function in this species. For that purpose, we performed fine-scaled analysis of fifteen copulations under laboratory conditions. We video-recorded all the trials and looked for associations between female and male copulatory behaviors. The significant difference between the time before and after female shaking, in favor of the subsequent ejaculation is analyzed. We discuss if shaking could be acting as a signal to accelerate and motivate palpal insertion and ejaculation, and/or inhibiting male cannibalistic tendencies in this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention and recognition of abusive head trauma: training for healthcare professionals in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Jennifer A; Flemington, Tara; Doan, Thi Ngoc Diep; Hoang, Minh Tu Van; Doan, Thi Le Binh; Ha, Manh Tuan

    2017-10-01

    This study presents results from an intervention designed to improve identification and response to abusive head trauma in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Vietnam. One hundred and sixteen healthcare professionals (paediatric medical and nursing staff) completed a clinical training programme and participated in its evaluation. A pre-post-test and follow-up design was used to evaluate the outcomes. Questionnaires were used to collect data prior to training, at six weeks and at six months. Generalised linear modelling was used to examine changes in diagnostic skills and knowledge of the consequences of shaken baby syndrome (SBS) (a form of abusive head trauma), its prevention and treatment. At baseline, awareness and knowledge reflected no former abusive head trauma training. Following the intervention, participants had an increased awareness of shaken baby syndrome and the potential consequences of shaking infants and had acquired techniques to inform parents how to manage the crying infant. The intervention was effective in raising awareness of shaken baby syndrome and its consequences amongst the participating healthcare professionals in Vietnam. Training can improve detection and prevention of abusive head trauma, and the intervention has the potential to be adapted for similar settings internationally. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Managing large-scale workflow execution from resource provisioning to provenance tracking: The CyberShake example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deelman, E.; Callaghan, S.; Field, E.; Francoeur, H.; Graves, R.; Gupta, N.; Gupta, V.; Jordan, T.H.; Kesselman, C.; Maechling, P.; Mehringer, J.; Mehta, G.; Okaya, D.; Vahi, K.; Zhao, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of building an environment where large-scale, complex, scientific analysis can be scheduled onto a heterogeneous collection of computational and storage resources. The example application is the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) CyberShake project, an analysis designed to compute probabilistic seismic hazard curves for sites in the Los Angeles area. We explain which software tools were used to build to the system, describe their functionality and interactions. We show the results of running the CyberShake analysis that included over 250,000 jobs using resources available through SCEC and the TeraGrid. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  20. Building a Communication, Education, an Outreach Program for the ShakeAlert National Earthquake Early Warning Program - Recommendations for Public Alerts Via Cell Phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGroot, R. M.; Long, K.; Strauss, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System for the West Coast of the United States. To be an integral part of successful implementation, ShakeAlert engagement programs and materials must integrate with and leverage broader earthquake risk programs. New methods and products for dissemination must be multidisciplinary, cost effective, and consistent with existing hazards education and communication efforts. The ShakeAlert Joint Committee for Communication, Education, and Outreach (JCCEO), is identifying, developing, and cultivating partnerships with ShakeAlert stakeholders including Federal, State, academic partners, private companies, policy makers, and local organizations. Efforts include developing materials, methods for delivery, and reaching stakeholders with information on ShakeAlert, earthquake preparedness, and emergency protective actions. It is essential to develop standards to ensure information communicated via the alerts is consistent across the public and private sector and achieving a common understanding of what actions users take when they receive a ShakeAlert warning. In February 2017, the JCCEO convened the Warning Message Focus Group (WMFG) to provide findings and recommendations to the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions on the use of earthquake early warning message content standards for public alerts via cell phones. The WMFG represents communications, education, and outreach stakeholders from various sectors including ShakeAlert regional coordinators, industry, emergency managers, and subject matter experts from the social sciences. The group knowledge was combined with an in-depth literature review to ensure that all groups who could receive the message would be taken into account. The USGS and the participating states and agencies acknowledge that the implementation of ShakeAlert is a collective effort requiring the participation of hundreds of

  1. Real-time earthquake shake, damage, and loss mapping for Istanbul metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zülfikar, A. Can; Fercan, N. Özge Zülfikar; Tunç, Süleyman; Erdik, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    The past devastating earthquakes in densely populated urban centers, such as the 1994 Northridge; 1995 Kobe; 1999 series of Kocaeli, Düzce, and Athens; and 2011 Van-Erciş events, showed that substantial social and economic losses can be expected. Previous studies indicate that inadequate emergency response can increase the number of casualties by a maximum factor of 10, which suggests the need for research on rapid earthquake shaking damage and loss estimation. The reduction in casualties in urban areas immediately following an earthquake can be improved if the location and severity of damages can be rapidly assessed by information from rapid response systems. In this context, a research project (TUBITAK-109M734) titled "Real-time Information of Earthquake Shaking, Damage, and Losses for Target Cities of Thessaloniki and Istanbul" was conducted during 2011-2014 to establish the rapid estimation of ground motion shaking and related earthquake damages and casualties for the target cities. In the present study, application to Istanbul metropolitan area is presented. In order to fulfill this objective, earthquake hazard and risk assessment methodology known as Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine, which was developed for the Euro-Mediterranean region within the Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology EC-FP6 project, was used. The current application to the Istanbul metropolitan area provides real-time ground motion information obtained by strong motion stations distributed throughout the densely populated areas of the city. According to this ground motion information, building damage estimation is computed by using grid-based building inventory, and the related loss is then estimated. Through this application, the rapidly estimated information enables public and private emergency management authorities to take action and allocate and prioritize resources to minimize the casualties in urban areas during immediate post-earthquake periods. Moreover, it

  2. Failure of Fixation Suppression of Spontaneous Nystagmus in Cerebellar Infarction: Frequency, Pattern, and a Possible Structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Yi, Hyon-Ah; Lee, Hyung

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the frequency and pattern of failure of the fixation suppression (FFS) of spontaneous nystagmus (SN) in unilateral cerebellar infarction, and to identify the structure responsible for FFS, 29 patients with acute, mainly unilateral, isolated cerebellar infarction who had SN with a predominantly horizontal component were enrolled in this study. The ocular fixation index (OFI) was defined as the mean slow phase velocity (SPV) of the horizontal component of SN with fixation divided by the mean SPV of the horizontal component of SN without fixation. The OFI from age- and sex-matched patients with vestibular neuritis was calculated and used as the control data. The FFS of SN was only found in less than half (41 %, 12/29) of the patients. Approximately 65 % (n = 7) of the patients with isolated anterior inferior cerebellar artery territory cerebellar infarction showed FFS, whereas only a quarter (n = 3) of the patients with isolated posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory cerebellar infarction showed FFS. The proportion of gaze-evoked nystagmus (6/12 [50 %] vs. 2/17 [12 %], p = 0.04) and deficient gain of ipsilesional pursuit (10/12 [83 %] vs. 6/17 [35 %], p = 0.05) was more frequent in the FFS group than in the group without FFS. Lesion subtraction analysis in isolated PICA territory cerebellar infarction revealed that the nodulus was commonly damaged in patients with FFS, compared to that of patients without FFS. Our study shows that FFS of SN due to acute cerebellar infarction is less common than previously thought and the nodulus may be an important structure for the suppression of SN in humans.

  3. Shake Table Testing of an Elevator System in a Full-Scale Five-Story Building

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang; Hutchinson, Tara C.; Astroza, Rodrigo; Conte, Joel P.; Restrepo, José I.; Hoehler, Matthew S.; Ribeiro, Waldir

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper investigates the seismic performance of a functional traction elevator as part of a full-scale five-story building shake table test program. The test building was subjected to a suite of earthquake input motions of increasing intensity, first while the building was isolated at its base, and subsequently while it was fixed to the shake table platen. In addition, low-amplitude white noise base excitation tests were conducted while the elevator system was placed in three different configurations, namely, by varying the vertical location of its cabin and counterweight, to study the acceleration amplifications of the elevator components due to dynamic excitations. During the earthquake tests, detailed observation of the physical damage and operability of the elevator as well as its measured response are reported. Although the cabin and counterweight sustained large accelerations due to impact during these tests, the use of well-restrained guide shoes demonstrated its effectiveness in preventing the cabin and counterweight from derailment during high-intensity earthquake shaking. However, differential displacements induced by the building imposed undesirable distortion of the elevator components and their surrounding support structure, which caused damage and inoperability of the elevator doors. It is recommended that these aspects be explicitly considered in elevator seismic design. PMID:28242957

  4. Shake Table Testing of an Elevator System in a Full-Scale Five-Story Building.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Hutchinson, Tara C; Astroza, Rodrigo; Conte, Joel P; Restrepo, José I; Hoehler, Matthew S; Ribeiro, Waldir

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the seismic performance of a functional traction elevator as part of a full-scale five-story building shake table test program. The test building was subjected to a suite of earthquake input motions of increasing intensity, first while the building was isolated at its base, and subsequently while it was fixed to the shake table platen. In addition, low-amplitude white noise base excitation tests were conducted while the elevator system was placed in three different configurations, namely, by varying the vertical location of its cabin and counterweight, to study the acceleration amplifications of the elevator components due to dynamic excitations. During the earthquake tests, detailed observation of the physical damage and operability of the elevator as well as its measured response are reported. Although the cabin and counterweight sustained large accelerations due to impact during these tests, the use of well-restrained guide shoes demonstrated its effectiveness in preventing the cabin and counterweight from derailment during high-intensity earthquake shaking. However, differential displacements induced by the building imposed undesirable distortion of the elevator components and their surrounding support structure, which caused damage and inoperability of the elevator doors. It is recommended that these aspects be explicitly considered in elevator seismic design.

  5. Induced earthquake during the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (Mw7.0): Importance of real-time shake monitoring for Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiba, M.; Ogiso, M.

    2016-12-01

    Sequence of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes (Mw6.2 on April 14, Mw7.0 on April 16, and many aftershocks) caused a devastating damage at Kumamoto and Oita prefectures, Japan. During the Mw7.0 event, just after the direct S waves passing the central Oita, another M6 class event occurred there more than 80 km apart from the Mw7.0 event. The M6 event is interpreted as an induced earthquake; but it brought stronger shaking at the central Oita than that from the Mw7.0 event. We will discuss the induced earthquake from viewpoint of Earthquake Early Warning. In terms of ground shaking such as PGA and PGV, the Mw7.0 event is much smaller than those of the M6 induced earthquake at the central Oita (for example, 1/8 smaller at OIT009 station for PGA), and then it is easy to discriminate two events. However, PGD of the Mw7.0 is larger than that of the induced earthquake, and its appearance is just before the occurrence of the induced earthquake. It is quite difficult to recognize the induced earthquake from displacement waveforms only, because the displacement is strongly contaminated by that of the preceding Mw7.0 event. In many methods of EEW (including current JMA EEW system), magnitude is used for prediction of ground shaking through Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE) and the magnitude is often estimated from displacement. However, displacement magnitude does not necessarily mean the best one for prediction of ground shaking, such as PGA and PGV. In case of the induced earthquake during the Kumamoto earthquake, displacement magnitude could not be estimated because of the strong contamination. Actually JMA EEW system could not recognize the induced earthquake. One of the important lessons we learned from eight years' operation of EEW is an issue of the multiple simultaneous earthquakes, such as aftershocks of the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake. Based on this lesson, we have proposed enhancement of real-time monitor of ground shaking itself instead of rapid estimation of

  6. An Overview of the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, G.; Soto-Cordero, L.; Huérfano-Moreno, V.; Ramos-Gómez, W.; De La Matta, M.

    2012-12-01

    With a population of 4 million, Puerto Rico will be celebrating this year, for first time, an Island-wide earthquake drill following the Great California ShakeOut model. Most of our population has never experienced a large earthquake, since our last significant event occurred on 1918, and is not adequately prepared to respond to a sudden ground movement. During the moderate-size earthquakes (M5.2-5.8) that have been felt in Puerto Rico since 2010, and despite Puerto Rico Seismic Network education efforts, the general public reaction was inappropriate, occasionally putting themselves and others at risk. Our overarching goal for the Great Puerto Rico ShakeOut is to help develop seismic awareness and preparedness in our communities. In addition, our main objectives include: to teach the public to remain calm and act quickly and appropriately during a seismic event, the identification and correction of potential hazards that may cause injuries, and the development/update of mitigation plans for home, work place and/or school. We are also taking this opportunity to clarify the misconceptions of other methods of protection (e.g. triangle of life) and warning equipment and systems that do not have sound scientific or applicable basis for our country. We will be presenting an overview of the accomplishment of our earthquake drill and the different strategies we are using, such as internet, social media and collaboration with state government agencies and professional groups, to reach diverse age and educational level groups and to promote their participation. One of our main target groups this year are school students since their experience can have a direct and positive impact on their families. The drill webpage was developed in Spanish and English as well as our promotional and educational materials. Being the first time a Spanish-speaking country coordinates a ShakeOut exercise we hope our experience and the materials we are developing could be of use and benefit to

  7. ShakeMap-based prediction of earthquake-induced mass movements in Switzerland calibrated on historical observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cauzzi, Carlo; Fah, Donat; Wald, David J.; Clinton, John; Losey, Stephane; Wiemer, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    In Switzerland, nearly all historical Mw ~ 6 earthquakes have induced damaging landslides, rockslides and snow avalanches that, in some cases, also resulted in damage to infrastructure and loss of lives. We describe the customisation to Swiss conditions of a globally calibrated statistical approach originally developed to rapidly assess earthquake-induced landslide likelihoods worldwide. The probability of occurrence of such earthquake-induced effects is modelled through a set of geospatial susceptibility proxies and peak ground acceleration. The predictive model is tuned to capture the observations from past events and optimised for near-real-time estimates based on USGS-style ShakeMaps routinely produced by the Swiss Seismological Service. Our emphasis is on the use of high-resolution geospatial datasets along with additional local information on ground failure susceptibility. Even if calibrated on historic events with moderate magnitudes, the methodology presented in this paper yields sensible results also for low-magnitude recent events. The model is integrated in the Swiss ShakeMap framework. This study has a high practical relevance to many Swiss ShakeMap stakeholders, especially those managing lifeline systems, and to other global users interested in conducting a similar customisation for their region of interest.

  8. Recovery of PET from packaging plastics mixtures by wet shaking table.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M T; Agante, E; Durão, F

    2007-01-01

    Recycling requires the separation of materials appearing in a mass of wastes of heterogeneous composition and characteristics, into single, almost pure, component/material flows. The separation of materials (e.g., some types of plastics) with similar physical properties (e.g., specific gravity) is often accomplished by human sorting. This is the case of the separation of packaging plastics in municipal solid wastes (MSW). The low cost of virgin plastics and low value of recycled plastics necessitate the utilization of low cost techniques and processes in the recycling of packaging plastics. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of production of a PET product, cleaned from PVC and PS, using a wet shaking table. The wet shaking table is an environmentally friendly process, widely used to separate minerals, which has low capital and operational costs. Some operational variables of the equipment, as well as different feed characteristics, were considered. The results show that the separation of these plastics is feasible although, similarly to the mineral field, in somewhat complex flow sheets.

  9. The Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus test: fraudulent science in the American courts.

    PubMed

    Booker, J L

    2004-01-01

    The Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN) test was conceived, developed and promulgated as a simple procedure for the determination of the blood alcohol concentration of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). Bypassing the usual scientific review process and touted through the good offices of the federal agency responsible for traffic safety, it was rushed into use as a law enforcement procedure, and was soon adopted and protected from scientific criticism by courts throughout the United States. In fact, research findings, training manuals and other relevant documents were often held as secrets by the state. Still, the protective certification of its practitioners and the immunity afforded by judicial notice failed to silence all the critics of this deeply flawed procedure. Responding to criticism, the sponsors of the test traveled the path documented in this paper that led from mere (if that word can ever truly apply to a matter of such gravity) carelessness in research through self-serving puffery and finally into deliberate fraud--always at the expense of the citizen accused.

  10. Patient Engagement: Time to Shake the Foundations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Leslee

    2015-01-01

    Something big is happening in healthcare. It's not the new Apple Watch, 3D printing or the advent of personalized medicine. It's people power. And, it is starting to shake up the very foundation on which healthcare systems around the world have been built. Healthcare professionals and hospitals are iconic features on a healthcare landscape that has been purpose-built with castles, moats and defence artillery. Turf protection, often under the guise of "patient protection," has become so ingrained in the way things are that few recognize what it has become. Fooks et al. step gently into this somewhat dangerous territory for "insiders" of the system to tread; yet in my view, they do not go far enough.

  11. Polyamines in the lateral vestibular nuclei of the squirrel monkey and their potential role in vestibular compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, C.; Igarashi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Polyamine synthesis increases in response to injurious stimuli including axotomy and denervation. Reduced eye nystagmus and head-deviation have been observed in unilateral labyrinthectomized (UL) guinea pigs treated with an inhibitor of polyamine synthesis, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). We quantified polyamines in the lateral vestibular nuclei (LVN) of control and UL squirrel monkeys during the phase of vestibular compensation (VC) and performed an experiment to determine if DFMO reduces nystagmus previously observed in the guinea pig. Polyamines were detected in the LVN of control and UL squirrel monkeys. Putrescine and spermidine increased in the ipsilateral LVN 3 days after UL with no change in the contralateral LVN. No left-right differences were noted in the 5-day post-UL monkey. DFMO reduced nystagmus in a UL squirrel monkey. These findings suggest that polyamines are important in vestibular function and may contribute to nystagmus observed in VC.

  12. A reliable simultaneous representation of seismic hazard and of ground shaking recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peresan, A.; Panza, G. F.; Magrin, A.; Vaccari, F.

    2015-12-01

    Different earthquake hazard maps may be appropriate for different purposes - such as emergency management, insurance and engineering design. Accounting for the lower occurrence rate of larger sporadic earthquakes may allow to formulate cost-effective policies in some specific applications, provided that statistically sound recurrence estimates are used, which is not typically the case of PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment). We illustrate the procedure to associate the expected ground motions from Neo-deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment (NDSHA) to an estimate of their recurrence. Neo-deterministic refers to a scenario-based approach, which allows for the construction of a broad range of earthquake scenarios via full waveforms modeling. From the synthetic seismograms the estimates of peak ground acceleration, velocity and displacement, or any other parameter relevant to seismic engineering, can be extracted. NDSHA, in its standard form, defines the hazard computed from a wide set of scenario earthquakes (including the largest deterministically or historically defined credible earthquake, MCE) and it does not supply the frequency of occurrence of the expected ground shaking. A recent enhanced variant of NDSHA that reliably accounts for recurrence has been developed and it is applied to the Italian territory. The characterization of the frequency-magnitude relation can be performed by any statistically sound method supported by data (e.g. multi-scale seismicity model), so that a recurrence estimate is associated to each of the pertinent sources. In this way a standard NDSHA map of ground shaking is obtained simultaneously with the map of the corresponding recurrences. The introduction of recurrence estimates in NDSHA naturally allows for the generation of ground shaking maps at specified return periods. This permits a straightforward comparison between NDSHA and PSHA maps.

  13. Large-Scale Biaxial Friction Experiments with an Assistance of the NIED Shaking Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, E.; Mizoguchi, K.; Yamashita, F.; Togo, T.; Kawakata, H.; Yoshimitsu, N.; Shimamoto, T.; Mikoshiba, T.; Sato, M.; Minowa, C.

    2012-12-01

    We constructed a large-scale biaxial friction apparatus using a large shaking table working at NIED (table dimension is 15m x 15m). The actuator of the shaking table becomes the engine of the constant speed loading. We used a 1.5m long rock sample overlaid on a 2m one. Their height and width are both 0.5m. Therefore, the slip area is 1.5m x 0.5m. The 2m long sample moves with the shaking table and the 1.5m sample is fixed to the basement of the shaking table. Thus, the shaking table displacement controls the dislocation between two rock samples. The shaking table can generate 0.4m displacement with a velocity ranging between 0.0125mm/s and 1m/s. We used Indian gabbro for the rock sample of the present experiments. Original flatness of the sliding surface was formed less than 0.024mm undulation using a large-scale plane grinder. Surface roughness evolved as subsequent experiments were done. Wear material was generated during each experiment, whose grain size becomes bigger as the experiments proceed. This might suggest a damage evolution on the sliding surface. In some experiments we did not remove the gouge material before sliding to examine the effect of gouge layer. Normal stress can be applied up to 1.3MPa. The stiffness of this apparatus was measured experimentally and was of the order of 0.1GN/m. We first measured the coefficient of friction at low sliding velocity (0.1~1mm/s) where the steady state was achieved after the slip of ~5mm. The coefficient of friction was about 0.75 under the normal stress between 0.13 and 1.3MPa. This is consistent with those estimated by previous works using smaller rock samples. We observed that the coefficient of friction decreased gradually with increasing slip velocity, but simultaneously the friction curves at the higher velocities are characterized by stick-slip vibration. Our main aim of the experiments is to understand the rupture propagation from slow nucleation to fast unstable rupture during the loading of two contact

  14. Effect of gravity on vertical eye position.

    PubMed

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, C

    2009-05-01

    There is growing evidence that gravity markedly influences vertical eye position and movements. A new model for the organization of brainstem upgaze pathways is presented in this review. The crossing ventral tegmental tract (CVTT) could be the efferent tract of an "antigravitational" pathway terminating at the elevator muscle motoneurons in the third nerve nuclei and comprising, upstream, the superior vestibular nucleus and y-group, the flocculus, and the otoliths. This pathway functions in parallel to the medial longitudinal fasciculus pathways, which control vertical eye movements made to compensate for all vertical head movements and may also comprise the "gravitational" vestibular pathways, involved in the central reflection of the gravity effect. The CVTT could provide the upgaze system with the supplement of tonic activity required to counteract the gravity effect expressed in the gravitational pathway, being permanently modulated according to the static positions of the head (i.e., the instantaneous gravity vector) between a maximal activity in the upright position and a minimal activity in horizontal positions. Different types of arguments support this new model. The permanent influence of gravity on vertical eye position is strongly suggested by the vertical slow phases and nystagmus observed after rapid changes in hypo- or hypergravity. The chin-beating nystagmus, existing in normal subjects with their head in the upside-down position, suggests that gravity is not compensated for in the downgaze system. Upbeat nystagmus due to brainstem lesions, most likely affecting the CVTT circuitry, is improved when the head is in the horizontal position, suggesting that this circuitry is involved in the counteraction of gravity between the upright and horizontal positions of the head. In downbeat nystagmus due to floccular damage, in which a permanent hyperexcitation of the CVTT could exist, a marked influence of static positions of the head is also observed. Finally

  15. Secondary Analysis of the "Love Me...Never Shake Me" SBS Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deyo, Grace; Skybo, Theresa; Carroll, Alisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is preventable; however, an estimated 21-74 per 100,000 children worldwide are victims annually. This study examined the effectiveness of an SBS prevention program in the US. Methods: A descriptive, secondary analysis of the Prevent Child Abuse Ohio (PCAO) "Love Me...Never Shake Me" SBS education program…

  16. Investigations of the pathogenesis of acquired pendular nystagmus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averbuch-Heller, L.; Zivotofsky, A. Z.; Das, V. E.; DiScenna, A. O.; Leigh, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the pathogenesis of acquired pendular nystagmus (APN) in six patients, three of whom had multiple sclerosis. First, we tested the hypothesis that the oscillations of APN are due to a delay in visual feedback secondary, for example, to demyelination of the optic nerves. We manipulated the latency to onset of visually guided eye movements using an electronic technique that induces sinusoidal oscillations in normal subjects. This manipulation did not change the characteristics of the APN, but did superimpose lower-frequency oscillations similar to those induced in normal subjects. These results are consistent with current models for smooth (non-saccadic) eye movements, which predict that prolongation of visual feedback could not account for the high-frequency oscillations that often characterize APN. Secondly, we attempted to determine whether an increase in the gain of the visually-enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), produced by viewing a near target, was accompanied by a commensurate increase in the amplitude of APN. Increases in horizontal or vertical VOR gain during near viewing occurred in four patients, but only two of them showed a parallel increase in APN amplitude. On the other hand, APN amplitude decreased during viewing of the near target in the two patients who showed no change in VOR gain. Taken together, these data suggest that neither delayed visual feedback nor a disorder of central vestibular mechanisms is primarily responsible for APN. More likely, these ocular oscillations are produced by abnormalities of internal feedback circuits, such as the reciprocal connections between brainstem nuclei and cerebellum.

  17. A study on seismic behavior of pile foundations of bridge abutment on liquefiable ground through shaking table tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Mitsuhiko; Tanimoto, Shunsuke; Ishida, Shuichi; Ohsumi, Michio; Hoshikuma, Jun-ichi

    2017-10-01

    There is risk of bridge foundations to be damaged by liquefaction-induced lateral spreading of ground. Once bridge foundations have been damaged, it takes a lot of time for restoration. Therefore, it is important to assess the seismic behavior of the foundations on liquefiable ground appropriately. In this study, shaking table tests of models on a scale of 1/10 were conducted at the large scale shaking table in Public Works Research Institute, Japan, to investigate the seismic behavior of pile-supported bridge abutment on liquefiable ground. The shaking table tests were conducted for three types of model. Two are models of existing bridge which was built without design for liquefaction and the other is a model of bridge which was designed based on the current Japanese design specifications for highway bridges. As a result, the bending strains of piles of the abutment which were designed based on the current design specifications were less than those of the existing bridge.

  18. Did you feel it? Community-made earthquake shaking maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Wald, L.A.; Dewey, J.W.; Quitoriano, Vince; Adams, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    Since the early 1990's, the magnitude and location of an earthquake have been available within minutes on the Internet. Now, as a result of work by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and with the cooperation of various regional seismic networks, people who experience an earthquake can go online and share information about its effects to help create a map of shaking intensities and damage. Such 'Community Internet Intensity Maps' (CIIM's) contribute greatly in quickly assessing the scope of an earthquake emergency, even in areas lacking seismic instruments.

  19. Motion perception without Nystagmus--a novel manifestation of cerebellar stroke.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aasef G

    2014-01-01

    The motion perception and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) each serve distinct functions. The VOR keeps the gaze steady on the target of interest, whereas vestibular perception serves a number of tasks, including awareness of self-motion and orientation in space. VOR and motion perception might abide the same neurophysiological principles, but their distinct anatomical correlates were proposed. In patients with cerebellar stroke in distribution of medial division of posterior inferior cerebellar artery, we asked whether specific location of the focal lesion in vestibulocerebellum could cause impaired perception of motion but normal eye movements. Thirteen patients were studied, 5 consistently perceived spinning of surrounding environment (vertigo), but the eye movements were normal. This group was called "disease model." Remaining 8 patients were also symptomatic for vertigo, but they had spontaneous nystagmus. The latter group was called "disease control." Magnetic resonance imaging in both groups consistently revealed focal cerebellar infarct affecting posterior cerebellar vermis (lobule IX). In the "disease model" group, only part of lobule IX was affected. In the disease control group, however, complete lobule IX was involved. This study discovered a novel presentation of cerebellar stroke where only motion perception was affected, but there was an absence of objective neurologic signs. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oculomotor Neurocircuitry, a Structural Connectivity Study of Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kashou, Nasser H.; Zampini, Angelica R.

    2015-01-01

    Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome (INS) is one of the leading causes of significant vision loss in children and affects about 1 in 1000 to 6000 births. In the present study, we are the first to investigate the structural pathways of patients and controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Specifically, three female INS patients from the same family were scanned, two sisters and a mother. Six regions of interest (ROIs) were created manually to analyze the number of tracks. Additionally, three ROI masks were analyzed using TBSS (Tract-Based Spatial Statistics). The number of fiber tracks was reduced in INS subjects, compared to normal subjects, by 15.9%, 13.9%, 9.2%, 18.6%, 5.3%, and 2.5% for the pons, cerebellum (right and left), brainstem, cerebrum, and thalamus. Furthermore, TBSS results indicated that the fractional anisotropy (FA) values for the patients were lower in the superior ventral aspects of the pons of the brainstem than in those of the controls. We have identified some brain regions that may be actively involved in INS. These novel findings would be beneficial to the neuroimaging clinical and research community as they will give them new direction in further pursuing neurological studies related to oculomotor function and provide a rational approach to studying INS. PMID:25860806

  1. Earthquake Monitoring with the MyShake Global Smartphone Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbal, A.; Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Savran, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    Smartphone arrays have the potential for significantly improving seismic monitoring in sparsely instrumented urban areas. This approach benefits from the dense spatial coverage of users, as well as from communication and computational capabilities built into smartphones, which facilitate big seismic data transfer and analysis. Advantages in data acquisition with smartphones trade-off with factors such as the low-quality sensors installed in phones, high noise levels, and strong network heterogeneity, all of which limit effective seismic monitoring. Here we utilize network and array-processing schemes to asses event detectability with the MyShake global smartphone network. We examine the benefits of using this network in either triggered or continuous modes of operation. A global database of ground motions measured on stationary phones triggered by M2-6 events is used to establish detection probabilities. We find that the probability of detecting an M=3 event with a single phone located <10 km from the epicenter exceeds 70%. Due to the sensor's self-noise, smaller magnitude events at short epicentral distances are very difficult to detect. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio, we employ array back-projection techniques on continuous data recorded by thousands of phones. In this class of methods, the array is used as a spatial filter that suppresses signals emitted from shallow noise sources. Filtered traces are stacked to further enhance seismic signals from deep sources. We benchmark our technique against traditional location algorithms using recordings from California, a region with large MyShake user database. We find that locations derived from back-projection images of M 3 events recorded by >20 nearby phones closely match the regional catalog locations. We use simulated broadband seismic data to examine how location uncertainties vary with user distribution and noise levels. To this end, we have developed an empirical noise model for the metropolitan Los

  2. Estimation of Stresses in a Dry Sand Layer Tested on Shaking Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, Andrzej; Kulczykowski, Marek; Jankowski, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Theoretical analysis of shaking table experiments, simulating earthquake response of a dry sand layer, is presented. The aim of such experiments is to study seismic-induced compaction of soil and resulting settlements. In order to determine the soil compaction, the cyclic stresses and strains should be calculated first. These stresses are caused by the cyclic horizontal acceleration at the base of soil layer, so it is important to determine the stress field as function of the base acceleration. It is particularly important for a proper interpretation of shaking table tests, where the base acceleration is controlled but the stresses are hard to measure, and they can only be deduced. Preliminary experiments have shown that small accelerations do not lead to essential settlements, whilst large accelerations cause some phenomena typical for limit states, including a visible appearance of slip lines. All these problems should be well understood for rational planning of experiments. The analysis of these problems is presented in this paper. First, some heuristic considerations about the dynamics of experimental system are presented. Then, the analysis of boundary conditions, expressed as resultants of respective stresses is shown. A particular form of boundary conditions has been chosen, which satisfies the macroscopic boundary conditions and the equilibrium equations. Then, some considerations are presented in order to obtain statically admissible stress field, which does not exceed the Coulomb-Mohr yield conditions. Such an approach leads to determination of the limit base accelerations, which do not cause the plastic state in soil. It was shown that larger accelerations lead to increase of the lateral stresses, and the respective method, which may replace complex plasticity analyses, is proposed. It is shown that it is the lateral stress coefficient K0 that controls the statically admissible stress field during the shaking table experiments.

  3. Shake, Rattle, & Roll: Teaching Guide & Poster. Expect the Unexpected with Math[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Actuarial Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Shake, Rattle, & Roll" is a new program developed by The Actuarial Foundation with Scholastic, provides dynamic real-world math content designed to build student skills while showing students the relevance of math to understanding their world and planning for their future. Math skills are increasingly important for students. According to the U.S.…

  4. DUMPING COOLED MOLDS FROM THE SHAKE OUT RAILS ONTO A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DUMPING COOLED MOLDS FROM THE SHAKE OUT RAILS ONTO A VIBRATING CONVEYOR WHICH TRANSPORTS CASTINGS AND SAND TO A SEPARATION SCREEN WHICH SIFTS SAND ONTO BELT CONVEYORS BELOW THAT CARRY IT PAST SWITCH-ACTIVATED WATER INJECTORS TO SIMILAR SWITCH-ACTIVATED FRESH SAND ADDERS BEFORE TRANSPORTING IT TO THE SAND STORAGE BIN WHILE CASTINGS ARE EITHER MANUALLY OR SMALL CRANE LIFTED TO DEGATING AREAS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

  5. An Earthquake Shake Map Routine with Low Cost Accelerometers: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Kaya, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Vast amounts of high quality strong motion data are indispensable inputs of the analyses in the field of geotechnical and earthquake engineering however, high cost of installation of the strong motion systems constitutes the biggest obstacle for worldwide dissemination. In recent years, MEMS based (micro-electro-mechanical systems) accelerometers have been used in seismological research-oriented studies as well as earthquake engineering oriented projects basically due to precision obtained in downsized instruments. In this research our primary goal is to ensure the usage of these low-cost instruments in the creation of shake-maps immediately after a strong earthquake. Second goal is to develop software that will automatically process the real-time data coming from the rapid response network and create shake-map. For those purposes, four MEMS sensors have been set up to deliver real-time data. Data transmission is done through 3G modems. A subroutine was coded in assembler language and embedded into the operating system of each instrument to create MiniSEED files with packages of 1-second instead of 512-byte packages.The Matlab-based software calculates the strong motion (SM) parameters at every second, and they are compared with the user-defined thresholds. A voting system embedded in the software captures the event if the total vote exceeds the threshold. The user interface of the software enables users to monitor the calculated SM parameters either in a table or in a graph (Figure 1). A small scale and affordable rapid response network is created using four MEMS sensors, and the functionality of the software has been tested and validated using shake table tests. The entire system is tested together with a reference sensor under real strong ground motion recordings as well as series of sine waves with varying amplitude and frequency. The successful realization of this software allowed us to set up a test network at Tekirdağ Province, the closest coastal point to

  6. GIS-based seismic shaking slope vulnerability map of Sicily (Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Arisco, Giuseppe; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    Earthquakes often represent very dangerouses natural events in terms of human life and economic losses and their damage effects are amplified by the synchronous occurrence of seismically-induced ground-shaking failures in wide regions around the seismogenic source. In fact, the shaking associated with big earthquakes triggers extensive landsliding, sometimes at distances of more than 100 km from the epicenter. The active tectonics and the geomorphic/morphodinamic pattern of the regions affected by earthquakes contribute to the slopes instability tendency. In fact, earthquake-induced groun-motion loading determines inertial forces activation within slopes that, combined with the intrinsic pre-existing static forces, reduces the slope stability towards its failure. Basically, under zero-shear stress reversals conditions, a catastrophic failure will take place if the earthquake-induced shear displacement exceeds the critical level of undrained shear strength to a value equal to the gravitational shear stress. However, seismic stability analyses carried out for various infinite slopes by using the existing Newmark-like methods reveal that estimated permanent displacements smaller than the critical value should also be regarded as dangerous for the post-earthquake slope safety, in terms of human activities use. Earthquake-induced (often high-speed) landslides are among the most destructive phenomena related to slopes failure during earthquakes. In fact, damage from earthquake-induced landslides (and other ground-failures), sometimes exceeds the buildings/infrastructures damage directly related to ground-shaking for fault breaking. For this matter, several hearthquakes-related slope failures methods have been developed, for the evaluation of the combined hazard types represented by seismically ground-motion landslides. The methodologies of analysis of the engineering seismic risk related to the slopes instability processes is often achieved through the evaluation of the

  7. Evaluation of the shaking technique for the economic management of American foulbrood disease of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Pernal, Stephen F; Albright, Robert L; Melathopoulos, Andony P

    2008-08-01

    Shaking is a nonantibiotic management technique for the bacterial disease American foulbrood (AFB) (Paenibacillus larvae sensu Genersch et al.), in which infected nesting comb is destroyed and the adult honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), are transferred onto uncontaminated nesting material. We hypothesized that colonies shaken onto frames of uninfected drawn comb would have similar reductions in AFB symptoms and bacterial spore loads than those shaken onto frames of foundation, but they would attain higher levels of production. We observed that colonies shaken onto drawn comb, or a combination of foundation and drawn comb, exhibited light transitory AFB infections, whereas colonies shaken onto frames containing only foundation failed to exhibit clinical symptoms. Furthermore, concentrations of P. larvae spores in honey and adult worker bees sampled from colonies shaken onto all comb and foundation treatments declined over time and were undetectable in adult bee samples 3 mo after shaking. In contrast, colonies that were reestablished on the original infected comb remained heavily infected resulting in consistently high levels of spores, and eventually, their death. In a subsequent experiment, production of colonies shaken onto foundation was compared with that of colonies established from package (bulk) bees or that of overwintered colonies. Economic analysis proved shaking to be 24% more profitable than using package bees. These results suggest that shaking bees onto frames of foundation in the spring is a feasible option for managing AFB in commercial beekeeping operations where antibiotic use is undesirable or prohibited.

  8. System identification of timber masonry walls using shaking table test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Timir B.; Guerreiro, Luis; Bagchi, Ashutosh

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic study is important in order to design, repair and rehabilitation of structures. It has played an important role in the behavior characterization of structures; such as: bridges, dams, high rise buildings etc. There had been substantial development in this area over the last few decades, especially in the field of dynamic identification techniques of structural systems. Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and Time Domain Decomposition are most commonly used methods to identify modal parameters; such as: natural frequency, modal damping and mode shape. The focus of the present research is to study the dynamic characteristics of typical timber masonry walls commonly used in Portugal. For that purpose, a multi-storey structural prototype of such wall has been tested on a seismic shake table at the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Portugal (LNEC). Signal processing has been performed of the output response, which is collected from the shaking table experiment of the prototype using accelerometers. In the present work signal processing of the output response, based on the input response has been done in two ways: FDD and Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI). In order to estimate the values of the modal parameters, algorithms for FDD are formulated and parametric functions for the SSI are computed. Finally, estimated values from both the methods are compared to measure the accuracy of both the techniques.

  9. Comparison of static and shake culture in the decolorization of textile dyes and dye effluents by Phanerochaete chrysoporium.

    PubMed

    Sani, R K; Azmi, W; Banerjee, U C

    1998-01-01

    Decolorization of several dyes (Red HE-8B, Malachite Green, Navy Blue HE-2R, Magenta, Crystal Violet) and an industrial effluent with growing cells of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in shake and static culture was demonstrated. All the dyes and the industrial effluent were decolorized to some extent with varying percentages of decolorization (20-100%). The rate of decolorization was very rapid with Red HE-8B, an industrial dye. Decolorization rates for all the dyes in static condition were found to be less than the shake culture and also dependent on biomass concentration.

  10. Shaking the Tree, Making a Rhizome: Towards a Nomadic Geophilosophy of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Noel

    2006-01-01

    This essay enacts a philosophy of science education inspired by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari's figurations of rhizomatic and nomadic thought. It imagines rhizomes shaking the tree of modern Western science and science education by destabilising arborescent conceptions of knowledge as hierarchically articulated branches of a central stem or…

  11. Development of 1-D Shake Table Testing Facility for Liquefaction Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unni, Kartha G.; Beena, K. S.; Mahesh, C.

    2018-04-01

    One of the major challenges researchers face in the field of earthquake geotechnical engineering in India is the high cost of laboratory infrastructure. Developing a reliable and low cost experimental set up is attempted in this research. The paper details the design and development of a uniaxial shake table and the data acquisition system with accelerometers and pore water pressure sensors which can be used for liquefaction studies.

  12. The Early Warning System(EWS) as First Stage to Generate and Develop Shake Map for Bucharest to Deep Vrancea Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmureanu, G.; Ionescu, C.; Marmureanu, A.; Grecu, B.; Cioflan, C.

    2007-12-01

    EWS made by NIEP is the first European system for real-time early detection and warning of the seismic waves in case of strong deep earthquakes. EWS uses the time interval (28-32 seconds) between the moment when earthquake is detected by the borehole and surface local accelerometers network installed in the epicenter area (Vrancea) and the arrival time of the seismic waves in the protected area, to deliver timely integrated information in order to enable actions to be taken before a main destructive shaking takes place. Early warning system is viewed as part of an real-time information system that provide rapid information, about an earthquake impeding hazard, to the public and disaster relief organizations before (early warning) and after a strong earthquake (shake map).This product is fitting in with other new product on way of National Institute for Earth Physics, that is, the shake map which is a representation of ground shaking produced by an event and it will be generated automatically following large Vrancea earthquakes. Bucharest City is located in the central part of the Moesian platform (age: Precambrian and Paleozoic) in the Romanian Plain, at about 140 km far from Vrancea area. Above a Cretaceous and a Miocene deposit (with the bottom at roundly 1,400 m of depth), a Pliocene shallow water deposit (~ 700m thick) was settled. The surface geology consists mainly of Quaternary alluvial deposits. Later loess covered these deposits and the two rivers crossing the city (Dambovita and Colentina) carved the present landscape. During the last century Bucharest suffered heavy damage and casualties due to 1940 (Mw = 7.7) and 1977 (Mw = 7.4) Vrancea earthquakes. For example, 32 high tall buildings collapsed and more then 1500 people died during the 1977 event. The innovation with comparable or related systems worldwide is that NIEP will use the EWS to generate a virtual shake map for Bucharest (140 km away of epicentre) immediately after the magnitude is estimated

  13. Emergency department documentation templates: variability in template selection and association with physical examination and test ordering in dizziness presentations.

    PubMed

    Kerber, Kevin A; Hofer, Timothy P; Meurer, William J; Fendrick, A Mark; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2011-03-24

    Clinical documentation systems, such as templates, have been associated with process utilization. The T-System emergency department (ED) templates are widely used but lacking are analyses of the templates association with processes. This system is also unique because of the many different template options available, and thus the selection of the template may also be important. We aimed to describe the selection of templates in ED dizziness presentations and to investigate the association between items on templates and process utilization. Dizziness visits were captured from a population-based study of EDs that use documentation templates. Two relevant process outcomes were assessed: head computerized tomography (CT) scan and nystagmus examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of each outcome for patients who did or did not receive a relevant-item template. Propensity scores were also used to adjust for selection effects. The final cohort was 1,485 visits. Thirty-one different templates were used. Use of a template with a head CT item was associated with an increase in the adjusted probability of head CT utilization from 12.2% (95% CI, 8.9%-16.6%) to 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.9%). The adjusted probability of documentation of a nystagmus assessment increased from 12.0% (95%CI, 8.8%-16.2%) when a nystagmus-item template was not used to 95.0% (95% CI, 92.8%-96.6%) when a nystagmus-item template was used. The associations remained significant after propensity score adjustments. Providers use many different templates in dizziness presentations. Important differences exist in the various templates and the template that is used likely impacts process utilization, even though selection may be arbitrary. The optimal design and selection of templates may offer a feasible and effective opportunity to improve care delivery.

  14. W-SHAKE - the Waves that SHAKE our Earth, a Parents-in-Science Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Francisco; Silveira, Graça; Moreira, Guilherme; Afonso, Isabel; Custódio, Susana; Matias, Luís

    2014-05-01

    The catastrophes induced by earthquakes are among the most devastating, causing an elevated number of human losses and economic damages. In spite of being exposed to a moderate and large earthquakes, and as a result of the slow tectonic rates, the Portuguese society is, in general, little aware of the seismic risk. Earthquakes can't be predicted and the only way of mitigating their consequences is to understand their genesis, propagation and their effects in society. Children play a determinant role in the establishment of a real and long-lasting "culture of prevention", both through action and new attitudes. As adults they will have a greater knowledge of natural phenomena as well of the effects of human actions and their consequences. Parents and other caregivers have a critical function in encouraging and supporting their learning at home, in school, and throughout community. Teachers also play an important role in this effort and can be valuable partners with parents in cultivating learning confidence and skills in school-age youth. In this presentation we will give an overview of the project W-Shake, a Parents-in-Science Initiative to promote the study of seismology and related subjects. This project, supported by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, results from a direct cooperation between the parents association, science school-teachers and the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  15. Development of the monitoring technique on the damage of piles using the biggest shaking table "E-defense"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Hachimori, Wataru; Kaneda, Shogo; Tamura, Shuji; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    In case of earthquake damage to buildings, the damage to a superstructure is visible, but the damage to a foundation structure, e.g. the underground pile, is difficult to detect. In this study, the authors aim to develop a monitoring technique for pile damage due to earthquakes. The world's biggest shaking table, E-Defense, was used to reproduce damage to RC pile models embedded in the soil inside a large scale shear box (8m in diameter and 6.5m in height). The diameter of the RC pile model was 154mm. It consisted of mortar (27.2N/mm2 in compressive strength), 6 main reinforcements (6.35mm in diameter) and shear reinforcement hard steel wire (2mm in diameter at intervals of 20mm). The natural period of the superstructure above the pile models is around 0.12sec. The soil consisted of 2 layers. The lower layer is Albany sand of 80% relative density while the upper layer is only 2m from the surface ground and is Kaketsu sand of 60% relative density. Primary four excitations were scaled from JMA Kobe waves in notification at different amplitudes. The maximum acceleration of each wave is 31gal, 67gal, 304gal, and 458gal, respectively. In the test result, reinforcing steels at the pile head of the RC model yielded when the maximum acceleration was 304gal. After that, mortar of the pile head peeled off and a bending shear failure occurred when the maximum acceleration was 458gal. The peak frequency of rotational spectrum on the foundation did not change in elastic range in the piles. However, the peak frequency fell after the plastic hinge occurred.

  16. Investigating the relationship between foveal morphology and refractive error in a population with infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Healey, Natasha; McLoone, Eibhlin; Mahon, Gerald; Jackson, A Jonathan; Saunders, Kathryn J; McClelland, Julie F

    2013-04-26

    We explored associations between refractive error and foveal hypoplasia in infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS). We recruited 50 participants with INS (albinism n = 33, nonalbinism infantile nystagmus [NAIN] n = 17) aged 4 to 48 years. Cycloplegic refractive error and logMAR acuity were obtained. Spherical equivalent (SER), most ametropic meridian (MAM) refractive error, and better eye acuity (VA) were used for analyses. High resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to obtain foveal scans, which were graded using the Foveal Hypoplasia Grading Scale. Associations between grades of severity of foveal hypoplasia, and refractive error and VA were explored. Participants with more severe foveal hypoplasia had significantly higher MAMs and SERs (Kruskal-Wallis H test P = 0.005 and P = 0.008, respectively). There were no statistically significant associations between foveal hypoplasia and cylindrical refractive error (Kruskal-Wallis H test P = 0.144). Analyses demonstrated significant differences between participants with albinism or NAIN in terms of SER and MAM (Mann-Whitney U test P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between astigmatic errors between participants with albinism and NAIN. Controlling for the effects of albinism, results demonstrated no significant associations between SER, and MAM and foveal hypoplasia (partial correlation P > 0.05). Poorer visual acuity was associated statistically significantly with more severe foveal hypoplasia (Kruskal-Wallis H test P = 0.001) and with a diagnosis of albinism (Mann-Whitney U test P = 0.001). Increasing severity of foveal hypoplasia is associated with poorer VA, reflecting reduced cone density in INS. Individuals with INS also demonstrate a significant association between more severe foveal hypoplasia and increasing hyperopia. However, in the absence of albinism, there is no significant relation between refractive outcome and degree of foveal hypoplasia

  17. Vestibular Responses and Motion Sickness during Pitch, Roll, and Yaw Sinusoidal Whole-Body Oscillation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    vestibulo-ocular reflex) pitch, ’- 11’, 1 3c\\ " ’ I...[ 16. PRC C nystagmus 1 ’>"( k 1.,’ roll V-) , __r_ ,_t_ _ _ 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 1S SECURITY...of amplification of EOG was 3.0 s. Because of the position of subjEcts’ heads relative to the axis of rotation, vertical nystagmus comprised the VOR...response in Groups I and III. To achieve measurement of the VOR in Groups IV and V, subjects were instructed to gaze downward, 30 deg in Group IV, and

  18. Engineering geologic and geotechnical analysis of paleoseismic shaking using liquefaction effects: Field examples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, R.A.; Obermeier, S.F.; Olson, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The greatest impediments to the widespread acceptance of back-calculated ground motion characteristics from paleoliquefaction studies typically stem from three uncertainties: (1) the significance of changes in the geotechnical properties of post-liquefied sediments (e.g., "aging" and density changes), (2) the selection of appropriate geotechnical soil indices from individual paleoliquefaction sites, and (3) the methodology for integration of back-calculated results of strength of shaking from individual paleoliquefaction sites into a regional assessment of paleoseismic strength of shaking. Presented herein are two case studies that illustrate the methods outlined by Olson et al. [Engineering Geology, this issue] for addressing these uncertainties. The first case study is for a site near Memphis, Tennessee, wherein cone penetration test data from side-by-side locations, one of liquefaction and the other of no liquefaction, are used to readily discern that the influence of post-liquefaction "aging" and density changes on the measured in situ soil indices is minimal. In the second case study, 12 sites that are at scattered locations in the Wabash Valley and that exhibit paleoliquefaction features are analyzed. The features are first provisionally attributed to the Vincennes Earthquake, which occurred around 6100 years BP, and are used to illustrate our proposed approach for selecting representative soil indices of the liquefied sediments. These indices are used in back-calculating the strength of shaking at the individual sites, the results from which are then incorporated into a regional assessment of the moment magnitude, M, of the Vincennes Earthquake. The regional assessment validated the provisional assumption that the paleoliquefaction features at the scattered sites were induced by the Vincennes Earthquake, in the main, which was determined to have M ??? 7.5. The uncertainties and assumptions used in the assessment are discussed in detail. ?? 2004 Elsevier B

  19. On the vertigo due to static magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Mian, Omar S; Li, Yan; Antunes, Andre; Glover, Paul M; Day, Brian L

    2013-01-01

    Vertigo is sometimes experienced in and around MRI scanners. Mechanisms involving stimulation of the vestibular system by movement in magnetic fields or magnetic field spatial gradients have been proposed. However, it was recently shown that vestibular-dependent ocular nystagmus is evoked when stationary in homogenous static magnetic fields. The proposed mechanism involves Lorentz forces acting on endolymph to deflect semicircular canal (SCC) cupulae. To investigate whether vertigo arises from a similar mechanism we recorded qualitative and quantitative aspects of vertigo and 2D eye movements from supine healthy adults (n = 25) deprived of vision while pushed into the 7T static field of an MRI scanner. Exposures were variable and included up to 135s stationary at 7T. Nystagmus was mainly horizontal, persisted during long-exposures with partial decline, and reversed upon withdrawal. The dominant vertiginous perception with the head facing up was rotation in the horizontal plane (85% incidence) with a consistent direction across participants. With the head turned 90 degrees in yaw the perception did not transform into equivalent vertical plane rotation, indicating a context-dependency of the perception. During long exposures, illusory rotation lasted on average 50 s, including 42 s whilst stationary at 7T. Upon withdrawal, perception re-emerged and reversed, lasting on average 30 s. Onset fields for nystagmus and perception were significantly correlated (p<.05). Although perception did not persist as long as nystagmus, this is a known feature of continuous SSC stimulation. These observations, and others in the paper, are compatible with magnetic-field evoked-vertigo and nystagmus sharing a common mechanism. With this interpretation, response decay and reversal upon withdrawal from the field, are due to adaptation to continuous vestibular input. Although the study does not entirely exclude the possibility of mechanisms involving transient vestibular stimulation

  20. Secondary analysis of the "Love Me...Never Shake Me" SBS education program.

    PubMed

    Deyo, Grace; Skybo, Theresa; Carroll, Alisa

    2008-11-01

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is preventable; however, an estimated 21-74 per 100,000 children worldwide are victims annually. This study examined the effectiveness of an SBS prevention program in the US. A descriptive, secondary analysis of the Prevent Child Abuse Ohio (PCAO) "Love Me...Never Shake Me" SBS education program database included 7,051 women who completed a commitment statement, pre and post-test, and follow-up survey. Participants were mostly White (76%), had at least some college education (62%), were privately insured (62%), and lived with the father and infant (63%). Mothers knew of the dangers of shaking (96%) and recommended SBS education for all parents (98%) because they found it helpful (97%). Scores on the pre and post-tests were significantly different, but there was no difference based on education site or demographics. There was a significant increase in a pre/post-test item pertaining to infant crying. At follow-up, participants remembered postpartum SBS education (98%), but post-discharge did not receive SBS education from their primary care provider (62%). Most mothers practiced infant soothing techniques (79%) provided in the education; however, few women practiced self-coping techniques (36%) and accessed community support services (9%). Postpartum SBS prevention education should continue. Development of SBS programs should result from these study findings focusing on education content and program evaluation. Mothers report that shaken baby syndrome education is important for all parents and memorable at follow-up. Postpartum SBS education should continue because the hospital is the primary place they receive education. Mothers' report they less frequently receive education from healthcare sources post-discharge. Diligence of primary care providers to incorporate SBS prevention education in well child visits will increase parental exposure to this information. Education may need to place greater emphasis on infant crying and soothing, as

  1. Spasmus nutans

    MedlinePlus

    ... infants and young children. It involves rapid, uncontrolled eye movements, head bobbing, and, sometimes, holding the neck in ... spasmus nutans include: Small, quick, side-to-side eye movements called nystagmus (both eyes are involved, but each ...

  2. Antifoam addition to shake flask cultures of recombinant Pichia pastoris increases yield

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pichia pastoris is a widely-used host for recombinant protein production. Initial screening for both suitable clones and optimum culture conditions is typically carried out in multi-well plates. This is followed by up-scaling either to shake-flasks or continuously stirred tank bioreactors. A particular problem in these formats is foaming, which is commonly prevented by the addition of chemical antifoaming agents. Intriguingly, antifoams are often added without prior consideration of their effect on the yeast cells, the protein product or the influence on downstream processes such as protein purification. In this study we characterised, for the first time, the effects of five commonly-used antifoaming agents on the total amount of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) secreted from shake-flask cultures of this industrially-relevant yeast. Results Addition of defined concentrations of Antifoam A (Sigma), Antifoam C (Sigma), J673A (Struktol), P2000 (Fluka) or SB2121 (Struktol) to shake-flask cultures of P. pastoris increased the total amount of recombinant GFP in the culture medium (the total yield) and in the case of P2000, SB2121 and J673A almost doubled it. When normalized to the culture density, the GFP specific yield (μg OD595-1) was only increased for Antifoam A, Antifoam C and J673A. Whilst none of the antifoams affected the growth rate of the cells, addition of P2000 or SB2121 was found to increase culture density. There was no correlation between total yield, specific yield or specific growth rate and the volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa) in the presence of antifoam. Moreover, the antifoams did not affect the dissolved oxygen concentration of the cultures. A comparison of the amount of GFP retained in the cell by flow cytometry with that in the culture medium by fluorimetry suggested that addition of Antifoam A, Antifoam C or J673A increased the specific yield of GFP by increasing the proportion secreted into the medium

  3. USGS earthquake hazards program (EHP) GPS use case : earthquake early warning (EEW) and shake alert

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-03-30

    GPS Adjacent Band Workshop VI RTCA Inc., Washington D.C., 30 March 2017. USGS GPS receiver use case - Real-Time GPS for EEW -Continued: CRITICAL EFFECT - The GNSS component of the Shake Alert system augments the inertial sensors and is especial...

  4. Downbeat nystagmus caused by thiamine deficiency: an unusual presentation of CNS localization of large cell anaplastic CD 30-positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mulder, A H; Raemaekers, J M; Boerman, R H; Mattijssen, V

    1999-02-01

    A 24-year-old woman with a large cell anaplastic CD 30-positive T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) developed downbeat nystagmus, anisocoria, and oscillopsia. Prior to overt cerebral invasion by NHL, she had a thiamine deficiency with very low thiamine concentrations in the CSF, probably caused by protracted vomiting and increased vitamin B1 consumption by intrathecal tumor cells. We believe that her neurologic symptoms were caused -- at least partly -- by thiamine deficiency, as she reacted well to thiamine supplementation at the beginning of treatment.

  5. Audiovestibular impairments associated with intracranial hypotension.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Kee-Yong; Cha, Seung-Yi; Seo, Jae-Deuk; Kim, Min-Ji; Choi, Yu Ri; Kim, Sung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Soo; Choi, Kwang-Dong

    2015-10-15

    To investigate the patterns and mechanisms of audiovestibular impairments associated with intracranial hypotension. We had consecutively recruited 16 patients with intracranial hypotension at the Neurology Center of Pusan National University Hospital for two years. Spontaneous, gaze-evoked, and positional nystagmus were recorded using 3D video-oculography in all patients, and the majority of them also had pure tone audiometry and bithermal caloric tests. Of the 16 patients, five (31.3%) reported neuro-otological symptoms along with the orthostatic headache while laboratory evaluation demonstrated audiovestibular impairments in ten (62.5%). Oculographic analyses documented spontaneous and/or positional nystagmus in six patients (37.5%) including weak spontaneous vertical nystagmus with positional modulation (n=4) and pure positional nystagmus (n=2). One patient presented with recurrent spontaneous vertigo and tinnitus mimicking Meniere's disease, and showed unidirectional horizontal and torsional nystagmus with normal head impulse tests during the attacks. Bithermal caloric tests were normal in all nine patients tested. Audiometry showed unilateral (n=6) or bilateral (n=1) sensorineural hearing loss in seven (53.8%) of the 13 patients tested. Intracranial hypotension frequently induces audiovestibular impairments. In addition to endolymphatic hydrops and irritation of the vestibulocochlear nerve, compression or traction of the brainstem or cerebellum due to loss of CSF buoyancy may be considered as a mechanism of frequent spontaneous or positional vertical nystagmus in patients with intracranial hypotension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Joint Seismic-Geodetic Algorithm for Finite-Fault Detection and Slip Inversion in the West Coast ShakeAlert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. E.; Felizardo, C.; Minson, S. E.; Boese, M.; Langbein, J. O.; Murray, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Finite-fault source algorithms can greatly benefit earthquake early warning (EEW) systems. Estimates of finite-fault parameters provide spatial information, which can significantly improve real-time shaking calculations and help with disaster response. In this project, we have focused on integrating a finite-fault seismic-geodetic algorithm into the West Coast ShakeAlert framework. The seismic part is FinDer 2, a C++ version of the algorithm developed by Böse et al. (2012). It interpolates peak ground accelerations and calculates the best fault length and strike from template matching. The geodetic part is a C++ version of BEFORES, the algorithm developed by Minson et al. (2014) that uses a Bayesian methodology to search for the most probable slip distribution on a fault of unknown orientation. Ultimately, these two will be used together where FinDer generates a Bayesian prior for BEFORES via the methodology of Minson et al. (2015), and the joint solution will generate estimates of finite-fault extent, strike, dip, best slip distribution, and magnitude. We have created C++ versions of both FinDer and BEFORES using open source libraries and have developed a C++ Application Protocol Interface (API) for them both. Their APIs allow FinDer and BEFORES to contribute to the ShakeAlert system via an open source messaging system, ActiveMQ. FinDer has been receiving real-time data, detecting earthquakes, and reporting messages on the development system for several months. We are also testing FinDer extensively with Earthworm tankplayer files. BEFORES has been tested with ActiveMQ messaging in the ShakeAlert framework, and works off a FinDer trigger. We are finishing the FinDer-BEFORES connections in this framework, and testing this system via seismic-geodetic tankplayer files. This will include actual and simulated data.

  7. Ion shaking in the 200 MeV XLS-ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozoki, E.; Kramer, S. L.

    1992-03-01

    It has been shown that ions, trapped inside the beam's potential, can be removed by the clearing electrodes when the amplitude of the ion oscillation is increased by vertically shaking the ions. We will report on a similar experiment in the 200 MeV XLS ring. The design of the ion clearing system for the ring and the first results obtained were already reported. In the present series of experiments, RF voltage was applied on a pair of vertical strip-lines. The frequency was scanned in the range of the ion (from H2 to CO2) bounce frequencies in the ring (1-10 MHz). The response of the beam size, vertical betatron tune, and lifetime was studied.

  8. Damage and Shaking Intensity in the M5.7 Canyondam Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatwright, J.; Chapman, K.; Gold, M. B.; Hardebeck, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    An M5.7 earthquake occurred southeast of Lake Almanor, CA, at 8:47 PM on May 23, 2013. Double-difference relocations of the main shock and aftershocks indicate that the earthquake nucleated at 11 km depth and ruptured up dip on a fault striking 292° and dipping 70° to the northeast. The earthquake cracked foundations, broke chimneys, and ruptured plumbing around Lake Almanor. We canvassed communities around the lake and to the south and east for earthquake damage, adding reports from our interviews to the geocoded 'Did You Feel It?' reports and to a set of damage reports collected by the Plumas County Office of Emergency Services. Three communities suffered significant damage. In Lake Almanor West, 14 km and 290° from the hypocenter, one wood-frame house was shifted on its foundation, the cripple wall of another house was racked, and water and gas pipes in five houses were ruptured. This damage indicates the shaking approached MMI 8. In Lake Almanor Country Club, 10 km and 310° from the hypocenter, more than 40 chimneys were cracked, broken, or collapsed, a coupling for the municipal water tank was ruptured, and a 200-foot long fissure opened on a slope facing the lake. This damage indicates shaking between MMI 7 and MMI 8, consistent with the accelerograph recording of PGA = 38% g and PGV = 30 cm/s at the Fire Station in Lake Almanor Country Club. This CSMIP station and a PG&E station on the crest of the Butt Valley Dam obtained the only recordings within 50 km of the epicenter. In Hamilton Branch, 10 km and 345° from the hypocenter, a foundation of a wood-frame house was damaged, and 14 chimneys and a water pipe were broken, indicative of MMI 7 shaking. All three communities are underlain by Tertiary and Quaternary basalts. The communities of Chester, Westwood, and Greenville were less damaged, suffering cracked drywall, broken windows, and objects thrown from shelves. The intensities in the three most strongly damaged communities increase as the azimuth

  9. Soy compared to casein meal replacement shakes with energy-restricted diets for obese women: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James W; Fuller, Jennifer; Patterson, Katy; Blair, Robert; Tabor, Aaron

    2007-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that obese individuals lose weight more rapidly and lose more total weight with soy protein than with animal protein as a major diet component. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the weight-loss efficacy and changes in body composition, waist circumference, blood pressure, and levels of plasma glucose, insulin, serum lipids, C-reactive protein, and homocysteine from consumption of either 3 soy shakes or 3 casein shakes daily as part of a 16-week, energy-restricted diet for obese women. Forty-three women with body mass index values of 30 to 40 kg/m(2) were randomized to intensive dietary interventions using either casein (n = 21) or soy (n = 22) shakes. Subjects were instructed to consume 3 shakes, 1 prepackaged entrée, and 5 servings of fruits or vegetables daily to achieve an energy intake of 4.5 to 5.0 MJ/d. Subjects attended classes weekly or biweekly. Weight, body fat, lipid, and glucose measurements were obtained at baseline and at 8 and 16 weeks. For both groups combined, subjects lost 8.1% of initial body weight (7.7 kg) at 8 weeks and 13.4% (12.7 kg) at 16 weeks. Weight loss from baseline did not differ significantly by group and, for completing subjects, was 14.0% +/- 1.2% (mean +/- SE) for casein and 12.8% +/- 1.4% for soy. With the intention-to-treat analysis, weight losses at 16 weeks were 12.5% +/- 1.4% for casein and 11.3% +/- 1.2% for soy. Body fat losses were 23.7% +/- 2.0% for casein and 21.8% +/- 2.4% for soy and did not differ significantly. Both study groups lost significant amounts of weight with a highly structured behavioral program incorporating 4 meal replacements and vegetables and fruits. Differences in weight loss and body composition changes between casein and soy treatments were not significant.

  10. Effect of the consumption of a new symbiotic shake on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The consumption of foods containing probiotic and prebiotic ingredients is growing consistently every year, and in view of the limited number of studies investigating their effect in the elderly. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of a symbiotic shake containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and fructooligosaccharides on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on twenty volunteers (ten for placebo group and ten for symbiotic group), aged 50 to 60 years. The criteria for inclusion in the study were: total cholesterol > 200 mg/dL; triglycerides > 200 mg/dL and glycemia > 110 mg/dL. Over a total test period of 30 days, 10 individuals (the symbiotic group) consumed a daily dose of 200 mL of a symbiotic shake containing 108 UFC/mL Lactobacillus acidophilus, 108 UFC/mL Bifidobacterium bifidum and 2 g oligofructose, while 10 other volunteers (the placebo group) drank daily the same amount of a shake that did not contain any symbiotic bacteria. Blood samples were collected 15 days prior to the start of the experiment and at 10-day intervals after the beginning of the shake intake. The standard lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol) and glycemia, or blood sugar levels, were evaluated by an enzyme colorimetric assay. Results The results of the symbiotic group showed a non-significant reduction (P > 0.05) in total cholesterol and triglycerides, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in HDL cholesterol and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fasting glycemia. No significant changes were observed in the placebo group. Conclusion The consumption of symbiotic shake resulted in a significant increase in HDL and a significant decrease of glycemia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00123456 PMID:22356933

  11. Effect of the consumption of a new symbiotic shake on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Moroti, Camila; Souza Magri, Loyanne Francine; de Rezende Costa, Marcela; Cavallini, Daniela C U; Sivieri, Katia

    2012-02-22

    The consumption of foods containing probiotic and prebiotic ingredients is growing consistently every year, and in view of the limited number of studies investigating their effect in the elderly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of a symbiotic shake containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and fructooligosaccharides on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on twenty volunteers (ten for placebo group and ten for symbiotic group), aged 50 to 60 years. The criteria for inclusion in the study were: total cholesterol > 200 mg/dL; triglycerides > 200 mg/dL and glycemia > 110 mg/dL. Over a total test period of 30 days, 10 individuals (the symbiotic group) consumed a daily dose of 200 mL of a symbiotic shake containing 10(8) UFC/mL Lactobacillus acidophilus, 10(8) UFC/mL Bifidobacterium bifidum and 2 g oligofructose, while 10 other volunteers (the placebo group) drank daily the same amount of a shake that did not contain any symbiotic bacteria. Blood samples were collected 15 days prior to the start of the experiment and at 10-day intervals after the beginning of the shake intake. The standard lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol) and glycemia, or blood sugar levels, were evaluated by an enzyme colorimetric assay. The results of the symbiotic group showed a non-significant reduction (P > 0.05) in total cholesterol and triglycerides, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in HDL cholesterol and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fasting glycemia. No significant changes were observed in the placebo group. The consumption of symbiotic shake resulted in a significant increase in HDL and a significant decrease of glycemia.

  12. Comparison of Cinnamon Essential Oils from Leaf and Bark with Respect to Antimicrobial Activity and Sensory Acceptability in Strawberry Shake.

    PubMed

    Brnawi, Wafaa I; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Horax, Ronny; Kumar-Phillips, Geetha; Seo, Han-Seok; Marcy, John

    2018-02-01

    Cinnamon leaf and bark essential oils have long been used as natural preservatives and flavoring agents in foods. This study determined antimicrobial effects of leaf and bark of cinnamon essential oils (CEOs) against 2 foodborne pathogens, Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.) and Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), at 2 initial bacterial levels (4- and 9-log CFU/mL) in strawberry shakes. The antimicrobial study of CEOs at 0.1% and 0.5% in strawberry shakes against S.T. and L.M. showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in log reductions of both bacterial growth at low (4-log CFU/mL) and high (9-log CFU/mL) initial bacterial levels. Addition of 0.5% CEOs into strawberry shakes at 4 °C completely inhibited both bacteria after a period of 8 d storage. Shelf-life study showed that acidity and total solid content were not affected during storage. The strawberry shakes containing bark CEO had higher ratings of sensory acceptability compared to leaf CEO, with or without the addition of 1% masking agent. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CEO derived from bark was better than that from leaf in terms of their antimicrobial activity and sensory aspect. This study demonstrates that essential oils derived from cinnamon bark and leaf have the potential to be used as natural antimicrobial ingredient in milk beverages with respect to sensory aspect. This finding promotes the acceptance of natural antimicrobials among consumers, while providing enhanced safer products to the food industry application. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Economic Impact Analyses of Interdisciplinary Multi-hazard Scenarios: ShakeOut and ARkStorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

    2011-12-01

    U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are using an interdisciplinary strategy to develop and analyze multi-hazard scenarios to help communities enhance resilience to natural hazard disasters. Two such scenarios are the southern California ShakeOut earthquake and the California ARkStorm winter storm. Both scenarios are multi-hazard: Shakeout ground motions trigger landslides and liquefaction and ARkStorm involves wind, flood, landslide, and coastal hazards. A collaborative scenario-process engages partners and stakeholders throughout the development and use of the scenarios, In doing so, community resilience is enhanced by educating communities about hazards and hazard interdependencies, building networks from scientists to decision makers, exercising emergency management strategies, identifying emergency management issues, and motivating solutions prior to an event. In addition, interdisciplinary scenarios stimulate research on the various steps of analysis (e.g., natural hazard processes, physical damages, societal consequences, and policy connections). In particular, USGS scientists have collaborated with economists to advance methods to estimate the economic impacts (business interruption losses) of disasters. Our economic impact analyses evolved from the economic module in the Federal Emergency Management Agency's loss-estimation tool, HAZUS-MH, to a more encompassing input-output analysis for ShakeOut, to a more sophisticated Computable General Equilibrium model for ARkStorm. The analyses depend on physical damage and restoration time estimates from engineers and geographic analyses of economic assets in hazard zones. Economic resilience strategies are incorporated to represent resourcefulness and ingenuity that avoids potential losses during and after an event. Such strategies operate at three levels of the economy: micro (e.g., ability to catch up on lost production time), meso (e.g., coordination within a sector to share resources), and macro (e

  14. Real time numerical shake prediction incorporating attenuation structure: a case for the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiso, M.; Hoshiba, M.; Shito, A.; Matsumoto, S.

    2016-12-01

    Needless to say, heterogeneous attenuation structure is important for ground motion prediction, including earthquake early warning, that is, real time ground motion prediction. Hoshiba and Ogiso (2015, AGU Fall meeting) showed that the heterogeneous attenuation and scattering structure will lead to earlier and more accurate ground motion prediction in the numerical shake prediction scheme proposed by Hoshiba and Aoki (2015, BSSA). Hoshiba and Ogiso (2015) used assumed heterogeneous structure, and we discuss the effect of them in the case of 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, using heterogeneous structure estimated by actual observation data. We conducted Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (Hoshiba, 1993, JGR) to the seismic stations located on western part of Japan to estimate heterogeneous attenuation and scattering structure. The characteristics are similar to the previous work of Carcole and Sato (2010, GJI), e.g. strong intrinsic and scattering attenuation around the volcanoes located on the central part of Kyushu, and relatively weak heterogeneities in the other area. Real time ground motion prediction simulation for the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake was conducted using the numerical shake prediction scheme with 474 strong ground motion stations. Comparing the snapshot of predicted and observed wavefield showed a tendency for underprediction around the volcanic area in spite of the heterogeneous structure. These facts indicate the necessity of improving the heterogeneous structure for the numerical shake prediction scheme.In this study, we used the waveforms of Hi-net, K-NET, KiK-net stations operated by the NIED for estimating structure and conducting ground motion prediction simulation. Part of this study was supported by the Earthquake Research Institute, the University of Tokyo cooperative research program and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25282114.

  15. The nucleus of the optic tract. Its function in gaze stabilization and control of visual-vestibular interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B.; Reisine, H.; Yokota, J. I.; Raphan, T.

    1992-01-01

    1. Electrical stimulation of the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) induced nystagmus and after-nystagmus with ipsilateral slow phases. The velocity characteristics of the nystagmus were similar to those of the slow component of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and to optokinetic after-nystagmus (OKAN), both of which are produced by velocity storage in the vestibular system. When NOT was destroyed, these components disappeared. This indicates that velocity storage is activated from the visual system through NOT. 2. Velocity storage produces compensatory eye-in-head and head-on-body movements through the vestibular system. The association of NOT with velocity storage implies that NOT helps stabilize gaze in space during both passive motion and active locomotion in light with an angular component. It has been suggested that "vestibular-only" neurons in the vestibular nuclei play an important role in generation of velocity storage. Similarities between the rise and fall times of eye velocity during OKN and OKAN to firing rates of vestibular-only neurons suggest that these cells may receive their visual input through NOT. 3. One NOT was injected with muscimol, a GABAA agonist. Ipsilateral OKN and OKAN were lost, suggesting that GABA, which is an inhibitory transmitter in NOT, acts on projection pathways to the brain stem. A striking finding was that visual suppression and habituation of contralateral slow phases of vestibular nystagmus were also abolished after muscimol injection. The latter implies that NOT plays an important role in producing visual suppression of the VOR and habituating its time constant. 4. Habituation is lost after nodulus and uvula lesions and visual suppression after lesions of the flocculus and paraflocculus. We postulate that the disappearance of vestibular habituation and of visual suppression of vestibular responses after muscimol injections was due to dysfacilitation of the prominent NOT-inferior olive pathway, inactivating climbing fibers from

  16. Congenital Nystagmus Gene FRMD7 Is Necessary for Establishing a Neuronal Circuit Asymmetry for Direction Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Yonehara, Keisuke; Fiscella, Michele; Drinnenberg, Antonia; Esposti, Federico; Trenholm, Stuart; Krol, Jacek; Franke, Felix; Scherf, Brigitte Gross; Kusnyerik, Akos; Müller, Jan; Szabo, Arnold; Jüttner, Josephine; Cordoba, Francisco; Reddy, Ashrithpal Police; Németh, János; Nagy, Zoltán Zsolt; Munier, Francis; Hierlemann, Andreas; Roska, Botond

    2016-01-01

    Summary Neuronal circuit asymmetries are important components of brain circuits, but the molecular pathways leading to their establishment remain unknown. Here we found that the mutation of FRMD7, a gene that is defective in human congenital nystagmus, leads to the selective loss of the horizontal optokinetic reflex in mice, as it does in humans. This is accompanied by the selective loss of horizontal direction selectivity in retinal ganglion cells and the transition from asymmetric to symmetric inhibitory input to horizontal direction-selective ganglion cells. In wild-type retinas, we found FRMD7 specifically expressed in starburst amacrine cells, the interneuron type that provides asymmetric inhibition to direction-selective retinal ganglion cells. This work identifies FRMD7 as a key regulator in establishing a neuronal circuit asymmetry, and it suggests the involvement of a specific inhibitory neuron type in the pathophysiology of a neurological disease. Video Abstract PMID:26711119

  17. Ion shaking in the 200 MeV XLS-ring

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bozoki, E.; Kramer, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    It has been shown that ions, trapped inside the beam's potential, can be removed by the clearing electrodes when the amplitude of the ion oscillation is increased by vertically shaking the ions. We will report on a similar experiment in the 200 Mev XLS ring. The design of the ion clearing system for the ring and the first results obtained, were already reported. In the present series of experiments, RF voltage was applied on a pair of vertical strip-lines. The frequency was scanned in the range of the ion (from H[sub 2] to CO[sub 2]) bounce frequencies in the ringmore » (1--10 MHz). The response of the beam size, vertical betatron tune and lifetime was studied.« less

  18. Ion shaking in the 200 MeV XLS-ring

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bozoki, E.; Kramer, S.L.

    1992-12-31

    It has been shown that ions, trapped inside the beam`s potential, can be removed by the clearing electrodes when the amplitude of the ion oscillation is increased by vertically shaking the ions. We will report on a similar experiment in the 200 Mev XLS ring. The design of the ion clearing system for the ring and the first results obtained, were already reported. In the present series of experiments, RF voltage was applied on a pair of vertical strip-lines. The frequency was scanned in the range of the ion (from H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2}) bounce frequencies in the ringmore » (1--10 MHz). The response of the beam size, vertical betatron tune and lifetime was studied.« less

  19. First oxygenated gasoline season shakes out differently than expected

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dale, C.; Hackworth, J.H.; Shore, J.M.

    1993-10-25

    The U.S.'s first oxygenated gasoline season began Nov. 1, 1992. Refiners and marketers achieved compliance with these new specs with little upset to the gasoline production and distribution system. But although the season went smoothly, it did not shake out exactly as projected. Demand for oxygenated gasoline and, in particular, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), was lower than expected. Prior to the season, refiners were concerned that oxygenates might be in short supply. No supply shortages developed, however, and prices of both oxygenates and gasoline decreased during the season. The paper discusses gasoline demand, administration of the oxygenated gasoline program,more » spillover, reduced demand, ethanol, oxygenate supply, prices, ethanol tax credit, refinery economics, and the outlook for next season.« less

  20. Building a Communication, Education, an Outreach Program for the ShakeAlert National Earthquake Early Warning Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGroot, R. M.; Strauss, J. A.; Given, D. D.; Cochran, E. S.; Burkett, E. R.; Long, K.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing an EEW system for the West Coast of the United States. To be an integral part of successful implementation, EEW engagement programs and materials must integrate with and leverage broader earthquake risk programs. New methods and products for dissemination must be multidisciplinary, cost effective, and consistent with existing hazards education efforts. Our presentation outlines how the USGS and its partners will approach this effort in the context of the EEW system through the work of a multistate and multiagency committee that participates in the design, implementation, and evaluation of a portfolio of programs and products. This committee, referred to as the ShakeAlert Joint Committee for Communication, Education, and Outreach (ShakeAlert CEO), is working to identify, develop, and cultivate partnerships with EEW stakeholders including Federal, State, academic partners, private companies, policy makers, and local organizations. Efforts include developing materials, methods for delivery, and reaching stakeholders with information on EEW, earthquake preparedness, and emergency protective actions. It is essential to develop standards to ensure information communicated via the EEW alerts is consistent across the public and private sector and achieving a common understanding of what actions users take when they receive an EEW warning. The USGS and the participating states and agencies acknowledge that the implementation of EEW is a collective effort requiring the participation of hundreds of stakeholders committed to ensuring public accessibility.

  1. A simple hand‐held magnet array for efficient and reproducible SABRE hyperpolarisation using manual sample shaking

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Peter M.; Jackson, Scott; Parrott, Andrew J.; Nordon, Alison; Duckett, Simon B.

    2018-01-01

    Signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) is a hyperpolarisation technique that catalytically transfers nuclear polarisation from parahydrogen, the singlet nuclear isomer of H2, to a substrate in solution. The SABRE exchange reaction is carried out in a polarisation transfer field (PTF) of tens of gauss before transfer to a stronger magnetic field for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detection. In the simplest implementation, polarisation transfer is achieved by shaking the sample in the stray field of a superconducting NMR magnet. Although convenient, this method suffers from limited reproducibility and cannot be used with NMR spectrometers that do not have appreciable stray fields, such as benchtop instruments. Here, we use a simple hand‐held permanent magnet array to provide the necessary PTF during sample shaking. We find that the use of this array provides a 25% increase in SABRE enhancement over the stray field approach, while also providing improved reproducibility. Arrays with a range of PTFs were tested, and the PTF‐dependent SABRE enhancements were found to be in excellent agreement with comparable experiments carried out using an automated flow system where an electromagnet is used to generate the PTF. We anticipate that this approach will improve the efficiency and reproducibility of SABRE experiments carried out using manual shaking and will be particularly useful for benchtop NMR, where a suitable stray field is not readily accessible. The ability to construct arrays with a range of PTFs will also enable the rapid optimisation of SABRE enhancement as function of PTF for new substrate and catalyst systems. PMID:29193324

  2. Characteristics of aerobic granules grown on glucose a sequential batch shaking reactor.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chun-guang; Zhu, Nan-wen; Liu, Jun-shen; Wang, Zhen-peng; Cai, Wei-min

    2004-01-01

    Aerobic heterotrophic granular sludge was cultivated in a sequencing batch shaking reactor (SBSR) in which a synthetic wastewater containing glucose as carbon source was fed. The characteristics of the aerobic granules were investigated. Compared with the conventional activated sludge flocs, the aerobic granules exhibit excellent physical characteristics in terms of settleability, size, shape, biomass density, and physical strength. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that in mature granules little filamentous bacteria could be found, rod-shaped and coccoid bacteria were the dominant microorganisms.

  3. Control of spatial orientation of the angular vestibuloocular reflex by the nodulus and uvula.

    PubMed

    Wearne, S; Raphan, T; Cohen, B

    1998-05-01

    Spatial orientation of the angular vestibuloocular reflex (aVOR) was studied in rhesus monkeys after complete and partial ablation of the nodulus and ventral uvula. Horizontal, vertical, and torsional components of slow phases of nystagmus were analyzed to determine the axes of eye rotation, the time constants (Tcs) of velocity storage, and its orientation vectors. The gravito-inertial acceleration vector (GIA) was tilted relative to the head during optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN), centrifugation, and reorientation of the head during postrotatory nystagmus. When the GIA was tilted relative to the head in normal animals, horizontal Tcs decreased, vertical and/or roll time constants (Tc(vert/roll)) lengthened according to the orientation of the GIA, and vertical and/or roll eye velocity components appeared (cross-coupling). This shifted the axis of eye rotation toward alignment with the tilted GIA. Horizontal and vertical/roll Tcs varied inversely, with T(chor) being longest and T(cvert/roll) shortest when monkeys were upright, and the reverse when stimuli were around the vertical or roll axes. Vertical or roll Tcs were longest when the axes of eye rotation were aligned with the spatial vertical, respectively. After complete nodulo-uvulectomy, T(chor) became longer, and periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) developed in darkness. T(chor) could not be shortened in any of paradigms tested. In addition, yaw-to-vertical/roll cross-coupling was lost, and the axes of eye rotation remained fixed during nystagmus, regardless of the tilt of the GIA with respect to the head. After central portions of the nodulus and uvula were ablated, leaving lateral portions of the nodulus intact, yaw-to-vertical/roll cross-coupling and control of Tc(vert/roll) was lost or greatly reduced. However, control of Tchor was maintained, and T(chor) continued to vary as a function of the tilted GIA. Despite this, the eye velocity vector remained aligned with the head during yaw axis stimulation

  4. Strategies for Maximizing Successful Drug Substance Technology Transfer Using Engineering, Shake-Down, and Wet Test Runs.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sushil; Bain, David; Bowers, John; Larivee, Victor; Leira, Francisco; Xie, Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    The technology transfer of biological products is a complex process requiring control of multiple unit operations and parameters to ensure product quality and process performance. To achieve product commercialization, the technology transfer sending unit must successfully transfer knowledge about both the product and the process to the receiving unit. A key strategy for maximizing successful scale-up and transfer efforts is the effective use of engineering and shake-down runs to confirm operational performance and product quality prior to embarking on good manufacturing practice runs such as process performance qualification runs. We consider key factors to consider in making the decision to perform shake-down or engineering runs. We also present industry benchmarking results of how engineering runs are used in drug substance technology transfers alongside the main themes and best practices that have emerged. Our goal is to provide companies with a framework for ensuring the "right first time" technology transfers with effective deployment of resources within increasingly aggressive timeline constraints. © PDA, Inc. 2015.

  5. Shake test results of the MDHC test stand in the 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Benton H.; Peterson, Randall

    1994-01-01

    A shake test was conducted to determine the modal properties of the MDHC (McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company) test stand installed in the 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center. The shake test was conducted for three wind-tunnel balance configurations with and without balance dampers, and with the snubber engagement to lock the balance frame. A hydraulic shaker was used to apply random excitation at the rotor hub in the longitudinal and lateral directions. A GenRad 2515 computer-aided test system computed the frequency response functions at the rotor hub and support struts. From these response functions, the modal properties, including the natural frequency, damping ratio, and mode shape were calculated. The critical modes with low damping ratios are identified as the test-stand second longitudinal mode for the dampers-off configuration, the test-stand yaw mode for the dampers-on configuration, and the test stand first longitudinal mode for the balance-frame locked configuration.

  6. MyShake: Building a smartphone seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Schreier, L.

    2014-12-01

    We are in the process of building up a smartphone seismic network. In order to build this network, we did shake table tests to evaluate the performance of the smartphones as seismic recording instruments. We also conducted noise floor test to find the minimum earthquake signal we can record using smartphones. We added phone noises to the strong motion data from past earthquakes, and used these as an analogy dataset to test algorithms and to understand the difference of using the smartphone network and the traditional seismic network. We also built a prototype system to trigger the smartphones from our server to record signals which can be sent back to the server in near real time. The phones can also be triggered by our developed algorithm running locally on the phone, if there's an earthquake occur to trigger the phones, the signal recorded by the phones will be sent back to the server. We expect to turn the prototype system into a real smartphone seismic network to work as a supplementary network to the existing traditional seismic network.

  7. On the Vertigo Due to Static Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Mian, Omar S.; Li, Yan; Antunes, Andre; Glover, Paul M.; Day, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Vertigo is sometimes experienced in and around MRI scanners. Mechanisms involving stimulation of the vestibular system by movement in magnetic fields or magnetic field spatial gradients have been proposed. However, it was recently shown that vestibular-dependent ocular nystagmus is evoked when stationary in homogenous static magnetic fields. The proposed mechanism involves Lorentz forces acting on endolymph to deflect semicircular canal (SCC) cupulae. To investigate whether vertigo arises from a similar mechanism we recorded qualitative and quantitative aspects of vertigo and 2D eye movements from supine healthy adults (n = 25) deprived of vision while pushed into the 7T static field of an MRI scanner. Exposures were variable and included up to 135s stationary at 7T. Nystagmus was mainly horizontal, persisted during long-exposures with partial decline, and reversed upon withdrawal. The dominant vertiginous perception with the head facing up was rotation in the horizontal plane (85% incidence) with a consistent direction across participants. With the head turned 90 degrees in yaw the perception did not transform into equivalent vertical plane rotation, indicating a context-dependency of the perception. During long exposures, illusory rotation lasted on average 50 s, including 42 s whilst stationary at 7T. Upon withdrawal, perception re-emerged and reversed, lasting on average 30 s. Onset fields for nystagmus and perception were significantly correlated (p<.05). Although perception did not persist as long as nystagmus, this is a known feature of continuous SSC stimulation. These observations, and others in the paper, are compatible with magnetic-field evoked-vertigo and nystagmus sharing a common mechanism. With this interpretation, response decay and reversal upon withdrawal from the field, are due to adaptation to continuous vestibular input. Although the study does not entirely exclude the possibility of mechanisms involving transient vestibular stimulation

  8. A simple hand-held magnet array for efficient and reproducible SABRE hyperpolarisation using manual sample shaking.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Peter M; Jackson, Scott; Parrott, Andrew J; Nordon, Alison; Duckett, Simon B; Halse, Meghan E

    2018-07-01

    Signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) is a hyperpolarisation technique that catalytically transfers nuclear polarisation from parahydrogen, the singlet nuclear isomer of H 2 , to a substrate in solution. The SABRE exchange reaction is carried out in a polarisation transfer field (PTF) of tens of gauss before transfer to a stronger magnetic field for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detection. In the simplest implementation, polarisation transfer is achieved by shaking the sample in the stray field of a superconducting NMR magnet. Although convenient, this method suffers from limited reproducibility and cannot be used with NMR spectrometers that do not have appreciable stray fields, such as benchtop instruments. Here, we use a simple hand-held permanent magnet array to provide the necessary PTF during sample shaking. We find that the use of this array provides a 25% increase in SABRE enhancement over the stray field approach, while also providing improved reproducibility. Arrays with a range of PTFs were tested, and the PTF-dependent SABRE enhancements were found to be in excellent agreement with comparable experiments carried out using an automated flow system where an electromagnet is used to generate the PTF. We anticipate that this approach will improve the efficiency and reproducibility of SABRE experiments carried out using manual shaking and will be particularly useful for benchtop NMR, where a suitable stray field is not readily accessible. The ability to construct arrays with a range of PTFs will also enable the rapid optimisation of SABRE enhancement as function of PTF for new substrate and catalyst systems. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Training shortens search times in children with visual impairment accompanied by nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual learning (PL) can improve near visual acuity (NVA) in 4-9 year old children with visual impairment (VI). However, the mechanisms underlying improved NVA are unknown. The present study compares feature search and oculomotor measures in 4-9 year old children with VI accompanied by nystagmus (VI+nys [n = 33]) and children with normal vision (NV [n = 29]). Children in the VI+nys group were divided into three training groups: an experimental PL group, a control PL group, and a magnifier group. They were seen before (baseline) and after 6 weeks of training. Children with NV were only seen at baseline. The feature search task entailed finding a target E among distractor E's (pointing right) with element spacing varied in four steps: 0.04°, 0.5°, 1°, and 2°. At baseline, children with VI+nys showed longer search times, shorter fixation durations, and larger saccade amplitudes than children with NV. After training, all training groups showed shorter search times. Only the experimental PL group showed prolonged fixation duration after training at 0.5° and 2° spacing, p's respectively 0.033 and 0.021. Prolonged fixation duration was associated with reduced crowding and improved crowded NVA. One of the mechanisms underlying improved crowded NVA after PL in children with VI+nys seems to be prolonged fixation duration.

  10. Visual Behaviors and Adaptations Associated with Cortical and Ocular Impairment in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jan, J. E.; Groenveld, M.

    1993-01-01

    This article shows the usefulness of understanding visual behaviors in the diagnosis of various types of visual impairments that are due to ocular and cortical disorders. Behaviors discussed include nystagmus, ocular motor dyspraxia, head position, close viewing, field loss adaptations, mannerisms, photophobia, and abnormal color perception. (JDD)

  11. James Parkinson and his essay on "shaking palsy", two hundred years later.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Sánchez, Leonardo; Torres Nupan, Martha; Botero-Meneses, Juan Sebastián

    2017-09-01

    In 1817, British physician James Parkinson published a 66-page document entitled "Essay on the Shaking Palsy". This brief text became a classical and fundamental piece in the history of medicine and, in particular, of neurology. The authors of this article wish to pay tribute to this great pioneer of neurology, 200 years after the publication of his findings, which would, in turn, immortalize his name and give rise to the renaming on the entity in 1860 by Professor Jean Martin Charcot, father of neurology. It would be known, henceforth as Parkinson's disease.

  12. Rotor systems research aircraft risk-reduction shake test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. Brent

    1990-01-01

    A shake test and an extensive analysis of results were performed to evaluate the possibility of and the method for dynamically calibrating the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). The RSRA airframe was subjected to known vibratory loads in several degrees of freedom and the responses of many aircraft transducers were recorded. Analysis of the transducer responses using the technique of dynamic force determination showed that the RSRA, when used as a dynamic measurement system, could predict, a posteriori, an excitation force in a single axis to an accuracy of about 5 percent and sometimes better. As the analysis was broadened to include multiple degrees of freedom for the excitation force, the predictive ability of the measurement system degraded to about 20 percent, with the error occasionally reaching 100 percent. The poor performance of the measurement system is explained by the nonlinear response of the RSRA to vibratory forces and the inadequacy of the particular method used in accounting for this nonlinearity.

  13. Paraneoplastic disorders of eye movements

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Shirley H.; Dalmau, Josep; Chen, Athena; King, Susan; Leigh, R. John

    2011-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes affecting the brainstem and cerebellum are reported to cause a variety of abnormalities of eye movements. Recent studies have begun to account for the mechanisms underlying several syndromes, characterized by opsoclonus, slow, or dysmetric saccades, as well as downbeat nystagmus. We provide evidence that upbeat nystagmus in a patient with pancreatic cancer reflected a cerebellar-induced imbalance of otolithic pathways: she showed marked retropulsion, and her nystagmus was dependent on head position, being absent when supine, and suppressed with convergence. In addition to anti-Hu antibodies, we demonstrated antibodies to a novel neuronal cell surface antigen. Taken with other recent studies, our findings suggest that paraneoplastic syndromes arise due to antibodies against surface neuronal antigens, including receptors and channels. Abnormal eye movements in paraneoplastic syndromes offer insights into the pathogenesis of these disorders and the opportunity to test potential therapies, such as new drugs with effects on neuronal channels. PMID:21951005

  14. On-line prediction of the glucose concentration of CHO cell cultivations by NIR and Raman spectroscopy: Comparative scalability test with a shake flask model system.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Bence; Hirsch, Edit; Gergely, Szilveszter; Párta, László; Pataki, Hajnalka; Salgó, András

    2017-10-25

    In this study, near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy were compared in parallel to predict the glucose concentration of Chinese hamster ovary cell cultivations. A shake flask model system was used to quickly generate spectra similar to bioreactor cultivations therefore accelerating the development of a working model prior to actual cultivations. Automated variable selection and several pre-processing methods were tested iteratively during model development using spectra from six shake flask cultivations. The target was to achieve the lowest error of prediction for the glucose concentration in two independent shake flasks. The best model was then used to test the scalability of the two techniques by predicting spectra of a 10l and a 100l scale bioreactor cultivation. The NIR spectroscopy based model could follow the trend of the glucose concentration but it was not sufficiently accurate for bioreactor monitoring. On the other hand, the Raman spectroscopy based model predicted the concentration of glucose in both cultivation scales sufficiently accurately with an error around 4mM (0.72g/l), that is satisfactory for the on-line bioreactor monitoring purposes of the biopharma industry. Therefore, the shake flask model system was proven to be suitable for scalable spectroscopic model development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The SCEC TeraShake Earthquake Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, J.; Olsen, K. B.; Moore, R.; Day, S.; Maechling, P.; Jordan, T.; Faerman, M.; Cui, Y.; Ely, G.; Hu, Y.; Shkoller, B.; Marcinkovich, C.; Bielak, J.; Okaya, D.; Archuleta, R.; Wilkins-Diehr, N.; Cutchin, S.; Chourasia, A.; Kremenek, G.; Jagatheesan, A.; Brieger, L.; Majundar, A.; Chukkapalli, G.; Xin, Q.; Moore, R.; Banister, B.; Thorp, D.; Kovatch, P.; Diegel, L.; Sherwin, T.; Jordan, C.; Thiebaux, M.; Lopez, J.

    2004-12-01

    The southern portion of the San Andreas fault, between Cajon Creek and Bombay Beach has not seen a major event since 1690, and has therefore accumulated a slip deficit of 5-6 m. The potential for this portion of the fault to rupture in a single M7.7 event is a major component of seismic hazard in southern California and northern Mexico. TeraShake is a large-scale finite-difference (fourth-order) simulation of such an event based on Olsen's Anelastic Wave Propagation Model (AWM) code, and conducted in the context of the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Modeling Environment (CME). The fault geometry is taken from the 2002 USGS National Hazard Maps. The kinematic slip function is transported and scaled from published inversions for the 2002 Denali (M7.9) earthquake. The three-dimensional crustal structure is the SCEC Community Velocity model. The 600km x 300km x 80km simulation domain extends from the Ventura Basin and Tehachapi region to the north and to Mexicali and Tijuana to the south. It includes all major population centers in southern California, and is modeled at 200m resolution using a rectangular, 1.8 giganode, 3000 x 1500 x 400 mesh. The simulated duration is 200 seconds, with a temporal resolution of 0.01seconds, maximum frequency of 0.5Hz, for a total of 20,000 time steps. The simulation is planned to run at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) on 240 processors of the IBM Power4, DataStar machine. Validation runs conducted at one sixteenth (4D) resolution have shown that this is the optimal configuration in the trade-off between computational and I/O demands. The full run will consume about 18,000 CPU.hours. Each time step produces a 21.6GByte mesh snapshot of the entire ground motion velocity vectors. A 4D wavefield containing 2,000 time steps, amounting to 43 Tbytes of data, will be stored at SDSC. Surface data will be archived for every time step for synthetic seismogram engineering analysis, totaling 1 Tbyte. The data will be

  16. Quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Quadrupole effects, shake-up, Shirley background, and relative sensitivity factors from a database of true x-ray photoelectron spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seah, M. P.; Gilmore, I. S.

    2006-05-01

    An analysis is provided of the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) intensities measured in the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) XPS database for 46 solid elements. This present analysis does not change our previous conclusions concerning the excellent correlation between experimental intensities, following deconvolving the spectra with angle-averaged reflection electron energy loss data, and the theoretical intensities involving the dipole approximation using Scofield’s cross sections. Here, more recent calculations for cross sections by Trzhaskovskaya involving quadrupole terms are evaluated and it is shown that their cross sections diverge from the experimental database results by up to a factor of 5. The quadrupole angular terms lead to small corrections that are close to our measurement limit but do appear to be supported in the present analysis. Measurements of the extent of shake-up for the 46 elements broadly agree with the calculations of Yarzhemsky but not in detail. The predicted constancy in the shake-up contribution by Yarzhemsky implies that the use of the Shirley background will lead to a peak area that is a constant fraction of the true peak area including the shake-up intensities. However, the measured variability of the shake-up contribution makes the Shirley background invalid for quantification except for situations where the sensitivity factors are from reference samples similar to those being analyzed.

  17. Topography and geology site effects from the intensity prediction model (ShakeMap) for Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Puy Papí Isaba, María; Jia, Yan; Weginger, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The seismicity in Austria can be categorized as moderated. Despite the fact that the hazard seems to be rather low, earthquakes can cause great damage and losses, specially in densely populated and industrialized areas. It is well known, that equations which predict intensity as a function of magnitude and distance, among other parameters, are useful tool for hazard and risk assessment. Therefore, this study aims to determine an empirical model of the ground shaking intensities (ShakeMap) of a series of earthquakes occurred in Austria between 1000 and 2014. Furthermore, the obtained empirical model will lead to further interpretation of both, contemporary and historical earthquakes. A total of 285 events, which epicenters were located in Austria, and a sum of 22.739 reported macreoseismic data points from Austria and adjoining countries, were used. These events are enclosed in the period 1000-2014 and characterized by having a local magnitude greater than 3. In the first state of the model development, the data was careful selected, e.g. solely intensities equal or greater than III were used. In a second state the data was adjusted to the selected empirical model. Finally, geology and topography corrections were obtained by means of the model residuals in order to derive intensity-based site amplification effects.

  18. Shake-table testing of a self-centering precast reinforced concrete frame with shear walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xilin; Yang, Boya; Zhao, Bin

    2018-04-01

    The seismic performance of a self-centering precast reinforced concrete (RC) frame with shear walls was investigated in this paper. The lateral force resistance was provided by self-centering precast RC shear walls (SPCW), which utilize a combination of unbonded prestressed post-tensioned (PT) tendons and mild steel reinforcing bars for flexural resistance across base joints. The structures concentrated deformations at the bottom joints and the unbonded PT tendons provided the self-centering restoring force. A 1/3-scale model of a five-story self-centering RC frame with shear walls was designed and tested on a shake-table under a series of bi-directional earthquake excitations with increasing intensity. The acceleration response, roof displacement, inter-story drifts, residual drifts, shear force ratios, hysteresis curves, and local behaviour of the test specimen were analysed and evaluated. The results demonstrated that seismic performance of the test specimen was satisfactory in the plane of the shear wall; however, the structure sustained inter-story drift levels up to 2.45%. Negligible residual drifts were recorded after all applied earthquake excitations. Based on the shake-table test results, it is feasible to apply and popularize a self-centering precast RC frame with shear walls as a structural system in seismic regions.

  19. Landslides triggered by the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake and the inferred nature of the strong shaking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, R.W.; Harp, E.L.; Schulz, W.; Keefer, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake triggered thousands of landslides, primarily rock falls and rock slides, that ranged in volume from rock falls of a few cubic meters to rock avalanches having volumes as great as 15 ?? 106 m3. The pattern of landsliding was unusual; the number of slides was less than expected for an earthquake of this magnitude, and the landslides were concentrated in a narrow zone 30-km wide that straddled the fault rupture over its entire 300-km length. The large rock avalanches all clustered along the western third of the rupture zone where acceleration levels and ground-shaking frequencies are thought to have been the highest. Inferences about near-field strong shaking characteristics drawn from the interpretation of the landslide distribution are consistent with results of recent inversion modeling that indicate high-frequency energy generation was greatest in the western part of the fault rupture zone and decreased markedly to the east. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  20. Evaluating glacier movement fluctuations using remote sensing: A case study of the Baird, Patterson, LeConte, and Shakes glaciers in central Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Robert Howard

    Global Land Survey (GLS) data encompassing Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Landsat 5's Thematic Mapper (TM), and Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) were used to determine the terminus locations of Baird, Patterson, LeConte, and Shakes Glaciers in Alaska in the time period 1975-2010. The sequences of the terminuses locations were investigated to determine the movement rates of these glaciers with respect to specific physical and environmental conditions. GLS data from 1975, 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2010 in false-color composite images enhancing ice-snow differentiation and Iterative Self-Organizing (ISO) Data Cluster Unsupervised Classifications were used to 1) quantify the movement rates of Baird, Patterson, LeConte, and Shakes Glaciers; 2) analyze the movement rates for glaciers with similar terminal terrain conditions and; 3) analyze the movement rates for glaciers with dissimilar terminal terrain conditions. From the established sequence of terminus locations, movement distances were quantified between the glacier locations. Movement distances were then compared to see if any correlation existed between glaciers with similar or dissimilar terminal terrain conditions. The Global Land Ice Measurement from Space (GLIMS) data was used as a starting point from which glacier movement was measured for Baird, Patterson, and LeConte Glaciers only as the Shakes Glacier is currently not included in the GLIMS database. The National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) temperature data collected at the Petersburg, Alaska, meteorological station (from January 1, 1973 to December 31, 2009) were used to help in the understanding of the climatic condition in this area and potential impact on glaciers terminus. Results show that glaciers with similar terminal terrain conditions (Patterson and Shakes Glaciers) and glaciers with dissimilar terminal terrain conditions (Baird, Patterson, and LeConte Glaciers) did not exhibit similar movement rates

  1. Damage Assessment of a Full-Scale Six-Story wood-frame Building Following Triaxial shake Table Tests

    Treesearch

    John W. van de Lindt; Rakesh Gupta; Shiling Pei; Kazuki Tachibana; Yasuhiro Araki; Douglas Rammer; Hiroshi Isoda

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, a full-scale midrise wood-frame building was tested under a series of simulated earthquakes on the world's largest shake table in Miki City, Japan. The objective of this series of tests was to validate a performance-based seismic design approach by qualitatively and quantitatively examining the building's seismic performance in terms of...

  2. The 2015 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake sequence: I. Source modeling and deterministic 3D ground shaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shengji; Chen, Meng; Wang, Xin; Graves, Robert; Lindsey, Eric; Wang, Teng; Karakaş, Çağıl; Helmberger, Don

    2018-01-01

    To better quantify the relatively long period (< 0.3 Hz) shaking experienced during the 2015 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake sequence, we study the finite rupture processes and the associated 3D ground motion of the Mw7.8 mainshock and the Mw7.2 aftershock. The 3D synthetics are then used in the broadband ground shaking in Kathmandu with a hybrid approach, summarized in a companion paper (Chen and Wei, 2017, submitted together). We determined the coseismic rupture process of the mainshock by joint inversion of InSAR/SAR, GPS (static and high-rate), strong motion and teleseismic waveforms. Our inversion for the mainshock indicates unilateral rupture towards the ESE, with an average rupture speed of 3.0 km/s and a total duration of 60 s. Additionally, we find that the beginning part of the rupture (5-18 s) has about 40% longer rise time than the rest of the rupture, as well as slower rupture velocity. Our model shows two strong asperities occurring 24 s and 36 s after the origin and located 30 km to the northwest and northeast of the Kathmandu valley, respectively. In contrast, the Mw7.2 aftershock is more compact both in time and space, as revealed by joint inversion of teleseismic body waves and InSAR data. The different rupture features between the mainshock and the aftershock could be related to difference in fault zone structure. The mainshock and aftershock ground motions in the Kathmandu valley, recorded by both strong motion and high-rate GPS stations, exhibited strong amplification around 0.2 Hz. A simplified 3D basin model, calibrated by an Mw5.2 aftershock, can match the observed waveforms reasonably well at 0.3 Hz and lower frequency. The 3D simulations indicate that the basin structure trapped the wavefield and produced an extensive ground vibration. Our study suggests that the combination of rupture characteristics and propagational complexity are required to understand the ground shaking produced by hazardous earthquakes such as the Gorkha event.

  3. An easy access to nanocrystalline alkaline earth metal fluorides - just by shaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreger, M.; Scholz, G.; Kemnitz, E.

    2012-04-01

    High energy ball milling as fast, direct and solvent free method allows an easy access to nanocrystalline alkaline earth metal fluorides MF2 (M: Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). Comparable metal sources (acetates, carbonates, hydroxides, alkoxides) were used for the reaction with NH4F as fluorinating agent. Even very simple manual shaking experiments between NH4F and the corresponding hydroxides in the stoichiometric ratio (M:F = 1:2, M: Ca, Sr, Ba) give phase pure fluorides. Moreover, comparable classical thermal reactions in closed crucibles at higher temperatures provide phase pure crystalline fluorides in nearly all cases as well.

  4. Can emergency physicians accurately and reliably assess acute vertigo in the emergency department?

    PubMed

    Vanni, Simone; Nazerian, Peiman; Casati, Carlotta; Moroni, Federico; Risso, Michele; Ottaviani, Maddalena; Pecci, Rudi; Pepe, Giuseppe; Vannucchi, Paolo; Grifoni, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    To validate a clinical diagnostic tool, used by emergency physicians (EPs), to diagnose the central cause of patients presenting with vertigo, and to determine interrater reliability of this tool. A convenience sample of adult patients presenting to a single academic ED with isolated vertigo (i.e. vertigo without other neurological deficits) was prospectively evaluated with STANDING (SponTAneousNystagmus, Direction, head Impulse test, standiNG) by five trained EPs. The first step focused on the presence of spontaneous nystagmus, the second on the direction of nystagmus, the third on head impulse test and the fourth on gait. The local standard practice, senior audiologist evaluation corroborated by neuroimaging when deemed appropriate, was considered the reference standard. Sensitivity and specificity of STANDING were calculated. On the first 30 patients, inter-observer agreement among EPs was also assessed. Five EPs with limited experience in nystagmus assessment volunteered to participate in the present study enrolling 98 patients. Their average evaluation time was 9.9 ± 2.8 min (range 6-17). Central acute vertigo was suspected in 16 (16.3%) patients. There were 13 true positives, three false positives, 81 true negatives and one false negative, with a high sensitivity (92.9%, 95% CI 70-100%) and specificity (96.4%, 95% CI 93-38%) for central acute vertigo according to senior audiologist evaluation. The Cohen's kappas of the first, second, third and fourth steps of the STANDING were 0.86, 0.93, 0.73 and 0.78, respectively. The whole test showed a good inter-observer agreement (k = 0.76, 95% CI 0.45-1). In the hands of EPs, STANDING showed a good inter-observer agreement and accuracy validated against the local standard of care. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  5. Use of shaking treatments and preharvest sprays of pyrethroid insecticides to reduce risk of yellowjackets and other insects on Christmas trees imported into Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Robert G; Chastagner, Gary A; Reimer, Neil J; Oishi, Darcy E; Landolt, Peter J; Paull, Robert E

    2009-02-01

    Insects are commonly found by Hawaii's quarantine inspectors on Christmas trees imported from the Pacific Northwest. To reduce the risk of importing yellowjacket (Vespula spp.) queens and other insects, an inspection and tree shaking certification program was begun in 1990. From 1993 to 2006, the annual percentage of shipped containers rated by Hawaii quarantine inspectors as moderately or highly infested with insects was significantly higher for manually shaken trees than for mechanically shaken trees. Between 1993 and 2001, 343 insect species in total were recovered from Christmas trees. Live western yellowjacket [Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure)] queens were intercepted both from containers certified as manually shaken and from containers certified as mechanically shaken. The standard manual shaking protocol removed about one-half of the queens from Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] trees that were naturally infested with western yellowjacket queens. We investigated the use of preharvest sprays of permethrin as a complement to shaking procedures used to control yellowjackets and other insects. Western yellowjacket queens and honey bees (surrogates for wasp pests) were exposed to Noble fir foliage that had been sprayed in the field with permethrin > 6 wk before harvest. Pesticide residues provided complete control (moribundity or mortality) in both species. The sprays did not affect needle retention or quality of Noble fir foliage. We conclude that preharvest sprays of pyrethroid insecticides could be used in combination with mechanical shaking to greatly reduce the quarantine risk of yellowjacket queens and other insects in exported Christmas trees.

  6. Vibration Modal Characterization of a Stirling Convertor via Base-Shake Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Vicente J.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Hughes, William O.; Samorezov, Sergey

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin (LM), Stirling Technology Company (STC), and NASA John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) are currently developing a high-efficiency Stirling convertor for use in a Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). NASA and DOE have identified the SRG for potential use as an advanced power system for future NASA Space Science missions, providing spacecraft onboard electric power for deep space missions and power for unmanned Mars rovers. Low-level, baseshake sine vibration tests were conducted on the Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC), at NASA GRC's Structural Dynamics Laboratory, in February 2001, as part of the development of this Stirling technology. The purpose of these tests was to provide a better understanding of the TDC's internal dynamic response to external vibratory base excitations. The knowledge obtained can therein be used to help explain the success that the TDC enjoyed in its previous random vibration qualification tests (December 1999). This explanation focuses on the TDC s internal dynamic characteristics in the 50 to 250 Hz frequency range, which corresponds to the maximum input levels of its qualification random vibration test specification. The internal dynamic structural characteristics of the TDC have now been measured in two separate tests under different motoring and dynamic loading conditions: (1) with the convertor being electrically motored, under a vibratory base-shake excitation load, and (2) with the convertor turned off, and its alternator internals undergoing dynamic excitation via hammer impact loading. This paper addresses the test setup, procedure and results of the base-shake vibration testing conducted on the motored TDC, and will compare these results with those results obtained from the dynamic impact tests (May 2001) on the nonmotored TDC.

  7. The Efficacy of Dextroamphetamine as a Motion Sickness Countermeasure for the Use in Military Operational Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-09

    movement and to ensure head-centered movement during rotation. The subject’s gaze was directed to a black visual field inside the device to provide a...vertical nystagmus . (NAMI-1079 NASA Order No. R-93). Pensacola, FL: Naval Aerospace Medical Institute. Homick, J. L., Kohl, R. L., Reschke, M. F

  8. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  9. Infantile nystagmus syndrome is associated with inefficiency of goal-directed hand movements.

    PubMed

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F A; van Rens, Ger H M B; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2014-12-23

    The effect of infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) on the efficiency of goal-directed hand movements was examined. We recruited 37 children with INS and 65 control subjects with normal vision, aged 4 to 8 years. Participants performed horizontally-oriented, goal-directed cylinder displacements as if they displaced a low-vision aid. The first 10 movements of 20 back-and-forth displacements in a trial were performed between two visually presented target areas, and the second 10 between remembered target locations (not visible). Motor performance was examined in terms of movement time, endpoint accuracy, and a harmonicity index reflecting energetic efficiency. Compared to the control group, the children with INS performed the cylinder displacements more slowly (using more time), less accurately (specifically in small-amplitude movements), and with less harmonic acceleration profiles. Their poor visual acuity proved to correlate with slower and less accurate movements, but did not correlate with harmonicity. When moving between remembered target locations, the performance of children with INS was less accurate than that of the children with normal vision. In both groups, movement speed and harmonicity increased with age to a similar extent. Collectively, the findings suggest that, in addition to the visuospatial homing-in problems associated with the syndrome, INS is associated with inefficiency of goal-directed hand movements. ( http://www.trialregister.nl number, NTR2380.). Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  10. pH-metric solubility. 2: correlation between the acid-base titration and the saturation shake-flask solubility-pH methods.

    PubMed

    Avdeef, A; Berger, C M; Brownell, C

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the results of a normal saturation shake-flask method to a new potentiometric acid-base titration method for determining the intrinsic solubility and the solubility-pH profiles of ionizable molecules, and to report the solubility constants determined by the latter technique. The solubility-pH profiles of twelve generic drugs (atenolol, diclofenac.Na, famotidine, flurbiprofen, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, labetolol.HCl, naproxen, phenytoin, and propranolol.HCl), with solubilities spanning over six orders of magnitude, were determined both by the new pH-metric method and by a traditional approach (24 hr shaking of saturated solutions, followed by filtration, then HPLC assaying with UV detection). The 212 separate saturation shake-flask solubility measurements and those derived from 65 potentiometric titrations agreed well. The analysis produced the correlation equation: log(1/S)titration = -0.063(+/- 0.032) + 1.025(+/- 0.011) log(1/S)shake-flask, s = 0.20, r2 = 0.978. The potentiometrically-derived intrinsic solubilities of the drugs were: atenolol 13.5 mg/mL, diclofenac.Na 0.82 microg/mL, famotidine 1.1 mg/ mL, flurbiprofen 10.6 microg/mL, furosemide 5.9 microg/mL, hydrochlorothiazide 0.70 mg/mL, ibuprofen 49 microg/mL, ketoprofen 118 microg/mL, labetolol.HCl 128 microg/mL, naproxen 14 microg/mL, phenytoin 19 microg/mL, and propranolol.HCl 70 microg/mL. The new potentiometric method was shown to be reliable for determining the solubility-pH profiles of uncharged ionizable drug substances. Its speed compared to conventional equilibrium measurements, its sound theoretical basis, its ability to generate the full solubility-pH profile from a single titration, and its dynamic range (currently estimated to be seven orders of magnitude) make the new pH-metric method an attractive addition to traditional approaches used by preformulation and development scientists. It may be useful even to discovery

  11. The O-mannosylation and production of recombinant APA (45/47 KDa) protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Streptomyces lividans is affected by culture conditions in shake flasks.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Cordova-Dávalos, Laura E; Martínez-Sotelo, José A; Servín-González, Luis; Espitia, Clara; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A

    2011-12-20

    The Ala-Pro-rich O-glycoprotein known as the 45/47 kDa or APA antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an immunodominant adhesin restricted to mycobacterium genus and has been proposed as an alternative candidate to generate a new vaccine against tuberculosis or for diagnosis kits. In this work, the recombinant O-glycoprotein APA was produced by the non-pathogenic filamentous bacteria Streptomyces lividans, evaluating three different culture conditions. This strain is known for its ability to produce heterologous proteins in a shorter time compared to M. tuberculosis. Three different shake flask geometries were used to provide different shear and oxygenation conditions; and the impact of those conditions on the morphology of S. lividans and the production of rAPA was characterized and evaluated. Small unbranched free filaments and mycelial clumps were found in baffled and coiled shake flasks, but one order of magnitude larger pellets were found in conventional shake flasks. The production of rAPA is around 3 times higher in small mycelia than in larger pellets, most probably due to difficulties in mass transfer inside pellets. Moreover, there are four putative sites of O-mannosylation in native APA, one of which is located at the carboxy-terminal region. The carbohydrate composition of this site was determined for rAPA by mass spectrometry analysis, and was found to contain different glycoforms depending on culture conditions. Up to two mannoses residues were found in cultures carried out in conventional shake flasks, and up to five mannoses residues were determined in coiled and baffled shake flasks. The shear and/or oxygenation parameters determine the bacterial morphology, the productivity, and the O-mannosylation of rAPA in S. lividans. As demonstrated here, culture conditions have to be carefully controlled in order to obtain recombinant O-glycosylated proteins with similar "quality" in bacteria, particularly, if the protein activity depends on the

  12. Development of a circulation direct sampling and monitoring system for O2 and CO2 concentrations in the gas-liquid phases of shake-flask systems during microbial cell culture.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masato; Sawada, Yoshisuke; Aoyagi, Hideki

    2017-08-23

    Monitoring the environmental factors during shake-flask culture of microorganisms can help to optimise the initial steps of bioprocess development. Herein, we developed a circulation direct monitoring and sampling system (CDMSS) that can monitor the behaviour of CO 2 and O 2 in the gas-liquid phases and obtain a sample without interrupting the shaking of the culture in Erlenmeyer flasks capped with breathable culture plugs. Shake-flask culturing of Escherichia coli using this set-up indicated that a high concentration of CO 2 accumulated not only in the headspace (maximum ~100 mg/L) but also in the culture broth (maximum ~85 mg/L) during the logarithmic phase (4.5-9.0 h). By packing a CO 2 absorbent in the gas circulation unit of CDMSS, a specialised shake-flask culture was developed to remove CO 2 from the headspace. It was posited that removing CO 2 from the headspace would suppress increases in the dissolved CO 2 concentration in the culture broth (maximum ~15 mg/L). Furthermore, the logarithmic growth phase (4.5-12.0 h) was extended, the U.O.D. 580 and pH value increased, and acetic acid concentration was reduced, compared with the control. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a method aimed at improving the growth of E. coli cells without changing the composition of the medium, temperature, and shaking conditions.

  13. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Presenting With Dizziness and Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Ju; Kang, Kyung-Wook; Lee, Sae-Young; Kang, Seung-Ho; Lee, Seung-Han; Kim, Byeong C

    2016-02-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is clinically characterized by rapidly progressive dementia combined with other cardinal symptoms, such as myoclonus, visual or cerebellar disturbances, extrapyramidal or pyramidal disturbance, and akinetic mutism. However, as an initial manifestation, focal neurologic deficits other than the aforementioned or nonspecific generalized symptoms may lead to a misdiagnosis or a delayed diagnosis. The authors report a case of 66-year-old male patient with sporadic CJD who had dizziness, gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN), and other central eye signs (impaired smooth pursuit, saccadic dysmetria) as an initial manifestation without dementia. The central eye signs led us to perform brain magnetic resonance images, which showed abnormal cortical high-signal intensity in both the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres including the vestibulocerebellum. We reached a presumptive diagnosis of CJD, but the findings did not meet diagnostic criteria for probable CJD at that time. Three weeks after the initial work-ups, the patient presented with typical neurological findings of CJD: rapidly progressive dementia, akinetic mutism, and myoclonus of the left arm. Cerebrospinal fluid was positive for 14-3-3 protein, and electroencephalography showed periodic sharp wave complexes. In this patient, GEN and other central eye signs provided diagnostic clues for CJD. These unusual neurological manifestations may help physicians have a thorough knowledge of early deficits of CJD.

  14. Shaking intensity from injection-induced versus tectonic earthquakes in the central-eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Although instrumental recordings of earthquakes in the central and eastern United States (CEUS) remain sparse, the U. S. Geological Survey's “Did you feel it?” (DYFI) system now provides excellent characterization of shaking intensities caused by induced and tectonic earthquakes. Seventeen CEUS events are considered between 2013 and 2015. It is shown that for 15 events, observed intensities at epicentral distances greater than ≈ 10 km are lower than expected given a published intensity-prediction equation for the region. Using simple published relations among intensity, magnitude, and stress drop, the results suggest that 15 of the 17 events have low stress drop. For those 15 events, intensities within ≈ 10-km epicentral distance are closer to predicted values, which can be explained as a consequence of relatively shallow source depths. The results suggest that those 15 events, most of which occurred in areas where induced earthquakes have occurred previously, were likely induced. Although moderate injection-induced earthquakes in the central and eastern United States will be felt widely because of low regional attenuation, the damage from shallow earthquakes induced by injection will be more localized to event epicenters than shaking tectonic earthquakes, which tend to be somewhat deeper. Within approximately 10 km of the epicenter, intensities are generally commensurate with predicted levels expected for the event magnitude.

  15. Children of Methadone-Maintained Mothers: Three-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Helen L.; And Others

    The physical and neurobehavioral findings at 3 years of age for 39 children born to mothers on methadone- maintenance and 23 children born to drug-free comparison mothers are reported. The methadone children had a higher incidence of head circumferences less than the third percentile, nystagmus/strabismus, and otitis media. No differences were…

  16. Instrumental shaking thresholds for seismically induced landslides and preliminary report on landslides triggered by the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta, California earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    The generation of seismically induced landslide depends on the characteristics of shaking as well as mechanical properties of geologic materials. A very important parameter in the study of seismically induced landslide is the intensity based on a strong-motion accelerogram: it is defined as Arias intensity and is proportional to the duration of the shaking record as well as the amplitude. Having a theoretical relationship between Arias intensity, magnitude and distance it is possible to predict how far away from the seismic source landslides are likely to occur for a given magnitude earthquake. Field investigations have established that the threshold level of Arias intensity depends also on site effects, particularly the fracture characteristics of the outcrops present. -from Author

  17. Synthetic dimensions for cold atoms from shaking a harmonic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Hannah M.; Ozawa, Tomoki; Goldman, Nathan

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a simple scheme to implement synthetic dimensions in ultracold atomic gases, which only requires two basic and ubiquitous ingredients: the harmonic trap, which confines the atoms, combined with a periodic shaking. In our approach, standard harmonic oscillator eigenstates are reinterpreted as lattice sites along a synthetic dimension, while the coupling between these lattice sites is controlled by the applied time modulation. The phase of this modulation enters as a complex hopping phase, leading straightforwardly to an artificial magnetic field upon adding a second dimension. We show that this artificial gauge field has important consequences, such as the counterintuitive reduction of average energy under resonant driving, or the realization of quantum Hall physics. Our approach offers significant advantages over previous implementations of synthetic dimensions, providing an intriguing route towards higher-dimensional topological physics and strongly-correlated states.

  18. Scale-up from shake flasks to bioreactor, based on power input and Streptomyces lividans morphology, for the production of recombinant APA (45/47 kDa protein) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Marín-Palacio, Luz D; Martínez-Sotelo, José A; Espitia, Clara; Servín-González, Luis; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A

    2013-08-01

    Culture conditions in shake flasks affect filamentous Streptomyces lividans morphology, as well the productivity and O-mannosylation of recombinant Ala-Pro-rich O-glycoprotein (known as the 45/47 kDa or APA antigen) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to scale up from previous reported shake flasks to bioreactor, data from the literature on the effect of agitation on morphology of Streptomyces strains were used to obtain gassed volumetric power input values that can be used to obtain a morphology of S. lividans in bioreactor similar to the morphology previously reported in coiled/baffled shake flasks by our group. Morphology of S. lividans was successfully scaled-up, obtaining similar mycelial sizes in both scales with diameters of 0.21 ± 0.09 mm in baffled and coiled shake flasks, and 0.15 ± 0.01 mm in the bioreactor. Moreover, the specific growth rate was successfully scaled up (0.09 ± 0.02 and 0.12 ± 0.01 h(-1), for bioreactors and flasks, respectively), and the recombinant protein productivity measured by densitometry, as well. More interestingly, the quality of the recombinant glycoprotein measured as the amount of mannoses attached to the C-terminal of APA was also scaled- up; with up to five mannose residues in cultures carried out in shake flasks; and six in the bioreactor. However, final biomass concentration was not similar, indicating that although the process can be scaled-up using the power input, others factors like oxygen transfer rate, tip speed or energy dissipation/circulation function can be an influence on bacterial metabolism.

  19. A Field-Shaking System to Reduce the Screening Current-Induced Field in the 800-MHz HTS Insert of the MIT 1.3-GHz LTS/HTS NMR Magnet: A Small-Model Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiho; Park, Dongkeun; Michael, Philip C; Noguchi, So; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present experimental results, of a small-model study, from which we plan to develop and apply a full-scale field-shaking system to reduce the screening current-induced field (SCF) in the 800-MHz HTS Insert (H800) of the MIT 1.3-GHz LTS/HTS NMR magnet (1.3G) currently under construction-the H800 is composed of 3 nested coils, each a stack of no-insulation (NI) REBCO double-pancakes. In 1.3G, H800 is the chief source of a large error field generated by its own SCF. To study the effectiveness of the field-shaking technique, we used two NI REBCO double-pancakes, one from Coil 2 (HCoil2) and one from Coil 3 (HCoil3) of the 3 H800 coils, and placed them in the bore of a 5-T/300-mm room-temperature bore low-temperature superconducting (LTS) background magnet. The background magnet is used not only to induce the SCF in the double-pancakes but also to reduce it by the field-shaking technique. For each run, we induced the SCF in the double-pancakes at an axial location where the external radial field Br > 0, then for the field-shaking, moved them to another location where the external axial field Bz ≫ B R . Due to the geometry of H800 and L500, top double-pancakes of 3 H800 coils will experience the considerable radial magnetic field perpendicular to the REBCO tape surface. To examine the effect of the field-shaking on the SCF, we tested each NI REBCO DP in the absence or presence of a radial field. In this paper, we report 77-K experimental results and analysis of the effect and a few significant remarks of the field-shaking.

  20. Vibration-induced nystagmus in patients with vestibular schwannoma: Characteristics and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Kim, Mi Joo; Kim, Jin Won; Shim, Dae Bo; Kim, Jinna; Kim, Sung Huhn

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of vibration-induced nystagmus (VIN) in unilateral vestibular asymmetry and vestibular schwannoma. Thirteen patients with vestibular schwannoma underwent the VIN test, in which stimulation was applied to the mastoid processes and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles on the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of lesions. Preoperative VIN was measured, and changes in VIN were followed up for 6months after tumor removal. Significance of VIN was determined by evaluation of its sensitivity, correlation with vestibular function tests and tumor volume, and postoperative changes. The overall pre and postoperative sensitivities of VIN were 92.3% and 100%, respectively, considering stimulation at all four sites. Maximum slow-phase velocity (MSPV) of VIN was linearly correlated with caloric weakness and tumor volume, especially when stimulation was applied to the SCM muscle. Postoperative MSPV of VIN exhibited stronger linear correlation with postoperative changes in canal paresis value and inverse correlation with tumor size upon stimulation of the ipsilateral SCM muscle than upon stimulation of other sites. During the 6-month follow-up period, persistence of VIN without changes in MSPV was observed even after vestibular compensation. Evoking VIN by stimulation of the mastoid processes and SCM muscles is effective for detecting vestibular asymmetry. It could also help determine the degree of vestibular asymmetry and volume of vestibular schwannoma if stimulation is applied to the SCM muscle. The results of this study could provide clues for the basic application of VIN in patients with vestibular loss and vestibular schwannoma. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Four cases of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Inui, H; Yoneyama, K; Kitaoku, Y; Nakane, M; Ohue, S; Yamanaka, T; Ueda, T; Fujita, N; Miyahara, H; Matsunaga, T

    1998-01-01

    Four cases of vertebrobasilar insufficiency are reported. Case 1 was a 38-year-old man who felt a sudden onset of dizziness when he turned his head to the back. An abnormal positional nystagmus was observed when he rotated his head to the left. A magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) demonstrated total occlusion of the left vertebral artery (VA). Case 2 was a 31-year-old woman who had a total occlusion of her left VA as observed in the MRA. Case 3 was a 68-year-old man who noted dizziness. The systolic blood pressure change on his Schellong test was 28 mmHg. On his MRA, severe displacement of the basilar and the vertebral arteries was visible. Case 4 was a 76-year-old woman who noted a blackout-like sensation. Optokinetic nystagmus was noted with a hyponystagmus pattern, and an eye tracking test showed a saccadic pattern. On her MRA, the vertebrobasilar system was narrowed. The arterial architecture and any stenosis of the blood vessels could be detected non-invasively by MRA.

  2. A low-cost video-oculography system for vestibular function testing.

    PubMed

    Jihwan Park; Youngsun Kong; Yunyoung Nam

    2017-07-01

    In order to remain in focus during head movements, vestibular-ocular reflex causes eyes to move in the opposite direction to head movement. Disorders of vestibular system decrease vision, causing abnormal nystagmus and dizziness. To diagnose abnormal nystagmus, various studies have been reported including the use of rotating chair tests and videonystagmography. However, these tests are unsuitable for home use due to their high costs. Thus, a low-cost video-oculography system is necessary to obtain clinical features at home. In this paper, we present a low-cost video-oculography system using an infrared camera and Raspberry Pi board for tracking the pupils and evaluating a vestibular system. Horizontal eye movement is derived from video data obtained from an infrared camera and infrared light-emitting diodes, and the velocity of head rotation is obtained from a gyroscope sensor. Each pupil was extracted using a morphology operation and a contour detection method. Rotatory chair tests were conducted with our developed device. To evaluate our system, gain, asymmetry, and phase were measured and compared with System 2000. The average IQR errors of gain, phase and asymmetry were 0.81, 2.74 and 17.35, respectively. We showed that our system is able to measure clinical features.

  3. Verification of SORD, and Application to the TeraShake Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, G. P.; Day, S.; Minster, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Support Operator Rupture Dynamics (SORD) code provides a highly scalable (up to billions of nodes) computational tool for modeling spontaneous rupture on a non-planar fault surface embedded in a heterogeneous medium with surface topography. SORD successfully performs the SCEC Rupture Dynamics Code Validation Project tests, and we have undertaken further dynamic rupture tests assessing the effects of distorted hexahedral meshes on code accuracy. We generate a family of distorted meshes by simple shearing (applied both parallel and normal to the fault plane) of an initially Cartesian mesh. For shearing normal to the fault, shearing angle was varied, up to a maximum of 73-degrees. For SCEC Validation Problem 3, grid-induced errors increase with mesh-shear angle, with the logarithm of error approximately proportional to angle over the range tested. At 73-degrees, RMS misfits are about 10% for peak slip rate, and 0.5% for both rupture time and total slip, indicating that the method--which up to now we have applied mainly to near-vertical strike-slip faulting-- also is capable of handling geometries appropriate to low-angle surface-rupturing thrust earthquakes. The SORD code was used to reexamine the TeraShake 2 dynamics simulations of a M7.7 earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault. Relative to the original (Olsen et al, 2007) TeraShake 2 simulations, our spontaneous rupture models find decreased peak ground velocities in the Los Angles basin, principally due to a shallower eastward connecting basin chain in the SCEC Velo