Science.gov

Sample records for head-controlled human-computer interface

  1. Human-computer interface

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-12-21

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing. Force feedback allows intuitive navigation and control near a boundary between regions in a computer-represented space. For example, the method allows a user to interact with a virtual craft, then push through the windshield of the craft to interact with the virtual world surrounding the craft. As another example, the method allows a user to feel transitions between different control domains of a computer representation of a space. The method can provide for force feedback that increases as a user's locus of interaction moves near a boundary, then perceptibly changes (e.g., abruptly drops or changes direction) when the boundary is traversed.

  2. Human-computer interface design

    SciTech Connect

    Bowser, S.E.

    1995-04-01

    Modern military forces assume that computer-based information is reliable, timely, available, usable, and shared. The importance of computer-based information is based on the assumption that {open_quotes}shared situation awareness, coupled with the ability to conduct continuous operations, will allow information age armies to observe, decide, and act faster, more correctly and more precisely than their enemies.{close_quotes} (Sullivan and Dubik 1994). Human-Computer Interface (HCI) design standardization is critical to the realization of the previously stated assumptions. Given that a key factor of a high-performance, high-reliability system is an easy-to-use, effective design of the interface between the hardware, software, and the user, it follows logically that the interface between the computer and the military user is critical to the success of the information-age military. The proliferation of computer technology has resulted in the development of an extensive variety of computer-based systems and the implementation of varying HCI styles on these systems. To accommodate the continued growth in computer-based systems, minimize HCI diversity, and improve system performance and reliability, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is continuing to adopt interface standards for developing computer-based systems.

  3. Formal specification of human-computer interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auernheimer, Brent

    1990-01-01

    A high-level formal specification of a human computer interface is described. Previous work is reviewed and the ASLAN specification language is described. Top-level specifications written in ASLAN for a library and a multiwindow interface are discussed.

  4. Human computer interface guide, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Human Computer Interface Guide, SSP 30540, is a reference document for the information systems within the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP). The Human Computer Interface Guide (HCIG) provides guidelines for the design of computer software that affects human performance, specifically, the human-computer interface. This document contains an introduction and subparagraphs on SSFP computer systems, users, and tasks; guidelines for interactions between users and the SSFP computer systems; human factors evaluation and testing of the user interface system; and example specifications. The contents of this document are intended to be consistent with the tasks and products to be prepared by NASA Work Package Centers and SSFP participants as defined in SSP 30000, Space Station Program Definition and Requirements Document. The Human Computer Interface Guide shall be implemented on all new SSFP contractual and internal activities and shall be included in any existing contracts through contract changes. This document is under the control of the Space Station Control Board, and any changes or revisions will be approved by the deputy director.

  5. Unmanned Surface Vehicle Human-Computer Interface for Amphibious Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    FIGURES Figure 1. MOCU Baseline HCI using Both Aerial Photo and Digital Nautical Chart ( DNC ) Maps to Control and Monitor Land, Sea, and Air...Action DNC Digital Nautical Chart FNC Future Naval Capability HCI Human-Computer Interface HRI Human-Robot Interface HSI Human-Systems Integration...Digital Nautical Chart ( DNC ) Maps to Control and Monitor Land, Sea, and Air Vehicles. 3.2 BASELINE MOCU HCI The Baseline MOCU interface is a tiled

  6. Learning Machine, Vietnamese Based Human-Computer Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The sixth session of IT@EDU98 consisted of seven papers on the topic of the learning machine--Vietnamese based human-computer interface, and was chaired by Phan Viet Hoang (Informatics College, Singapore). "Knowledge Based Approach for English Vietnamese Machine Translation" (Hoang Kiem, Dinh Dien) presents the knowledge base approach,…

  7. Portable human/computer interface mounted in eyewear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, Mark B.; Aquilino, P. D.; Olson, Mark H.; McClelland, Robert W.; Rensing, Noa M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper presents results on the development of an eyeglass based human/computer interface. The interface comprises a display mounted within the eyeglasses, and a lens for relaying information inconspicuously to the wearer's eye. The paper will discuss eyeglass interface systems that utilize miniature displays and magnifying optics to provide a field of view of up to 10 degrees, with a resolution of approximately .03 degrees per pixel. Details of the design and construction of such systems, including methods of addressing the need for prescriptive correction will be presented. The paper concludes with comments on adding other new features to the interface system.

  8. Assessment of a human computer interface prototyping environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Loretta A.

    1993-01-01

    A Human Computer Interface (HCI) prototyping environment with embedded evaluation capability has been successfully assessed which will be valuable in developing and refining HCI standards and evaluating program/project interface development, especially Space Station Freedom on-board displays for payload operations. The HCI prototyping environment is designed to include four components: (1) a HCI format development tool, (2) a test and evaluation simulator development tool, (3) a dynamic, interactive interface between the HCI prototype and simulator, and (4) an embedded evaluation capability to evaluate the adequacy of an HCI based on a user's performance.

  9. Human-computer interface including haptically controlled interactions

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2005-10-11

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing that provides haptic feedback to control interface interactions such as scrolling or zooming within an application. Haptic feedback in the present method allows the user more intuitive control of the interface interactions, and allows the user's visual focus to remain on the application. The method comprises providing a control domain within which the user can control interactions. For example, a haptic boundary can be provided corresponding to scrollable or scalable portions of the application domain. The user can position a cursor near such a boundary, feeling its presence haptically (reducing the requirement for visual attention for control of scrolling of the display). The user can then apply force relative to the boundary, causing the interface to scroll the domain. The rate of scrolling can be related to the magnitude of applied force, providing the user with additional intuitive, non-visual control of scrolling.

  10. Human-computer interface incorporating personal and application domains

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-03-29

    The present invention provides a human-computer interface. The interface includes provision of an application domain, for example corresponding to a three-dimensional application. The user is allowed to navigate and interact with the application domain. The interface also includes a personal domain, offering the user controls and interaction distinct from the application domain. The separation into two domains allows the most suitable interface methods in each: for example, three-dimensional navigation in the application domain, and two- or three-dimensional controls in the personal domain. Transitions between the application domain and the personal domain are under control of the user, and the transition method is substantially independent of the navigation in the application domain. For example, the user can fly through a three-dimensional application domain, and always move to the personal domain by moving a cursor near one extreme of the display.

  11. Human-computer interface incorporating personal and application domains

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-04-20

    The present invention provides a human-computer interface. The interface includes provision of an application domain, for example corresponding to a three-dimensional application. The user is allowed to navigate and interact with the application domain. The interface also includes a personal domain, offering the user controls and interaction distinct from the application domain. The separation into two domains allows the most suitable interface methods in each: for example, three-dimensional navigation in the application domain, and two- or three-dimensional controls in the personal domain. Transitions between the application domain and the personal domain are under control of the user, and the transition method is substantially independent of the navigation in the application domain. For example, the user can fly through a three-dimensional application domain, and always move to the personal domain by moving a cursor near one extreme of the display.

  12. Human-computer interface controlled by the lip.

    PubMed

    Jose, Marcelo Archajo; de Deus Lopes, Roseli

    2015-01-01

    Lip control system is an innovative human-computer interface specially designed for people with tetraplegia. This paper presents an evaluation of the lower lip potential to control an input device, according to Fitts' law (ISO/TS 9241-411:2012 standard). The results show that the lower lip throughput is comparable with the thumb throughput using the same input device under the same conditions. These results establish the baseline for future research studies about the lower lip capacity to operate a computer input device.

  13. Designers' models of the human-computer interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillan, Douglas J.; Breedin, Sarah D.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding design models of the human-computer interface (HCI) may produce two types of benefits. First, interface development often requires input from two different types of experts: human factors specialists and software developers. Given the differences in their backgrounds and roles, human factors specialists and software developers may have different cognitive models of the HCI. Yet, they have to communicate about the interface as part of the design process. If they have different models, their interactions are likely to involve a certain amount of miscommunication. Second, the design process in general is likely to be guided by designers' cognitive models of the HCI, as well as by their knowledge of the user, tasks, and system. Designers do not start with a blank slate; rather they begin with a general model of the object they are designing. The author's approach to a design model of the HCI was to have three groups make judgments of categorical similarity about the components of an interface: human factors specialists with HCI design experience, software developers with HCI design experience, and a baseline group of computer users with no experience in HCI design. The components of the user interface included both display components such as windows, text, and graphics, and user interaction concepts, such as command language, editing, and help. The judgments of the three groups were analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis and Pathfinder. These methods indicated, respectively, how the groups categorized the concepts, and network representations of the concepts for each group. The Pathfinder analysis provides greater information about local, pairwise relations among concepts, whereas the cluster analysis shows global, categorical relations to a greater extent.

  14. The use of analytical models in human-computer interface design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gugerty, Leo

    1991-01-01

    Some of the many analytical models in human-computer interface design that are currently being developed are described. The usefulness of analytical models for human-computer interface design is evaluated. Can the use of analytical models be recommended to interface designers? The answer, based on the empirical research summarized here, is: not at this time. There are too many unanswered questions concerning the validity of models and their ability to meet the practical needs of design organizations.

  15. Developing the human-computer interface for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina L.

    1991-01-01

    For the past two years, the Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory (HCIL) at the Johnson Space Center has been involved in prototyping and prototype reviews of in support of the definition phase of the Space Station Freedom program. On the Space Station, crew members will be interacting with multi-monitor workstations where interaction with several displays at one time will be common. The HCIL has conducted several experiments to begin to address design issues for this complex system. Experiments have dealt with design of ON/OFF indicators, the movement of the cursor across multiple monitors, and the importance of various windowing capabilities for users performing multiple tasks simultaneously.

  16. User interface issues in supporting human-computer integrated scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Biefeld, Eric W.

    1991-01-01

    Explored here is the user interface problems encountered with the Operations Missions Planner (OMP) project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). OMP uses a unique iterative approach to planning that places additional requirements on the user interface, particularly to support system development and maintenance. These requirements are necessary to support the concepts of heuristically controlled search, in-progress assessment, and iterative refinement of the schedule. The techniques used to address the OMP interface needs are given.

  17. User interface issues in supporting human-computer integrated scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Biefeld, Eric W.

    1991-01-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: characteristics of Operations Mission Planner (OMP) schedule domain; OMP architecture; definition of a schedule; user interface dimensions; functional distribution; types of users; interpreting user interaction; dynamic overlays; reactive scheduling; and transitioning the interface.

  18. User interface issues in supporting human-computer integrated scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Biefeld, Eric W.

    1991-09-01

    The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: characteristics of Operations Mission Planner (OMP) schedule domain; OMP architecture; definition of a schedule; user interface dimensions; functional distribution; types of users; interpreting user interaction; dynamic overlays; reactive scheduling; and transitioning the interface.

  19. Competence of People with Intellectual Disabilities on Using Human-Computer Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Alex W. K.; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W. P.; Lam, Chow S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the task processes which hinder people with intellectual disabilities (ID) when using the human-computer interface. This involved testing performance on specific computer tasks and conducting detailed analyses of the task demands imposed on the participants. The interface used by Internet Explorer (IE) was standardized into 16…

  20. A Framework and Implementation of User Interface and Human-Computer Interaction Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peslak, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that up to 50 % of the effort in development of information systems is devoted to user interface development (Douglas, Tremaine, Leventhal, Wills, & Manaris, 2002; Myers & Rosson, 1992). Yet little study has been performed on the inclusion of important interface and human-computer interaction topics into a current…

  1. Emerging human-computer interface (HCI) design guidelines for graphical user interface (GUI)

    SciTech Connect

    Bowser, S.E.; Adams, S.M.

    1993-10-01

    The requirement to establish baseline style references for Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) is recognized. The ability to obtain consensus among user communities has been limited to nonexistent. The authors are part of a team that has developed a generic baseline human-computer interface (HCI) style guide for the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). The DoD HCI Style Guide has its origin in a style guide developed by the intelligence community and in human factors design guidelines developed for Army tactical command and control systems. The DoD HCI Style Guide is intended to be a baseline style reference for the design of HCIs within DoD. The needs of specific user communities have been addressed by including addenda that expand on the baseline and address focus areas of interest. The conclusion is that an overall or general style guide should be adopted for GUIs with allowance for specialized user group requirements and additions. The anticipated results would be higher productivity and reduced training and development time.

  2. New Human-Computer Interface Concepts for Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Jeffrey A.; Hoxie, Mary Sue; Gillen, Dave; Parkinson, Christopher; Breed, Julie; Nickens, Stephanie; Baitinger, Mick

    2000-01-01

    The current climate of budget cuts has forced the space mission operations community to reconsider how it does business. Gone are the days of building one-of-kind control centers with teams of controllers working in shifts 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Increasingly, automation is used to significantly reduce staffing needs. In some cases, missions are moving towards lights-out operations where the ground system is run semi-autonomously. On-call operators are brought in only to resolve anomalies. Some operations concepts also call for smaller operations teams to manage an entire family of spacecraft. In the not too distant future, a skeleton crew of full-time general knowledge operators will oversee the operations of large constellations of small spacecraft, while geographically distributed specialists will be assigned to emergency response teams based on their expertise. As the operations paradigms change, so too must the tools to support the mission operations team's tasks. Tools need to be built not only to automate routine tasks, but also to communicate varying types of information to the part-time, generalist, or on-call operators and specialists more effectively. Thus, the proper design of a system's user-system interface (USI) becomes even more importance than before. Also, because the users will be accessing these systems from various locations (e.g., control center, home, on the road) via different devices with varying display capabilities (e.g., workstations, home PCs, PDAS, pagers) over connections with various bandwidths (e.g., dial-up 56k, wireless 9.6k), the same software must have different USIs to support the different types of users, their equipment, and their environments. In other words, the software must now adapt to the needs of the users! This paper will focus on the needs and the challenges of designing USIs for mission operations. After providing a general discussion of these challenges, the paper will focus on the current efforts of

  3. Improving the human-computer interface: a human factors engineering approach.

    PubMed

    Salvemini, A V

    1998-01-01

    Human factors engineering involves the application of information about human behavior and characteristics in the design and testing of products, systems, and environments. A computing system's interface is developed on the basis of potential users' capabilities and limitations, the users' tasks, and the environment in which those tasks are performed. When human factors engineers work with users, subject-matter experts, and developers to design and test a system, they analyze and document users' tasks and requirements and develop prototype designs. Usability studies are conducted and user errors are analyzed to identify problems and develop recommendations for improving the human-computer interface.

  4. Sensory system for implementing a human-computer interface based on electrooculography.

    PubMed

    Barea, Rafael; Boquete, Luciano; Rodriguez-Ascariz, Jose Manuel; Ortega, Sergio; López, Elena

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a sensory system for implementing a human-computer interface based on electrooculography. An acquisition system captures electrooculograms and transmits them via the ZigBee protocol. The data acquired are analysed in real time using a microcontroller-based platform running the Linux operating system. The continuous wavelet transform and neural network are used to process and analyse the signals to obtain highly reliable results in real time. To enhance system usability, the graphical interface is projected onto special eyewear, which is also used to position the signal-capturing electrodes.

  5. The use of analytical models in human-computer interface design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gugerty, Leo

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a large number of human-computer interface (HCI) researchers have investigated building analytical models of the user, which are often implemented as computer models. These models simulate the cognitive processes and task knowledge of the user in ways that allow a researcher or designer to estimate various aspects of an interface's usability, such as when user errors are likely to occur. This information can lead to design improvements. Analytical models can supplement design guidelines by providing designers rigorous ways of analyzing the information-processing requirements of specific tasks (i.e., task analysis). These models offer the potential of improving early designs and replacing some of the early phases of usability testing, thus reducing the cost of interface design. This paper describes some of the many analytical models that are currently being developed and evaluates the usefulness of analytical models for human-computer interface design. This paper will focus on computational, analytical models, such as the GOMS model, rather than less formal, verbal models, because the more exact predictions and task descriptions of computational models may be useful to designers. The paper also discusses some of the practical requirements for using analytical models in complex design organizations such as NASA.

  6. Effects of muscle fatigue on the usability of a myoelectric human-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Barszap, Alexander G; Skavhaug, Ida-Maria; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2016-10-01

    Electromyography-based human-computer interface development is an active field of research. However, knowledge on the effects of muscle fatigue for specific devices is limited. We have developed a novel myoelectric human-computer interface in which subjects continuously navigate a cursor to targets by manipulating a single surface electromyography (sEMG) signal. Two-dimensional control is achieved through simultaneous adjustments of power in two frequency bands through a series of dynamic low-level muscle contractions. Here, we investigate the potential effects of muscle fatigue during the use of our interface. In the first session, eight subjects completed 300 cursor-to-target trials without breaks; four using a wrist muscle and four using a head muscle. The wrist subjects returned for a second session in which a static fatiguing exercise took place at regular intervals in-between cursor-to-target trials. In the first session we observed no declines in performance as a function of use, even after the long period of use. In the second session, we observed clear changes in cursor trajectories, paired with a target-specific decrease in hit rates.

  7. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction: Graphics and Animation Components for Interface Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.; Nicol, Emma; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel; Richardson, Lucy

    We present an analysis of communicability methodology in graphics and animation components for interface design, called CAN (Communicability, Acceptability and Novelty). This methodology has been under development between 2005 and 2010, obtaining excellent results in cultural heritage, education and microcomputing contexts. In studies where there is a bi-directional interrelation between ergonomics, usability, user-centered design, software quality and the human-computer interaction. We also present the heuristic results about iconography and layout design in blogs and websites of the following countries: Spain, Italy, Portugal and France.

  8. Computational Virtual Reality (VR) as a human-computer interface in the operation of telerobotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the application of computer graphics or 'virtual reality' (VR) techniques as a human-computer interface tool in the operation of telerobotic systems. VR techniques offer very valuable task realization aids for planning, previewing and predicting robotic actions, operator training, and for visual perception of non-visible events like contact forces in robotic tasks. The utility of computer graphics in telerobotic operation can be significantly enhanced by high-fidelity calibration of virtual reality images to actual TV camera images. This calibration will even permit the creation of artificial (synthetic) views of task scenes for which no TV camera views are available.

  9. US Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) style guide, Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.

    1996-09-30

    A stated goal of the U.S. Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIS) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of style guides. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide. This document, the U.S. Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide, represents the first version of that style guide. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for RT/NRT Army systems across the weapon systems domains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each domain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their domains.

  10. The design of an intelligent human-computer interface for the test, control and monitor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoaff, William D.

    1988-01-01

    The graphical intelligence and assistance capabilities of a human-computer interface for the Test, Control, and Monitor System at Kennedy Space Center are explored. The report focuses on how a particular commercial off-the-shelf graphical software package, Data Views, can be used to produce tools that build widgets such as menus, text panels, graphs, icons, windows, and ultimately complete interfaces for monitoring data from an application; controlling an application by providing input data to it; and testing an application by both monitoring and controlling it. A complete set of tools for building interfaces is described in a manual for the TCMS toolkit. Simple tools create primitive widgets such as lines, rectangles and text strings. Intermediate level tools create pictographs from primitive widgets, and connect processes to either text strings or pictographs. Other tools create input objects; Data Views supports output objects directly, thus output objects are not considered. Finally, a set of utilities for executing, monitoring use, editing, and displaying the content of interfaces is included in the toolkit.

  11. U.S. Army weapon systems human-computer interface style guide. Version 2

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L.W.; O`Mara, P.A.; Shepard, A.P.; Donohoo, D.T.

    1997-12-31

    A stated goal of the US Army has been the standardization of the human computer interfaces (HCIs) of its system. Some of the tools being used to accomplish this standardization are HCI design guidelines and style guides. Currently, the Army is employing a number of HCI design guidance documents. While these style guides provide good guidance for the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) domain, they do not necessarily represent the more unique requirements of the Army`s real time and near-real time (RT/NRT) weapon systems. The Office of the Director of Information for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (DISC4), in conjunction with the Weapon Systems Technical Architecture Working Group (WSTAWG), recognized this need as part of their activities to revise the Army Technical Architecture (ATA), now termed the Joint Technical Architecture-Army (JTA-A). To address this need, DISC4 tasked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop an Army weapon systems unique HCI style guide, which resulted in the US Army Weapon Systems Human-Computer Interface (WSHCI) Style Guide Version 1. Based on feedback from the user community, DISC4 further tasked PNNL to revise Version 1 and publish Version 2. The intent was to update some of the research and incorporate some enhancements. This document provides that revision. The purpose of this document is to provide HCI design guidance for the RT/NRT Army system domain across the weapon systems subdomains of ground, aviation, missile, and soldier systems. Each subdomain should customize and extend this guidance by developing their domain-specific style guides, which will be used to guide the development of future systems within their subdomains.

  12. User participation in the development of the human/computer interface for control centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broome, Richard; Quick-Campbell, Marlene; Creegan, James; Dutilly, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Technological advances coupled with the requirements to reduce operations staffing costs led to the demand for efficient, technologically-sophisticated mission operations control centers. The control center under development for the earth observing system (EOS) is considered. The users are involved in the development of a control center in order to ensure that it is cost-efficient and flexible. A number of measures were implemented in the EOS program in order to encourage user involvement in the area of human-computer interface development. The following user participation exercises carried out in relation to the system analysis and design are described: the shadow participation of the programmers during a day of operations; the flight operations personnel interviews; and the analysis of the flight operations team tasks. The user participation in the interface prototype development, the prototype evaluation, and the system implementation are reported on. The involvement of the users early in the development process enables the requirements to be better understood and the cost to be reduced.

  13. Using minimal human-computer interfaces for studying the interactive development of social awareness

    PubMed Central

    Froese, Tom; Iizuka, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    According to the enactive approach to cognitive science, perception is essentially a skillful engagement with the world. Learning how to engage via a human-computer interface (HCI) can therefore be taken as an instance of developing a new mode of experiencing. Similarly, social perception is theorized to be primarily constituted by skillful engagement between people, which implies that it is possible to investigate the origins and development of social awareness using multi-user HCIs. We analyzed the trial-by-trial objective and subjective changes in sociality that took place during a perceptual crossing experiment in which embodied interaction between pairs of adults was mediated over a minimalist haptic HCI. Since that study required participants to implicitly relearn how to mutually engage so as to perceive each other's presence, we hypothesized that there would be indications that the initial developmental stages of social awareness were recapitulated. Preliminary results reveal that, despite the lack of explicit feedback about task performance, there was a trend for the clarity of social awareness to increase over time. We discuss the methodological challenges involved in evaluating whether this trend was characterized by distinct developmental stages of objective behavior and subjective experience. PMID:25309490

  14. Human-Computer Interface Controlled by Horizontal Directional Eye Movements and Voluntary Blinks Using AC EOG Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Yusuke; Murata, Hiroaki; Kimura, Haruhiko; Abe, Koji

    As a communication support tool for cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), researches on eye gaze human-computer interfaces have been active. However, since voluntary and involuntary eye movements cannot be distinguished in the interfaces, their performance is still not sufficient for practical use. This paper presents a high performance human-computer interface system which unites high quality recognitions of horizontal directional eye movements and voluntary blinks. The experimental results have shown that the number of incorrect inputs is decreased by 35.1% in an existing system which equips recognitions of horizontal and vertical directional eye movements in addition to voluntary blinks and character inputs are speeded up by 17.4% from the existing system.

  15. A practical efficient human computer interface based on saccadic eye movements for people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Sima; Mahnam, Amin

    2016-03-01

    Human computer interfaces (HCI) provide new channels of communication for people with severe motor disabilities to state their needs, and control their environment. Some HCI systems are based on eye movements detected from the electrooculogram. In this study, a wearable HCI, which implements a novel adaptive algorithm for detection of saccadic eye movements in eight directions, was developed, considering the limitations that people with disabilities have. The adaptive algorithm eliminated the need for calibration of the system for different users and in different environments. A two-stage typing environment and a simple game for training people with disabilities to work with the system were also developed. Performance of the system was evaluated in experiments with the typing environment performed by six participants without disabilities. The average accuracy of the system in detecting eye movements and blinking was 82.9% at first tries with an average typing rate of 4.5cpm. However an experienced user could achieve 96% accuracy and 7.2cpm typing rate. Moreover, the functionality of the system for people with movement disabilities was evaluated by performing experiments with the game environment. Six people with tetraplegia and significant levels of speech impairment played with the computer game several times. The average success rate in performing the necessary eye movements was 61.5%, which increased significantly with practice up to 83% for one participant. The developed system is 2.6×4.5cm in size and weighs only 15g, assuring high level of comfort for the users.

  16. Design of an efficient framework for fast prototyping of customized human-computer interfaces and virtual environments for rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Avola, Danilo; Spezialetti, Matteo; Placidi, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    Rehabilitation is often required after stroke, surgery, or degenerative diseases. It has to be specific for each patient and can be easily calibrated if assisted by human-computer interfaces and virtual reality. Recognition and tracking of different human body landmarks represent the basic features for the design of the next generation of human-computer interfaces. The most advanced systems for capturing human gestures are focused on vision-based techniques which, on the one hand, may require compromises from real-time and spatial precision and, on the other hand, ensure natural interaction experience. The integration of vision-based interfaces with thematic virtual environments encourages the development of novel applications and services regarding rehabilitation activities. The algorithmic processes involved during gesture recognition activity, as well as the characteristics of the virtual environments, can be developed with different levels of accuracy. This paper describes the architectural aspects of a framework supporting real-time vision-based gesture recognition and virtual environments for fast prototyping of customized exercises for rehabilitation purposes. The goal is to provide the therapist with a tool for fast implementation and modification of specific rehabilitation exercises for specific patients, during functional recovery. Pilot examples of designed applications and preliminary system evaluation are reported and discussed.

  17. Supporting Negotiation Behavior with Haptics-Enabled Human-Computer Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Oguz, S O; Kucukyilmaz, A; Sezgin, Tevfik Metin; Basdogan, C

    2012-01-01

    An active research goal for human-computer interaction is to allow humans to communicate with computers in an intuitive and natural fashion, especially in real-life interaction scenarios. One approach that has been advocated to achieve this has been to build computer systems with human-like qualities and capabilities. In this paper, we present insight on how human-computer interaction can be enriched by employing the computers with behavioral patterns that naturally appear in human-human negotiation scenarios. For this purpose, we introduce a two-party negotiation game specifically built for studying the effectiveness of haptic and audio-visual cues in conveying negotiation related behaviors. The game is centered around a real-time continuous two-party negotiation scenario based on the existing game-theory and negotiation literature. During the game, humans are confronted with a computer opponent, which can display different behaviors, such as concession, competition, and negotiation. Through a user study, we show that the behaviors that are associated with human negotiation can be incorporated into human-computer interaction, and the addition of haptic cues provides a statistically significant increase in the human-recognition accuracy of machine-displayed behaviors. In addition to aspects of conveying these negotiation-related behaviors, we also focus on and report game-theoretical aspects of the overall interaction experience. In particular, we show that, as reported in the game-theory literature, certain negotiation strategies such as tit-for-tat may generate maximum combined utility for the negotiating parties, providing an excellent balance between the energy spent by the user and the combined utility of the negotiating parties.

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Head-Controlled Human-Computer Interface with Mouse-Like Functions for Physically Disabled Users

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, César Augusto Martins; Neto, Raul Bolliger; Reynaldo, Ana Carolina; de Miranda Luzo, Maria Cândida; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study were to develop a pointing device controlled by head movement that had the same functions as a conventional mouse and to evaluate the performance of the proposed device when operated by quadriplegic users. METHODS Ten individuals with cervical spinal cord injury participated in functional evaluations of the developed pointing device. The device consisted of a video camera, computer software, and a target attached to the front part of a cap, which was placed on the user’s head. The software captured images of the target coming from the video camera and processed them with the aim of determining the displacement from the center of the target and correlating this with the movement of the computer cursor. Evaluation of the interaction between each user and the proposed device was carried out using 24 multidirectional tests with two degrees of difficulty. RESULTS According to the parameters of mean throughput and movement time, no statistically significant differences were observed between the repetitions of the tests for either of the studied levels of difficulty. CONCLUSIONS The developed pointing device adequately emulates the movement functions of the computer cursor. It is easy to use and can be learned quickly when operated by quadriplegic individuals. PMID:19841704

  19. Designing the user interface: strategies for effective human-computer interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneiderman, B.

    1998-03-01

    In revising this popular book, Ben Shneiderman again provides a complete, current and authoritative introduction to user-interface design. The user interface is the part of every computer system that determines how people control and operate that system. When the interface is well designed, it is comprehensible, predictable, and controllable; users feel competent, satisfied, and responsible for their actions. Shneiderman discusses the principles and practices needed to design such effective interaction. Based on 20 years experience, Shneiderman offers readers practical techniques and guidelines for interface design. He also takes great care to discuss underlying issues and to support conclusions with empirical results. Interface designers, software engineers, and product managers will all find this book an invaluable resource for creating systems that facilitate rapid learning and performance, yield low error rates, and generate high user satisfaction. Coverage includes the human factors of interactive software (with a new discussion of diverse user communities), tested methods to develop and assess interfaces, interaction styles such as direct manipulation for graphical user interfaces, and design considerations such as effective messages, consistent screen design, and appropriate color.

  20. A Review and Reappraisal of Adaptive Human-Computer Interfaces in Complex Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    composed of 3 stages: 1) EEG , ECG, and changing rate of SPR, are measured as original biological signals and physiological indices are extracted by...This portable Adaptive Brain Interface (ABI) is based on the on-line analysis of spontaneous electroencephalogram ( EEG ) signals measured with eight...computer interface (BCI) is based on the analysis of EEG signals associated with spontaneous mental activity. The analysis is concerned with local

  1. A dual-mode human computer interface combining speech and tongue motion for people with severe disabilities.

    PubMed

    Huo, Xueliang; Park, Hangue; Kim, Jeonghee; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-11-01

    We are presenting a new wireless and wearable human computer interface called the dual-mode Tongue Drive System (dTDS), which is designed to allow people with severe disabilities to use computers more effectively with increased speed, flexibility, usability, and independence through their tongue motion and speech. The dTDS detects users' tongue motion using a magnetic tracer and an array of magnetic sensors embedded in a compact and ergonomic wireless headset. It also captures the users' voice wirelessly using a small microphone embedded in the same headset. Preliminary evaluation results based on 14 able-bodied subjects and three individuals with high level spinal cord injuries at level C3-C5 indicated that the dTDS headset, combined with a commercially available speech recognition (SR) software, can provide end users with significantly higher performance than either unimodal forms based on the tongue motion or speech alone, particularly in completing tasks that require both pointing and text entry.

  2. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99 in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text chat communications, manipulation of procedureschecklists, cataloguingannotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit andor other EVA systems.

  3. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants' mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99% in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text "chat" communications, manipulation of procedures/checklists, cataloguing/annotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit and/or other EVA systems.

  4. Certification for civil flight decks and the human-computer interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclumpha, Andrew J.; Rudisill, Marianne

    1994-01-01

    This paper will address the issue of human factor aspects of civil flight deck certification, with emphasis on the pilot's interface with automation. In particular, three questions will be asked that relate to this certification process: (1) are the methods, data, and guidelines available from human factors to adequately address the problems of certifying as safe and error tolerant the complex automated systems of modern civil transport aircraft; (2) do aircraft manufacturers effectively apply human factors information during the aircraft flight deck design process; and (3) do regulatory authorities effectively apply human factors information during the aircraft certification process?

  5. The Mind-Writing Pupil: A Human-Computer Interface Based on Decoding of Covert Attention through Pupillometry

    PubMed Central

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Melmi, Jean-Baptiste; van der Linden, Lotje; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present a new human-computer interface that is based on decoding of attention through pupillometry. Our method builds on the recent finding that covert visual attention affects the pupillary light response: Your pupil constricts when you covertly (without looking at it) attend to a bright, compared to a dark, stimulus. In our method, participants covertly attend to one of several letters with oscillating brightness. Pupil size reflects the brightness of the selected letter, which allows us–with high accuracy and in real time–to determine which letter the participant intends to select. The performance of our method is comparable to the best covert-attention brain-computer interfaces to date, and has several advantages: no movement other than pupil-size change is required; no physical contact is required (i.e. no electrodes); it is easy to use; and it is reliable. Potential applications include: communication with totally locked-in patients, training of sustained attention, and ultra-secure password input. PMID:26848745

  6. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy for adaptive human-computer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuksel, Beste F.; Peck, Evan M.; Afergan, Daniel; Hincks, Samuel W.; Shibata, Tomoki; Kainerstorfer, Jana; Tgavalekos, Kristen; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio; Jacob, Robert J. K.

    2015-03-01

    We present a brain-computer interface (BCI) that detects, analyzes and responds to user cognitive state in real-time using machine learning classifications of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) data. Our work is aimed at increasing the narrow communication bandwidth between the human and computer by implicitly measuring users' cognitive state without any additional effort on the part of the user. Traditionally, BCIs have been designed to explicitly send signals as the primary input. However, such systems are usually designed for people with severe motor disabilities and are too slow and inaccurate for the general population. In this paper, we demonstrate with previous work1 that a BCI that implicitly measures cognitive workload can improve user performance and awareness compared to a control condition by adapting to user cognitive state in real-time. We also discuss some of the other applications we have used in this field to measure and respond to cognitive states such as cognitive workload, multitasking, and user preference.

  7. Modeling strategic use of human computer interfaces with novel hidden Markov models

    PubMed Central

    Mariano, Laura J.; Poore, Joshua C.; Krum, David M.; Schwartz, Jana L.; Coskren, William D.; Jones, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Immersive software tools are virtual environments designed to give their users an augmented view of real-world data and ways of manipulating that data. As virtual environments, every action users make while interacting with these tools can be carefully logged, as can the state of the software and the information it presents to the user, giving these actions context. This data provides a high-resolution lens through which dynamic cognitive and behavioral processes can be viewed. In this report, we describe new methods for the analysis and interpretation of such data, utilizing a novel implementation of the Beta Process Hidden Markov Model (BP-HMM) for analysis of software activity logs. We further report the results of a preliminary study designed to establish the validity of our modeling approach. A group of 20 participants were asked to play a simple computer game, instrumented to log every interaction with the interface. Participants had no previous experience with the game's functionality or rules, so the activity logs collected during their naïve interactions capture patterns of exploratory behavior and skill acquisition as they attempted to learn the rules of the game. Pre- and post-task questionnaires probed for self-reported styles of problem solving, as well as task engagement, difficulty, and workload. We jointly modeled the activity log sequences collected from all participants using the BP-HMM approach, identifying a global library of activity patterns representative of the collective behavior of all the participants. Analyses show systematic relationships between both pre- and post-task questionnaires, self-reported approaches to analytic problem solving, and metrics extracted from the BP-HMM decomposition. Overall, we find that this novel approach to decomposing unstructured behavioral data within software environments provides a sensible means for understanding how users learn to integrate software functionality for strategic task pursuit. PMID

  8. Design and development of data glove based on printed polymeric sensors and Zigbee networks for Human-Computer Interface.

    PubMed

    Tongrod, Nattapong; Lokavee, Shongpun; Watthanawisuth, Natthapol; Tuantranont, Adisorn; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2013-03-01

    Current trends in Human-Computer Interface (HCI) have brought on a wave of new consumer devices that can track the motion of our hands. These devices have enabled more natural interfaces with computer applications. Data gloves are commonly used as input devices, equipped with sensors that detect the movements of hands and communication unit that interfaces those movements with a computer. Unfortunately, the high cost of sensor technology inevitably puts some burden to most general users. In this research, we have proposed a low-cost data glove concept based on printed polymeric sensor to make pressure and bending sensors fabricated by a consumer ink-jet printer. These sensors were realized using a conductive polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS]) thin film printed on glossy photo paper. Performance of these sensors can be enhanced by addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into the aqueous dispersion of PEDOT:PSS. The concept of surface resistance was successfully adopted for the design and fabrication of sensors. To demonstrate the printed sensors, we constructed a data glove using such sensors and developed software for real time hand tracking. Wireless networks based on low-cost Zigbee technology were used to transfer data from the glove to a computer. To our knowledge, this is the first report on low cost data glove based on paper pressure sensors. This low cost implementation of both sensors and communication network as proposed in this paper should pave the way toward a widespread implementation of data glove for real-time hand tracking applications.

  9. A Dual-Mode Human Computer Interface Combining Speech and Tongue Motion for People with Severe Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xueliang; Park, Hangue; Kim, Jeonghee; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    We are presenting a new wireless and wearable human computer interface called the dual-mode Tongue Drive System (dTDS), which is designed to allow people with severe disabilities to use computers more effectively with increased speed, flexibility, usability, and independence through their tongue motion and speech. The dTDS detects users’ tongue motion using a magnetic tracer and an array of magnetic sensors embedded in a compact and ergonomic wireless headset. It also captures the users’ voice wirelessly using a small microphone embedded in the same headset. Preliminary evaluation results based on 14 able-bodied subjects and three individuals with high level spinal cord injuries at level C3–C5 indicated that the dTDS headset, combined with a commercially available speech recognition (SR) software, can provide end users with significantly higher performance than either unimodal forms based on the tongue motion or speech alone, particularly in completing tasks that require both pointing and text entry. PMID:23475380

  10. A comparative evaluation plan for the Maintenance, Inventory, and Logistics Planning (MILP) System Human-Computer Interface (HCI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overmyer, Scott P.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to develop a tailored and effective approach to the design and evaluation of the human-computer interface (HCI) to the Maintenance, Inventory and Logistics Planning (MILP) System in support of the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD). An additional task that was undertaken was to assist in the review of Ground Displays for Space Station Freedom (SSF) by attending the Ground Displays Interface Group (GDIG), and commenting on the preliminary design for these displays. Based upon data gathered over the 10 week period, this project has hypothesized that the proper HCI concept for navigating through maintenance databases for large space vehicles is one based upon a spatial, direct manipulation approach. This dialogue style can be then coupled with a traditional text-based DBMS, after the user has determined the general nature and location of the information needed. This conclusion is in contrast with the currently planned HCI for MILP which uses a traditional form-fill-in dialogue style for all data access and retrieval. In order to resolve this difference in HCI and dialogue styles, it is recommended that comparative evaluation be performed which combines the use of both subjective and objective metrics to determine the optimal (performance-wise) and preferred approach for end users. The proposed plan has been outlined in the previous paragraphs and is available in its entirety in the Technical Report associated with this project. Further, it is suggested that several of the more useful features of the Maintenance Operations Management System (MOMS), especially those developed by the end-users, be incorporated into MILP to save development time and money.

  11. Learning an Intermittent Control Strategy for Postural Balancing Using an EMG-Based Human-Computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Yoshiyuki; Tateyama, Shota; Nomura, Taishin

    2013-01-01

    It has been considered that the brain stabilizes unstable body dynamics by regulating co-activation levels of antagonist muscles. Here we critically reexamined this established theory of impedance control in a postural balancing task using a novel EMG-based human-computer interface, in which subjects were asked to balance a virtual inverted pendulum using visual feedback information on the pendulum's position. The pendulum was actuated by a pair of antagonist joint torques determined in real-time by activations of the corresponding pair of antagonist ankle muscles of subjects standing upright. This motor-task raises a frustrated environment; a large feedback time delay in the sensorimotor loop, as a source of instability, might favor adopting the non-reactive, preprogrammed impedance control, but the ankle muscles are relatively hard to co-activate, which hinders subjects from adopting the impedance control. This study aimed at discovering how experimental subjects resolved this frustrated environment through motor learning. One third of subjects adapted to the balancing task in a way of the impedance-like control. It was remarkable, however, that the majority of subjects did not adopt the impedance control. Instead, they acquired a smart and energetically efficient strategy, in which two muscles were inactivated simultaneously at a sequence of optimal timings, leading to intermittent appearance of periods of time during which the pendulum was not actively actuated. Characterizations of muscle inactivations and the pendulum¡Çs sway showed that the strategy adopted by those subjects was a type of intermittent control that utilizes a stable manifold of saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium that appeared in the state space of the pendulum when the active actuation was turned off. PMID:23717398

  12. A robust Kalman algorithm to facilitate human-computer interaction for people with cerebral palsy, using a new interface based on inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Raya, Rafael; Rocon, Eduardo; Gallego, Juan A; Ceres, Ramón; Pons, Jose L

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to create an advanced human-computer interface called ENLAZA for people with cerebral palsy (CP). Although there are computer-access solutions for disabled people in general, there are few evidences from motor disabled community (e.g., CP) using these alternative interfaces. The proposed interface is based on inertial sensors in order to characterize involuntary motion in terms of time, frequency and range of motion. This characterization is used to design a filtering technique that reduces the effect of involuntary motion on person-computer interaction. This paper presents a robust Kalman filter (RKF) design to facilitate fine motor control based on the previous characterization. The filter increases mouse pointer directivity and the target acquisition time is reduced by a factor of ten. The interface is validated with CP users who were unable to control the computer using other interfaces. The interface ENLAZA and the RKF enabled them to use the computer.

  13. An Analysis of the Human/Computer Interface of the Program Manager Support System: Capps(Contract Appraisal System) and Gat(Government Activity Tasking)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    instance, users in a nuclear power plant might need a system that provides: quick response times, display screens that use color and sounds for warnings...34TJS CRAMl .............. DFC 14v P),. . A-V. AFIT/GIR/LSY/88D-6 AN ANALYSIS OF THE HUMAN/COMPUTER INTERFACE OF THE PROGRAM MANAGER SUPPORT SYSTEM...events is through employing attention getting 15 t ~chniques. Rubinstein, Hersh, and Shneiderman suggest using the subsequent methods (Rubinstein and Hersh

  14. The Control System Design of Rotary Li/MnO2 Button Battery Product Line Based on Human-computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiangyang, Qi; Shuzhong, Lin; Lixin, Sun

    In this paper, human-computer interaction was applied as the main features. Human-computer interface programs and programmable logic controller (plc) programs were combined application and address matching and the same address communication mode were adopted. Through the buttons of human-computer interface to trigger the read address set. And further corresponding virtual relays of the plc addresses area were activated. In this paper, Li/MnO2 button battery product line control system was introduced as an example. In the system, according to the process route of product line some areas were set including parameter setting area, single working place debugging area, equipment running area and the alarm browsing area. In order to protect the normal operation of the product line, interlock programs were used to ban parameters modification and single station debugging, avoiding the occurrence of malfunction. At the same time, the fault diagnosis technology was used to have designed a more optimal alarm pattern. The control system has been tested in practice to get good results.

  15. Open-Box Muscle-Computer Interface: Introduction to Human-Computer Interactions in Bioengineering, Physiology, and Neuroscience Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa-Jiménez, M. A.; González-Gaspar, P.; Pérez-Estudillo, C.; López-Meraz, M. L.; Morgado-Valle, C.; Beltran-Parrazal, L.

    2016-01-01

    A Muscle-Computer Interface (muCI) is a human-machine system that uses electromyographic (EMG) signals to communicate with a computer. Surface EMG (sEMG) signals are currently used to command robotic devices, such as robotic arms and hands, and mobile robots, such as wheelchairs. These signals reflect the motor intention of a user before the…

  16. Human Computer Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwani, Akhilesh; Sengar, Chitransh; Talwaniper, Jyotsna; Sharma, Shaan

    2012-08-01

    The paper basically deals with the study of HCI (Human computer interaction) or BCI(Brain-Computer-Interfaces) Technology that can be used for capturing brain signals and translating them into commands that allow humans to control (just by thinking) devices such as computers, robots, rehabilitation technology and virtual reality environments. The HCI is based as a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are often aimed at assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions.The paper also deals with many advantages of BCI Technology along with some of its applications and some major drawbacks.

  17. Human Computers 1947

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    Langley's human computers at work in 1947. The female presence at Langley, who performed mathematical computations for male staff. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 48), by James Schultz.

  18. Language evolution and human-computer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grudin, Jonathan; Norman, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the issues that confront designers of interactive computer systems also appear in natural language evolution. Natural languages and human-computer interfaces share as their primary mission the support of extended 'dialogues' between responsive entities. Because in each case one participant is a human being, some of the pressures operating on natural languages, causing them to evolve in order to better support such dialogue, also operate on human-computer 'languages' or interfaces. This does not necessarily push interfaces in the direction of natural language - since one entity in this dialogue is not a human, this is not to be expected. Nonetheless, by discerning where the pressures that guide natural language evolution also appear in human-computer interaction, we can contribute to the design of computer systems and obtain a new perspective on natural languages.

  19. On the Rhetorical Contract in Human-Computer Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenger, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    An exploration of the rhetorical contract--i.e., the expectations for appropriate interaction--as it develops in human-computer interaction revealed that direct manipulation interfaces were more likely to establish social expectations. Study results suggest that the social nature of human-computer interactions can be examined with reference to the…

  20. Humanities Computing 25 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raben, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Provides an overview of the development of humanities computing during the past 25 years. Mentions the major applications of the computer to humanities disciplines including the generation of concordances, attempts at dating works of major authors, proving authorship, defining style, and compiling indexes. Discusses lexicographical uses and…

  1. Human Computer Interface Design Criteria. Volume 1. User Interface Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-19

    Software that makes use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) tools or integrates COTS products shall be configured to comply with these requirements as...Pointer Name and Function Selection Pointers Arrow pointer (selects objects). I-beam pointer (selects text). Sighting pointer ( makes ...guidelines apply to error feedback:  If users make multiple errors within a single action, they should be notified of each occurrence of an error

  2. An intelligent multi-media human-computer dialogue system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, J. G.; Bettinger, K. E.; Byoun, J. S.; Dobes, Z.; Thielman, C. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Sophisticated computer systems are being developed to assist in the human decision-making process for very complex tasks performed under stressful conditions. The human-computer interface is a critical factor in these systems. The human-computer interface should be simple and natural to use, require a minimal learning period, assist the user in accomplishing his task(s) with a minimum of distraction, present output in a form that best conveys information to the user, and reduce cognitive load for the user. In pursuit of this ideal, the Intelligent Multi-Media Interfaces project is devoted to the development of interface technology that integrates speech, natural language text, graphics, and pointing gestures for human-computer dialogues. The objective of the project is to develop interface technology that uses the media/modalities intelligently in a flexible, context-sensitive, and highly integrated manner modelled after the manner in which humans converse in simultaneous coordinated multiple modalities. As part of the project, a knowledge-based interface system, called CUBRICON (CUBRC Intelligent CONversationalist) is being developed as a research prototype. The application domain being used to drive the research is that of military tactical air control.

  3. Human Computer Interaction Issues in Clinical Trials Management Systems

    PubMed Central

    Starren, Justin B.; Payne, Philip R.O.; Kaufman, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical trials increasingly rely upon web-based Clinical Trials Management Systems (CTMS). As with clinical care systems, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) issues can greatly affect the usefulness of such systems. Evaluation of the user interface of one web-based CTMS revealed a number of potential human-computer interaction problems, in particular, increased workflow complexity associated with a web application delivery model and potential usability problems resulting from the use of ambiguous icons. Because these design features are shared by a large fraction of current CTMS, the implications extend beyond this individual system. PMID:17238728

  4. Metaphors for Interface Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Edwin

    This discussion of the utilization by computer designers and users of metaphors as organizing structures for dealing with the complexity of behavior of human/computer interfaces begins by identifying three types of metaphor that describe various aspects of human-computer interface design, i.e., activity, mode of interaction, and task domain. The…

  5. Enhancing Learning through Human Computer Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Elspeth, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Enhancing Learning Through Human Computer Interaction is an excellent reference source for human computer interaction (HCI) applications and designs. This "Premier Reference Source" provides a complete analysis of online business training programs and e-learning in the higher education sector. It describes a range of positive outcomes for linking…

  6. The Quantum Human Computer (QHC) Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to suggest the existence of a human computer called Quantum Human Computer (QHC) on the basis of an analogy between human beings and computers. To date, there are two types of computers: Binary and Quantum. The former operates on the basis of binary logic where an object is said to exist in either of the two states of 1 and…

  7. Applied human factors research at the NASA Johnson Space Center Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudisill, Marianne; Mckay, Timothy D.

    1990-01-01

    The applied human factors research program performed at the NASA Johnson Space Center's Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory is discussed. Research is conducted to advance knowledge in human interaction with computer systems during space crew tasks. In addition, the Laboratory is directly involved in the specification of the human-computer interface (HCI) for space systems in development (e.g., Space Station Freedom) and is providing guidelines and support for HCI design to current and future space missions.

  8. Human-computer interaction in multitask situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Human-computer interaction in multitask decisionmaking situations is considered, and it is proposed that humans and computers have overlapping responsibilities. Queueing theory is employed to model this dynamic approach to the allocation of responsibility between human and computer. Results of simulation experiments are used to illustrate the effects of several system variables including number of tasks, mean time between arrivals of action-evoking events, human-computer speed mismatch, probability of computer error, probability of human error, and the level of feedback between human and computer. Current experimental efforts are discussed and the practical issues involved in designing human-computer systems for multitask situations are considered.

  9. Human-Computer Interaction and Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Virtual Environments are presented along with a list of attendees. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the state-of-technology and level of maturity of several areas in human-computer interaction and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of these facilities in the design/fabrication and operation of future high-performance engineering systems.

  10. Metaphors for the Nature of Human-Computer Interaction in an Empowering Environment: Interaction Style Influences the Manner of Human Accomplishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Herman G.; Hartson, H. Rex

    1992-01-01

    Describes human-computer interface needs for empowering environments in computer usage in which the machine handles the routine mechanics of problem solving while the user concentrates on its higher order meanings. A closed-loop model of interaction is described, interface as illusion is discussed, and metaphors for human-computer interaction are…

  11. Choice of Human-Computer Interaction Mode in Stroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hondori, Hossein Mousavi; Khademi, Maryam; Dodakian, Lucy; McKenzie, Alison; Lopes, Cristina V.; Cramer, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Advances in technology are providing new forms of human-computer interaction. The current study examined one form of human-computer interaction, augmented reality (AR), whereby subjects train in the real world workspace with virtual objects projected by the computer. Motor performances were compared with those obtained while subjects used a traditional human-computer interaction, i.e., a personal computer (PC) with a mouse. Methods Patients used goal-directed arm movements to play AR and PC versions of the Fruit Ninja video game. The two versions required the same arm movements to control the game but had different cognitive demands. With AR, the game was projected onto the desktop, where subjects viewed the game plus their arm movements simultaneously, in the same visual coordinate space. In the PC version, subjects used the same arm movements but viewed the game by looking up at a computer monitor. Results Among 18 patients with chronic hemiparesis after stroke, the AR game was associated with 21% higher game scores (p=0.0001), 19% faster reaching times (p=0.0001), and 15% less movement variability (p=0.0068), as compared to the PC game. Correlations between game score and arm motor status were stronger with the AR version. Conclusions Motor performances during the AR game were superior to those during the PC game. This result is due in part to the greater cognitive demands imposed by the PC game, a feature problematic for some patients but preferred for others. Mode of human-computer interface influences rehabilitation therapy demands and can be individualized for patients. PMID:26138411

  12. Exploring the Human Computer Interface and Photic Driving.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    Gamma waves (>30 HZ) are believed to be associated with the mechanism of consciousness [BARL93]. Classification Comments Frequency _____________Range...band, which is associated with relaxation and meditation . Researchers have produced PD in the theta, beta and gamma bands [GIZY93, MANG93, and SAKA93...maximum 200 words) The application of a stroboscopic light within a certain frequency range may cause a subject’s brain waves to follow or become

  13. User Language Considerations in Military Human-Computer Interface Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-30

    Hospital SPersonnel carrier " , Vehiculo do transporte do personal 23 APPENDIX B SAMPLE TASK STIMULI 24 Hl lIIW lid Thk Uti litiv S rip t Flari 1( ipmilt QN...interseccl6n cruce hacia al este. "Despuks de cruzar la segunda calle, en el lado sur del camino. "Encuentre el VEHICULO DE TRANSPORTE DE PERSONAL trial: 1 6 5...43 trial: 1 6 6 PESCM CARRIER trial:,- 1 6 7 PESMM CARRIER trials tX 6 8 VEHICULO DE TRANSPOCRTE DE PERSONAL trial: 4% 1 6 9 trial: 1 6 10 icn camment

  14. Factors in Human-Computer Interface Design (A Pilot Study).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    classmates, Captain John Ellis, Captain Karen Cook, Captain Connie Hutchinson, Captain Alison McCoy, Captain Matt Pirko, Captain Brian Brown, Captain Susan...available, use the INFO? command to retrieve it. You can then use the INFO command again for specific topics. One handy feature in LISTSERV is that you can...then use the INFO command again for specific topics. One handy feature in LISTSERV is that you can send multiple commands in one message. Make sure to

  15. Rule-Based Programming for Human-Computer Interface Specification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    additional matching convenience is provided by wild - card Imatches. Two symbols, * and ?, are used to allow matching on arbitrary objects in the...language. The * wild - card will match an arbitrary list structure, relation with arguments, or a Iconstant; in addition, if *occurs more than once, each b...matched value is not retained. The ? wild - card restricts the matching process more than *; it cannot match arbitrary lists and relations, rather it is

  16. Applying Human Computation Methods to Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…

  17. Human-Computer Interaction. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Alan J.; Finlay, Janet E.; Abowd, Gregory D.; Beale, Russell

    This book examines human-computer interaction (HCI), with a focus on designing computer technology to be more usable by people. The book provides a multi-disciplinary approach to the subject through a synthesis of computer science, cognitive science, psychology, and sociology, and stresses a principled approach to interactive systems design that…

  18. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in Educational Environments: Implications of Understanding Computers as Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews literature in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) as it applies to educational environments. Topics include the origin of HCI; human factors; usability; computer interface design; goals, operations, methods, and selection (GOMS) models; command language versus direct manipulation; hypertext; visual perception; interface…

  19. Human Computer Collaboration at the Edge: Enhancing Collective Situation Understanding with Controlled Natural Language

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-06

    Integrating hard and soft information sources for D2D using controlled natural language ,” in Proc 15th International Conference on Information Fusion, 2012...Human Computer Collaboration at the Edge: Enhancing Collective Situation Understanding with Controlled Natural Language Alun Preece∗, William...of humans and machines, we propose a conversational interface using Controlled Natural Language (CNL), which is both human readable and machine

  20. Human-Computer Interaction: A Review of the Research on Its Affective and Social Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaudelin, Colette; Dussault, Marc; Brodeur, Monique

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a review of 34 qualitative and non-qualitative studies related to affective and social aspects of student-computer interactions. Highlights include the nature of the human-computer interaction (HCI); the interface, comparing graphic and text types; and the relation between variables linked to HCI, mainly trust, locus of control,…

  1. Head-controlled assistive telerobot with extended physiological proprioception capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salganicoff, Marcos; Rahman, Tariq; Mahoney, Ricardo; Pino, D.; Jayachandran, Vijay; Kumar, Vijay; Chen, Shoupu; Harwin, William S.

    1995-12-01

    People with disabilities such as quadriplegia can use mouth-sticks and head-sticks as extension devices to perform desired manipulations. These extensions provide extended proprioception which allows users to directly feel forces and other perceptual cues such as texture present at the tip of the mouth-stick. Such devices are effective for two principle reasons: because of their close contact with the user's tactile and proprioceptive sensing abilities; and because they tend to be lightweight and very stiff, and can thus convey tactile and kinesthetic information with high-bandwidth. Unfortunately, traditional mouth-sticks and head-sticks are limited in workspace and in the mechanical power that can be transferred because of user mobility and strength limitations. We describe an alternative implementation of the head-stick device using the idea of a virtual head-stick: a head-controlled bilateral force-reflecting telerobot. In this system the end-effector of the slave robot moves as if it were at the tip of an imaginary extension of the user's head. The design goal is for the system is to have the same intuitive operation and extended proprioception as a regular mouth-stick effector but with augmentation of workspace volume and mechanical power. The input is through a specially modified six DOF master robot (a PerForceTM hand-controller) whose joints can be back-driven to apply forces at the user's head. The manipulation tasks in the environment are performed by a six degree-of-freedom slave robot (the Zebra-ZEROTM) with a built-in force sensor. We describe the prototype hardware/software implementation of the system, control system design, safety/disability issues, and initial evaluation tasks.

  2. Human-Computer Interaction in Smart Environments

    PubMed Central

    Paravati, Gianluca; Gatteschi, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide an overview of the content of the Special Issue on “Human-computer interaction in smart environments”. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight technologies and solutions encompassing the use of mass-market sensors in current and emerging applications for interacting with Smart Environments. Selected papers address this topic by analyzing different interaction modalities, including hand/body gestures, face recognition, gaze/eye tracking, biosignal analysis, speech and activity recognition, and related issues.

  3. Human-Computer Interactions and Decision Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Narang A. Cohill J. Pittman J. Elkerton M. Revesman R. Fainter C. Rieger L. Folley J. Schurick M. Hakkinen A. Siochi D. Johnson T. Spine C. Ku M. Sti...W., Yunten, T., , Johnson , D. H. DMS: A comprehensive system for managing human- computer dialogue. In Proceedings of Human Factors in Computer...interactive system. Wel! known software metrics are used in this analysis. 3. The Dialogue Author a. Reports Johnson , D. H., Hartson, H. R. The role

  4. The GOURD model of human-computer interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Goldbogen, G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a model, the GOURD model, that can be used to measure the goodness of {open_quotes}interactivity{close_quotes} of an interface design and qualifies how to improve the design. The GOURD model describes what happens to the computer and to the human during a human-computer interaction. Since the interaction is generally repeated, the traversal of the model repeatedly is similar to a loop programming structure. Because the model measures interaction over part or all of the application, it can also be used as a classifier of the part or the whole application. But primarily, the model is used as a design guide and a predictor of effectiveness.

  5. Human-computer interaction: psychology as a science of design.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J M

    1997-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) study is the region of intersection between psychology and the social sciences, on the one hand, and computer science and technology, on the other. HCI researchers analyze and design specific user interface technologies (e.g. pointing devices). They study and improve the processes of technology development (e.g. task analysis, design rationale). They develop and evaluate new applications of technology (e.g. word processors, digital libraries). Throughout the past two decades, HCI has progressively integrated its scientific concerns with the engineering goal of improving the usability of computer systems and applications, which has resulted in a body of technical knowledge and methodology. HCI continues to provide a challenging test domain for applying and developing psychological and social theory in the context of technology development and use.

  6. Formalisms for user interface specification and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auernheimer, Brent J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal methods to the specification and design of human-computer interfaces is described. A broad outline of human-computer interface problems, a description of the field of cognitive engineering and two relevant research results, the appropriateness of formal specification techniques, and potential NASA application areas are described.

  7. Early NACA human computers at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The women of the Computer Department at NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station are shown busy with test flight calculations. The computers under the direction of Roxanah Yancey were responsible for accurate calculations on the research test flights made at the Station. There were no mechanical computers at the station in 1949, but data was reduced by human computers. Shown in this photograph starting at the left are: Geraldine Mayer and Mary (Tut) Hedgepeth with Friden calculators on the their desks; Emily Stephens conferring with engineer John Mayer; Gertrude (Trudy) Valentine is working on an oscillograph recording reducing the data from a flight. Across the desk is Dorothy Clift Hughes using a slide rule to complete data calculations. Roxanah Yancey completes the picture as she fills out engineering requests for further data.

  8. SIG -- The Role of Human-Computer Interaction in Next-Generation Control Rooms

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Jacques Hugo; Christian Richard; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this CHI Special Interest Group (SIG) is to facilitate the convergence between human-computer interaction (HCI) and control room design. HCI researchers and practitioners actively need to infuse state-of-the-art interface technology into control rooms to meet usability, safety, and regulatory requirements. This SIG outlines potential HCI contributions to instrumentation and control (I&C) and automation in control rooms as well as to general control room design.

  9. Wearable joystick for gloves-on human/computer interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jaewook; Voyles, Richard M.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary work on a novel wearable joystick for gloves-on human/computer interaction in hazardous environments. Interacting with traditional input devices can be clumsy and inconvenient for the operator in hazardous environments due to the bulkiness of multiple system components and troublesome wires. During a collapsed structure search, for example, protective clothing, uneven footing, and "snag" points in the environment can render traditional input devices impractical. Wearable computing has been studied by various researchers to increase the portability of devices and to improve the proprioceptive sense of the wearer's intentions. Specifically, glove-like input devices to recognize hand gestures have been developed for general-purpose applications. But, regardless of their performance, prior gloves have been fragile and cumbersome to use in rough environments. In this paper, we present a new wearable joystick to remove the wires from a simple, two-degree of freedom glove interface. Thus, we develop a wearable joystick that is low cost, durable and robust, and wire-free at the glove. In order to evaluate the wearable joystick, we take into consideration two metrics during operator tests of a commercial robot: task completion time and path tortuosity. We employ fractal analysis to measure path tortuosity. Preliminary user test results are presented that compare the performance of both a wearable joystick and a traditional joystick.

  10. Multimodal neuroelectric interface development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Rosipal, Roman; Clanton, Sam T.; Matthews, Bryan; Hibbs, Andrew D.; Matthews, Robert; Krupka, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We are developing electromyographic and electroencephalographic methods, which draw control signals for human-computer interfaces from the human nervous system. We have made progress in four areas: 1) real-time pattern recognition algorithms for decoding sequences of forearm muscle activity associated with control gestures; 2) signal-processing strategies for computer interfaces using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals; 3) a flexible computation framework for neuroelectric interface research; and d) noncontact sensors, which measure electromyogram or EEG signals without resistive contact to the body.

  11. The Cross-Cultural Study of Human-Computer Interaction: A Review of Research Methodology, Technology Transfer, and the Diffusion of Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Donald L.

    This paper examines the methodological literature of cross-cultural research to establish whether the means exist to identify culturally biased preconceptions implicit in human-computer interfaces, and to develop interfaces more attuned to the cultural differences of the users. It is the premise of this paper that cultural conditioning affects…

  12. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  13. Cognitive engineering models: A prerequisite to the design of human-computer interaction in complex dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter examines a class of human-computer interaction applications, specifically the design of human-computer interaction for the operators of complex systems. Such systems include space systems (e.g., manned systems such as the Shuttle or space station, and unmanned systems such as NASA scientific satellites), aviation systems (e.g., the flight deck of 'glass cockpit' airplanes or air traffic control) and industrial systems (e.g., power plants, telephone networks, and sophisticated, e.g., 'lights out,' manufacturing facilities). The main body of human-computer interaction (HCI) research complements but does not directly address the primary issues involved in human-computer interaction design for operators of complex systems. Interfaces to complex systems are somewhat special. The 'user' in such systems - i.e., the human operator responsible for safe and effective system operation - is highly skilled, someone who in human-machine systems engineering is sometimes characterized as 'well trained, well motivated'. The 'job' or task context is paramount and, thus, human-computer interaction is subordinate to human job interaction. The design of human interaction with complex systems, i.e., the design of human job interaction, is sometimes called cognitive engineering.

  14. Impact of Cognitive Architectures on Human-Computer Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    sciences of linear programming, engineering , and parsing have relegated the soft sciences into the background. I have seen this in software... engineering , where the hard functional requirements push the soft nonfunctional requirements into the background. Our terminology, functional versus...human-computer interaction (HCI), it must harden. Their vision is for psychology to provide engineering style theory that influences the design of

  15. Is Human-Computer Interaction Social or Parasocial?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundar, S. Shyam

    Conducted in the attribution-research paradigm of social psychology, a study examined whether human-computer interaction is fundamentally social (as in human-human interaction) or parasocial (as in human-television interaction). All 30 subjects (drawn from an undergraduate class on communication) were exposed to an identical interaction with…

  16. New Theoretical Approaches for Human-Computer Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Yvonne

    2004-01-01

    Presents a critique of recent theoretical developments in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) together with an overview of HCI practice. This chapter discusses why theoretically based approaches have had little impact on the practice of interaction design and suggests mechanisms to enable designers and researchers to better articulate…

  17. Making intelligent systems team players: Case studies and design issues. Volume 1: Human-computer interaction design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Woods, David D.; Potter, Scott S.; Johannesen, Leila; Holloway, Matthew; Forbus, Kenneth D.

    1991-01-01

    Initial results are reported from a multi-year, interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their user interfaces. The objective is to achieve more effective human-computer interaction (HCI) for systems with real time fault management capabilities. Intelligent fault management systems within the NASA were evaluated for insight into the design of systems with complex HCI. Preliminary results include: (1) a description of real time fault management in aerospace domains; (2) recommendations and examples for improving intelligent systems design and user interface design; (3) identification of issues requiring further research; and (4) recommendations for a development methodology integrating HCI design into intelligent system design.

  18. Human computers: the first pioneers of the information age.

    PubMed

    Grier, D A

    2001-03-01

    Before computers were machines, they were people. They were men and women, young and old, well educated and common. They were the workers who convinced scientists that large-scale calculation had value. Long before Presper Eckert and John Mauchly built the ENIAC at the Moore School of Electronics, Philadelphia, or Maurice Wilkes designed the EDSAC for Manchester University, human computers had created the discipline of computation. They developed numerical methodologies and proved them on practical problems. These human computers were not savants or calculating geniuses. Some knew little more than basic arithmetic. A few were near equals of the scientists they served and, in a different time or place, might have become practicing scientists had they not been barred from a scientific career by their class, education, gender or ethnicity.

  19. Human-Computer Interaction in the School of Computer Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    The School of Computer Science (SCS) faculty who are interested in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) present their position on what role HCI can play...in Carnegie Mellon’s School of Computer Science . The authors present a short description of the need for HCI research and recommend a task/human...organizations at CMU. The authors recommend that the Computer Science Department form a new area in HCI. Research around the periphery of the task

  20. Facilitation handlings induce increase in electromyographic activity of muscles involved in head control of cerebral palsy children.

    PubMed

    Simon, Anelise de Saldanha; do Pinho, Alexandre Severo; Grazziotin Dos Santos, Camila; Pagnussat, Aline de Souza

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic (EMG) activation of the main cervical muscles involved in the head control during two postures widely used for the facilitation of head control in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). A crossover trial involving 31 children with clinical diagnosis of CP and spastic quadriplegia was conducted. Electromyography was used to measure muscular activity in randomized postures. Three positions were at rest: (a) lateral decubitus, (b) ventral decubitus on the floor and (c) ventral decubitus on the wedge. Handlings for facilitating the head control were performed using the hip joint as key point of control in two postures: (a) lateral decubitus and (b) ventral decubitus on wedge. All children underwent standardized handlings, performed by the same researcher with experience in the neurodevelopmental treatment. EMG signal was recorded from muscles involved in the head control (paraspinal and sternocleidomastoid muscles) in sagittal, frontal and transverse planes, at the fourth cervical vertebra (C4), tenth thoracic vertebra (T10) and sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) levels. The results showed a significant increase in muscle activation when handling was performed in the lateral decubitus at C4 (P<0.001), T10 (P<0.001) and SCM (P=0.02) levels. A significant higher muscle activation was observed when handling was performed in lateral decubitus when compared to ventral decubitus at C4 level (P<0.001). Handling in ventral decubitus also induced an increase in EMG activation at T10 (P=0.018) and SCM (P=0.004) levels but not at C4 level (P=0.38). In conclusion, handlings performed in both positions may induce the facilitation of head control, as evaluated by the activity of cervical and upper trunk muscles. Handling performed in lateral decubitus may induce a slightly better facilitation of head control. These findings contribute to evidence-based physiotherapy practice for the rehabilitation of severely spastic quadriplegic CP

  1. Visual User Interfaces for Information Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneiderman, Ben

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of human-computer interfaces focuses on the use of graphical and direct manipulation approaches to improve the user interface. Topics discussed include information seeking; computerized search capabilities, including full-text string searches, index searches, and hypertext; Boolean expressions; dynamic or direct manipulation queries;…

  2. Ocular attention-sensing interface system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaklad, Allen; Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Stokes, James M.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to develop an innovative human-computer interface based on eye movement and voice control. By eliminating a manual interface (keyboard, joystick, etc.), OASIS provides a control mechanism that is natural, efficient, accurate, and low in workload.

  3. An Architectural Experience for Interface Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of human-computer interface design was brought to the foreground with the emergence of the personal computer, the increasing complexity of electronic systems, and the need to accommodate the human operator in these systems. With each new technological generation discovering the interface design problems of its own technologies, initial…

  4. Human-Computer Interaction, Tourism and Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.

    We present a state of the art of the human-computer interaction aimed at tourism and cultural heritage in some cities of the European Mediterranean. In the work an analysis is made of the main problems deriving from training understood as business and which can derail the continuous growth of the HCI, the new technologies and tourism industry. Through a semiotic and epistemological study the current mistakes in the context of the interrelations of the formal and factual sciences will be detected and also the human factors that have an influence on the professionals devoted to the development of interactive systems in order to safeguard and boost cultural heritage.

  5. An investigation of the relationship of drooling with nutrition and head control in individuals with quadriparetic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Taş, Seda Ayaz; Çankaya, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of drooling, nutrition, and head control in individuals with quadriparetic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-six individuals between the ages 2 and 15 diagnosed with spastic quadriparetic cerebral palsy and their families/caretakers were included in the study. Drooling severity and frequency of individuals was evaluated by using the scale developed by Thomas-Stonell and Greenberg (Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale). Individuals having a drooling severity value of 1 were included in the not drooling group (group 2) (n=27). Individuals having a drooling severity of 2, 3, 4, or 5 were included in the drooling group (group 1) (n=29). The evaluations were applied to both groups. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of gestational age, nutrition behavior, eating abilities, head control, gagging, nutritional status (inadequate nutrition, normal nutrition, over weight-obese), and low weight. It was established that as head control increased, drooling severity diminished, and as drooling severity increased, BMI index decreased. Independence of eating ability was found to be greater in the group having better drooling control. [Conclusion] In the present study, it was determined that drooling control affected nutritional functions and that drooling control was affected by head control. PMID:26696723

  6. Safety Metrics for Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G; Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems.This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  7. CDROM User Interface Evaluation: The Appropriateness of GUIs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Victoria Manglano; Hancock-Beaulieu, Micheline

    1995-01-01

    Assesses the appropriateness of GUIs (graphical user interfaces), more specifically Windows-based interfaces for CD-ROM. An evaluation model is described that was developed to carry out an expert evaluation of the interfaces of seven CD-ROM products. Results are discussed in light of HCI (human-computer interaction) usability criteria and design…

  8. How should Fitts' Law be applied to human-computer interaction?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillan, D. J.; Holden, K.; Adam, S.; Rudisill, M.; Magee, L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper challenges the notion that any Fitts' Law model can be applied generally to human-computer interaction, and proposes instead that applying Fitts' Law requires knowledge of the users' sequence of movements, direction of movement, and typical movement amplitudes as well as target sizes. Two experiments examined a text selection task with sequences of controlled movements (point-click and point-drag). For the point-click sequence, a Fitts' Law model that used the diagonal across the text object in the direction of pointing (rather than the horizontal extent of the text object) as the target size provided the best fit for the pointing time data, whereas for the point-drag sequence, a Fitts' Law model that used the vertical size of the text object as the target size gave the best fit. Dragging times were fitted well by Fitts' Law models that used either the vertical or horizontal size of the terminal character in the text object. Additional results of note were that pointing in the point-click sequence was consistently faster than in the point-drag sequence, and that pointing in either sequence was consistently faster than dragging. The discussion centres around the need to define task characteristics before applying Fitts' Law to an interface design or analysis, analyses of pointing and of dragging, and implications for interface design.

  9. Designing for Performance: A Cognitive Systems Engineering Approach to Modifying an AWACS Human Computer Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Radar dots ane same color for enmy and friendly Colorin Radar Dots "* Cannot track who is who in fuwT-ball (often because of same color radar dots) Caldse...management. Proceedings of the 11th Biennial DoD Psyhology Conference Colorado Springs, CO. Lipshitz, R. (1989). Decision making as arguent driven

  10. Design of the human computer interface on the telerobotic small emplacement excavator

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.H.; Killough, S.M.; Burks, B.L.; Draper, J.V.

    1995-12-31

    The small emplacement excavator (SEE) is a ruggedized military vehicle with backhoe and front loader used by the U.S. Army for explosive ordinance disposal (EOD) and general utility excavation activities. This project resulted from a joint need in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for a remote controlled excavator for buried waste operations and the U.S. Department of Defense for remote EOD operations. To evaluate the feasibility of removing personnel from the SEE vehicle during high-risk excavation tasks, a development and demonstration project was initiated. Development of a telerobotic SEE (TSEE) was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a project funded jointly by the U.S. Army and the DOE. The TSEE features teleoperated driving, a telerobotic backhoe with four degrees of freedom, and a teleoperated front loader with two degrees of freedom on the bucket. Remote capabilities include driving (forward, reverse, brake, steering), power takeoff shifting to enable digging modes, deploying stabilizers, excavation, and computer system booting.

  11. Why are Human-Computer Interfaces Difficult to Design and Implement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    mean when multiple people are using the same software? Advanced input devices, such as pen-based gesture recognition , speech, or DataGloves, also raise...Difficult to Design and Implement? -13 evolve, such as speech and gesture recognition , intelligent agents, and 3-D visualization, the amount of effort

  12. Rapid, Agile Modeling Support for Human-Computer Interface Conceptual Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    information (see Chi, Pirolli, and Pitkow, 2000). 5.7 LATENT SEMANTIC ANALYSIS (LSA) In CoLiDeS, semantic similarity is determined by Latent Semantic Analysis...P. W. Foltz, and D. Laham. 1998. “An Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis,” Discourse Processes, vol. 25, pp. 259–284. Mannes, S. M. and W...1998. “Learning and Representing Verbal Meaning: Latent Semantic Analysis Theory,” Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol. 7, pp. 161–164

  13. Bracing of the trunk and neck has a differential effect on head control during gait.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S; Russell, D M; Kelleran, K; Walker, M L

    2015-09-01

    During gait, the trunk and neck are believed to play an important role in dissipating the transmission of forces from the ground to the head. This attenuation process is important to ensure head control is maintained. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of externally restricting the motion of the trunk and/or neck segments on acceleration patterns of the upper body and head and related trunk muscle activity. Twelve healthy adults performed three walking trials on a flat, straight 65-m walkway, under four different bracing conditions: 1) control-no brace; 2) neck-braced; 3) trunk-braced; and 4) neck-trunk braced. Three-dimensional acceleration from the head, neck (C7) and lower trunk (L3) were collected, as was muscle activity from trunk. Results revealed that, when the neck and/or trunk were singularly braced, an overall decrease in the ability of the trunk to attenuate gait-related oscillations was observed, which led to increases in the amplitude of vertical acceleration for all segments. However, when the trunk and neck were braced together, acceleration amplitude across all segments decreased in line with increased attenuation from the neck to the head. Bracing was also reflected by increased activity in erector spinae, decreased abdominal muscle activity and lower trunk muscle coactivation. Overall, it would appear that the neuromuscular system of young, healthy individuals was able to maintain a consistent pattern of head acceleration, irrespective of the level of bracing, and that priority was placed over the control of vertical head accelerations during these gait tasks.

  14. User stress detection in human-computer interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jing; Barreto, Armando B; Chin, Craig; Li, Chao

    2005-01-01

    The emerging research area of Affective Computing seeks to advance the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) by enabling computers to interact with users in ways appropriate to their affective states. Affect recognition, including the use of psychophysiologcal measures (e.g. heart rate), facial expressions, speech recognition etc. to derive an assessment of user affective state based on factors from the current task context, is an important foundation required for the development of Affective Computing. Our research focuses on the use of three physiological signals: Blood Volume Pulse (BVP), Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and Pupil Diameter (PD), to automatically monitor the level of stress in computer users. This paper reports on the hardware and software instrumentation development and signal processing approach used to detect the stress level of a subject interacting with a computer, within the framework of a specific experimental task, which is called the 'Stroop Test'. For this experiment, a computer game was implemented and adapted to make the subject experience the Stroop Effect, evoked by the mismatch between the font color and the meaning of a certain word (name of a color) displayed, while his/her BVP, GSR and PD signals were continuously recorded. Several data processing techniques were applied to extract effective attributes of the stress level of the subjects throughout the experiment. Current results indicate that there exists interesting similarity among changes in those three signals and the shift in the emotional states when stress stimuli are applied to the interaction environment.

  15. Human-Computer Interaction with Medical Decisions Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adolf, Jurine A.; Holden, Kritina L.

    1994-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been available to medical diagnosticians for some time, yet their acceptance and use have not increased with advances in technology and availability of DSS tools. Medical DSSs will be necessary on future long duration space missions, because access to medical resources and personnel will be limited. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) experts at NASA's Human Factors and Ergonomics Laboratory (HFEL) have been working toward understanding how humans use DSSs, with the goal of being able to identify and solve the problems associated with these systems. Work to date consists of identification of HCI research areas, development of a decision making model, and completion of two experiments dealing with 'anchoring'. Anchoring is a phenomenon in which the decision maker latches on to a starting point and does not make sufficient adjustments when new data are presented. HFEL personnel have replicated a well-known anchoring experiment and have investigated the effects of user level of knowledge. Future work includes further experimentation on level of knowledge, confidence in the source of information and sequential decision making.

  16. The experience of agency in human-computer interactions: a review

    PubMed Central

    Limerick, Hannah; Coyle, David; Moore, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of agency is the experience of controlling both one’s body and the external environment. Although the sense of agency has been studied extensively, there is a paucity of studies in applied “real-life” situations. One applied domain that seems highly relevant is human-computer-interaction (HCI), as an increasing number of our everyday agentive interactions involve technology. Indeed, HCI has long recognized the feeling of control as a key factor in how people experience interactions with technology. The aim of this review is to summarize and examine the possible links between sense of agency and understanding control in HCI. We explore the overlap between HCI and sense of agency for computer input modalities and system feedback, computer assistance, and joint actions between humans and computers. An overarching consideration is how agency research can inform HCI and vice versa. Finally, we discuss the potential ethical implications of personal responsibility in an ever-increasing society of technology users and intelligent machine interfaces. PMID:25191256

  17. HCI∧2 framework: a software framework for multimodal human-computer interaction systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Pantic, Maja

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel software framework for the development and research in the area of multimodal human-computer interface (MHCI) systems. The proposed software framework, which is called the HCI∧2 Framework, is built upon publish/subscribe (P/S) architecture. It implements a shared-memory-based data transport protocol for message delivery and a TCP-based system management protocol. The latter ensures that the integrity of system structure is maintained at runtime. With the inclusion of bridging modules, the HCI∧2 Framework is interoperable with other software frameworks including Psyclone and ActiveMQ. In addition to the core communication middleware, we also present the integrated development environment (IDE) of the HCI∧2 Framework. It provides a complete graphical environment to support every step in a typical MHCI system development process, including module development, debugging, packaging, and management, as well as the whole system management and testing. The quantitative evaluation indicates that our framework outperforms other similar tools in terms of average message latency and maximum data throughput under a typical single PC scenario. To demonstrate HCI∧2 Framework's capabilities in integrating heterogeneous modules, we present several example modules working with a variety of hardware and software. We also present an example of a full system developed using the proposed HCI∧2 Framework, which is called the CamGame system and represents a computer game based on hand-held marker(s) and low-cost camera(s).

  18. Appearance-based human gesture recognition using multimodal features for human computer interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dan; Gao, Hua; Ekenel, Hazim Kemal; Ohya, Jun

    2011-03-01

    The use of gesture as a natural interface plays an utmost important role for achieving intelligent Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Human gestures include different components of visual actions such as motion of hands, facial expression, and torso, to convey meaning. So far, in the field of gesture recognition, most previous works have focused on the manual component of gestures. In this paper, we present an appearance-based multimodal gesture recognition framework, which combines the different groups of features such as facial expression features and hand motion features which are extracted from image frames captured by a single web camera. We refer 12 classes of human gestures with facial expression including neutral, negative and positive meanings from American Sign Languages (ASL). We combine the features in two levels by employing two fusion strategies. At the feature level, an early feature combination can be performed by concatenating and weighting different feature groups, and LDA is used to choose the most discriminative elements by projecting the feature on a discriminative expression space. The second strategy is applied on decision level. Weighted decisions from single modalities are fused in a later stage. A condensation-based algorithm is adopted for classification. We collected a data set with three to seven recording sessions and conducted experiments with the combination techniques. Experimental results showed that facial analysis improve hand gesture recognition, decision level fusion performs better than feature level fusion.

  19. Eucalyptus: Integrating Natural Language Input with a Graphical User Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-25

    these is discourse processing. the human ability to track and maintain continuity of topic, reference, and reasoning in extended sequences of natural...interface medium of choice. The success of the graphical user interface (GUI) in the intervening years now suggests that each of these interface media has...implicit understanding of the principles of effective communication, a human-computer interface having these capabilities falls into a category that in

  20. Adaptive interface for spoken dialog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusan, Sorin; Flanagan, James

    2002-05-01

    Speech has become increasingly important in human-computer interaction. Spoken dialog interfaces rely on automatic speech recognition, speech synthesis, language understanding, and dialog management. A main issue in dialog systems is that they typically are limited to pre-programmed vocabularies and sets of sentences. The research reported here focuses on developing an adaptive spoken dialog interface capable of acquiring new linguistic units and their corresponding semantics during the human-computer interaction. The adaptive interface identifies unknown words and phrases in the users utterances and asks the user for the corresponding semantics. The user can provide the meaning or the semantic representation of the new linguistic units through multiple modalities, including speaking, typing, pointing, touching, or showing. The interface then stores the new linguistic units in a semantic grammar and creates new objects defining the corresponding semantic representation. This process takes place during natural interaction between user and computer and, thus, the interface does not have to be rewritten and compiled to incorporate the newly acquired language. Users can personalize the adaptive spoken interface for different domain applications, or according to their personal preferences. [Work supported by NSF.

  1. Evidence Report: Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina; Ezer, Neta; Vos, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) encompasses all the methods by which humans and computer-based systems communicate, share information, and accomplish tasks. When HCI is poorly designed, crews have difficulty entering, navigating, accessing, and understanding information. HCI has rarely been studied in an operational spaceflight context, and detailed performance data that would support evaluation of HCI have not been collected; thus, we draw much of our evidence from post-spaceflight crew comments, and from other safety-critical domains like ground-based power plants, and aviation. Additionally, there is a concern that any potential or real issues to date may have been masked by the fact that crews have near constant access to ground controllers, who monitor for errors, correct mistakes, and provide additional information needed to complete tasks. We do not know what types of HCI issues might arise without this "safety net". Exploration missions will test this concern, as crews may be operating autonomously due to communication delays and blackouts. Crew survival will be heavily dependent on available electronic information for just-in-time training, procedure execution, and vehicle or system maintenance; hence, the criticality of the Risk of Inadequate HCI. Future work must focus on identifying the most important contributing risk factors, evaluating their contribution to the overall risk, and developing appropriate mitigations. The Risk of Inadequate HCI includes eight core contributing factors based on the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS): (1) Requirements, policies, and design processes, (2) Information resources and support, (3) Allocation of attention, (4) Cognitive overload, (5) Environmentally induced perceptual changes, (6) Misperception and misinterpretation of displayed information, (7) Spatial disorientation, and (8) Displays and controls.

  2. A mobile Nursing Information System based on human-computer interaction design for improving quality of nursing.

    PubMed

    Su, Kuo-Wei; Liu, Cheng-Li

    2012-06-01

    A conventional Nursing Information System (NIS), which supports the role of nurse in some areas, is typically deployed as an immobile system. However, the traditional information system can't response to patients' conditions in real-time, causing delays on the availability of this information. With the advances of information technology, mobile devices are increasingly being used to extend the human mind's limited capacity to recall and process large numbers of relevant variables and to support information management, general administration, and clinical practice. Unfortunately, there have been few studies about the combination of a well-designed small-screen interface with a personal digital assistant (PDA) in clinical nursing. Some researchers found that user interface design is an important factor in determining the usability and potential use of a mobile system. Therefore, this study proposed a systematic approach to the development of a mobile nursing information system (MNIS) based on Mobile Human-Computer Interaction (M-HCI) for use in clinical nursing. The system combines principles of small-screen interface design with user-specified requirements. In addition, the iconic functions were designed with metaphor concept that will help users learn the system more quickly with less working-memory. An experiment involving learnability testing, thinking aloud and a questionnaire investigation was conducted for evaluating the effect of MNIS on PDA. The results show that the proposed MNIS is good on learning and higher satisfaction on symbol investigation, terminology and system information.

  3. A Language Use Perspective on the Design of Human-Computer Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    1 A LANGUAGE USE PERSPECTIVE ON THE DESIGN OF HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION Derek Brock Naval Research Lab Washington, DC, 20375, USA brock...4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a ...00-00-2002 to 00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Language Use Perspective on the Design of Human-Computer Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  4. Implementing a Quantitative Analysis Design Tool for Future Generation Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    future MAC-enabled systems. A human-computer interaction ( HCI ) Index, originally applied to multi-function displays was applied to the prototype Vigilant...Spirit interface. A modified version of the HCI Index was successfully applied to perform a quantitative analysis of the baseline VSCS interface and...two modified interface designs. The modified HCI Index incorporates the Hick-Hyman decision time, Fitts’ Law time, and the physical actions

  5. Program Predicts Time Courses of Human/Computer Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vera, Alonso; Howes, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    CPM X is a computer program that predicts sequences of, and amounts of time taken by, routine actions performed by a skilled person performing a task. Unlike programs that simulate the interaction of the person with the task environment, CPM X predicts the time course of events as consequences of encoded constraints on human behavior. The constraints determine which cognitive and environmental processes can occur simultaneously and which have sequential dependencies. The input to CPM X comprises (1) a description of a task and strategy in a hierarchical description language and (2) a description of architectural constraints in the form of rules governing interactions of fundamental cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations. The output of CPM X is a Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) chart that presents a schedule of predicted cognitive, motor, and perceptual operators interacting with a task environment. The CPM X program allows direct, a priori prediction of skilled user performance on complex human-machine systems, providing a way to assess critical interfaces before they are deployed in mission contexts.

  6. GT-MSOCC - A domain for research on human-computer interaction and decision aiding in supervisory control systems. [Georgia Tech - Multisatellite Operations Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1987-01-01

    The Georgia Tech-Multisatellite Operations Control Center (GT-MSOCC), a real-time interactive simulation of the operator interface to a NASA ground control system for unmanned earth-orbiting satellites, is described. The GT-MSOCC program for investigating a range of modeling, decision aiding, and workstation design issues related to the human-computer interaction is discussed. A GT-MSOCC operator function model is described in which operator actions, both cognitive and manual, are represented as the lowest level discrete control network nodes, and operator action nodes are linked to information needs or system reconfiguration commands.

  7. A microswitch-cluster program to foster adaptive responses and head control in students with multiple disabilities: replication and validation assessment.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Gatti, Michela; Manfredi, Francesco; Megna, Gianfranco; La Martire, Maria L; Tota, Alessia; Smaldone, Angela; Groeneweg, Jop

    2008-01-01

    A program relying on microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and preferred stimuli was recently developed to foster adaptive responses and head control in persons with multiple disabilities. In the last version of this program, preferred stimuli (a) are scheduled for adaptive responses occurring in combination with head control (i.e., head upright) and (b) last through the scheduled time only if head control is maintained for that time. The first of the present two studies was aimed at replicating this program with three new participants with multiple disabilities adding to the three reported by Lancioni et al. [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., O'Reilly, M. F., Sigafoos, J., Didden, R., Oliva, D., et al. (2007). Fostering adaptive responses and head control in students with multiple disabilities through a microswitch-based program: Follow-up assessment and program revision. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 187-196]. The second of the two studies served to carry out an expert validation of the program's effects on head control and general physical condition with the three participants of Study I as well as the three participants involved in the Lancioni et al. study mentioned above. The expert raters were 72 new physiotherapists and 72 experienced physiotherapists. The results of Study I supported previous data and indicated that the program was effective in helping the participants increase the frequency of adaptive responses in combination with head control and the length of such control. The results of Study II showed that the raters found the effects of the new program more positive than those of other intervention conditions and also considered such program a useful complement to formal motor rehabilitation programs.

  8. A Microswitch-Cluster Program to Foster Adaptive Responses and Head Control in Students with Multiple Disabilities: Replication and Validation Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Gatti, Michela; Manfredi, Francesco; Megna, Gianfranco; La Martire, Maria L.; Tota, Alessia; Smaldone, Angela; Groeneweg, Jop

    2008-01-01

    A program relying on microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and preferred stimuli was recently developed to foster adaptive responses and head control in persons with multiple disabilities. In the last version of this program, preferred stimuli (a) are scheduled for adaptive responses occurring in combination with head control…

  9. Gestural interfaces for immersive environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, Todd

    2014-02-01

    We are witnessing an explosion of new forms of Human Computer Interaction devices lately for both laboratory research and home use. With these new affordance in user interfaces (UI), how can gestures be used to improve interaction for large scale immersive display environments. Through the investigation of full body, head and hand tracking, this paper will discuss various modalities of gesture recognition and compare their usability to other forms of interactivity. We will explore a specific implementation of hand gesture tracking within a large tiled display environment for use with common collaborative media interaction activities.

  10. Psychosocial and Cultural Modeling in Human Computation Systems: A Gamification Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Haack, Jereme N.; Butner, R. Scott

    2013-11-20

    “Gamification”, the application of gameplay to real-world problems, enables the development of human computation systems that support decision-making through the integration of social and machine intelligence. One of gamification’s major benefits includes the creation of a problem solving environment where the influence of cognitive and cultural biases on human judgment can be curtailed through collaborative and competitive reasoning. By reducing biases on human judgment, gamification allows human computation systems to exploit human creativity relatively unhindered by human error. Operationally, gamification uses simulation to harvest human behavioral data that provide valuable insights for the solution of real-world problems.

  11. Enhancing Human-Computer Interaction Design Education: Teaching Affordance Design for Emerging Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faiola, Anthony; Matei, Sorin Adam

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of human-computer interaction design (HCID) over the last 20 years suggests that there is a growing need for educational scholars to consider new and more applicable theoretical models of interactive product design. The authors suggest that such paradigms would call for an approach that would equip HCID students with a better…

  12. A Project-Based Learning Setting to Human-Computer Interaction for Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Cornelia; Geisler, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of fundamentals of human-computer interaction resp. usability engineering is getting more and more important in technical domains. However this interdisciplinary field of work and corresponding degree programs are not broadly known. Therefore at the Hochschule Ruhr West, University of Applied Sciences, a program was developed to give…

  13. The Human-Computer Interaction of Cross-Cultural Gaming Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraborty, Joyram; Norcio, Anthony F.; Van Der Veer, Jacob J.; Andre, Charles F.; Miller, Zachary; Regelsberger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the cultural dimensions of the human-computer interaction that underlies gaming strategies. The article is a desktop study of existing literature and is organized into five sections. The first examines the cultural aspects of knowledge processing. The social constructs technology interaction is discussed. Following this, the…

  14. Integrating HCI into IDT: Charting the Human Computer Interaction Competencies Necessary for Instructional Media Production Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abbie; Sugar, William

    2004-01-01

    A report on the efforts made to describe the range of human-computer interaction skills necessary to complete a program of study in Instructional Design Technology. Educators responsible for instructional media production courses have not yet articulated which among the wide range of possible interactions students must master for instructional…

  15. Personality Factors in Human-Computer Interaction: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocius, Kym E.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews studies investigating the relation between personality characteristics and human-computer interaction. The review is divided into three areas: (1) how personality traits are related to programing aptitude and achievement; (2) personality traits of people who use program skills in their profession; and (3) the relation between personality…

  16. Implementations of the CC'01 Human-Computer Interaction Guidelines Using Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manaris, Bill; Wainer, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Arthur E.; Stalvey, RoxAnn H.; Shannon, Christine; Leventhal, Laura; Barnes, Julie; Wright, John; Schafer, J. Ben; Sanders, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In today's technology-laden society human-computer interaction (HCI) is an important knowledge area for computer scientists and software engineers. This paper surveys existing approaches to incorporate HCI into computer science (CS) and such related issues as the perceived gap between the interests of the HCI community and the needs of CS…

  17. Ten Design Points for the Human Interface to Instructional Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Ronald D.

    1995-01-01

    Ten ways to design an effective Human-Computer Interface are explained. Highlights include material delivery that relates to user knowledge; appropriate screen presentations; attention value versus learning and recall; the relationship of packaging and message; the effectiveness of visuals and text; the use of color to enhance communication; the…

  18. An Enhanced User Interface for the SABER Wargame

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    A238825). 16. Molich, Rolf and Jakob Nielsen . "Improving a Human-Computer Dialogue," Commu- nications of the ACM, 33:338-348 (March 1990). 100 17. Ness...AU), Wright-Patterson AFB OH, June 1990 (AD-A223087). 18. Nielsen , Jakob . "Traditional Dialogue Design Applied to Modern User Interfaces

  19. Designing Interactions for Learning: Physicality, Interactivity, and Interface Effects in Digital Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to better understand the role of physicality, interactivity, and interface effects in learning with digital content. Drawing on work in cognitive science, human-computer interaction, and multimedia learning, the study argues that interfaces that promote physical interaction can provide "conceptual leverage"…

  20. Advanced Perceptual User Interfaces: Applications for Disabled and Elderly People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Francisco J. Perales

    The research of new human-computer interfaces has become a growing field in computer science, which aims to attain the development of more natural, intuitive, unobtrusive and efficient interfaces. This objective has come up with the concept of Perceptual User Interfaces (PUIs) that are turning out to be very popular as they seek to make the user interface more natural and compelling by taking advantage of the ways in which people naturally interact with each other and with the world. PUIs can use speech and sound recognition and generation, computer vision, graphical animation and visualization, language understanding, touch-based sensing and feedback (haptics), learning, user modeling and dialog management.

  1. High throughput screening for mammography using a human-computer interface with rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Chris; Sterr, Annette; Elangovan, Premkumar; Geades, Nicholas; Windridge, David; Young, Ken; Wells, Kevin

    2013-03-01

    The steady rise of the breast cancer screening population, coupled with data expansion produced by new digital screening technologies (tomosynthesis/CT) motivates the development of new, more efficient image screening processes. Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is a new fast-content recognition approach which uses electroencephalography to record brain activity elicited by fast bursts of image data. These brain responses are then subjected to machine classification methods to reveal the expert's `reflex' response to classify images according to their presence or absence of particular targets. The benefit of this method is that images can be presented at high temporal rates (~10 per second), faster than that required for fully conscious detection, facilitating a high throughput of image (screening) material. In the present paper we present the first application of RSVP to medical image data, and demonstrate how cortically coupled computer vision can be successfully applied to breast cancer screening. Whilst prior RSVP work has utilised multichannel approaches, we also present the first RSVP results demonstrating discriminatory response on a single electrode with a ROC area under the curve of 0.62- 0.86 using a simple Fisher discriminator for classification. This increases to 0.75 - 0.94 when multiple electrodes are used in combination.

  2. Rapid Human-Computer Interactive Conceptual Design of Mobile and Manipulative Robot Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-19

    An overview of the software tool for human-computer, collaborative design of robotic systems which is the goal of this project. The user first...been demonstrated that collaboration between automated algorithms and human users can be especially effective in robot behavior optimization tasks. In...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This project consists of the development of a software application for the user-guided design of a robotic system in

  3. Collaborative Human-Computer Decision Making for Command and Control Resource Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    modifying other assignments at higher priority levels. In the experiment, six subjects participated in a cognitive walkthrough of the mission planning...students with extensive backgrounds in UAV operation and Human-Computer Interaction, two of them being USAF 2nd Lieutenants. A cognitive walkthrough ... evaluates how well a skilled user can perform novel or occasionally performed tasks. In this usability inspection method, ease of learning, ease of

  4. Intelligent Context-Aware and Adaptive Interface for Mobile LBS.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiangfan; Liu, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Context-aware user interface plays an important role in many human-computer Interaction tasks of location based services. Although spatial models for context-aware systems have been studied extensively, how to locate specific spatial information for users is still not well resolved, which is important in the mobile environment where location based services users are impeded by device limitations. Better context-aware human-computer interaction models of mobile location based services are needed not just to predict performance outcomes, such as whether people will be able to find the information needed to complete a human-computer interaction task, but to understand human processes that interact in spatial query, which will in turn inform the detailed design of better user interfaces in mobile location based services. In this study, a context-aware adaptive model for mobile location based services interface is proposed, which contains three major sections: purpose, adjustment, and adaptation. Based on this model we try to describe the process of user operation and interface adaptation clearly through the dynamic interaction between users and the interface. Then we show how the model applies users' demands in a complicated environment and suggested the feasibility by the experimental results.

  5. Real-time non-invasive eyetracking and gaze-point determination for human-computer interaction and biomedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talukder, Ashit; Morookian, John-Michael; Monacos, S.; Lam, R.; Lebaw, C.; Bond, A.

    2004-01-01

    Eyetracking is one of the latest technologies that has shown potential in several areas including human-computer interaction for people with and without disabilities, and for noninvasive monitoring, detection, and even diagnosis of physiological and neurological problems in individuals.

  6. Portable tongue-supported human computer interaction system design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Quain, Rohan; Khan, Masood Mehmood

    2014-01-01

    Tongue supported human-computer interaction (TSHCI) systems can help critically ill patients interact with both computers and people. These systems can be particularly useful for patients suffering injuries above C7 on their spinal vertebrae. Despite recent successes in their application, several limitations restrict performance of existing TSHCI systems and discourage their use in real life situations. This paper proposes a low-cost, less-intrusive, portable and easy to use design for implementing a TSHCI system. Two applications of the proposed system are reported. Design considerations and performance of the proposed system are also presented.

  7. Dynamic Human-Computer Collaboration in Real-time Unmanned Vehicle Scheduling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    23] P. Polson and N. Smith, "The Cockpit Cognitive Walkthrough," presented at 10th Symposium on Aviation Psychology , Columbus, OH, 1999. [24] M. L...Engineering Psychology and Human Performance, 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2000. [41] J. L. Thorner, "Trust-Based Design of Human-Guided...Algorithm, Alchemy , or Apostasy?," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 52, pp. 203-216, 2000. [52] J.-M. Hoc, "From Human

  8. Evolutionary adaptive eye tracking for low-cost human computer interaction applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yan; Shin, Hak Chul; Sung, Won Jun; Khim, Sarang; Kim, Honglak; Rhee, Phill Kyu

    2013-01-01

    We present an evolutionary adaptive eye-tracking framework aiming for low-cost human computer interaction. The main focus is to guarantee eye-tracking performance without using high-cost devices and strongly controlled situations. The performance optimization of eye tracking is formulated into the dynamic control problem of deciding on an eye tracking algorithm structure and associated thresholds/parameters, where the dynamic control space is denoted by genotype and phenotype spaces. The evolutionary algorithm is responsible for exploring the genotype control space, and the reinforcement learning algorithm organizes the evolved genotype into a reactive phenotype. The evolutionary algorithm encodes an eye-tracking scheme as a genetic code based on image variation analysis. Then, the reinforcement learning algorithm defines internal states in a phenotype control space limited by the perceived genetic code and carries out interactive adaptations. The proposed method can achieve optimal performance by compromising the difficulty in the real-time performance of the evolutionary algorithm and the drawback of the huge search space of the reinforcement learning algorithm. Extensive experiments were carried out using webcam image sequences and yielded very encouraging results. The framework can be readily applied to other low-cost vision-based human computer interactions in solving their intrinsic brittleness in unstable operational environments.

  9. Hand gesture recognition based on motion history images for a simple human-computer interaction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timotius, Ivanna K.; Setyawan, Iwan

    2013-03-01

    A human-computer interaction can be developed using several kind of tools. One choice is using images captured using a camera. This paper proposed a simple human-computer interaction system based on hand movement captured by a web camera. The system aims to classify the captured movement into one of three classes. The first two classes contain hand movements to the left and right, respectively. The third class contains non-hand movements or hand movements to other directions. The method used in this paper is based on Motion History Images (MHIs) and nearest neighbor classifier. The resulting MHIs are processed in two manners, namely by summing the pixel values along the vertical axis and reshaping into vectors. We also use two distance criteria in this paper, respectively the Euclidian distance and cross correlation. This paper compared the performance of the combinations of different MHI data processing and distance criteria using 10 runs of 2-fold cross validation. Our experiments show that reshaping the MHI data into vectors combined with a Euclidean distance criterion gives the highest average accuracy, namely 55.67%.

  10. A Model-based Framework for Risk Assessment in Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems. This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions. Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  11. User interface guidelines for the Integrated Booking System prototype (IBS-P)

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, T.; Yow, T. ); Wheeler, V.; Stamm, S.; Valentine, D. . Transportation Center)

    1991-05-01

    The User Interface Guidelines for the Integrated Booking System -- Prototype (IBS-P) describes the design requirements for the human- computer interface. The user interface design conforms to standards reported in the open literature as well as to standards provided through Department of Defense guidelines. The IBS-P interface was evaluated by personnel at Headquarters Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) and at each of the MTMC Area Commands. As a result of comments received during demonstrations of the prototype at these sites, modifications to the design were made, as appropriate. The user interfaces was well accepted by the end users.

  12. A Cognitive Model of Human-Computer Interaction in Naval Air ASW Mission Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    interface through which the a task would be performed. Using the performance-time predictions, alternative interface designs can be evaluated. Kieras has...extended the use of GOMS models for user interface design (Bovair, Kieras , & Poison, 1988; Kieras , 1988), deriving both quantitative and qualitative...Elkerton & Palmiter, 1989). Much of the work done to date with GOMS by Card, Newell, John, Kieras , and others has focused on the lowest level goals and

  13. Non-Speech Sound in Human-Computer Interaction: A Review and Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hereford, James; Winn, William

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research on uses of computer sound and suggests how sound might be used effectively by instructional and interface designers. Topics include principles of interface design; the perception of sound; earcons, both symbolic and iconic; sound in data analysis; sound in virtual environments; and guidelines for using sound. (70 references) (LRW)

  14. The Electronic Mirror: Human-Computer Interaction and Change in Self-Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Laere, Kevin H.; Lundgren, David C.; Howe, Steven R.

    1998-01-01

    Compares humanlike versus machinelike interactional styles of computer interfaces, testing hypotheses that evaluative feedback conveyed through a humanlike interface will have greater impact on individuals' self-appraisals. Reflected appraisals were more influenced by computer feedback than were self-appraisals. Humanlike and machinelike interface…

  15. Categorisation of visualisation methods to support the design of Human-Computer Interaction Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Katie; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Alcock, Jeffrey; Bermell-Garcia, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    During the design of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) systems, the creation of visual artefacts forms an important part of design. On one hand producing a visual artefact has a number of advantages: it helps designers to externalise their thought and acts as a common language between different stakeholders. On the other hand, if an inappropriate visualisation method is employed it could hinder the design process. To support the design of HCI systems, this paper reviews the categorisation of visualisation methods used in HCI. A keyword search is conducted to identify a) current HCI design methods, b) approaches of selecting these methods. The resulting design methods are filtered to create a list of just visualisation methods. These are then categorised using the approaches identified in (b). As a result 23 HCI visualisation methods are identified and categorised in 5 selection approaches (The Recipient, Primary Purpose, Visual Archetype, Interaction Type, and The Design Process).

  16. An Overview of a Decade of Journal Publications about Culture and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Roese, Kerstin

    In this paper, we analyze the concept of human-computer interaction in cultural and national contexts. Building and extending upon the framework for understanding research in usability and culture by Honold [3], we give an overview of publications in culture and HCI between 1998 and 2008, with a narrow focus on high-level journal publications only. The purpose is to review current practice in how cultural HCI issues are studied, and to analyse problems with the measures and interpretation of this studies. We find that Hofstede's cultural dimensions has been the dominating model of culture, participants have been picked because they could speak English, and most studies have been large scale quantitative studies. In order to balance this situation, we recommend that more researchers and practitioners do qualitative, empirical work studies.

  17. An acoustic interface for triggering actions in virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinlin; Groenegress, Christoph; Denzinger, Jochen; Strauss, Wolfgang; Fleischmann, Monika

    2004-03-01

    Currently one of the main research issues in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) is to develop more intuitive, multimodal and natural interfaces. Among them, the interface for triggering simple actions or selecting objects in virtual environments (VEs) is one of the concerned areas. In this paper we describe an acoustic interface which uses finger snap or hand clap sounds as the input command to initiate events for VE applications. We developed a sophisticated algorithm based on the wavelet transform and neural network techniques, which separate the environment noise from the snap and clap sound. The acoustic interface could be integrated with other interfaces like optical tracking systems to provide a more natural, easy-to-use, efficient and boyd-centered multimodal interaction for virtual reality applications.

  18. Within the Interface: Visual Rhetoric, Pedagogy, and Writing Center Website Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myatt, Alice J.

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation examines the theory and praxis of taking an expanded concept of the human-computer interface (HCI) and working with the resulting concept to foster a more conversational approach for online tutoring sessions and the design of the writing center websites that facilitate online tutoring. For the purposes of my research, I describe…

  19. Consolidated findings from 6 years research on the age-differentiated design of human-computer interaction.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Sebastian; Bützler, Jennifer; Jochems, Nicole; Schlick, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    The fast aging of many western and eastern societies and their increasing reliance on information technology create a compelling need to reconsider older users' interactions with computers. This paper summarizes the results of 6 years of research on the age-differentiated design of human-computer interaction. The well-known model of human information processing served as the theoretical framework. The model components ''sensory processing'', ''perception'', ''working memory'', ''decision and response selection'' and ''response execution'' were analyzed exemplarily in task settings on project management. In seven empirical studies with a total number of 405 participants between 20 and 77 years the human-computer interaction was analyzed regarding effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction. For most but not all studies the results reveal that age-induced differences in human-computer interaction can best be compensated by an ergonomic ''design for all''. In some cases however an age-specific approach is favorable.

  20. Multimodal Neuroelectric Interface Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Totah, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project aims to improve performance of NASA missions by developing multimodal neuroelectric technologies for augmented human-system interaction. Neuroelectric technologies will add completely new modes of interaction that operate in parallel with keyboards, speech, or other manual controls, thereby increasing the bandwidth of human-system interaction. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of real-time electromyographic (EMG) pattern recognition for a direct neuroelectric human-computer interface. We recorded EMG signals from an elastic sleeve with dry electrodes, while a human subject performed a range of discrete gestures. A machine-teaming algorithm was trained to recognize the EMG patterns associated with the gestures and map them to control signals. Successful applications now include piloting two Class 4 aircraft simulations (F-15 and 757) and entering data with a "virtual" numeric keyboard. Current research focuses on on-line adaptation of EMG sensing and processing and recognition of continuous gestures. We are also extending this on-line pattern recognition methodology to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This will allow us to bypass muscle activity and draw control signals directly from the human brain. Our system can reliably detect P-rhythm (a periodic EEG signal from motor cortex in the 10 Hz range) with a lightweight headset containing saline-soaked sponge electrodes. The data show that EEG p-rhythm can be modulated by real and imaginary motions. Current research focuses on using biofeedback to train of human subjects to modulate EEG rhythms on demand, and to examine interactions of EEG-based control with EMG-based and manual control. Viewgraphs on these neuroelectric technologies are also included.

  1. Human-Computer Interaction and Sociological Insight: A Theoretical Examination and Experiment in Building Affinity in Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oren, Michael Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The juxtaposition of classic sociological theory and the, relatively, young discipline of human-computer interaction (HCI) serves as a powerful mechanism for both exploring the theoretical impacts of technology on human interactions as well as the application of technological systems to moderate interactions. It is the intent of this dissertation…

  2. "Don't" Do This--Pitfalls in Using Anti-Patterns in Teaching Human-Computer Interaction Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotze, Paula; Renaud, Karen; van Biljon, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the use of design patterns and anti-patterns in teaching human-computer interaction principles. Patterns are increasingly popular and are seen as an efficient knowledge transfer mechanism in many fields, including software development in the field of software engineering, and more recently in the field of human-computer…

  3. Human-Centered Software Engineering: Software Engineering Architectures, Patterns, and Sodels for Human Computer Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seffah, Ahmed; Vanderdonckt, Jean; Desmarais, Michel C.

    The Computer-Human Interaction and Software Engineering (CHISE) series of edited volumes originated from a number of workshops and discussions over the latest research and developments in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Software Engineering (SE) integration, convergence and cross-pollination. A first volume in this series (CHISE Volume I - Human-Centered Software Engineering: Integrating Usability in the Development Lifecycle) aims at bridging the gap between the field of SE and HCI, and addresses specifically the concerns of integrating usability and user-centered systems design methods and tools into the software development lifecycle and practices. This has been done by defining techniques, tools and practices that can fit into the entire software engineering lifecycle as well as by defining ways of addressing the knowledge and skills needed, and the attitudes and basic values that a user-centered development methodology requires. The first volume has been edited as Vol. 8 in the Springer HCI Series (Seffah, Gulliksen and Desmarais, 2005).

  4. Use of Human Computer Models to Influence the Design of International Space Station Propulsion Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, George S.; Hall, Meridith L.

    1999-01-01

    The overall design for the International Space Station (ISS) Propulsion (Prop) Module consists of two bell shapes connected by a long tube having a shirt sleeve environment. The tube is to be used by the flight crew to transfer equipment and supplies from the Shuttle to ISS. Due to a desire to use existing space qualified hardware, the tube internal diameter was initially set at 38 inches, while the human engineering specification, NASA-STD-3000, required 50". Human computer modeling using the MannequinPro application was used to help make the case to enlarge the passageway to meet the specification. 3D CAD models of Prop Module were created with 38 inches, 45 inches and 50 inches passageways and human figures in the neutral body posture as well as a fetal posture were inserted into the model and systematically exercised. Results showed that only the 50 inches tube would accommodate a mid tube turn around by a large crew member, 95th percentile American males, by stature.

  5. Eye center localization and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhao; Smith, Melvyn L; Smith, Lyndon N; Farooq, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces an unsupervised modular approach for accurate and real-time eye center localization in images and videos, thus allowing a coarse-to-fine, global-to-regional scheme. The trajectories of eye centers in consecutive frames, i.e., gaze gestures, are further analyzed, recognized, and employed to boost the human-computer interaction (HCI) experience. This modular approach makes use of isophote and gradient features to estimate the eye center locations. A selective oriented gradient filter has been specifically designed to remove strong gradients from eyebrows, eye corners, and shadows, which sabotage most eye center localization methods. A real-world implementation utilizing these algorithms has been designed in the form of an interactive advertising billboard to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for HCI. The eye center localization algorithm has been compared with 10 other algorithms on the BioID database and six other algorithms on the GI4E database. It outperforms all the other algorithms in comparison in terms of localization accuracy. Further tests on the extended Yale Face Database b and self-collected data have proved this algorithm to be robust against moderate head poses and poor illumination conditions. The interactive advertising billboard has manifested outstanding usability and effectiveness in our tests and shows great potential for benefiting a wide range of real-world HCI applications.

  6. Design of a compact low-power human-computer interaction equipment for hand motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xianwei; Jin, Wenguang

    2017-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) raises demand of convenience, endurance, responsiveness and naturalness. This paper describes a design of a compact wearable low-power HCI equipment applied to gesture recognition. System combines multi-mode sense signals: the vision sense signal and the motion sense signal, and the equipment is equipped with the depth camera and the motion sensor. The dimension (40 mm × 30 mm) and structure is compact and portable after tight integration. System is built on a module layered framework, which contributes to real-time collection (60 fps), process and transmission via synchronous confusion with asynchronous concurrent collection and wireless Blue 4.0 transmission. To minimize equipment's energy consumption, system makes use of low-power components, managing peripheral state dynamically, switching into idle mode intelligently, pulse-width modulation (PWM) of the NIR LEDs of the depth camera and algorithm optimization by the motion sensor. To test this equipment's function and performance, a gesture recognition algorithm is applied to system. As the result presents, general energy consumption could be as low as 0.5 W.

  7. Adaptation of hybrid human-computer interaction systems using EEG error-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Biasiucci, Andrea; Forster, Killian; Roggen, Daniel; Troster, Gerhard; Millan, Jose Del R

    2010-01-01

    Performance improvement in both humans and artificial systems strongly relies in the ability of recognizing erroneous behavior or decisions. This paper, that builds upon previous studies on EEG error-related signals, presents a hybrid approach for human computer interaction that uses human gestures to send commands to a computer and exploits brain activity to provide implicit feedback about the recognition of such commands. Using a simple computer game as a case study, we show that EEG activity evoked by erroneous gesture recognition can be classified in single trials above random levels. Automatic artifact rejection techniques are used, taking into account that subjects are allowed to move during the experiment. Moreover, we present a simple adaptation mechanism that uses the EEG signal to label newly acquired samples and can be used to re-calibrate the gesture recognition system in a supervised manner. Offline analysis show that, although the achieved EEG decoding accuracy is far from being perfect, these signals convey sufficient information to significantly improve the overall system performance.

  8. What is the Value of Embedding Artificial Emotional Prosody in Human-Computer Interactions? Implications for Theory and Design in Psychological Science.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rachel L C; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    In computerized technology, artificial speech is becoming increasingly important, and is already used in ATMs, online gaming and healthcare contexts. However, today's artificial speech typically sounds monotonous, a main reason for this being the lack of meaningful prosody. One particularly important function of prosody is to convey different emotions. This is because successful encoding and decoding of emotions is vital for effective social cognition, which is increasingly recognized in human-computer interaction contexts. Current attempts to artificially synthesize emotional prosody are much improved relative to early attempts, but there remains much work to be done due to methodological problems, lack of agreed acoustic correlates, and lack of theoretical grounding. If the addition of synthetic emotional prosody is not of sufficient quality, it may risk alienating users instead of enhancing their experience. So the value of embedding emotion cues in artificial speech may ultimately depend on the quality of the synthetic emotional prosody. However, early evidence on reactions to synthesized non-verbal cues in the facial modality bodes well. Attempts to implement the recognition of emotional prosody into artificial applications and interfaces have perhaps been met with greater success, but the ultimate test of synthetic emotional prosody will be to critically compare how people react to synthetic emotional prosody vs. natural emotional prosody, at the behavioral, socio-cognitive and neural levels.

  9. Undergraduate Use of CD-ROM Databases: Observations of Human-Computer Interaction and Relevance Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Debora

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that observed undergraduates as they searched bibliographic databases on a CD-ROM local area network. Topics include related research, information needs, evolution of search topics, database selection, search strategies, relevance judgments, CD-ROM interfaces, and library instruction. (Author/LRW)

  10. Interface resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkkonen, Juha

    1983-11-01

    Interface resistance is studied by using the Landauer formula which relates the resistance to the quantum mechanical transmission coefficient. A simple rederivation of the Landauer formula is given. Using a step-like potential barrier as a model for the metal-semiconductor contact an analytical expression for the effective Richardson constant is derived. As an other application the grain boundary resistance in polycrystalline semiconductors is studied. The short-range potential fluctuation associated with the grain boundary is described by a rectangular potential barrier. The results for the grain boundary limited mobility cover both the strong and weak scattering regimes.

  11. Delays in Human-Computer Interaction and Their Effects on Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kohrs, Christin; Angenstein, Nicole; Brechmann, André

    2016-01-01

    The temporal contingency of feedback is an essential requirement of successful human-computer interactions. The timing of feedback not only affects the behavior of a user but is also accompanied by changes in psychophysiology and neural activity. In three fMRI experiments we systematically studied the impact of delayed feedback on brain activity while subjects performed an auditory categorization task. In the first fMRI experiment, we analyzed the effects of rare and thus unexpected delays of different delay duration on brain activity. In the second experiment, we investigated if users can adapt to frequent delays. Therefore, delays were presented as often as immediate feedback. In a third experiment, the influence of interaction outage was analyzed by measuring the effect of infrequent omissions of feedback on brain activity. The results show that unexpected delays in feedback presentation compared to immediate feedback stronger activate inter alia bilateral the anterior insular cortex, the posterior medial frontal cortex, the left inferior parietal lobule and the right inferior frontal junction. The strength of this activation increases with the duration of the delay. Thus, delays interrupt the course of an interaction and trigger an orienting response that in turn activates brain regions of action control. If delays occur frequently, users can adapt, delays become expectable, and the brain activity in the observed network diminishes over the course of the interaction. However, introducing rare omissions of expected feedback reduces the system’s trustworthiness which leads to an increase in brain activity not only in response to such omissions but also following frequently occurring and thus expected delays. PMID:26745874

  12. Human Computation in Visualization: Using Purpose Driven Games for Robust Evaluation of Visualization Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, N; Zheng, Ziyi; Mueller, K

    2012-12-01

    Due to the inherent characteristics of the visualization process, most of the problems in this field have strong ties with human cognition and perception. This makes the human brain and sensory system the only truly appropriate evaluation platform for evaluating and fine-tuning a new visualization method or paradigm. However, getting humans to volunteer for these purposes has always been a significant obstacle, and thus this phase of the development process has traditionally formed a bottleneck, slowing down progress in visualization research. We propose to take advantage of the newly emerging field of Human Computation (HC) to overcome these challenges. HC promotes the idea that rather than considering humans as users of the computational system, they can be made part of a hybrid computational loop consisting of traditional computation resources and the human brain and sensory system. This approach is particularly successful in cases where part of the computational problem is considered intractable using known computer algorithms but is trivial to common sense human knowledge. In this paper, we focus on HC from the perspective of solving visualization problems and also outline a framework by which humans can be easily seduced to volunteer their HC resources. We introduce a purpose-driven game titled "Disguise" which serves as a prototypical example for how the evaluation of visualization algorithms can be mapped into a fun and addicting activity, allowing this task to be accomplished in an extensive yet cost effective way. Finally, we sketch out a framework that transcends from the pure evaluation of existing visualization methods to the design of a new one.

  13. Interface standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R.; Wong, V.

    1983-01-01

    Central-station applications create a large and attractive market for photovoltaics in the near future. However, some significant barriers lie between the industry of today and realization of that market. Manufacturing capacity and price are two principal impediments. The Utilities, which are the future system owners, are gaining experience with central-station PV power through the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Hesperia and similar small central-station installations. SMUD has recognized that competition must be maintained to help reduce prices. So little standardization exists that the cost is driven upward to redefine mechanical and electrical interfaces for each vendor. New structues are required for each vendor and nonoptimum field geometries result from attempts to include more than one vendor in an array field. Standards at some hardware level are required.

  14. Human-Computer Interfaces for Tactical Decision Making, Analysis, and Assessment Using Artificially Intelligent Platforms. Volume 1. Software Design and Database Descriptions for BATMAN and ROBIN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    new user’s name and social security number. value: a string of the form : " color offset". See button-color above. user.bg.color: the color of empty slots...in the "list of users" panel. value: a string of the form : " color offset". See buttoncolor above. user.fg.color: the color of users’ names in the...34list of users" panel. value: a string of the form : " color offset". See buttoncolor above. username border color: the border color around users’ names in

  15. A real-time pinch-to-zoom motion detection by means of a surface EMG-based human-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongin; Cho, Dongrae; Lee, Kwang Jin; Lee, Boreom

    2014-12-29

    In this paper, we propose a system for inferring the pinch-to-zoom gesture using surface EMG (Electromyography) signals in real time. Pinch-to-zoom, which is a common gesture in smart devices such as an iPhone or an Android phone, is used to control the size of images or web pages according to the distance between the thumb and index finger. To infer the finger motion, we recorded EMG signals obtained from the first dorsal interosseous muscle, which is highly related to the pinch-to-zoom gesture, and used a support vector machine for classification between four finger motion distances. The powers which are estimated by Welch's method were used as feature vectors. In order to solve the multiclass classification problem, we applied a one-versus-one strategy, since a support vector machine is basically a binary classifier. As a result, our system yields 93.38% classification accuracy averaged over six subjects. The classification accuracy was estimated using 10-fold cross validation. Through our system, we expect to not only develop practical prosthetic devices but to also construct a novel user experience (UX) for smart devices.

  16. Virtual tomography: a new approach to efficient human-computer interaction for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teistler, Michael; Bott, Oliver J.; Dormeier, Jochen; Pretschner, Dietrich P.

    2003-05-01

    By utilizing virtual reality (VR) technologies the computer system virtusMED implements the concept of virtual tomography for exploring medical volumetric image data. Photographic data from a virtual patient as well as CT or MRI data from real patients are visualized within a virtual scene. The view of this scene is determined either by a conventional computer mouse, a head-mounted display or a freely movable flat panel. A virtual examination probe is used to generate oblique tomographic images which are computed from the given volume data. In addition, virtual models can be integrated into the scene such as anatomical models of bones and inner organs. virtusMED has shown to be a valuable tool to learn human anaotomy and to udnerstand the principles of medical imaging such as sonography. Furthermore its utilization to improve CT and MRI based diagnosis is very promising. Compared to VR systems of the past, the standard PC-based system virtusMED is a cost-efficient and easily maintained solution providing a highly intuitive time-saving user interface for medical imaging.

  17. HCI and mobile health interventions: How human-computer interaction can contribute to successful mobile health interventions.

    PubMed

    Poole, Erika S

    2013-12-01

    Advances in mobile computing offer the potential to change when, where, and how health interventions are delivered. Rather than relying on occasional in-clinic interactions, mobile health (mHealth) interventions may overcome constraints due to limited clinician time, poor patient adherence, and inability to provide meaningful interventions at the most appropriate time. Technological capability, however, does not equate with user acceptance and adoption. How then can we ensure that mobile technologies for behavior change meet the needs of their target audience? In this paper, we argue that overcoming acceptance and adoption barriers requires interdisciplinary collaborations, bringing together not only technologists and health researchers but also human-computer interaction (HCI) experts. We discuss the value of human-computer interaction research to the nascent field of mHealth and demonstrate how research from HCI can offer complementary insights on the creation of mobile health interventions. We conclude with a discussion of barriers to interdisciplinary collaborations in mobile health and suggest ways to overcome them.

  18. Eye-movements and Voice as Interface Modalities to Computer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farid, Mohsen M.; Murtagh, Fionn D.

    2003-03-01

    We investigate the visual and vocal modalities of interaction with computer systems. We focus our attention on the integration of visual and vocal interface as possible replacement and/or additional modalities to enhance human-computer interaction. We present a new framework for employing eye gaze as a modality of interface. While voice commands, as means of interaction with computers, have been around for a number of years, integration of both the vocal interface and the visual interface, in terms of detecting user's eye movements through an eye-tracking device, is novel and promises to open the horizons for new applications where a hand-mouse interface provides little or no apparent support to the task to be accomplished. We present an array of applications to illustrate the new framework and eye-voice integration.

  19. FGB: A Graphical and Haptic User Interface for Creating Graphical, Haptic User Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    ANDERSON,THOMAS G.; BRECKENRIDGE,ARTHURINE; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.

    1999-10-18

    The emerging field of haptics represents a fundamental change in human-computer interaction (HCI), and presents solutions to problems that are difficult or impossible to solve with a two-dimensional, mouse-based interface. To take advantage of the potential of haptics, however, innovative interaction techniques and programming environments are needed. This paper describes FGB (FLIGHT GHUI Builder), a programming tool that can be used to create an application specific graphical and haptic user interface (GHUI). FGB is itself a graphical and haptic user interface with which a programmer can intuitively create and manipulate components of a GHUI in real time in a graphical environment through the use of a haptic device. The programmer can create a GHUI without writing any programming code. After a user interface is created, FGB writes the appropriate programming code to a file, using the FLIGHT API, to recreate what the programmer created in the FGB interface. FGB saves programming time and increases productivity, because a programmer can see the end result as it is created, and FGB does much of the programming itself. Interestingly, as FGB was created, it was used to help build itself. The further FGB was in its development, the more easily and quickly it could be used to create additional functionality and improve its own design. As a finished product, FGB can be used to recreate itself in much less time than it originally required, and with much less programming. This paper describes FGB's GHUI components, the techniques used in the interface, how the output code is created, where programming additions and modifications should be placed, and how it can be compared to and integrated with existing API's such as MFC and Visual C++, OpenGL, and GHOST.

  20. Media independent interface. Interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A Media Independent Interface (MII) is specified, using current standards in the industry. The MII is described in hierarchical fashion. At the base are IEEE/International Standards Organization (ISO) documents (standards) which describe the functionality of the software modules or layers and their interconnection. These documents describe primitives which are to transcent the MII. The intent of the MII is to provide a universal interface to one or more Media Access Contols (MACs) for the Logical Link Controller and Station Manager. This interface includes both a standardized electrical and mechanical interface and a standardized functional specification which defines the services expected from the MAC.

  1. EOG-sEMG Human Interface for Communication.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hiroki; Yan, Mingmin; Sakurai, Keiko; Tanno, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present electrooculogram (EOG) and surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals that can be used as a human-computer interface. Establishing an efficient alternative channel for communication without overt speech and hand movements is important for increasing the quality of life for patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, or other illnesses. In this paper, we propose an EOG-sEMG human-computer interface system for communication using both cross-channels and parallel lines channels on the face with the same electrodes. This system could record EOG and sEMG signals as "dual-modality" for pattern recognition simultaneously. Although as much as 4 patterns could be recognized, dealing with the state of the patients, we only choose two classes (left and right motion) of EOG and two classes (left blink and right blink) of sEMG which are easily to be realized for simulation and monitoring task. From the simulation results, our system achieved four-pattern classification with an accuracy of 95.1%.

  2. EOG-sEMG Human Interface for Communication

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Hiroki; Yan, Mingmin; Sakurai, Keiko; Tanno, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present electrooculogram (EOG) and surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals that can be used as a human-computer interface. Establishing an efficient alternative channel for communication without overt speech and hand movements is important for increasing the quality of life for patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, or other illnesses. In this paper, we propose an EOG-sEMG human-computer interface system for communication using both cross-channels and parallel lines channels on the face with the same electrodes. This system could record EOG and sEMG signals as “dual-modality” for pattern recognition simultaneously. Although as much as 4 patterns could be recognized, dealing with the state of the patients, we only choose two classes (left and right motion) of EOG and two classes (left blink and right blink) of sEMG which are easily to be realized for simulation and monitoring task. From the simulation results, our system achieved four-pattern classification with an accuracy of 95.1%. PMID:27418924

  3. An intelligent interface for satellite operations: Your Orbit Determination Assistant (YODA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schur, Anne

    1988-01-01

    An intelligent interface is often characterized by the ability to adapt evaluation criteria as the environment and user goals change. Some factors that impact these adaptations are redefinition of task goals and, hence, user requirements; time criticality; and system status. To implement adaptations affected by these factors, a new set of capabilities must be incorporated into the human-computer interface design. These capabilities include: (1) dynamic update and removal of control states based on user inputs, (2) generation and removal of logical dependencies as change occurs, (3) uniform and smooth interfacing to numerous processes, databases, and expert systems, and (4) unobtrusive on-line assistance to users of concepts were applied and incorporated into a human-computer interface using artificial intelligence techniques to create a prototype expert system, Your Orbit Determination Assistant (YODA). YODA is a smart interface that supports, in real teime, orbit analysts who must determine the location of a satellite during the station acquisition phase of a mission. Also described is the integration of four knowledge sources required to support the orbit determination assistant: orbital mechanics, spacecraft specifications, characteristics of the mission support software, and orbit analyst experience. This initial effort is continuing with expansion of YODA's capabilities, including evaluation of results of the orbit determination task.

  4. Media independent interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The work done on the Media Independent Interface (MII) Interface Control Document (ICD) program is described and recommendations based on it were made. Explanations and rationale for the content of the ICD itself are presented.

  5. Independent Verification and Validation of Complex User Interfaces: A Human Factors Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Berman, Andrea; Chmielewski, Cynthia

    1996-01-01

    The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center has identified and evaluated a potential automated software interface inspection tool capable of assessing the degree to which space-related critical and high-risk software system user interfaces meet objective human factors standards across each NASA program and project. Testing consisted of two distinct phases. Phase 1 compared analysis times and similarity of results for the automated tool and for human-computer interface (HCI) experts. In Phase 2, HCI experts critiqued the prototype tool's user interface. Based on this evaluation, it appears that a more fully developed version of the tool will be a promising complement to a human factors-oriented independent verification and validation (IV&V) process.

  6. Human perceptual deficits as factors in computer interface test and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bowser, S.E.

    1992-06-01

    Issues related to testing and evaluating human computer interfaces are usually based on the machine rather than on the human portion of the computer interface. Perceptual characteristics of the expected user are rarely investigated, and interface designers ignore known population perceptual limitations. For these reasons, environmental impacts on the equipment will more likely be defined than will user perceptual characteristics. The investigation of user population characteristics is most often directed toward intellectual abilities and anthropometry. This problem is compounded by the fact that some deficits capabilities tend to be found in higher-than-overall population distribution in some user groups. The test and evaluation community can address the issue from two primary aspects. First, assessing user characteristics should be extended to include tests of perceptual capability. Secondly, interface designs should use multimode information coding.

  7. Quantization of interface currents

    SciTech Connect

    Kotani, Motoko; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann; Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  8. Support vector machines to detect physiological patterns for EEG and EMG-based human-computer interaction: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quitadamo, L. R.; Cavrini, F.; Sbernini, L.; Riillo, F.; Bianchi, L.; Seri, S.; Saggio, G.

    2017-02-01

    Support vector machines (SVMs) are widely used classifiers for detecting physiological patterns in human-computer interaction (HCI). Their success is due to their versatility, robustness and large availability of free dedicated toolboxes. Frequently in the literature, insufficient details about the SVM implementation and/or parameters selection are reported, making it impossible to reproduce study analysis and results. In order to perform an optimized classification and report a proper description of the results, it is necessary to have a comprehensive critical overview of the applications of SVM. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the usage of SVM in the determination of brain and muscle patterns for HCI, by focusing on electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) techniques. In particular, an overview of the basic principles of SVM theory is outlined, together with a description of several relevant literature implementations. Furthermore, details concerning reviewed papers are listed in tables and statistics of SVM use in the literature are presented. Suitability of SVM for HCI is discussed and critical comparisons with other classifiers are reported.

  9. Conversion of IVA Human Computer Model to EVA Use and Evaluation and Comparison of the Result to Existing EVA Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, George S.; Williams, Jermaine C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the methods, rationale, and comparative results of the conversion of an intravehicular (IVA) 3D human computer model (HCM) to extravehicular (EVA) use and compares the converted model to an existing model on another computer platform. The task of accurately modeling a spacesuited human figure in software is daunting: the suit restricts the human's joint range of motion (ROM) and does not have joints collocated with human joints. The modeling of the variety of materials needed to construct a space suit (e. g. metal bearings, rigid fiberglass torso, flexible cloth limbs and rubber coated gloves) attached to a human figure is currently out of reach of desktop computer hardware and software. Therefore a simplified approach was taken. The HCM's body parts were enlarged and the joint ROM was restricted to match the existing spacesuit model. This basic approach could be used to model other restrictive environments in industry such as chemical or fire protective clothing. In summary, the approach provides a moderate fidelity, usable tool which will run on current notebook computers.

  10. Ergonomic guidelines for using notebook personal computers. Technical Committee on Human-Computer Interaction, International Ergonomics Association.

    PubMed

    Saito, S; Piccoli, B; Smith, M J; Sotoyama, M; Sweitzer, G; Villanueva, M B; Yoshitake, R

    2000-10-01

    In the 1980's, the visual display terminal (VDT) was introduced in workplaces of many countries. Soon thereafter, an upsurge in reported cases of related health problems, such as musculoskeletal disorders and eyestrain, was seen. Recently, the flat panel display or notebook personal computer (PC) became the most remarkable feature in modern workplaces with VDTs and even in homes. A proactive approach must be taken to avert foreseeable ergonomic and occupational health problems from the use of this new technology. Because of its distinct physical and optical characteristics, the ergonomic requirements for notebook PCs in terms of machine layout, workstation design, lighting conditions, among others, should be different from the CRT-based computers. The Japan Ergonomics Society (JES) technical committee came up with a set of guidelines for notebook PC use following exploratory discussions that dwelt on its ergonomic aspects. To keep in stride with this development, the Technical Committee on Human-Computer Interaction under the auspices of the International Ergonomics Association worked towards the international issuance of the guidelines. This paper unveils the result of this collaborative effort.

  11. Support vector machines to detect physiological patterns for EEG and EMG-based human-computer interaction: a review.

    PubMed

    Quitadamo, L R; Cavrini, F; Sbernini, L; Riillo, F; Bianchi, L; Seri, S; Saggio, G

    2017-02-01

    Support vector machines (SVMs) are widely used classifiers for detecting physiological patterns in human-computer interaction (HCI). Their success is due to their versatility, robustness and large availability of free dedicated toolboxes. Frequently in the literature, insufficient details about the SVM implementation and/or parameters selection are reported, making it impossible to reproduce study analysis and results. In order to perform an optimized classification and report a proper description of the results, it is necessary to have a comprehensive critical overview of the applications of SVM. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the usage of SVM in the determination of brain and muscle patterns for HCI, by focusing on electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) techniques. In particular, an overview of the basic principles of SVM theory is outlined, together with a description of several relevant literature implementations. Furthermore, details concerning reviewed papers are listed in tables and statistics of SVM use in the literature are presented. Suitability of SVM for HCI is discussed and critical comparisons with other classifiers are reported.

  12. Microconical interface fitting and interface grasping tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L. (Inventor); Wightman, William D. (Inventor); Johnston, Alistair P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A small and light weight microconical interface fitting may be attached to the surface of a space vehicle or equipment to provide an attachment device for an astronaut or robot to capture the space vehicle or equipment. The microconical interface fitting of the present invention has an axisymmetrical conical body having a base portion with a torque reaction surface for preventing rotation of the interface grasping tool; a cavitated, sunken or hollowed out intermediate locking portion which has a cavity shaped for receiving the latches of the grasping tool and an upper guiding portion for guiding the grasping tool into axial alignment with the microconical interface fitting. The capture is accomplished with an interface grasping tool. The grasping tool comprises an outer sleeve with a handle attached, an inner sleeve which may be raised and lowered within the outer sleeve with a plurality of latches supported at the lower end and a cam to raise and lower the inner sleeve. When the inner sleeve is at its lowest position, the latches form the largest diameter opening for surrounding the microconical fitting and the latches form the smallest diameter or a locking, grasping position when raised to the highest position within the outer sleeve. The inner sleeve may be at an intermediate, capture position which permits the latches to be biased outwardly when contacting the microconical fitting under very low forces to grasp the fitting and permits capture (soft docking) without exact alignment of the fitting and the tool.

  13. Secure Distributed Human Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentry, Craig; Ramzan, Zulfikar; Stubblebine, Stuart

    In Peha’s Financial Cryptography 2004 invited talk, he described the Cyphermint PayCash system (see www.cyphermint.com), which allows people without bank accounts or credit cards (a sizeable segment of the U.S. population) to automatically and instantly cash checks, pay bills, or make Internet transactions through publicly-accessible kiosks. Since PayCash offers automated financial transactions and since the system uses (unprotected) kiosks, security is critical. The kiosk must decide whether a person cashing a check is really the person to whom the check was made out, so it takes a digital picture of the person cashing the check and transmits this picture electronically to a central office, where a human worker compares the kiosk’s picture to one that was taken when the person registered with Cyphermint. If both pictures are of the same person, then the human worker authorizes the transaction.

  14. User interface support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Clayton; Wilde, Nick

    1989-01-01

    Space construction will require heavy investment in the development of a wide variety of user interfaces for the computer-based tools that will be involved at every stage of construction operations. Using today's technology, user interface development is very expensive for two reasons: (1) specialized and scarce programming skills are required to implement the necessary graphical representations and complex control regimes for high-quality interfaces; (2) iteration on prototypes is required to meet user and task requirements, since these are difficult to anticipate with current (and foreseeable) design knowledge. We are attacking this problem by building a user interface development tool based on extensions to the spreadsheet model of computation. The tool provides high-level support for graphical user interfaces and permits dynamic modification of interfaces, without requiring conventional programming concepts and skills.

  15. Turbomachine Interface Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Chupp, Raymond E.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Sealing interfaces and coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. Clearance control is a major issue in power systems turbomachine design and operational life. Sealing becomes the most cost-effective way to enhance system performance. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining interface clearances in turbomachine sealing and component life. This paper focuses on conventional and innovative materials and design practices for sealing interfaces.

  16. Persistent interface fluid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard S; Fine, I Howard; Packer, Mark

    2008-08-01

    We present an unusual case of persistent interface fluid that would not resolve despite normal intraocular pressure and corneal endothelial replacement with Descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty. Dissection, elevation, and repositioning of the laser in situ keratomileusis flap were required to resolve the interface fluid. Circumferential corneal graft-host margin scar formation acting as a mechanical strut may have been the cause of the intractable interface fluid.

  17. User interface development for semiautomated imagery exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, R. P.; Bohling, Edward H.

    1991-08-01

    Operational reconnaissance technical organizations are burdened by greatly increasing workloads due to expanding capabilities for collection and delivery of large-volume near-real- time multisensor/multispectral softcopy imagery. Related to the tasking of reconnaissance platforms to provide the imagery are more stringent timelines for exploiting the imagery in response to the rapidly changing threat environment being monitored. The development of a semi-automated softcopy multisensor image exploitation capability is a critical step toward integrating existing advanced image processing techniques in conjunction with appropriate intelligence and cartographic data for next-generation image exploitation systems. This paper discusses the results of a recent effort to develop computer-assisted aids for the image analyst (IA) in order to rapidly and accurately exploit multispectral/multisensor imagery in combination with intelligence support data and cartographic information for the purpose of target detection and identification. A key challenge of the effort was to design and implement an effective human-computer interface that would satisfy any generic IA task and readily accommodate the needs of a broad range of IAs.

  18. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  19. Thread Pool Interface (TPI)

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, H. Carter

    2008-04-01

    Thread Pool Interface (TpI) provides a simple interface for running functions written in C or C++ in a thread-parallel mode. Application or library codes may need to perform operations thread-parallel on machines with multicore processors. the TPI library provides a simple mechanism for managing thread activation, deactivation, and thread-parallel execution of application-provided subprograms.

  20. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  1. Turning Shortcomings into Challenges: Brain-Computer Interfaces for Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijholt, Anton; Reuderink, Boris; Oude Bos, Danny

    In recent years we have seen a rising interest in brain-computer interfacing for human-computer interaction and potential game applications. Until now, however, we have almost only seen attempts where BCI is used to measure the affective state of the user or in neurofeedback games. There have hardly been any attempts to design BCI games where BCI is considered to be one of the possible input modalities that can be used to control the game. One reason may be that research still follows the paradigms of the traditional, medically oriented, BCI approaches. In this paper we discuss current BCI research from the viewpoint of games and game design. It is hoped that this survey will make clear that we need to design different games than we used to, but that such games can nevertheless be interesting and exciting.

  2. Top ten list of user-hostile interface design

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.P.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes ten of the most frequent ergonomic problems found in human-computer interfaces (HCIs) associated with complex industrial machines. In contrast with being thought of as ``user friendly,`` many of these machines are seen as exhibiting ``user-hostile`` attributes by the author. The historical lack of consistent application of ergonomic principles in the HCIs has led to a breed of very sophisticated, complex manufacturing equipment that few people can operate without extensive orientation, training, or experience. This design oversight has produced the need for extensive training programs and help documentation, unnecessary machine downtime, and reduced productivity resulting from operator stress and confusion. Ergonomic considerations affect industrial machines in at least three important areas: (1) the physical package including CRT and keyboard, maintenance access areas, and dedicated hardware selection, layout, and labeling; (2) the software by which the user interacts with the computer that controls the equipment; and (3) the supporting documentation.

  3. ChemPreview: an augmented reality-based molecular interface.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Min; Waller, Mark P

    2017-05-01

    Human computer interfaces make computational science more comprehensible and impactful. Complex 3D structures such as proteins or DNA are magnified by digital representations and displayed on two-dimensional monitors. Augmented reality has recently opened another door to access the virtual three-dimensional world. Herein, we present an augmented reality application called ChemPreview with the potential to manipulate bio-molecular structures at an atomistic level. ChemPreview is available at https://github.com/wallerlab/chem-preview/releases, and is built on top of the Meta 1 platform https://www.metavision.com/. ChemPreview can be used to interact with a protein in an intuitive way using natural hand gestures, thereby making it appealing to computational chemists or structural biologists. The ability to manipulate atoms in real world could eventually provide new and more efficient ways of extracting structural knowledge, or designing new molecules in silico.

  4. Towards New Interfaces for Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Murphy Martin

    2014-01-01

    Developing technology to help people teach and learn is an important topic in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). In this thesis we present three studies on this topic. In the first study, we demonstrate new games for learning mathematics and discuss the evidence for key design decisions from user studies. In the second study, we develop a real-time…

  5. Operator interface for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bissontz, Jay E

    2015-03-10

    A control interface for drivetrain braking provided by a regenerative brake and a non-regenerative brake is implemented using a combination of switches and graphic interface elements. The control interface comprises a control system for allocating drivetrain braking effort between the regenerative brake and the non-regenerative brake, a first operator actuated control for enabling operation of the drivetrain braking, and a second operator actuated control for selecting a target braking effort for drivetrain braking. A graphic display displays to an operator the selected target braking effort and can be used to further display actual braking effort achieved by drivetrain braking.

  6. Prototyping the graphical user interface for the operator of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeh, I.; Oya, I.; Schwarz, J.; Pietriga, E.

    2016-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a planned gamma-ray observatory. CTA will incorporate about 100 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) at a Southern site, and about 20 in the North. Previous IACT experiments have used up to five telescopes. Subsequently, the design of a graphical user interface (GUI) for the operator of CTA involves new challenges. We present a GUI prototype, the concept for which is being developed in collaboration with experts from the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). The prototype is based on Web technology; it incorporates a Python web server, Web Sockets and graphics generated with the d3.js Javascript library.

  7. Scalable coherent interface

    SciTech Connect

    Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H. ); Gustavson, D.B. ); James, D.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Data Reorganization Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Data Reorganization Interface Kenneth Cain Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Phone: (978)-967-1645 Email Address: kcain@mc.com Abstract...6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Mercury Computer Systems...18 © 2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Data Reorganization Interface (DRI) Kenneth Cain Jr. Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. High Performance

  9. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  10. MER SPICE Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayfi, Elias

    2004-01-01

    MER SPICE Interface is a software module for use in conjunction with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission and the SPICE software system of the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (SPICE is used to acquire, record, and disseminate engineering, navigational, and other ancillary data describing circumstances under which data were acquired by spaceborne scientific instruments.) Given a Spacecraft Clock value, MER SPICE Interface extracts MER-specific data from SPICE kernels (essentially, raw data files) and calculates values for Planet Day Number, Local Solar Longitude, Local Solar Elevation, Local Solar Azimuth, and Local Solar Time (UTC). MER SPICE Interface was adapted from a subroutine, denoted m98SpiceIF written by Payam Zamani, that was intended to calculate SPICE values for the Mars Polar Lander. The main difference between MER SPICE Interface and m98SpiceIf is that MER SPICE Interface does not explicitly call CHRONOS, a time-conversion program that is part of a library of utility subprograms within SPICE. Instead, MER SPICE Interface mimics some portions of the CHRONOS code, the advantage being that it executes much faster and can efficiently be called from a pipeline of events in a parallel processing environment.

  11. Environmental materials and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    A workshop that explored materials and interfaces research needs relevant to national environmental concerns was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purposes of the workshop were to refine the scientific research directions being planned for the Materials and Interface Program in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) and further define the research and user equipment to the included as part of the proposed Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL). Three plenary information sessions served to outline the background, objectives, and status of the MSRC and EMSL initiatives; selected specific areas with environmentally related materials; and the status of capabilities and facilities planned for the EMSL. Attention was directed to four areas where materials and interface science can have a significant impact on prevention and remediation of environmental problems: in situ detection and characterization of hazardous wastes (sensors), minimization of hazardous waste (separation membranes, ion exchange materials, catalysts), waste containment (encapsulation and barrier materials), and fundamental understanding of contaminant transport mechanisms. During all other sessions, the participants were divided into three working groups for detailed discussion and the preparation of a written report. The working groups focused on the areas of interface structure and chemistry, materials and interface stability, and materials synthesis. These recommendations and suggestions for needed research will be useful for other researchers in proposing projects and for suggesting collaborative work with MSRC researchers. 1 fig.

  12. Groundwater Head Control of Catchment Nitrate Export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musolff, A.; Schmidt, C.; Rode, M.; Fleckenstein, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated nutrient fluxes from agricultural catchments affect downstream water resources. A method to assess nutrient fluxes is the evaluation of the export regime. The export regime classifies the relation between concentration and discharge and integrates mobilization as well as retention processes. Solutes can be exported chemostatically (variance of concentration << variance of discharge) or chemodynamically (variance of concentration ≥ variance of discharge). Starting point of this study is the evaluation of export regimes of nitrate in a series of neighboring sub-catchments of the Central German River Bode catchment. We found an accretion pattern of nitrate with increasing concentration when discharge is increasing and thus a chemodynamic export regime. Here we follow a nested approach and have a closer look at the controls of nitrate export in the small (1.4 km2) headwater catchment of the Sauerbach stream. The Sauerbach catchment is dominated by agricultural land use and is characterized by tile drains. We hypothesize that discharge as well as nitrate export is controlled by the groundwater head variability over time. To that end we follow a joint data analysis of discharge, groundwater heads and nitrate concentrations in groundwater, tile drains and surface water. At the gauging station the nitrate export is chemodynamic exhibiting the typical accretion pattern also found at the larger scale. Our data analysis shows that nitrate export regime is in two ways controlled by the depth to groundwater and the groundwater head variability: Discharge increases with increasing groundwater heads due to the activation of tile drains. On the other hand, depth to groundwater and passage through the unsaturated zone is the major control of aquifer nitrate concentration. At wells with larger depth to groundwater nitrate concentrations are significantly lower than at more shallow wells indicating retention processes in the unsaturated zone. Therefore the concentration in the stream increases with increasing heads since the activated tiles drain shallow groundwater with higher nitrate concentrations. We can thus show that the export regime of nitrate provides insight into the spatial relation of discharge producing zones and nitrate source zones within a catchment.

  13. Guidelines for the integration of audio cues into computer user interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sumikawa, D.A.

    1985-06-01

    Throughout the history of computers, vision has been the main channel through which information is conveyed to the computer user. As the complexities of man-machine interactions increase, more and more information must be transferred from the computer to the user and then successfully interpreted by the user. A logical next step in the evolution of the computer-user interface is the incorporation of sound and thereby using the sense of ''hearing'' in the computer experience. This allows our visual and auditory capabilities to work naturally together in unison leading to more effective and efficient interpretation of all information received by the user from the computer. This thesis presents an initial set of guidelines to assist interface developers in designing an effective sight and sound user interface. This study is a synthesis of various aspects of sound, human communication, computer-user interfaces, and psychoacoustics. We introduce the notion of an earcon. Earcons are audio cues used in the computer-user interface to provide information and feedback to the user about some computer object, operation, or interaction. A possible construction technique for earcons, the use of earcons in the interface, how earcons are learned and remembered, and the affects of earcons on their users are investigated. This study takes the point of view that earcons are a language and human/computer communication issue and are therefore analyzed according to the three dimensions of linguistics; syntactics, semantics, and pragmatics.

  14. Magnetic multilayer interface anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Pechan, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ni/Mo and Ni/V multilayer magnetic anisotropy has been investigated as a function of Ni layer thickness, frequency and temperature. Variable frequency ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements show, for the first time, significant frequency dependence associated with the multilayer magnetic anisotropy. The thickness dependence allows one to extract the interface contribution from the total anisotropy. Temperature dependent FMR (9 GHz) and room temperature magnetization indicate that strain between Ni and the non-magnetic layers is contributing significantly to the source of the interface anisotropy and the state of the interfacial magnetization. In order to examine the interface properties of other transition metal multilayer systems, investigations on Fe/Cu are underway and CoCr/Ag is being proposed. ESR measurements have been reported on Gd substituted YBaCuO superconductors and a novel quasi-equilibrium method has been developed to determine quickly and precisely the ransition temperature.

  15. High temperature interface superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-02-01

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both 'passive' hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  16. High temperature interface superconductivity

    DOE PAGES

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-20

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. Here, wemore » conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.« less

  17. High temperature interface superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-20

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. Here, we conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  18. Profile Interface Generator

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-09

    The Profile Interface Generator (PIG) is a tool for loosely coupling applications and performance tools. It enables applications to write code that looks like standard C and Fortran functions calls, without requiring that applications link to specific implementations of those function calls. Performance tools can register with PIG in order to listen to only the calls that give information they care about. This interface reduces the build and configuration burden on application developers and allows semantic instrumentation to live in production codes without interfering with production runs.

  19. Optical encryption interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.

  20. Virtual interface environment workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  1. Modal Interfaces in Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. Alvey

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii, an archipelago where transportation distances are short but the interfaces are many, seeks elimination of modal changes by totally-submerged hydrofoil craft operating at the water surface directly between tourist resort destinations, by dual mode rapid transit vehicles operating directly between the deplaning bridges at Honolulu International Airport and hotel porte-cochere at Waikiki, by demand responsive vehicles for collection and distribution operating on fixed guideways for line haul, and by roll-on/roll-off inter-island ferries for all models of manually operated ground vehicles. The paper also describes facilitation of unavoidable interfaces by innovative sub-systems.

  2. Interfacing the Digital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Steve

    In the last 5 years, there has been at times heated debate not only about how best to present digital and specifically networked art in an institutional context but also whether to do so at all. Not all of the discussion revolves around issues of physical interfaces to such works, but their onsite presentation is a critical concern for both…

  3. Virtual interface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture is under development for use as a multipurpose interface environment. Initial applications of the system are in telerobotics, data-management and human factors research. System configuration and research directions are described.

  4. A Thermistor Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Gary D.; Dowden, Edward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of a precalibrated stainless steel thermistor, interfaced with an Apple computer, in chemistry experiments. Discusses the advantages of "instant" temperature readings in experiments requiring that readings be taken at certain intervals. Outlines such an experiment which investigates freezing point depressions. (TW)

  5. Interfacing with a DMM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Suggests purchasing a digital multimer (DMM) with an IEEE-488 option to interface an instrument to a microcomputer, indicating that a DMM is well protected from overloads and is easy to connect. An example of its use in an experiment involving hydrolysis of tertiary butyl alcohol (with program listing) is given. (JN)

  6. Photochemistry at Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B

    2015-02-24

    We have advanced our capabilities to investigate ultrafast excited state dynamics at a liquid interface using a pump to excite molecules to higher electronic states and then probe the subsequent time evolution of the interfacial molecules with femtosecond time delayed vibrational SFG.

  7. the EXFOR interface

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D. A.

    2011-03-10

    The x4i package is an interface to the EXFOR nuclear data library. It simplifies retrieval of EXFOR entries and can automatically parse them, allowing one to extract cross-section (and other) data in a simple, plot-able format. x4i also understands and can parse the entire reaction string, allowing one to build a strategy for processing the data

  8. Interface It Yourself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westling, Bruce D.; Bahe, Margaret E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several ways to build data collection devices for microcomputers. The interface devices connect with either the computer's game port or an analog-to-digital converter. Discusses how teachers have designed the equipment and appropriate software to use with the computer in biology teaching. (TW)

  9. Reducing wrong patient selection errors: exploring the design space of user interface techniques.

    PubMed

    Sopan, Awalin; Plaisant, Catherine; Powsner, Seth; Shneiderman, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Wrong patient selection errors are a major issue for patient safety; from ordering medication to performing surgery, the stakes are high. Widespread adoption of Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems makes patient selection using a computer screen a frequent task for clinicians. Careful design of the user interface can help mitigate the problem by helping providers recall their patients' identities, accurately select their names, and spot errors before orders are submitted. We propose a catalog of twenty seven distinct user interface techniques, organized according to a task analysis. An associated video demonstrates eighteen of those techniques. EHR designers who consider a wider range of human-computer interaction techniques could reduce selection errors, but verification of efficacy is still needed.

  10. Development of a Common User Interface for the Launch Decision Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholtz, Jean C.

    1991-01-01

    The Launch Decision Support System (LDSS) is software to be used by the NASA Test Director (NTD) in the firing room during countdown. This software is designed to assist the NTD with time management, that is, when to resume from a hold condition. This software will assist the NTD in making and evaluating alternate plans and will keep him advised of the existing situation. As such, the interface to this software must be designed to provide the maximum amount of information in the clearest fashion and in a timely manner. This research involves applying user interface guidelines to a mature prototype of LDSS and developing displays that will enable the users to easily and efficiently obtain information from the LDSS displays. This research also extends previous work on organizing and prioritizing human-computer interaction knowledge.

  11. Foreword: Quasicrystals at Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournée, Vincent; Ledieu, Julian; Thiel, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    The term 'quasicrystals' stands for quasiperiodic crystals and by no means signifies that they are imperfect crystals. Quasicrystals represent a well-ordered state of matter just like periodic crystals, characterized by diffraction peaks as sharp as those for nearly perfect crystals such as silicon. But their long range order is aperiodic, and therefore they cannot be described by the periodic repetition of a small unit cell like normal crystals. Instead, quasiperiodic structures can be described as the three-dimensional restriction of a periodic structure embedded in a hyperspace of dimension N > 3. For example, a six-dimensional cubic lattice is used to generate the icosahedral quasilattice in three-dimensions. This is a general property of quasiperiodic functions, an archetype being the function f(x) = cos(x) + cos(√2x), which is the sum of two periodic functions with incommensurate periods. This function can be regarded as the restriction along the line with irrational slope y = √2x of the function F(x, y) = cos(x) + cos(y), which is periodic in the (x, y) plan. Quasicrystalline materials were discovered 25 years ago by D Shechtman et al in rapidly solidified Al-Mn alloys. Many quasicrystals have been identified since then in binary and ternary systems. Most of them present non-crystallographic rotational symmetry like five-fold or ten-fold axes. Interest in this new class of materials was further driven by their potentially useful physical properties, either in the form of functional coatings or as reinforcement particle in composites. These practical aspects in turn raised fundamental questions about the nature of interfaces between periodic and quasiperiodic materials. Interfaces are regions of high energy compared to the bulk, where atomic positions need to be adjusted on both sides of the interface to accommodate the two different lattices. How to describe interfaces and how nature minimizes the interface energy between a periodic and a quasiperiodic

  12. Passive wireless tags for tongue controlled assistive technology interfaces.

    PubMed

    Rakibet, Osman O; Horne, Robert J; Kelly, Stephen W; Batchelor, John C

    2016-03-01

    Tongue control with low profile, passive mouth tags is demonstrated as a human-device interface by communicating values of tongue-tag separation over a wireless link. Confusion matrices are provided to demonstrate user accuracy in targeting by tongue position. Accuracy is found to increase dramatically after short training sequences with errors falling close to 1% in magnitude with zero missed targets. The rate at which users are able to learn accurate targeting with high accuracy indicates that this is an intuitive device to operate. The significance of the work is that innovative very unobtrusive, wireless tags can be used to provide intuitive human-computer interfaces based on low cost and disposable mouth mounted technology. With the development of an appropriate reading system, control of assistive devices such as computer mice or wheelchairs could be possible for tetraplegics and others who retain fine motor control capability of their tongues. The tags contain no battery and are intended to fit directly on the hard palate, detecting tongue position in the mouth with no need for tongue piercings.

  13. Easy-to-use interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M M; Blattner, D O; Tong, Y

    1999-04-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future.

  14. Interface Configuration Experiment: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert; Weislogel, Mark

    1994-01-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) was carried out on USML-1 to investigate liquid-gas interfaces in certain rotationally-symmetric containers having prescribed, mathematically derived shapes. These containers have the property that they admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium rotationally-symmetric interfaces for a given liquid volume and contact angle. Furthermore, it can be shown that none of these interfaces can be stable. It was found, after the containers were filled in orbit, that an initial equilibrium interface from the symmetric continuum re-oriented, when perturbed, to a stable interface that was not rotationally symmetric, in accordance with the mathematical theory.

  15. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  16. Human-computer interaction in radiotherapy target volume delineation: a prospective, multi-institutional comparison of user input devices.

    PubMed

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was the prospective comparison of objective and subjective effects of target volume region of interest (ROI) delineation using mouse-keyboard and pen-tablet user input devices (UIDs). The study was designed as a prospective test/retest sequence, with Wilcoxon signed rank test for matched-pair comparison. Twenty-one physician-observers contoured target volume ROIs on four standardized cases (representative of brain, prostate, lung, and head and neck malignancies) twice: once using QWERTY keyboard/scroll-wheel mouse UID and once with pen-tablet UID (DTX2100, Wacom Technology Corporation, Vancouver, WA, USA). Active task time, ROI manipulation task data, and subjective survey data were collected. One hundred twenty-nine target volume ROI sets were collected, with 62 paired pen-tablet/mouse-keyboard sessions. Active contouring time was reduced using the pen-tablet UID, with mean ± SD active contouring time of 26 ± 23 min, compared with 32 ± 25 with the mouse (p ≤ 0.01). Subjective estimation of time spent was also reduced from 31 ± 26 with mouse to 27 ± 22 min with the pen (p = 0.02). Task analysis showed ROI correction task reduction (p = 0.045) and decreased panning and scrolling tasks (p < 0.01) with the pen-tablet; drawing, window/level changes, and zoom commands were unchanged (p = n.s.) Volumetric analysis demonstrated no detectable differences in ROI volume nor intra- or inter-observer volumetric coverage. Fifty-two of 62 (84%) users preferred the tablet for each contouring task; 5 of 62 (8%) denoted no preference, and 5 of 62 (8%) chose the mouse interface. The pen-tablet UID reduced active contouring time and reduced correction of ROIs, without substantially altering ROI volume/coverage.

  17. Human-Computer Interaction: A Journal of Theoretical, Empirical and Methodological Issues of User Science and of System Design. Volume 7, Number 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    interface. These roles include at least designer, implementer, evaluator, documenter, marketing, customer, and user. Each of these roles has its own...design as it evolves through all phases of the life cycle. Development of a user-centered interface design necessitates that these techniques have a...corresponding [ interface feedback, and state change information are represented at the lowest level. Levels of abstraction hide these details and build the task

  18. Multifunctional microcontrollable interface module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, Mark B.; Zavracky, Paul M.; Rensing, Noa M.; Crawford, J.; Hockman, Angela H.; Aquilino, P. D.; Girolamo, Henry J.

    2001-08-01

    This paper reports the development of a complete eyeglass- mounted computer interface system including display, camera and audio subsystems. The display system provides an SVGA image with a 20 degree horizontal field of view. The camera system has been optimized for face recognition and provides a 19 degree horizontal field of view. A microphone and built-in pre-amp optimized for voice recognition and a speaker on an articulated arm are included for audio. An important feature of the system is a high degree of adjustability and reconfigurability. The system has been developed for testing by the Military Police, in a complete system comprising the eyeglass-mounted interface, a wearable computer, and an RF link. Details of the design, construction, and performance of the eyeglass-based system are discussed.

  19. Immunochemistry at interfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Nygren, H; Stenberg, M

    1989-01-01

    The immunochemistry of antibody binding to solid-phase immobilized antigen is reviewed. Experimental data are compared with different theoretical models of reaction mechanisms at solid-liquid interfaces. It was found that reactions at the solid-liquid interface can become limited by the diffusion rate due to depletion of reactants close to the surface, even though the intrinsic bimolecular reaction at the surface is reaction-rate limited. The forward reaction-rate constant decreases with increasing concentration of bound antibodies at the surface, and when not limited by diffusion the forward reaction rate can be more than 1000-fold slower than the corresponding reaction in a liquid solution. Possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed. The dissociation of bound antibodies is a slow process at solid phases. The antigen-antibody complexes formed are practically irreversible. Some evidence is presented which indicates that the stability of these complexes can be due to attractive lateral interactions between bound antibodies. PMID:2649437

  20. Interface scattering in polycrystalline thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Adrian; Haney, Paul M.

    2014-03-28

    We study the effect of electron and phonon interface scattering on the thermoelectric properties of disordered, polycrystalline materials (with grain sizes larger than electron and phonons' mean free path). Interface scattering of electrons is treated with a Landauer approach, while that of phonons is treated with the diffuse mismatch model. The interface scattering is embedded within a diffusive model of bulk transport, and we show that, for randomly arranged interfaces, the overall system is well described by effective medium theory. Using bulk parameters similar to those of PbTe and a square barrier potential for the interface electron scattering, we identify the interface scattering parameters for which the figure of merit ZT is increased. We find the electronic scattering is generally detrimental due to a reduction in electrical conductivity; however, for sufficiently weak electronic interface scattering, ZT is enhanced due to phonon interface scattering.

  1. SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Raines, Matthew; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Mata, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) have very limited diagnostic and no prognostic capabilities, while current smart sensor designs do not have the capability to communicate over Fieldbus networks. The aim is to interface smart sensors with PLCs so that health and status information, such as failure mode identification and measurement tolerance, can be communicated via an industrial Fieldbus such as ControlNet. The SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface (SIFI) is an embedded device that acts as a communication module in a networked smart sensor. The purpose is to enable a smart sensor to communicate health and status information to other devices, such as PLCs, via an industrial Fieldbus networking protocol. The SNE (Smart Network Element) is attached to a commercial off-the-shelf Any bus-S interface module through the SIFI. Numerous Anybus-S modules are available, each one designed to interface with a specific Fieldbus. Development of the SIFI focused on communications using the ControlNet protocol, but any of the Anybus-S modules can be used. The SIFI communicates with the Any-bus module via a data buffer and mailbox system on the Anybus module, and supplies power to the module. The Anybus module transmits and receives data on the Fieldbus using the proper protocol. The SIFI is intended to be connected to other existing SNE modules in order to monitor the health and status of a transducer. The SIFI can also monitor aspects of its own health using an onboard watchdog timer and voltage monitors. The SIFI also has the hardware to drive a touchscreen LCD (liquid crystal display) unit for manual configuration and status monitoring.

  2. Magnetic multilayer interface anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Pechan, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Ni/Mo and Ni/V multilayer magnetic anisotropy has been investigated as a function of Ni layer thickness, frequency and temperature. Variable frequency ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements show, for the first time, significant frequency dependence associated with the multilayer magnetic anisotropy. The thickness dependence allows one to extract the interface contribution from the total anisotropy. Temperature dependent FMR (9 GHz) and room temperature magnetization indicate that strain between Ni and the non-magnetic layers is contributing significantly to the source of the interface anisotropy and the state of the interfacial magnetization. In order to examine the interface properties of other transition metal multilayer systems, investigations on Fe/Cu are underway and CoCr/Ag is being proposed. ESR measurements have been reported on Gd substituted YBaCuO superconductors and a novel quasi-equilibrium method has been developed to determine quickly and precisely the transition temperature. During the next project period the P.I. proposes to (1) extend the variable frequency FMR measurements to low temperature, where extremely large interface anisotropies are known to obtain in Ni/Mo and Ni/V and are proposed to exist in Ni/W; (2) obtain accurate dc anisotropies via a novel, variable temperature torque magnetometer currently under construction; (3) expand upon his initial findings in Fe/Cu multilayer investigations; (4) begin anisotropy investigations on Co/Ag and CoCr/Ag multilayers where the easy magnetization direction depends upon the Cr concentration; (4) make and characterize Bi based superconductors according to resistivity, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power and construct YBaCuO based superconducting loop-gap'' resonators for use in his magnetic resonance work.

  3. Magnetic multilayer interface anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Pechan, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Ni/Mo and Ni/V multilayer magnetic anisotropy has been investigated as a function of Ni layer thickness, frequency and temperature. Variable frequency ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements show, for the first time, significant frequency dependence associated with the multilayer magnetic anisotropy. The thickness dependence allows one to extract the interface contribution from the total anisotropy. Temperature dependant FMR (9 GHz) and room temperature magnetization indicate that strain between Ni and the non-magnetic layers if contributing significantly to the source of the interface anisotropy and the state of the interfacial magnetization. In order to examine the interface properties of other transition metal multilayer systems, investigations on Fe/Cu are underway and CoCr/Ag is being proposed. ESR measurements have been reported on Gd substituted YBaCuO superconductors and a novel quasi-equilibrium method has been developed to determine quickly and precisely the transition temperature. During the next project the P.I. proposes to (1) extend the variable frequency FMR measurements to low temperature, where extremely large interface anisotropies are known to obtain in Ni/Mo and Ni/V and are proposed to exist in Ni/W; (2) obtain accurate dc anisotropies via a novel, variable temperature torque magnetometer currently under construction; (3) expand upon his initial findings in Fe/Cu multilayer investigations; (4) begin anisotropy investigations on Co/Ag and CoCr/Ag multilayers where the easy magnetization direction depends upon the Cr concentration; (4) make and characterize Bi based superconductors according to resistivity, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power and construct YBaCuO based superconducting loop-gap'' resonators for use in his magnetic resonance work. 2 figs.

  4. Metaphors for Interface Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    deturms what soa of thing the user thinks the computer is. Is it a conversational parmer? An environment for action? A tool box and materials shed...user takes that action. It means instead that it is simply not possible, using dte tools that the interface language pro- vides, to generate an...manipulated by the people in the course of doing the task. These include the navigation chart, plotting tools , measurement tools , written records

  5. Systems interface biology

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines. PMID:16971329

  6. User Interface Software Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    97. 19. Mark A. Flecchia and R. Daniel Bergeron. Specifying Complex Dialogs in ALGAE. Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI+GI󈨛, Toronto, Ont...Spreadsheet Model. Tech. Rept. GIT-GVU-93-20, Georgia Tech Graphics, Visualization and Usability Center, May, 1993. 35. Daniel H.H. Ingalls. "I’he Smalltalk...Interactive Graphical Applications". Comm. ACM 36,4 (April 1993), 41-55. User Interface Software Tools -39 38. Anthony Karrer and Walt Scacchi . Requirements

  7. Standard interface file handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  8. User Interface Design Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    the beginning of our research) led us to Glade (glade.gnome.org), a cross- platform GUI builder platform that saves its descriptive files in XML format...Major consideration was initially given to Java Netbeans and Java Eclipse, and later extended to Glade .) The saved XML files fully describe... Glade -designed user interfaces. Glade libraries are available for numerous programming languages on many computing platforms. This makes the choice of

  9. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jake S.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch.

  10. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, J.S.

    1999-01-12

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

  11. Systems interface biology.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-10-22

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines.

  12. Optical Neural Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Melissa R.; Cardin, Jessica A.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded optical actuators and indicators have changed the landscape of neuroscience, enabling targetable control and readout of specific components of intact neural circuits in behaving animals. Here, we review the development of optical neural interfaces, focusing on hardware designed for optical control of neural activity, integrated optical control and electrical readout, and optical readout of population and single-cell neural activity in freely moving mammals. PMID:25014785

  13. The THOSE remote interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawon, Kevin; Gold, Josh; Bachman, Kristen

    2013-05-01

    The DIA, in conjunction with the Army Research Lab (ARL), wants to create an Unmanned Ground Sensor (UGS) controller that is (a) interoperable across all controller platforms, (b) capable of easily adding new sensors, radios, and processes and (c) backward compatible with existing UGS systems. To achieve this, a Terra Harvest controller was created that used Java JRE 1.6 and an Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi) platform, named Terra Harvest Open Software Environment (THOSE). OSGi is an extensible framework that provides a modularized environment for deploying functionality in "bundles". These bundles can publish, discover, and share services available from other external bundles or bundles provided by the controller core. With the addition of a web GUI used for interacting with THOSE, a natural step was then to create a common remote interface that allows 3rd party real-time interaction with the controller. This paper provides an overview of the THOSE system and its components as well as a description of the architectural structure of the remote interface, highlighting the interactions occurring between the controller and the remote interface and its role in providing a positive user experience for managing UGSS functions.

  14. ADAM -- Interface Module Reference Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, A. J.; Kelly, B. D.; Wright, S. L.

    ADAM Interface Modules provide an interface between ADAM application programs and the rest of the system. This document describes in detail the facilities available with ADAM Interface Modules and the rules for using them. It is intended as a reference manual and should shed light on some of the finer points of the ADAM parameter system. Readers requiring an introduction to Interface Modules should read SG/4.

  15. Graphic Interfaces and Online Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, J. Mark

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the growing importance of the use of Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs) with microcomputers and online services. Highlights include the development of graphics interfacing with microcomputers; CD-ROM databases; an evaluation of HyperCard as a potential interface to electronic mail and online commercial databases; and future possibilities.…

  16. Special Interfaces for Special Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Computer software can be made accessible to physically handicapped individuals using interfaces. The trick performed by the interface is to make the handicapped individual's responses mediated through the interface indistinguishable from inputs that the software expects from users in normal hardware configurations. Several of these keyboard…

  17. User interfaces for voice applications.

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces. PMID:7479721

  18. User interfaces for voice applications.

    PubMed

    Kamm, C

    1995-10-24

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces.

  19. User Interfaces for Voice Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Candace

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces.

  20. Thesaurus-Enhanced Search Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Ali Asghar; Revie, Crawford; Chowdhury, Gobinda

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of user interfaces to information retrieval systems focuses on interfaces that incorporate thesauri as part of their searching and browsing facilities. Discusses research literature related to information searching behavior, information retrieval interface evaluation, search term selection, and query expansion; and compares thesaurus…

  1. Single-interface Casimir torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, Tiago A.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2016-10-01

    A different type of Casimir-type interaction is theoretically predicted: a single-interface torque at a junction of an anisotropic material and a vacuum or another material system. The torque acts to reorient the polarizable microscopic units of the involved materials near the interface, and thus to change the internal structure of the materials. The single-interface torque depends on the zero-point energy of the interface localized and extended modes. Our theory demonstrates that the single-interface torque is essential to understand the Casimir physics of material systems with anisotropic elements and may influence the orientation of the director of nematic liquid crystals.

  2. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  3. Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé’s parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms. PMID:25914439

  4. Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé's parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms.

  5. Dynamics of curved interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Escudero, Carlos

    2009-08-15

    Stochastic growth phenomena on curved interfaces are studied by means of stochastic partial differential equations. These are derived as counterparts of linear planar equations on a curved geometry after a reparametrization invariance principle has been applied. We examine differences and similarities with the classical planar equations. Some characteristic features are the loss of correlation through time and a particular behavior of the average fluctuations. Dependence on the metric is also explored. The diffusive model that propagates correlations ballistically in the planar situation is particularly interesting, as this propagation becomes nonuniversal in the new regime.

  6. Virtual interface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1986-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed for use as a multipurpose interface environment. The system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, application scenarios, and research directions are described.

  7. Adhesion at metal interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A basic adhesion process is defined, the theory of the properties influencing metallic adhesion is outlined, and theoretical approaches to the interface problem are presented, with emphasis on first-principle calculations as well as jellium-model calculations. The computation of the energies of adhesion as a function of the interfacial separation is performed; fully three-dimensional calculations are presented, and universality in the shapes of the binding energy curves is considered. An embedded-atom method and equivalent-crystal theory are covered in the framework of issues involved in practical adhesion.

  8. Bidirectional Neural Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Matthew R.; Thakor, Nitish V.

    2016-01-01

    A bidirectional neural interface is a device that transfers information into and out of the nervous system. This class of devices has potential to improve treatment and therapy in several patient populations. Progress in very-large-scale integration (VLSI) has advanced the design of complex integrated circuits. System-on-chip (SoC) devices are capable of recording neural electrical activity and altering natural activity with electrical stimulation. Often, these devices include wireless powering and telemetry functions. This review presents the state of the art of bidirectional circuits as applied to neuroprosthetic, neurorepair, and neurotherapeutic systems. PMID:26753776

  9. Multiple network interface core apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Keith D [Albuquerque, NM; Hemmert, Karl Scott [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-04-26

    A network interface controller and network interface control method comprising providing a single integrated circuit as a network interface controller and employing a plurality of network interface cores on the single integrated circuit.

  10. Mysteries at Ice Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fain, Samuel C., Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Michael Faraday noted that ``two pieces of thawing ice, if put together, adhere and become one...the effect will take place in air, or in water, or in vacuo." Why? He proposed that ``a particle of water, which could retain the liquid state whilst touching ice only on one side, could not retain the liquid state if it were touched by ice on both sides."footnote M. Faraday, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 10, 440 (1860) The existence of special properties at interfaces of ice is generally agreed and has important environmental consequences.(J. G. Dash, H. Fu, and J. S. Wettlaufer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 58), 115 (1995) Why do different experiments infer different properties for this layer? Impurities and electric fields at the interfaces may be responsible for some of the variations in experimental results.footnote V. F. Petrenko, U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Report 94-22 (1994) Some background on the physical properties of ice will be discussed, including recent force microscopy measurements done at the University of Washington.footnote C.R. Slaughterbeck, E.W. Kukes, B. Pittenger, D.J. Cook, P.C. Williams, V.L. Eden, S.C. Fain, Jr., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (in press) Supported by NSF Grant DMR-91-19701.

  11. Laparoscopic simulation interface

    DOEpatents

    Rosenberg, Louis B.

    2006-04-04

    A method and apparatus for providing high bandwidth and low noise mechanical input and output for computer systems. A gimbal mechanism provides two revolute degrees of freedom to an object about two axes of rotation. A linear axis member is coupled to the gimbal mechanism at the intersection of the two axes of rotation. The linear axis member is capable of being translated along a third axis to provide a third degree of freedom. The user object is coupled to the linear axis member and is thus translatable along the third axis so that the object can be moved along all three degrees of freedom. Transducers associated with the provided degrees of freedom include sensors and actuators and provide an electromechanical interface between the object and a digital processing system. Capstan drive mechanisms transmit forces between the transducers and the object. The linear axis member can also be rotated about its lengthwise axis to provide a fourth degree of freedom, and, optionally, a floating gimbal mechanism is coupled to the linear axis member to provide fifth and sixth degrees of freedom to an object. Transducer sensors are associated with the fourth, fifth, and sixth degrees of freedom. The interface is well suited for simulations of medical procedures and simulations in which an object such as a stylus or a joystick is moved and manipulated by the user.

  12. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  13. Thermal interface conductance across metal alloy-dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Justin P.; Yu, Xiaoxiao; Davis, Robert F.; Gellman, Andrew J.; Malen, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of thermal interface conductance as a function of metal alloy composition. Composition spread alloy films of A uxC u1 -x and A uxP d1 -x solid solutions were deposited on single crystal sapphire substrates via dual electron-beam evaporation. High throughput measurements of thermal interface conductance across the (metal alloy)-sapphire interfaces were made by positional scanning of frequency domain thermoreflectance measurements to sample a continuum of Au atomic fractions (x ˜0 →1 ) . At a temperature of 300 K, the thermal interface conductance at the A uxC u1 -x -sapphire interfaces monotonically decreased from 197 ±39 MW m-2K-1 to 74 ±11 MW m-2K-1 for x =0 →0.95 ±0.02 and at the A uxP d1 -x -sapphire interfaces from 167 ±35 MW m-2K-1 to 60 ±10 MW m-2K-1 for x =0.03 →0.97 ±0.02 . To shed light on the phonon physics at the interface, a Diffuse Mismatch Model for thermal interface conductance with alloys is presented and agrees reasonably with the thermal interface conductance data.

  14. What Do IT-People Know about the Nordic History of Computers and User Interfaces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    This paper reports a preliminary, empirical exploration of what IT-people know about the history of computers and user interfaces. The principal motivation for the study is that the younger generations such as students in IT seem to know very little about these topics. The study employed a free association method administered as email. Eight students and four researchers participated, between 26-34 and 48-64 years of age, respectively. Responses totaled 222 and we analyzed and categorized them. First, the Nordic touch was extremely limited. Secondly, the knowledge of both students and researchers seems heavily based on personal experience so that the researchers know much more about the earlier days of computing and interfaces. Thirdly, there is a tendency amongst the students to conceptualize the history of computers in interface features and concepts. Hence, the interface seems to become the designation or even the icon for the computer. In other words, one of the key focal points in the area of human-computer interaction: to makethe computer as suchinvisible seems to have been successful.

  15. XPI: The Xanadu Parameter Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N.; Barrett, P.; Oneel, B.; Jacobs, P.

    1992-01-01

    XPI is a table driven parameter interface which greatly simplifies both command driven programs such as BROWSE and XIMAGE as well as stand alone single-task programs. It moves all of the syntax and semantic parsing of commands and parameters out of the users code into common code and externally defined tables. This allows the programmer to concentrate on writing the code unique to the application rather than reinventing the user interface and for external graphical interfaces to interface with no changes to the command driven program. XPI also includes a compatibility library which allows programs written using the IRAF host interface (Mandel and Roll) to use XPI in place of the IRAF host interface.

  16. Porphyrins at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auwärter, Willi; Écija, David; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V.

    2015-02-01

    Porphyrins and other tetrapyrrole macrocycles possess an impressive variety of functional properties that have been exploited in natural and artificial systems. Different metal centres incorporated within the tetradentate ligand are key for achieving and regulating vital processes, including reversible axial ligation of adducts, electron transfer, light-harvesting and catalytic transformations. Tailored substituents optimize their performance, dictating their arrangement in specific environments and mediating the assembly of molecular nanoarchitectures. Here we review the current understanding of these species at well-defined interfaces, disclosing exquisite insights into their structural and chemical properties, and also discussing methods by which to manipulate their intramolecular and organizational features. The distinct characteristics arising from the interfacial confinement offer intriguing prospects for molecular science and advanced materials. We assess the role of surface interactions with respect to electronic and physicochemical characteristics, and describe in situ metallation pathways, molecular magnetism, rotation and switching. The engineering of nanostructures, organized layers, interfacial hybrid and bio-inspired systems is also addressed.

  17. Nuclear data interface retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Interface (NDI) code library and data formats are the standards for multigroup nuclear data at Los Alamos National Laboratory. NDI's analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance required a ten person-year and ongoing effort by the Nuclear Data Team. Their efforts provide a unique, contemporary experience in producing a standard component library. In reflection upon that experience at NDI's decennial, we have identified several factors critical to NDI's success: it addressed real problems with appropriate simplicity, it fully supported all users, it added extra value through the code to the raw nuclear data, and its team went the distance from analysis through maintenance. In this report we review these critical success factors and discuss their implications for future standardization projects.

  18. Brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are systems that give their users communication and control capabilities that do not depend on muscles. The user's intentions are determined from activity recorded by electrodes on the scalp, on the cortical surface, or within the brain. BCIs can enable people who are paralyzed by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), brainstem stroke, or other disorders to convey their needs and wishes to others, to operate word-processing programs or other software, or possibly to control a wheelchair or a neuroprosthesis. BCI technology might also augment rehabilitation protocols aimed at restoring useful motor function. With continued development and clinical implementation, BCIs could substantially improve the lives of those with severe disabilities.

  19. Standardized Spacecraft Onboard Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph F.; Plummer, Chris; Plancke, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), an international organization of national space agencies, is branching out to provide new standards to enhanced reuse of onboard spacecraft equipment and software. These Spacecraft Onboard Interface (SOIF) standards will be, in part, based on the well-known Internet protocols. This paper will provide a description of the SOIF work by describing three orthogonal views: the Services View that describes data communications services, the Interoperability view shows how to exchange data and messages between different spacecraft elements, and the Protocol view, that describes the SOIF protocols and services. We will also provide a description of the present state of the services that will be provided to SOIF users, and are the basis of the utility of these standards.

  20. Reaction Dynamics at Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-04-01

    The liquid interface is a narrow, highly anisotropic region, characterized by rapidly varying density, polarity, and molecular structure. I review several aspects of interfacial solvation and show how these affect reactivity at liquid/liquid interfaces. I specifically consider ion transfer, electron transfer, and SN2 reactions, showing that solvent effects on these reactions can be understood by examining the unique structure and dynamics of the liquid interface region.

  1. Reaction dynamics at liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-04-01

    The liquid interface is a narrow, highly anisotropic region, characterized by rapidly varying density, polarity, and molecular structure. I review several aspects of interfacial solvation and show how these affect reactivity at liquid/liquid interfaces. I specifically consider ion transfer, electron transfer, and SN2 reactions, showing that solvent effects on these reactions can be understood by examining the unique structure and dynamics of the liquid interface region.

  2. APST interfaces in LINCS

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1995-07-01

    APST is an acronym for the four highest of the seven layers of the LINCS hierarchy of communication protocols: (from high to low) Application, Presentation, Session, and Transport. Routines in each but the lowest of these APST layers can utilize the facilities of any lower APST layer (normally, but not necessarily, the immediately next lower layer) by invoking various primitives (macros that in most cases are subroutine calls) defining the upper interface of the lower layer. So there are three APST interfaces: Presentation layer, used by the Application layer; Session layer, normally used by the Presentation layer; and Transport layer, normally used by the Session layer. Logically, each end of a stream (unidirectional sequence of transmitted information) is handled by three modules, one module each for the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers, and each of these modules deals with only that one end of that one stream. The internal workings of the layers, particularly the Transport layer, do not necessarily exhibit this same modularization; for example, the two oppositely directed streams between the same two ends (constituting an association) may interact within a layer. However, such interaction is an implementational detail of no direct interest to those utilizing the layer. The present document does not describe implementation, nor does it discuss in any detail how the modules employ packet headings and data formats to communicate with their partner modules at the other end of a stream. There being one logical module per end of stream is a characteristic only of the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers. An Application layer module usually manages several streams, orchestrating them to achieve some desired purpose. The modules of the layers (Network, Link, and Physical) below the APST layers each handle many streams, multiplexing them through the nodes and channels of the network to transmit them from their origins to their destinations.

  3. WWW to DICOM interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevera, George J.; Feingold, Eric R.; Horii, Steven C.

    1996-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the implementation and use of a WWW interface to a DICOM PACS that allows users to select, move, and display images that are currently available in the PACS and to view their corresponding radiology reports. This system allows our users to query the archive from any workstation (such as Unix, DOS, and Mac) that supports a WWW browser. To use this system, the user first runs a WWW browser such as Mosaic, Netscape, or Lynx and specifies a URL on one of our Unix workstations. This URL refers to an HTML file that contains a query form. This query form contains a number of fields such as patient name and medical record number. The user may specify any or all fields as well as wildcards in fields such as the name field. Once the form is completed, the user presses a button to submit the request. The HTML form submits the query to a C program that executes on the Unix server. This program accepts as input the form field values that the user specified. This program then communicates with the archive via DICOM requests to determine those patients that match the search criteria. The user may then choose a patient which in turn causes the studies for this patient to be displayed. Finally, the user may select a study which causes those images to be retrieved from the archive and displayed via the Web browser. The result of this system is an easy to use interface to a DICOM PACS with the option to query and move images from the PACS. In summary, a system that integrates the ease of use of WWW browsers with a DICOM PACS is discussed. We are currently incorporating information from our RIS as well. This allows us to obtain extensive patient demographics, exam information, and textual radiological reports and associate this information with information from the PACS.

  4. Interfaces in perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiangjian; Xu, Xin; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo

    2015-06-03

    The interfacial atomic and electronic structures, charge transfer processes, and interface engineering in perovskite solar cells are discussed in this review. An effective heterojunction is found to exist at the window/perovskite absorber interface, contributing to the relatively fast extraction of free electrons. Moreover, the high photovoltage in this cell can be attributed to slow interfacial charge recombination due to the outstanding material and interfacial electronic properties. However, some fundamental questions including the interfacial atomic and electronic structures and the interface stability need to be further clarified. Designing and engineering the interfaces are also important for the next-stage development of this cell.

  5. Interface-assisted molecular spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Karthik V.

    2014-09-01

    Molecular spintronics, a field that utilizes the spin state of organic molecules to develop magneto-electronic devices, has shown an enormous scientific activity for more than a decade. But, in the last couple of years, new insights in understanding the fundamental phenomena of molecular interaction on magnetic surfaces, forming a hybrid interface, are presenting a new pathway for developing the subfield of interface-assisted molecular spintronics. The recent exploration of such hybrid interfaces involving carbon based aromatic molecules shows a significant excitement and promise over the previously studied single molecular magnets. In the above new scenario, hybridization of the molecular orbitals with the spin-polarized bands of the surface creates new interface states with unique electronic and magnetic character. This study opens up a molecular-genome initiative in designing new handles to functionalize the spin dependent electronic properties of the hybrid interface to construct spin-functional tailor-made devices. Through this article, we review this subject by presenting a fundamental understanding of the interface spin-chemistry and spin-physics by taking support of advanced computational and spectroscopy tools to investigate molecular spin responses with demonstration of new interface phenomena. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy is favorably considered to be an important tool to investigate these hybrid interfaces with intra-molecular spatial resolution. Finally, by addressing some of the recent findings, we propose novel device schemes towards building interface tailored molecular spintronic devices for applications in sensor, memory, and quantum computing.

  6. mREST Interface Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCartney, Patrick; MacLean, John

    2012-01-01

    mREST is an implementation of the REST architecture specific to the management and sharing of data in a system of logical elements. The purpose of this document is to clearly define the mREST interface protocol. The interface protocol covers all of the interaction between mREST clients and mREST servers. System-level requirements are not specifically addressed. In an mREST system, there are typically some backend interfaces between a Logical System Element (LSE) and the associated hardware/software system. For example, a network camera LSE would have a backend interface to the camera itself. These interfaces are specific to each type of LSE and are not covered in this document. There are also frontend interfaces that may exist in certain mREST manager applications. For example, an electronic procedure execution application may have a specialized interface for configuring the procedures. This interface would be application specific and outside of this document scope. mREST is intended to be a generic protocol which can be used in a wide variety of applications. A few scenarios are discussed to provide additional clarity but, in general, application-specific implementations of mREST are not specifically addressed. In short, this document is intended to provide all of the information necessary for an application developer to create mREST interface agents. This includes both mREST clients (mREST manager applications) and mREST servers (logical system elements, or LSEs).

  7. Interface-assisted molecular spintronics

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, Karthik V.

    2014-09-15

    Molecular spintronics, a field that utilizes the spin state of organic molecules to develop magneto-electronic devices, has shown an enormous scientific activity for more than a decade. But, in the last couple of years, new insights in understanding the fundamental phenomena of molecular interaction on magnetic surfaces, forming a hybrid interface, are presenting a new pathway for developing the subfield of interface-assisted molecular spintronics. The recent exploration of such hybrid interfaces involving carbon based aromatic molecules shows a significant excitement and promise over the previously studied single molecular magnets. In the above new scenario, hybridization of the molecular orbitals with the spin-polarized bands of the surface creates new interface states with unique electronic and magnetic character. This study opens up a molecular-genome initiative in designing new handles to functionalize the spin dependent electronic properties of the hybrid interface to construct spin-functional tailor-made devices. Through this article, we review this subject by presenting a fundamental understanding of the interface spin-chemistry and spin-physics by taking support of advanced computational and spectroscopy tools to investigate molecular spin responses with demonstration of new interface phenomena. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy is favorably considered to be an important tool to investigate these hybrid interfaces with intra-molecular spatial resolution. Finally, by addressing some of the recent findings, we propose novel device schemes towards building interface tailored molecular spintronic devices for applications in sensor, memory, and quantum computing.

  8. Multimodal human-machine interface based on a brain-computer interface and an electrooculography interface.

    PubMed

    Iáñez, Eduardo; Ùbeda, Andrés; Azorín, José M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a multimodal interface that combines a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) with an electrooculography (EOG) interface. The non-invasive spontaneous BCI registers the electrical brain activity through surface electrodes. The EOG interface detects the eye movements through electrodes placed on the face around the eyes. Both kind of signals are registered together and processed to obtain the mental task that the user is thinking and the eye movement performed by the user. Both commands (mental task and eye movement) are combined in order to move a dot in a graphic user interface (GUI). Several experimental tests have been made where the users perform a trajectory to get closer to some targets. To perform the trajectory the user moves the dot in a plane with the EOG interface and using the BCI the dot changes its height.

  9. Using Eye Movement to Control a Computer: A Design for a Lightweight Electro-Oculogram Electrode Array and Computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Iáñez, Eduardo; Azorin, Jose M.; Perez-Vidal, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a human-computer interface based on electro-oculography (EOG) that allows interaction with a computer using eye movement. The EOG registers the movement of the eye by measuring, through electrodes, the difference of potential between the cornea and the retina. A new pair of EOG glasses have been designed to improve the user's comfort and to remove the manual procedure of placing the EOG electrodes around the user's eye. The interface, which includes the EOG electrodes, uses a new processing algorithm that is able to detect the gaze direction and the blink of the eyes from the EOG signals. The system reliably enabled subjects to control the movement of a dot on a video screen. PMID:23843986

  10. Overview of Graphical User Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulser, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of graphical user interfaces for online public access catalogs (OPACs) covers the history of OPACs; OPAC front-end design, including examples from Indiana University and the University of Illinois; and planning and implementation of a user interface. (10 references) (EA)

  11. The interface engine: experimental consequences.

    PubMed

    Tauer, Klaus; Kozempel, Steffen; Rother, Gudrun

    2007-08-15

    A light microscopy study confirms spontaneous emulsification at the quiescent, thermally equilibrated interface between pure oil and pure water during the chemical equilibration period. The process is qualitatively explained within the frame of the classical nucleation theory assuming a mixed interface layer between the two liquids in contact allowing supersaturation.

  12. The Human Computer Interaction Certificate Program at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: A Case Study in the Benefits and Costs of a Joint Industry/University Designed Program Featuring Integrated Delivery Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Frank I.

    This case study presents information about a graduate-level certificate program in human computer interaction that was added to the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (New York) satellite video program in 1996, as a cooperative program between the institution and the IBM Corporation. The program was designed for individuals who work in computer…

  13. Colloids at Curved Fluid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebe, Kathleen

    2016-11-01

    Fluid interfaces are remarkable sites for colloidal assembly. When a colloid attaches to a fluid interface, it distorts a region around it; this distortion has an associated capillary energy, the product of its area and interfacial tension. The particle's capillary energy depends on the local interface curvature. By molding the interface, we can define curvature fields that drive microparticles along pre-determined paths. This example captures the emergent nature of the interactions. We discuss curvature fields as analogues to external electro-magnetic fields, and define curvatures that drive particles to well-defined locations, and to equilibrium sites far from boundaries. Particle-particle and particle-curvature interactions can guide particles into structures via interaction among many particles. This work demonstrates the potential importance of curvature capillary interactions in schemes to make reconfigurable materials, since interfaces and their associated capillary energy landscapes can be readily reconfigured. Analogies in other soft systems will be described. Support acknowledged from NSF DMR 1607878.

  14. Next Generation Search Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roby, W.; Wu, X.; Ly, L.; Goldina, T.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomers are constantly looking for easier ways to access multiple data sets. While much effort is spent on VO, little thought is given to the types of User Interfaces we need to effectively search this sort of data. For instance, an astronomer might need to search Spitzer, WISE, and 2MASS catalogs and images then see the results presented together in one UI. Moving seamlessly between data sets is key to presenting integrated results. Results need to be viewed using first class, web based, integrated FITS viewers, XY Plots, and advanced table display tools. These components should be able to handle very large datasets. To make a powerful Web based UI that can manage and present multiple searches to the user requires taking advantage of many HTML5 features. AJAX is used to start searches and present results. Push notifications (Server Sent Events) monitor background jobs. Canvas is required for advanced result displays. Lesser known CSS3 technologies makes it all flow seamlessly together. At IPAC, we have been developing our Firefly toolkit for several years. We are now using it to solve this multiple data set, multiple queries, and integrated presentation problem to create a powerful research experience. Firefly was created in IRSA, the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu). Firefly is the core for applications serving many project archives, including Spitzer, Planck, WISE, PTF, LSST and others. It is also used in IRSA's new Finder Chart and catalog and image displays.

  15. User interface enhancement report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Gangel, J.; Shields, G.; Fala, G.

    1985-01-01

    The existing user interfaces to TEMPUS, Plaid, and other systems in the OSDS are fundamentally based on only two modes of communication: alphanumeric commands or data input and grapical interaction. The latter are especially suited to the types of interaction necessary for creating workstation objects with BUILD and with performing body positioning in TEMPUS. Looking toward the future application of TEMPUS, however, the long-term goals of OSDS will include the analysis of extensive tasks in space involving one or more individuals working in concert over a period of time. In this context, the TEMPUS body positioning capability, though extremely useful in creating and validating a small number of particular body positions, will become somewhat tedious to use. The macro facility helps somewhat, since frequently used positions may be easily applied by executing a stored macro. The difference between body positioning and task execution, though subtle, is important. In the case of task execution, the important information at the user's level is what actions are to be performed rather than how the actions are performed. Viewed slightly differently, the what is constant over a set of individuals though the how may vary.

  16. Power User Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) is a system of middleware, written for expert users in the Earth-science community, PUI enables expedited ordering of data granules on the basis of specific granule-identifying information that the users already know or can assemble. PUI also enables expert users to perform quick searches for orderablegranule information for use in preparing orders. PUI 5.0 is available in two versions (note: PUI 6.0 has command-line mode only): a Web-based application program and a UNIX command-line- mode client program. Both versions include modules that perform data-granule-ordering functions in conjunction with external systems. The Web-based version works with Earth Observing System Clearing House (ECHO) metadata catalog and order-entry services and with an open-source order-service broker server component, called the Mercury Shopping Cart, that is provided separately by Oak Ridge National Laboratory through the Department of Energy. The command-line version works with the ECHO metadata and order-entry process service. Both versions of PUI ultimately use ECHO to process an order to be sent to a data provider. Ordered data are provided through means outside the PUI software system.

  17. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.

  18. Human Computer Interactions in Next-Generation of Aircraft Smart Navigation Management Systems: Task Analysis and Architecture under an Agent-Oriented Methodological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Canino-Rodríguez, José M.; García-Herrero, Jesús; Besada-Portas, Juan; Ravelo-García, Antonio G.; Travieso-González, Carlos; Alonso-Hernández, Jesús B.

    2015-01-01

    The limited efficiency of current air traffic systems will require a next-generation of Smart Air Traffic System (SATS) that relies on current technological advances. This challenge means a transition toward a new navigation and air-traffic procedures paradigm, where pilots and air traffic controllers perform and coordinate their activities according to new roles and technological supports. The design of new Human-Computer Interactions (HCI) for performing these activities is a key element of SATS. However efforts for developing such tools need to be inspired on a parallel characterization of hypothetical air traffic scenarios compatible with current ones. This paper is focused on airborne HCI into SATS where cockpit inputs came from aircraft navigation systems, surrounding traffic situation, controllers’ indications, etc. So the HCI is intended to enhance situation awareness and decision-making through pilot cockpit. This work approach considers SATS as a system distributed on a large-scale with uncertainty in a dynamic environment. Therefore, a multi-agent systems based approach is well suited for modeling such an environment. We demonstrate that current methodologies for designing multi-agent systems are a useful tool to characterize HCI. We specifically illustrate how the selected methodological approach provides enough guidelines to obtain a cockpit HCI design that complies with future SATS specifications. PMID:25746092

  19. Feature selection for speech emotion recognition in Spanish and Basque: on the use of machine learning to improve human-computer interaction.

    PubMed

    Arruti, Andoni; Cearreta, Idoia; Alvarez, Aitor; Lazkano, Elena; Sierra, Basilio

    2014-01-01

    Study of emotions in human-computer interaction is a growing research area. This paper shows an attempt to select the most significant features for emotion recognition in spoken Basque and Spanish Languages using different methods for feature selection. RekEmozio database was used as the experimental data set. Several Machine Learning paradigms were used for the emotion classification task. Experiments were executed in three phases, using different sets of features as classification variables in each phase. Moreover, feature subset selection was applied at each phase in order to seek for the most relevant feature subset. The three phases approach was selected to check the validity of the proposed approach. Achieved results show that an instance-based learning algorithm using feature subset selection techniques based on evolutionary algorithms is the best Machine Learning paradigm in automatic emotion recognition, with all different feature sets, obtaining a mean of 80,05% emotion recognition rate in Basque and a 74,82% in Spanish. In order to check the goodness of the proposed process, a greedy searching approach (FSS-Forward) has been applied and a comparison between them is provided. Based on achieved results, a set of most relevant non-speaker dependent features is proposed for both languages and new perspectives are suggested.

  20. Human computer interactions in next-generation of aircraft smart navigation management systems: task analysis and architecture under an agent-oriented methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Canino-Rodríguez, José M; García-Herrero, Jesús; Besada-Portas, Juan; Ravelo-García, Antonio G; Travieso-González, Carlos; Alonso-Hernández, Jesús B

    2015-03-04

    The limited efficiency of current air traffic systems will require a next-generation of Smart Air Traffic System (SATS) that relies on current technological advances. This challenge means a transition toward a new navigation and air-traffic procedures paradigm, where pilots and air traffic controllers perform and coordinate their activities according to new roles and technological supports. The design of new Human-Computer Interactions (HCI) for performing these activities is a key element of SATS. However efforts for developing such tools need to be inspired on a parallel characterization of hypothetical air traffic scenarios compatible with current ones. This paper is focused on airborne HCI into SATS where cockpit inputs came from aircraft navigation systems, surrounding traffic situation, controllers' indications, etc. So the HCI is intended to enhance situation awareness and decision-making through pilot cockpit. This work approach considers SATS as a system distributed on a large-scale with uncertainty in a dynamic environment. Therefore, a multi-agent systems based approach is well suited for modeling such an environment. We demonstrate that current methodologies for designing multi-agent systems are a useful tool to characterize HCI. We specifically illustrate how the selected methodological approach provides enough guidelines to obtain a cockpit HCI design that complies with future SATS specifications.

  1. Simulation of a sensor array for multiparameter measurements at the prosthetic limb interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Gabriel I.; Mamishev, Alexander V.

    2004-07-01

    Sensitive skin is a highly desired device for biomechanical devices, wearable computing, human-computer interfaces, exoskeletons, and, most pertinent to this paper, for lower limb prosthetics. The measurement of shear stress is very important because shear effects are key factors in developing surface abrasions and pressure sores in paraplegics and users of prosthetic/orthotic devices. A single element of a sensitive skin is simulated and characterized in this paper. Conventional tactile sensors are designed for measurement of the normal stress only, which is inadequate for comprehensive assessment of surface contact conditions. The sensitive skin discussed here is a flexible array capable of sensing shear and normal forces, as well as humidity and temperature on each element.

  2. Advanced Displays and Intelligent Interfaces (ADII)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    displays, human-computer interaction, laser pointer interaction 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Peter A. Jedrysik a...21 3.2.3.2 Testing and Results................................................................22 3.2.4 Laser Pointer Interaction...19 Figure 14 AFRL/IF’s Custom Laser Pointer Tracking Subsystem Architecture

  3. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Thomas P.

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  4. Dynamics of interfaces in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, A.T. )

    1994-08-01

    The dynamics of an interface between the normal and superconducting phases under nonstationary external conditions is studied within the framework of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations of superconductivity, modified to include thermal fluctuations. An equation of motion for the interface is derived in two steps. First, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to derive a diffusion equation for the magnetic field in the normal phase, with nonlinear boundary conditions at the interface. These boundary conditions are a continuity equation which relates the gradient of the field at the interface to the normal velocity of the interface and a modified Gibbs-Thomson boundary condition for the field at the interface. Second, the boundary integral method is used to integrate out the magnetic field in favor of an equation of motion for the interface. This equation of motion, which is highly nonlinear and nonlocal, exhibits a diffusive instability (the Mullins-Sekerka instability) when the superconducting phase expands into the normal phase (i.e., when the external field is reduced below the critical field). In the limit of infinite diffusion constant the equation of motion becomes local in time and can be derived variationally from a static energy functional which includes the bulk-free energy difference between the two phases, the interfacial energy, and a long range self-interaction of the interface of the Biot-Savart form. In this limit the dynamics is identical to the interfacial dynamics of ferrofluid domains recently proposed by S.A. Langer et al. As shown by these authors, the Biot-Savart interaction leads to mechanical instabilities of the interface, resulting in highly branched labyrinthine patterns. The application of these ideas to the study of labyrinthine patterns in the intermediate state of type-I superconductors is briefly discussed. 29 refs.

  5. Nano-size Effect of Interface Energy and Its Effect on Interface Fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, L. H.; You, X. M.; Ma, H. S.; Wei, Y. G.

    2010-05-21

    An analytical model about size-dependent interface energy of metal/ceramic interfaces in nanoscale is developed by introducing both the chemical energy and the structure stain energy contributions. The dependence of interface energy on the interface thickness is determined by the melting enthalpy, the molar volume, and the shear modulus of two materials composing the interfaces, etc. The analytic prediction of the interface energy and the atomic scale simulation of the interface fracture strength are compared with each other for Ag/MgO and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfaces, the fracture strength of the interface with the lower chemical interface energy is found to be larger. The potential of Ag/MgO interface related to the interface energy is calculated, and the interface stress and the interface fracture strength are estimated further. The effect of the interface energy on the interface strength and the behind mechanism are discussed.

  6. Hopping diffusion across material interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, J.; Wallis, R. F.; Balkanski, M.

    1993-11-01

    We generalize a one-dimensional lattice-gas model of particle diffusion across material interfaces to include a finite-width interface region, and an energy barrier at the interface. We use overvoltage measurements on InSe and dielectric loss measurements on B 2O+ 3-0.5 Li 2O-0.15 Li 2SO 4 to determine the hopping rates in the two materials. Numerical and analytical results for the particle density versus position are presented for representative values of the energy barrier and a range of hopping rates. The presence of the energy barrier is found to be a dominant factor in the problem.

  7. Fiber-matrix interface failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabenberg, Lew; Marcus, Harris L.; Park, Hun Sub; Zong, Gui Sheng; Brown, Lloyd D.

    1989-01-01

    Interface fractures of aluminum-graphite composites under transverse loading are expected to occur within the graphite fibers, but very near the interface. Residual stresses in aluminum, reinforced with the new high modulus pitch-based fibers, are much lower than would be expected based on simple elasticity calculations. The excess stress may be relaxed by shearing internal to the fibers or at the interface rather than by plastic flow of the matrix. The internal shearing also occurs during repeated thermal cycling of these composites; the fibers are repeatedly intruded, then extruded, during repeated temperature excursions.

  8. Superconducting interfaces between insulating oxides.

    PubMed

    Reyren, N; Thiel, S; Caviglia, A D; Kourkoutis, L Fitting; Hammerl, G; Richter, C; Schneider, C W; Kopp, T; Rüetschi, A-S; Jaccard, D; Gabay, M; Muller, D A; Triscone, J-M; Mannhart, J

    2007-08-31

    At interfaces between complex oxides, electronic systems with unusual electronic properties can be generated. We report on superconductivity in the electron gas formed at the interface between two insulating dielectric perovskite oxides, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. The behavior of the electron gas is that of a two-dimensional superconductor, confined to a thin sheet at the interface. The superconducting transition temperature of congruent with 200 millikelvin provides a strict upper limit to the thickness of the superconducting layer of congruent with 10 nanometers.

  9. ARINC 653 Interface in RTEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufino, J.; Filipe, S.; Coutinho, M.; Santos, S.; Windsor, J.

    2007-08-01

    The ARINC 653 specification is assuming a key role in the provision of a standard operating system interface for safety-critical applications in the aeronautic market and it is foreseen to acquire a similar status on the space market. The ARINC 653 application interface is inde- pendent from the underlying hardware and from a given operating system implementation. This paper describes how RTEMS, the Real-Time Executive for Multiproces- sor Systems, can be adapted to offer the application interface and the functionality required by the ARINC 653 standard. The use of RTEMS is highly relevant given its qualification for on-board software of unmanned space programs.

  10. PointCom: semi-autonomous UGV control with intuitive interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Mitchell M.; Perlin, Victor E.; Iagnemma, Karl D.; Lupa, Robert M.; Rohde, Steven M.; Overholt, James; Fiorani, Graham

    2008-04-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) will play an important role in the nation's next-generation ground force. Advances in sensing, control, and computing have enabled a new generation of technologies that bridge the gap between manual UGV teleoperation and full autonomy. In this paper, we present current research on a unique command and control system for UGVs named PointCom (Point-and-Go Command). PointCom is a semi-autonomous command system for one or multiple UGVs. The system, when complete, will be easy to operate and will enable significant reduction in operator workload by utilizing an intuitive image-based control framework for UGV navigation and allowing a single operator to command multiple UGVs. The project leverages new image processing algorithms for monocular visual servoing and odometry to yield a unique, high-performance fused navigation system. Human Computer Interface (HCI) techniques from the entertainment software industry are being used to develop video-game style interfaces that require little training and build upon the navigation capabilities. By combining an advanced navigation system with an intuitive interface, a semi-autonomous control and navigation system is being created that is robust, user friendly, and less burdensome than many current generation systems. mand).

  11. Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic

    SciTech Connect

    Kitta, Joseph P.

    1994-07-21

    SASIL is used to program the EPLD's (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL's (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.

  12. SKITTER/implement mechanical interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, John Wilson, III; Cone, Alan E.; Garolera, Frank J.; German, David; Lindabury, David Peter; Luckado, Marshall Cleveland; Murphey, Craig; Rowell, John Bryan; Wilkinson, Brad

    1988-01-01

    SKITTER (Spacial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) is a three-legged transport vehicle designed to perform under the unique environment of the moon. The objective of this project was to design a mechanical interface for SKITTER. This mechanical latching interface will allow SKITTER to use a series of implements such as drills, cranes, etc., and perform different tasks on the moon. The design emphasized versatility and detachability; that is, the interface design is the same for all implements, and connection and detachment is simple. After consideration of many alternatives, a system of three identical latches at each of the three interface points was chosen. The latching mechanism satisfies the design constraints because it facilitates connection and detachment. Also, the moving parts are protected from the dusty environment by housing plates.

  13. Brain-Computer Interface Workshop

    NASA Video Gallery

    At a g.tec-sponsored Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) workshop at the National Institute of Aerospace in Hampton, Va., volunteers were able to spell out words on a computer screen using using a g.tec...

  14. Antisite defects at oxide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hanghui; Millis, Andrew

    We use ab initio calculations to estimate formation energies of cation (transition metal) antisite defects at oxide interfaces and to understand the basic physical effects that drive or suppress the formation of these defects. We find that antisite defects are favored in systems with substantial charge transfer across the interface, while Jahn-Teller distortions and itinerant ferromagnetism can prevent antisite defects and help stabilize atomically sharp interfaces. Our results enable identification of classes of systems that are more and less susceptible to the formation of antisite defects and motivate a range of experimental studies and further theoretical calculations to further explicate the oxide interface systems. This research was supported by National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1120296 (H. Chen) and DOE-ER-046169 (A. J. Millis).

  15. Laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemmons, J. I., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface (LVABI) was developed to serve as the interface between three laser velocimeter high speed burst counters and a minicomputer. A functional description is presented of the instrument and its unique features which allow the studies of flow velocity vector analysis, turbulence power spectra, and conditional sampling of other phenomena. Typical applications of the laser velocimeter using the LVABI are presented to illustrate its various capabilities.

  16. The theory of interface slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Interface slicing is a new tool which was developed to facilitate reuse-based software engineering, by addressing the following problems, needs, and issues: (1) size of systems incorporating reused modules; (2) knowledge requirements for program modification; (3) program understanding for reverse engineering; (4) module granularity and domain management; and (5) time and space complexity of conventional slicing. The definition of a form of static program analysis called interface slicing is addressed.

  17. Interfacing with an EVA Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2011-01-01

    A NASA spacesuit under the EVA Technology Domain consists of a suit system; a PLSS; and a Power, Avionics, and Software (PAS) system. Ross described the basic functions, components, and interfaces of the PLSS, which consists of oxygen, ventilation, and thermal control subsystems; electronics; and interfaces. Design challenges were reviewed from a packaging perspective. Ross also discussed the development of the PLSS over the last two decades.

  18. Satellite services handbook. Interface guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-12-01

    Satellite interfaces for on orbit servicing, both manned and unmanned are identified, and is intended to be used by designers of space vehicles, both foreign and domestic. A primary concern is for design of interfaces with the astronaut in the loop, especially extravehicular activity, but also intravehicular activity and operations that are remote but have man-in-the-loop. The main emphasis is on servicing in low earth orbits from the Space Shuttle and also from the Space Station or other platforms.

  19. Coal-shale interface detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, P. H.; Burch, J. L.; Drost, E. J.; Stein, R. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A penetrometer for coal-shale interface detection is presented. It is used with coal cutting equipment consisting of a reciprocating hammer, having an accelerometer mounted thereon to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  20. Coal-shale interface detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detector for use with coal cutting equipment is described. The detector consists of a reciprocating hammer with an accelerometer to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  1. Morphological Stability of Faceted Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbaschian, Reza; Golyshev, V. D.; Gonik, M.; Tsvetivsky, V.; deVahlDavis, G.; Leonardi, E.

    2001-01-01

    The major focus of this investigation is to study the fundamentals of layer spreading mechanisms during growth of doped Ge (a facet forming material), and to determine the conditions for morphological instability of vicinal solid-liquid interfaces. The investigation will also lead to the determination of the effect of dopants on the layer growth kinetics, step free energy, and dopant capture by the advancing ledges. The theoretical treatment of growth of faceted interfaces indicates that the kinetics of a step on a growing vicinal interface considerably depends on its angle of inclination, the melt concentration, and characteristics of flow currents in the melt. The morphological stability of the interface also depends on these parameters, as well as on the density and spreading velocity of the steps. However, the treatment of the instability of the interface by the layer growth mechanism is rather difficult because it requires exact knowledge of the thermal and solutal fields, hydrodynamics of the melt, and supercooling at the interface. The results of recent space experiments of the principal investigator involving directional solidification of faceted Bi-Sn alloys have shown that the morphological stability of various crystallographic orientations is significantly affected by the anistropy in interfacial properties of the faceted alloy in general, and the interface kinetics in particular. These findings have also raised many important and fundamental questions, particularly with respect to the behavior of interfacial steps, which need to be addressed via additional groundbased and microgravity experiments. For the present investigation we will use a novel crystal growth technique which provides axial heat flux close to the solid-liquid boundary. The Axial Heat Processing (AHP) technique allows for precise control and determination of the heat and mass transfer close to the crystallization front, and the establishment of a planar interface over the entire cross

  2. Hydrophobic effect at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual basis for hydrophobic effects in bulk water and at aqueous interfaces have similar conceptual basis but often manifests itself differently. Using a wide range of computer simulations as the basis, I will review different forms of hydrophobic effects at a variety of interfaces starting from simple liquid-vapor and water-oil interfaces and progressing to water-membrane interfaces. I will start with discussing how water is organized at different interfaces, stressing both similarities and differences. The main thread is that, as in the bulk liquid, hydrophobic effects have profound influence on conformational equilibria and organization of both small molecules and macromolecules, but the result of this influence is quite different. Specifically, it will be shown that many small, but not necessarily amphiphilic molecules tend to accumulate at the interface and, and this tendency will be explained. Furthermore, I will show that many short peptides that are disordered in water spontaneously fold into well-defined structures in the interfacial environment. Biological implications of this self-organizing effect will be discussed.

  3. Spoken Dialogue Interfaces: Integrating Usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiliotopoulos, Dimitris; Stavropoulou, Pepi; Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    Usability is a fundamental requirement for natural language interfaces. Usability evaluation reflects the impact of the interface and the acceptance from the users. This work examines the potential of usability evaluation in terms of issues and methodologies for spoken dialogue interfaces along with the appropriate designer-needs analysis. It unfolds the perspective to the usability integration in the spoken language interface design lifecycle and provides a framework description for creating and testing usable content and applications for conversational interfaces. Main concerns include the problem identification of design issues for usability design and evaluation, the use of customer experience for the design of voice interfaces and dialogue, and the problems that arise from real-life deployment. Moreover it presents a real-life paradigm of a hands-on approach for applying usability methodologies in a spoken dialogue application environment to compare against a DTMF approach. Finally, the scope and interpretation of results from both the designer and the user standpoint of usability evaluation are discussed.

  4. Active matter clusters at interfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-03-01

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped) clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped), where inertia dominates, the clusters show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection for the low velocity clusters. We then present an extreme limit of the model in the absence of rotational damping where clusters can become stuck spiraling along the interface or move in large circular trajectories after leaving the interface. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  5. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  6. Fluxes across a thermohaline interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, M.; Lueck, R. G.

    1991-07-01

    Measurements of velocity and temperature microstructure and hydrography were made with a towed vehicle moving in and around a single interface in a double-diffusive staircase. The interface was traversed 222 times in a saw-tooth pattern over a track 35 km long. The salinity and potential temperature and density in the mixed layers adjacent to the interface were spatially uniform except for one 8 km long anomaly. The rate of dissipation of kinetic energy was uniformly low in the interface and in the mixed layers, except for one section 600 m long where a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability generated turbulence. For the non-turbulent section of the interface, the mean rate of dissipation was 30.2 × 10 -10 W kg -1 in the mixed layers and 9.5 × 10 -10 W kg -1 in the interface. The non-dimensional dissipation rate, ɛ/vN 2, was almost always less than 16 in the interface and therfore, there was no turblent buoyancy flux according to ROHRet al. (1988, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 195, 77-111). The average double-diffusive flux of buoyancy by heat was 3.6 × 10 -10 W kg -1. Under certain assumptions the ratio of the flux of buoyancy by heat and salt can be estimated to be 0.53 ± 0.10, in good agreement with laboratory and theoretical estimates for salt fingers. The average Cox number was about 8 in the interface, consistent with the theories of STERN (1975, Ocean circulation physics, Academic Press) and KUNZE (1987, Journal of Marine Research, 45 533-556), but displayed an inverse dependence on the vertical temperature gradient which was not predicted. As a result, the flux of buoyancy, as well as the individual contributions by heat and salt, were independent of the local mean vertical temperature gradient and the buoyancy frequency. The length of the turbulent section of the interface was only 1.7% of the total length observed. However, the turbulence was intense—the mean rate of dissipation was 2.5 × 10 -8 W kg -1—and may have sufficiently enhanced the flux of heat to

  7. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  8. Interface dynamics of competing tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podewitz, Nils; Jülicher, Frank; Gompper, Gerhard; Elgeti, Jens

    2016-08-01

    Tissues can be characterized by their homeostatic stress, i.e. the value of stress for which cell division and cell death balance. When two different tissues grow in competition, a difference of their homeostatic stresses determines which tissue grows at the expense of the second. This then leads to the propagation of the interface separating the tissues. Here, we study structural and dynamical properties of this interface by combining continuum theory with mesoscopic simulations of a cell-based model. Using a simulation box that moves with the interface, we find that a stationary state exists in which the interface has a finite width and propagates with a constant velocity. The propagation velocity in the simulations depends linearly on the homeostatic stress difference, in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions. This agreement is also seen for the stress and velocity profiles. Finally, we analyzed the interface growth and roughness as a function of time and system size. We estimated growth and roughness exponents, which differ from those previously obtained for simple tissue growth.

  9. Active matter clusters at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Gopinathan, Ajay

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development and flocks of birds. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit whose movement depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed clusters which exert forces but no active torques, encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds and clusters with active torques, they show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times, becoming trapped at the interface and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection of the low velocity clusters. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  10. DIRAC: Secure web user interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casajus Ramo, A.; Sapunov, M.

    2010-04-01

    Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.

  11. EVA-glass interface bond stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The ethylene vinyl acetate/glass interface bond stability was investigated. Special methods to determine the structure of polymer/glass interface were developed. Structural changes related to hydrothermal degradation of polymer/glass interface are examined. Methods to inhibit the degradation reaction which occur at polymer/glass interface are developed.

  12. Design of Interfaces for Information Seeking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchionini, Gary; Komlodi, Anita

    1998-01-01

    Examines the current state of user interface design for information seeking. Topics include technology push and interdisciplinarity; research and development; literature trends; user-centered interface design; information seeking in electronic environments; online information retrieval system interfaces; online public access catalog interfaces;…

  13. Interface Provides Standard-Bus Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culliton, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled interface (IEEE-488/LVABI) incorporates service-request and direct-memory-access features. Is circuit card enabling digital communication between system called "laser auto-covariance buffer interface" (LVABI) and compatible personal computer via general-purpose interface bus (GPIB) conforming to Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 488. Interface serves as second interface enabling first interface to exploit advantages of GPIB, via utility software written specifically for GPIB. Advantages include compatibility with multitasking and support of communication among multiple computers. Basic concept also applied in designing interfaces for circuits other than LVABI for unidirectional or bidirectional handling of parallel data up to 16 bits wide.

  14. Multi-robot control interface

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  15. Nanofluidic interfaces in microfluidic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Millet, Larry J.; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-09-24

    The integration of nano- and microfluidic technologies enables the construction of tunable interfaces to physical and biological systems across relevant length scales. The ability to perform chemical manipulations of miniscule sample volumes is greatly enhanced through these technologies and extends the ability to manipulate and sample the local fluidic environments at subcellular, cellular and community or tissue scales. Here we describe the development of a flexible surface micromachining process for the creation of nanofluidic channel arrays integrated within SU-8 microfluidic networks. The use of a semi-porous, silicon rich, silicon nitride structural layer allows rapid release of the sacrificial silicon dioxide during the nanochannel fabrication. Nanochannel openings that form the interface to biological samples are customized using focused ion beam milling. The compatibility of these interfaces with on-chip microbial culture is demonstrated.

  16. PinBus Interface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  17. Nanofluidic interfaces in microfluidic networks

    DOE PAGES

    Millet, Larry J.; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-09-24

    The integration of nano- and microfluidic technologies enables the construction of tunable interfaces to physical and biological systems across relevant length scales. The ability to perform chemical manipulations of miniscule sample volumes is greatly enhanced through these technologies and extends the ability to manipulate and sample the local fluidic environments at subcellular, cellular and community or tissue scales. Here we describe the development of a flexible surface micromachining process for the creation of nanofluidic channel arrays integrated within SU-8 microfluidic networks. The use of a semi-porous, silicon rich, silicon nitride structural layer allows rapid release of the sacrificial silicon dioxidemore » during the nanochannel fabrication. Nanochannel openings that form the interface to biological samples are customized using focused ion beam milling. The compatibility of these interfaces with on-chip microbial culture is demonstrated.« less

  18. Intersurf: dynamic interface between proteins.

    PubMed

    Ray, Nicolas; Cavin, Xavier; Paul, Jean-Claude; Maigret, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Protein docking is a fundamental biological process that links two proteins. This link is typically defined by an interaction between two large zones of the protein boundaries. Visualizing such an interface is useful to understand the process thanks to 3D protein structures, to estimate the quality of docking simulation results, and to classify interactions in order to predict docking affinity between classes of interacting zones. Since the interface may be defined by a surface that separates the two proteins, it is possible to create a map of interaction that allows comparisons to be performed in 2D. This paper presents a very fast algorithm that extracts an interface surface and creates a valid and low-distorted interaction map. Another benefit of our approach is that a pre-computed part of the algorithm enables the surface to be updated in real-time while residues are moved.

  19. Usable Interface Design for Everyone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro Lozano, Carlos; Salcines, Enrique García; Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; Ramírez, José Miguel; Recellado, José Gabriel Zato; Montoya, Rafael Sanchez; Bell, John; Marin, Francisco Alcantud

    When designing "interfaces for everyone" for interactive systems, it is important to consider factors such as cost, the intended market, the state of the environment, etc. User interfaces are fundamental for the developmental process in any application, and its design must be contemplated from the start. Of the distinct parts of a system (hardware and software), it is the interface that permits the user access to computer resources. The seven principles of "Universal Design" or "Design for Everyone" focus on a universal usable design, but at the same time acknowledge the influences of internal and external factors. Structural changes in social and health services could provide an increase in the well-being of a country's citizens through the use of self-care programming and proactive management/prevention of disease. Automated home platforms can act as an accessibility instrument which permits users to avoid, compensate, mitigate, or neutralize the deficiencies and dependencies caused by living alone.

  20. DHMI: dynamic holographic microscopy interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xuefei; Zheng, Yujie; Lee, Woei Ming

    2016-12-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a powerful in-vitro biological imaging tool. In this paper, we report a fully automated off-axis digital holographic microscopy system completed with a graphical user interface in the Matlab environment. The interface primarily includes Fourier domain processing, phase reconstruction, aberration compensation and autofocusing. A variety of imaging operations such as region of interest selection, de-noising mode (filtering and averaging), low frame rate imaging for immediate reconstruction and high frame rate imaging routine ( 27 fps) are implemented to facilitate ease of use.

  1. Immersed interface methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

    1996-11-01

    Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

  2. Segmental interpenetration at polymer interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, T.P.; Fleming, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    During the first year of this proposal significant strides have been made in understanding the nature of the interface in symmetric, diblock copolymers and the nature of the interface formed between immiscible homopolymers. Emphasis has been placed on the symmetric, diblock copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) since these diblock copolymers and the corresponding homopolymers are available over a wide range of molecular weight with narrow molecular weight distributions. In addition, the homopolymers and copolymers can be obtained with different levels of deuteration. Thus, these materials form a model system by which systematic studies on the interfacial behavior of homopolymers and block copolymers can be performed.

  3. User interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    Expert Systems are becoming increasingly popular in environments where the user is not well versed in computers or the subject domain. They offer expert advice and can also explain their lines of reasoning. As these systems are applied to highly technical areas, they become complex and large. Therefore, User Systems Interfaces (USIs) become critical. This paper discusses recent technologies that can be applied to improved user communication. In particular, bar menus/graphics, mouse interfaces, touch screens, and voice links will be highlighted. Their applications in the context of SOFTMAN (The Software Manager Apprentice) a knowledge-based system are discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Chemical reactions at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecitis, Chad David

    2009-12-01

    Interfaces or phase boundaries are a unique chemical environment relative to individual gas, liquid, or solid phases. Interfacial reaction mechanisms and kinetics are often at variance with homogeneous chemistry due to mass transfer, molecular orientation, and catalytic effects. Aqueous interfaces are a common subject of environmental science and engineering research, and three environmentally relevant aqueous interfaces are investigated in this thesis: 1) fluorochemical sonochemistry (bubble-water), 2) aqueous aerosol ozonation (gas-water droplet), and 3) electrolytic hydrogen production and simultaneous organic oxidation (water-metal/semiconductor). Direct interfacial analysis under environmentally relevant conditions is difficult, since most surface-specific techniques require relatively `extreme' conditions. Thus, the experimental investigations here focus on the development of chemical reactors and analytical techniques for the completion of time/concentration-dependent measurements of reactants and their products. Kinetic modeling, estimations, and/or correlations were used to extract information on interfacially relevant processes. We found that interfacial chemistry was determined to be the rate-limiting step to a subsequent series of relatively fast homogeneous reactions, for example: 1) Pyrolytic cleavage of the ionic headgroup of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) adsorbed to cavitating bubble-water interfaces during sonolysis was the rate-determining step in transformation to their inorganic constituents carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and fluoride; 2) ozone oxidation of aqueous iodide to hypoiodous acid at the aerosol-gas interface is the rate-determining step in the oxidation of bromide and chloride to dihalogens; 3) Electrolytic oxidation of anodic titanol surface groups is rate-limiting for the overall oxidation of organics by the dichloride radical. We also found chemistry unique to the interface, for example: 1

  5. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  6. Interface standards for computer equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The ability to configure data systems using modules provided by independent manufacturers is complicated by the wide range of electrical, mechanical, and functional characteristics exhibited within the equipment provided by different manufacturers of computers, peripherals, and terminal devices. A number of international organizations were and still are involved in the creation of standards that enable devices to be interconnected with minimal difficulty, usually involving only a cable or data bus connection that is defined by the standard. The elements covered by an interface standard are covered and the most prominent interface standards presently in use are identified and described.

  7. A database for TMT interface control documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim; Roberts, Scott; Brighton, Allan; Rogers, John

    2016-08-01

    The TMT Software System consists of software components that interact with one another through a software infrastructure called TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their roles. The use of common component types and shared middleware services allows standardized software interfaces for the components. A software system called the TMT Interface Database System was constructed to support the documentation of the interfaces for components based on CSW. The programmer describes a subsystem and each of its components using JSON-style text files. A command interface file describes each command a component can receive and any commands a component sends. The event interface files describe status, alarms, and events a component publishes and status and events subscribed to by a component. A web application was created to provide a user interface for the required features. Files are ingested into the software system's database. The user interface allows browsing subsystem interfaces, publishing versions of subsystem interfaces, and constructing and publishing interface control documents that consist of the intersection of two subsystem interfaces. All published subsystem interfaces and interface control documents are versioned for configuration control and follow the standard TMT change control processes. Subsystem interfaces and interface control documents can be visualized in the browser or exported as PDF files.

  8. BCILAB: a platform for brain-computer interface development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothe, Christian Andreas; Makeig, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Objective. The past two decades have seen dramatic progress in our ability to model brain signals recorded by electroencephalography, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, etc., and to derive real-time estimates of user cognitive state, response, or intent for a variety of purposes: to restore communication by the severely disabled, to effect brain-actuated control and, more recently, to augment human-computer interaction. Continuing these advances, largely achieved through increases in computational power and methods, requires software tools to streamline the creation, testing, evaluation and deployment of new data analysis methods. Approach. Here we present BCILAB, an open-source MATLAB-based toolbox built to address the need for the development and testing of brain-computer interface (BCI) methods by providing an organized collection of over 100 pre-implemented methods and method variants, an easily extensible framework for the rapid prototyping of new methods, and a highly automated framework for systematic testing and evaluation of new implementations. Main results. To validate and illustrate the use of the framework, we present two sample analyses of publicly available data sets from recent BCI competitions and from a rapid serial visual presentation task. We demonstrate the straightforward use of BCILAB to obtain results compatible with the current BCI literature. Significance. The aim of the BCILAB toolbox is to provide the BCI community a powerful toolkit for methods research and evaluation, thereby helping to accelerate the pace of innovation in the field, while complementing the existing spectrum of tools for real-time BCI experimentation, deployment and use.

  9. The human/robot interface.

    PubMed

    Wiker, S F

    1993-10-01

    The use of telerobotic technology in space exploration is examined. Early aspirations for anthropomorphic designs and advances in the field are reviewed. The application of human factors engineering to robotics design and the human-machine interface are examined. New strategies in design and automation are presented.

  10. Interface Reconstruction with Directional Walking

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, J

    2009-05-22

    Young's interface reconstruction with three-dimensional arbitrary mesh, in general, is rather tedious to implement compared to the case of a regular mesh. The main difficulty comes from the construction of a planar facet that bounds a certain volume inside a cell. Unlike the five basic configurations with a Cartesian mesh, there can be a great number of different configurations in the case of a general mesh. We represent a simple method that can derive the topology/geometry of the intersection of arbitrary planar objects in a uniform way. The method is based on a directional walking on the surface of objects, and links the intersection points with the paths of the walking naturally defining the intersection of objects. The method works in both two and three dimensions. The method does not take advantage of convexity, thus decomposition of an object is not necessary. Therefore, the solution with this method will have a reduced number of edges and less data storage, compared with methods that use shape decomposition. The treatment is general for arbitrary polyhedrons, and no look-up tables are needed. The same operation can easily be extended for curved geometry. The implementation of this new algorithm shall allow the interface reconstruction on an arbitrary mesh to be as simple as it is on a regular mesh. Furthermore, we exactly compute the integral of partial cell volume bounded by quadratic interface. Therefore, interface reconstruction with higher than second order accuracy can be achieved on an arbitrary mesh.

  11. Coal-rock interface detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, S. D.; Crouch, C. E.; Jones, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A coal-rock interface detector is presented which employs a radioactive source and radiation sensor. The source and sensor are separately and independently suspended and positioned against a mine surface of hydraulic pistons, which are biased from an air cushioned source of pressurized hydraulic fluid.

  12. Intelligent interfaces for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Wang, Lui

    1988-01-01

    Vital to the success of an expert system is an interface to the user which performs intelligently. A generic intelligent interface is being developed for expert systems. This intelligent interface was developed around the in-house developed Expert System for the Flight Analysis System (ESFAS). The Flight Analysis System (FAS) is comprised of 84 configuration controlled FORTRAN subroutines that are used in the preflight analysis of the space shuttle. In order to use FAS proficiently, a person must be knowledgeable in the areas of flight mechanics, the procedures involved in deploying a certain payload, and an overall understanding of the FAS. ESFAS, still in its developmental stage, is taking into account much of this knowledge. The generic intelligent interface involves the integration of a speech recognizer and synthesizer, a preparser, and a natural language parser to ESFAS. The speech recognizer being used is capable of recognizing 1000 words of connected speech. The natural language parser is a commercial software package which uses caseframe instantiation in processing the streams of words from the speech recognizer or the keyboard. The systems configuration is described along with capabilities and drawbacks.

  13. Spray algorithm without interface construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kadhem Majhool, Ahmed Abed; Watkins, A. P.

    2012-05-01

    This research is aimed to create a new and robust family of convective schemes to capture the interface between the dispersed and the carrier phases in a spray without the need to build up the interface boundary. The selection of the Weighted Average Flux (WAF) scheme is due to this scheme being designed to deal with random flux scheme which is second-order accurate in space and time. The convective flux in each cell face utilizes the WAF scheme blended with Switching Technique for Advection and Capturing of Surfaces (STACS) scheme for high resolution flux limiters. In the next step, the high resolution scheme is blended with the WAF scheme to provide the sharpness and boundedness of the interface by using switching strategy. In this work, the Eulerian-Eulerian framework of non-reactive turbulent spray is set in terms of theoretical proposed methodology namely spray moments of drop size distribution, presented by Beck and Watkins [1]. The computational spray model avoids the need to segregate the local droplet number distribution into parcels of identical droplets. The proposed scheme is tested on capturing the spray edges in modelling hollow cone sprays without need to reconstruct two-phase interface. A test is made on simple comparison between TVD scheme and WAF scheme using the same flux limiter on convective flow hollow cone spray. Results show the WAF scheme gives a better prediction than TVD scheme. The only way to check the accuracy of the presented models is by evaluating the spray sheet thickness.

  14. Electronic Properties of Semiconductor Interfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    AD-A130 745 ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES(U) /; UNIVERSIDAD AUfONOMA DE MADRID (SPAIN) DEPT DE FISICA DEL ESTADO SOLIDO F FLORES...J.Sfinchez-Dehesa 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Departamento de Fisica del Estado Solido 6.11.02A

  15. The Human Interface Technology Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. Washington Technology Center.

    This booklet contains information about the Human Interface Technology Laboratory (HITL), which was established by the Washington Technology Center at the University of Washington to transform virtual world concepts and research into practical, economically viable technology products. The booklet is divided into seven sections: (1) a brief…

  16. Willow: a uniform search interface.

    PubMed Central

    Ketchell, D S; Freedman, M M; Jordan, W E; Lightfoot, E M; Heyano, S; Libbey, P A

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Willow Project is to develop a uniform search interface that allows a diverse community of users to retrieve information from heterogeneous network-based information resources. Willow separates the user interface from the database management or information retrieval system. It provides a graphic user interface to a variety of information resources residing on diverse hosts, and using different search engines and idiomatic query languages through networked-based client-server and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocols. It is based on a "database driver'' model, which allows new database hosts to be added without altering Willow itself. Willow employs a multimedia extension mechanism to launch external viewers to handle data in almost any form. Drivers are currently available for a local BRS/SEARCH system and the Z39.50 protocol. Students, faculty, clinicians, and researchers at the University of Washington are currently offered 30 local and remote databases via Willow. They conduct more than 250,000 sessions a month in libraries, medical centers and clinics, laboratories, and offices, and from home. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is implementing Willow as its uniform search interface to Z39.50 hosts. PMID:8750388

  17. Gluing Soft Interfaces by Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhen; Dobrynin, Andrey

    Using a combination of the molecular dynamics simulations and scaling analysis we studied reinforcement of interface between two soft gel-like materials by spherical nanoparticles. Analysis of the simulations shows that the depth of penetration of a nanoparticle into a gel is determined by a balance of the elastic energy of the gel and nanoparticle deformations and the surface energy of nanoparticle/gel interface. In order to evaluate work of adhesion of the reinforced interface, the potential of mean force for separation of two gels was calculated. These simulations showed that the gel separation proceeds through formation of necks connecting nanoparticle with two gels. The shapes of the necks are controlled by a fine interplay between nanoparticle/gel surface energies and elastic energy of the neck deformation. Our simulations showed that by introducing nanoparticles at soft interfaces, the work required for separation of two gels could be 10-100 times larger than the work of adhesion between two gels without nanoparticle reinforcement. These results provide insight in understanding the mechanism of gluing soft gels and biological tissues by nano- and micro-sized particles. NSF DMR-1409710.

  18. Miniaturized neural interfaces and implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas; Boretius, Tim; Ordonez, Juan; Hassler, Christina; Henle, Christian; Meier, Wolfgang; Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Schuettler, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Neural prostheses are technical systems that interface nerves to treat the symptoms of neurological diseases and to restore sensory of motor functions of the body. Success stories have been written with the cochlear implant to restore hearing, with spinal cord stimulators to treat chronic pain as well as urge incontinence, and with deep brain stimulators in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Highly complex neural implants for novel medical applications can be miniaturized either by means of precision mechanics technologies using known and established materials for electrodes, cables, and hermetic packages or by applying microsystems technologies. Examples for both approaches will be introduced and discussed. Electrode arrays for recording of electrocorticograms during presurgical epilepsy diagnosis have been manufactured using approved materials and a marking laser to achieve an integration density that is adequate in the context of brain machine interfaces, e.g. on the motor cortex. Microtechnologies have to be used for further miniaturization to develop polymer-based flexible and light weighted electrode arrays to interface the peripheral and central nervous system. Polyimide as substrate and insulation material will be discussed as well as several application examples for nerve interfaces like cuffs, filament like electrodes and large arrays for subdural implantation.

  19. Graphical fiber shaping control interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Eric T.; Ninomiya, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present an improved graphical user interface for defining single-pass novel shaping techniques on glass processing machines that allows for streamlined process development. This approach offers unique modularity and debugging capability to researchers during the process development phase not usually afforded with similar scripting languages.

  20. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  1. Geometric similarity between protein-RNA interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Zou, Jianwei; Tian, Feifei; Shang, Zhicai

    2009-12-01

    A new method is described to measure the geometric similarity between protein-RNA interfaces quantitatively. The method is based on a procedure that dissects the interface geometry in terms of the spatial relationships between individual amino acid nucleotide pairs. Using this technique, we performed an all-on-all comparison of 586 protein-RNA interfaces deposited in the current Protein Data Bank, as the result, an interface-interface similarity score matrix was obtained. Based upon this matrix, hierarchical clustering was carried out which yielded a complete clustering tree for the 586 protein-RNA interfaces. By investigating the organizing behavior of the clustering tree and the SCOP classification of protein partners in complexes, a geometrically nonredundant, diverse data set (representative data set) consisting of 45 distinct protein-RNA interfaces was extracted for the purpose of studying protein-RNA interactions, RNA regulations, and drug design. We classified protein-RNA interfaces into three types. In type I, the families and interface structural classes of the protein partners, as well as the interface geometries are all similar. In type II, the interface geometries and the interface structural classes are similar, whereas the protein families are different. In type III, only the interface geometries are similar but the protein families and the interface structural classes are distinct. Furthermore, we also show two new RNA recognition themes derived from the representative data set.

  2. Ionic Structure at Dielectric Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Yufei

    The behavior of ions in liquids confined between macromolecules determines the outcome of many nanoscale assembly processes in synthetic and biological materials such as colloidal dispersions, emulsions, hydrogels, DNA, cell membranes, and proteins. Theoretically, the macromolecule-liquid boundary is often modeled as a dielectric interface and an important quantity of interest is the ionic structure in a liquid confined between two such interfaces. The knowledge gleaned from the study of ionic structure in such models can be useful in several industrial applications, such as biosensors, lithium-ion batteries double-layer supercapacitors for energy storage and seawater desalination. Electrostatics plays a critical role in the development of such functional materials. Many of the functions of these materials, result from charge and composition heterogeneities. There are great challenges in solving electrostatics problems in heterogeneous media with arbitrary shapes because electrostatic interactions remains unknown but depend on the particular density of charge distributions. Charged molecules in heterogeneous media affect the media's dielectric response and hence the interaction between the charges is unknown since it depends on the media and on the geometrical properties of the interfaces. To determine the properties of heterogeneous systems including crucial effects neglected in classical mean field models such as the hard core of the ions, the dielectric mismatch and interfaces with arbitrary shapes. The effect of hard core interactions accounts properly for short range interactions and the effect of local dielectric heterogeneities in the presence of ions and/or charged molecules for long-range interactions are both analyzed via an energy variational principle that enables to update charges and the medium's response in the same simulation time step. In particular, we compute the ionic structure in a model system of electrolyte confined by two planar dielectric

  3. Technique for converting non-conforming hexahedral-to-hexahedral interfaces into conforming interfaces

    DOEpatents

    Staten, Matthew L.; Shepherd, Jason F.; Ledoux, Frank; Shimada, Kenji; Merkley, Karl G.; Carbonera, Carlos

    2013-03-05

    A technique for conforming an interface between a first mesh and a second mesh is disclosed. A first interface surface in the first mesh and a second interface surface in the second mesh residing along the interface are identified. The first and second interface surfaces are initially non-conforming along the interface. Chords within the first and second interface surfaces that fall within a threshold separation distance of each other are paired. Sheets having chords that reside within the first or second interface surfaces are recursively inserted into or extracted from one or both of the first and second meshes until all remaining chords within the first interface surface are paired with corresponding chords in the second interface surface and all remaining chords within the second interface surface are paired with corresponding chords in the first interface surface.

  4. A virtual reality interface for pre-planning of surgical operations based on a customized model of the patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Lenar, Janusz; Sitnik, Robert; Verdonschot, Nico

    2012-03-01

    We present a human-computer interface that enables the operator to plan a surgical procedure on the musculoskeletal (MS) model of the patient's lower limbs, send the modified model to the bio-mechanical analysis module, and export the scenario parameters to the surgical navigation system. The interface provides the operator with tools for: importing customized MS model of the patient, cutting bones and manipulating/removal of bony fragments, repositioning muscle insertion points, muscle removal and placing implants. After planning the operator exports the modified MS model for bio-mechanical analysis of the functional outcome. If the simulation result is satisfactory the exported scenario data may be directly used during the actual surgery. The advantages of the developed interface are the possibility of installing it in various hardware configurations and coherent operation regardless of the devices used. The hardware configurations proposed to be used with the interface are: (a) a standard computer keyboard and mouse, and a 2-D display, (b) a touch screen as a single device for both input and output, or (c) a 3-D display and a haptic device for natural manipulation of 3-D objects. The interface may be utilized in two main fields. Experienced surgeons may use it to simulate their intervention plans and prepare input data for a surgical navigation system while student or novice surgeons can use it for simulating results of their hypothetical procedure. The interface has been developed in the TLEMsafe project (www.tlemsafe.eu) funded by the European Commission FP7 program.

  5. MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Summary Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm

  6. MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-12-15

    Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm the

  7. Convolutional neural networks for P300 detection with application to brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Cecotti, Hubert; Gräser, Axel

    2011-03-01

    A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a specific type of human-computer interface that enables the direct communication between human and computers by analyzing brain measurements. Oddball paradigms are used in BCI to generate event-related potentials (ERPs), like the P300 wave, on targets selected by the user. A P300 speller is based on this principle, where the detection of P300 waves allows the user to write characters. The P300 speller is composed of two classification problems. The first classification is to detect the presence of a P300 in the electroencephalogram (EEG). The second one corresponds to the combination of different P300 responses for determining the right character to spell. A new method for the detection of P300 waves is presented. This model is based on a convolutional neural network (CNN). The topology of the network is adapted to the detection of P300 waves in the time domain. Seven classifiers based on the CNN are proposed: four single classifiers with different features set and three multiclassifiers. These models are tested and compared on the Data set II of the third BCI competition. The best result is obtained with a multiclassifier solution with a recognition rate of 95.5 percent, without channel selection before the classification. The proposed approach provides also a new way for analyzing brain activities due to the receptive field of the CNN models.

  8. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  9. Command Interface ASIC - Analog Interface ASIC Chip Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Baldes; Jaffe, Burton; Burke, Gary; Lung, Gerald; Pixler, Gregory; Plummer, Joe; Katanyoutanant,, Sunant; Whitaker, William

    2003-01-01

    A command interface application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and an analog interface ASIC have been developed as a chip set for remote actuation and monitoring of a collection of switches, which can be used to control generic loads, pyrotechnic devices, and valves in a high-radiation environment. The command interface ASIC (CIA) can be used alone or in combination with the analog interface ASIC (AIA). Designed primarily for incorporation into spacecraft control systems, they are also suitable for use in high-radiation terrestrial environments (e.g., in nuclear power plants and facilities that process radioactive materials). The primary role of the CIA within a spacecraft or other power system is to provide a reconfigurable means of regulating the power bus, actuating all valves, firing all pyrotechnic devices, and controlling the switching of power to all switchable loads. The CIA is a mixed-signal (analog and digital) ASIC that includes an embedded microcontroller with supporting fault-tolerant switch control and monitoring circuitry that is capable of connecting to a redundant set of interintegrated circuit (I(sup 2)C) buses. Commands and telemetry requests are communicated to the CIA. Adherence to the I(sup 2)C bus standard helps to reduce development costs by facilitating the use of previously developed, commercially available components. The AIA is a mixed-signal ASIC that includes the analog circuitry needed to connect the CIA to a custom higher powered version of the I(sup 2)C bus. The higher-powered version is designed to enable operation with bus cables longer than those contemplated in the I(sup 2)C standard. If there are multiple higher-power I(sup 2)C-like buses, then there must an AIA between the CIA and each such bus. The AIA includes two identical interface blocks: one for the side-A I(sup 2)C clock and data buses and the other for the side B buses. All the AIAs on each side are powered from a common power converter module (PCM). Sides A and B

  10. Ultrafast Thermal Transport at Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, David; Murphy, Catherine; Martin, Lane

    2014-10-21

    Our research program on Ultrafast Thermal Transport at Interfaces advanced understanding of the mesoscale science of heat conduction. At the length and time scales of atoms and atomic motions, energy is transported by interactions between single-particle and collective excitations. At macroscopic scales, entropy, temperature, and heat are the governing concepts. Key gaps in fundamental knowledge appear at the transitions between these two regimes. The transport of thermal energy at interfaces plays a pivotal role in these scientific issues. Measurements of heat transport with ultrafast time resolution are needed because picoseconds are the fundamental scales where the lack of equilibrium between various thermal excitations becomes a important factor in the transport physics. A critical aspect of our work has been the development of experimental methods and model systems that enabled more precise and sensitive investigations of nanoscale thermal transport.

  11. Practical Interfacing in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.

    2003-05-01

    This text describes in practical terms how to use a desk-top computer to monitor and control laboratory experiments. The author clearly explains how to design electronic circuits and write computer programs to sense, analyse and display real-world quantities, including displacement, temperature, force, sound, light, and biomedical potentials. The book includes numerous laboratory exercises and appendices that provide practical information on microcomputer architecture and interfacing, including complete circuit diagrams and component lists. Topics include analog amplification and signal processing, digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital conversion, electronic sensors and actuators, digital and analog interfacing circuits, and programming. Only a very basic knowledge of electronics is assumed, making it ideal for college-level laboratory courses and for practising engineers and scientists. Everything you need to know about using a PC to monitor and control laboratory experiments Full of practical circuit designs and C-code examples Ideal for students and practising scientists

  12. Is structural interface standardization beneficial?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dombert, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    Factors applicable to fixed angle, large field and fixed angle, large building flat plate photovoltaic (PV) generator arrays are discussed in the context of standardization. It is concluded that structural interface standardization may be highly desirable in any one major project, but not at this time in the overall PV industry. Attempts to mandate such standardization will act as a deterrent to long-range improvements. In specific projects, structural standardization should be defined at the largest practical interface, leaving the maximum possible freedom to the module and array manufacturer. There is a corollary area, however, where detailed standards would benefit the industry; the matter of Standard Practices. Work being done towards definition of acceptable/desirable practices in materials, finishes, fastening and locking methods, grounding techniques, lightning protection, etc., and in handling the environmental ranges, should be continued.

  13. Microprocessor-based interface for oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    Ocean floor imaging system incorporates five identical microprocessor-based interface units each assigned to specific sonar instrument to simplify system. Central control module based on same microprocessor eliminates need for custom tailoring hardware interfaces for each instrument.

  14. Interfacing Simulations with Training Content

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    learner tracking capabilities of a Learning Management System (LMS) has great potential to increase the efficacy of these technologies while reducing...standards to define the interface between a Learning Management System and learning content. Within the SCORM context, the term LMS implies a web...SCORM context, the Learning Management System (shown as the blue oval) is responsible for managing three forms of data (shown in medium blue

  15. Virtual Frame Buffer Interface Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as generic frame buffer with specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write codes that run unmodified on all supported hardware. Converts generic commands to actual device commands. Consists of definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines called by application programs. Developed in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX 11/780 or DEC VAX 11/750 computer under VMS 4.X.

  16. Vibrational spectroscopy of water interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Quan

    1994-12-01

    The second order nonlinear optical processes of second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are powerful and versatile tools for studying all kinds of surfaces. They possess unusual surface sensitivity due to the symmetry properties of the second order nonlinear susceptibility. The technique of infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) is particularly attractive because it offers a viable way to do vibrational spectroscopy on any surfaces accessible to light with submonolayer sensitivity. In this thesis, the author applies SFG to study a number of important water interfaces. At the air/water interface, hydrophobic solid/water and liquid/water interfaces, it was found that approximately 25% of surface water molecules have one of their hydrogen pointing away from the liquid water. The large number of unsatisfied hydrogen bonds contributes significantly to the large interfacial energy of the hydrophobic surfaces. At the hydrophilic fused quartz/water interface and a fatty acid monolayer covered water surface, the structure and orientation of surface water molecules are controlled by the hydrogen bonding of water molecules with the surface OH groups and the electrostatic interaction with the surface field from the ionization of surface groups. A change of pH value in the bulk water can significantly change the relative importance of the two interactions and cause a drastic change in orientation of the surface water molecules. SFG has also been applied to study the tribological response of some model lubricant films. Monolayers of Langmuir-Blodgett films were found to disorder orientationaly under mildly high pressure and recover promptly upon removal of the applied pressure.

  17. Auditory interfaces: The human perceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, H. Steven

    1991-01-01

    A brief introduction to the basic auditory abilities of the human perceiver with particular attention toward issues that may be important for the design of auditory interfaces is presented. The importance of appropriate auditory inputs to observers with normal hearing is probably related to the role of hearing as an omnidirectional, early warning system and to its role as the primary vehicle for communication of strong personal feelings.

  18. Toward energy efficient neural interfaces.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chung-Ching; Xiao, Zhiming; Bashirullah, Rizwan

    2009-11-01

    This letter presents progress toward an energy efficient neural data acquisition transponder for brain-computer interfaces. The transponder utilizes a four-channel time-multiplexed analog front-end and an energy efficient short-range backscattering RF link to transmit digitized wireless data. In addition, a low-complexity autonomous and adaptive digital neural signal processor is proposed to minimize wireless bandwidth and overall power dissipation.

  19. Software handlers for process interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bercaw, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Process interfaces are developed in an effort to reduce the time, effort, and money required to install computer systems. Probably the chief obstacle to the achievement of these goals lies in the problem of developing software handlers having the same degree of generality and modularity as the hardware. The problem of combining the advantages of modular instrumentation with those of modern multitask operating systems has not been completely solved, but there are a number of promising developments. The essential principles involved are considered.

  20. Multiple man-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.

  1. Tire/runway friction interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  2. The Interface Theory of Perception.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Donald D; Singh, Manish; Prakash, Chetan

    2015-12-01

    Perception is a product of evolution. Our perceptual systems, like our limbs and livers, have been shaped by natural selection. The effects of selection on perception can be studied using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms. To this end, we define and classify perceptual strategies and allow them to compete in evolutionary games in a variety of worlds with a variety of fitness functions. We find that veridical perceptions--strategies tuned to the true structure of the world--are routinely dominated by nonveridical strategies tuned to fitness. Veridical perceptions escape extinction only if fitness varies monotonically with truth. Thus, a perceptual strategy favored by selection is best thought of not as a window on truth but as akin to a windows interface of a PC. Just as the color and shape of an icon for a text file do not entail that the text file itself has a color or shape, so also our perceptions of space-time and objects do not entail (by the Invention of Space-Time Theorem) that objective reality has the structure of space-time and objects. An interface serves to guide useful actions, not to resemble truth. Indeed, an interface hides the truth; for someone editing a paper or photo, seeing transistors and firmware is an irrelevant hindrance. For the perceptions of H. sapiens, space-time is the desktop and physical objects are the icons. Our perceptions of space-time and objects have been shaped by natural selection to hide the truth and guide adaptive behaviors. Perception is an adaptive interface.

  3. Implantable Neural Interfaces for Sharks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    neural codes from peripheral nerve using electrode arrays; Use simple chemical stimuli & multiple locations Completed Amino acid – evoked...rosette · Odorant perfusion across the olfactory rosette (amino acids : histidine, glutamate, cysteine) Implantable Neural Interfaces for Sharks...methane sulphonate ) at 100 mg/L on spontaneous activity recorded in the olfactory lobe. Rate histograms in 5 sec bins as a function of time. The

  4. Interface high-temperature superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lili; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2016-12-01

    Cuprate high-temperature superconductors consist of two quasi-two-dimensional (2D) substructures: CuO2 superconducting layers and charge reservoir layers. The superconductivity is realized by charge transfer from the charge reservoir layers into the superconducting layers without chemical dopants and defects being introduced into the latter, similar to modulation-doping in the semiconductor superlattices of AlGaAs/GaAs. Inspired by this scheme, we have been searching for high-temperature superconductivity in ultra-thin films of superconductors epitaxially grown on semiconductor/oxide substrates since 2008. We have observed interface-enhanced superconductivity in both conventional and unconventional superconducting films, including single atomic layer films of Pb and In on Si substrates and single unit cell (UC) films of FeSe on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity with a superconducting gap of ∼20 meV in 1UC-FeSe/STO has stimulated tremendous interest in the superconductivity community, for it opens a new avenue for both raising superconducting transition temperature and understanding the pairing mechanism of unconventional high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we review mainly the experimental progress on interface-enhanced superconductivity in the three systems mentioned above with emphasis on 1UC-FeSe/STO, studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and transport experiments. We discuss the roles of interfaces and a possible pairing mechanism inferred from these studies.

  5. Chiral magnetism at oxide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeria, Mohit

    2014-03-01

    There are tantalizing hints of magnetism at the n-type LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, but the experimental evidence remains controversial in view of some of the differences between different samples and probes. I will argue that if magnetism exists at interfaces, symmetry arguments imply chiral interactions that lead to a spiral ground state in zero external field and skyrmion crystals for H ≠ 0 . I will next present a microscopic model that provides a possible mechanism for the formation of local moments. I will show that the coupling of these moments to itinerant electrons leads to ferromagnetic double exchange together with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions and an easy-plane ``compass'' anisotropy, which arise from Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) due to the lack of inversion symmetry at the interface. The compass term, often ignored in the literature on chiral magnetism, is shown to play a crucial role in determining the magnetic ground state. I will compare our results with existing torque magnetometry data on LAO/STO and try to reconcile it with scanning SQUID magnetometry. Finally, I will present the phase diagram in a field and show that easy-plane anisotropy stabilizes an unexpectedly large skyrmion crystal phase and describe its properties. (Work done in collaboration with Sumilan Banerjee, Onur Erten, Daniel Kestner and James Rowland). Supported by DOE-BES DE-SC0005035, NSF-DMR-1006532 and NSF MRSEC DMR-0820414.

  6. Programmable atom-photon quantum interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, Christoph; Eich, Pascal; Schug, Michael; Müller, Philipp; Eschner, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    We present the implementation of a programmable atom-photon quantum interface, employing a single trapped +40Ca ion and single photons. Depending on its mode of operation, the interface serves as a bidirectional atom-photon quantum-state converter, as a source of entangled atom-photon states, or as a quantum frequency converter of single photons. The interface lends itself particularly to interfacing ions with spontaneous parametric down-conversion-based single-photon or entangled-photon-pair sources.

  7. INL Multi-Robot Control Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Multi-Robot Control Interface controls many robots through a single user interface. The interface includes a robot display window for each robot showing the robot’s condition. More than one window can be used depending on the number of robots. The user interface also includes a robot control window configured to receive commands for sending to the respective robot and a multi-robot common window showing information received from each robot.

  8. Towards automation of user interface design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gastner, Rainer; Kraetzschmar, Gerhard K.; Lutz, Ernst

    1992-01-01

    This paper suggests an approach to automatic software design in the domain of graphical user interfaces. There are still some drawbacks in existing user interface management systems (UIMS's) which basically offer only quantitative layout specifications via direct manipulation. Our approach suggests a convenient way to get a default graphical user interface which may be customized and redesigned easily in further prototyping cycles.

  9. Film bonded fuel cell interface configuration

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Terry, Peter L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved interface configuration for use between adjacent elements of a fuel cell stack. The interface is impervious to gas and liquid and provides resistance to corrosion by the electrolyte of the fuel cell. A multi-layer arrangement for the interface provides bridging electrical contact with a hot-pressed resin filling the void space.

  10. Intelligent systems and advanced user interfaces for design, operation, and maintenance of command management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, William J.; Mitchell, Christine M.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, command management systems (CMS) have been large and expensive spacecraft-specific software systems that were costly to build, operate, and maintain. Current and emerging hardware, software, and user interface technologies may offer an opportunity to facilitate the initial formulation and design of a spacecraft-specific CMS as well as to develop a more generic CMS system. New technologies, in addition to a core CMS common to a range of spacecraft, may facilitate the training and enhance the efficiency of CMS operations. Current mission operations center (MOC) hardware and software include Unix workstations, the C/C++ programming languages, and an X window interface. This configuration provides the power and flexibility to support sophisticated and intelligent user interfaces that exploit state-of-the-art technologies in human-machine interaction, artificial intelligence, and software engineering. One of the goals of this research is to explore the extent to which technologies developed in the research laboratory can be productively applied in a complex system such as spacecraft command management. Initial examination of some of these issues in CMS design and operation suggests that application of technologies such as intelligent planning, case-based reasoning, human-machine systems design and analysis tools (e.g., operator and designer models), and human-computer interaction tools (e.g., graphics, visualization, and animation) may provide significant savings in the design, operation, and maintenance of the CMS for a specific spacecraft as well as continuity for CMS design and development across spacecraft. The first six months of this research saw a broad investigation by Georgia Tech researchers into the function, design, and operation of current and planned command management systems at Goddard Space Flight Center. As the first step, the researchers attempted to understand the current and anticipated horizons of command management systems at Goddard

  11. Intelligent Systems and Advanced User Interfaces for Design, Operation, and Maintenance of Command Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1998-01-01

    Historically Command Management Systems (CMS) have been large, expensive, spacecraft-specific software systems that were costly to build, operate, and maintain. Current and emerging hardware, software, and user interface technologies may offer an opportunity to facilitate the initial formulation and design of a spacecraft-specific CMS as well as a to develop a more generic or a set of core components for CMS systems. Current MOC (mission operations center) hardware and software include Unix workstations, the C/C++ and Java programming languages, and X and Java window interfaces representations. This configuration provides the power and flexibility to support sophisticated systems and intelligent user interfaces that exploit state-of-the-art technologies in human-machine systems engineering, decision making, artificial intelligence, and software engineering. One of the goals of this research is to explore the extent to which technologies developed in the research laboratory can be productively applied in a complex system such as spacecraft command management. Initial examination of some of the issues in CMS design and operation suggests that application of technologies such as intelligent planning, case-based reasoning, design and analysis tools from a human-machine systems engineering point of view (e.g., operator and designer models) and human-computer interaction tools, (e.g., graphics, visualization, and animation), may provide significant savings in the design, operation, and maintenance of a spacecraft-specific CMS as well as continuity for CMS design and development across spacecraft with varying needs. The savings in this case is in software reuse at all stages of the software engineering process.

  12. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Interface Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachlechner, Martina E.; Cao, Deng; Leonard, Robert H.; Owens, Eli T.; Swan, Wm. Trevor, III; Ducatman, Samuel C.

    2007-03-01

    The mechanical integrity of silicon/silicon nitride interfaces is of great importance in their applications in micro electronics and solar cells. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are an excellent tool to study mechanical and structural failure of interfaces subjected to externally applied stresses and strains. When pulling the system parallel to the interface, cracks in silicon nitride and slip and pit formation in silicon are typical failure mechanisms. Hypervelocity impact perpendicular to the interface plane leads to structural transformation and delamination at the interface. Influence of system temperature, strain rate, impact velocity, and system size on type and characteristics of failure will be discussed.

  13. Intelligent subsystem interface for modular hardware system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krening, Douglas N. (Inventor); Lannan, Gregory B. (Inventor); Schneiderwind, Michael J. (Inventor); Schneiderwind, Robert A. (Inventor); Caffrey, Robert T. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A single chip application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which provides a flexible, modular interface between a subsystem and a standard system bus. The ASIC includes a microcontroller/microprocessor, a serial interface for connection to the bus, and a variety of communications interface devices available for coupling to the subsystem. A three-bus architecture, utilizing arbitration, provides connectivity within the ASIC and between the ASIC and the subsystem. The communication interface devices include UART (serial), parallel, analog, and external device interface utilizing bus connections paired with device select signals. A low power (sleep) mode is provided as is a processor disable option.

  14. TAXI Interface Demultiplexes Proprietarily Formatted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newnan, Bruce G.; Ahiport, Steven F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'TAXI Direct-to-Disk' interface is a special purpose interface unit for demultiplexing of data from a Racal Storeplex (or equivalent) multichannel recorder onto one or more hard disks that reside in, and/or are controlled by, a personal computer (PC). The acronym 'TAXI' signifies transparent asynchronous transceiver interface. The TAXI interface was developed for original use in capturing data from instrumentation on a test stand in a NASA rocket testing facility. The installation of the TAXI interface, in conjunction with other modifications, causes the transfer of data to take place in real time, so that the data are immediately available for review during or after the test.

  15. Transient aspects of stream interface signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Crooker, N.U.; Shodhan, S.; Forsyth, R.J.; Burton, M.E.; Gosling, J.T.; Fitzenreiter, R.J.; Lepping, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    Although stream interfaces are steady-state, corotating boundaries between slow and fast solar wind, their signatures are sometimes associated with transient features. Here the authors illustrate two modes of association: interfaces trailing interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) at 1 AU and interfaces within ICMEs in the range 4--5 AU. The former are readily understood as boundaries between transient slow wind and steady-state fast wind, where the ICMEs add variability to the interface signatures. The latter are puzzling and may be related to evolution of interfaces.

  16. Model study of protein unfolding by interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakarova, S. D.; Carlsson, A. E.

    2004-02-01

    We study interface-induced protein unfolding on hydrophobic and polar interfaces by means of a two-dimensional lattice model and an exhaustive enumeration ground-state structure search, for a set of model proteins of length 20 residues. We compare the effects of the two types of interfaces, and search for criteria that influence the retention of a protein’s native-state structure upon adsorption. We find that the unfolding proceeds by a large, sudden loss of native contacts. The unfolding at polar interfaces exhibits similar behavior to that at hydrophobic interfaces but with a much weaker interface coupling strength. Further, we find that the resistance of proteins to unfolding in our model is positively correlated with the magnitude of the folding energy in the native-state structure, the thermal stability (or energy gap) for that structure, and the interface energy for native-state adsorption. We find these factors to be of roughly equal importance.

  17. Experiments showing dynamics of materials interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1997-02-01

    The discipline of materials science and engineering often involves understanding and controlling properties of interfaces. The authors address the challenge of educating students about properties of interfaces, particularly dynamic properties and effects of unstable interfaces. A series of simple, inexpensive, hands-on activities about fluid interfaces provides students with a testbed to develop intuition about interface dynamics. The experiments highlight the essential role of initial interfacial perturbations in determining the dynamic response of the interface. The experiments produce dramatic, unexpected effects when initial perturbations are controlled and inhibited. These activities help students to develop insight about unstable interfaces that can be applied to analogous problems in materials science and engineering. The lessons examine ``Rayleigh-Taylor instability,`` an interfacial instability that occurs when a higher-density fluid is above a lower-density fluid.

  18. The cartilage-bone interface.

    PubMed

    Hoemann, Caroline D; Lafantaisie-Favreau, Charles-Hubert; Lascau-Coman, Viorica; Chen, Gaoping; Guzmán-Morales, Jessica

    2012-05-01

    In the knee joint, the purpose of the cartilage-bone interface is to maintain structural integrity of the osteochondral unit during walking, kneeling, pivoting, and jumping--during which tensile, compressive, and shear forces are transmitted from the viscoelastic articular cartilage layer to the much stiffer mineralized end of the long bone. Mature articular cartilage is integrated with subchondral bone through a approximately 20 to approximately 250 microm thick layer of calcified cartilage. Inside the calcified cartilage layer, perpendicular chondrocyte-derived collagen type II fibers become structurally cemented to collagen type I osteoid deposited by osteoblasts. The mature mineralization front is delineated by a thin approximately 5 microm undulating tidemark structure that forms at the base of articular cartilage. Growth plate cartilage is anchored to epiphyseal bone, sometimes via a thin layer of calcified cartilage and tidemark, while the hypertrophic edge does not form a tidemark and undergoes continual vascular invasion and endochondral ossification (EO) until skeletal maturity upon which the growth plates are fully resorbed and replaced by bone. In this review, the formation of the cartilage-bone interface during skeletal development and cartilage repair, and its structure and composition are presented. Animal models and human anatomical studies show that the tidemark is a dynamic structure that forms within a purely collagen type II-positive and collagen type I-negative hyaline cartilage matrix. Cartilage repair strategies that elicit fibrocartilage, a mixture of collagen type I and type II, are predicted to show little tidemark/calcified cartilage regeneration and to develop a less stable repair tissue-bone interface. The tidemark can be regenerated through a bone marrow-driven growth process of EO near the articular surface.

  19. Surface rheology and interface stability.

    SciTech Connect

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a mature laboratory at Sandia to measure interfacial rheology, using a combination of home-built, commercially available, and customized commercial tools. An Interfacial Shear Rheometer (KSV ISR-400) was modified and the software improved to increase sensitivity and reliability. Another shear rheometer, a TA Instruments AR-G2, was equipped with a du Nouey ring, bicone geometry, and a double wall ring. These interfacial attachments were compared to each other and to the ISR. The best results with the AR-G2 were obtained with the du Nouey ring. A Micro-Interfacial Rheometer (MIR) was developed in house to obtain the much higher sensitivity given by a smaller probe. However, it was found to be difficult to apply this technique for highly elastic surfaces. Interfaces also exhibit dilatational rheology when the interface changes area, such as occurs when bubbles grow or shrink. To measure this rheological response we developed a Surface Dilatational Rheometer (SDR), in which changes in surface tension with surface area are measured during the oscillation of the volume of a pendant drop or bubble. All instruments were tested with various surfactant solutions to determine the limitations of each. In addition, foaming capability and foam stability were tested and compared with the rheology data. It was found that there was no clear correlation of surface rheology with foaming/defoaming with different types of surfactants, but, within a family of surfactants, rheology could predict the foam stability. Diffusion of surfactants to the interface and the behavior of polyelectrolytes were two subjects studied with the new equipment. Finally, surface rheological terms were added to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver and preliminary testing of the code completed. Recommendations for improved implementation were given. When completed we plan to use the computations to better interpret the experimental data and account for the effects of the underlying bulk

  20. Gloved Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard (Inventor); Olowin, Aaron (Inventor); Hannaford, Blake (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a system, machine, device, manufacture, circuit, composition of matter, and/or user interface adapted for and/or resulting from, and/or a method and/or machine-readable medium comprising machine-implementable instructions for, activities that can comprise and/or relate to: tracking movement of a gloved hand of a human; interpreting a gloved finger movement of the human; and/or in response to interpreting the gloved finger movement, providing feedback to the human.

  1. Pattern formation at liquid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidel, Barbara; Knobler, Charles M.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative experimental investigations of pattern formation at a liquid interface are described. The reaction studied is the photoreduction of Fe 3+ in aqueous solution and the subsequent formation of Turnbull's Blue. Both the wavelength of the pattern and the time at which the break in homogeneity occurs have been studied as functions of the concentrations of the reactants and the viscosity of the solvent. Many of the features of the process are consistent with a mechanism in which autocatalysis is enhanced by double diffusion. Preliminary studies of pattern formation in the KI/starch/chloralhydrate system are also presented.

  2. Techniques for Interfacing Multiplex Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    Study 6 1.2. 3 Selection of Techniques 7 1.3 RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUMMARY 7 1.3.1 ARINC and H009 (F-15) Interfaces 7 1. 3. 2 Basic Signal...Override Transmitter Shutdown 72 3.4.8 Selected Transmitter Shutdown 72 viii TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont t d) Page I 3.4.9 Override Selected Transmitter...Common Mode Rejection 90 4.0 SELECTION OF TECHNIQUES 91 4.1 BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE 91 4.1.1 Ease of Retrofit 91 4. 1. 2 Future Implementation 92 4

  3. Metawidgets in the multimodal interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.M. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX ); Glinert, E.P.; Jorge, J.A.; Ormsby, G.R. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    We analyze two intertwined and fundamental issues concerning computer-to-human communication in the multimodal interfaces: the interplay between sound and graphics, and the role of object persistence. Our observations lead us to introduce metawidgets as abstract entities capable of manifesting themselves to users as image, as sound, or as various combinations and/or sequences of the two media. We show examples of metawidgets in action, and discuss mechanisms for choosing among alternative media for metawidget instantiation. Finally, we describe a couple of experimental microworlds we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Interface Circuit For Printer Port

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Yadlowsky, Ann B.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic circuit, called printer-port interface circuit (PPI) developed to overcome certain disadvantages of previous methods for connecting IBM PC or PC-compatible computer to other equipment. Has both reading and writing modes of operation. Very simple, requiring only six integrated circuits. Provides for moderately fast rates of transfer of data and uses existing unmodified circuit card in IBM PC. When used with appropriate software, circuit converts printer port on IBM PC, XT, AT, or compatible personal computer to general purpose, 8-bit-data, 16-bit address bus that connects to multitude of devices.

  5. Crossover behavior in interface depinning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y J; Zapperi, Stefano; Sethna, James P

    2015-08-01

    We study the crossover scaling behavior of the height-height correlation function in interface depinning in random media. We analyze experimental data from a fracture experiment and simulate an elastic line model with nonlinear couplings and disorder. Both exhibit a crossover between two different universality classes. For the experiment, we fit a functional form to the universal crossover scaling function. For the model, we vary the system size and the strength of the nonlinear term and describe the crossover between the two universality classes with a multiparameter scaling function. Our method provides a general strategy to extract scaling properties in depinning systems exhibiting crossover phenomena.

  6. Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or ‘locked in’ by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices. PMID:22438708

  7. Micromachined devices for interfacing neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas; Beutel, Hansjoerg; Blau, Cornelia; Meyer, Joerg-Uwe

    1998-07-01

    Micromachining technologies were established to fabricate microelectrode arrays and devices for interfacing parts of the central or peripheral nervous system. The devices were part of a neural prosthesis that allows simultaneous multichannel recording and multisite stimulation of neurons. Overcoming the brittle mechanics of silicon devices and challenging housing demands close to the nerve we established a process technology to fabricate light-weighted and highly flexible polyimide based devices. Platinum and iridium thin-film electrodes were embedded in the polyimide. With reactive ion etching we got the possibility to simply integrate interconnections and to form nearly arbitrary outer shapes of the devices. We designed multichannel devices with up to 24 electrodes in the shape of plates, hooks and cuffs for different applications. In vitro tests exhibited stable electrode properties and no cytotoxicity of the materials and the devices. Sieve electrodes were chronically implanted in rats to interface the regenerating sciatic nerve. After six months, recordings and stimulation of the nerve via electrodes on the micro-device proved functional reinnervation of the limb. Concentric circular structures were designed for a retina implant for the blind. In preliminary studies in rabbits, evoked potentials in the visual cortex corresponded to stimulation sites of the implant.

  8. Brain computer interfaces, a review.

    PubMed

    Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or 'locked in' by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices.

  9. Hydrothermal cement/metal interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Baldwin, S.

    1996-01-01

    The authors investigated the adherence of two cementitious materials, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and silica flour-filled class G cement (CGC), to metal substrates, such as cold-rolled steel (CRS), stainless steel (SS), electroplated zinc-coated steel (EZS), and zinc phosphate-coated steel (ZPS) after autoclaving at 200 C. In CPC/metal joints, the {gamma}-AlOOH phase, which segregated from the hydroxyapatite phase of the CPC matrix, was preferentially precipitated on the CRS and SS surfaces and also mixed with the reaction products formed at the interfaces between CPC and EZS or ZPS. Precipitation of {gamma}-AlOOH caused the formation of a weak boundary layer at the interfacial transition zones, thereby resulting in a low shear-bond strength. Although CGC accelerated the rate of corrosion of CRS and SS surfaces, the growth of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} clusters, formed as the corrosion products of metals at interfaces, aided the anchoring effect of xonotlite crystals as the major phase of CGC matrix, thereby conferring a high shear-bond strength. The EZS and ZPS surfaces were susceptible to alkali dissolution caused by the attack of the high-pH interstitial fluid of CGC pastes to the Zn and zinc phosphate coatings. Thus, the bond strengths of the CGC/EZS and /ZPS joints were lower than those of the joints made with CRS and SS.

  10. The interactive digital video interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Michael D.

    1989-01-01

    A frequent complaint in the computer oriented trade journals is that current hardware technology is progressing so quickly that software developers cannot keep up. A example of this phenomenon can be seen in the field of microcomputer graphics. To exploit the advantages of new mechanisms of information storage and retrieval, new approaches must be made towards incorporating existing programs as well as developing entirely new applications. A particular area of need is the correlation of discrete image elements to textural information. The interactive digital video (IDV) interface embodies a new concept in software design which addresses these needs. The IDV interface is a patented device and language independent process for identifying image features on a digital video display and which allows a number of different processes to be keyed to that identification. Its capabilities include the correlation of discrete image elements to relevant text information and the correlation of these image features to other images as well as to program control mechanisms. Sophisticated interrelationships can be set up between images, text, and program control mechanisms.

  11. Tailoring thermal interfaces with nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Indira

    Thermal interfaces are key to ensure the reliable performance of many semiconductor, energy and electronic systems. High thermal conductivity (k), low elastic modulus (E) interface materials are required to dissipate heat and relieve thermo-mechanical stresses. The aim of this thesis is to develop compliant, high k nanocomposite materials for thermal interface applications utilizing nanostructured networks. Realizing high k nanocomposites is a challenge because of difficulties in incorporating high fractions of uniformly dispersed nanofillers and countering low filler-matrix interfacial conductance, while retaining a low elastic modulus. In this thesis, it is demonstrated that these issues are obviated by using < 5 volume % sub-10-nm cold welded gold nanowire fillers to obtain an unprecedented 30-fold increase in polydimethylsiloxane thermal conductivity that is 6-fold higher than previously reported nanocomposites at low nanofiller loadings and exceeds theoretical predictions. The nanowire diameter and aspect ratio are key to obtain cold-welded networks that enhance k at low filler fractions, while fostering low E. Along with high k, tailoring high thermal contact conductance G c is crucial for many applications. This thesis reveals a critical correlation between the rheological behavior of a high k gold-nanowire-filled polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposite and its thermal contact conductance with copper. At a critical filler fraction, an abrupt increase in the nanocomposite k is accompanied by a liquid-solid transition and a multifold decrease in Gc. These concurrent changes are attributed to nanowire percolation network formation and pre-cure polymer gelation that inhibits the formation of conformal void-free interfaces. These findings will be important for designing processing sequences to realize heterointerfaces with nanowire filled high k nanocomposite materials. Another important finding of this thesis is that nanowire networks can result in mechanical

  12. Microfluidic PMMA interfaces for rectangular glass capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evander, Mikael; Tenje, Maria

    2014-02-01

    We present the design and fabrication of a polymeric capillary fluidic interface fabricated by micro-milling. The design enables the use of glass capillaries with any kind of cross-section in complex microfluidic setups. We demonstrate two different designs of the interface; a double-inlet interface for hydrodynamic focusing and a capillary interface with integrated pneumatic valves. Both capillary interfaces are presented together with examples of practical applications. This communication shows the design optimization and presents details of the fabrication process. The capillary interface opens up for the use of complex microfluidic systems in single-use glass capillaries. They also enable simple fabrication of glass/polymer hybrid devices that can be beneficial in many research fields where a pure polymer chip negatively affects the device's performance, e.g. acoustofluidics.

  13. Imaging Macromolecular Interactions at an Interface

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Joshua W.; Liao, Zhengzheng; Dmochowski, Ivan J.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Eckmann, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Important physiological, pathological, and technological processes occur at continuous and dispersed phase interfaces. Understanding these processes is limited by inability to quantitate molecular events occurring at the interface. To provide a model-independent measurement of protein concentration and mobility at the interface, we employed confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Fluorescently labeled albumin and fibrinogen were studied singly, pairwise, and with a surfactant, Pluronic F-127, in aqueous droplets. CLSM enables measurement of molecular behaviors manifest as surface inhomogeneity and of biophysical quantities including partitioning between the bulk and the gas-liquid (GL) interface. We conclude that albumin and fibrinogen behave substantially differently at the GL interface, that adsorption from multi-species solutions is fundamentally different than adsorption from solutions of single species, and surfactants can inhibit proteins from occupying the interface. PMID:20085337

  14. Imaging macromolecular interactions at an interface.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Joshua W; Liao, Zhengzheng; Dmochowski, Ivan J; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S; Eckmann, David M

    2010-02-16

    Important physiological, pathological, and technological processes occur at continuous and dispersed phase interfaces. Understanding these processes is limited by inability to quantitate molecular events occurring at the interface. To provide a model-independent measurement of protein concentration and mobility at the interface, we employed confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Fluorescently labeled albumin and fibrinogen were studied singly, pairwise, and with a surfactant, Pluronic F-127, in aqueous droplets. CLSM enables measurement of molecular behaviors manifest as surface inhomogeneity and of biophysical quantities including partitioning between the bulk and the gas-liquid (GL) interface. We conclude that albumin and fibrinogen behave substantially differently at the GL interface, adsorption from multispecies solutions is fundamentally different than adsorption from solutions of single species, and surfactants can inhibit proteins from occupying the interface.

  15. Development of a simulated smart pump interface.

    PubMed

    Elias, Beth L; Moss, Jacqueline A; Shih, Alan; Dillavou, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Medical device user interfaces are increasingly complex, resulting in a need for evaluation in clinicallyaccurate settings. Simulation of these interfaces can allow for evaluation, training, and use for research without the risk of harming patients and with a significant cost reduction over using the actual medical devices. This pilot project was phase 1 of a study to define and evaluate a methodology for development of simulated medical device interface technology to be used for education, device development, and research. Digital video and audio recordings of interface interactions were analyzed to develop a model of a smart intravenous medication infusion pump user interface. This model was used to program a high-fidelity simulated smart intravenous medication infusion pump user interface on an inexpensive netbook platform.

  16. Groundwater head controls nitrate export from an agricultural lowland catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musolff, Andreas; Schmidt, Christian; Rode, Michael; Lischeid, Gunnar; Weise, Stephan M.; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2016-10-01

    Solute concentration variability is of fundamental importance for the chemical and ecological state of streams. It is often closely related to discharge variability and can be characterized in terms of a solute export regime. Previous studies, especially in lowland catchments, report that nitrate is often exported with an accretion pattern of increasing concentrations with increasing discharge. Several modeling approaches exist to predict the export regime of solutes from the spatial relationship of discharge generating zones with solute availability in the catchment. For a small agriculturally managed lowland catchment in central Germany, we show that this relationship is controlled by the depth to groundwater table and its temporal dynamics. Principal component analysis of groundwater level time series from wells distributed throughout the catchment allowed derivation of a representative groundwater level time series that explained most of the discharge variability. Groundwater sampling revealed consistently decreasing nitrate concentrations with an increasing thickness of the unsaturated zone. The relationships of depth to groundwater table to discharge and to nitrate concentration were parameterized and integrated to successfully model catchment discharge and nitrate export on the basis of groundwater level variations alone. This study shows that intensive and uniform agricultural land use likely results in a clear and consistent concentration-depth relationship of nitrate, which can be utilized in simple approaches to predict stream nitrate export dynamics at the catchment scale.

  17. Electronic Interfacing with Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, James T.

    The direct interfacing of living cells with inorganic electronic materials, components or systems has led to the development of two broad categories of devices that can (1) transduce biochemical signals generated by biological components into electrical signals and (2) transduce electronically generated signals into biochemical signals. The first category of devices permits the monitoring of living cells, the second, enables control of cellular processes. This review will survey this exciting area with emphasis on the fundamental issues and obstacles faced by researchers. Devices and applications that use both prokaryotic (microbial) and eukaryotic (mammalian) cells will be covered. Individual devices described include microbial biofuel cells that produce electricity, bioelectrical reactors that enable electronic control of cellular metabolism, living cell biosensors for the detection of chemicals and devices that permit monitoring and control of mammalian physiology.

  18. General purpose intelligent sensor interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The long range goal is to develop an intelligent sensor system that will simplify the design and development of expert systems that use sensors of physical phenomena as a source of input data. This phase of the research concentrated on the integration of image processing sensors with expert system environments. The anticipated result of this research is the ability to design systems in which the user will not need to be an expert in such areas as image processing algorithms, local area networks, image processor hardware selection or interfacing, or television cameras selection. The user will be able to access data from video sensors through standard expert system statements without any need to know about the sensor hardware or software.

  19. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung -Geun; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this study, we describe an oxide/oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr₀̣.₂Ti₀.₈O₃-LaNiO₃ where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, in one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7 eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.

  20. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    DOE PAGES

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; ...

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this study, we describe an oxide/oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr₀̣.₂Ti₀.₈O₃-LaNiO₃ where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, inmore » one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7 eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.« less

  1. CONDUIT: Control Designer's Unified Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, William S.; Tischler, Mark B.

    1999-01-01

    CONDUIT, which stands for control designer's unified interface, is a computer software package. Its purpose is to assist a human control system designer in designing control systems for aircraft. At the present time CONDUIT is being used by most of the major U. S. rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft manufacturers to assist in the design of stability and control augmentation systems. Work is also continuing on the development of additional features for CONDUIT, including tools for analyzing the sensitivity of solutions, and on further enhancements to the basic package. The purpose of this paper is to describe CONDUIT, its operation, and the sensitivity tools that are being developed for inclusion in the next release of the package.

  2. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    PubMed

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  3. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    PubMed

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD.

  4. Interface area transport of monodispersed spherical particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chong H.

    2016-08-05

    We present an interface area transport model required in tracking of mass, momentum, and energy exchange between dispersed and background materials. The basic transport equation has been rigorously derived from the volume fraction evolution equation. Interface area changes due to mass transport and local compression/expansion are included. The model is then simplified for the case in which the dispersed phase is composed of spheres of locally uniform size. A procedure for calculating advective flux with interface reconstruction has been suggested.

  5. Neuroengineering: building interfaces from neurons to brain.

    PubMed

    Thakor, Nitish V

    2008-01-01

    Neuroengineering is emerging as an exciting new field with wide ranging research opportunities to contribute to both basic and clinical neurosciences. Armed with training and diverse research tools, engineers are now contributing to technologies to interface to neurons and to the whole brain. The research on modern neural and brain interface technologies has culminated in very recent, exciting programs to develop brain-machine interfaces such as neutrally controlled prostheses.

  6. Interface For Color-Video Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Eric

    1987-01-01

    Commercially produced color-video monitor modified by addition of interface circuit to accommodate wider-than-usual range of scanning rates and resolutions. Interface circuit measures frequencies of horizontal- and vertical-synchronizing pulses. When frequencies fall within combination of preset ranges, interface generates associated preset combination of eight picture-adjusting signals. Video monitor "trained" by computer that helps to control calibration procedure and inserts values in calibration tables.

  7. Workload-Based Automated Interface Mode Selection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    Exposing more control and information gives the operator the ability to understand the state of the system better and take more complex actions, but at the...and require fast response, and may be a better target for these types of interface features. Many computer games already use adaptive interfaces to...introduces an agent into the system interface to assume responsibility for man- aging automation mode selection. The agent uses a novel dynamic scheme for

  8. Network interface unit design options performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis is presented of three design options for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) onboard Data Management System (DMS) Network Interface Unit (NIU). The NIU provides the interface from the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) local area network (LAN) to the DMS processing elements. The FDDI LAN provides the primary means for command and control and low and medium rate telemetry data transfers on board the SSF. The results of this analysis provide the basis for the implementation of the NIU.

  9. Recent work on material interface reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Mosso, S.J.; Swartz, B.K.

    1997-12-31

    For the last 15 years, many Eulerian codes have relied on a series of piecewise linear interface reconstruction algorithms developed by David Youngs. In a typical Youngs` method, the material interfaces were reconstructed based upon nearly cell values of volume fractions of each material. The interfaces were locally represented by linear segments in two dimensions and by pieces of planes in three dimensions. The first step in such reconstruction was to locally approximate an interface normal. In Youngs` 3D method, a local gradient of a cell-volume-fraction function was estimated and taken to be the local interface normal. A linear interface was moved perpendicular to the now known normal until the mass behind it matched the material volume fraction for the cell in question. But for distorted or nonorthogonal meshes, the gradient normal estimate didn`t accurately match that of linear material interfaces. Moreover, curved material interfaces were also poorly represented. The authors will present some recent work in the computation of more accurate interface normals, without necessarily increasing stencil size. Their estimate of the normal is made using an iterative process that, given mass fractions for nearby cells of known but arbitrary variable density, converges in 3 or 4 passes in practice (and quadratically--like Newton`s method--in principle). The method reproduces a linear interface in both orthogonal and nonorthogonal meshes. The local linear approximation is generally 2nd-order accurate, with a 1st-order accurate normal for curved interfaces in both two and three dimensional polyhedral meshes. Recent work demonstrating the interface reconstruction for curved surfaces will /be discussed.

  10. Flexible feature interface for multimedia sources

    DOEpatents

    Coffland, Douglas R.

    2009-06-09

    A flexible feature interface for multimedia sources system that includes a single interface for the addition of features and functions to multimedia sources and for accessing those features and functions from remote hosts. The interface utilizes the export statement: export "C" D11Export void FunctionName(int argc, char ** argv,char * result, SecureSession *ctrl) or the binary equivalent of the export statement.

  11. New User Interface Capabilities for Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay

    2009-01-01

    Latest technologies promise new control system User Interface (UI) features and greater interoperability of applications. New developments using Java and Eclipse aim to unify diverse control systems and make communication between applications seamless. Web based user interfaces can improve portability and remote access. Modern programming tools improve efficiency, support testing and facilitate shared code. This paper will discuss new developments aimed at improving control system interfaces and their development environment.

  12. Nonequilibrium interfaces in colloidal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bier, Markus; Arnold, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    The time-dependent structure, interfacial tension, and evaporation of an oversaturated colloid-rich (liquid) phase in contact with an undersaturated colloid-poor (vapor) phase of a colloidal dispersion is investigated theoretically during the early-stage relaxation, where the interface is relaxing towards a local equilibrium state while the bulk phases are still out of equilibrium. Since systems of this type exhibit a clear separation of colloidal and solvent relaxation time scales with typical times of interfacial tension measurements in between, they can be expected to be suitable for analogous experimental studies, too. The major finding is that, irrespective of how much the bulk phases differ from two-phase coexistence, the interfacial structure and the interfacial tension approach those at two-phase coexistence during the early-stage relaxation process. This is a surprising observation since it implies that the relaxation towards global equilibrium of the interface is not following but preceding that of the bulk phases. Scaling forms for the local chemical potential, the flux, and the dissipation rate exhibit qualitatively different leading order contributions depending on whether an equilibrium or a nonequilibrium system is considered. The degree of nonquilibrium between the bulk phases is found to not influence the qualitative relaxation behavior (i.e., the values of power-law exponents), but to determine the quantitative deviation of the observed quantities from their values at two-phase coexistence. Whereas the underlying dynamics differs between colloidal and molecular fluids, the behavior of quantities such as the interfacial tension approaching the equilibrium values during the early-stage relaxation process, during which nonequilibrium conditions of the bulk phases are not changed, can be expected to occur for both types of systems.

  13. On Building a Search Interface Discovery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, Denis

    A huge portion of the Web known as the deep Web is accessible via search interfaces to myriads of databases on the Web. While relatively good approaches for querying the contents of web databases have been recently proposed, one cannot fully utilize them having most search interfaces unlocated. Thus, the automatic recognition of search interfaces to online databases is crucial for any application accessing the deep Web. This paper describes the architecture of the I-Crawler, a system for finding and classifying search interfaces. The I-Crawler is intentionally designed to be used in the deep web characterization surveys and for constructing directories of deep web resources.

  14. An interface energy density-based theory considering the coherent interface effect in nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yin; Chen, Shaohua; Fang, Daining

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the coherent interface effect conveniently and feasibly in nanomaterials, a continuum theory is proposed that is based on the concept of the interface free energy density, which is a dominant factor affecting the mechanical properties of the coherent interface in materials of all scales. The effect of the residual strain caused by self-relaxation and the lattice misfit of nanomaterials, as well as that due to the interface deformation induced by an external load on the interface free energy density is considered. In contrast to the existing theories, the stress discontinuity at the interface is characterized by the interface free energy density through an interface-induced traction. As a result, the interface elastic constant introduced in previous theories, which is not easy to determine precisely, is avoided in the present theory. Only the surface energy density of the bulk materials forming the interface, the relaxation parameter induced by surface relaxation, and the mismatch parameter for forming a coherent interface between the two surfaces are involved. All the related parameters are far easier to determine than the interface elastic constants. The effective bulk and shear moduli of a nanoparticle-reinforced nanocomposite are predicted using the proposed theory. Closed-form solutions are achieved, demonstrating the feasibility and convenience of the proposed model for predicting the interface effect in nanomaterials.

  15. Structural modifications due to interface chemistry at metal-nitride interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, S. K.; Shao, S.; Wang, J.; Liu, X.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Based on accurate first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, an unusual phenomenon of interfacial structural modifications, due to the interface chemistry influence is identified at two metal-nitride interfaces with strong metal-nitrogen affinity, Al/TiN {111} and Al/VN {111} interfaces. It is shown that at such interfaces, a faulted stacking structure is energetically preferred on the Al side of the interface. And both intrinsic and extrinsic stacking fault energies in the vicinity Al layers are negligibly small. However, such phenomenon does not occur in Pt/TiN and Pt/VN interfaces because of the weak Pt-N affinity. Corresponding to structural energies of metal-nitride interfaces, the linear elasticity analysis predicts characteristics of interfacial misfit dislocations at metal-nitride interfaces. PMID:26611639

  16. Structural modifications due to interface chemistry at metal-nitride interfaces.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S K; Shao, S; Wang, J; Liu, X-Y

    2015-11-27

    Based on accurate first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, an unusual phenomenon of interfacial structural modifications, due to the interface chemistry influence is identified at two metal-nitride interfaces with strong metal-nitrogen affinity, Al/TiN {111} and Al/VN {111} interfaces. It is shown that at such interfaces, a faulted stacking structure is energetically preferred on the Al side of the interface. And both intrinsic and extrinsic stacking fault energies in the vicinity Al layers are negligibly small. However, such phenomenon does not occur in Pt/TiN and Pt/VN interfaces because of the weak Pt-N affinity. Corresponding to structural energies of metal-nitride interfaces, the linear elasticity analysis predicts characteristics of interfacial misfit dislocations at metal-nitride interfaces.

  17. Structural modifications due to interface chemistry at metal-nitride interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, S. K.; Shao, S.; Wang, J.; Liu, X.-Y.

    2015-11-01

    Based on accurate first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, an unusual phenomenon of interfacial structural modifications, due to the interface chemistry influence is identified at two metal-nitride interfaces with strong metal-nitrogen affinity, Al/TiN {111} and Al/VN {111} interfaces. It is shown that at such interfaces, a faulted stacking structure is energetically preferred on the Al side of the interface. And both intrinsic and extrinsic stacking fault energies in the vicinity Al layers are negligibly small. However, such phenomenon does not occur in Pt/TiN and Pt/VN interfaces because of the weak Pt-N affinity. Corresponding to structural energies of metal-nitride interfaces, the linear elasticity analysis predicts characteristics of interfacial misfit dislocations at metal-nitride interfaces.

  18. Structural modifications due to interface chemistry at metal-nitride interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Yadav, S. K.; Shao, S.; Wang, J.; ...

    2015-11-27

    Based on accurate first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, an unusual phenomenon of interfacial structural modifications, due to the interface chemistry influence is identified at two metal-nitride interfaces with strong metal-nitrogen affinity, Al/TiN {111} and Al/VN {111} interfaces. It is shown that at such interfaces, a faulted stacking structure is energetically preferred on the Al side of the interface. And both intrinsic and extrinsic stacking fault energies in the vicinity Al layers are negligibly small. However, such phenomenon does not occur in Pt/TiN and Pt/VN interfaces because of the weak Pt-N affinity. As a result, corresponding to structural energiesmore » of metal-nitride interfaces, the linear elasticity analysis predicts characteristics of interfacial misfit dislocations at metal-nitride interfaces.« less

  19. Structural modifications due to interface chemistry at metal-nitride interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, S. K.; Shao, S.; Wang, J.; Liu, X. -Y.

    2015-11-27

    Based on accurate first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, an unusual phenomenon of interfacial structural modifications, due to the interface chemistry influence is identified at two metal-nitride interfaces with strong metal-nitrogen affinity, Al/TiN {111} and Al/VN {111} interfaces. It is shown that at such interfaces, a faulted stacking structure is energetically preferred on the Al side of the interface. And both intrinsic and extrinsic stacking fault energies in the vicinity Al layers are negligibly small. However, such phenomenon does not occur in Pt/TiN and Pt/VN interfaces because of the weak Pt-N affinity. As a result, corresponding to structural energies of metal-nitride interfaces, the linear elasticity analysis predicts characteristics of interfacial misfit dislocations at metal-nitride interfaces.

  20. Errare machinale est: the use of error-related potentials in brain-machine interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Sobolewski, Aleksander; Millán, José del R.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize errors is crucial for efficient behavior. Numerous studies have identified electrophysiological correlates of error recognition in the human brain (error-related potentials, ErrPs). Consequently, it has been proposed to use these signals to improve human-computer interaction (HCI) or brain-machine interfacing (BMI). Here, we present a review of over a decade of developments toward this goal. This body of work provides consistent evidence that ErrPs can be successfully detected on a single-trial basis, and that they can be effectively used in both HCI and BMI applications. We first describe the ErrP phenomenon and follow up with an analysis of different strategies to increase the robustness of a system by incorporating single-trial ErrP recognition, either by correcting the machine's actions or by providing means for its error-based adaptation. These approaches can be applied both when the user employs traditional HCI input devices or in combination with another BMI channel. Finally, we discuss the current challenges that have to be overcome in order to fully integrate ErrPs into practical applications. This includes, in particular, the characterization of such signals during real(istic) applications, as well as the possibility of extracting richer information from them, going beyond the time-locked decoding that dominates current approaches. PMID:25100937

  1. Multimodal user interfaces to improve social integration of elderly and mobility impaired.

    PubMed

    Dias, Miguel Sales; Pires, Carlos Galinho; Pinto, Fernando Miguel; Teixeira, Vítor Duarte; Freitas, João

    2012-01-01

    Technologies for Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and Communication have evolved tremendously over the past decades. However, citizens such as mobility impaired or elderly or others, still face many difficulties interacting with communication services, either due to HCI issues or intrinsic design problems with the services. In this paper we start by presenting the results of two user studies, the first one conducted with a group of mobility impaired users, comprising paraplegic and quadriplegic individuals; and the second one with elderly. The study participants carried out a set of tasks with a multimodal (speech, touch, gesture, keyboard and mouse) and multi-platform (mobile, desktop) system, offering an integrated access to communication and entertainment services, such as email, agenda, conferencing, instant messaging and social media, referred to as LHC - Living Home Center. The system was designed to take into account the requirements captured from these users, with the objective of evaluating if the adoption of multimodal interfaces for audio-visual communication and social media services, could improve the interaction with such services. Our study revealed that a multimodal prototype system, offering natural interaction modalities, especially supporting speech and touch, can in fact improve access to the presented services, contributing to the reduction of social isolation of mobility impaired, as well as elderly, and improving their digital inclusion.

  2. EDITORIAL: Sensors based on interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camassel, Jean; Soukiassian, Patrick G.

    2007-12-01

    Sensors are specific analog devices that convert a physical quantity, like the temperature or external pressure or concentration of carbon monoxide in a confined atmosphere, into an electrical signal. Considered in this way, every sensor is then a part of the artificial interface, which connects the human world to the world of machines. The other side of the interface is represented by actuators. Most often, after processing the data they are used to convert the out-coming electrical power into counteracting physical action. In the last few years, thanks to inexpensive silicon technology, enormous capability for data processing has been developed and the world of machines has become increasingly invasive. The world of sensors has become increasingly complex too. Applications range from classical measurements of the temperature, vibrations, shocks and acceleration to more recent chemical and bio-sensing technologies. Chemical sensors are used to detect the presence of specific, generally toxic, chemical species. To measure their concentration, one uses some specific property, generally a physical one, like the intensity of infrared absorption bands. Bio-sensors are new, more complex, devices that combine a bio-receptor with a physical transducer. The bio-receptor is a molecule (for instance, an enzyme like glucose oxidase) that can recognize a specific target (glucose molecules in the case of glucose oxidase). The enzyme must be fixed on the transducer and, as a consequence of recognition, the transducer must convert the event into a measurable analytical signal. A common feature of many chemical and bio-sensors is that they require a large surface of interaction with the outside world. For that reason and in order to increase efficiency, either nanoparticles or pores or a combination of both, made from various materials including (but not limited to) porous silicon, are often used as the functional transducer interface. The reviews in this Cluster Issue of Journal

  3. Interfacing the expert: Characteristics and requirements for the user interface in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Andrew

    1987-01-01

    Because expert systems deal with new sets of problems presenting unique interface requirements, special issues requiring special attention are presented to user interface designers. External knowledge representation (how knowdedge is represented across the user interface), modes of user-system interdependence (advisory, cooperative, and autonomous), and management of uncertainty (deciding what actions to take or recommend based on incomplete evidence) are discussed.

  4. Towards an Educational SuperInterface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Diana, Italo P. F.; White, T. N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an educational computer network, SuperInterface, that could be used for telestudy for university education. Topics discussed include computer-supported collaborative work; computer-based learning; multimedia databases, or electronic books; human-machine interfaces; hardware, software, and groupware; learners; teachers; organizations and…

  5. Designing a Visual Interface for Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xia

    1999-01-01

    "MedLine Search Assistant" is a new interface for MEDLINE searching that improves both search precision and recall by helping the user convert a free text search to a controlled vocabulary-based search in a visual environment. Features of the interface are described, followed by details of the conceptual design and the physical design of…

  6. User Interface Design for Dynamic Geometry Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortenkamp, Ulrich; Dohrmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe long-standing user interface issues with Dynamic Geometry Software and common approaches to address them. We describe first prototypes of multi-touch-capable DGS. We also give some hints on the educational benefits of proper user interface design.

  7. Hypertext Interface Design and Structural Knowledge Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koneman, Philip A.; Jonassen, David H.

    Hypertext is well-suited for educational applications where open learning and knowledge exploration is desired. In such applications, principles of good hypertext interface design should be employed to avoid navigational problems so as to maximize learning. Interface design, however, may also directly enhance acquisition of a particular knowledge…

  8. Utilizing Bayesian Techniques for User Interface Intelligence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    rea - soning and knowledge) have placed little or no emphasis on the expert system user interface. These developers spend most resources perfecting the...1994). 24. Cesta, Amedeo and Daniela DAloisi. "Building Interfaces as Personal Assis- tants," SIGCHI Bulletin, 28(3):108-113 (1996). 25. Chappel, H

  9. Development of the Computer Interface Literacy Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, G. Marc; Sweany, Noelle Wall; Husman, Jenefer

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of computer literacy and the rapidly changing face of technology focuses on a study that redefined computer literacy to include competencies for using graphical user interfaces for operating systems, hypermedia applications, and the Internet. Describes the development and testing of the Computer Interface Literacy Measure with…

  10. Spatial Competition: Roughening of an Experimental Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allstadt, Andrew J.; Newman, Jonathan A.; Walter, Jonathan A.; Korniss, G.; Caraco, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Limited dispersal distance generates spatial aggregation. Intraspecific interactions are then concentrated within clusters, and between-species interactions occur near cluster boundaries. Spread of a locally dispersing invader can become motion of an interface between the invading and resident species, and spatial competition will produce variation in the extent of invasive advance along the interface. Kinetic roughening theory offers a framework for quantifying the development of these fluctuations, which may structure the interface as a self-affine fractal, and so induce a series of temporal and spatial scaling relationships. For most clonal plants, advance should become spatially correlated along the interface, and width of the interface (where invader and resident compete directly) should increase as a power function of time. Once roughening equilibrates, interface width and the relative location of the most advanced invader should each scale with interface length. We tested these predictions by letting white clover (Trifolium repens) invade ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The spatial correlation of clover growth developed as anticipated by kinetic roughening theory, and both interface width and the most advanced invader’s lead scaled with front length. However, the scaling exponents differed from those predicted by recent simulation studies, likely due to clover’s growth morphology. PMID:27465518

  11. Shielding of elastic nonstationary waves by interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaev, V. I.; Lugovoi, P. Z.; Zayets, Yu. A.

    2012-07-01

    The ray method is used to solve the problem of the propagation of discontinuous (weak shock) waves in inhomogeneous elastic media. A procedure for drawing the fronts of reflected and refracted waves at interfaces and calculating their intensities is proposed. The effect of shielding discontinuous waves by one or two interfaces is studied. The cases of slipping and non-slipping contact are examined

  12. Pursuing Scalability for hypre's Conceptual Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Falgout, R D; Jones, J E; Yang, U M

    2004-07-21

    The software library hypre provides high performance preconditioners and solvers for the solution of large, sparse linear systems on massively parallel computers as well as conceptual interfaces that allow users to access the library in the way they naturally think about their problems. These interfaces include a stencil-based structured interface (Struct); a semi-structured interface (semiStruct), which is appropriate for applications that are mostly structured, e.g. block structured grids, composite grids in structured adaptive mesh refinement applications, and overset grids; a finite element interface (FEI) for unstructured problems, as well as a conventional linear-algebraic interface (IJ). It is extremely important to provide an efficient, scalable implementation of these interfaces in order to support the scalable solvers of the library, especially when using tens of thousands of processors. This paper describes the data structures, parallel implementation and resulting performance of the IJ, Struct and semiStruct interfaces. It investigates their scalability, presents successes as well as pitfalls of some of the approaches and suggests ways of dealing with them.

  13. University-Urban Interface Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. University Urban Interface Program.

    The major thrust of the University-Urban Interface Program (UUIP) was to study the interface between Pittsburgh University and its urban community. Ultimate goals were to design ways in which relations between universities and their communities may be enriched. UUIP studied activities in five representative areas: Communications, Minority and…

  14. A Diffuse Interface Model with Immiscibility Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Arpit; Freund, Jonathan B.; Pantano, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    A new, simple, and computationally efficient interface capturing scheme based on a diffuse interface approach is presented for simulation of compressible multiphase flows. Multi-fluid interfaces are represented using field variables (interface functions) with associated transport equations that are augmented, with respect to an established formulation, to enforce a selected interface thickness. The resulting interface region can be set just thick enough to be resolved by the underlying mesh and numerical method, yet thin enough to provide an efficient model for dynamics of well-resolved scales. A key advance in the present method is that the interface regularization is asymptotically compatible with the thermodynamic mixture laws of the mixture model upon which it is constructed. It incorporates first-order pressure and velocity non-equilibrium effects while preserving interface conditions for equilibrium flows, even within the thin diffused mixture region. We first quantify the improved convergence of this formulation in some widely used one-dimensional configurations, then show that it enables fundamentally better simulations of bubble dynamics. Demonstrations include both a spherical bubble collapse, which is shown to maintain excellent symmetry despite the Cartesian mesh, and a jetting bubble collapse adjacent a wall. Comparisons show that without the new formulation the jet is suppressed by numerical diffusion leading to qualitatively incorrect results. PMID:24058207

  15. The Green Bank Telescope: User Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddalena, R. J.; Fisher, J. R.

    1999-12-01

    The NRAO-Green Bank Telescope is composed of a unique, versatile, and complex suite of instrumentation. Observers and staff members will require intuitive user interfaces that can exploit the full capabilities of the instrument. The object-oriented monitor and control system which underlies all of the GBT user interfaces provides a uniform software interface to each GBT device, from receivers to detectors. The control system allows the creation of high-level user interfaces in a wide range of programming languages with less effort than normally encountered in the creation of such interfaces. We will present at least two of the graphical user interfaces astronomers will encounter when observing with the GBT. One interface, written in Glish/Tk, is designed for astronomers and used for specifying observations. A demonstration will be given of another interface, written in Tcl/Tk, designed for the monitoring and debugging of telescope component and which will be used predominantly by telescope operators, engineers, and other staff members. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  16. Spatial Competition: Roughening of an Experimental Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allstadt, Andrew J.; Newman, Jonathan A.; Walter, Jonathan A.; Korniss, G.; Caraco, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Limited dispersal distance generates spatial aggregation. Intraspecific interactions are then concentrated within clusters, and between-species interactions occur near cluster boundaries. Spread of a locally dispersing invader can become motion of an interface between the invading and resident species, and spatial competition will produce variation in the extent of invasive advance along the interface. Kinetic roughening theory offers a framework for quantifying the development of these fluctuations, which may structure the interface as a self-affine fractal, and so induce a series of temporal and spatial scaling relationships. For most clonal plants, advance should become spatially correlated along the interface, and width of the interface (where invader and resident compete directly) should increase as a power function of time. Once roughening equilibrates, interface width and the relative location of the most advanced invader should each scale with interface length. We tested these predictions by letting white clover (Trifolium repens) invade ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The spatial correlation of clover growth developed as anticipated by kinetic roughening theory, and both interface width and the most advanced invader’s lead scaled with front length. However, the scaling exponents differed from those predicted by recent simulation studies, likely due to clover’s growth morphology.

  17. Key Procedures in User Interface Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. Vance; Connolly, James R.

    Information systems (IS) professionals are called on to produce increasingly sophisticated user interfaces as a part of software development. Although IS education includes coverage of user interface (UI) development, classroom presentation of this topic frequently is cursory and does not provide any particular methodology for the task. In this…

  18. Interfacing for Economical Data Gathering and Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slezak, Tom

    1981-01-01

    By interfacing a Biotran II counting device with an Apple II computer, biologists in a biomedical laboratory increased accuracy and speed over manual logging of Biotran readings. Suggests that others interface small computers to computer readable devices as a cost-effective approach. Outlines necessary steps. (DC)

  19. Intelligent user interface concept for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comer, Edward; Donaldson, Cameron; Bailey, Elizabeth; Gilroy, Kathleen

    1986-01-01

    The space station computing system must interface with a wide variety of users, from highly skilled operations personnel to payload specialists from all over the world. The interface must accommodate a wide variety of operations from the space platform, ground control centers and from remote sites. As a result, there is a need for a robust, highly configurable and portable user interface that can accommodate the various space station missions. The concept of an intelligent user interface executive, written in Ada, that would support a number of advanced human interaction techniques, such as windowing, icons, color graphics, animation, and natural language processing is presented. The user interface would provide intelligent interaction by understanding the various user roles, the operations and mission, the current state of the environment and the current working context of the users. In addition, the intelligent user interface executive must be supported by a set of tools that would allow the executive to be easily configured and to allow rapid prototyping of proposed user dialogs. This capability would allow human engineering specialists acting in the role of dialog authors to define and validate various user scenarios. The set of tools required to support development of this intelligent human interface capability is discussed and the prototyping and validation efforts required for development of the Space Station's user interface are outlined.

  20. 47 CFR 76.1903 - Interfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interfaces. 76.1903 Section 76.1903 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Encoding Rules § 76.1903 Interfaces. A covered entity shall not attach or...

  1. 47 CFR 76.1903 - Interfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interfaces. 76.1903 Section 76.1903 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Encoding Rules § 76.1903 Interfaces. A covered entity shall not attach or...

  2. 47 CFR 76.1903 - Interfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interfaces. 76.1903 Section 76.1903 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Encoding Rules § 76.1903 Interfaces. A covered entity shall not attach or...

  3. 47 CFR 76.1903 - Interfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interfaces. 76.1903 Section 76.1903 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Encoding Rules § 76.1903 Interfaces. A covered entity shall not attach or...

  4. Gender Interest Differences with Multimedia Learning Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passig, David; Levin, Haya

    1999-01-01

    This study of 90 kindergarten children examined gender differences in learning interest from different designs of multimedia interfaces. Results indicate a significant difference between boys and girls in the influence of the design of interactive multimedia stories on time on task and on level of satisfaction with the interfaces. (Author/LRW)

  5. Ballistic-hole spectroscopy of interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M. H.; Bell, L. D.; Kaiser, W. J.; Davis, L. C.

    1990-01-01

    A new technique allows direct control and measurement of ballistic-hole transport through interfaces. This spectroscopy has been applied to determine the detailed properties of hole transmission through metal-semiconductor interfaces and probe the valence-band structure of subsurface semiconductor heterostructures. The ballistic-hole probe is created by electron-tunneling-microscopy methods and provides high-spatial-resolution capabilities.

  6. 47 CFR 76.1903 - Interfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interfaces. 76.1903 Section 76.1903 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Encoding Rules § 76.1903 Interfaces. A covered entity shall not attach or...

  7. Spatial Competition: Roughening of an Experimental Interface.

    PubMed

    Allstadt, Andrew J; Newman, Jonathan A; Walter, Jonathan A; Korniss, G; Caraco, Thomas

    2016-07-28

    Limited dispersal distance generates spatial aggregation. Intraspecific interactions are then concentrated within clusters, and between-species interactions occur near cluster boundaries. Spread of a locally dispersing invader can become motion of an interface between the invading and resident species, and spatial competition will produce variation in the extent of invasive advance along the interface. Kinetic roughening theory offers a framework for quantifying the development of these fluctuations, which may structure the interface as a self-affine fractal, and so induce a series of temporal and spatial scaling relationships. For most clonal plants, advance should become spatially correlated along the interface, and width of the interface (where invader and resident compete directly) should increase as a power function of time. Once roughening equilibrates, interface width and the relative location of the most advanced invader should each scale with interface length. We tested these predictions by letting white clover (Trifolium repens) invade ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The spatial correlation of clover growth developed as anticipated by kinetic roughening theory, and both interface width and the most advanced invader's lead scaled with front length. However, the scaling exponents differed from those predicted by recent simulation studies, likely due to clover's growth morphology.

  8. Student Preferences toward Microcomputer User Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Sunil I.; Reaves, Rita R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study of undergraduates that was conducted to determine students' preferences toward Graphical User Interface versus Command Line Interface during computer-assisted instruction. Previous experience, comfort level, performance scores, and student attitudes are examined and compared, and the computer use survey is appended. (Contains 13…

  9. Micro Channel/Multibus-II Interface Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Ambrose, John J.; Jaworski, Richard C.; Heise, Nyles N.; Thornton, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Micro Channel/Multibus-II interface circuit provides electrical interconnections enabling communications between Micro Channels of IBM Personal System/2 computers and IEEE 1296 standard Multibus-II parallel system bus (iPSB). Made mostly of commercially available parts, interface enables independent Micro Channels to communicate over iPSB without modification.

  10. A diffuse interface model with immiscibility preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Arpit; Freund, Jonathan B.; Pantano, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    A new, simple, and computationally efficient interface capturing scheme based on a diffuse interface approach is presented for simulation of compressible multiphase flows. Multi-fluid interfaces are represented using field variables (interface functions) with associated transport equations that are augmented, with respect to an established formulation, to enforce a selected interface thickness. The resulting interface region can be set just thick enough to be resolved by the underlying mesh and numerical method, yet thin enough to provide an efficient model for dynamics of well-resolved scales. A key advance in the present method is that the interface regularization is asymptotically compatible with the thermodynamic mixture laws of the mixture model upon which it is constructed. It incorporates first-order pressure and velocity non-equilibrium effects while preserving interface conditions for equilibrium flows, even within the thin diffused mixture region. We first quantify the improved convergence of this formulation in some widely used one-dimensional configurations, then show that it enables fundamentally better simulations of bubble dynamics. Demonstrations include both a spherical-bubble collapse, which is shown to maintain excellent symmetry despite the Cartesian mesh, and a jetting bubble collapse adjacent a wall. Comparisons show that without the new formulation the jet is suppressed by numerical diffusion leading to qualitatively incorrect results.

  11. Steering a Tractor by Means of an EMG-Based Human-Machine Interface

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; San-Jose-Gonzalez, Israel; Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    An electromiographic (EMG)-based human-machine interface (HMI) is a communication pathway between a human and a machine that operates by means of the acquisition and processing of EMG signals. This article explores the use of EMG-based HMIs in the steering of farm tractors. An EPOC, a low-cost human-computer interface (HCI) from the Emotiv Company, was employed. This device, by means of 14 saline sensors, measures and processes EMG and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from the scalp of the driver. In our tests, the HMI took into account only the detection of four trained muscular events on the driver’s scalp: eyes looking to the right and jaw opened, eyes looking to the right and jaw closed, eyes looking to the left and jaw opened, and eyes looking to the left and jaw closed. The EMG-based HMI guidance was compared with manual guidance and with autonomous GPS guidance. A driver tested these three guidance systems along three different trajectories: a straight line, a step, and a circumference. The accuracy of the EMG-based HMI guidance was lower than the accuracy obtained by manual guidance, which was lower in turn than the accuracy obtained by the autonomous GPS guidance; the computed standard deviations of error to the desired trajectory in the straight line were 16 cm, 9 cm, and 4 cm, respectively. Since the standard deviation between the manual guidance and the EMG-based HMI guidance differed only 7 cm, and this difference is not relevant in agricultural steering, it can be concluded that it is possible to steer a tractor by an EMG-based HMI with almost the same accuracy as with manual steering. PMID:22164006

  12. Steering a tractor by means of an EMG-based human-machine interface.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; San-Jose-Gonzalez, Israel; Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Alonso-Garcia, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    An electromiographic (EMG)-based human-machine interface (HMI) is a communication pathway between a human and a machine that operates by means of the acquisition and processing of EMG signals. This article explores the use of EMG-based HMIs in the steering of farm tractors. An EPOC, a low-cost human-computer interface (HCI) from the Emotiv Company, was employed. This device, by means of 14 saline sensors, measures and processes EMG and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from the scalp of the driver. In our tests, the HMI took into account only the detection of four trained muscular events on the driver's scalp: eyes looking to the right and jaw opened, eyes looking to the right and jaw closed, eyes looking to the left and jaw opened, and eyes looking to the left and jaw closed. The EMG-based HMI guidance was compared with manual guidance and with autonomous GPS guidance. A driver tested these three guidance systems along three different trajectories: a straight line, a step, and a circumference. The accuracy of the EMG-based HMI guidance was lower than the accuracy obtained by manual guidance, which was lower in turn than the accuracy obtained by the autonomous GPS guidance; the computed standard deviations of error to the desired trajectory in the straight line were 16 cm, 9 cm, and 4 cm, respectively. Since the standard deviation between the manual guidance and the EMG-based HMI guidance differed only 7 cm, and this difference is not relevant in agricultural steering, it can be concluded that it is possible to steer a tractor by an EMG-based HMI with almost the same accuracy as with manual steering.

  13. Treatment of interfaces in particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuei, L.; Savaş, Ö.

    2000-12-01

    A first-order accurate method of extending the capability of image velocimetry to interfaces is presented. In this method, the image fields are locally extended across interfaces using fields from the other image of an image pair. During this image parity exchange, the extension of the image fields amounts to locally reversing and reflecting the relative velocity field across the interface. Numerous experimental examples are given to demonstrate and validate the accuracy of the method. These are the plane Couette flow and the laminar pipe flow demonstrating straight rigid boundaries; uniform flow past a sphere and a sphere moving in a stagnant fluid demonstrating curved rigid surfaces; and a free-surface flow and a liquid-liquid interface flow demonstrating compliant interfaces.

  14. Virtual Solar Observatory: Web Interface Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughitt, V. Keith; Davey, A.; Hourcle, J.; Suarez-Sola, I.

    2011-05-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) enables scientists to query and download a wide range of solar data sets using a web interface, IDL or programmatically via an API.  Because of the complex nature of the queries that are possible using the VSO, we have had to re-work the web client to enable complex searches without creating an overly cluttered or complex interface. The new interface is modular to allow us to more easily add new search parameters while allowing users to set defaults for their preferred search and download settings, minimizing the amount of complexity exposed. We describe the advantages of the new search interface, including the ability to bookmark searches, a streamlined query process, customized search interfaces for instruments with special needs, and improved performance.

  15. Integrating interface slicing into software engineering processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Interface slicing is a tool which was developed to facilitate software engineering. As previously presented, it was described in terms of its techniques and mechanisms. The integration of interface slicing into specific software engineering activities is considered by discussing a number of potential applications of interface slicing. The applications discussed specifically address the problems, issues, or concerns raised in a previous project. Because a complete interface slicer is still under development, these applications must be phrased in future tenses. Nonetheless, the interface slicing techniques which were presented can be implemented using current compiler and static analysis technology. Whether implemented as a standalone tool or as a module in an integrated development or reverse engineering environment, they require analysis no more complex than that required for current system development environments. By contrast, conventional slicing is a methodology which, while showing much promise and intuitive appeal, has yet to be fully implemented in a production language environment despite 12 years of development.

  16. Gestures in an Intelligent User Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikkert, Wim; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton

    In this chapter we investigated which hand gestures are intuitive to control a large display multimedia interface from a user's perspective. Over the course of two sequential user evaluations, we defined a simple gesture set that allows users to fully control a large display multimedia interface, intuitively. First, we evaluated numerous gesture possibilities for a set of commands that can be issued to the interface. These gestures were selected from literature, science fiction movies, and a previous exploratory study. Second, we implemented a working prototype with which the users could interact with both hands and the preferred hand gestures with 2D and 3D visualizations of biochemical structures. We found that the gestures are influenced to significant extent by the fast paced developments in multimedia interfaces such as the Apple iPhone and the Nintendo Wii and to no lesser degree by decades of experience with the more traditional WIMP-based interfaces.

  17. Dielectric constant of water in the interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2016-07-01

    We define the dielectric constant (susceptibility) that should enter the Maxwell boundary value problem when applied to microscopic dielectric interfaces polarized by external fields. The dielectric constant (susceptibility) of the interface is defined by exact linear-response equations involving correlations of statistically fluctuating interface polarization and the Coulomb interaction energy of external charges with the dielectric. The theory is applied to the interface between water and spherical solutes of altering size studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The effective dielectric constant of interfacial water is found to be significantly lower than its bulk value, and it also depends on the solute size. For TIP3P water used in MD simulations, the interface dielectric constant changes from 9 to 4 when the solute radius is increased from ˜5 to 18 Å.

  18. Interfaces - Weak Links, Yet Great Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Dimofte, Florin; Chupp, Raymond E.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate turbomachine interface design can rapidly degrade system performance, yet provide great opportunity for improvements. Engineered coatings of seals and bearing interfaces are major issues in the operational life of power systems. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining component life. Interface coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial for the benefit of the component. Bearing and sealing surfaces are routinely protected by tribologically paired coatings such as silicon diamond like coatings (SiDLC) in combination with an oil lubricated wave bearing that prolongs bearing operational life. Likewise, of several methods used or researched for detecting interface failures, dopants within coatings show failures in functionally graded ceramic coatings. The Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) materials models and quantum mechanical tools, employed in interface design, are discussed.

  19. [Interfaces in outpatient and inpatient rheumatological treatment].

    PubMed

    Edelmann, E

    2014-08-01

    In healthcare the term interface describes the communication and the sharing of responsibilities between different aspects of medical care und the different professional groups in medicine. It enables cooperation without conflicts and can contribute to an improvement of healthcare and reduce healthcare costs. The postgraduate professional education, medical guidelines and therapy recommendations are an important basis for the definition of interfaces. The definition of such an interface between different healthcare groups is essential for the implementation of selective contracts with health insurance companies. An appropriate health care interface between general practitioners and rheumatologists has been defined as well as between hospital and ambulant rheumatology treatment. The division of responsibilities between orthopedists and rheumatologists is still under discussion. A proposal for such an interface from the point of view of rheumatology is presented.

  20. Interfacing Topological Insulators with Ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardella, Anthony

    In topological insulators, the surface states arise from strong spin-orbit coupling while the degeneracy of the Dirac point is protected by time reversal symmetry. Introducing magnetism in proximity to the surface states breaks this symmetry, destroying the non-trivial Berry phase at the Dirac point and leads to a hedgehog spin texture near the newly opened magnetic gap. This symmetry broken phase leads to a host of unusual physics, such as the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. In this talk, we discuss the growth by molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of such magnetically interfaced and magnetically doped topological insulators. Such materials often suffer from structural defects and interfacial layers, as well as from degradation during device fabrication. In particular, it is shown that Cr doped (Bi1-x,Sbx)2Te3 can exhibit perfect Hall quantization at low temperatures despite these defects. However, the magnetic ordering of this material was found to be quite unusual, displaying a super-paramagnetic like character, perhaps reflecting this disorder. Such observations highlight the surprising behavior of such broken symmetry phases in topological materials. This work was performed in collaboration with A. Kandala, M. Liu, W. Wang, N.P. Ong, C.-X. Liu, and N. Samarth, in addition to the authors of the references cited. This work was supported by funding from ARO/MURI, DARPA and ONR.

  1. Molecular dynamics of interface rupture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1993-01-01

    Several situations have been studied in which a fluid-vapor or fluid-fluid interface ruptures, using molecular dynamics simulations of 3000 to 20,000 Lennard-Jones molecules in three dimensions. The cases studied are the Rayleigh instability of a liquid thread, the burst of a liquid drop immersed in a second liquid undergoing shear, and the rupture of a liquid sheet in an extensional flow. The late stages of the rupture process involve the gradual withdrawal of molecules from a thinning neck, or the appearance and growth of holes in a sheet. In all cases, it is found that despite the small size of the systems studied, tens of angstroms, the dynamics is in at least qualitative accord with the behavior expected from continuum calculations, and in some cases the agreement is to within tens of percent. Remarkably, this agreement occurs even though the Eulerian velocity and stress fields are essentially unmeasurable - dominated by thermal noise. The limitations and prospects for such molecular simulation techniques are assessed.

  2. Vision as a user interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2011-03-01

    The egg-rolling behavior of the graylag goose is an often quoted example of a fixed-action pattern. The bird will even attempt to roll a brick back to its nest! Despite excellent visual acuity it apparently takes a brick for an egg." Evolution optimizes utility, not veridicality. Yet textbooks take it for a fact that human vision evolved so as to approach veridical perception. How do humans manage to dodge the laws of evolution? I will show that they don't, but that human vision is an idiosyncratic user interface. By way of an example I consider the case of pictorial perception. Gleaning information from still images is an important human ability and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. I will discuss a number of instances of extreme non-veridicality and huge inter-observer variability. Despite their importance in applications (information dissemination, personnel selection,...) such huge effects have remained undocumented in the literature, although they can be traced to artistic conventions. The reason appears to be that conventional psychophysics-by design-fails to address the qualitative, that is the meaningful, aspects of visual awareness whereas this is the very target of the visual arts.

  3. Elaborating transition interface sampling methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erp, Titus S. van . E-mail: bolhuis@science.uva.nl

    2005-05-01

    We review two recently developed efficient methods for calculating rate constants of processes dominated by rare events in high-dimensional complex systems. The first is transition interface sampling (TIS), based on the measurement of effective fluxes through hypersurfaces in phase space. TIS improves efficiency with respect to standard transition path sampling (TPS) rate constant techniques, because it allows a variable path length and is less sensitive to recrossings. The second method is the partial path version of TIS. Developed for diffusive processes, it exploits the loss of long time correlation. We discuss the relation between the new techniques and the standard reactive flux methods in detail. Path sampling algorithms can suffer from ergodicity problems, and we introduce several new techniques to alleviate these problems, notably path swapping, stochastic configurational bias Monte Carlo shooting moves and order-parameter free path sampling. In addition, we give algorithms to calculate other interesting properties from path ensembles besides rate constants, such as activation energies and reaction mechanisms.

  4. High temperature ceramic interface study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Monolithic SiC and Si3N4 are susceptible to contact stress damage at static and sliding interfaces. Transformation-toughened zirconia (TTZ) was evaluated under sliding contact conditions to determine if the higher material fracture toughness would reduce the susceptibility to contact stress damage. Contact stress tests were conducted on four commercially available TTZ materials at normal loads ranging from 0.455 to 22.7 kg (1 to 50 pounds) at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1204C (2200 F). Static and dynamic friction were measured as a function of temperature. Flexural strength measurements after these tests determined that the contact stress exposure did not reduce the strength of TTZ at contact loads of 0.455, 4.55, and 11.3 kg (1, 10, and 25 pounds). Prior testing with the lower toughness SiC and Si3N4 materials resulted in a substantial strength reduction at loads of only 4.55 and 11.3 kg (10 and 25 pounds). An increase in material toughness appears to improve ceramic material resistance to contact stress damage. Baseline material flexure strength was established and the stress rupture capability of TTZ was evaluated. Stress rupture tests determined that TTZ materials are susceptible to deformation due to creep and that aging of TTZ materials at elevated temperatures results in a reduction of material strength.

  5. Handheld interface for miniature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Sunny; Samson, Scott A.; Farmer, Andrew; Smith, Matthew C.; Fries, David; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2005-02-01

    Miniaturization of laboratory sensors has been enabled by continued evolution of technology. Field portable systems are often desired, because they reduce sample handling, provide rapid feedback capability, and enhance convenience. Fieldable sensor systems should include a method for initiating the analysis, storing and displaying the results, while consuming minimal power and being compact and portable. Low cost will allow widespread usage of these systems. In this paper, we discuss a reconfigurable Personal Data Assistant (PDA) based control and data collection system for use with miniature sensors. The system is based on the Handspring visor PDA and a custom designed motherboard, which connects directly to the PDA microprocessor. The PDA provides a convenient and low cost graphical user interface, moderate processing capability, and integrated battery power. The low power motherboard provides the voltage levels, data collection, and input/output (I/O) capabilities required by many MEMS and miniature sensors. These capabilities are relayed to connectors, where an application specific daughterboard is attached. In this paper, two applications are demonstrated. First, a handheld nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) detection sensor consisting of a heated and optical fluorescence detection system is discussed. Second, an electrostatically actuated MEMS micro mirror controller is realized.

  6. Chapter 21: Programmatic Interfaces - STILTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, M. J.

    STILTS is the Starlink Tables Infrastructure Library Tool Set developed by Mark Taylor of the former Starlink Project. STILTS is a command-line tool (see the NVOSS_HOME/bin/stilts command) providing access to the same functionality driving the TOPCAT application and can be run using either the STILTS-specific jar file, or the more general TOPCAT jar file (both are available in the NVOSS_HOME/java/lib directory and are included in the default software environment classpath). The heart of both STILTS and TOPCAT is the STIL Java library. STIL is designed to efficiently handle the input, output and processing of very large tabular datasets and the STILTS task interface makes it an ideal tool for the scripting environment. Multiple formats are supported (including FITS Binary Tables, VOTable, CSV, SQL databases and ASCII, amongst others) and while some tools will generically handle all supported formats, others are specific to the VOTable format. Converting a VOTable to a more script-friendly format is the first thing most users will encounter, but there are many other useful tools as well.

  7. Ferroelectric Graphene-Perovskite Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Volonakis, George; Giustino, Feliciano

    2015-07-02

    Owing to their record-breaking energy conversion efficiencies, hybrid organometallic perovskites have emerged as the most promising light absorbers and ambipolar carrier transporters for solution-processable solar cells. Simultaneously, due to its exceptional electron mobility, graphene represents a prominent candidate for replacing transparent conducting oxides. Thus, it is possible that combining these wonder materials may propel the efficiency toward the Schokley-Queisser limit. Here, using first-principles calculations on graphene-CH3NH3PbI3 interfaces, we find that graphene suppresses the octahedral tilt in the very first perovskite monolayer, leading to a nanoscale ferroelectric distortion with a permanent polarization of 3 mC/m(2). This interfacial ferroelectricity drives electron extraction from the perovskite and hinders electron-hole recombination by keeping the electrons and holes separated. The interfacial ferroelectricity identified here simply results from the interplay between graphene's planar structure and CH3NH3PbI3's octahedral connectivity; therefore, this mechanism may be effective in a much broader class of perovskites, with potential applications in photovoltaics and photocatalysis.

  8. Visual Interface for Materials Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Richard P.; Dorsey, David M.

    2004-08-01

    VIMES (Visual Inteface for Materials Simulations) is a graphical user interface (GUI) for pre- and post-processing alomistic materials science calculations. The code includes tools for building and visualizing simple crystals, supercells, and surfaces, as well as tools for managing and modifying the input to Sandia materials simulations codes such as Quest (Peter Schultz, SNL 9235) and Towhee (Marcus Martin, SNL 9235). It is often useful to have a graphical interlace to construct input for materials simulations codes and to analyze the output of these programs. VIMES has been designed not only to build and visualize different materials systems, but also to allow several Sandia codes to be easier to use and analyze. Furthermore. VIMES has been designed to be reasonably easy to extend to new materials programs. We anticipate that users of Sandia materials simulations codes will use VIMCS to simplify the submission and analysis of these simulations. VIMES uses standard OpenGL graphics (as implemented in the Python programming language) to display the molecules. The algorithms used to rotate, zoom, and pan molecules are all standard applications using the OpenGL libraries. VIMES uses the Marching Cubes algorithm for isosurfacing 3D data such as molecular orbitals or electron densities around the molecules.

  9. Interface States and Interface-Bulk Correspondence of One-dimensional Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Un, Ieng-Wai; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the interface state on one-dimensional hyperbolic metamaterial (1DHMM). Initially, we analyze the plasmonic band structure of binary 1DHMM and analytically determine its band crossing condition. Then, we scrutinize the existence of an interface state in the plasmonic band gap of 1DHMM on three types of interfaces: dielectric/1DHMM, metal/1DHMM, and 1DHMM/1DHMM. We find that the band crossing dramatically influences the existence of an interface state. We also show a rigorous relation between the existence of the interface state of 1DHMM in the plasmonic band gap and the wave admittance in the plasmonic band region. More importantly, this relation not only holds for binary 1DHMM but also can be generalized to any 1DHMM with inversion symmetry. We also characterize the interface state by the transverse spin angular momentum and reveal the transverse spin flipping of the interface state. PMID:28233822

  10. Interface States and Interface-Bulk Correspondence of One-dimensional Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Un, Ieng-Wai; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the interface state on one-dimensional hyperbolic metamaterial (1DHMM). Initially, we analyze the plasmonic band structure of binary 1DHMM and analytically determine its band crossing condition. Then, we scrutinize the existence of an interface state in the plasmonic band gap of 1DHMM on three types of interfaces: dielectric/1DHMM, metal/1DHMM, and 1DHMM/1DHMM. We find that the band crossing dramatically influences the existence of an interface state. We also show a rigorous relation between the existence of the interface state of 1DHMM in the plasmonic band gap and the wave admittance in the plasmonic band region. More importantly, this relation not only holds for binary 1DHMM but also can be generalized to any 1DHMM with inversion symmetry. We also characterize the interface state by the transverse spin angular momentum and reveal the transverse spin flipping of the interface state.

  11. Novel method for the prediction of an interface bonding species at alumina/metal interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitake, Michiko Yagyu, Shinjiro; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2014-03-15

    Interface bonding between alumina and various metals is discussed from the viewpoint of chemical thermodynamics. A method to predict the interface bonding species at an alumina/metal interface under equilibrium conditions is proposed by using the concept of chemical equilibrium for interface termination. The originality of this method is in the way a simple estimation of the interface binding energy, which is generally applicable to most metals, is developed. The effectiveness of this method is confirmed by careful examination of the experimental results. Comparison of the predicted and experimentally observed interface terminations reveals that the proposed method agrees well with the reported results. The method uses only basic quantities of pure elements and the formation enthalpy of oxides. Therefore, it can be applied to most metals in the periodic table and is useful for screening materials in the quest to develop interfaces with particular functions.

  12. Interface States and Interface-Bulk Correspondence of One-dimensional Hyperbolic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Un, Ieng-Wai; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2017-02-24

    We investigate the interface state on one-dimensional hyperbolic metamaterial (1DHMM). Initially, we analyze the plasmonic band structure of binary 1DHMM and analytically determine its band crossing condition. Then, we scrutinize the existence of an interface state in the plasmonic band gap of 1DHMM on three types of interfaces: dielectric/1DHMM, metal/1DHMM, and 1DHMM/1DHMM. We find that the band crossing dramatically influences the existence of an interface state. We also show a rigorous relation between the existence of the interface state of 1DHMM in the plasmonic band gap and the wave admittance in the plasmonic band region. More importantly, this relation not only holds for binary 1DHMM but also can be generalized to any 1DHMM with inversion symmetry. We also characterize the interface state by the transverse spin angular momentum and reveal the transverse spin flipping of the interface state.

  13. Mechanics of load transfer at the fiber/matrix interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Methods for measuring and predicting interface bond stresses and interface bond strength are described. Geometric and material variables which influence interface stress and interface bond strength are identified. The dependence of composite fracture surface characteristics on bond strength is illustrated. Parameters for selecting constituents to yield specified interface bond strength are recommended.

  14. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-02-16

    operator changes sign with T-operation. (iii) Gauge symmetry (G), which is associated with a change in the phase of the wave-function as {Psi} {yields} e{sup i{theta}}{Psi}. Gauge symmetry is connected to the law of charge conservation, and broken G-symmetry corresponds to superconductivity/superfluidity. To summarize, the interplay among these electronic degrees of freedom produces various forms of symmetry breaking patterns of I, T, and G, leading to novel emergent phenomena, which can appear only by the collective behavior of electrons and cannot be expected from individual electrons. Figure 1 shows this schematically by means of several representative phenomena. From this viewpoint, the interfaces of TMOs offer a unique and important laboratory because I is already broken by the structure itself, and the detailed form of broken I-symmetry can often be designed. Also, two-dimensionality usually enhances the effects of electron correlations by reducing their kinetic energy. These two features of oxide interfaces produce many novel effects and functions that cannot be attained in bulk form. Given that the electromagnetic responses are a major source of the physical properties of solids, and new gauge structures often appear in correlated electronic systems, we put 'emergent electromagnetism' at the center of Fig. 1.

  15. High Integrity Can Design Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shaber, E.L.

    1998-08-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is chartered with facilitating the disposition of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel to allow disposal at a geologic repository. This is done through coordination with the repository program and by assisting DOE Site owners of SNF with needed information, standardized requirements, packaging approaches, etc. The High Integrity Can (HIC) will be manufactured to provide a substitute or barrier enhancement for normal fuel geometry and cladding. The can would be nested inside the DOE standardized canister which is designed to interface with the repository waste package. The HIC approach may provide the following benefits over typical canning approaches for DOE SNF. (a) It allows ready calculation and management of criticality issues for miscellaneous. (b) It segments and further isolates damaged or otherwise problem materials from normal SNF in the repository package. (c) It provides a very long term corrosion barrier. (d) It provides an extra internal pressure barrier for particulates, gaseous fission products, hydrogen, and water vapor. (e) It delays any potential release of fission products to the repository environment. (f) It maintains an additional level of fuel geometry control during design basis accidents, rock-fall, and seismic events. (g) When seal welded, it could provide the additional containment required for shipments involving plutonium content in excess of 20 Ci. (10 CFR 71.63.b) if integrated with an appropriate cask design. Long term corrosion protection is central to the HIC concept. The material selected for the HIC (Hastelloy C-22) has undergone extensive testing for repository service. The most severe theoretical interactions between iron, repository water containing chlorides and other repository construction materials have been tested. These expected chemical species have not been shown capable of corroding the selected HIC material. Therefore, the HIC should provide a significant barrier to DOE SNF dispersal

  16. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  17. Thermal transport across metal silicide-silicon interfaces: An experimental comparison between epitaxial and nonepitaxial interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ning; Feser, Joseph P.; Sadasivam, Sridhar; Fisher, Timothy S.; Wang, Tianshi; Ni, Chaoying; Janotti, Anderson

    2017-02-01

    Silicides are used extensively in nano- and microdevices due to their low electrical resistivity, low contact resistance to silicon, and their process compatibility. In this work, the thermal interface conductance of TiSi2, CoSi2, NiSi, and PtSi are studied using time-domain thermoreflectance. Exploiting the fact that most silicides formed on Si(111) substrates grow epitaxially, while most silicides on Si(100) do not, we study the effect of epitaxy, and show that for a wide variety of interfaces there is no dependence of interface conductance on the detailed structure of the interface. In particular, there is no difference in the thermal interface conductance between epitaxial and nonepitaxial silicide/silicon interfaces, nor between epitaxial interfaces with different interface orientations. While these silicide-based interfaces yield the highest reported interface conductances of any known interface with silicon, none of the interfaces studied are found to operate close to the phonon radiation limit, indicating that phonon transmission coefficients are nonunity in all cases and yet remain insensitive to interfacial structure. In the case of CoSi2, a comparison is made with detailed computational models using (1) full-dispersion diffuse mismatch modeling (DMM) including the effect of near-interfacial strain, and (2) an atomistic Green' function (AGF) approach that integrates near-interface changes in the interatomic force constants obtained through density functional perturbation theory. Above 100 K, the AGF approach significantly underpredicts interface conductance suggesting that energy transport does not occur purely by coherent transmission of phonons, even for epitaxial interfaces. The full-dispersion DMM closely predicts the experimentally observed interface conductances for CoSi2, NiSi, and TiSi2 interfaces, while it remains an open question whether inelastic scattering, cross-interfacial electron-phonon coupling, or other mechanisms could also account for

  18. Capillary migration of microdisks on curved interfaces.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lu; Sharifi-Mood, Nima; Liu, Iris B; Stebe, Kathleen J

    2015-07-01

    The capillary energy landscape for particles on curved fluid interfaces is strongly influenced by the particle wetting conditions. Contact line pinning has now been widely reported for colloidal particles, but its implications in capillary interactions have not been addressed. Here, we present experiment and analysis for disks with pinned contact lines on curved fluid interfaces. In experiment, we study microdisk migration on a host interface with zero mean curvature; the microdisks have contact lines pinned at their sharp edges and are sufficiently small that gravitational effects are negligible. The disks migrate away from planar regions toward regions of steep curvature with capillary energies inferred from the dissipation along particle trajectories which are linear in the deviatoric curvature. We derive the curvature capillary energy for an interface with arbitrary curvature, and discuss each contribution to the expression. By adsorbing to a curved interface, a particle eliminates a patch of fluid interface and perturbs the surrounding interface shape. Analysis predicts that perfectly smooth, circular disks do not migrate, and that nanometric deviations from a planar circular, contact line, like those around a weakly roughened planar disk, will drive migration with linear dependence on deviatoric curvature, in agreement with experiment.

  19. Second harmonic studies of liquid interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, S.

    1992-12-31

    This thesis reports on experimental studies of kinetics and equilibria at liquid interfaces using the technique of Second Harmonic Generation (SHG). In the first part, SHG was used to study the kinetics of adsorption of p-nitrophenol at the air/water interface of a flowing liquid jet. Measurements of the SH signal strength and the polarization of the SH light at various distances (times) along the jet axis yield information about the development of the density and orientation of p-nitrophenol at the air/water interface. The kinetics of adsorption was interpreted in terms of the Langmuir theory and was found to be consistent with this model. The free energy of adsorption obtained from the jet experiments was found to be the same as that obtained from static (equilibrium) experiments. The orientation of p-nitrophenol at the jet air/solution interface was the same as for the static (equilibrium) interface,which indicates that orientational equilibrium was rapidly achieved. It was also found that adsorption of nitrophenol to the air/water interface is not diffusion controlled, but rather is kinetically controlled by a barrier. SHG was then used to probe the silica/water interface.

  20. Radiation Effects in Interfaces and Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairov, Alexander

    One of the key approaches to developing materials with greater radiation damage resistance is to introduce a large fraction of internal interfaces. Interfaces act as sinks for recombination of radiation-induced defects and as sites for accumulation of helium bubbles, thereby diverting them away from grain boundaries, where they can induce embrittlement. The beneficial role of interfaces in mitigating radiation damage has been demonstrated in nanoscale multilayered structures and in nanograined materials. Another more common example is oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFA) where a fine distribution of particles (clusters) of varying stoichiometries (e.g., Y2Ti2O7, Y2TiO 5, Y2O3, TiO2 and Y-Ti-O non-stoichiometric oxides) not only confer high creep strength, but also high radiation damage tolerance due to the large area of metal/oxide interfaces. However, the efficacy of these interfaces to act as defect sinks depends on their compositional and physical stability under radiation. With this background, this work focused on the stability of interfaces between Ti, TiO2, and Y2O 3 thin film deposited on Fe-12%Cr substrates after irradiation with 5MeV Ni+2 ions at various temperatures. TEM and STEM-EDS methods were used to understand the compositional changes at the interfaces. Additionally, accumulation of implanted helium at epitaxial and non-epitaxial Fe/Y 2O3 interfaces was also studied. Finally, the study was extended to study irradiation effects (up to 150 dpa) in novel Al2O 3 nanoceramic films with immediate potential applications as coatings for corrosion protection in the harsh high temperature environments of Gen IV reactors. This research is expected to have implications in the development of radiation damage tolerant nanostructured alloys for nuclear reactors while also expanding the scientific knowledge-base in the area of radiation stability of interfaces in solids and protective coatings.