Science.gov

Sample records for head-to-head randomized trials

  1. A qualitative systematic review of head-to-head randomized controlled trials of oral analgesics in neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Watson, C Peter N; Gilron, Ian; Sawynok, Jana

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain (NP) encompasses many difficult-to-treat disorders. There are few head-to-head, comparative, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of drugs for NP in different analgesic categories, or of different drugs within a category, despite many placebo-controlled RCTs for individual agents. Well-designed head-to-head comparative trials are an effective way to determine the relative efficacy and safety of a new drug. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of head-to-head RCTs of oral analgesics in NP. METHODS: A systematic review of RCTs involving NP patients was performed, of which head-to-head comparative trials were selected. Reference lists from published systematic reviews were searched. These studies were rated according to the Jadad scale for quality. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-seven such trials were identified. Seventeen were comparisons of different analgesics, and 10 were of different drugs within an analgesic class. Important information was obtained about the relative efficacy and safety of drugs in different categories and within a category. Some significant differences between active treatments were reported. Trial inadequacies were identified. More and improved head-to-head RCTs are needed to inform clinical choices. PMID:20577657

  2. Head-to-head randomized trials are mostly industry sponsored and almost always favor the industry sponsor.

    PubMed

    Flacco, Maria Elena; Manzoli, Lamberto; Boccia, Stefania; Capasso, Lorenzo; Aleksovska, Katina; Rosso, Annalisa; Scaioli, Giacomo; De Vito, Corrado; Siliquini, Roberta; Villari, Paolo; Ioannidis, John P A

    2015-07-01

    To map the current status of head-to-head comparative randomized evidence and to assess whether funding may impact on trial design and results. From a 50% random sample of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in journals indexed in PubMed during 2011, we selected the trials with ≥ 100 participants, evaluating the efficacy and safety of drugs, biologics, and medical devices through a head-to-head comparison. We analyzed 319 trials. Overall, 238,386 of the 289,718 randomized subjects (82.3%) were included in the 182 trials funded by companies. Of the 182 industry-sponsored trials, only 23 had two industry sponsors and only three involved truly antagonistic comparisons. Industry-sponsored trials were larger, more commonly registered, used more frequently noninferiority/equivalence designs, had higher citation impact, and were more likely to have "favorable" results (superiority or noninferiority/equivalence for the experimental treatment) than nonindustry-sponsored trials. Industry funding [odds ratio (OR) 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6, 4.7] and noninferiority/equivalence designs (OR 3.2; 95% CI: 1.5, 6.6), but not sample size, were strongly associated with "favorable" findings. Fifty-five of the 57 (96.5%) industry-funded noninferiority/equivalence trials got desirable "favorable" results. The literature of head-to-head RCTs is dominated by the industry. Industry-sponsored comparative assessments systematically yield favorable results for the sponsors, even more so when noninferiority designs are involved. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inadequate reporting of concomitant drug treatment in cardiovascular interventional head-to-head trials.

    PubMed

    Mahfoud, Felix; Böhm, Michael; Baumhäkel, Magnus

    2012-04-01

    Optimal revascularization strategy is still under debate in patients with coronary artery disease, particularly due to the results of the Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) trial. Although medical prevention has been clearly shown to be beneficial in coronary artery disease, it has been suggested that patients were significantly undertreated with evidence-based medications for cardiovascular protection. The purpose of the study was to evaluate concomitant medical treatment in cardiovascular interventional head-to-head trials comparing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A systematic search of the literature regarding documentation and reports of medical treatment in cardiovascular interventional head-to-head trials with more than 500 patients comparing CABG and PCI was performed. Systematic research of the literature identified 2106 articles of potential interest. After review and selection, only 3 trials reported on medical treatment. Baseline medication was reported in the RITA (Randomized Intervention Treatment of Angina), CABRI (Coronary Angioplasty versus Bypass Revascularisation Investigation), and SYNTAX trials, and follow-up data were provided by the CABRI and SYNTAX 3-year trials only. Poor reporting of medical treatment at discharge might reflect an underestimation of secondary prevention in patients undergoing cardiac surgery or interventional procedures in head-to-head interventional trials. Thus, discussion of optimal revascularization procedure has to remain open, even in terms of concomitant medical treatment of patients. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Head-to-head immunogenicity comparison of Edmonston-Zagreb vs. AIK-C measles vaccine strains in infants aged 8-12 months: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Shahrokh; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Salehi, Masoud; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2018-01-29

    A non-inferiority multi-centre parallel randomized double-blind trial was implemented in Zahedan district, Sistan-va-Baluchestan province, Iran, to compare the performance of the two measles vaccines which are in use in the National Immunization Programme of Iran and are of two different measles virus vaccine strains: Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) strain vs. AIK-C strain. The main outcome measure was appearance of anti-measles antibody in sera. 200 infants, 8-12 months old, whose parents consented for their children to be included in the study, were randomized in permutation blocks of size 4-8 in four Urban Health Clinics. Having given a pre-vaccination blood sample, they received measles-rubella vaccine containing one of the vaccine strains mentioned before. After 60 days, the second blood sample was taken. The sera of the pre- and post-vaccination blood samples were tested for anti-measles antibodies in the National Reference Measles Laboratory. Parents, laboratory technicians and statistician were blind to groupings. Of the 200 children equally randomized in the two arms, 185 who were seronegative before vaccination (88 in the EZ arm and 97 in the AIK-C arm) were entered in the final analysis. The seroconversion rate in the EZ arm was 76.1% (95% CI: 60.2-85.2%), and that in the AIK-C arm was 58.7%; (95% CI: 48.8-68.7%). The absolute rate difference was 17. 4% (4.1-30.9%; P-value: .012), and the relative seroconversion rate of EZ to AIK-C was 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1-1.6; P-value: .012). No adverse events were reported during the study period. A considerable difference in the seropositivity of different measles containing vaccines could be demonstrated in the first year of life. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials Registration Number: IRCT2016032827144N1; May 10, 2016 (www.who.int/ictrp/network/irct/en/). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is escitalopram really relevantly superior to citalopram in treatment of major depressive disorder? A meta-analysis of head-to-head randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Trkulja, Vladimir

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate clinical relevance of differences between escitalopram and citalopram (equimolar) for major depressive disorder. Review and meta-analysis of comparative randomized controlled trials (RCT). Comparisons were in relation to Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) score reduction at weeks 1 (5 RCTs), 4 (5 RCTs), 6 (4 RCTs), 8 (5 RCTs), and 24 (1 RCT); proportion of responders at weeks 2, 4, 6 (2 RCTs for each time point), 8 (5 RCTs), and 24 (1 RCT); clinical global impression-severity (CGI-S) reduction at weeks 6 (1 RCT), 8 (5 RCTs), and 24 (1 RCT), and discontinuation due to adverse events or inefficacy during short-term (up to 8 weeks) and medium-term (24 weeks) treatment. MADRS reduction was greater with escitalopram, but 95% confidence intervals (CI) around the mean difference were entirely or largely below 2 scale points (minimally important difference) and CI around the effect size (ES) was below 0.32 ("small") at all time points. Risk of response was higher with escitalopram at week 8 (relative risk, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.26) but number needed to treat was 14 (95% CI, 7 to 111). All 95% CIs around the mean difference and ES of CGI-S reduction at week 8 were below 0.32 points and the limit of "small," respectively. Data for severe patients (MADRS> or =30) are scarce (only 1 RCT), indicating somewhat greater efficacy (response rate and MADRS reduction at week 8, but not CGI-S reduction) of escitalopram, but without compelling evidence of clinically relevant differences. Discontinuations due to adverse events or inefficacy up to 8 weeks of treatment were comparable. Data for the period up to 24 weeks are scarce and inconclusive. Presently, the claims about clinically relevant superiority of escitalopram over citalopram in short-to-medium term treatment of major depressive disorder are not supported by evidence.

  6. The Impact of Supplemental Antioxidants on Visual Function in Nonadvanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Head-to-Head Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Akuffo, Kwadwo Owusu; Beatty, Stephen; Peto, Tunde; Stack, Jim; Stringham, Jim; Kelly, David; Leung, Irene; Corcoran, Laura; Nolan, John M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of supplemental macular carotenoids (including versus not including meso-zeaxanthin) in combination with coantioxidants on visual function in patients with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration. In this study, 121 participants were randomly assigned to group 1 (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 formulation with a low dose [25 mg] of zinc and an addition of 10 mg meso-zeaxanthin; n = 60) or group 2 (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 formulation with a low dose [25 mg] of zinc; n = 61). Visual function was assessed using best-corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity (CS), glare disability, retinal straylight, photostress recovery time, reading performance, and the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25. Macular pigment was measured using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. There was a statistically significant improvement in the primary outcome measure (letter CS at 6 cycles per degree [6 cpd]) over time (P = 0.013), and this observed improvement was statistically comparable between interventions (P = 0.881). Statistically significant improvements in several secondary outcome visual function measures (letter CS at 1.2 and 2.4 cpd; mesopic and photopic CS at all spatial frequencies; mesopic glare disability at 1.5, 3, and 6 cpd; photopic glare disability at 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 cpd; photostress recovery time; retinal straylight; mean and maximum reading speed) were also observed over time (P < 0.05, for all), and were statistically comparable between interventions (P > 0.05, for all). Statistically significant increases in macular pigment at all eccentricities were observed over time (P < 0.0005, for all), and the degree of augmentation was statistically comparable between interventions (P > 0.05). Antioxidant supplementation in patients with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration results in significant increases in macular pigment and improvements in CS and other measures of

  7. Is Escitalopram Really Relevantly Superior to Citalopram in Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder? A Meta-analysis of Head-to-head Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Trkulja, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Aim To evaluate clinical relevance of differences between escitalopram and citalopram (equimolar) for major depressive disorder. Methods Review and meta-analysis of comparative randomized controlled trials (RCT). Comparisons were in relation to Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) score reduction at weeks 1 (5 RCTs), 4 (5 RCTs), 6 (4 RCTs), 8 (5 RCTs), and 24 (1 RCT); proportion of responders at weeks 2, 4, 6 (2 RCTs for each time point), 8 (5 RCTs), and 24 (1 RCT); clinical global impression-severity (CGI-S) reduction at weeks 6 (1 RCT), 8 (5 RCTs), and 24 (1 RCT), and discontinuation due to adverse events or inefficacy during short-term (up to 8 weeks) and medium-term (24 weeks) treatment. Results MADRS reduction was greater with escitalopram, but 95% confidence intervals (CI) around the mean difference were entirely or largely below 2 scale points (minimally important difference) and CI around the effect size (ES) was below 0.32 (“small”) at all time points. Risk of response was higher with escitalopram at week 8 (relative risk, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.26) but number needed to treat was 14 (95% CI, 7 to 111). All 95% CIs around the mean difference and ES of CGI-S reduction at week 8 were below 0.32 points and the limit of “small,” respectively. Data for severe patients (MADRS≥30) are scarce (only 1 RCT), indicating somewhat greater efficacy (response rate and MADRS reduction at week 8, but not CGI-S reduction) of escitalopram, but without compelling evidence of clinically relevant differences. Discontinuations due to adverse events or inefficacy up to 8 weeks of treatment were comparable. Data for the period up to 24 weeks are scarce and inconclusive. Conclusion Presently, the claims about clinically relevant superiority of escitalopram over citalopram in short-to-medium term treatment of major depressive disorder are not supported by evidence. PMID:20162747

  8. Functional outcomes from a head-to-head, randomized, double-blind trial of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and atomoxetine in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and an inadequate response to methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter; Häge, Alexander; Coghill, David R; Caballero, Beatriz; Adeyi, Ben; Anderson, Colleen S; Sikirica, Vanja; Cardo, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in multiple domains of patients' lives. A secondary objective of this randomized, active-controlled, head-to-head, double-blind, dose-optimized clinical trial was to compare the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) and atomoxetine (ATX) on functional impairment in children and adolescents with ADHD. Patients aged 6-17 years with an ADHD Rating Scale IV total score ≥ 28 and an inadequate response to methylphenidate treatment (judged by investigators) were randomized (1:1) to once-daily LDX or ATX for 9 weeks. Parents/guardians completed the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report (WFIRS-P) at baseline and at week 9 or early termination. p values were nominal and not corrected for multiple comparisons. Of 267 randomized patients, 200 completed the study (LDX 99, ATX 101). At baseline, mean WFIRS-P total score in the LDX group was 0.95 [standard deviation (SD) 0.474; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87, 1.03] and in the ATX group was 0.91 (0.513; 0.82, 1.00). Scores in all WFIRS-P domains improved from baseline to endpoint in both groups, with least-squares mean changes in total score of -0.35 (95% CI -0.42, -0.29) for LDX and -0.27 (-0.33, -0.20) for ATX. The difference between LDX and ATX was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for the Learning and School (effect size of LDX vs ATX, 0.43) and Social Activities (0.34) domains and for total score (0.27). Both treatments reduced functional impairment in children and adolescents with ADHD; LDX was statistically significantly more effective than ATX in two of six domains and in total score.

  9. Atomoxetine could improve intra-individual variability in drug-naïve adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder comparably with methylphenidate: A head-to-head randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Hwang Gu, Shoou-Lian; Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Lin, Yu-Ju; Yang, Li-Kuang; Huang, Hui-Chun; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-05-01

    Intra-individual variability in reaction time (IIV-RT) is common in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It can be improved by stimulants. However, the effects of atomoxetine on IIV-RT are inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the effects of atomoxetine on IIV-RT, and directly compared its efficacy with methylphenidate in adults with ADHD. An 8-10 week, open-label, head-to-head, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 52 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, who were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: immediate-release methylphenidate (n=26) thrice daily (10-20 mg per dose) and atomoxetine once daily (n=26) (0.5-1.2 mg/kg/day). IIV-RT, derived from the Conners' continuous performance test (CCPT), was represented by the Gaussian (reaction time standard error, RTSE) and ex-Gaussian models (sigma and tau). Other neuropsychological functions, including response errors and mean of reaction time, were also measured. Participants received CCPT assessments at baseline and week 8-10 (60.4±6.3 days). We found comparable improvements in performances of CCPT between the immediate-release methylphenidate- and atomoxetine-treated groups. Both medications significantly improved IIV-RT in terms of reducing tau values with comparable efficacy. In addition, both medications significantly improved inhibitory control by reducing commission errors. Our results provide evidence to support that atomoxetine could improve IIV-RT and inhibitory control, of comparable efficacy with immediate-release methylphenidate, in drug-naïve adults with ADHD. Shared and unique mechanisms underpinning these medication effects on IIV-RT awaits further investigation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. The decision to conduct a head-to-head comparative trial: a game-theoretic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mansley, Edward C; Elbasha, Elamin H; Teutsch, Steven M; Berger, Marc L

    2007-01-01

    Recent Medicare legislation calls on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to conduct research related to the comparative effectiveness of health care items and services, including prescription drugs. This reinforces earlier calls for head-to-head comparative trials of clinically relevant treatment alternatives. Using a game-theoretic model, the authors explore the decision of pharmaceutical companies to conduct such trials. The model suggests that an important factor affecting this decision is the potential loss in market share and profits following a result of inferiority or comparability. This hidden cost is higher for the market leader than the market follower, making it less likely that the leader will choose to conduct a trial. The model also suggests that in a full-information environment, it will never be the case that both firms choose to conduct such a trial. Furthermore, if market shares and the probability of proving superiority are similar for both firms, it is quite possible that neither firm will choose to conduct a trial. Finally, the results indicate that incentives that offset the direct cost of a trial can prevent a no-trial equilibrium, even when both firms face the possibility of an inferior outcome.

  11. A Randomized, Head-to-Head Study of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    McLay, Robert N; Baird, Alicia; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer; Deal, William; Tran, Lily; Anson, Heather; Klam, Warren; Johnston, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is one of the few interventions supported by randomized controlled trials for the treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in active duty service members. A comparative effectiveness study was conducted to determine if virtual reality technology itself improved outcomes, or if similar results could be achieved with a control exposure therapy (CET) condition. Service members with combat-related PTSD were randomly selected to receive nine weeks of VRET or CET. Assessors, but not therapists, were blinded. PTSD symptom improvement was assessed one week and 3 months after the conclusion of treatment using the clinician-administered PTSD scale (CAPS). A small crossover component was included. Results demonstrated that PTSD symptoms improved with both treatments, but there were no statistically significant differences between groups. Dropout rates were higher in VRET. Of those who received VRET, 13/42 (31%) showed >30% improvement on the CAPS, versus 16/43 (37%) who received CET. Three months after treatment, >30% improvement was seen in 10/33 (30%) of VRET participants and 12/33 (36%) in CET. Participants who crossed over (n = 11) showed no statistically significant improvements in a second round of treatment, regardless of condition. This study supported the utility of exposure therapy for PTSD, but did not support additional benefit by the inclusion of virtual reality.

  12. A Pilot Study of Randomized, Head-to-Head of Metformin Versus Topiramate in Obese People With Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Peng, Po-Jui; Ho, Pei-Shen; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Huang, San-Yuan; Liang, Chih-Sung

    A number of research studies support the weight loss effects of metformin and topiramate for obese people with schizophrenia. However, only a few studies have addressed the sustainability of the body weight reduction after discontinuation of these drugs. Moreover, head-to-head studies are still lacking. The study aims to evaluate and compare the efficacy of metformin and topiramate in weight reduction and weight maintenance after discontinuation of these drugs in obese people with schizophrenia. Twenty-two obese inpatients with schizophrenia were recruited and randomized into the metformin group (n = 11; daily dose, 1000 mg) and the topiramate group (n = 11; daily dose, 100 mg). A head-to-head, fixed-dose, and single-blinded design was used. Ten obese patients with schizophrenia of similar sex as that of the treated group were included as the control group. After a 4-month treatment, the metformin group showed a body weight reduction of 3.8 kg, and the topiramate group showed a reduction of 2.7 kg. However, the reduction could be sustained only in the metformin group at 3 and 9 months after metformin discontinuation. Interestingly, 3 months after treatment discontinuation, leptin levels showed a reduction in both metformin (baseline, 25.3 ± 14.7, week 7: 5.7 ± 3.7 ng/mL) and topiramate (baseline: 28.4 ± 16.1, week 7: 9.2 ± 15.5 ng/mL) groups. The trend of weight changes supports the superiority of metformin at 1000 mg/d over topiramate at 100 mg/d in weight reduction and weight maintenance.

  13. Are head-to-head trials of biologics needed? The role of value of information methods in arthritis research.

    PubMed

    Welton, Nicky J; Madan, Jason; Ades, Anthony E

    2011-09-01

    Reimbursement decisions are typically based on cost-effectiveness analyses. While a cost-effectiveness analysis can identify the optimum strategy, there is usually some degree of uncertainty around this decision. Sources of uncertainty include statistical sampling error in treatment efficacy measures, underlying baseline risk, utility measures and costs, as well as uncertainty in the structure of the model. The optimal strategy is therefore only optimal on average, and a decision to adopt this strategy might still be the wrong decision if all uncertainty could be eliminated. This means that there is a quantifiable expected (average) loss attaching to decisions made under uncertainty, and hence a value in collecting information to reduce that uncertainty. Value of information (VOI) analyses can be used to provide guidance on whether more research would be cost-effective, which particular model inputs (parameters) have the most bearing on decision uncertainty, and can also help with the design and sample size of further research. Here, we introduce the key concepts in VOI analyses, and highlight the inputs required to calculate it. The adoption of the new biologic treatments for RA and PsA tends to be based on placebo-controlled trials. We discuss the possible role of VOI analyses in deciding whether head-to-head comparisons of the biologic therapies should be carried out, illustrating with examples from other fields. We emphasize the need for a model of the natural history of RA and PsA, which reflects a consensus view.

  14. Comparative efficacy and safety of methylphenidate and atomoxetine for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Meta-analysis based on head-to-head trials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Hong; Fang, Qingqing; Qin, Lili

    2017-11-01

    Comparative efficacy and safety are important issues for appropriate drug selection for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment. Therefore we conducted a meta-analysis, where we compared atomoxetine (ATX) and methylphenidate (MPH) for ADHD treatment in children and adolescents. Literature retrieval was conducted in relevant databases from their inception to April 2016 to select head-to-head trials that compared ATX and MPH in children and adolescents. Outcomes like response rate, ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) score, and adverse events were compared between ATX and MPH treatments. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and risk ratio (RR) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as the effect size for continuous data or dichotomous data, respectively. Eleven eligible randomized-controlled trials were included, and two of them were double-blind, while the remaining were open-label. Compared to ATX, MPH showed a higher response rate (RR = 1.14, 95% CI [1. 09, 1.20]), decreased inattention (SMD = -0.13, 95% CI [-0.25, -0.01]) and lower risk of adverse events (drowsiness: RR = 0.17, 95% CI [0.11, 0.26; nausea: RR = 0.49; 95% CI [0.29, 0.85; vomiting: RR = 0.41, 95% CI [0.27, 0.63]). However, MPH presented a higher risk of insomnia than ATX (RR = 2.27, 95% CI [1.63, 3.15], p < .01). Results of the meta-analysis add additional evidence of the effectiveness of both ATX and MPH and suggest that MPH should be a first treatment option in most patients with ADHD.

  15. Multidimensional Assessment of Functional Outcomes in Schizophrenia: Results From QUALIFY, a Head-to-Head Trial of Aripiprazole Once-Monthly and Paliperidone Palmitate.

    PubMed

    Potkin, Steven G; Loze, Jean-Yves; Forray, Carlos; Baker, Ross A; Sapin, Christophe; Peters-Strickland, Timothy; Beillat, Maud; Nylander, Anna-Greta; Hertel, Peter; Nitschky Schmidt, Simon; Eramo, Anna; Hansen, Karina; Naber, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    QUALIFY was a 28-week, randomized, open-label, head-to-head trial that assessed improvements across multiple measures in stable patients with schizophrenia with aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg vs paliperidone palmitate. Secondary effectiveness assessments included physician-rated readiness for work using the Work Readiness Questionnaire, the Clinical Global Impression-Severity and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scales, and quality of life with the rater-blinded Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale. Patients assessed their treatment satisfaction and quality of life with Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Treatment-short version and Tolerability and Quality of Life questionnaires. Odds of being ready for work at week 28 were significantly higher with aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg vs paliperidone palmitate (adjusted odds ratio, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.39-5.14; P=.003). Aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg produced numerically or significantly greater improvements from baseline vs paliperidone palmitate in all Quality of Life Scale items. With aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg vs paliperidone palmitate at week 28, there were significantly more Clinical Global Impression-Severity and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement responders (adjusted odds ratio, 2.26; P=.010, and 2.51; P=.0032) and significantly better Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scores (least squares mean treatment difference, -0.326; 95% CI, -0.60 to -0.05; P=.020). Numerically larger improvements with aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg vs paliperidone palmitate were observed for patient-rated scales Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Treatment-short version and Tolerability and Quality of Life. Partial correlations were strongest among clinician-rated and among patient-rated scales but poorest between clinician and patient-rated scales. Consistently greater improvements were observed with aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg vs paliperidone palmitate across all measures. Partial

  16. Is investigator background related to outcome in head to head trials of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gentili, Claudio; Pietrini, Pietro; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-01-01

    Background The influence of factors related to the background of investigators conducting trials comparing psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy has remained largely unstudied. Specializations emphasizing biological determinants of mental disorders, like psychiatry, might favor pharmacotherapy, while others stressing psychosocial factors, like psychology, could promote psychotherapy. Yet financial conflict of interest (COI) could be a confounding factor as authors with a medical specialization might receive more sponsoring from the pharmaceutical industry. Method We conducted a meta-analysis with subgroup and meta-regression analysis examining whether the specialization and affiliation of trial authors were associated to outcomes in the direct comparison of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for the acute treatment of depression. Meta-regression analysis also included trial risk of bias and author conflict of interest in relationship to the pharmaceutical industry. Results We included 45 trials. In half, the first author was psychologist. The last author was psychiatrist/MD in half of the trials, and a psychologist or statistician/other technical in the rest. Most lead authors had medical affiliations. Subgroup analysis indicated that studies with last authors statisticians favored pharmacotherapy. Univariate analysis showed a negative relationship between the presence of statisticians and outcomes favoring psychotherapy. Multivariate analysis showed that trials including authors with financial COI reported findings more favorable to pharmacotherapy. Discussion We report the first detailed overview of the background of authors conducting head to head trials for depression. Trials co-authored by statisticians appear to subtly favor pharmacotherapy. Receiving funding from the industry is more closely related to finding better outcomes for the industry’s elective treatment than are factors related to authors’ background. Limitations For a minority of authors we could

  17. Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib monotherapy, tofacitinib with methotrexate, and adalimumab with methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (ORAL Strategy): a phase 3b/4, double-blind, head-to-head, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Roy; Mysler, Eduardo; Hall, Stephen; Kivitz, Alan J; Moots, Robert J; Luo, Zhen; DeMasi, Ryan; Soma, Koshika; Zhang, Richard; Takiya, Liza; Tatulych, Svitlana; Mojcik, Christopher; Krishnaswami, Sriram; Menon, Sujatha; Smolen, Josef S

    2017-07-29

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The Oral Rheumatoid Arthritis triaL (ORAL) Strategy aimed to assess the comparative efficacy of tofacitinib monotherapy, tofacitinib plus methotrexate, and adalimumab plus methotrexate for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with a previous inadequate response to methotrexate. ORAL Strategy was a 1 year, double-blind, phase 3b/4, head-to-head, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial in patients aged 18 years or older with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate therapy. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive oral tofacitinib (5 mg twice daily) monotherapy, oral tofacitinib (5 mg twice daily) plus methotrexate, or subcutaneous adalimumab (40 mg every other week) plus methotrexate at 194 centres in 25 countries. Eligible patients received live zoster vaccine at investigators' discretion. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who attained an American College of Rheumatology response of at least 50% (ACR50) at month 6 in the full analysis set (patients who were randomly assigned to a group and received at least one dose of the study treatment). Non-inferiority between groups was shown if the lower bound of the 98·34% CI of the difference between comparators was larger than -13·0%. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02187055. 1146 patients received treatment (384 had tofacitinib monotherapy; 376 had tofacitinib and methotrexate; and 386 had adalimumab and methotrexate). At 6 months, ACR50 response was attained in 147 (38%) of 384 patients with tofacitinib monotherapy, 173 (46%) of 376 patients with tofacitinib and methotrexate, and 169 (44%) of 386 patients with adalimumab and methotrexate. Non-inferiority was declared for tofacitinib and methotrexate versus adalimumab and methotrexate (difference 2% [98·34% CI -6 to 11]) but not for tofacitinib monotherapy versus either adalimumab and methotrexate (-6

  18. A controlled, randomized, head-to-head comparison of the Prolieve thermodilatation System versus the Targis System for benign prostatic hyperplasia: safety, procedural tolerability, and clinical results.

    PubMed

    Shore, Neal D; Sethi, Parminder S

    2010-09-01

    Compare safety and tolerability of the Prolieve(®) System with the Targis(®) System using objective and subjective measures. Thirty-four men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were randomized to a single treatment with either the Prolieve or Targis system; 30 were treated and then followed for 6 months. After post-treatment bladder fill with ≥200 mL saline, patients were catheterized if they could not void after 2 hours or had a postvoid residual >150 mL. Catheter use, visual analog scale (VAS) tolerability scores, American Urological Association scores, and safety were assessed. After treatment, 15/16 (94%) Prolieve patients remained catheter-free compared with 3/14 (21%) Targis patients (P = 0.0001). Foley catheter indwelling time was 58.8 hours for the one Prolieve patient compared with 103.9 hrs (range 54-270 h) for the Targis patients (n = 9). Targis patients' catheterization requirements were: Seven Foley only, two intermittent self-catheters only, and two needing both. Intermittent self-catheterization continued for 1 month in two Targis patients. VAS tolerability scores were 24% to 50% lower during Prolieve treatment vs Targis (P < 0.05). Mean AUA scores for Prolieve improved from 21.2 at baseline to 12.3 and 7.9 at week 2 and month 6, respectively; for Targis, AUA scores improved from 22.9 at baseline to 17.9 and 10.9, respectively (P > 0.05). Overall, the incidence of device-related adverse events was 31% (Prolieve) compared with 64% (Targis) (P > 0.05)-most prevalently, urinary retention, dysuria, and hematuria. No device-related serious adverse events occurred. Prolieve provided enhanced near-term therapeutic benefit over Targis as assessed by catheterization, tolerability, and symptom relief, which may assist physician and patient decision-making when selecting an office-based transurethral microwave therapy option for patients.

  19. A randomized, crossover, head-to-head comparison of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to reduce inflammation markers in men and women: the Comparing EPA to DHA (ComparED) Study.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Janie; Couture, Patrick; Leclerc, Myriam; Charest, Amélie; Marin, Johanne; Lépine, Marie-Claude; Talbot, Denis; Tchernof, André; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-08-01

    To date, most studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans have used a mixture of the 2 fatty acids in various forms and proportions. We compared the effects of EPA supplementation with those of DHA supplementation (re-esterified triacylglycerol; 90% pure) on inflammation markers (primary outcome) and blood lipids (secondary outcome) in men and women at risk of cardiovascular disease. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover, controlled study, healthy men (n = 48) and women (n = 106) with abdominal obesity and low-grade systemic inflammation consumed 3 g/d of the following supplements for periods of 10 wk: 1) EPA (2.7 g/d), 2) DHA (2.7 g/d), and 3) corn oil as a control with each supplementation separated by a 9-wk washout period. Primary analyses assessed the difference in cardiometabolic outcomes between EPA and DHA. Supplementation with DHA compared with supplementation with EPA led to a greater reduction in interleukin-18 (IL-18) (-7.0% ± 2.8% compared with -0.5% ± 3.0%, respectively; P = 0.01) and a greater increase in adiponectin (3.1% ± 1.6% compared with -1.2% ± 1.7%, respectively; P < 0.001). Between DHA and EPA, changes in CRP (-7.9% ± 5.0% compared with -1.8% ± 6.5%, respectively; P = 0.25), IL-6 (-12.0% ± 7.0% compared with -13.4% ± 7.0%, respectively; P = 0.86), and tumor necrosis factor-α (-14.8% ± 5.1% compared with -7.6% ± 10.2%, respectively; P = 0.63) were NS. DHA compared with EPA led to more pronounced reductions in triglycerides (-13.3% ± 2.3% compared with -11.9% ± 2.2%, respectively; P = 0.005) and the cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (-2.5% ± 1.3% compared with 0.3% ± 1.1%, respectively; P = 0.006) and greater increases in HDL cholesterol (7.6% ± 1.4% compared with -0.7% ± 1.1%, respectively; P < 0.0001) and LDL cholesterol (6.9% ± 1.8% compared with 2.2% ± 1.6%, respectively; P = 0.04). The increase in LDL-cholesterol concentrations for DHA compared with

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose schedule of whole-virion and AS03A-adjuvanted 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccines: a randomised, multicentre, age-stratified, head-to-head trial.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Karl G; Abrams, Keith R; Batham, Sally; Clark, Tristan W; Hoschler, Katja; Lim, Wei Shen; Medina, Marie-Jo; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Read, Robert C; Warren, Fiona C; Zambon, Maria

    2011-02-01

    Effective antigen-sparing vaccines are needed to confront pandemic influenza. Whole-virion and oil-in-water adjuvanted vaccines are the most effective formulations against H5N1 avian influenza. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity in adults in the UK of pandemic H1N1 whole-virion vaccine and oil-in-water adjuvanted vaccine purchased by the UK government in 2009. In our randomised, observer-blind, parallel-group, controlled trial, healthy adults aged 18-44 years, 45-64 years, and 65 years and older (from Oct 19, to Nov 12, 2009) received two doses of vaccine given 21 days apart: either 7·5 μg of haemagglutinin formulated as whole-virion vaccine, or 3·75 μg of haemagglutinin formulated as split-virion vaccine with AS03(A) oil-in-water adjuvant. Assignment was by a computer-generated code, with random permuted blocks of two, four, and six. All participants and investigators were unaware of vaccine assignments. The trial was done at three hospitals in the UK. We measured antibody titres with a haemagglutination-inhibition assay at baseline; 7, 14, and 21 days after each vaccination; and at 6 months after the first dose. Primary outcome was vaccine immunogenicity of the full analysis set by the EU Committee of Human Medicinal Products licensing criteria. This study is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN92328241. At day 0, baseline antibody (titre ≥1/8) was detected in 44 (13%) of 347 participants. Sera from 95% to 98% of participants were assessed for immunogenicity on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42, and at 6 months. On day 21 after one dose of adjuvanted AS03(A) or whole-virion vaccine, 63 (94%, 95 CI 85·4-98·4) of 67 and 50 (71%, 59·4-81·6) of 70 participants aged 18-44 years, 51 (77%, 65·3-86·7) of 66 and 26 (39%, 27·1-51·5) of 67 aged 45-64 years, and 19 (51%, 34·4-68·1) of 37 and 11 (32%, 17·4-50·5) of 34 aged 65 years or older had titres of 1:40 or greater. On day 42 (21 days after the second dose), 64 (100%, 94·4-100) of 64 and 49 (73

  1. Head-to-Head Comparison of Aripiprazole and Risperidone in the Treatment of ADHD Symptoms in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and ADHD: A Pilot, Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Italiano, Domenico; Alosi, Norma; Cucinotta, Francesca; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Germanò, Eva; Spina, Edoardo; Gagliano, Antonella

    2016-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are frequently overlapping neurodevelopmental disorders. Individuals in whom the disorders are comorbid show more severe impairment because of deficits in the processing of social situations, adaptive functioning, and executive control than individuals with either disorder alone. This open-label pilot study aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy and tolerability of risperidone and aripiprazole for treating ADHD symptoms in patients with both ASD and ADHD over the course of 24 weeks of treatment. Patients (n = 44) were randomly assigned to start treatment with risperidone (22 patients) or aripiprazole (22 patients). Children were evaluated before starting treatment (T0), and after 12 weeks (T1) and 24 weeks (T2) of treatment. At each visit, specific psychiatric clinical scales were administered to assess the efficacy of the two drugs. The mean age was 8.4 ± 2.9 years in the aripiprazole group and 7.8 ± 2.3 years in the risperidone group. A total of 37 children (29 boys and 8 girls) completed the study (18 in the aripiprazole group and 19 in the risperidone group). Aripiprazole and risperidone appeared to have similar benefits in terms of efficacy and tolerability, although there were slight differences between the two drugs. Both groups showed a significant improvement in ADHD symptoms after 24 weeks of treatment (ADHD Rating Scale, Conners Parent Rating Scale-Hyperactivity, and Clinical Global Improvement-Severity Scale). No significant difference between the two drugs on any parameters at 24 weeks were found. Prolactin levels were decreased in the aripiprazole group. Both drugs were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events detected. Our study confirms the efficacy of both aripiprazole and risperidone in ameliorating ADHD symptoms of children also presenting with ASD.

  2. Head-to-head comparison of intensive lifestyle intervention (U-TURN) versus conventional multifactorial care in patients with type 2 diabetes: protocol and rationale for an assessor-blinded, parallel group and randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Hansen, Katrine B; Johansen, Mette Y; Pedersen, Maria; Zacho, Morten; Hansen, Louise S; Kofoed, Katja; Thomsen, Katja; Jensen, Mette S; Nielsen, Rasmus O; MacDonald, Chris; Langberg, Henning; Vaag, Allan A; Pedersen, Bente K; Karstoft, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current pharmacological therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are challenged by lack of sustainability and borderline firm evidence of real long-term health benefits. Accordingly, lifestyle intervention remains the corner stone in the management of T2D. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the optimal intervention programmes in T2D ensuring both compliance as well as long-term health outcomes. Our objective is to assess the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (the U-TURN intervention) on glycaemic control in patients with T2D. Our hypothesis is that intensive lifestyle changes are equally effective as standard diabetes care, including pharmacological treatment in maintaining glycaemic control (ie, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)) in patients with T2D. Furthermore, we expect that intensive lifestyle changes will decrease the need for antidiabetic medications. Methods and analysis The study is an assessor-blinded, parallel group and a 1-year randomised trial. The primary outcome is change in glycaemic control (HbA1c), with the key secondary outcome being reductions in antidiabetic medication. Participants will be patients with T2D (T2D duration <10 years) without complications who are randomised into an intensive lifestyle intervention (U-TURN) or a standard care intervention in a 2:1 fashion. Both groups will be exposed to the same standardised, blinded, target-driven pharmacological treatment and can thus maintain, increase, reduce or discontinue the pharmacological treatment. The decision is based on the standardised algorithm. The U-TURN intervention consists of increased training and basal physical activity level, and an antidiabetic diet including an intended weight loss. The standard care group as well as the U-TURN group is offered individual diabetes management counselling on top of the pharmacological treatment. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Scientific Ethical Committee at the

  3. Long-acting methylphenidate formulations in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review of head-to-head studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) has been a mainstay of treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for many years. Owing to the short half-life and the issues associated with multiple daily dosing of immediate-release MPH formulations, a new generation of long-acting MPH formulations has emerged. Direct head-to-head studies of these long-acting MPH formulations are important to facilitate an evaluation of their comparative pharmacokinetics and efficacy; however, to date, relatively few head-to-head studies have been performed. The objective of this systematic review was to compare the evidence available from head-to-head studies of long-acting MPH formulations and provide information that can guide treatment selection. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and PsycINFO in March 2012 using the MeSH terms: attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity/drug therapy; methylphenidate/therapeutic use and All Fields: Concerta; Ritalin LA; OROS and ADHD; Medikinet; Equasym XL and ADHD; long-acting methylphenidate; Diffucaps and ADHD; SODAS and methylphenidate. No filters were applied and no language, publication date or publication status limitations were imposed. Articles were selected if the title indicated a comparison of two or more long-acting MPH preparations in human subjects of any age; non-systematic review articles and unpublished data were not included. Results Of 15,295 references returned in the literature search and screened by title, 34 articles were identified for inclusion: nine articles from pharmacokinetic studies (nine studies); nine articles from laboratory school studies (six studies); two articles from randomized controlled trials (two studies); three articles from switching studies (two studies) and three articles from one observational study. Conclusions Emerging head-to-head studies provide important data on the comparative efficacy of the formulations available. At a group level, efficacy

  4. Long-acting methylphenidate formulations in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review of head-to-head studies.

    PubMed

    Coghill, David; Banaschewski, Tobias; Zuddas, Alessandro; Pelaz, Antonio; Gagliano, Antonella; Doepfner, Manfred

    2013-09-27

    The stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) has been a mainstay of treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for many years. Owing to the short half-life and the issues associated with multiple daily dosing of immediate-release MPH formulations, a new generation of long-acting MPH formulations has emerged. Direct head-to-head studies of these long-acting MPH formulations are important to facilitate an evaluation of their comparative pharmacokinetics and efficacy; however, to date, relatively few head-to-head studies have been performed.The objective of this systematic review was to compare the evidence available from head-to-head studies of long-acting MPH formulations and provide information that can guide treatment selection. A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and PsycINFO in March 2012 using the MeSH terms: attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity/drug therapy; methylphenidate/therapeutic use and All Fields: Concerta; Ritalin LA; OROS and ADHD; Medikinet; Equasym XL and ADHD; long-acting methylphenidate; Diffucaps and ADHD; SODAS and methylphenidate. No filters were applied and no language, publication date or publication status limitations were imposed. Articles were selected if the title indicated a comparison of two or more long-acting MPH preparations in human subjects of any age; non-systematic review articles and unpublished data were not included. Of 15,295 references returned in the literature search and screened by title, 34 articles were identified for inclusion: nine articles from pharmacokinetic studies (nine studies); nine articles from laboratory school studies (six studies); two articles from randomized controlled trials (two studies); three articles from switching studies (two studies) and three articles from one observational study. Emerging head-to-head studies provide important data on the comparative efficacy of the formulations available. At a group level, efficacy across the day generally follows the

  5. [Opioids in chronic noncancer pain-are opioids superior to nonopioid analgesics? A systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy, tolerability and safety in randomized head-to-head comparisons of opioids versus nonopioid analgesics of at least four week's duration].

    PubMed

    Welsch, P; Sommer, C; Schiltenwolf, M; Häuser, W

    2015-02-01

    Some leading German pain medicine experts postulate that there is a type of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) with an opioid requirement. We tested whether opioids are superior to nonopioid analgesics in the management of CNCP in studies of at least 4 week's duration. We screened MEDLINE, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) up until October 2013, as well as the reference sections of original studies and systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of opioids in CNCP. We included double-blind RTCs comparing opioids to nonopioid analgesics of at least 4 week's duration. Relative risks differences (RD) of categorical data and standardized mean differences (SMD) of continuous variables were calculated using a random effects model. We included 10 RCTs with 3046 participants. Median study duration was 6 weeks (range 4-12 weeks). Five studies compared tramadol with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in osteoarthritis pain and one trial compared tramadol to flupirtine in low back pain. Morphine was compared to antidepressants (two studies), an anticonvulsant (one study) and an antiarrhythmic (one study) in different neuropathic pain syndromes. There was no significant difference between opioids and nonopioid analgesics in pain reduction (SMD 0.03 [95 % confidence interval, CI - 0.18, 0.24]; p = 0.76). Nonopioid analgesics were superior to opioids in improving physical function (SMD 0.17 [95 % CI 0.02, 0.32]; p = 0.03). Patients dropped out due to adverse events more frequently with opioids than with nonopioid analgesics (RD 0.09 [95 % CI 0.06, 0.13]; p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between opioids and nonopioid analgesics in terms of serious adverse events or dropout rates due to lack of efficacy. Nonopioid analgesics are superior to opioids in terms of improvement of physical function and tolerability in short-term (4-12 weeks) therapy of neuropathic, low back

  6. Head-to-head comparison of H2-receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors in the treatment of erosive esophagitis: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Hong; Huang, Jia-Qing; Zheng, Ge-Fan; Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang; Wong, Wai-Man; Lam, Shiu-Kum; Wong, Benjamin Chun-Yu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To systematically evaluate the efficacy of H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and proton pump inhibitors in healing erosive esophagitis (EE). METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases to include randomized controlled head-to-head comparative trials evaluating the efficacy of H2RAs or proton pump inhibitors in healing EE. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated under a random-effects model. RESULTS: RRs of cumulative healing rates for each comparison at 8 wk were: high dose vs standard dose H2RAs, 1.17 (95%CI, 1.02-1.33); standard dose proton pump inhibitors vs standard dose H2RAs, 1.59 (95%CI, 1.44-1.75); standard dose other proton pump inhibitors vs standard dose omeprazole, 1.06 (95%CI, 0.98-1.06). Proton pump inhibitors produced consistently greater healing rates than H2RAs of all doses across all grades of esophagitis, including patients refractory to H2RAs. Healing rates achieved with standard dose omeprazole were similar to those with other proton pump inhibitors in all grades of esophagitis. CONCLUSION: H2RAs are less effective for treating patients with erosive esophagitis, especially in those with severe forms of esophagitis. Standard dose proton pump inhibitors are significantly more effective than H2RAs in healing esophagitis of all grades. Proton pump inhibitors given at the recommended dose are equally effective for healing esophagitis. PMID:15996033

  7. A head-to-head comparison of hydrogen peroxide vapor and aerosol room decontamination systems.

    PubMed

    Holmdahl, T; Lanbeck, P; Wullt, M; Walder, M H

    2011-09-01

    New technologies have emerged in recent years for the disinfection of hospital rooms and equipment that may not be disinfected adequately using conventional methods. There are several hydrogen peroxide-based area decontamination technologies on the market, but no head-to-head studies have been performed. We conducted a head-to-head in vitro comparison of a hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) system (Bioquell) and an aerosolized hydrogen peroxide (aHP) system (Sterinis). The tests were conducted in a purpose-built 136-m(3) test room. One HPV generator and 2 aHP machines were used, following recommendations of the manufacturers. Three repeated tests were performed for each system. The microbiological efficacy of the 2 systems was tested using 6-log Tyvek-pouched Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicators (BIs). The indicators were placed at 20 locations in the first test and 14 locations in the subsequent 2 tests for each system. All BIs were inactivated for the 3 HPV tests, compared with only 10% in the first aHP test and 79% in the other 2 aHP tests. The peak hydrogen peroxide concentration was 338 ppm for HPV and 160 ppm for aHP. The total cycle time (including aeration) was 3 and 3.5 hours for the 3 HPV tests and the 3 aHP tests, respectively. Monitoring around the perimeter of the enclosure with a handheld sensor during tests of both systems did not identify leakage. One HPV generator was more effective than 2 aHP machines for the inactivation of G. stearothermophilus BIs, and cycle times were faster for the HPV system.

  8. A comparative study of restricted randomization procedures for multiarm trials with equal or unequal treatment allocation ratios.

    PubMed

    Ryeznik, Yevgen; Sverdlov, Oleksandr

    2018-06-04

    Randomization designs for multiarm clinical trials are increasingly used in practice, especially in phase II dose-ranging studies. Many new methods have been proposed in the literature; however, there is lack of systematic, head-to-head comparison of the competing designs. In this paper, we systematically investigate statistical properties of various restricted randomization procedures for multiarm trials with fixed and possibly unequal allocation ratios. The design operating characteristics include measures of allocation balance, randomness of treatment assignments, variations in the allocation ratio, and statistical characteristics such as type I error rate and power. The results from the current paper should help clinical investigators select an appropriate randomization procedure for their clinical trial. We also provide a web-based R shiny application that can be used to reproduce all results in this paper and run simulations under additional user-defined experimental scenarios. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The Cognitive Effects of Antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblat, Joshua D; Kakar, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive dysfunction is often present in major depressive disorder (MDD). Several clinical trials have noted a pro-cognitive effect of antidepressants in MDD. The objective of the current systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the pooled efficacy of antidepressants on various domains of cognition in MDD. Methods: Trials published prior to April 15, 2015, were identified through searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, PsychINFO, Clinicaltrials.gov, and relevant review articles. Data from randomized clinical trials assessing the cognitive effects of antidepressants were pooled to determine standard mean differences (SMD) using a random-effects model. Results: Nine placebo-controlled randomized trials (2 550 participants) evaluating the cognitive effects of vortioxetine (n = 728), duloxetine (n = 714), paroxetine (n = 23), citalopram (n = 84), phenelzine (n = 28), nortryptiline (n = 32), and sertraline (n = 49) were identified. Antidepressants had a positive effect on psychomotor speed (SMD 0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05–0.27; I2 = 46%) and delayed recall (SMD 0.24; 95% CI 0.15–0.34; I2 = 0%). The effect on cognitive control and executive function did not reach statistical significance. Of note, after removal of vortioxetine from the analysis, statistical significance was lost for psychomotor speed. Eight head-to-head randomized trials comparing the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; n = 371), selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs; n = 25), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs; n = 138), and norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs; n = 46) were identified. No statistically significant difference in cognitive effects was found when pooling results from head-to-head trials of SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, and NDRIs. Significant limitations were the heterogeneity of results, limited number of studies, and small sample sizes. Conclusions

  10. Head-to-head comparisons of metabolic side effects of second generation antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Komossa, Katja; Schwarz, Sandra; Hunger, Heike; Schmid, Franziska; Lobos, Claudia Asenjo; Kissling, Werner; Davis, John M; Leucht, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Objective The metabolic side effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) are serious and have not been compared head to head in a meta-analysis. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing the metabolic side effects of the following SGAs head-to-head: amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone, zotepine. Method We searched the register of the Cochrane schizophrenia group (last search May 2007), supplemented by MEDLINE and EMBASE (last search January 2009) for randomized, blinded studies comparing the above mentioned SGA in the treatment of schizophrenia or related disorders. At least three reviewers extracted the data independently. The primary outcome was weight change. We also assessed changes of cholesterol and glucose. The results were combined in a meta-analysis. Results We included 48 studies with 105 relevant arms. Olanzapine produced more weight gain than all other second-generation antipsychotics except for clozapine where no difference was found. Clozapine produced more weight gain than risperidone, risperidone more than amisulpride, and sertindole more than risperidone. Olanzapine produced more cholesterol increase than aripiprazole, risperidone and ziprasidone. (No differences with amisulpride, clozapine and quetiapine were found). Quetiapine produced more cholesterol increase than risperidone and ziprasidone. Olanzapine produced more increase in glucose than amisulpride, aripiprazole, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone; no difference was found with clozapine. Conclusions Some SGAs lead to substantially more metabolic side effects than other SGAs. When choosing an SGA for an individual patient these side effects with their potential cause of secondary diseases must be weighed against efficacy and characteristics of the individual patient. PMID:20692814

  11. POP-pincer osmium-polyhydrides: head-to-head (Z)-dimerization of terminal alkynes.

    PubMed

    Alós, Joaquín; Bolaño, Tamara; Esteruelas, Miguel A; Oliván, Montserrat; Oñate, Enrique; Valencia, Marta

    2013-05-20

    A wide range of osmium-polyhydride complexes stabilized by the POP-pincer ligand xant(P(i)Pr2)2 (9,9-dimethyl-4,5-bis(diisopropylphosphino)xanthene) have been synthesized through cis-OsCl2{κ-S-(DMSO)4} (1, DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide). Treatment of toluene solutions of this adduct with the diphosphine, under reflux, leads to OsCl2{xant(P(i)Pr2)2}(κ-S-DMSO) (2). The reaction of 2 with H2 in the presence of Et3N affords OsH3Cl{xant(P(i)Pr2)2} (3), which can be also prepared by addition of xant(P(i)Pr2)2 to toluene solutions of the unsaturated d(4)-trihydride OsH3Cl(P(i)Pr3)2 (5). Complex 3 reductively eliminates H2 in toluene at 90 °C. In the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide, the resulting monohydride is trapped by the S-donor molecule to give OsHCl{xant(P(i)Pr2)2}(κ-S-DMSO) (6). The reaction of 2 with H2 is sensible to the Brønsted base. Thus, in contrast to Et3N, NaH removes both chloride ligands and the hexahydride OsH6{xant(P(i)Pr2)2} (7), containing a κ(2)-P-binding diphosphine, is formed under 3 atm of hydrogen at 50 °C. Complex 7 releases a H2 molecule to yield the tetrahydride OsH4{xant(P(i)Pr2)2} (8), which can be also prepared by reaction of OsH6(P(i)Pr3)2 (9) with xant(P(i)Pr2)2. Complex 8 reduces H(+) to give, in addition to H2, the oxidized OsH4-species [OsH4(OTf){xant(P(i)Pr2)2}](+) (10, OTf = trifluoromethanesulfonate). The redox process occurs in two stages via the OsH5-cation [OsH5{xant(P(i)Pr2)2}](+) (11). The metal oxidation state four can be recovered. The addition of acetonitrile to 10 leads to [OsH2(η(2)-H2)(CH3CN){xant(P(i)Pr2)2}](2+) (12). The deprotonation of 12 yields the osmium(IV) trihydride [OsH3(CH3CN){xant(P(i)Pr2)2}](+) (13), which is also formed by addition of HOTf to the acetonitrile solutions of 8. The latter is further an efficient catalyst precursor for the head-to-head (Z)-dimerization of phenylacetylene and tert-butylacetylene. During the activation process of the tetrahydride, the bis(alkynyl)vinylidene derivatives Os

  12. Clinical performance of three bolus calculators in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a head-to-head-to-head comparison.

    PubMed

    Zisser, Howard; Wagner, Robin; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Jendrike, Nina; Parkin, Chris; Schweitzer, Matthias; Freckmann, Guido

    2010-12-01

    Insulin pump systems now provide automated bolus calculators (ABCs) that electronically calculate insulin boluses to address carbohydrate intake and out-of-range blood glucose (bG) levels. We compared the efficacy of three ABCs (Accu-Chek(®) Combo [Roche Insulin Delivery Systems (IDS), Inc., Fishers, IN, a member of the Roche Group], Animas(®) 2020 [Animas Corp., West Chester, PA, a Johnson and Johnson company], and MiniMed Paradigm Bolus Wizard(®) [Medtronic MiniMed, Northridge, CA]) to safely reduce postprandial hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). T1DM subjects (n = 24) were recruited at a single center for a prospective, triple crossover study. ABCs with the programmed target range (80-140 mg/dL) were used in random order. Postprandial hyperglycemia was induced by reducing the calculated bolus by 25%. Two hours after test meals, the ABCs were allowed to determine whether a correction bolus was needed. Differences between 6-h bG values after test meals that achieved 2-h postprandial hyperglycemia and the mean of the target range (110 mg/dL) were determined. The mean difference between 6-h bG levels following test meals and the 110 mg/dL bG target with the MiniMed device (47.4 ± 31.8 mg/dL) was significantly higher than the Animas (17.3 ± 30.9 mg/dL) and Roche IDS (18.8 ± 33.8 mg/dL) devices (P = 0.0022 and P = 0.0049, respectively). The number of meals with 2-h postprandial hyperglycemia and bG levels at 2 h was similar. Roche IDS and Animas devices recommended correction boluses significantly (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively) more frequently than the MiniMed device. ABC use was not associated with severe hypoglycemia. There was no significant difference in the rate of mild hypoglycemia (bG <60 mg/dL not requiring assistance) among the three groups (Roche IDS and Animas, n = 2; MiniMed, n = 0). In this study, the Roche IDS and Animas devices were more efficacious in controlling

  13. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Young, John; Chapman, Katie; Nixon, Jane; Patel, Anita; Holloway, Ivana; Mellish, Kirste; Anwar, Shamaila; Breen, Rachel; Knapp, Martin; Murray, Jenni; Farrin, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— We developed a new postdischarge system of care comprising a structured assessment covering longer-term problems experienced by patients with stroke and their carers, linked to evidence-based treatment algorithms and reference guides (the longer-term stroke care system of care) to address the poor longer-term recovery experienced by many patients with stroke. Methods— A pragmatic, multicentre, cluster randomized controlled trial of this system of care. Eligible patients referred to community-based Stroke Care Coordinators were randomized to receive the new system of care or usual practice. The primary outcome was improved patient psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12) at 6 months; secondary outcomes included functional outcomes for patients, carer outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. Follow-up was through self-completed postal questionnaires at 6 and 12 months. Results— Thirty-two stroke services were randomized (29 participated); 800 patients (399 control; 401 intervention) and 208 carers (100 control; 108 intervention) were recruited. In intention to treat analysis, the adjusted difference in patient General Health Questionnaire-12 mean scores at 6 months was −0.6 points (95% confidence interval, −1.8 to 0.7; P=0.394) indicating no evidence of statistically significant difference between the groups. Costs of Stroke Care Coordinator inputs, total health and social care costs, and quality-adjusted life year gains at 6 months, 12 months, and over the year were similar between the groups. Conclusions— This robust trial demonstrated no benefit in clinical or cost-effectiveness outcomes associated with the new system of care compared with usual Stroke Care Coordinator practice. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN 67932305. PMID:26152298

  14. An Open-Label, Randomized Trial of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Treatment in Adults With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Lin, Yu-Ju; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Huang, Hui-Chun; Yang, Li-Kuang

    2017-01-01

    To directly compare the efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in improving symptoms, social functions, and quality of life among adults with ADHD. This was an 8-to-10-week, open-label, head-to-head, randomized clinical trial with two treatment arms: immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-methylphenidate; n = 31) and atomoxetine once daily ( n = 32). The outcome measures included ADHD symptom severity, quality of life, and functional impairments. We found a significant reduction in overall ADHD symptoms and improvement in social functions and quality of life for both groups at Weeks 4 to 5 and Weeks 8 to 10. There was no significant difference in the slope of improvements over time except that atomoxetine was superior to IR-methylphenidate in reducing hyperactive/impulsive symptoms at Weeks 4 to 5. There was no significant group difference in the rates of adverse effects. Both IR-methylphenidate and atomoxetine are well tolerated and efficacious in ethnic Chinese adults with ADHD.

  15. Nanomedicines for Inflammatory Arthritis: Head-To-Head Comparison of Glucocorticoid-Containing Polymers, Micelles and Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Crielaard, Bart J.; Dusad, Anand; Lele, Subodh M.; Rijcken, Cristianne J. F.; Metselaar, Josbert M; Kostková, Hana; Etrych, Tomáš; Ulbrich, Karel; Kiessling, Fabian; Mikuls, Ted R.; Hennink, Wim E.; Storm, Gert; Lammers, Twan; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    As an emerging research direction, nanomedicine has been increasingly utilized to treat inflammatory diseases. In this head-to-head comparison study, four established nanomedicine formulations of dexamethasone, including liposomes (L-Dex), core-crosslinked micelles (M-Dex), slow releasing polymeric prodrugs (P-Dex-slow) and fast releasing polymeric prodrugs (P-Dex-fast), were evaluated in an adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model with an equivalent dose treatment design. It was found that after a single i.v. injection, the formulations with the slower drug release kinetics (i.e. M-Dex and P-Dex-slow) maintained longer duration of therapeutic activity than those with relatively faster drug release kinetics, resulting in better joint protection. This finding will be instructional in the future development and optimization of nanomedicines for the clinical management of rheumatoid arthritis. The outcome of this study also illustrates the value of such head-to-head comparison studies in translational nanomedicine research. PMID:24341611

  16. H3N2 Mismatch of 2014–15 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Vaccines and Head-to-head Comparison between Human and Ferret Antisera derived Antigenic Maps

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hang; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Ye, Zhiping; Plant, Ewan P.; Zhao, Yangqing; Xu, Yifei; Li, Xing; Finch, Courtney; Zhao, Nan; Kawano, Toshiaki; Zoueva, Olga; Chiang, Meng-Jung; Jing, Xianghong; Lin, Zhengshi; Zhang, Anding; Zhu, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    The poor performance of 2014–15 Northern Hemisphere (NH) influenza vaccines was attributed to mismatched H3N2 component with circulating epidemic strains. Using human serum samples collected from 2009–10, 2010–11 and 2014–15 NH influenza vaccine trials, we assessed their cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses against recent H3 epidemic isolates. All three populations (children, adults, and older adults) vaccinated with the 2014–15 NH egg- or cell-based vaccine, showed >50% reduction in HAI post-vaccination geometric mean titers against epidemic H3 isolates from those against egg-grown H3 vaccine strain A/Texas/50/2012 (TX/12e). The 2014–15 NH vaccines, regardless of production type, failed to further extend HAI cross-reactivity against H3 epidemic strains from previous seasonal vaccines. Head-to-head comparison between ferret and human antisera derived antigenic maps revealed different antigenic patterns among representative egg- and cell-grown H3 viruses characterized. Molecular modeling indicated that the mutations of epidemic H3 strains were mainly located in antibody-binding sites A and B as compared with TX/12e. To improve vaccine strain selection, human serologic testing on vaccination-induced cross-reactivity need be emphasized along with virus antigenic characterization by ferret model. PMID:26472175

  17. H3N2 Mismatch of 2014-15 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Vaccines and Head-to-head Comparison between Human and Ferret Antisera derived Antigenic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hang; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Ye, Zhiping; Plant, Ewan P.; Zhao, Yangqing; Xu, Yifei; Li, Xing; Finch, Courtney; Zhao, Nan; Kawano, Toshiaki; Zoueva, Olga; Chiang, Meng-Jung; Jing, Xianghong; Lin, Zhengshi; Zhang, Anding; Zhu, Yanhong

    2015-10-01

    The poor performance of 2014-15 Northern Hemisphere (NH) influenza vaccines was attributed to mismatched H3N2 component with circulating epidemic strains. Using human serum samples collected from 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2014-15 NH influenza vaccine trials, we assessed their cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses against recent H3 epidemic isolates. All three populations (children, adults, and older adults) vaccinated with the 2014-15 NH egg- or cell-based vaccine, showed >50% reduction in HAI post-vaccination geometric mean titers against epidemic H3 isolates from those against egg-grown H3 vaccine strain A/Texas/50/2012 (TX/12e). The 2014-15 NH vaccines, regardless of production type, failed to further extend HAI cross-reactivity against H3 epidemic strains from previous seasonal vaccines. Head-to-head comparison between ferret and human antisera derived antigenic maps revealed different antigenic patterns among representative egg- and cell-grown H3 viruses characterized. Molecular modeling indicated that the mutations of epidemic H3 strains were mainly located in antibody-binding sites A and B as compared with TX/12e. To improve vaccine strain selection, human serologic testing on vaccination-induced cross-reactivity need be emphasized along with virus antigenic characterization by ferret model.

  18. Acceptability of oral iodinated contrast media: a head-to-head comparison of four media.

    PubMed

    Pollentine, A; Ngan-Soo, E; McCoubrie, P

    2013-05-01

    To assess the palatability of iodinated oral contrast media commonly used in abdominopelvic CT and CT colonography (CTC). 80 volunteers assessed the palatability of a 20-ml sample of a standard 30 mg ml(-1) dilution of Omnipaque® (iohexol; GE Healthcare, Cork, Ireland), Telebrix® (meglumine ioxithalamate; Guerbet, Aulnay-sous-Bois, France), Gastromiro® (iopamidol; Bracco, High Wycombe, UK) and Gastrografin® (sodium diatrizoate and meglumine diatrizoate; Bayer, Newbury, UK) in a computer-generated random order. Gastrografin is rated significantly less palatable than the remaining media (p<0.005). Omnipaque and Telebrix are significantly more palatable than Gastromiro. No difference existed between Omnipaque and Telebrix. 39% of participants would refuse to consume the quantities of Gastrografin required for a CTC examination compared with Telebrix (7%) and Omnipaque (9%) (p<0.05). Omnipaque and Telebrix are significantly more palatable than both Gastromiro and Gastrografin, with participants more willing to ingest them in larger quantities as well as being less expensive. Omnipaque and Telebrix are significantly more palatable iodinated oral contrast media than both Gastromiro and Gastrografin, which has potential implications in compliance with both abdominopelvic CT and CTC.

  19. Acceptability of oral iodinated contrast media: a head-to-head comparison of four media

    PubMed Central

    Ngan-Soo, E; McCoubrie, P

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the palatability of iodinated oral contrast media commonly used in abdominopelvic CT and CT colonography (CTC). Methods: 80 volunteers assessed the palatability of a 20-ml sample of a standard 30 mg ml−1 dilution of Omnipaque® (iohexol; GE Healthcare, Cork, Ireland), Telebrix® (meglumine ioxithalamate; Guerbet, Aulnay-sous-Bois, France), Gastromiro® (iopamidol; Bracco, High Wycombe, UK) and Gastrografin® (sodium diatrizoate and meglumine diatrizoate; Bayer, Newbury, UK) in a computer-generated random order. Results: Gastrografin is rated significantly less palatable than the remaining media (p<0.005). Omnipaque and Telebrix are significantly more palatable than Gastromiro. No difference existed between Omnipaque and Telebrix. 39% of participants would refuse to consume the quantities of Gastrografin required for a CTC examination compared with Telebrix (7%) and Omnipaque (9%) (p<0.05). Conclusion: Omnipaque and Telebrix are significantly more palatable than both Gastromiro and Gastrografin, with participants more willing to ingest them in larger quantities as well as being less expensive. Advances in knowledge: Omnipaque and Telebrix are significantly more palatable iodinated oral contrast media than both Gastromiro and Gastrografin, which has potential implications in compliance with both abdominopelvic CT and CTC. PMID:23564884

  20. Accuracy and reliability of continuous glucose monitoring systems: a head-to-head comparison.

    PubMed

    Luijf, Yoeri M; Mader, Julia K; Doll, Werner; Pieber, Thomas; Farret, Anne; Place, Jerome; Renard, Eric; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Filippi, Alessio; Avogaro, Angelo; Arnolds, Sabine; Benesch, Carsten; Heinemann, Lutz; DeVries, J Hans

    2013-08-01

    This study assessed the accuracy and reliability of three continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems. We studied the Animas® (West Chester, PA) Vibe™ with Dexcom® (San Diego, CA) G4™ version A sensor (G4A), the Abbott Diabetes Care (Alameda, CA) Freestyle® Navigator I (NAV), and the Medtronic (Northridge, CA) Paradigm® with Enlite™ sensor (ENL) in 20 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. All systems were investigated both in a clinical research center (CRC) and at home. In the CRC, patients received a meal with a delayed and increased insulin dose to induce a postprandial glucose peak and nadir. Hereafter, randomization determined which two of the three systems would be worn at home until the end of functioning, attempting use beyond manufacturer-specified lifetime. Patients performed at least five reference finger sticks per day. An analysis of variance was performed on all data points ≥15 min apart. Overall average mean absolute relative difference (MARD) (SD) measured at the CRC was 16.5% (14.3%) for NAV and 16.4% (15.6%) for ENL, outperforming G4A at 20.5% (18.2%) (P<0.001). Overall MARD when assessed at home was 14.5% (16.7%) for NAV and 16.5 (18.8%) for G4A, outperforming ENL at 18.9% (23.6%) (P=0.006). Median time until end of functioning was similar: 10.0 (1.0) days for G4A, 8.0 (3.5) days for NAV, and 8.0 (1.5) days for ENL (P=0.119). In the CRC, G4A was less accurate than NAV and ENL sensors, which seemed comparable. However, at home, ENL was less accurate than NAV and G4A. Moreover, CGM systems often show sufficient accuracy to be used beyond manufacturer-specified lifetime.

  1. Regulatory coiled-coil domains promote head-to-head assemblies of AAA+ chaperones essential for tunable activity control.

    PubMed

    Carroni, Marta; Franke, Kamila B; Maurer, Michael; Jäger, Jasmin; Hantke, Ingo; Gloge, Felix; Linder, Daniela; Gremer, Sebastian; Turgay, Kürşad; Bukau, Bernd; Mogk, Axel

    2017-11-22

    Ring-forming AAA+ chaperones exert ATP-fueled substrate unfolding by threading through a central pore. This activity is potentially harmful requiring mechanisms for tight repression and substrate-specific activation. The AAA+ chaperone ClpC with the peptidase ClpP forms a bacterial protease essential to virulence and stress resistance. The adaptor MecA activates ClpC by targeting substrates and stimulating ClpC ATPase activity. We show how ClpC is repressed in its ground state by determining ClpC cryo-EM structures with and without MecA. ClpC forms large two-helical assemblies that associate via head-to-head contacts between coiled-coil middle domains (MDs). MecA converts this resting state to an active planar ring structure by binding to MD interaction sites. Loss of ClpC repression in MD mutants causes constitutive activation and severe cellular toxicity. These findings unravel an unexpected regulatory concept executed by coiled-coil MDs to tightly control AAA+ chaperone activity.

  2. Head-To-Head Comparison of Different Solubility-Enabling Formulations of Etoposide and Their Consequent Solubility-Permeability Interplay.

    PubMed

    Beig, Avital; Miller, Jonathan M; Lindley, David; Carr, Robert A; Zocharski, Philip; Agbaria, Riad; Dahan, Arik

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a head-to-head comparison of different solubility-enabling formulations, and their consequent solubility-permeability interplay. The low-solubility anticancer drug etoposide was formulated in several strengths of four solubility-enabling formulations: hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, the cosolvent polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400), the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate, and an amorphous solid dispersion formulation. The ability of these formulations to increase the solubility of etoposide was investigated, followed by permeability studies using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and examination of the consequent solubility-permeability interplay. All formulations significantly increased etoposide's apparent solubility. The cyclodextrin-, surfactant-, and cosolvent-based formulations resulted in a concomitant decreased permeability that could be modeled directly from the proportional increase in the apparent solubility. On the contrary, etoposide permeability remained constant when using the ASD formulation, irrespective of the increased apparent solubility provided by the formulation. In conclusion, supersaturation resulting from the amorphous form overcomes the solubility-permeability tradeoff associated with other formulation techniques. Accounting for the solubility-permeability interplay may allow to develop better solubility-enabling formulations, thereby maximizing the overall absorption of lipophilic orally administered drugs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  3. Efficacy of rasagiline and selegiline in Parkinson's disease: a head-to-head 3-year retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Emanuele; Cilia, Roberto; Canesi, Margherita; Tesei, Silvana; Mariani, Claudio Bruno; Zecchinelli, Anna Lena; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2017-06-01

    Monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) inhibitors, such as selegiline and rasagiline, can be used as monotherapy or adjuvant therapy to levodopa in Parkinson's disease (PD). Data on long-term efficacy of MAO-B inhibitors are limited with no head-to-head comparison available to date. The aim of this case-control retrospective study was to analyze data from patients with PD attending the Parkinson Institute (Milan, Italy) over a 6-year period (2009-2015) and compare the effects of selegiline and rasagiline on levodopa treatment outcomes. Patients with PD treated with either selegiline (n = 85) or rasagiline (n = 85) for 3 years as well as a control group of patients (N = 170) who have never received MAO-B inhibitors, were matched for gender, disease duration (±1 year) and age (±1 year) at baseline assessment (ratio 1:1:2). The Unified PD Rating Scale and the Hoehn-Yahr staging system were used for clinical comparisons. At baseline, mean PD duration was 6.5 years and clinical features were comparable across all three groups. After a mean follow-up of approximately 37 months, no differences in clinical progression of motor and non-motor symptoms were observed between the three groups. However, MAO-B inhibitor use was associated with ~2-fold lower change in daily dose of levodopa (p < 0.001) and lower dyskinesia scores (p = 0.028) than non-users. No intra-class differences were observed between selegiline and rasagiline. Long-term use of MAO-B inhibitors resulted in a significant reduction in levodopa requirements and a lower frequency of dyskinesias in patients with PD. Selegiline and rasagiline had equal efficacy in controlling motor symptoms in PD patients on optimized therapy.

  4. Head-to-head comparison of adaptive statistical and model-based iterative reconstruction algorithms for submillisievert coronary CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Benz, Dominik C; Fuchs, Tobias A; Gräni, Christoph; Studer Bruengger, Annina A; Clerc, Olivier F; Mikulicic, Fran; Messerli, Michael; Stehli, Julia; Possner, Mathias; Pazhenkottil, Aju P; Gaemperli, Oliver; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Buechel, Ronny R

    2018-02-01

    Iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms allow for a significant reduction in radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We performed a head-to-head comparison of adaptive statistical IR (ASiR) and model-based IR (MBIR) algorithms to assess their impact on quantitative image parameters and diagnostic accuracy for submillisievert CCTA. CCTA datasets of 91 patients were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), increasing contributions of ASiR (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%), and MBIR. Signal and noise were measured in the aortic root to calculate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In a subgroup of 36 patients, diagnostic accuracy of ASiR 40%, ASiR 100%, and MBIR for diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) was compared with invasive coronary angiography. Median radiation dose was 0.21 mSv for CCTA. While increasing levels of ASiR gradually reduced image noise compared with FBP (up to - 48%, P < 0.001), MBIR provided largest noise reduction (-79% compared with FBP) outperforming ASiR (-59% compared with ASiR 100%; P < 0.001). Increased noise and lower SNR with ASiR 40% and ASiR 100% resulted in substantially lower diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD as diagnosed by invasive coronary angiography compared with MBIR: sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 37%, 100 and 57%, and 100 and 74% for ASiR 40%, ASiR 100%, and MBIR, respectively. MBIR offers substantial noise reduction with increased SNR, paving the way for implementation of submillisievert CCTA protocols in clinical routine. In contrast, inferior noise reduction by ASiR negatively affects diagnostic accuracy of submillisievert CCTA for CAD detection. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Dose-Response Head-to-Head Comparison of Inodilators Dobutamine, Milrinone, and Levosimendan in Chronic Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tavares-Silva, Marta; Alaa, Mohamed; Leite, Sara; Oliveira-Pinto, José; Lopes, Lucas; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Lourenço, André P

    2017-09-01

    The choice of inodilator drug in the acute management of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) having right ventricular (RV) failure remains unsettled and challenging. Comprehensive experimental evaluations may provide further insight and fundamental translational research clues to support inodilator selection and clinical trial design. Our aim was to compare acute dose-response hemodynamic effects of inodilators dobutamine (DOB), milrinone (MIL), and levosimendan (LEV) in chronic experimental PH. Seven-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly injected with 60 mg·kg -1 monocrotaline (MCT) or vehicle (Ctrl, n = 7) and underwent systemic and pulmonary artery (PA) pressure and RV pressure-volume (PV) hemodynamic evaluation under halogenate anesthesia 24 to 30 days after injection. The MCT-injected animals (n = 7 each) randomly received dose-response infusions of DOB (1, 3, 6 and 12 μg·kg -1 ·min -1 ), MIL (MIL: 1, 3, 6 and 12 μg·kg -1 ·min -1 ), or LEV (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 μg·kg -1 ·min -1 ). Load-independent indexes were obtained by inferior vena cava occlusion at baseline and after the last dose. All inodilators increased RV ejection fraction, preload recruitable stroke work, and ventricular-vascular coupling without jeopardizing perfusion pressure. Dobutamine raised heart rate and PA pressure. Only LEV increased cardiac index and decreased PA elastance and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Moreover, only LEV downward-shifted the end-diastolic PV relationship, thereby improving RV compliance. Adding sildenafil to LEV further decreased PVR. Levosimendan had beneficial acute systolic and diastolic functional effects in experimental chronic PH and RV afterload compared to DOB and MIL. It should be further tested in clinical trials enrolling patients with PH in the perioperative and critical care settings.

  6. A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials for comparing the effectiveness and safety profile of treatments with marketing authorization for relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hadjigeorgiou, G M; Doxani, C; Miligkos, M; Ziakas, P; Bakalos, G; Papadimitriou, D; Mprotsis, T; Grigoriadis, N; Zintzaras, E

    2013-12-01

    The relative effectiveness and safety profile of the treatments with marketing authorization for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) are not well known because randomized controlled trials with head-to-head comparisons between these treatments do not exist. Thus, a network of multiple-treatments meta-analysis was performed using four clinical outcomes: 'patients free of relapse', 'patients without disease progression', 'patients without MRI progression' and 'patients with adverse events'. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on MS were systematically searched in PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial. The network analysis performed pairwise comparisons between the marketed treatments (Betaferon 250mcg, Avonex 30mcg, Rebif 44mcg, Rebif 22mcg, Aubagio 7 mg, Aubagio 14 mg, Copaxone 20 mg, Tysabri 300 mg, Gilenya 0·5 mg and Novantrone 12 mg/m(2)) using direct and indirect analyses. The analysis included 48 articles, involving 20 455 patients with MS. The direct analysis showed better response for more than one outcome for Gilenya compared with Avonex ('patients free of relapse' and 'patients without MRI progression') and for Betaferon compared with Avonex ('patients without disease progression' and 'patients without MRI progression'). The indirect analysis indicated that Tysabri may have better relative effectiveness compared with the other treatments for two outcomes: 'patients free of relapse' and 'patients without MRI progression'. Regarding 'patients with adverse events', no data were available for all comparisons to make fair inferences. This was an attempt, for the first time, to compare the efficacy and safety profile of existing approved treatments for relapsing MS. Although some treatments have shown better response, the results of the network analysis should be interpreted with caution because of the lack of RCTs with head-to-head comparisons between treatments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on cognitive effects of Bacopa monnieri extract.

    PubMed

    Kongkeaw, Chuenjid; Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Thanarangsarit, Phurit; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip; Norman Scholfield, C

    2014-01-01

    Bacopa monnieri has a long history in Ayurvedic medicine for neurological and behavioral defects. To assess its efficacy in improving cognitive function. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Cochrane Central of clinical trial, WHO registry, Thai Medical Index, Index Medicus Siriraj library and www.clinicaltrial.gov were searched from the inception date of each database to June 2013 using scientific and common synonyms of Bacopa monnieri, cognitive performance or memory. The reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Randomized, placebo controlled human intervention trials on chronic ≥ 12 weeks dosing of standardized extracts of Bacopa monnieri without any co-medication were included in this study. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias assessment and Jadad's quality scales. The weighted mean difference and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were performed using the random-effects model of the Dersimonian-Laird method. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria using 518 subjects. Overall quality of all included trials was low risk of bias and quality of reported information was high. Meta-analysis of 437 eligible subjects showed improved cognition by shortened Trail B test (-17.9 ms; 95% CI -24.6 to -11.2; p<0.001) and decreased choice reaction time (10.6 ms; 95% CI -12.1 to -9.2; p<0.001). This meta-analysis suggests that Bacopa monnieri has the potential to improve cognition, particularly speed of attention but only a large well designed 'head-to-head' trial against an existing medication will provide definitive data on its efficacy on healthy or dementia patients using a standardized preparation. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of electroacupuncture compared with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation for functional constipation: Study protocol for a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Xinwei; Jiao, Ruimin; Liu, Zhishun

    2018-05-01

    To treat functional constipation, both electroacupuncture (EA) therapy and transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) are safe and effective. However, no head-to-head comparison trial has been conducted. This trial compares the efficacy of electroacupuncture relative to transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation for functional constipation. Individuals with functional constipation will be randomly allocated to receive either EA or TENS (n = 51, each), 3 times per week for 8 weeks. The primary outcome is the percentage of participants with an average increase from baseline of 1 or more complete spontaneous bowel movements at week 8. The secondary outcome measures are the following: at the time of visits, changes in the number of complete spontaneous bowel movements, number of spontaneous bowel movements, stool character, difficulty in defecation, patients' assessment of quality of life regarding constipation (self-report questionnaire), and use of auxiliary defecation methods. The results of this trial should verify whether EA is more efficacious than TENS for relieving symptoms of functional constipation. The major limitation of the study is the lack of blinding of the participants and acupuncturist.

  9. Types, frequencies, and burden of nonspecific adverse events of drugs: analysis of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Alfred; Golmard, Clara; Pham, Emilie; Iordache, Laura; Deville, Laure; Faure, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Scarce studies analyzing adverse event (AE) data from randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials (RPCCTs) of selected illnesses suggested that a substantial proportion of collected AEs are unrelated to the drug taken. This study analyzed the nonspecific AEs occurring with active-drug exposure in RPCCTs for a large range of medical conditions. Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials published in five prominent medical journals during 2006-2012 were searched. Only trials that evaluated orally or parenterally administered active drugs versus placebo in a head-to-head setting were selected. For AEs reported from ≥10 RPCCTs, Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to determine the relationship between AE rates in placebo and active-drug recipients. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to compute proportions of nonspecific AEs, which were truncated at a maximum of 100%, in active-drug recipients. We included 231 trials addressing various medical domains or healthy participants. For the 88 analyzed AE variables, AE rates for placebo and active-drug recipients were in general strongly correlated (r > 0.50) or very strongly correlated (r > 0.80). The pooled proportions of nonspecific AEs for the active-drug recipients were 96.8% (95%CI: 95.5-98.1) for any AEs, 100% (97.9-100) for serious AEs, and 77.7% (72.7-83.2) for drug-related AEs. Results were similar for individual medical domains and healthy participants. The pooled proportion of nonspecificity of 82 system organ class and individual AE types ranged from 38% to 100%. The large proportion of nonspecific AEs reported in active-drug recipients of RPCCTs, including serious and drug-related AEs, highlights the limitations of clinical trial data to determine the tolerability of drugs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of five smoking cessation pharmacotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Megan E.; Smith, Stevens S.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Fiore, Michael C.; Jorenby, Douglas E.; Fraser, David; Baker, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Context Little direct evidence exists on the relative efficacies of different smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, yet such evidence is needed to make informed decisions about their clinical use. Objective The primary objective of this research was to assess the relative efficacies of five smoking cessation pharmacotherapy interventions using placebo-controlled, head-to-head comparisons. Design This was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting Smokers were recruited from the community at two urban research sites. Patients Participants were 1504 adult smokers who smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day during the past 6 months and reported being motivated to quit smoking. Participants were excluded if they reported: using any form of tobacco other than cigarettes; current use of bupropion; having a current psychosis or schizophrenia diagnosis; or having medical contraindications for any of the study medications. Interventions Participants were randomized to one of six treatment conditions: nicotine lozenge, nicotine patch, bupropion SR, nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge, bupropion + nicotine lozenge or placebo. In addition, all participants received six individual counseling sessions. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were biochemically-confirmed 7-day point-prevalence abstinence assessed at 1 week post-quit, end of treatment (8 weeks post-quit) and 6 months post-quit. Other outcomes were initial cessation, number of days to lapse, number of days to relapse, and latency to relapse after the first lapse. Results All pharmacotherapies differed from placebo when examined without protection for multiple comparisons (OR’s = 1.63–2.34). With such protection, only the nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge (OR = 2.34, p < .001) produced significantly higher abstinence rates at 6-months post-quit than did placebo. Conclusions While the nicotine lozenge, bupropion, and bupropion + lozenge produced effects that were comparable to those

  11. [Multicenter randomized trial of amnioinfusion].

    PubMed

    Fraser, W; Marcoux, S; Prendiville, W; Petrou, S; Hofmeyr, J; Reinharz, D; Goulet, C; Ohlsson, A

    2000-05-01

    Meconium staining of the amniotic fluid in labor is a frequent problem that is associated with an increase in the risk of neonatal and maternal morbidity. Amnioinfusion is a simple technique that is designed to prevent neonatal and maternal morbidity associated with meconium. Preliminary studies indicate that amnioinfusion is a promising approach to the prevention of such complications of labor. However, further research is required. The primary objective of this multi-centre randomized controlled study is to determine if amnioinfusion for thick meconium stained amniotic fluid results in a reduction in perinatal death or moderate to severe meconium aspiration syndrome. We will also assess the effects of amnioinfusion on other indicators of neonatal morbidity and on cesarean section. The study includes an evaluation of womens views on their childbirth experience and an economic evaluation of a policy of amnioinfusion The study will be achieved with the collaboration of approximately 50 obstetrical centres from across Canada, US, Europe, South America and South Africa. This multicentre trial will provide urgently needed information on the efficacy and effectiveness of amniofusion for the indication of meconium stained amniotic fluid.

  12. Virtual colonoscopy, optical colonoscopy, or fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer screening: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    You, John J; Liu, Yudong; Kirby, John; Vora, Parag; Moayyedi, Paul

    2015-07-09

    No head-to-head randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the superiority of one colorectal screening modality over another in reducing colorectal cancer mortality. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), optical colonoscopy (OC), and virtual colonoscopy (VC), to inform the planning of a larger evaluative trial. Eligible patients (aged 50 to 70) were recruited from five primary care practices in Hamilton, ON, Canada, between March 23, 2010 and August 11, 2010, and randomized 1:1:1 in a parallel design using an automated, centralized telephone service to either FOBT, OC, or VC. To reflect conventional practice, patients received no additional reminders to complete their allocated screening test beyond those received in usual practice. The primary outcome was completion of the assigned screening procedure. Results of the index test and any follow-up investigations were ascertained at 6 months. Participants, caregivers, and outcome assessors were not blinded to group assignment. The trial was stopped early due to lack of ongoing funding. A total of 198 participants were enrolled, of whom 67 were allocated to FOBT, 66 to OC, and 65 to VC. The allocated screening procedure was completed by 43 (64%) subjects allocated to FOBT (95% confidence interval [CI], 52-75%), 53 (80%) subjects allocated to OC (95% CI, 69-88%), and 50 (77%) subjects allocated to VC (95% CI, 65-85%); because the trial stopped early, we had insufficient statistical power to detect clinically relevant differences in completion rates. During 6 months follow-up, colorectal adenomas were detected in 0 (0%) subjects allocated to FOBT, 12 (18%) subjects allocated to OC, and 2 (3%) subjects allocated to VC. One subject in the OC arm had histological evidence of high-grade dysplasia. No subjects were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. In this pilot randomized controlled trial of colorectal cancer screening in a primary care setting, 64-80% of subjects

  13. Acupuncture-Related Techniques for Psoriasis: A Systematic Review with Pairwise and Network Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Mei-Ling; Ko, Shu-Hua; Wang, Mei-Hua; Chi, Ching-Chi; Chung, Yu-Chu

    2017-12-01

    There has be a large body of evidence on the pharmacological treatments for psoriasis, but whether nonpharmacological interventions are effective in managing psoriasis remains largely unclear. This systematic review conducted pairwise and network meta-analyses to determine the effects of acupuncture-related techniques on acupoint stimulation for the treatment of psoriasis and to determine the order of effectiveness of these remedies. This study searched the following databases from inception to March 15, 2016: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EBSCO (including Academic Search Premier, American Doctoral Dissertations, and CINAHL), Airiti Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of acupuncture-related techniques on acupoint stimulation as intervention for psoriasis were independently reviewed by two researchers. A total of 13 RCTs with 1,060 participants were included. The methodological quality of included studies was not rigorous. Acupoint stimulation, compared with nonacupoint stimulation, had a significant treatment for psoriasis. However, the most common adverse events were thirst and dry mouth. Subgroup analysis was further done to confirm that the short-term treatment effect was superior to that of the long-term effect in treating psoriasis. Network meta-analysis identified acupressure or acupoint catgut embedding, compared with medication, and had a significant effect for improving psoriasis. It was noted that acupressure was the most effective treatment. Acupuncture-related techniques could be considered as an alternative or adjuvant therapy for psoriasis in short term, especially of acupressure and acupoint catgut embedding. This study recommends further well-designed, methodologically rigorous, and more head-to-head randomized trials to explore the effects of acupuncture-related techniques for treating psoriasis.

  14. Head-To-Head Comparison Between High- and Standard-b-Value DWI for Detecting Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sungmin; Suh, Chong Hyun; Kim, Sang Youn; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison between high-b-value (> 1000 s/mm 2 ) and standard-b-value (800-1000 s/mm 2 ) DWI regarding diagnostic performance in the detection of prostate cancer. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched up to April 1, 2017. The analysis included diagnostic accuracy studies in which high- and standard-b-value DWI were used for prostate cancer detection with histopathologic examination as the reference standard. Methodologic quality was assessed with the revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Sensitivity and specificity of all studies were calculated and were pooled and plotted in a hierarchic summary ROC plot. Meta-regression and multiple-subgroup analyses were performed to compare the diagnostic performances of high- and standard-b-value DWI. Eleven studies (789 patients) were included. High-b-value DWI had greater pooled sensitivity (0.80 [95% CI, 0.70-0.87]) (p = 0.03) and specificity (0.92 [95% CI, 0.87-0.95]) (p = 0.01) than standard-b-value DWI (sensitivity, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.66-0.86]); specificity, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.77-0.93] (p < 0.01). Multiple-subgroup analyses showed that specificity was consistently higher for high- than for standard-b-value DWI (p ≤ 0.05). Sensitivity was significantly higher for high- than for standard-b-value DWI only in the following subgroups: peripheral zone only, transition zone only, multiparametric protocol (DWI and T2-weighted imaging), visual assessment of DW images, and per-lesion analysis (p ≤ 0.04). In a head-to-head comparison, high-b-value DWI had significantly better sensitivity and specificity for detection of prostate cancer than did standard-b-value DWI. Multiple-subgroup analyses showed that specificity was consistently superior for high-b-value DWI.

  15. Head-to-Head Comparison of 64Cu-DOTATATE and 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT: A Prospective Study of 59 Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Johnbeck, Camilla B; Knigge, Ulrich; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne K; Mortensen, Jann; Oturai, Peter; Langer, Seppo W; Elema, Dennis R; Kjaer, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Somatostatin receptor imaging is a valuable tool in the diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment planning of neuroendocrine tumor (NET). PET-based tracers using 68 Ga as the radioisotope have in most centers replaced SPECT-based tracers as the gold standard. 64 Cu-DOTATATE is a new PET tracer that has been shown to be far superior to the SPECT tracer 111 In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-octreotide. Because of the advantages of 64 Cu over 68 Ga, we hypothesized that the tracer has a higher sensitivity than 68 Ga-based tracers. To test this hypothesis, we compared on a head-to-head basis the diagnostic performance of 64 Cu-DOTATATE with that of 68 Ga-DOTATOC in NET patients. Methods: Fifty-nine NET patients were scanned with both 64 Cu-DOTATATE and 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT and compared on a head-to-head basis. Discordant lesions were verified during at least 30 mo of follow-up. Results: A total of 701 lesions were concordantly detected on both 64 Cu-DOTATATE and 68 Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT scans, whereas an additional 68 lesions were found by only one of the scans. 64 Cu-DOTATATE showed 42 lesions not found on 68 Ga-DOTATOC, of which 33 were found to be true-positive on follow-up. 68 Ga-DOTATOC showed 26 lesions not found on 64 Cu-DOTATATE, of which 7 were found to be true-positive on follow-up. False-positives were mainly lymph node lesions. Accordingly, 83% of the additional true lesions found on only one of the scans were found by 64 Cu-DOTATATE. On a patient-basis, additional true lesions were found by 64 Cu-DOTATATE and 68 Ga-DOTATOC in 13 and 3 patients, respectively. All patients with additional lesions also had concordant lesions found by both scans. Conclusion: 64 Cu-DOTATATE has advantages over 68 Ga-DOTATOC in the detection of lesions in NET patients. Although patient-based sensitivity was the same for 64 Cu-DOTATATE and 68 Ga-DOTATOC in this cohort, significantly more lesions were detected by 64 Cu-DOTATATE. Furthermore, the shelf life of more than 24 h and the

  16. Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement versus CBT for co-occurring substance dependence, traumatic stress, and psychiatric disorders: Proximal outcomes from a pragmatic randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia; Tronnier, Christine D; Graves, Rebecca; Kelley, Karen

    2016-02-01

    In many clinical settings, there is a high comorbidity between substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, and traumatic stress. Novel therapies are needed to address these co-occurring issues efficiently. The aim of the present study was to conduct a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) to group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) for previously homeless men residing in a therapeutic community. Men with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders, as well as extensive trauma histories, were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of group treatment with MORE (n = 64), CBT (n = 64), or TAU (n = 52). Study findings indicated that from pre-to post-treatment MORE was associated with modest yet significantly greater improvements in substance craving, post-traumatic stress, and negative affect than CBT, and greater improvements in post-traumatic stress and positive affect than TAU. A significant indirect effect of MORE on decreasing craving and post-traumatic stress by increasing dispositional mindfulness was observed, suggesting that MORE may target these issues via enhancing mindful awareness in everyday life. This pragmatic trial represents the first head-to-head comparison of MORE against an empirically-supported treatment for co-occurring disorders. Results suggest that MORE, as an integrative therapy designed to bolster self-regulatory capacity, may hold promise as a treatment for intersecting clinical conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Randomized controlled trials in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ronald G.; Aisen, Paul S.; Mohs, Richard C.; Carrillo, Maria C.; Albert, Marilyn S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the variability in performance among placebo groups in randomized controlled trials for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Placebo group data were obtained from 2 National Institute on Aging (NIA) MCI randomized controlled trials, the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study (ADCS) MCI trial and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), which is a simulated clinical trial, in addition to industry-sponsored clinical trials involving rivastigmine, galantamine, rofecoxib, and donepezil. The data were collated for common measurement instruments. The performance of the placebo participants from these studies was tracked on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive subscale, Mini-Mental State Examination, and Clinical Dementia Rating–sum of boxes, and for progression on these measures to prespecified clinical study endpoints. APOE status, where available, was also analyzed for its effects. Results: The progression to clinical endpoints varied a great deal among the trials. The expected performances were seen for the participants in the 2 NIA trials, ADCS and ADNI, with generally worsening of performance over time; however, the industry-sponsored trials largely showed stable or improved performance in their placebo participants. APOE4 carrier status influenced results in an expected fashion on the study outcomes, including rates of progression and cognitive subscales. Conclusions: In spite of apparently similar criteria for MCI being adopted by the 7 studies, the implementation of the criteria varied a great deal. Several explanations including instruments used to characterize participants and variability among study populations contributed to the findings. PMID:28381516

  18. From randomized controlled trials to observational studies.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Stuart L

    2009-02-01

    Randomized controlled trials are considered the gold standard in the hierarchy of research designs for evaluating the efficacy and safety of a treatment intervention. However, their results can have limited applicability to patients in clinical settings. Observational studies using large health care databases can complement findings from randomized controlled trials by assessing treatment effectiveness in patients encountered in day-to-day clinical practice. Results from these designs can expand upon outcomes of randomized controlled trials because of the use of larger and more diverse patient populations with common comorbidities and longer follow-up periods. Furthermore, well-designed observational studies can identify clinically important differences among therapeutic options and provide data on long-term drug effectiveness and safety.

  19. A Systematic Review and Head-to-Head Meta-Analysis of Outcomes following Direct-to-Implant versus Conventional Two-Stage Implant Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Basta, Marten N; Gerety, Patrick A; Serletti, Joseph M; Kovach, Stephen J; Fischer, John P

    2015-12-01

    Innovative approaches to reconstruction have ushered in an era of breast reconstruction in which direct-to-implant procedures can provide an immediately reconstructed breast. Balancing the benefits against its technical challenges is vital. The authors evaluated the safety and efficacy of using direct-to-implant versus conventional two-stage reconstruction through a systematic meta-analysis. A literature search identified all articles published after 1999 involving prosthetic-based breast reconstruction as a two-stage tissue expander/implant or direct-to-implant technique. The primary outcomes of interest, including implant loss, capsular contracture, reoperation, and infection, were analyzed by means of head-to-head meta-analysis. Thirteen studies involving 5216 breast reconstructions were included. The average patient age was 47.2 ± 1.0 years, the average body mass index was 24.9 ± 0.8 mg/k2, and the average follow-up was 40.8 months. Wound infection, seroma, and capsular contracture risk were similar between groups. However, direct-to-implant reconstruction was associated with a higher risk for skin flap necrosis (OR, 1.43; p = 0.01; I2 = 51 percent) and reoperation (OR, 1.25; p = 0.04; I2 = 43 percent). Ultimately, the risk for implant loss was nearly two-fold higher with direct-to-implant reconstruction compared with tissue expander/implant reconstruction (OR, 1.87; p = 0.04; I2 = 33 percent). Although direct-to-implant and two-stage tissue expander/implant reconstruction are successful approaches, this meta-analysis demonstrates significantly greater risk of flap necrosis and implant failure with direct-to-implant reconstruction. The authors' findings suggest that the critical component of patient selection is judgment of mastectomy flap tissue quality. These findings can enhance the risk counseling process and highlight the need for additional investigations to optimize outcomes.

  20. Is EQ-5D-5L Better Than EQ-5D-3L? A Head-to-Head Comparison of Descriptive Systems and Value Sets from Seven Countries.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Mathieu F; Bonsel, Gouke J; Luo, Nan

    2018-06-01

    This study describes the first empirical head-to-head comparison of EQ-5D-3L (3L) and EQ-5D-5L (5L) value sets for multiple countries. A large multinational dataset, including 3L and 5L data for eight patient groups and a student cohort, was used to compare 3L versus 5L value sets for Canada, China, England/UK (5L/3L, respectively), Japan, The Netherlands, South Korea and Spain. We used distributional analyses and two methods exploring discriminatory power: relative efficiency as assessed by the F statistic, and an area under the curve for the receiver-operating characteristics approach. Differences in outcomes were explored by separating descriptive system effects from valuation effects, and by exploring distributional location effects. In terms of distributional evenness, efficiency of scale use and the face validity of the resulting distributions, 5L was superior, leading to an increase in sensitivity and precision in health status measurement. When compared with 5L, 3L systematically overestimated health problems and consequently underestimated utilities. This led to bias, i.e. over- or underestimations of discriminatory power. We conclude that 5L provides more precise measurement at individual and group levels, both in terms of descriptive system data and utilities. The increased sensitivity and precision of 5L is likely to be generalisable to longitudinal studies, such as in intervention designs. Hence, we recommend the use of the 5L across applications, including economic evaluation, clinical and public health studies. The evaluative framework proved to be useful in assessing preference-based instruments and might be useful for future work in the development of descriptive systems or health classifications.

  1. A Head-to-Head Comparison of UK SF-6D and Thai and UK EQ-5D-5L Value Sets in Thai Patients with Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sakthong, Phantipa; Munpan, Wipaporn

    2017-10-01

    Little was known about the head-to-head comparison of psychometric properties between SF-6D and EQ-5D-5L or the different value sets of EQ-5D-5L. Therefore, this study set out to compare the psychometric properties including agreement, convergent, and known-group validity between the SF-6D and the EQ-5D-5L using the real value sets from Thailand and the UK in patients with chronic diseases. 356 adults taking a medication for at least 3 months were identified from a university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, between July 2014 and March 2015. Agreement was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. Convergent validity was evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between SF-6D and EQ-5D-5L and EQ-VAS and SF-12v2. For known-groups validity, the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to examine the associations between SF-6D and EQ-5D-5L and patient characteristics. Agreements between the SF-6D and the EQ-5D-5L using Thai and UK value sets were fair, with ICCs of 0.45 and 0.49, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed that the majority of the SF-6D index scores were lower than the EQ-5D-5L index scores. Both the EQ-5D-5L value sets were more related to the EQ-VAS and physical health, while the SF-6D was more associated with mental health. Both EQ-5D-5L value sets were more sensitive than the SF-6D in discriminating patients with different levels of more known groups except for adverse drug reactions. The SF-6D and both EQ-5D-5L value sets appeared to be valid but sensitive to different outcomes in Thai patients with chronic diseases.

  2. Head-to-Head Comparison and Evaluation of 92 Plasma Protein Biomarkers for Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer in a True Screening Setting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongda; Zucknick, Manuela; Werner, Simone; Knebel, Phillip; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-07-15

    Novel noninvasive blood-based screening tests are strongly desirable for early detection of colorectal cancer. We aimed to conduct a head-to-head comparison of the diagnostic performance of 92 plasma-based tumor-associated protein biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer in a true screening setting. Among all available 35 carriers of colorectal cancer and a representative sample of 54 men and women free of colorectal neoplasms recruited in a cohort of screening colonoscopy participants in 2005-2012 (N = 5,516), the plasma levels of 92 protein biomarkers were measured. ROC analyses were conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performance. A multimarker algorithm was developed through the Lasso logistic regression model and validated in an independent validation set. The .632+ bootstrap method was used to adjust for the potential overestimation of diagnostic performance. Seventeen protein markers were identified to show statistically significant differences in plasma levels between colorectal cancer cases and controls. The adjusted area under the ROC curves (AUC) of these 17 individual markers ranged from 0.55 to 0.70. An eight-marker classifier was constructed that increased the adjusted AUC to 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59-0.91]. When validating this algorithm in an independent validation set, the AUC was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.85), and sensitivities at cutoff levels yielding 80% and 90% specificities were 65% (95% CI, 41-80%) and 44% (95% CI, 24-72%), respectively. The identified profile of protein biomarkers could contribute to the development of a powerful multimarker blood-based test for early detection of colorectal cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Head-to-head comparison of Microflex LT and Vitek MS systems for routine identification of microorganisms by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in Chile

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia; Braun, Stephanie; Ulloa, María Teresa; Lafourcade, Mónica; Montaña, Alisson; Miranda, Carolina; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Weitzel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is a new and revolutionary identification method for microorganisms and has recently been introduced into clinical microbiology in many industrialized countries in Europe and North America. Objectives Our study aimed to compare the performance and practicality of two commercial MALDI-TOF MS platforms in a head-to head manner at a routine laboratory in Chile. Methods During a five-month period in 2012–13, the diagnostic efficiency (correct identification rate) and agreement between Microflex LT (Bruker Daltonics) and Vitek MS (bioMérieux) was compared in a parallel manner to conventional identification including genotypic analysis for difficult-to-identify strains. The study included 804 microbial isolates: 252 Enterobacteriaceae, 126 non-fermenters, 36 other gram-negative rods, 279 gram-positive cocci, 32 gram-positive rods, 32 anaerobes, and 47 yeasts. Other relevant factors of the two devices such as user friendliness and connectivity were also evaluated and compared. Results Both systems correctly identified the vast majority (98%) of the isolates to the genus level. Vitek MS reached higher rates of identification to species and species complex level than Microflex LT (81% vs. 85% and 87% vs. 93%, respectively), which was mainly based on the higher performance among coagulase negative staphylococci and Candida isolates. The evaluation of user friendliness and other technical aspects showed only marginal differences, which slightly favored Vitek MS, mainly due to its ready-to-use supplies, easier connectivity and workflow integration, and availability of local technical support. Conclusions Both MALDI-TOF MS systems permitted fast and accurate identification of most microbial strains and showed a high level of user-friendliness. The observed differences were marginal and slightly favored Vitek MS, mainly due to practicality and connectivity issues within

  4. A head-to-head hands-on comparison of ERCP mechanical simulator (EMS) and Ex-vivo Porcine Stomach Model (PSM)

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Joseph W; Wang, Dong; Hu, Bing; Lim, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Background ERCP mechanical simulator (EMS) and ex-vivo porcine stomach model (PSM) have been described. No direct comparison was reported on endoscopists' perception regarding their efficacy for ERCP training Objective Comparative assessment of EMS and PSM. Design Questionnaire survey before and after practice. Setting Hands-on practice workshops. Subjects 22 endoscopists with prior experience in 111±225 (mean±SD) ERCP. Interventions Participants performed scope insertion, selective bile duct cannulation with guide wire and insertion of a single biliary stent. Simulated fluoroscopy with external pin-hole camera (EMS), or with additional transillumination (PSM) was used to monitor exchange of accessories. Main outcome measure Participants rated their understanding and confidence before and after hands-on practice, and credibility of each simulator for ERCP training. Comparative efficacy of EMS and PSM for ERCP education was scored (1=not, 10=very) based on pre and post practice surveys: realism (tissue pliability, papilla anatomy, visual/cannulation realism, wire manipulation, simulated fluoroscopy, overall experience); usefulness (assessment of results, supplementing clinical experience, easy for trainees to learn new skills) and application (overall ease of use, prepare trainees to use real instrument and ease of incorporation into training). Results Before hands-on practice, both EMS and PSM received high scores. After practice, there was a significantly greater increase in confidence score for EMS than PSM (p<0.003). Participants found EMS more useful for training (p=0.017). Limitations: Subjective scores. Conclusions Based on head-to-head hands-on comparison, endoscopists considered both EMS and PSM credible options for improving understanding and supplementing clinical ERCP training. EMS is more useful for basic learning. PMID:22163080

  5. Reporting Randomized Controlled Trials in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Grant, Sean; Montgomery, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are increasingly used to evaluate programs and interventions in order to inform education policy and practice. High quality reports of these RCTs are needed for interested readers to understand the rigor of the study, the interventions tested, and the context in which the evaluation took place (Mayo-Wilson et…

  6. Recruiting Participants for Randomized Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, H. Alix; Roschelle, Jeremy; Feng, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to look across strategies used in a wide range of studies to build a framework for researchers to use in conceptualizing the recruitment process. This paper harvests lessons learned across 19 randomized controlled trials in K-12 school settings conducted by a leading research organization to identify strategies that…

  7. Nonantibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Beerepoot, M A J; Geerlings, S E; van Haarst, E P; van Charante, N Mensing; ter Riet, G

    2013-12-01

    immunostimulant OM-89 is promising. Although sometimes statistically significant, pooled findings for the other interventions should be considered tentative until corroborated by more research. Large head-to-head trials should be performed to optimally inform clinical decision making. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A pilot randomized controlled trial of deprescribing.

    PubMed

    Beer, Christopher; Loh, Poh-Kooi; Peng, Yan Gee; Potter, Kathleen; Millar, Alasdair

    2011-04-01

    Polypharmacy and adverse drug reactions are frequent and important among older people. Few clinical trials have evaluated systematic withdrawal of medications among older people. This small, open, study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a randomized controlled deprescribing trial. Ten volunteers living in the community (recruited by media advertising) and 25 volunteers living in residential aged-care facilities (RCFs) were randomized to intervention or control groups. The intervention was gradual withdrawal of one target medication. The primary outcome was the number of intervention participants in whom medication withdrawal could be achieved. Other outcomes measures were quality of life, medication adherence, sleep quality, and cognitive impairment. Participants were aged 80 ± 11 years and were taking 9 ± 2 medications. Fifteen participants commenced medication withdrawal and all ceased or reduced the dose of their target medication. Two subjects withdrew; one was referred for clinical review, and one participant declined further dose reductions. A randomized controlled trial of deprescribing was acceptable to participants. Recruitment in RCFs is feasible. Definitive trials of deprescribing are required.

  9. DUrable polymer-based sTent CHallenge of Promus ElemEnt versus ReSolute integrity (DUTCH PEERS): rationale and study design of a randomized multicenter trial in a Dutch all-comers population.

    PubMed

    Tandjung, Kenneth; Basalus, Mounir W Z; Sen, Hanim; Jessurun, Gillian A J; Danse, Peter W; Stoel, Martin; Linssen, Gerard C M; Derks, Anita; van Loenhout, Ton T; Nienhuis, Mark B; Hautvast, Raymond W M; von Birgelen, Clemens

    2012-04-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DES) are increasingly used for the treatment of coronary artery disease. An optimized DES performance is desirable to successfully treat various challenging coronary lesions in a broad population of patients. In response to this demand, third-generation DES with an improved deliverability were developed. Promus Element (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA) and Resolute Integrity (Medtronic Vascular, Santa Rosa, CA) are 2 novel third-generation DES for which limited clinical data are available. Accordingly, we designed the current multicenter study to investigate in an all-comers population whether the clinical outcome is similar after stenting with Promus Element versus Resolute Integrity. DUTCH PEERS is a multicenter, prospective, single-blinded, randomized trial in a Dutch all-comers population. Patients with all clinical syndromes who require percutaneous coronary interventions with DES implantation are eligible. In these patients, the type of DES implanted will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio between Resolute Integrity versus Promus Element. The trial is powered based on a noninferiority hypothesis. For each stent arm, 894 patients will be enrolled, resulting in a total study population of 1,788 patients. The primary end point is the incidence of target vessel failure at 1-year follow-up. DUTCH PEERS is the first randomized multicenter trial with a head-to-head comparison of Promus Element and Resolute Integrity to investigate the safety and efficacy of these third-generation DES. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 64Cu-DOTATATE PET for Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Prospective Head-to-Head Comparison with 111In-DTPA-Octreotide in 112 Patients.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Andreas; Knigge, Ulrich; Binderup, Tina; Mortensen, Jann; Oturai, Peter; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Langer, Seppo W; Rasmussen, Palle; Elema, Dennis; von Benzon, Eric; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can be visualized using radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. We have previously shown the clinical potential of (64)Cu-DOTATATE in a small first-in-human feasibility study. The aim of the present study was, in a larger prospective design, to compare on a head-to-head basis the performance of (64)Cu-DOTATATE and (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-octreotide ((111)In-DTPA-OC) as a basis for implementing (64)Cu-DOTATATE as a routine. We prospectively enrolled 112 patients with pathologically confirmed NETs of gastroenteropancreatic or pulmonary origin. All patients underwent both PET/CT with (64)Cu-DOTATATE and SPECT/CT with (111)In-DTPA-OC within 60 d. PET scans were acquired 1 h after injection of 202 MBq (range, 183-232 MBq) of (64)Cu-DOTATATE after a diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT scan. Patients were followed for 42-60 mo for evaluation of discrepant imaging findings. The McNemar test was used to compare the diagnostic performance. Eighty-seven patients were congruently PET- and SPECT-positive. No SPECT-positive cases were PET-negative, whereas 10 false-negative SPECT cases were identified using PET. The diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy of (64)Cu-DOTATATE (97% for both) were significantly better than those of (111)In-DTPA-OC (87% and 88%, respectively, P = 0.017). In 84 patients (75%), (64)Cu-DOTATATE identified more lesions than (111)In-DTPA-OC and always at least as many. In total, twice as many lesions were detected with (64)Cu-DOTATATE than with (111)In-DTPA-OC. Moreover, in 40 of 112 cases (36%) lesions were detected by (64)Cu-DOTATATE in organs not identified as disease-involved by (111)In-DTPA-OC. With these results, we demonstrate that (64)Cu-DOTATATE is far superior to (111)In-DTPA-OC in diagnostic performance in NET patients. Therefore, we do not hesitate to recommend implementation of (64)Cu-DOTATATE as a replacement for (111)In-DTPA-OC. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  11. [Antepartum perineal massage: review of randomized trials].

    PubMed

    Vendittelli, F; Tabaste, J L; Janky, E

    2001-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of ante partum perineal massage to reduce the number of perineal injuries and episiotomies through a survey of the existing literature. [corrected] A search both in English and French on randomized clinical trials using the Medline and Cochrane Library databases. The key words: "Perineum", "massage", "perineum injuries", "randomized controlled trial" were selected from the years 1966 to November 2000. Four randomized controlled trials were found. The definition of the selected issues, as well as the included and excluded criteria varied according to the authors. Perineal massages seemed to reduce the occurrence of perineal injuries and episiotomies, mostly among primipara: Labrecque et al. in 1999, noted an OR of 0.56; 95% CI: 0.61-1.31 and at the opposite an increased rate of intact perineum in the massage group (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.27-2.52]; and Shipman et al. in 1997 stressed among women of > or = 30 years old an augmentation of intact perineum in the intervention group (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.08-3.48), and in the logistic regression taking into account age and birth weight they found a reduction of episiotomies and important perineal injuries (p = 0.02). Ante partum perineal massages would seem valid but further studies would be necessary to evaluate the utility of this intervention in the avoidance of serious perineal injuries and the women's satisfaction.

  12. MRI versus breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) in newly diagnosed ductal cell carcinoma-in-situ: a prospective head-to-head trial.

    PubMed

    Keto, Jessica L; Kirstein, Laurie; Sanchez, Diana P; Fulop, Tamara; McPartland, Laura; Cohen, Ilona; Boolbol, Susan K

    2012-01-01

    Mammography remains the standard imaging technique for the diagnosis of ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS). Functional breast imaging, including breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has known limitations in evaluating DCIS. To date, there are limited data on the utility of breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) in DCIS. We sought to prospectively compare the sensitivity of BSGI to MRI in newly diagnosed DCIS patients. Patients with newly diagnosed DCIS from June 1, 2009, through May 31, 2010, underwent a protocol with both breast MRI and BSGI. Each imaging study was read by a separate dedicated breast radiologist. Patients were excluded if excisional biopsy was performed for diagnosis, if their MRI was performed at an outside facility, or if final pathology revealed invasive carcinoma. There were 18 patients enrolled onto the study that had both MRI and BSGI for newly diagnosed DCIS. The sensitivity for MRI was 94% and for BSGI was 89% (P > 0.5, NS). There was one index tumor not seen on either MRI or BSGI, and one index tumor seen on MRI but not visualized on BSGI. Although BSGI has previously been shown to be as sensitive as MRI for detecting known invasive breast carcinoma, this study shows that BSGI is equally as sensitive as MRI at detecting newly diagnosed DCIS. As a result of the limited number of patients enrolled onto the study, larger prospective studies need to be performed to determine the true sensitivity and specificity of BSGI.

  13. Alternatives to the Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    West, Stephen G.; Duan, Naihua; Pequegnat, Willo; Gaist, Paul; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Holtgrave, David; Szapocznik, José; Fishbein, Martin; Rapkin, Bruce; Clatts, Michael; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2008-01-01

    Public health researchers are addressing new research questions (e.g., effects of environmental tobacco smoke, Hurricane Katrina) for which the randomized controlled trial (RCT) may not be a feasible option. Drawing on the potential outcomes framework (Rubin Causal Model) and Campbellian perspectives, we consider alternative research designs that permit relatively strong causal inferences. In randomized encouragement designs, participants are randomly invited to participate in one of the treatment conditions, but are allowed to decide whether to receive treatment. In quantitative assignment designs, treatment is assigned on the basis of a quantitative measure (e.g., need, merit, risk). In observational studies, treatment assignment is unknown and presumed to be nonrandom. Major threats to the validity of each design and statistical strategies for mitigating those threats are presented. PMID:18556609

  14. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bekkali, Noor L H; Hoekman, Daniël R; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E J; van Wijk, Michiel P; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G P; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A

    2018-01-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes (PEG4000). In this double-blind trial, children aged 0.5 to 16 years with constipation, defined as a defecation frequency of <3 times per week, were randomized to receive either PEG3350 + E or PEG4000. Primary outcomes were change in total sum score (TSS) at week 52 compared to baseline, and dose range determination. TSS was the sum of the severity of 5 constipation symptoms rated on a 4-point scale (0-3). Noninferiority margin was a difference in TSS of ≤1.5 based on a 95%-confidence interval [CI]. Treatment success was defined as a defecation frequency of ≥3 per week with <1 episode of fecal incontinence. Ninety-seven subjects were included, of whom 82 completed the study. Mean reduction in TSS was -3.81 (95% CI: -4.96 to -2.65) and -3.74 (95%CI: -5.08 to -2.40), for PEG3350 + E and PEG4000, respectively. Noninferiority criteria were not met (maximum difference between groups: -1.81 to 1.68). Daily sachet use was: 0 to 2 years: 0.4 to 2.3 and 0.9 to 2.1; 2 to 4 years: 0.1 to 3.5 and 1.2 to 3.2; 4 to 8 years: 1.1 to 2.8 and 0.7 to 3.8; 8 to 16 years 0.6 to 3.7 and 1.0 to 3.7, in PEG3350 + E and PEG4000, respectively. Treatment success after 52 weeks was achieved in 50% and 45% of children, respectively (P = 0.69). Rates of adverse events were similar between groups, and no drug-related serious adverse events occurred. Noninferiority regarding long-term constipation-related symptoms of PEG3350 + E compared to PEG4000 was not demonstrated. However, analysis of secondary outcomes suggests similar efficacy and safety of these agents.

  15. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bekkali, Noor L.H.; Hoekman, Daniël R.; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E.J.; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A.; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G.P.; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes (PEG4000). Methods: In this double-blind trial, children aged 0.5 to 16 years with constipation, defined as a defecation frequency of <3 times per week, were randomized to receive either PEG3350 + E or PEG4000. Primary outcomes were change in total sum score (TSS) at week 52 compared to baseline, and dose range determination. TSS was the sum of the severity of 5 constipation symptoms rated on a 4-point scale (0–3). Noninferiority margin was a difference in TSS of ≤1.5 based on a 95%-confidence interval [CI]. Treatment success was defined as a defecation frequency of ≥3 per week with <1 episode of fecal incontinence. Results: Ninety-seven subjects were included, of whom 82 completed the study. Mean reduction in TSS was −3.81 (95% CI: −4.96 to −2.65) and −3.74 (95%CI: −5.08 to −2.40), for PEG3350 + E and PEG4000, respectively. Noninferiority criteria were not met (maximum difference between groups: −1.81 to 1.68). Daily sachet use was: 0 to 2 years: 0.4 to 2.3 and 0.9 to 2.1; 2 to 4 years: 0.1 to 3.5 and 1.2 to 3.2; 4 to 8 years: 1.1 to 2.8 and 0.7 to 3.8; 8 to 16 years 0.6 to 3.7 and 1.0 to 3.7, in PEG3350 + E and PEG4000, respectively. Treatment success after 52 weeks was achieved in 50% and 45% of children, respectively (P = 0.69). Rates of adverse events were similar between groups, and no drug-related serious adverse events occurred. Conclusions: Noninferiority regarding long-term constipation-related symptoms of PEG3350 + E compared to PEG4000 was not demonstrated. However, analysis of secondary outcomes suggests similar efficacy and safety of these agents. PMID:28906317

  16. Hydrochlorothiazide and alternative diuretics versus renin-angiotensin system inhibitors for the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy: a head-to-head meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Roush, George C; Abdelfattah, Ramy; Song, Steven; Kostis, John B; Ernst, Michael E; Sica, Domenic A

    2018-06-01

    Found in 36-41% of hypertension, elevated left ventricular mass (LVM) independently predicts cardiovascular events and total mortality. Conversely, drug-induced regression of LVM predicts improved outcomes. Previous studies have favored renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs) over other antihypertensives for reducing LVM but ignored differences among thiazide-type diuretics. From evidence regarding potency, cardiovascular events, and electrolytes, we hypothesized a priori that 'CHIP' diuretics [CHlorthalidone, Indapamide and Potassium-sparing Diuretic/hydrochlorothiazide (PSD/HCTZ)] would rival RASIs for reducing LVM. Systematic review yielded 12 relevant double-blind randomized trials. CHIPs were more closely associated with reduced LVM than HCTZ (P = 0.004), indicating that RASIs must be compared with each diuretic separately. Publication bias favoring RASIs was corrected by cumulative analysis. For reducing LVM, HCTZ tended to be less effective than RASIs. However, the following surpassed RASIs: chlorthalidone Hedge's G: -0.37 (95% CI -0.72 to -0.02), P = 0.036; indapamide -0.20 (-0.39 to -0.01), P = 0.035; all CHIPs combined (with 61% of patients in one trial) -0.25 (-0.41to -0.09), P = 0.002. Statistical significance (P < 0.05) did not depend on any one trial. CHIPs reduction in LVM was 37% greater than that from RASIs. CHIPs superiority tended to increase with trial duration, from a negligible effect at 0.5 year to a maximal effect at 0.9-1.0 years: -0.26 (-0.43 to -0.09), P = 0.003. Fifty-eight percent of patients had information on echocardiographic components of LVM: relative to RASIs, CHIPs significantly reduced end-diastolic LV internal dimension (EDLVID): -0.18 (-0.36 to -0.00), P = 0.046. Strength of evidence favoring CHIPs over RASIs was at least moderate. In these novel results in patients with hypertension, CHIPs surpassed RASIs for reducing LVM and EDLVID.

  17. Effects of Statin Treatment on Inflammation and Cardiac Function in Heart Failure: An Adjusted Indirect Comparison Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Bonsu, Kwadwo Osei; Reidpath, Daniel Diamond; Kadirvelu, Amudha

    2015-12-01

    Statins are known to prevent heart failure (HF). However, it is unclear whether statins as class or type (lipophilic or hydrophilic) improve outcomes of established HF. The current meta-analysis was performed to compare the treatment effects of lipophilic and hydrophilic statins on inflammation and cardiac function in HF. Outcomes were indicators of cardiac function [changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)] and inflammation [changes in highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interluekin-6 (IL-6)]. We conducted a search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane databases until December 31, 2014 for randomized control trials (RCTs) of statin versus placebo in patients with HF. RCTs with their respective extracted information were dichotomized into statin type evaluated and analyzed separately. Outcomes were pooled with random effect approach, producing standardized mean differences (SMD) for each statin type. Using these pooled estimates, we performed adjusted indirect comparisons for each outcome. Data from 6214 patients from 19 trials were analyzed. Lipophilic statin was superior to hydrophilic statin treatment regarding follow-up LVEF (SMD, 4.54; 95% CI, 4.16-4.91; P < 0.001), BNP (SMD, -1.60; 95% CI, -2.56 to -0.65; P < 0.001), hsCRP (SMD, -1.13; 95% CI, -1.54 to -0.72; P < 0.001), and IL-6 (SMD, -3.75; 95% CI, -4.77 to -0.72; P < 0.001) in HF. Lipophilic statin produces greater treatment effects on cardiac function and inflammation compared with hydrophilic statin in patients with HF. Until data from adequately powered head-to-head trial of the statin types are available, our meta-analysis brings clinicians and researchers a step closer to the quest on which statin--lipophilic or hydrophilic--is associated with better outcomes in HF. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Epilepsy and Neuromodulation—Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Churl-Su; Ripa, Valeria; Al-Awar, Omar; Panov, Fedor; Ghatan, Saadi; Jetté, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    Neuromodulation is a treatment strategy that is increasingly being utilized in those suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy who are not appropriate for resective surgery. The number of double-blinded RCTs demonstrating the efficacy of neurostimulation in persons with epilepsy is increasing. Although reductions in seizure frequency is common in these trials, obtaining seizure freedom is rare. Invasive neuromodulation procedures (DBS, VNS, and RNS) have been approved as therapeutic measures. However, further investigations are necessary to delineate effective targeting, minimize side effects that are related to chronic implantation and to improve the cost effectiveness of these devices. The RCTs of non-invasive modes of neuromodulation whilst showing much promise (tDCS, eTNS, rTMS), require larger powered studies as well as studies that focus at better targeting techniques. We provide a review of double-blinded randomized clinical trials that have been conducted for neuromodulation in epilepsy. PMID:29670050

  19. Empirical likelihood inference in randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Biao

    2017-01-01

    In individually randomized controlled trials, in addition to the primary outcome, information is often available on a number of covariates prior to randomization. This information is frequently utilized to undertake adjustment for baseline characteristics in order to increase precision of the estimation of average treatment effects; such adjustment is usually performed via covariate adjustment in outcome regression models. Although the use of covariate adjustment is widely seen as desirable for making treatment effect estimates more precise and the corresponding hypothesis tests more powerful, there are considerable concerns that objective inference in randomized clinical trials can potentially be compromised. In this paper, we study an empirical likelihood approach to covariate adjustment and propose two unbiased estimating functions that automatically decouple evaluation of average treatment effects from regression modeling of covariate-outcome relationships. The resulting empirical likelihood estimator of the average treatment effect is as efficient as the existing efficient adjusted estimators 1 when separate treatment-specific working regression models are correctly specified, yet are at least as efficient as the existing efficient adjusted estimators 1 for any given treatment-specific working regression models whether or not they coincide with the true treatment-specific covariate-outcome relationships. We present a simulation study to compare the finite sample performance of various methods along with some results on analysis of a data set from an HIV clinical trial. The simulation results indicate that the proposed empirical likelihood approach is more efficient and powerful than its competitors when the working covariate-outcome relationships by treatment status are misspecified.

  20. [Lower Uterine Segment Trial: A pragmatic open multicenter randomized trial].

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, P; Deruelle, P; Sénat, M-V; Desbrière, R; Winer, N; Simon, E; Ville, Y; Kayem, G; Boutron, I

    2018-04-01

    The data from literature show that trial of labor and elective repeat cesarean delivery after a prior cesarean delivery both present significant risks and benefits, and these risks and benefits differ for the woman and her fetus. The benefits to the woman can be at the expense of her fetus and vice-versa. This uncertainty is compounded by the scarcity of high-level evidence that preclude accurate quantification of the risks and benefits that could help provide a fair counseling about a trial of labor and elective repeat cesarean delivery. An interesting way of research is to evaluate the potential benefits of a decision rule associated to the ultrasound measurement of the lower uterine segment (LUS). Indeed, ultrasonography may be helpful in determining a specific risk for a given patient by measuring the thickness of the LUS, i,e, the thickness of the cesarean delivery scar area. Although only small and often methodologically biased data have been published, they look promising as their results are concordant: ultrasonographic measurements of the LUS thickness is highly correlated with the intraoperative findings at cesarean delivery. Furthermore, the thinner the LUS becomes on ultrasound, the higher the likelihood of a defect in the LUS. Finally, ultrasound assessment of LUS has an excellent negative predictive value for the risk of uterine defect. Therefore, this exam associated with a rule of decision could help to reduce the rate of elective repeat cesarean delivery and especially to reduce the fetal and maternal mortality and morbidity related to trial of labor after a prior cesarean delivery. This is a pragmatic open multicenter randomized trial with two parallel arms. Randomization will be centralized and computerized. Since blindness is impossible, an adjudication committee will evaluate the components of the primary composite outcome in order to avoid evaluation bias. An interim analysis will be planned mid-strength of the trial. Ultrasound will be

  1. Costs Associated With Intravenous Darbepoetin Versus Epoetin Therapy in Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Woodland, Andrea L.; Murphy, Sean W.; Curtis, Bryan M.; Barrett, Brendan J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anemia of chronic kidney disease is associated with adverse outcomes and a reduced quality of life. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have improved anemia management, and 2 agents are available in Canada, epoetin alfa (EPO) and darbepoetin alfa (DA). EPO and DA are considered equally effective in achieving target hemoglobin (Hb), but it is not clear whether there is a cost difference. There have been few head-to-head comparisons; most published studies are observational switch studies. Objective: To compare the cost of DA and EPO and to determine the dose conversion ratio over a 12-month period. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Canadian outpatient hemodialysis center. Patients: Eligible patients were adult hemodialysis patients requiring ESA therapy. Measurements: The primary outcome was ESA cost (Can$) per patient over 12 months. Secondary outcomes included the dose conversion ratio, deviation from target ranges in anemia indices, iron dose and cost, and time and number of dose changes. Methods: An open-label randomized controlled trial of intravenous (IV) DA versus EPO was conducted in 50 hemodialysis patients. Participants underwent a minimum 6-week run-in phase followed by a 12-month active study phase. ESA and iron were dosed using a study algorithm. Results: The median cost was $4179 (interquartile range [IQR]: $2416-$5955) for EPO and $2303 (IQR: $1178-$4219) for DA with a difference of $1876 (P = .02). The dose conversion ratio was 280:1 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 197-362:1) at the end of the run-in phase, 360:1 (95% CI: 262-457:1) at the 3-month point of the active phase, and 382:1 (95% CI: 235-529:1) at the 6-month point of the active phase. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in weekly iron dose, Hb, serum ferritin, or transferrin saturation. The number of dose changes and the time to Hb stability were similar. Limitations: Results may not be generalizable to hemodialysis units without algorithm

  2. Treatment refusal and premature termination in psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and their combination: A meta-analysis of head-to-head comparisons.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Greenberg, Roger P; Tompkins, Kelley A; Parkin, Susannah R

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine rates of treatment refusal and premature termination for pharmacotherapy alone, psychotherapy alone, pharmacotherapy plus psychotherapy, and psychotherapy plus pill placebo treatments. A systematic review of the literature resulted in 186 comparative trials that included a report of treatment refusal and/or premature termination for at least 2 of the 4 treatment conditions. The data from these studies were pooled using a random-effects analysis. Odds Ratio effect sizes were then calculated to compare the rates between treatment conditions, once across all studies and then again for specific client disorder categories. An average treatment refusal rate of 8.2% was found across studies. Clients who were assigned to pharmacotherapy were 1.76 times more likely to refuse treatment compared with clients who were assigned psychotherapy. Differences in refusal rates for pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy were particularly evident for depressive disorders, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder. On average, 21.9% of clients prematurely terminated their treatment. Across studies, clients who were assigned to pharmacotherapy were 1.20 times more likely to drop out compared with clients who were assigned to psychotherapy. Pharmacotherapy clients with anorexia/bulimia and depressive disorders dropped out at higher rates compared with psychotherapy clients with these disorders. Treatment refusal and dropout are significant problems in both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy and providers of these treatments should seek to employ strategies to reduce their occurrence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Mobile access to virtual randomization for investigator-initiated trials.

    PubMed

    Deserno, Thomas M; Keszei, András P

    2017-08-01

    Background/aims Randomization is indispensable in clinical trials in order to provide unbiased treatment allocation and a valid statistical inference. Improper handling of allocation lists can be avoided using central systems, for example, human-based services. However, central systems are unaffordable for investigator-initiated trials and might be inaccessible from some places, where study subjects need allocations. We propose mobile access to virtual randomization, where the randomization lists are non-existent and the appropriate allocation is computed on demand. Methods The core of the system architecture is an electronic data capture system or a clinical trial management system, which is extended by an R interface connecting the R server using the Java R Interface. Mobile devices communicate via the representational state transfer web services. Furthermore, a simple web-based setup allows configuring the appropriate statistics by non-statisticians. Our comprehensive R script supports simple randomization, restricted randomization using a random allocation rule, block randomization, and stratified randomization for un-blinded, single-blinded, and double-blinded trials. For each trial, the electronic data capture system or the clinical trial management system stores the randomization parameters and the subject assignments. Results Apps are provided for iOS and Android and subjects are randomized using smartphones. After logging onto the system, the user selects the trial and the subject, and the allocation number and treatment arm are displayed instantaneously and stored in the core system. So far, 156 subjects have been allocated from mobile devices serving five investigator-initiated trials. Conclusion Transforming pre-printed allocation lists into virtual ones ensures the correct conduct of trials and guarantees a strictly sequential processing in all trial sites. Covering 88% of all randomization models that are used in recent trials, virtual randomization

  4. Resistant hypertension optimal treatment trial: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Eduardo M; Drager, Luciano F; Giorgi, Dante Marcelo Artigas; Krieger, Jose Eduardo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Barreto-Filho, José Augusto Soares; da Rocha Nogueira, Armando; Mill, José Geraldo

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of resistant hypertension (ReHy) is not well established. Furthermore, diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers are largely used as the first 3-drug combinations for treating ReHy. However, the fourth drug to be added to the triple regimen is still controversial and guided by empirical choices. We sought (1) to determine the prevalence of ReHy in patients with stage II hypertension; (2) to compare the effects of spironolactone vs clonidine, when added to the triple regimen; and (3) to evaluate the role of measuring sympathetic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activities in predicting blood pressure response to spironolactone or clonidine. The Resistant Hypertension Optimal Treatment (ReHOT) study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01643434) is a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial comprising 26 sites in Brazil. In step 1, 2000 patients will be treated according to hypertension guidelines for 12 weeks, to detect the prevalence of ReHy. Medical therapy adherence will be checked by pill count monitoring. In step 2, patients with confirmed ReHy will be randomized to an open label 3-month treatment with spironolactone (titrating dose, 12.5-50 mg once daily) or clonidine (titrating dose, 0.1-0.3 mg twice daily). The primary endpoint is the effective control of blood pressure after a 12-week randomized period of treatment. The ReHOT study will disseminate results about the prevalence of ReHy in stage II hypertension and the comparison of spironolactone vs clonidine for blood pressure control in patients with ReHy under 3-drug standard regimen. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Head-to-head comparison of ranibizumab PRN versus single-dose dexamethasone for branch retinal vein occlusion (COMRADE-B).

    PubMed

    Hattenbach, Lars-Olof; Feltgen, Nicolas; Bertelmann, Thomas; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Berk, Hüsnü; Eter, Nicole; Lang, Gabriele E; Rehak, Matus; Taylor, Simon R; Wolf, Armin; Weiss, Claudia; Paulus, Eva-Maria; Pielen, Amelie; Hoerauf, Hans

    2018-02-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of ranibizumab 0.5 mg versus dexamethasone 0.7 mg according to their European labels in macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in a 6-month, phase IIIb, randomized trial. Patients received either monthly ranibizumab for 3 months followed by Pro re nata (PRN) treatment (n = 126) or a sustained-release dexamethasone implant followed by PRN sham injections (n = 118). Main outcomes were mean average change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline to month 1 through month 6, mean changes in BCVA and foveal centre point thickness (FCPT), and adverse events (AEs). There was no difference in BCVA gains between the treatments prior to month 3. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) gain with dexamethasone declined thereafter. From month 3 to month 6, mean BCVA change from baseline was significantly higher with ranibizumab than with dexamethasone [raw means (standard deviation):+16.2 (±11) letters versus +9.3 (±10.1) letters]. At month 6, the difference in BCVA gains from baseline was +17.3 letters in the ranibizumab versus +9.2 letters in the dexamethasone group. Patients in the ranibizumab group received a mean of 2.94 loading injections and 1.74 PRN retreatment injections, while those in the dexamethasone group received a single loading injection. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and AEs were more frequent with dexamethasone than ranibizumab treatment. Ranibizumab PRN resulted in greater visual acuity (VA) gains in macular oedema following BRVO compared with single-dose dexamethasone over a 6-month study period, observed from month 3, when administered according to their European label. In clinical practice, retreatment with dexamethasone may be required prior to this point. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparing parecoxib and ketorolac as preemptive analgesia in patients undergoing posterior lumbar spinal fusion: a prospective randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Siribumrungwong, Koopong; Cheewakidakarn, Julin; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin; Nimmaanrat, Sasikaan

    2015-03-18

    Poor postoperative pain control is frequently associated with complications and delayed discharge from a hospital. Preemptive analgesia is one of the methods suggested for reducing postoperative pain. Opioids are effective for pain control, but there known addictive properties make physicians cautious about using them. Parecoxib and ketorolac are potent non-opioid NSAIDs that are attractive alternative drugs to opioids to avoid opioid-related side effects. However, there are no good head-to-head comparisons between these two drugs in the aspect of preemptive analgesic effects in lumbar spinal fusion surgery. This study aimed to compare the efficacy in terms of postoperative pain control and safety of parecoxib with ketorolac as preemptive analgesia in posterior lumbar spinal fusion patients. A prospective, double-blinded randomized controlled trial was carried out in patients undergoing posterior lumbar spinal fusion, who were randomized into 3 groups (n = 32). Parecoxib, ketorolac or a placebo was given to each patient via injection around 30 minutes prior to incision. The efficacy of postoperative pain control was assessed by a verbal numerical rating score (0-10). And various postoperative things were monitored for analysis, such as total opioid consumption, complications, and estimated blood loss. Both the ketorolac and parecoxib groups showed significantly better early postoperative pain reduction at the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) than the control group (p < 0.05). There were no differences between the pain scores of ketorolac and parecoxib at any time points. Complications and bleeding were not significantly different between all three groups. Preemptive analgesia using both ketorolac and parecoxib showed a significantly better early postoperative pain control in the PACU than the control group in patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01859585. Registered 15 May 2013.

  7. Incidental genetic findings in randomized clinical trials: recommendations from the Genomics and Randomized Trials Network (GARNET)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recommendations and guidance on how to handle the return of genetic results to patients have offered limited insight into how to approach incidental genetic findings in the context of clinical trials. This paper provides the Genomics and Randomized Trials Network (GARNET) recommendations on incidental genetic findings in the context of clinical trials, and discusses the ethical and practical issues considered in formulating our recommendations. There are arguments in support of as well as against returning incidental genetic findings in clinical trials. For instance, reporting incidental findings in clinical trials may improve the investigator-participant relationship and the satisfaction of participation, but it may also blur the line between clinical care and research. The issues of whether and how to return incidental genetic findings, including the costs of doing so, should be considered when developing clinical trial protocols. Once decided, plans related to sharing individual results from the aim(s) of the trial, as well as incidental findings, should be discussed explicitly in the consent form. Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and other study-specific governing bodies should be part of the decision as to if, when, and how to return incidental findings, including when plans in this regard are being reconsidered. PMID:23363732

  8. Juvenile Justice-Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS): a cluster randomized trial targeting system-wide improvement in substance use services.

    PubMed

    Knight, Danica K; Belenko, Steven; Wiley, Tisha; Robertson, Angela A; Arrigona, Nancy; Dennis, Michael; Bartkowski, John P; McReynolds, Larkin S; Becan, Jennifer E; Knudsen, Hannah K; Wasserman, Gail A; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph; Leukefeld, Carl

    2016-04-29

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Juvenile Justice-Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS) study, a cooperative implementation science initiative involving the National Institute on Drug Abuse, six research centers, a coordinating center, and Juvenile Justice Partners representing seven US states. While the pooling of resources across centers enables a robust implementation study design involving 36 juvenile justice agencies and their behavioral health partner agencies, co-producing a study protocol that has potential to advance implementation science, meets the needs of all constituencies (funding agency, researchers, partners, study sites), and can be implemented with fidelity across the cooperative can be challenging. This paper describes (a) the study background and rationale, including the juvenile justice context and best practices for substance use disorders, (b) the selection and use of an implementation science framework to guide study design and inform selection of implementation components, and (c) the specific study design elements, including research questions, implementation interventions, measurement, and analytic plan. The JJ-TRIALS primary study uses a head-to-head cluster randomized trial with a phased rollout to evaluate the differential effectiveness of two conditions (Core and Enhanced) in 36 sites located in seven states. A Core strategy for promoting change is compared to an Enhanced strategy that incorporates all core strategies plus active facilitation. Target outcomes include improvements in evidence-based screening, assessment, and linkage to substance use treatment. Contributions to implementation science are discussed as well as challenges associated with designing and deploying a complex, collaborative project. NCT02672150 .

  9. Do randomized controlled trials discuss healthcare costs?

    PubMed

    Allan, G Michael; Korownyk, Christina; LaSalle, Kate; Vandermeer, Ben; Ma, Victoria; Klein, Douglas; Manca, Donna

    2010-08-23

    Healthcare costs, particularly pharmaceutical costs, are a dominant issue for most healthcare organizations, but it is unclear if randomized controlled trials (RCTs) routinely discuss costs. Our objective was to assess the frequency and factors associated with the inclusion of costs in RCTs. We randomly sampled 188 RCTs spanning three years (2003-2005) from six high impact journals. The sample size for RCTs was based on a calculation to estimate the inclusion of actual drug costs with a precision of +/-3%. Two reviewers independently extracted cost data and study characteristics. Frequencies were calculated and potential characteristics associated with the inclusion of costs were explored. Actual drug costs were included in 4.7% (9/188) of RCTs; any actual costs were included in 7.4% (14/188) of RCTs; and any mention of costs was included in 27.7% (52/188) of RCTs. As the amount of industry funding increased across RCTs, from non-profit to mixed to fully industry funded RCTs, there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of RCTs with any actual costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.005) and any mention of costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.02). Logistic regression analysis also indicated funding was associated with the inclusion of any actual cost (OR = 0.34, p = 0.009) or any mention of costs (OR = 0.63, p = 0.02). Journal, study conclusions, study location, primary author's country and product age were not associated with inclusion of cost information. While physicians are encouraged to consider costs when prescribing drugs for their patients, actual drug costs were provided in only 5% of RCTs and were not mentioned at all in 72% of RCTs. Industry funded trials were less likely to include cost information. No other factors were associated with the inclusion of cost information.

  10. Efficacy and acceptability of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) versus electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for major depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Berlim, Marcelo T; Van den Eynde, Frederique; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2013-07-01

    Clinical trials comparing the efficacy and acceptability of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for treating major depression (MD) have yielded conflicting results. As this may have been the result of limited statistical power, we have carried out this meta-analysis to examine this issue. We searched the literature for randomized trials on head-to-head comparisons between HF-rTMS and ECT from January 1995 through September 2012 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and SCOPUS. The main outcome measures were remission rates, pre-post changes in depression ratings, as well as overall dropout rates at study end. We used a random-effects model, Odds Ratios (OR), Number Needed to Treat (NNT), and Hedges' g effect sizes. Data were obtained from 7 randomized trials, totalling 294 subjects with MD. After an average of 15.2 HF-rTMS and 8.2 ECT sessions, 33.6% (38/113) and 52% (53/102) of subjects were classified as remitters (OR = 0.46; p = 0.04), respectively. The associated NNT for remission was 6 and favoured ECT. Also, reduction of depressive symptomatology was significantly more pronounced in the ECT group (Hedges' g = -0.93; p = 0.007). No differences on dropout rates for HF-rTMS and ECT groups were found. In conclusion, ECT seems to be more effective than HF-rTMS for treating MD, although they did not differ in terms of dropout rates. Nevertheless, future comparative trials with larger sample sizes and better matching at baseline, longer follow-ups and more intense stimulation protocols are warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Framework for Designing Cluster Randomized Trials with Binary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spybrook, Jessaca; Martinez, Andres

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a frame work for approaching a power analysis for a CRT (cluster randomized trial) with a binary outcome. The authors suggest a framework in the context of a simple CRT and then extend it to a blocked design, or a multi-site cluster randomized trial (MSCRT). The framework is based on proportions, an…

  12. Biologic agents in rheumatology: unmet issues after 200 trials and $200 billion sales.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A; Karassa, Fotini B; Druyts, Eric; Thorlund, Kristian; Mills, Edward J

    2013-11-01

    Anti-TNF agents and other biologic therapies are widely prescribed for a variety of indications, with total sales that exceed $200 billion to date. In rheumatic diseases, biologic agents have now been studied in more than 200 randomized clinical trials and over 100 subsequent meta-analyses; however, the information obtained does not always meet the needs of patients and clinicians. In this Review, we discuss the current issues concerning the evidence derived from such studies: potential biases favouring positive results; a paucity of head-to-head comparisons between biologically active agents; overwhelming involvement of manufacturer sponsors in trials and in the synthesis of the evidence; the preference for trials with limited follow-up; and the potential for spurious findings on adverse events, leading to endless debates about malignancy risk. We debate the responsibilities of regulatory authorities, the pharmaceutical industry and academia in attempting to solve these shortcomings and challenges. We propose that improvements in the evidence regarding biologic treatments that are continually being added to the therapeutic armamentarium for rheumatic diseases might require revisiting the design and conduct of studies. For example, trials with long-term follow-up that are independent of the pharmaceutical industry, head-to-head comparisons of therapeutic agents and the use of rigorous clinical outcomes should be considered, and public availability of raw data endorsed.

  13. Randomized Trial of Thymectomy in Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, G.I.; Kaminski, H.J.; Aban, I.B.; Minisman, G.; Kuo, H.-C.; Marx, A.; Ströbel, P.; Mazia, C.; Oger, J.; Cea, J.G.; Heckmann, J.M.; Evoli, A.; Nix, W.; Ciafaloni, E.; Antonini, G.; Witoonpanich, R.; King, J.O.; Beydoun, S.R.; Chalk, C.H.; Barboi, A.C.; Amato, A.A.; Shaibani, A.I.; Katirji, B.; Lecky, B.R.F.; Buckley, C.; Vincent, A.; Dias-Tosta, E.; Yoshikawa, H.; Waddington-Cruz, M.; Pulley, M.T.; Rivner, M.H.; Kostera-Pruszczyk, A.; Pascuzzi, R.M.; Jackson, C.E.; Ramos, G.S. Garcia; Verschuuren, J.J.G.M.; Massey, J.M.; Kissel, J.T.; Werneck, L.C.; Benatar, M.; Barohn, R.J.; Tandan, R.; Mozaffar, T.; Conwit, R.; Odenkirchen, J.; Sonett, J.R.; Jaretzki, A.; Newsom-Davis, J.; Cutter, G.R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Thymectomy has been a mainstay in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, but there is no conclusive evidence of its benefit. We conducted a multicenter, randomized trial comparing thymectomy plus prednisone with prednisone alone. METHODS We compared extended transsternal thymectomy plus alternate-day prednisone with alternate-day prednisone alone. Patients 18 to 65 years of age who had generalized nonthymomatous myasthenia gravis with a disease duration of less than 5 years were included if they had Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America clinical class II to IV disease (on a scale from I to V, with higher classes indicating more severe disease) and elevated circulating concentrations of acetylcholine-receptor antibody. The primary outcomes were the time-weighted average Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis score (on a scale from 0 to 39, with higher scores indicating more severe disease) over a 3-year period, as assessed by means of blinded rating, and the time-weighted average required dose of prednisone over a 3-year period. RESULTS A total of 126 patients underwent randomization between 2006 and 2012 at 36 sites. Patients who underwent thymectomy had a lower time-weighted average Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis score over a 3-year period than those who received prednisone alone (6.15 vs. 8.99, P<0.001); patients in the thymectomy group also had a lower average requirement for alternate-day prednisone (44 mg vs. 60 mg, P<0.001). Fewer patients in the thymectomy group than in the prednisone-only group required immunosuppression with azathioprine (17% vs. 48%, P<0.001) or were hospitalized for exacerbations (9% vs. 37%, P<0.001). The number of patients with treatment-associated complications did not differ significantly between groups (P=0.73), but patients in the thymectomy group had fewer treatment-associated symptoms related to immunosuppressive medications (P<0.001) and lower distress levels related to symptoms (P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS Thymectomy improved

  14. Randomized Trial of Thymectomy in Myasthenia Gravis.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Gil I; Kaminski, Henry J; Aban, Inmaculada B; Minisman, Greg; Kuo, Hui-Chien; Marx, Alexander; Ströbel, Philipp; Mazia, Claudio; Oger, Joel; Cea, J Gabriel; Heckmann, Jeannine M; Evoli, Amelia; Nix, Wilfred; Ciafaloni, Emma; Antonini, Giovanni; Witoonpanich, Rawiphan; King, John O; Beydoun, Said R; Chalk, Colin H; Barboi, Alexandru C; Amato, Anthony A; Shaibani, Aziz I; Katirji, Bashar; Lecky, Bryan R F; Buckley, Camilla; Vincent, Angela; Dias-Tosta, Elza; Yoshikawa, Hiroaki; Waddington-Cruz, Márcia; Pulley, Michael T; Rivner, Michael H; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Pascuzzi, Robert M; Jackson, Carlayne E; Garcia Ramos, Guillermo S; Verschuuren, Jan J G M; Massey, Janice M; Kissel, John T; Werneck, Lineu C; Benatar, Michael; Barohn, Richard J; Tandan, Rup; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Conwit, Robin; Odenkirchen, Joanne; Sonett, Joshua R; Jaretzki, Alfred; Newsom-Davis, John; Cutter, Gary R

    2016-08-11

    Thymectomy has been a mainstay in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, but there is no conclusive evidence of its benefit. We conducted a multicenter, randomized trial comparing thymectomy plus prednisone with prednisone alone. We compared extended transsternal thymectomy plus alternate-day prednisone with alternate-day prednisone alone. Patients 18 to 65 years of age who had generalized nonthymomatous myasthenia gravis with a disease duration of less than 5 years were included if they had Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America clinical class II to IV disease (on a scale from I to V, with higher classes indicating more severe disease) and elevated circulating concentrations of acetylcholine-receptor antibody. The primary outcomes were the time-weighted average Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis score (on a scale from 0 to 39, with higher scores indicating more severe disease) over a 3-year period, as assessed by means of blinded rating, and the time-weighted average required dose of prednisone over a 3-year period. A total of 126 patients underwent randomization between 2006 and 2012 at 36 sites. Patients who underwent thymectomy had a lower time-weighted average Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis score over a 3-year period than those who received prednisone alone (6.15 vs. 8.99, P<0.001); patients in the thymectomy group also had a lower average requirement for alternate-day prednisone (44 mg vs. 60 mg, P<0.001). Fewer patients in the thymectomy group than in the prednisone-only group required immunosuppression with azathioprine (17% vs. 48%, P<0.001) or were hospitalized for exacerbations (9% vs. 37%, P<0.001). The number of patients with treatment-associated complications did not differ significantly between groups (P=0.73), but patients in the thymectomy group had fewer treatment-associated symptoms related to immunosuppressive medications (P<0.001) and lower distress levels related to symptoms (P=0.003). Thymectomy improved clinical outcomes over a 3-year period in

  15. Randomized Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder in a Community-Based Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic.

    PubMed

    Ekeblad, Annika; Falkenström, Fredrik; Andersson, Gerhard; Vestberg, Robert; Holmqvist, Rolf

    2016-12-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) are both evidence-based treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD). Several head-to-head comparisons have been made, mostly in the United States. In this trial, we compared the two treatments in a small-town outpatient psychiatric clinic in Sweden. The patients had failed previous primary care treatment and had extensive Axis-II comorbidity. Outcome measures were reduction of depressive symptoms and attrition rate. Ninety-six psychiatric patients with MDD (DSM-IV) were randomized to 14 sessions of CBT (n = 48) or IPT (n = 48). A noninferiority design was used with the hypothesis that IPT would be noninferior to CBT. A three-point difference on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was used as noninferiority margin. IPT passed the noninferiority test. In the ITT group, 53.5% (23/43) of the IPT patients and 51.0% (24/47) of the CBT patients were reliably improved, and 20.9% (9/43) and 19.1% (9/47), respectively, were recovered (last BDI score <10). The dropout rate was significantly higher in CBT (40%; 19/47) compared to IPT (19%; 8/43). Statistically controlling for antidepressant medication use did not change the results. IPT was noninferior to CBT in a sample of depressed psychiatric patients in a community-based outpatient clinic. CBT had significantly more dropouts than IPT, indicating that CBT may be experienced as too demanding. Since about half the patients did not recover, there is a need for further treatment development for these patients. The study should be considered an effectiveness trial, with strong external validity but some limitations in internal validity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. ADULTS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Krupa N.; Majeed, Zahraa; Yoruk, Yilmaz B.; Yang, Hongmei; Hilton, Tiffany N.; McMahon, James M.; Hall, William J.; Walck, Donna; Luque, Amneris E.; Ryan, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective HIV-infected older adults (HOA) are at risk of functional decline. Interventions promoting physical activity that can attenuate functional decline and are easily translated into the HOA community are of high priority. We conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate whether a physical activity counseling intervention based on self-determination theory (SDT) improves physical function, autonomous motivation, depression and the quality of life (QOL) in HOA. Methods A total of 67 community-dwelling HOA with mild-to-moderate functional limitations were randomized to one of two groups: a physical activity counseling group or the usual care control group. We used SDT to guide the development of the experimental intervention. Outcome measures that were collected at baseline and final study visits included a battery of physical function tests, levels of physical activity, autonomous motivation, depression, and QOL. Results The study participants were similar in their demographic and clinical characteristics in both the treatment and control groups. Overall physical performance, gait speed, measures of endurance and strength, and levels of physical activity improved in the treatment group compared to the control group (p<0.05). Measures of autonomous regulation such as identified regulation, and measures of depression and QOL improved significantly in the treatment group compared to the control group (p<0.05). Across the groups, improvement in intrinsic regulation and QOL correlated with an improvement in physical function (p<0.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest that a physical activity counseling program grounded in SDT can improve physical function, autonomous motivation, depression, and QOL in HOA with functional limitations. PMID:26867045

  17. An Open-Label, Randomized Trial of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Treatment in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Shang, Chi-Yung; Pan, Yi-Lei; Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Huang, Lin-Wan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-09-01

    The efficacy of both methylphenidate and atomoxetine has been established in placebo-controlled trials. The present study aimed to directly compare the efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in improving symptoms among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study sample included 160 drug-naïve children and adolescents 7-16 years of age, with DSM-IV-defined ADHD, randomly assigned to osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-methylphenidate) (n=80) and atomoxetine (n=80) in a 24 week, open-label, head-to-head clinical trial. The primary efficacy measure was the score of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Parents Version: Investigator Administered and Scored (ADHD-RS-IV). The secondary efficacy measures included the Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD-S) and Chinese Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham IV scale (SNAP-IV), based on the ratings of investigators, parents, teachers, and subjects. At week 24, mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Inattention scores were 13.58 points (Cohen's d, -3.08) for OROS-methylphenidate and 12.65 points (Cohen's d, -3.05) for atomoxetine; and mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores were 10.16 points (Cohen's d, -1.75) for OROS-methylphenidate and 10.68 points (Cohen's d, -1.87) for atomoxetine. In terms of parent-, teacher-, and self-ratings on behavioral symptoms, both of the two treatment groups significantly decreased on the SNAP-IV scores at the end-point, with effect sizes ranging from 0.9 to 0.96 on the Inattention subscale and from 0.61 to 0.8 on the Hyperactivity/Impulsivity subscale for OROS-methylphenidate; and from 0.51 to 0.88 on the Inattention subscale and from 0.29 to 0.57 on the Hyperactivity/Impulsivity subscale for atomoxetine. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups were observed on the outcome measures. Vomiting, somnolence, and dizziness were reported more often for atomoxetine than for OROS-methylphenidate, whereas insomnia was reported

  18. Rationale and design of a randomized trial comparing initial stress echocardiography versus coronary CT angiography in low-to-intermediate risk emergency department patients with chest pain.

    PubMed

    Levsky, Jeffrey M; Haramati, Linda B; Taub, Cynthia C; Spevack, Daniel M; Menegus, Mark A; Travin, Mark I; Vega, Shayna; Lerer, Rikah; Brown-Manhertz, Durline; Hirschhorn, Esther; Tobin, Jonathan N; Garcia, Mario J

    2014-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has become a major focus of cardiovascular disease investigation to optimize diagnosis and treatment paradigms and decrease healthcare expenditures. Acute chest pain is a highly prevalent reason for evaluation in the Emergency Department (ED) that results in hospital admission for many patients and excess expense. Improvement in noninvasive diagnostic algorithms can potentially reduce unnecessary admissions. To compare the performance of treadmill stress echocardiography (SE) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in ED chest pain patients with low-to-intermediate risk of significant coronary artery disease. This is a single-center, randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing SE and CTA head-to-head as the initial noninvasive imaging modality. The primary outcome measured is the incidence of hospitalization. The study is powered to detect a reduction in admissions from 28% to 15% with a sample size of 400. Secondary outcomes include length of stay in the ED/hospital and estimated cost of care. Safety outcomes include subsequent visits to the ED and hospitalizations, as well as major adverse cardiovascular events at 30 days and 1 year. Patients who do not meet study criteria or do not consent for randomization are offered entry into an observational registry. This RCT will add to our understanding of the roles of different imaging modalities in triaging patients with suspected angina. It will increase the CER evidence base comparing SE and CTA and provide insight into potential benefits and limitations of appropriate use of treadmill SE in the ED. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Rotational atherectomy before paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation in complex calcified coronary lesions: Two-year clinical outcome of the randomized ROTAXUS trial.

    PubMed

    de Waha, Suzanne; Allali, Abdelhakim; Büttner, Heinz-Joachim; Toelg, Ralph; Geist, Volker; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Khattab, Ahmed A; Richardt, Gert; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    In the randomized ROTAXUS trial, routine lesion preparation of complex calcified coronary lesions using rotational atherectomy (RA) prior to paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation did not reduce the primary endpoint of angiographic late lumen loss at 9 months compared to stenting without RA. So far, no long-term data of prospective head-to-head comparisons between both treatment strategies have been reported. ROTAXUS randomly assigned patients with complex calcified coronary lesions to RA followed by stenting (n = 120) or stenting without RA (n = 120). The primary endpoint of the current analysis was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 2-year follow-up defined as the composite of death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization (TVR). At 2 years, MACE occurred in 32 patients in the RA group and 37 patients in the standard therapy group (29.4% vs. 34.3%, P = 0.47). The rates of death (8.3% vs. 7.4%, P = 1.00), myocardial infarction (8.3% vs. 6.5%, P = 0.80), target lesion revascularization (TLR, 13.8% vs. 16.7%, P = 0.58), and TVR (19.3% vs. 22.2%, P = 0.62) were similar in both groups. Despite high rates of initial angiographic success, nearly one third of patients enrolled in ROTAXUS experienced MACE within 2-year follow-up, with no differences between patients treated with or without RA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison of non-directive counselling and cognitive behaviour therapy for patients presenting in general practice with an ICD-10 depressive episode: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    King, M; Marston, L; Bower, P

    2014-07-01

    Most evidence in the UK on the effectiveness of brief therapy for depression concerns cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). In a trial published in 2000, we showed that non-directive counselling and CBT were equally effective in general practice for patients with depression and mixed anxiety and depression. Our results were criticized for including patients not meeting diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder. In this reanalysis we aimed to compare the effectiveness of the two therapies for patients with an ICD-10 depressive episode. Patients with an ICD-10 depressive episode or mixed anxiety and depression were randomized to counselling, CBT or usual general practitioner (GP) care. Counsellors provided nondirective, interpersonal counselling following a manual that we developed based on the work of Carl Rogers. Cognitive behaviour therapists provided CBT also guided by a manual. Modelling was carried out using generalized estimating equations with the multiply imputed datasets. Outcomes were mean scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Social Adjustment Scale at 4 and 12 months. A total of 134 participants were randomized to CBT, 126 to counselling and 67 to usual GP care. We undertook (1) an interaction analysis using all 316 patients who were assigned a diagnosis and (2) a head-to-head comparison using only those 130 (41%) participants who had an ICD-10 depressive episode at baseline. CBT and counselling were both superior to GP care at 4 months but not at 12 months. There was no difference in the effectiveness of the two psychological therapies. We recommend that national clinical guidelines take our findings into consideration in recommending effective alternatives to CBT.

  1. Cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. light therapy for preventing winter depression recurrence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rohan, Kelly J; Evans, Maggie; Mahon, Jennifer N; Sitnikov, Lilya; Ho, Sheau-Yan; Nillni, Yael I; Postolache, Teodor T; Vacek, Pamela M

    2013-03-21

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a subtype of recurrent depression involving major depressive episodes during the fall and/or winter months that remit in the spring. The central public health challenge in the management of SAD is prevention of winter depression recurrence. Light therapy (LT) is the established and best available acute SAD treatment. However, long-term compliance with daily LT from first symptom through spontaneous springtime remission every fall/winter season is poor. Time-limited alternative treatments with effects that endure beyond the cessation of acute treatment are needed to prevent the annual recurrence of SAD. This is an NIMH-funded R01-level randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of a novel, SAD-tailored cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBT) against LT in a head-to-head comparison on next winter outcomes. This project is designed to test for a clinically meaningful difference between CBT and LT on depression recurrence in the next winter (the primary outcome). This is a concurrent two-arm study that will randomize 160 currently symptomatic community adults with major depression, recurrent with seasonal pattern, to CBT or LT. After 6 weeks of treatment in the initial winter, participants are followed in the subsequent summer, the next winter, and two winters later. Key methodological issues surround timing study procedures for a predictably recurrent and time-limited disorder with a focus on long-term outcomes. The chosen design answers the primary question of whether prior exposure to CBT is associated with a substantially lower likelihood of depression recurrence the next winter than LT. This design does not test the relative contributions of the cognitive-behavioral treatment components vs. nonspecific factors to CBT's outcomes and is not adequately powered to test for differences or equivalence between cells at treatment endpoint. Alternative designs addressing these limitations would have required more patients

  2. Assessing the Generalizability of Randomized Trial Results to Target Populations

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen increasing interest in and attention to evidence-based practices, where the “evidence” generally comes from well-conducted randomized trials. However, while those trials yield accurate estimates of the effect of the intervention for the participants in the trial (known as “internal validity”), they do not always yield relevant information about the effects in a particular target population (known as “external validity”). This may be due to a lack of specification of a target population when designing the trial, difficulties recruiting a sample that is representative of a pre-specified target population, or to interest in considering a target population somewhat different from the population directly targeted by the trial. This paper first provides an overview of existing design and analysis methods for assessing and enhancing the ability of a randomized trial to estimate treatment effects in a target population. It then provides a case study using one particular method, which weights the subjects in a randomized trial to match the population on a set of observed characteristics. The case study uses data from a randomized trial of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS); our interest is in generalizing the results to the state of Maryland. In the case of PBIS, after weighting, estimated effects in the target population were similar to those observed in the randomized trial. The paper illustrates that statistical methods can be used to assess and enhance the external validity of randomized trials, making the results more applicable to policy and clinical questions. However, there are also many open research questions; future research should focus on questions of treatment effect heterogeneity and further developing these methods for enhancing external validity. Researchers should think carefully about the external validity of randomized trials and be cautious about extrapolating results to specific

  3. Assessing the generalizability of randomized trial results to target populations.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Elizabeth A; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Leaf, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    Recent years have seen increasing interest in and attention to evidence-based practices, where the "evidence" generally comes from well-conducted randomized trials. However, while those trials yield accurate estimates of the effect of the intervention for the participants in the trial (known as "internal validity"), they do not always yield relevant information about the effects in a particular target population (known as "external validity"). This may be due to a lack of specification of a target population when designing the trial, difficulties recruiting a sample that is representative of a prespecified target population, or to interest in considering a target population somewhat different from the population directly targeted by the trial. This paper first provides an overview of existing design and analysis methods for assessing and enhancing the ability of a randomized trial to estimate treatment effects in a target population. It then provides a case study using one particular method, which weights the subjects in a randomized trial to match the population on a set of observed characteristics. The case study uses data from a randomized trial of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS); our interest is in generalizing the results to the state of Maryland. In the case of PBIS, after weighting, estimated effects in the target population were similar to those observed in the randomized trial. The paper illustrates that statistical methods can be used to assess and enhance the external validity of randomized trials, making the results more applicable to policy and clinical questions. However, there are also many open research questions; future research should focus on questions of treatment effect heterogeneity and further developing these methods for enhancing external validity. Researchers should think carefully about the external validity of randomized trials and be cautious about extrapolating results to specific populations unless

  4. A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Catley, Delwyn; Goggin, Kathy; Harris, Kari Jo; Richter, Kimber P.; Williams, Karen; Patten, Christi; Resnicow, Ken; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Lee, Hyoung S.; Moreno, Jose L.; Grobe, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite limitations in evidence, the current Clinical Practice Guideline advocates Motivational Interviewing for smokers not ready to quit. This study evaluated the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing (MI) for inducing cessation-related behaviors among smokers with low motivation to quit. Design Randomized clinical trial. Setting/participants Two-hundred fifty-five daily smokers reporting low desire to quit smoking were recruited from an urban community during 2010–2011 and randomly assigned to Motivational Interviewing, health education, or brief advice using a 2:2:1 allocation. Data were analyzed from 2012 to 2014. Intervention Four sessions of Motivational Interviewing utilized a patient-centered communication style that explored patients’ own reasons for change. Four sessions of health education provided education related to smoking cessation while excluding elements characteristic of Motivational Interviewing. A single session of brief advice consisted of brief, personalized advice to quit. Main outcomes measures Self-reported quit attempts, smoking abstinence (biochemically verified), use of cessation pharmacotherapies, motivation, and confidence to quit were assessed at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Results Unexpectedly, no significant differences emerged between groups in the proportion who made a quit attempt by 6-month follow-up (Motivational Interviewing, 52.0%; health education, 60.8%; brief advice, 45.1%; p=0.157). Health education had significantly higher biochemically verified abstinence rates at 6 months (7.8%) than brief advice (0.0%) (8% difference, 95% CI=3%, 13%, p=0.003), with the Motivational Interviewing group falling in between (2.9% abstinent, 3% risk difference, 95% CI=0%, 6%, p=0.079). Both Motivational Interviewing and health education groups showed greater increases in cessation medication use, motivation, and confidence to quit relative to brief advice (all p<0.05), and health education showed greater

  5. Randomized trials published in some Chinese journals: how many are randomized?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Taixiang; Li, Youping; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Liu, Guanjian; Moher, David

    2009-01-01

    Background The approximately 1100 medical journals now active in China are publishing a rapidly increasing number of research reports, including many studies identified by their authors as randomized controlled trials. It has been noticed that these reports mostly present positive results, and their quality and authenticity have consequently been called into question. We investigated the adequacy of randomization of clinical trials published in recent years in China to determine how many of them met acceptable standards for allocating participants to treatment groups. Methods The China National Knowledge Infrastructure electronic database was searched for reports of randomized controlled trials on 20 common diseases published from January 1994 to June 2005. From this sample, a subset of trials that appeared to have used randomization methods was selected. Twenty-one investigators trained in the relevant knowledge, communication skills and quality control issues interviewed the original authors of these trials about the participant randomization methods and related quality-control features of their trials. Results From an initial sample of 37,313 articles identified in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, we found 3137 apparent randomized controlled trials. Of these, 1452 were studies of conventional medicine (published in 411 journals) and 1685 were studies of traditional Chinese medicine (published in 352 journals). Interviews with the authors of 2235 of these reports revealed that only 207 studies adhered to accepted methodology for randomization and could on those grounds be deemed authentic randomized controlled trials (6.8%, 95% confidence interval 5.9–7.7). There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of authenticity between randomized controlled trials of traditional interventions and those of conventional interventions. Randomized controlled trials conducted at hospitals affiliated to medical universities were more likely

  6. Randomized trials published in some Chinese journals: how many are randomized?

    PubMed

    Wu, Taixiang; Li, Youping; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Liu, Guanjian; Moher, David

    2009-07-02

    The approximately 1100 medical journals now active in China are publishing a rapidly increasing number of research reports, including many studies identified by their authors as randomized controlled trials. It has been noticed that these reports mostly present positive results, and their quality and authenticity have consequently been called into question. We investigated the adequacy of randomization of clinical trials published in recent years in China to determine how many of them met acceptable standards for allocating participants to treatment groups. The China National Knowledge Infrastructure electronic database was searched for reports of randomized controlled trials on 20 common diseases published from January 1994 to June 2005. From this sample, a subset of trials that appeared to have used randomization methods was selected. Twenty-one investigators trained in the relevant knowledge, communication skills and quality control issues interviewed the original authors of these trials about the participant randomization methods and related quality-control features of their trials. From an initial sample of 37,313 articles identified in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, we found 3137 apparent randomized controlled trials. Of these, 1452 were studies of conventional medicine (published in 411 journals) and 1685 were studies of traditional Chinese medicine (published in 352 journals). Interviews with the authors of 2235 of these reports revealed that only 207 studies adhered to accepted methodology for randomization and could on those grounds be deemed authentic randomized controlled trials (6.8%, 95% confidence interval 5.9-7.7). There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of authenticity between randomized controlled trials of traditional interventions and those of conventional interventions. Randomized controlled trials conducted at hospitals affiliated to medical universities were more likely to be authentic than trials

  7. Run-Reversal Equilibrium for Clinical Trial Randomization

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William C.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new restricted randomization method called run-reversal equilibrium (RRE), which is a Nash equilibrium of a game where (1) the clinical trial statistician chooses a sequence of medical treatments, and (2) clinical investigators make treatment predictions. RRE randomization counteracts how each investigator could observe treatment histories in order to forecast upcoming treatments. Computation of a run-reversal equilibrium reflects how the treatment history at a particular site is imperfectly correlated with the treatment imbalance for the overall trial. An attractive feature of RRE randomization is that treatment imbalance follows a random walk at each site, while treatment balance is tightly constrained and regularly restored for the overall trial. Less predictable and therefore more scientifically valid experiments can be facilitated by run-reversal equilibrium for multi-site clinical trials. PMID:26079608

  8. Caring Letters for Military Suicide Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-2-0123 TITLE: Caring Letters for Military Suicide Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr...Caring Letters for Military Suicide Prevention: A Randomized 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Controlled Trial 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0123 5c. PROGRAM...determine if the intervention is effective in preventing suicide and suicidal behaviors among Service Members and Veterans. The “caring letters

  9. Caring Letters for Military Suicide Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-2-0123 TITLE: Caring Letters for Military Suicide Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr...Caring Letters for Military Suicide Prevention: A Randomized 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Controlled Trial 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0123 5c. PROGRAM...determine if the intervention is effective in preventing suicide and suicidal behaviors among Service Members and Veterans. The “caring letters” concept

  10. Varied overground walking-task practice versus body-weight-supported treadmill training in ambulatory adults within one year of stroke: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although task-oriented training has been shown to improve walking outcomes after stroke, it is not yet clear whether one task-oriented approach is superior to another. The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the Motor Learning Walking Program (MLWP), a varied overground walking task program consistent with key motor learning principles, to body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) in community-dwelling, ambulatory, adults within 1 year of stroke. Methods/Design A parallel, randomized controlled trial with stratification by baseline gait speed will be conducted. Allocation will be controlled by a central randomization service and participants will be allocated to the two active intervention groups (1:1) using a permuted block randomization process. Seventy participants will be assigned to one of two 15-session training programs. In MLWP, one physiotherapist will supervise practice of various overground walking tasks. Instructions, feedback, and guidance will be provided in a manner that facilitates self-evaluation and problem solving. In BWSTT, training will emphasize repetition of the normal gait cycle while supported over a treadmill, assisted by up to three physiotherapists. Outcomes will be assessed by a blinded assessor at baseline, post-intervention and at 2-month follow-up. The primary outcome will be post-intervention comfortable gait speed. Secondary outcomes include fast gait speed, walking endurance, balance self-efficacy, participation in community mobility, health-related quality of life, and goal attainment. Groups will be compared using analysis of covariance with baseline gait speed strata as the single covariate. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. Discussion In order to direct clinicians, patients, and other health decision-makers, there is a need for a head-to-head comparison of different approaches to active, task-related walking training after stroke. We hypothesize that outcomes will be optimized

  11. Behavioral and Nondirective Guided Self-Help for Parents of Children with Externalizing Behavior: Mediating Mechanisms in a Head-To-Head Comparison.

    PubMed

    Katzmann, Josepha; Hautmann, Christopher; Greimel, Lisa; Imort, Stephanie; Pinior, Julia; Scholz, Kristin; Döpfner, Manfred

    2017-05-01

    Parent training (PT) delivered as a guided self-help intervention may be a cost- and time-effective intervention in the treatment of children with externalizing disorders. In face-to-face PT, parenting strategies have repeatedly been identified as mediating mechanisms for the decrease of children's problem behavior. Few studies have examined possible mediating effects in guided self-help interventions for parents. The present study aimed to investigate possible mediating variables of a behaviorally oriented guided self-help program for parents of children with externalizing problems compared to a nondirective intervention in a clinical sample. A sample of 110 parents of children with externalizing disorders (80 % boys) were randomized to either a behaviorally oriented or a nondirective guided self-help program. Four putative mediating variables were examined simultaneously in a multiple mediation model using structural equation modelling. The outcomes were child symptoms of ADHD and ODD as well as child externalizing problems, assessed at posttreatment. Analyses showed a significant indirect effect for dysfunctional parental attributions in favor of the group receiving the behavioral program, and significant effects of the behavioral program on positive and negative parenting and parental self-efficacy, compared to the nondirective intervention. Our results indicate that a decrease of dysfunctional parental attributions leads to a decrease of child externalizing problems when parents take part in a behaviorally oriented guided self-help program. However, none of the putative mediating variables could explain the decrease in child externalizing behavior problems in the nondirective group. A change in dysfunctional parental attributions should be considered as a possible mediator in the context of PT.

  12. Summer School Effects in a Randomized Field Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvoch, Keith; Stevens, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    This field-based randomized trial examined the effect of assignment to and participation in summer school for two moderately at-risk samples of struggling readers. Application of multiple regression models to difference scores capturing the change in summer reading fluency revealed that kindergarten students randomly assigned to summer school…

  13. Evaluating the Flipped Classroom: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozny, Nathan; Balser, Cary; Ives, Drew

    2018-01-01

    Despite recent interest in flipped classrooms, rigorous research evaluating their effectiveness is sparse. In this study, the authors implement a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a flipped classroom technique relative to a traditional lecture in an introductory undergraduate econometrics course. Random assignment enables the…

  14. A randomized two-by-two comparison of high-dose bolus tirofiban versus abciximab and unfractionated heparin versus bivalirudin during percutaneous coronary revascularization and stent placement: the tirofiban evaluation of novel dosing versus abciximab with clopidogrel and inhibition of thrombin (TENACITY) study trial.

    PubMed

    Moliterno, David J

    2011-06-01

    In the absence of high-dose thienopyridines, placebo-controlled trials have demonstrated a reduction in ischemic events with intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). One head-to-head trial comparing abciximab and tirofiban among PCI patients found tirofiban to be inferior, and laboratory evidence confirmed that the bolus dose of tirofiban tested in that trial to be less effective than abciximab. Whether a higher bolus dose of tirofiban would be as efficacious as abciximab during PCI is uncertain. Patients undergoing PCI were randomized equally to abciximab or to tirofiban, given as high-dose bolus (25 μg/kg) plus 12-hr infusion (0.15 μg/kg/min). All patients received aspirin and clopidogrel and were additionally randomized to unfractionated heparin or bivalirudin. Approximately 8,000 patients were to be studied, but after 383 were enrolled, the study sponsor discontinued the trial for financial reasons. The primary endpoint of 30-day death, myocardial infarction, or urgent target vessel revascularization occurred in 8.8% of patients randomized to abciximab and 6.9% of those randomized to tirofiban. The respective rates of major bleeding were 1.5 and 1.6%. Additionally, the primary endpoint occurred in 8.1% of patients randomized to unfractionated heparin and 7.6% of those randomized to bivalirudin. The respective rates of major bleeding were 2.5% and 0.5%. With limited assessment, this direct comparison of high-dose bolus tirofiban versus abciximab produced encouraging results and suggests that further study of this tirofiban dose regimen is warranted. The limited assessments comparing heparin and bivalirudin are consistent with prior observations. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Perceptions of Massage Therapists Participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Adam; Dreusicke, Mark; Keever, Teresa; Ali, Ather

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical practice and randomized trials often have disparate aims, despite involving similar interventions. Attitudes and expectancies of practitioners influence patient outcomes, and there is growing emphasis on optimizing provider–patient relationships. In this study, we evaluated the experiences of licensed massage therapists involved in a randomized controlled clinical trial using qualitative methodology. Methods Seven massage therapists who were interventionists in a randomized controlled trial participated in structured interviews approximately 30 minutes in length. Interviews focused on their experiences and perceptions regarding aspects of the clinical trial, as well as recommendations for future trials. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for emergent topics and themes using standard qualitative methods. Results Six themes emerged. Therapists discussed 1) promoting the profession of massage therapy through research, 2) mixed views on using standardized protocols, 3) challenges of sham interventions, 4) participant response to the sham intervention, 5) views on scheduling and compensation, and 6) unanticipated benefits of participating in research. Conclusions Therapists largely appreciated the opportunity to promote massage through research. They demonstrated insight and understanding of the rationale for a clinical trial adhering to a standardized protocol. Evaluating the experiences and ideas of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners provides valuable insight that is relevant for the implementation and design of randomized trials. PMID:26388961

  16. Control treatments in biologics trials of rheumatoid arthritis were often not deemed acceptable in the context of care.

    PubMed

    Estellat, Candice; Tubach, Florence; Seror, Raphaèle; Alfaiate, Toni; Hajage, David; De Rycke, Yann; Ravaud, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Control treatments in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) should not deliberately disadvantage patients. The objectives of the study were to compare (1) willingness to include vs. (2) willingness to prescribe control treatment among physicians randomized to assess, respectively, either (1) enrollment in a trial or (2) appropriateness of control treatment in a care context for the same fictional patient. Physicians were authors of articles about rheumatoid arthritis (RA), involved in RA patient care, and used to enrolling patients in trials. The outcomes were willingness to give control treatment: trial enrollment or control-treatment appropriateness in care context. We derived three case vignettes of fictional standard eligible patients for each of 30 RCTs assessing biologics in RA. Physicians were randomly allocated to the "trial" or "care" arm. For each of the 90 fictional patients, physicians assigned to the trial arm were asked if they would enroll the patient in the RCT the patient was derived from. For the same 90 fictional patients, physicians assigned to the care arm were asked if the control treatment of the RCT was appropriate in a context of usual care. Of the 1,779 physicians invited to participate, 151 were randomized. Half of the fictional patients {41/90; 45% [95% confidence interval (CI): 37%, 53%]} would be enrolled in the RCT although the control-arm treatment of the RCT was not considered appropriate for them in the context of care. This rate differed by type of comparator [55% for non-head-to-head RCTs vs. 6% for head-to-head RCTs; adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 23.9 (95% CI: 5.5, 92.7)] and duration of trial control treatment [56% for ≤24 weeks and 15% for >24 weeks; aOR, 10.7 (95% CI: 2.8, 63.9)] but not patient RA activity [aOR, 2.5 (95% CI: 1.0, 6.6)]. The limitation of this study was that physicians gave their opinion on fictional patients with only RA. Control treatments in RCTs of biologics in RA are often deemed not acceptable in the

  17. The Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Eric J; Bristow, Michael R

    2001-01-01

    Previous trials (Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure [MERIT-HF], Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study [CIBIS] II) have demonstrated a mortality benefit of beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. The recent Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial has extended these results to a more advanced patient population. This trial did not, however, include patients who could not reach compensation, patients with far advanced heart failure symptoms, or a significant number of black patients. Future studies of beta-blockade may focus on these patients or patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction.

  18. The Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial

    PubMed Central

    Eichhorn, Eric J; Bristow, Michael R

    2001-01-01

    Previous trials (Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure [MERIT-HF], Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study [CIBIS] II) have demonstrated a mortality benefit of β-adrenergic blockade in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. The recent Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial has extended these results to a more advanced patient population. This trial did not, however, include patients who could not reach compensation, patients with far advanced heart failure symptoms, or a significant number of black patients. Future studies of β-blockade may focus on these patients or patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. PMID:11806769

  19. A Monte Carlo analysis of breast screening randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Luis I; Forastero, Cristina; Guirado, Damián; Lallena, Antonio M

    2016-12-01

    To analyze breast screening randomized trials with a Monte Carlo simulation tool. A simulation tool previously developed to simulate breast screening programmes was adapted for that purpose. The history of women participating in the trials was simulated, including a model for survival after local treatment of invasive cancers. Distributions of time gained due to screening detection against symptomatic detection and the overall screening sensitivity were used as inputs. Several randomized controlled trials were simulated. Except for the age range of women involved, all simulations used the same population characteristics and this permitted to analyze their external validity. The relative risks obtained were compared to those quoted for the trials, whose internal validity was addressed by further investigating the reasons of the disagreements observed. The Monte Carlo simulations produce results that are in good agreement with most of the randomized trials analyzed, thus indicating their methodological quality and external validity. A reduction of the breast cancer mortality around 20% appears to be a reasonable value according to the results of the trials that are methodologically correct. Discrepancies observed with Canada I and II trials may be attributed to a low mammography quality and some methodological problems. Kopparberg trial appears to show a low methodological quality. Monte Carlo simulations are a powerful tool to investigate breast screening controlled randomized trials, helping to establish those whose results are reliable enough to be extrapolated to other populations and to design the trial strategies and, eventually, adapting them during their development. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Varied overground walking-task practice versus body-weight-supported treadmill training in ambulatory adults within one year of stroke: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    DePaul, Vincent G; Wishart, Laurie R; Richardson, Julie; Lee, Timothy D; Thabane, Lehana

    2011-10-21

    Although task-oriented training has been shown to improve walking outcomes after stroke, it is not yet clear whether one task-oriented approach is superior to another. The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the Motor Learning Walking Program (MLWP), a varied overground walking task program consistent with key motor learning principles, to body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) in community-dwelling, ambulatory, adults within 1 year of stroke. A parallel, randomized controlled trial with stratification by baseline gait speed will be conducted. Allocation will be controlled by a central randomization service and participants will be allocated to the two active intervention groups (1:1) using a permuted block randomization process. Seventy participants will be assigned to one of two 15-session training programs. In MLWP, one physiotherapist will supervise practice of various overground walking tasks. Instructions, feedback, and guidance will be provided in a manner that facilitates self-evaluation and problem solving. In BWSTT, training will emphasize repetition of the normal gait cycle while supported over a treadmill, assisted by up to three physiotherapists. Outcomes will be assessed by a blinded assessor at baseline, post-intervention and at 2-month follow-up. The primary outcome will be post-intervention comfortable gait speed. Secondary outcomes include fast gait speed, walking endurance, balance self-efficacy, participation in community mobility, health-related quality of life, and goal attainment. Groups will be compared using analysis of covariance with baseline gait speed strata as the single covariate. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. In order to direct clinicians, patients, and other health decision-makers, there is a need for a head-to-head comparison of different approaches to active, task-related walking training after stroke. We hypothesize that outcomes will be optimized through the application of a task

  1. Methods for sample size determination in cluster randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Rutterford, Clare; Copas, Andrew; Eldridge, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of cluster randomized trials (CRTs) is increasing, along with the variety in their design and analysis. The simplest approach for their sample size calculation is to calculate the sample size assuming individual randomization and inflate this by a design effect to account for randomization by cluster. The assumptions of a simple design effect may not always be met; alternative or more complicated approaches are required. Methods: We summarise a wide range of sample size methods available for cluster randomized trials. For those familiar with sample size calculations for individually randomized trials but with less experience in the clustered case, this manuscript provides formulae for a wide range of scenarios with associated explanation and recommendations. For those with more experience, comprehensive summaries are provided that allow quick identification of methods for a given design, outcome and analysis method. Results: We present first those methods applicable to the simplest two-arm, parallel group, completely randomized design followed by methods that incorporate deviations from this design such as: variability in cluster sizes; attrition; non-compliance; or the inclusion of baseline covariates or repeated measures. The paper concludes with methods for alternative designs. Conclusions: There is a large amount of methodology available for sample size calculations in CRTs. This paper gives the most comprehensive description of published methodology for sample size calculation and provides an important resource for those designing these trials. PMID:26174515

  2. Surrogate endpoints in randomized cardiovascular clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Michael; Pocock, Stuart; Bernaud, Corine; Borer, Jeffrey; Geller, Nancy; Revkin, James; Zannad, Faiez

    2011-08-01

    Surrogate endpoints predict the occurrence and timing of a clinical endpoint of interest (CEI). Substitution of a surrogate endpoint for a CEI can dramatically reduce the time and cost necessary to complete a Phase III clinical trial. However, assurance that use of a surrogate endpoint will result in a correct conclusion regarding treatment effect on a CEI requires prior rigorous validation of the surrogate. Surrogate endpoints can also be of substantial use in Phase I and II studies to assess whether the intended therapeutic pathway is operative, thus providing assurance regarding the reasonableness of proceeding to a Phase III trial. This paper discusses the uses and validation of surrogate endpoints. © 2010 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  3. Water exchange for screening colonoscopy increases adenoma detection rate: a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cadoni, Sergio; Falt, Přemysl; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Radaelli, Franco; Fojtik, Petr; Gallittu, Paolo; Liggi, Mauro; Amato, Arnaldo; Paggi, Silvia; Smajstrla, Vit; Urban, Ondřej; Erriu, Matteo; Koo, Malcolm; Leung, Felix W

    2017-05-01

    Background and study aims  Single-center studies, which were retrospective and/or involved unblinded colonoscopists, have suggested that water exchange, but not water immersion, compared with air insufflation significantly increases the adenoma detection rate (ADR), particularly in the proximal and right colon. Head-to-head comparison of the three techniques with ADR as primary outcome and blinded colonoscopists has not been reported to date. In a randomized controlled trial with blinded colonoscopists, we aimed to evaluate the impact of the three insertion techniques on ADR. Patients and methods  A total of 1224 patients aged 50 - 70 years (672 males) and undergoing screening colonoscopy were randomized 1:1:1 to water exchange, water immersion, or air insufflation. Split-dose bowel preparation was adopted to optimize colon cleansing. After the cecum had been reached, a second colonoscopist who was blinded to the insertion technique performed the withdrawal. The primary outcome was overall ADR according to the three insertion techniques (water exchange, water immersion, and air insufflation). Secondary outcomes were other pertinent overall and right colon procedure-related measures. Results  Baseline characteristics of the three groups were comparable. Compared with air insufflation, water exchange achieved a significantly higher overall ADR (49.3 %, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 44.3 % - 54.2 % vs. 40.4 % 95 %CI 35.6 % - 45.3 %; P  = 0.03); water exchange showed comparable overall ADR vs. water immersion (43.4 %, 95 %CI 38.5 % - 48.3 %; P  = 0.28). In the right colon, water exchange achieved a higher ADR than air insufflation (24.0 %, 95 %CI 20.0 % - 28.5 % vs. 16.9 %, 95 %CI 13.4 % - 20.9 %; P  = 0.04) and a higher advanced ADR (6.1 %, 95 %CI 4.0 % - 9.0 % vs. 2.5 %, 95 %CI 1.2 % - 4.6 %; P  = 0.03). Compared with air insufflation, the mean number of

  4. Adaptive Designs for Randomized Trials in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C. Hendricks; Have, Thomas R. Ten; Jo, Booil; Dagne, Getachew; Wyman, Peter A.; Muthén, Bengt; Gibbons, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a discussion of two general ways in which the traditional randomized trial can be modified or adapted in response to the data being collected. We use the term adaptive design to refer to a trial in which characteristics of the study itself, such as the proportion assigned to active intervention versus control, change during the trial in response to data being collected. The term adaptive sequence of trials refers to a decision-making process that fundamentally informs the conceptualization and conduct of each new trial with the results of previous trials. Our discussion below investigates the utility of these two types of adaptations for public health evaluations. Examples are provided to illustrate how adaptation can be used in practice. From these case studies, we discuss whether such evaluations can or should be analyzed as if they were formal randomized trials, and we discuss practical as well as ethical issues arising in the conduct of these new-generation trials. PMID:19296774

  5. Accuracy and precision of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling perfusion during baseline and hypercapnia: a head-to-head comparison with ¹⁵O H₂O positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Heijtel, D F R; Mutsaerts, H J M M; Bakker, E; Schober, P; Stevens, M F; Petersen, E T; van Berckel, B N M; Majoie, C B L M; Booij, J; van Osch, M J P; Vanbavel, E; Boellaard, R; Lammertsma, A A; Nederveen, A J

    2014-05-15

    Measurements of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) provide useful information about cerebrovascular condition and regional metabolism. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) is a promising non-invasive MRI technique to quantitatively measure the CBF, whereas additional hypercapnic pCASL measurements are currently showing great promise to quantitatively assess the CVR. However, the introduction of pCASL at a larger scale awaits further evaluation of the exact accuracy and precision compared to the gold standard. (15)O H₂O positron emission tomography (PET) is currently regarded as the most accurate and precise method to quantitatively measure both CBF and CVR, though it is one of the more invasive methods as well. In this study we therefore assessed the accuracy and precision of quantitative pCASL-based CBF and CVR measurements by performing a head-to-head comparison with (15)O H₂O PET, based on quantitative CBF measurements during baseline and hypercapnia. We demonstrate that pCASL CBF imaging is accurate during both baseline and hypercapnia with respect to (15)O H₂O PET with a comparable precision. These results pave the way for quantitative usage of pCASL MRI in both clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Design of Cluster Randomized Trials with Random Cross-Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moerbeek, Mirjam; Safarkhani, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Data from cluster randomized trials do not always have a pure hierarchical structure. For instance, students are nested within schools that may be crossed by neighborhoods, and soldiers are nested within army units that may be crossed by mental health-care professionals. It is important that the random cross-classification is taken into account…

  7. Design of a cluster-randomized minority recruitment trial: RECRUIT.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Barbara C; Mainous, Arch G; Smith, Daniel W; McKee, M Diane; Amorrortu, Rossybelle P; Alvidrez, Jennifer; Diaz, Vanessa; Ford, Marvella E; Fernandez, Maria E; Hauser, Robert A; Singer, Carlos; Landa, Veronica; Trevino, Aron; DeSantis, Stacia M; Zhang, Yefei; Daniels, Elvan; Tabor, Derrick; Vernon, Sally W

    2017-06-01

    Racial/ethnic minority groups remain underrepresented in clinical trials. Many strategies to increase minority recruitment focus on minority communities and emphasize common diseases such as hypertension. Scant literature focuses on minority recruitment to trials of less common conditions, often conducted in specialty clinics and dependent on physician referrals. We identified trust/mistrust of specialist physician investigators and institutions conducting medical research and consequent participant reluctance to participate in clinical trials as key-shared barriers across racial/ethnic groups. We developed a trust-based continuous quality improvement intervention to build trust between specialist physician investigators and community minority-serving physicians and ultimately potential trial participants. To avoid the inherent biases of non-randomized studies, we evaluated the intervention in the national Randomized Recruitment Intervention Trial (RECRUIT). This report presents the design of RECRUIT. Specialty clinic follow-up continues through April 2017. We hypothesized that specialist physician investigators and coordinators trained in the trust-based continuous quality improvement intervention would enroll a greater proportion of minority participants in their specialty clinics than specialist physician investigators in control specialty clinics. Specialty clinic was the unit of randomization. Using continuous quality improvement, the specialist physician investigators and coordinators tailored recruitment approaches to their specialty clinic characteristics and populations. Primary analyses were adjusted for clustering by specialty clinic within parent trial and matching covariates. RECRUIT was implemented in four multi-site clinical trials (parent trials) supported by three National Institutes of Health institutes and included 50 associated specialty clinics from these parent trials. Using current data, we have 88% power or greater to detect a 0.15 or

  8. Testing cardiovascular drug safety and efficacy in randomized trials.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Garret A

    2014-03-28

    Randomized trials provide the gold standard evidence on which rests the decision to approve novel therapeutics for clinical use. They are large and expensive and provide average but unbiased estimates of efficacy and risk. Concern has been expressed about how unrepresentative populations and conditions that pertain in randomized trials might be of the real world, including concerns about the homogeneity of the biomedical and adherence characteristics of volunteers entered into such trials, the dose and constancy of drug administration and the mixture of additional medications that are restricted in such trials but might influence outcome in practice. A distinction has been drawn between trials that establish efficacy and those that demonstrate effectiveness, drugs that patients actually consume in the real world for clinical benefit. However, randomized controlled trials remain the gold standard for establishing efficacy and the testing of effectiveness with less rigorous approaches is a secondary, albeit important consideration. Despite this, there is an appreciation that average results may conceal considerable interindividual variation in drug response, leading to a failure to appreciate clinical value or risk in subsets of patients. Thus, attempts are now being made to individualize risk estimates by modulating those derived from large randomized trials with the individual baseline risk estimates based on demographic and biological criteria-the individual Numbers Needed to Treat to obtain a benefit, such as a life saved. Here, I will consider some reasons why large phase 3 trials-by far the most expensive element of drug development-may fail to address the unmet medical needs, which should justify such effort and investment.

  9. Testing Cardiovascular Drug Safety and Efficacy in Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2014-01-01

    Randomized trials provide the gold standard evidence on which rests the decision to approve novel therapeutics for clinical use. They are large and expensive and provide average, but unbiased estimates of efficacy and risk. Concern has been expressed about how “unrepresentative” populations and conditions that pertain in randomized trials might be of the “real world”, including concerns about the homogeneity of the biomedical and adherence characteristics of volunteers entered into such trials, the dose and constancy of drug administration and the mixture of additional medications that are restricted in such trials but might influence outcome in practice. A distinction has been drawn between trials which establish “efficacy” and those that demonstrate “effectiveness” - drugs that patients actually consume in the “real world” for clinical benefit1. However, randomized controlled trials remain the gold standard for establishing efficacy and the testing of “effectiveness” with less rigorous approaches is a secondary, albeit important consideration. Despite this, there is an appreciation that “average” results may conceal considerable inter-individual variation in drug response, leading to a failure to appreciate clinical value or risk in subsets of patients2,3Thus, attempts are now being made to individualize risk estimates by modulating those derived from large randomized trials with the individual baseline risk estimates based on demographic and biological criteria - the individual Numbers Needed to Treat to obtain a benefit, such as a life saved4. Here, I will consider some reasons why large phase 3 trials - by far the most expensive element of drug development - may fail to address the “unmet medical needs” which should justify such effort and investment. PMID:24677235

  10. Treating neurocysticercosis medically: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Salinas, R; Counsell, C; Prasad, K; Gelband, H; Garner, P

    1999-11-01

    To summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials on the effects of cysticidal therapy used for treating human cysticercosis. Published and unpublished studies in any language identified through MEDLINE (1966 - June 1999) specialized databases, abstracts, proceedings and contact with experts were analysed. Those which compared, using randomized or quasi-randomized methods, any cysticidal drug with placebo or symptomatic therapy were entered in the study. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers and trial quality assessed. Meta-analysis using fixed effects models calculated provided there was no significant heterogeneity, expressed as relative risk. Four trials met the inclusion criteria, treating intraparenchymatous neurocysticercosis with either albendazole or praziquantel compared to placebo or no treatment. In the two trials reporting clinical outcomes, treatment was not associated with a reduction in the risk of seizures, although numbers were small (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.59-1.51). Four trials reported radiological outcomes, and cysticidal treatment was associated with a lower risk of cyst persistence of scans taken within six months of start of treatment (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.99). Subsidiary analysis assuming different outcomes in patients lost to follow-up did not alter the findings of the main analysis. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether cysticidal therapy is of any clinical benefit to patients with neurocysticercosis. The review does not exclude the possibility that more patients remain seizure-free when treated with cysticidal drugs. Further testing through placebo-controlled trials is required.

  11. A multiple imputation strategy for sequential multiple assignment randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Shortreed, Susan M.; Laber, Eric; Stroup, T. Scott; Pineau, Joelle; Murphy, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Sequential multiple assignment randomized trials (SMARTs) are increasingly being used to inform clinical and intervention science. In a SMART, each patient is repeatedly randomized over time. Each randomization occurs at a critical decision point in the treatment course. These critical decision points often correspond to milestones in the disease process or other changes in a patient’s health status. Thus, the timing and number of randomizations may vary across patients and depend on evolving patient-specific information. This presents unique challenges when analyzing data from a SMART in the presence of missing data. This paper presents the first comprehensive discussion of missing data issues typical of SMART studies: we describe five specific challenges, and propose a flexible imputation strategy to facilitate valid statistical estimation and inference using incomplete data from a SMART. To illustrate these contributions, we consider data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention and Effectiveness (CATIE), one of the most well-known SMARTs to date. PMID:24919867

  12. Discontinuation and Nonpublication of Randomized Clinical Trials Conducted in Children

    PubMed Central

    Pica, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trial discontinuation and nonpublication represent potential waste in research resources and lead to compromises in medical evidence. Pediatric trials may be particularly vulnerable to these outcomes given the challenges encountered in conducting trials in children. We aimed to determine the prevalence of discontinuation and nonpublication of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted in pediatric populations. METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional study of pediatric RCTs registered in ClinicalTrials.gov from 2008 to 2010. Data were collected from the registry and associated publications identified (final search on September 1, 2015). RESULTS: Of 559 trials, 104 (19%) were discontinued early, accounting for an estimated 8369 pediatric participants. Difficulty with patient accrual (37%) was the most commonly cited reason for discontinuation. Trials were less likely to be discontinued if they were funded by industry compared with academic institutions (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27–0.77). Of the 455 completed trials, 136 (30%) were not published, representing 69 165 pediatric participants. Forty-two unpublished trials posted results on ClinicalTrials.gov. Trials funded by industry were more than twice as likely to result in nonpublication at 24 and 36 months (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.35–3.64; OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.6–6.08, respectively) and had a longer mean time to publication compared with trials sponsored by academia (33 vs 24 months, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of pediatric RCTs, discontinuation and nonpublication were common, with thousands of children exposed to interventions that did not lead to informative or published findings. Trial funding source was an important determinant of these outcomes, with both academic and industry sponsors contributing to inefficiencies. PMID:27492817

  13. Discontinuation and Nonpublication of Randomized Clinical Trials Conducted in Children.

    PubMed

    Pica, Natalie; Bourgeois, Florence

    2016-09-01

    Trial discontinuation and nonpublication represent potential waste in research resources and lead to compromises in medical evidence. Pediatric trials may be particularly vulnerable to these outcomes given the challenges encountered in conducting trials in children. We aimed to determine the prevalence of discontinuation and nonpublication of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted in pediatric populations. Retrospective, cross-sectional study of pediatric RCTs registered in ClinicalTrials.gov from 2008 to 2010. Data were collected from the registry and associated publications identified (final search on September 1, 2015). Of 559 trials, 104 (19%) were discontinued early, accounting for an estimated 8369 pediatric participants. Difficulty with patient accrual (37%) was the most commonly cited reason for discontinuation. Trials were less likely to be discontinued if they were funded by industry compared with academic institutions (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-0.77). Of the 455 completed trials, 136 (30%) were not published, representing 69 165 pediatric participants. Forty-two unpublished trials posted results on ClinicalTrials.gov. Trials funded by industry were more than twice as likely to result in nonpublication at 24 and 36 months (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.35-3.64; OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.6-6.08, respectively) and had a longer mean time to publication compared with trials sponsored by academia (33 vs 24 months, P < .001). In this sample of pediatric RCTs, discontinuation and nonpublication were common, with thousands of children exposed to interventions that did not lead to informative or published findings. Trial funding source was an important determinant of these outcomes, with both academic and industry sponsors contributing to inefficiencies. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Automatic generation of randomized trial sequences for priming experiments.

    PubMed

    Ihrke, Matthias; Behrendt, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    In most psychological experiments, a randomized presentation of successive displays is crucial for the validity of the results. For some paradigms, this is not a trivial issue because trials are interdependent, e.g., priming paradigms. We present a software that automatically generates optimized trial sequences for (negative-) priming experiments. Our implementation is based on an optimization heuristic known as genetic algorithms that allows for an intuitive interpretation due to its similarity to natural evolution. The program features a graphical user interface that allows the user to generate trial sequences and to interactively improve them. The software is based on freely available software and is released under the GNU General Public License.

  15. Generalizing Evidence From Randomized Clinical Trials to Target Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Stephen R.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Properly planned and conducted randomized clinical trials remain susceptible to a lack of external validity. The authors illustrate a model-based method to standardize observed trial results to a specified target population using a seminal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment trial, and they provide Monte Carlo simulation evidence supporting the method. The example trial enrolled 1,156 HIV-infected adult men and women in the United States in 1996, randomly assigned 577 to a highly active antiretroviral therapy and 579 to a largely ineffective combination therapy, and followed participants for 52 weeks. The target population was US people infected with HIV in 2006, as estimated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results from the trial apply, albeit muted by 12%, to the target population, under the assumption that the authors have measured and correctly modeled the determinants of selection that reflect heterogeneity in the treatment effect. In simulations with a heterogeneous treatment effect, a conventional intent-to-treat estimate was biased with poor confidence limit coverage, but the proposed estimate was largely unbiased with appropriate confidence limit coverage. The proposed method standardizes observed trial results to a specified target population and thereby provides information regarding the generalizability of trial results. PMID:20547574

  16. Post-trial follow-up methodology in large randomized controlled trials: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn-Bennett, Rebecca; Bowman, Louise; Bulbulia, Richard

    2016-12-15

    Clinical trials typically have a relatively short follow-up period, and may both underestimate potential benefits of treatments investigated, and fail to detect hazards, which can take much longer to emerge. Prolonged follow-up of trial participants after the end of the scheduled trial period can provide important information on both efficacy and safety outcomes. This protocol describes a systematic review to qualitatively compare methods of post-trial follow-up used in large randomized controlled trials. A systematic search of electronic databases and clinical trial registries will use a predefined search strategy. All large (more than 1000 adult participants) randomized controlled trials will be evaluated. Two reviewers will screen and extract data according to this protocol with the aim of 95% concordance of papers checked and discrepancies will be resolved by a third reviewer. Trial methods, participant retention rates and prevalence of missing data will be recorded and compared. The potential for bias will be evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool (applied to the methods used during the in-trial period) with the aim of investigating whether the quality of the post-trial follow-up methodology might be predicted by the quality of the methods used for the original trial. Post-trial follow-up can provide valuable information about the long-term benefits and hazards of medical interventions. However, it can be logistically challenging and costly. The aim of this systematic review is to describe how trial participants have been followed-up post-trial in order to inform future post-trial follow-up designs. Not applicable for PROSPERO registration.

  17. Impact of a cancer clinical trials web site on discussions about trial participation: a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Dear, R F; Barratt, A L; Askie, L M; Butow, P N; McGeechan, K; Crossing, S; Currow, D C; Tattersall, M H N

    2012-07-01

    Cancer patients want access to reliable information about currently recruiting clinical trials. Oncologists and their patients were randomly assigned to access a consumer-friendly cancer clinical trials web site [Australian Cancer Trials (ACT), www.australiancancertrials.gov.au] or to usual care in a cluster randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome, measured from audio recordings of oncologist-patient consultations, was the proportion of patients with whom participation in any clinical trial was discussed. Analysis was by intention-to-treat accounting for clustering and stratification. Thirty medical oncologists and 493 patients were recruited. Overall, 46% of consultations in the intervention group compared with 34% in the control group contained a discussion about clinical trials (P=0.08). The mean consultation length in both groups was 29 min (P=0.69). The proportion consenting to a trial was 10% in both groups (P=0.65). Patients' knowledge about randomized trials was lower in the intervention than the control group (mean score 3.0 versus 3.3, P=0.03) but decisional conflict scores were similar (mean score 42 versus 43, P=0.83). Good communication between patients and physicians is essential. Within this context, a web site such as Australian Cancer Trials may be an important tool to encourage discussion about clinical trial participation.

  18. Asthma Self-Management Model: Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivera, Carolina M. X.; Vianna, Elcio Oliveira; Bonizio, Roni C.; de Menezes, Marcelo B.; Ferraz, Erica; Cetlin, Andrea A.; Valdevite, Laura M.; Almeida, Gustavo A.; Araujo, Ana S.; Simoneti, Christian S.; de Freitas, Amanda; Lizzi, Elisangela A.; Borges, Marcos C.; de Freitas, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Information for patients provided by the pharmacist is reflected in adhesion to treatment, clinical results and patient quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess an asthma self-management model for rational medicine use. This was a randomized controlled trial with 60 asthmatic patients assigned to attend five modules presented by…

  19. Randomized Trial of Healthy Families Arizona: Quantitative and Qualitative Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCroy, Craig Winston; Davis, Melinda F.

    2017-01-01

    Home visitation has the potential to improve parent, child, and maternal outcomes and has become a widely implemented prevention program across the United States. The purpose of this research was to use a randomized controlled trial to assess the short-term effectiveness of the Arizona Healthy Families program across a range of outcomes. Two…

  20. Randomization Methods in Emergency Setting Trials: A Descriptive Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Mark Stephen; Moe-Byrne, Thirimon; Oddie, Sam; McGuire, William

    2016-01-01

    Background: Quasi-randomization might expedite recruitment into trials in emergency care settings but may also introduce selection bias. Methods: We searched the Cochrane Library and other databases for systematic reviews of interventions in emergency medicine or urgent care settings. We assessed selection bias (baseline imbalances) in prognostic…

  1. Using Randomized Controlled Trials to Evaluate Interventions for Releasing Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettus-Davis, Carrie; Howard, Matthew Owen; Dunnigan, Allison; Scheyett, Anna M.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are rarely used to evaluate social and behavioral interventions designed for releasing prisoners. Objective: We use a pilot RCT of a social support intervention (Support Matters) as a case example to discuss obstacles and strategies for conducting RCT intervention evaluations that span prison and community…

  2. Improved Cardiovascular Prevention Using Best CME Practices: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laprise, Rejean; Thivierge, Robert; Gosselin, Gilbert; Bujas-Bobanovic, Maja; Vandal, Sylvie; Paquette, Daniel; Luneau, Micheline; Julien, Pierre; Goulet, Serge; Desaulniers, Jean; Maltais, Paule

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: It was hypothesized that after a continuing medical education (CME) event, practice enablers and reinforcers addressing main clinical barriers to preventive care would be more effective in improving general practitioners' (GPs) adherence to cardiovascular guidelines than a CME event only. Methods: A cluster-randomized trial was…

  3. Randomized Trial of Drug Abuse Treatment-Linkage Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, James L.; Masson, Carmen L.; Delucchi, Kevin; Sporer, Karl; Barnett, Paul G.; Mitsuishi, Fumi; Lin, Christine; Song, Yong; Chen, TeChieh; Hall, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    A clinical trial contrasted 2 interventions designed to link opioid-dependent hospital patients to drug abuse treatment. The 126 out-of-treatment participants were randomly assigned to (a) case management, (b) voucher for free methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), (c) case management plus voucher, or (d) usual care. Services were provided for 6…

  4. Promoting Healthy Weight with "Stability Skills First": A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Michaela; Brown, Susan D.; Schoffman, Danielle E.; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C.; Taylor, C. Barr; Schleicher, Nina C.; Perri, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although behavioral weight-loss interventions produce short-term weight loss, long-term maintenance remains elusive. This randomized trial examined whether learning a novel set of "stability skills" before losing weight improved long-term weight management. Stability skills were designed to optimize individuals' current…

  5. Randomized Control Trials on the Dynamic Geometry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Zhonghong; White, Alexander; Rosenwasser, Alana

    2011-01-01

    The project reported here is conducting repeated randomized control trials of an approach to high school geometry that utilizes Dynamic Geometry (DG) software to supplement ordinary instructional practices. It compares effects of that intervention with standard instruction that does not make use of computer drawing/exploration tools. The basic…

  6. Affectionate Writing Reduces Total Cholesterol: Two Randomized, Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Kory; Mikkelson, Alan C.; Hesse, Colin; Pauley, Perry M.

    2007-01-01

    In two 5-week trials, healthy college students were randomly assigned either to experimental or control groups. Participants in the experimental groups wrote about their affection for significant friends, relatives, and/or romantic partners for 20 minutes on three separate occasions; on the same schedule, those in the control groups wrote about…

  7. A Multisite Cluster Randomized Field Trial of Open Court Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Schneck, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors report achievement outcomes of a multisite cluster randomized field trial of Open Court Reading 2005 (OCR), a K-6 literacy curriculum published by SRA/McGraw-Hill. The participants are 49 first-grade through fifth-grade classrooms from predominantly minority and poor contexts across the nation. Blocking by grade level…

  8. Randomized, Controlled Trial of CBT Training for PTSD Providers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    and Therapy, 47, 902-909. Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing ( EMDR ): Basic principles...Hopper, E. K., Korn, D. L., & Simpson, W. B. (2007). A randomized clinical trial of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing ( EMDR ), fluoxetine...Josef Ruzek, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Palo Alto Institute for Research and Education Palo Alto, CA 94304 REPORT

  9. Challenges in the design and implementation of the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial--lessons for comparative effectiveness trials.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Janet T; Kempen, John H; Prusakowski, Nancy A; Altaweel, Michael M; Jabs, Douglas A

    2011-12-01

    Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are an important component of comparative effectiveness (CE) research because they are the optimal design for head-to-head comparisons of different treatment options. To describe decisions made in the design of the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial to ensure that the results would be widely generalizable. Review of design and implementation decisions and their rationale for the trial. The MUST Trial is a multicenter randomized controlled CE trial evaluating a novel local therapy (intraocular fluocinolone acetonide implant) versus the systemic therapy standard of care for noninfectious uveitis. Decisions made in protocol design in order to broaden enrollment included allowing patients with very poor vision and media opacity to enroll and including clinical sites outside the United States. The treatment protocol was designed to follow standard care. The primary outcome, visual acuity, is important to patients and can be evaluated in all eyes with uveitis. Other outcomes include patient-reported visual function, quality of life, and disease and treatment related complications. The trial population is too small for subgroup analyses that are of interest and the trial is being conducted at tertiary medical centers. CE trials require greater emphasis on generalizability than many RCTs but otherwise face similar challenges for design choices as any RCT. The increase in heterogeneity in patients and treatment required to ensure generalizability can be balanced with a rigorous approach to implementation, outcome assessment, and statistical design. This approach requires significant resources that may limit implementation in many RCTs, especially in clinical practice settings.

  10. A randomized, controlled trial of oral propranolol in infantile hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Hoeger, Peter; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Guibaud, Laurent; Baselga, Eulalia; Posiunas, Gintas; Phillips, Roderic J; Caceres, Hector; Lopez Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Ballona, Rosalia; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon; Powell, Julie; Perek, Danuta; Metz, Brandie; Barbarot, Sebastien; Maruani, Annabel; Szalai, Zsuzsanna Zsofia; Krol, Alfons; Boccara, Olivia; Foelster-Holst, Regina; Febrer Bosch, Maria Isabel; Su, John; Buckova, Hana; Torrelo, Antonio; Cambazard, Frederic; Grantzow, Rainer; Wargon, Orli; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Roessler, Jochen; Bernabeu-Wittel, Jose; Valencia, Adriana M; Przewratil, Przemyslaw; Glick, Sharon; Pope, Elena; Birchall, Nicholas; Benjamin, Latanya; Mancini, Anthony J; Vabres, Pierre; Souteyrand, Pierre; Frieden, Ilona J; Berul, Charles I; Mehta, Cyrus R; Prey, Sorilla; Boralevi, Franck; Morgan, Caroline C; Heritier, Stephane; Delarue, Alain; Voisard, Jean-Jacques

    2015-02-19

    Oral propranolol has been used to treat complicated infantile hemangiomas, although data from randomized, controlled trials to inform its use are limited. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, adaptive, phase 2-3 trial assessing the efficacy and safety of a pediatric-specific oral propranolol solution in infants 1 to 5 months of age with proliferating infantile hemangioma requiring systemic therapy. Infants were randomly assigned to receive placebo or one of four propranolol regimens (1 or 3 mg of propranolol base per kilogram of body weight per day for 3 or 6 months). A preplanned interim analysis was conducted to identify the regimen to study for the final efficacy analysis. The primary end point was success (complete or nearly complete resolution of the target hemangioma) or failure of trial treatment at week 24, as assessed by independent, centralized, blinded evaluations of standardized photographs. Of 460 infants who underwent randomization, 456 received treatment. On the basis of an interim analysis of the first 188 patients who completed 24 weeks of trial treatment, the regimen of 3 mg of propranolol per kilogram per day for 6 months was selected for the final efficacy analysis. The frequency of successful treatment was higher with this regimen than with placebo (60% vs. 4%, P<0.001). A total of 88% of patients who received the selected propranolol regimen showed improvement by week 5, versus 5% of patients who received placebo. A total of 10% of patients in whom treatment with propranolol was successful required systemic retreatment during follow-up. Known adverse events associated with propranolol (hypoglycemia, hypotension, bradycardia, and bronchospasm) occurred infrequently, with no significant difference in frequency between the placebo group and the groups receiving propranolol. This trial showed that propranolol was effective at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram per day for 6 months in the treatment of infantile hemangioma. (Funded by

  11. Randomized controlled trial of probiotics after colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Basil; Slack, Timothy; Wong, Shing W; Lam, Francis; Muhlmann, Mark; Koestenbauer, Jakob; Dark, Jonathan; Newstead, Graham

    2017-09-01

    Up to 20% of patients have ongoing abdominal symptoms at day 2 and beyond following colonoscopy. It was hypothesized that some of these symptoms are related to alterations in gut microbiota secondary to bowel preparation and would improve with probiotics compared with placebo. Patients were given either a probiotic or placebo capsule in the days following colonoscopy. Colonoscopy was performed with air insufflation. The probiotic capsule contained the strains Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07. Patients recorded their symptoms at 1 h, 1, 2, 4, 7 and 14 days post colonoscopy and returned results once their symptoms had resolved. The primary outcomes used were the length of days to resolution of bloating, abdominal pain and altered bowel function post colonoscopy. A total of 320 patients were randomized. After loss to follow-up and withdrawal, 133 patients were analysed in the probiotic group and 126 in the placebo group. Patients having probiotic had a lower number of pain days following colonoscopy, 1.99 versus 2.78 days (P < 0.033). There was no significant difference in bloating or return to normal bowel habit days (P = 0.139 and 0.265 respectively). Subgroup analysis revealed that patients with pre-existing abdominal pain benefited from probiotics in number of pain days, 2.16 versus 4.08 (P = 0.0498). Our study has shown a significant reduction in the duration of pain days post colonoscopy in patients taking probiotic compared with placebo. No significant effect was seen in terms of return to normal bowel function or bloating post colonoscopy. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Head-to-head comparison of the diagnostic performance of coronary computed tomography angiography and dobutamine-stress echocardiography in the evaluation of acute chest pain with normal ECG findings and negative troponin tests: A prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Durand, Eric; Bauer, Fabrice; Mansencal, Nicolas; Azarine, Arshid; Diebold, Benoit; Hagege, Albert; Perdrix, Ludivine; Gilard, Martine; Jobic, Yannick; Eltchaninoff, Hélène; Bensalah, Mourad; Dubourg, Benjamin; Caudron, Jérôme; Niarra, Ralph; Chatellier, Gilles; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas; Mousseaux, Elie

    2017-08-15

    To perform a head-to-head comparison of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and dobutamine-stress echocardiography (DSE) in patients presenting recent chest pain when troponin and ECG are negative. Two hundred seventeen patients with recent chest pain, normal ECG findings, and negative troponin were prospectively included in this multicenter study and were scheduled for CCTA and DSE. Invasive coronary angiography (ICA), was performed in patients when either DSE or CCTA was considered positive or when both were non-contributive or in case of recurrent chest pain during 6month follow-up. The presence of coronary artery stenosis was defined as a luminal obstruction >50% diameter in any coronary segment at ICA. ICA was performed in 75 (34.6%) patients. Coronary artery stenosis was identified in 37 (17%) patients. For CCTA, the sensitivity was 96.9% (95% CI 83.4-99.9), specificity 48.3% (29.4-67.5), positive likelihood ratio 2.06 (95% CI 1.36-3.11), and negative likelihood ratio 0.07 (95% CI 0.01-0.52). The sensitivity of DSE was 51.6% (95% CI 33.1-69.9), specificity 46.7% (28.3-65.7), positive likelihood ratio 1.03 (95% CI 0.62-1.72), and negative likelihood ratio 1.10 (95% CI 0.63-1.93). The CCTA: DSE ratio of true-positive and false-positive rates was 1.70 (95% CI 1.65-1.75) and 1.00 (95% CI 0.91-1.09), respectively, when non-contributive CCTA and DSE were both considered positive. Only one missed acute coronary syndrome was observed at six months. CCTA has higher diagnostic performance than DSE in the evaluation of patients with recent chest pain, normal ECG findings, and negative troponine to exclude coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Randomization in clinical trials in orthodontics: its significance in research design and methods to achieve it.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore

    2011-12-01

    Randomization is a key step in reducing selection bias during the treatment allocation phase in randomized clinical trials. The process of randomization follows specific steps, which include generation of the randomization list, allocation concealment, and implementation of randomization. The phenomenon in the dental and orthodontic literature of characterizing treatment allocation as random is frequent; however, often the randomization procedures followed are not appropriate. Randomization methods assign, at random, treatment to the trial arms without foreknowledge of allocation by either the participants or the investigators thus reducing selection bias. Randomization entails generation of random allocation, allocation concealment, and the actual methodology of implementing treatment allocation randomly and unpredictably. Most popular randomization methods include some form of restricted and/or stratified randomization. This article introduces the reasons, which make randomization an integral part of solid clinical trial methodology, and presents the main randomization schemes applicable to clinical trials in orthodontics.

  14. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Héctor; Betriu, Amadeo; Heras, Magda; Alonso, Joaquín J; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J; López-Sendón, José L; Macaya, Carlos; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    To compare primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and fibrinolysis in very old patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom head-to-head comparisons between both strategies are scarce. Patients ≥75 years old with STEMI <6 h were randomized to pPCI or fibrinolysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, re-infarction, or disabling stroke at 30 days. The trial was prematurely stopped due to slow recruitment after enrolling 266 patients (134 allocated to pPCI and 132 to fibrinolysis). Both groups were well balanced in baseline characteristics. Mean age was 81 years. The primary endpoint was reached in 25 patients in the pPCI group (18.9%) and 34 (25.4%) in the fibrinolysis arm [odds ratio (OR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-1.23; P = 0.21]. Similarly, non-significant reductions were found in death (13.6 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.43), re-infarction (5.3 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.35), or disabling stroke (0.8 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.18). Recurrent ischaemia was less common in pPCI-treated patients (0.8 vs. 9.7%, P< 0.001). No differences were found in major bleeds. A pooled analysis with the two previous reperfusion trials performed in older patients showed an advantage of pPCI over fibrinolysis in reducing death, re-infarction, or stroke at 30 days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.45-0.91). Primary PCI seems to be the best reperfusion therapy for STEMI even for the oldest patients. Early contemporary fibrinolytic therapy may be a safe alternative to pPCI in the elderly when this is not available.

  15. An Overview of Randomization and Minimization Programs for Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Saghaei, Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Randomization is an essential component of sound clinical trials, which prevents selection biases and helps in blinding the allocations. Randomization is a process by which subsequent subjects are enrolled into trial groups only by chance, which essentially eliminates selection biases. A serious consequence of randomization is severe imbalance among the treatment groups with respect to some prognostic factors, which invalidate the trial results or necessitate complex and usually unreliable secondary analysis to eradicate the source of imbalances. Minimization on the other hand tends to allocate in such a way as to minimize the differences among groups, with respect to prognostic factors. Pure minimization is therefore completely deterministic, that is, one can predict the allocation of the next subject by knowing the factor levels of a previously enrolled subject and having the properties of the next subject. To eliminate the predictability of randomization, it is necessary to include some elements of randomness in the minimization algorithms. In this article brief descriptions of randomization and minimization are presented followed by introducing selected randomization and minimization programs. PMID:22606659

  16. Drug and Exercise Treatment of Alzheimer Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Effects on Cognition in Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Andreas; Schmidt, Dietlinde K; Schultz, Florian; Fricke, Nina; Staden, Theresa; Hellweg, Rainer; Priller, Josef; Rapp, Michael A; Rieckmann, Nina

    2015-12-01

    Demographic changes are increasing the pressure to improve therapeutic strategies against cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Besides drug treatment, physical activity seems to be a promising intervention target as epidemiological and clinical studies suggest beneficial effects of exercise training on cognition. Using comparable inclusion and exclusion criteria, we analyzed the efficacy of drug therapy (cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and Ginkgo biloba) and exercise interventions for improving cognition in AD and MCI populations. We searched The Cochrane Library, EBSCO, OVID, Web of Science, and U.S Food and Drug Administration data from inception through October 30, 2013. Randomized controlled trials in which at least one treatment arm consisted of an exercise or a pharmacological intervention for AD or MCI patients, and which had either a non-exposed control condition or a control condition that received another intervention. Treatment discontinuation rates and Standardized Mean Change score using Raw score standardization (SMCR) of cognitive performance were calculated. Discontinuation rates varied substantially and ranged between 0% and 49% with a median of 18%. Significantly increased discontinuation rates were found for galantamine and rivastigmine as compared to placebo in AD studies. Drug treatments resulted in a small pooled effect on cognition (SMCR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.25) in AD studies (N = 45, 18,434 patients) and no effect in any of the MCI studies (N = 5, 3,693 patients; SMCR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.005). Exercise interventions had a moderate to strong pooled effect size (SMCR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.59 to 1.07) in AD studies (N = 4, 119 patients), and a small effect size (SMCR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.28) in MCI (N = 6, 443 patients). Drug treatments have a small but significant impact on cognitive functioning in AD and exercise has the potential to improve cognition in AD and MCI. Head-to-head

  17. Reporting of statistically significant results at ClinicalTrials.gov for completed superiority randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Dechartres, Agnes; Bond, Elizabeth G; Scheer, Jordan; Riveros, Carolina; Atal, Ignacio; Ravaud, Philippe

    2016-11-30

    Publication bias and other reporting bias have been well documented for journal articles, but no study has evaluated the nature of results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov. We aimed to assess how many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov report statistically significant results and whether the proportion of trials with significant results differs when no treatment effect estimate or p-value is posted. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov in June 2015 for all studies with results posted. We included completed RCTs with a superiority hypothesis and considered results for the first primary outcome with results posted. For each trial, we assessed whether a treatment effect estimate and/or p-value was reported at ClinicalTrials.gov and if yes, whether results were statistically significant. If no treatment effect estimate or p-value was reported, we calculated the treatment effect and corresponding p-value using results per arm posted at ClinicalTrials.gov when sufficient data were reported. From the 17,536 studies with results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov, we identified 2823 completed phase 3 or 4 randomized trials with a superiority hypothesis. Of these, 1400 (50%) reported a treatment effect estimate and/or p-value. Results were statistically significant for 844 trials (60%), with a median p-value of 0.01 (Q1-Q3: 0.001-0.26). For the 1423 trials with no treatment effect estimate or p-value posted, we could calculate the treatment effect and corresponding p-value using results reported per arm for 929 (65%). For 494 trials (35%), p-values could not be calculated mainly because of insufficient reporting, censored data, or repeated measurements over time. For the 929 trials we could calculate p-values, we found statistically significant results for 342 (37%), with a median p-value of 0.19 (Q1-Q3: 0.005-0.59). Half of the trials with results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov reported a treatment effect estimate and/or p-value, with significant

  18. Preference in Random Assignment: Implications for the Interpretation of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Paul B.; Hargreaves, William A.; Aronson, Elliot; Bickman, Leonard; Barreira, Paul J.; Jones, Danson R.; Rodican, Charles F.; Fisher, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Random assignment to a preferred experimental condition can increase service engagement and enhance outcomes, while assignment to a less-preferred condition can discourage service receipt and limit outcome attainment. We examined randomized trials for one prominent psychiatric rehabilitation intervention, supported employment, to gauge how often assignment preference might have complicated the interpretation of findings. Condition descriptions, and greater early attrition from services-as-usual comparison conditions, suggest that many study enrollees favored assignment to new rapid-job-placement supported employment, but no study took this possibility into account. Reviews of trials in other service fields are needed to determine whether this design problem is widespread. PMID:19434489

  19. Bayesian randomized clinical trials: From fixed to adaptive design.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guosheng; Lam, Chi Kin; Shi, Haolun

    2017-08-01

    Randomized controlled studies are the gold standard for phase III clinical trials. Using α-spending functions to control the overall type I error rate, group sequential methods are well established and have been dominating phase III studies. Bayesian randomized design, on the other hand, can be viewed as a complement instead of competitive approach to the frequentist methods. For the fixed Bayesian design, the hypothesis testing can be cast in the posterior probability or Bayes factor framework, which has a direct link to the frequentist type I error rate. Bayesian group sequential design relies upon Bayesian decision-theoretic approaches based on backward induction, which is often computationally intensive. Compared with the frequentist approaches, Bayesian methods have several advantages. The posterior predictive probability serves as a useful and convenient tool for trial monitoring, and can be updated at any time as the data accrue during the trial. The Bayesian decision-theoretic framework possesses a direct link to the decision making in the practical setting, and can be modeled more realistically to reflect the actual cost-benefit analysis during the drug development process. Other merits include the possibility of hierarchical modeling and the use of informative priors, which would lead to a more comprehensive utilization of information from both historical and longitudinal data. From fixed to adaptive design, we focus on Bayesian randomized controlled clinical trials and make extensive comparisons with frequentist counterparts through numerical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Leveraging prognostic baseline variables to gain precision in randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Rosenblum, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We focus on estimating the average treatment effect in a randomized trial. If baseline variables are correlated with the outcome, then appropriately adjusting for these variables can improve precision. An example is the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) estimator, which applies when the outcome is continuous, the quantity of interest is the difference in mean outcomes comparing treatment versus control, and a linear model with only main effects is used. ANCOVA is guaranteed to be at least as precise as the standard unadjusted estimator, asymptotically, under no parametric model assumptions and also is locally semiparametric efficient. Recently, several estimators have been developed that extend these desirable properties to more general settings that allow any real-valued outcome (e.g., binary or count), contrasts other than the difference in mean outcomes (such as the relative risk), and estimators based on a large class of generalized linear models (including logistic regression). To the best of our knowledge, we give the first simulation study in the context of randomized trials that compares these estimators. Furthermore, our simulations are not based on parametric models; instead, our simulations are based on resampling data from completed randomized trials in stroke and HIV in order to assess estimator performance in realistic scenarios. We provide practical guidance on when these estimators are likely to provide substantial precision gains and describe a quick assessment method that allows clinical investigators to determine whether these estimators could be useful in their specific trial contexts. PMID:25872751

  1. Mediterranean dietary pattern and depression: the PREDIMED randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A few observational studies have found an inverse association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and the risk of depression. Randomized trials with an intervention based on this dietary pattern could provide the most definitive answer to the findings reported by observational studies. The aim of this study was to compare in a randomized trial the effects of two Mediterranean diets versus a low-fat diet on depression risk after at least 3 years of intervention. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, primary prevention field trial of cardiovascular disease (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED Study)) based on community-dwelling men aged 55 to 80 years and women aged 60 to 80 years at high risk of cardiovascular disease (51% of them had type 2 diabetes; DM2) attending primary care centers affiliated with 11 Spanish teaching hospitals. Primary analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Cox regression models were used to assess the relationship between the nutritional intervention groups and the incidence of depression. Results We identified 224 new cases of depression during follow-up. There was an inverse association with depression for participants assigned to a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts (multivariate hazard ratio (HR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55 to 1.10) compared with participants assigned to the control group, although this was not significant. However, when the analysis was restricted to participants with DM2, the magnitude of the effect of the intervention with the Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts did reach statistical significance (multivariate HR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.98). Conclusions The result suggest that a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts could exert a beneficial effect on the risk of depression in patients with DM2. Trial registration This trial has been registered in the Current Controlled Trials with the number ISRCTN 35739639 PMID:24229349

  2. Antibiotics for human toxoplasmosis: a systematic review of randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Chrishan Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan; Samaranayake, Nilakshi; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Deepika Fernando, Sumadhya

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of different treatment regimens in clinical syndromes of toxoplasmosis were assessed by conducting a systematic review of published randomized clinical trials through extensive searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS with no date limits, as well as manual review of journals. Outcome measures varied depending on the clinical entity of toxoplasmosis. Risk of bias was evaluated and quality of evidence was graded. Fourteen randomized trials were included of which one was a non-comparative study. One well-designed trial showed that trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was more effective than placebo for clinical recovery of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy in immunocompetent hosts. For toxoplasmic encephalopathy, efficacy of pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine and trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole were similar, whereas pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine versus pyrimathamine+clindamycin showed no difference, irrespective of the outcome. Intravitreal clindamycin+dexamethasone and conventional treatment with oral pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine had similar efficacy with regard to all outcome measures in ocular toxoplasmosis, and intravitreal therapy was found to be safe. Adverse effects seemed more common with pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine. Most trials for encephalitis and ocular manifestations had a high risk of bias and were of poor methodological quality. There were no trials evaluating drugs for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, or for congenital toxoplasmosis. Pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine is an effective therapy for treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis; trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole and pyrimethamine+clindamycin are possible alternatives. Treatment with either oral or intravitreal antibiotics seems reasonable for ocular toxoplasmosis. Overall, trial evidence for the efficacy of these drugs for toxoplasmosis is poor, and further well-designed trials are needed. PMID:23816507

  3. Randomized trials are frequently fragmented in multiple secondary publications.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Shanil; Montoya, Luis; Kamal El Din, Mostafa; Sohani, Zahra N; Agarwal, Arnav; Bance, Sheena; Saquib, Juliann; Saquib, Nazmus; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-11-01

    To assess the frequency and features of secondary publications of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). For 191 RCTs published in high-impact journals in 2009, we searched for secondary publications coauthored by at least one same author of the primary trial publication. We evaluated the probability of having secondary publications, characteristics of the primary trial publication that predict having secondary publications, types of secondary analyses conducted, and statistical significance of those analyses. Of 191 primary trials, 88 (46%) had a total of 475 secondary publications by 2/2014. Eight trials had >10 (up to 51) secondary publications each. In multivariable modeling, the risk of having subsequent secondary publications increased 1.32-fold (95% CI 1.05-1.68) per 10-fold increase in sample size, and 1.71-fold (95% CI 1.19-2.45) in the presence of a design article. In a sample of 197 secondary publications examined in depth, 193 tested different hypotheses than the primary publication. Of the 193, 43 tested differences between subgroups, 85 assessed predictive factors associated with an outcome of interest, 118 evaluated different outcomes than the original article, 71 had differences in eligibility criteria, and 21 assessed different durations of follow-up; 176 (91%) presented at least one analysis with statistically significant results. Approximately half of randomized trials in high-impact journals have secondary publications published with a few trials followed by numerous secondary publications. Almost all of these publications report some statistically significant results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Methodological survey of designed uneven randomization trials (DU-RANDOM): a protocol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Darong; Akl, Elie A; Guyatt, Gordon H; Devereaux, Philip J; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Prediger, Barbara; Patel, Krupesh; Patel, Namrata; Lu, Taoying; Zhang, Yuan; Falavigna, Maicon; Santesso, Nancy; Mustafa, Reem A; Zhou, Qi; Briel, Matthias; Schünemann, Holger J

    2014-01-23

    Although even randomization (that is, approximately 1:1 randomization ratio in study arms) provides the greatest statistical power, designed uneven randomization (DUR), (for example, 1:2 or 1:3) is used to increase participation rates. Until now, no convincing data exists addressing the impact of DUR on participation rates in trials. The objective of this study is to evaluate the epidemiology and to explore factors associated with DUR. We will search for reports of RCTs published within two years in 25 general medical journals with the highest impact factor according to the Journal Citation Report (JCR)-2010. Teams of two reviewers will determine eligibility and extract relevant information from eligible RCTs in duplicate and using standardized forms. We will report the prevalence of DUR trials, the reported reasons for using DUR, and perform a linear regression analysis to estimate the association between the randomization ratio and the associated factors, including participation rate, type of informed consent, clinical area, and so on. A clearer understanding of RCTs with DUR and its association with factors in trials, for example, participation rate, can optimize trial design and may have important implications for both researchers and users of the medical literature.

  5. Impact and Costs of Incentives to Reduce Attrition in Online Trials: Two Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Elizabeth; Kalaitzaki, Eleftheria; White, Ian R; McCambridge, Jim; Thompson, Simon G; Wallace, Paul; Godfrey, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background Attrition from follow-up is a major methodological challenge in randomized trials. Incentives are known to improve response rates in cross-sectional postal and online surveys, yet few studies have investigated whether they can reduce attrition from follow-up in online trials, which are particularly vulnerable to low follow-up rates. Objectives Our objective was to determine the impact of incentives on follow-up rates in an online trial. Methods Two randomized controlled trials were embedded in a large online trial of a Web-based intervention to reduce alcohol consumption (the Down Your Drink randomized controlled trial, DYD-RCT). Participants were those in the DYD pilot trial eligible for 3-month follow-up (study 1) and those eligible for 12-month follow-up in the DYD main trial (study 2). Participants in both studies were randomly allocated to receive an offer of an incentive or to receive no offer of an incentive. In study 1, participants in the incentive arm were randomly offered a £5 Amazon.co.uk gift voucher, a £5 charity donation to Cancer Research UK, or entry in a prize draw for £250. In study 2, participants in the incentive arm were offered a £10 Amazon.co.uk gift voucher. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants who completed follow-up questionnaires in the incentive arm(s) compared with the no incentive arm. Results In study 1 (n = 1226), there was no significant difference in response rates between those participants offered an incentive (175/615, 29%) and those with no offer (162/611, 27%) (difference = 2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] –3% to 7%). There was no significant difference in response rates among the three different incentives offered. In study 2 (n = 2591), response rates were 9% higher in the group offered an incentive (476/1296, 37%) than in the group not offered an incentive (364/1295, 28%) (difference = 9%, 95% CI 5% to 12%, P < .001). The incremental cost per extra successful follow-up in the incentive

  6. Randomized Trial of a Web-Based Intervention to Address Barriers to Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Meropol, Neal J; Wong, Yu-Ning; Albrecht, Terrance; Manne, Sharon; Miller, Suzanne M; Flamm, Anne Lederman; Benson, Al Bowen; Buzaglo, Joanne; Collins, Michael; Egleston, Brian; Fleisher, Linda; Katz, Michael; Kinzy, Tyler G; Liu, Tasnuva M; Margevicius, Seunghee; Miller, Dawn M; Poole, David; Roach, Nancy; Ross, Eric; Schluchter, Mark D

    2016-02-10

    Lack of knowledge and negative attitudes have been identified as barriers to participation in clinical trials by patients with cancer. We developed Preparatory Education About Clinical Trials (PRE-ACT), a theory-guided, Web-based, interactive computer program, to deliver tailored video educational content to patients in an effort to overcome barriers to considering clinical trials as a treatment option. A prospective, randomized clinical trial compared PRE-ACT with a control condition that provided general clinical trials information produced by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in text format. One thousand two hundred fifty-five patients with cancer were randomly allocated before their initial visit with an oncologist to PRE-ACT (n = 623) or control (n = 632). PRE-ACT had three main components: assessment of clinical trials knowledge and attitudinal barriers, values assessment with clarification back to patients, and provision of a video library tailored to address each patient's barriers. Outcomes included knowledge and attitudes and preparation for decision making about clinical trials. Both PRE-ACT and control interventions improved knowledge and attitudes (all P < .001) compared with baseline. Patients randomly allocated to PRE-ACT showed a significantly greater increase in knowledge (P < .001) and a significantly greater decrease in attitudinal barriers (P < .001) than did their control (text-only) counterparts. Participants in both arms significantly increased their preparedness to consider clinical trials (P < .001), and there was a trend favoring the PRE-ACT group (P < .09). PRE-ACT was also associated with greater patient satisfaction than was NCI text alone. These data show that patient education before the first oncologist visit improves knowledge, attitudes, and preparation for decision making about clinical trials. Both text and tailored video were effective. The PRE-ACT interactive video program was more effective than NCI text in improving

  7. Preconception maternal nutrition: a multi-site randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research directed to optimizing maternal nutrition commencing prior to conception remains very limited, despite suggestive evidence of its importance in addition to ensuring an optimal nutrition environment in the periconceptional period and throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. Methods/Study design This is an individually randomized controlled trial of the impact on birth length (primary outcome) of the time at which a maternal nutrition intervention is commenced: Arm 1: ≥ 3 mo preconception vs. Arm 2: 12-14 wk gestation vs. Arm 3: none. 192 (derived from 480) randomized mothers and living offspring in each arm in each of four research sites (Guatemala, India, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of the Congo). The intervention is a daily 20 g lipid-based (118 kcal) multi-micronutient (MMN) supplement. Women randomized to receive this intervention with body mass index (BMI) <20 or whose gestational weight gain is low will receive an additional 300 kcal/d as a balanced energy-protein supplement. Researchers will visit homes biweekly to deliver intervention and monitor compliance, pregnancy status and morbidity; ensure prenatal and delivery care; and promote breast feeding. The primary outcome is birth length. Secondary outcomes include: fetal length at 12 and 34 wk; incidence of low birth weight (LBW); neonatal/infant anthropometry 0-6 mo of age; infectious disease morbidity; maternal, fetal, newborn, and infant epigenetics; maternal and infant nutritional status; maternal and infant microbiome; gut inflammatory biomarkers and bioactive and nutritive compounds in breast milk. The primary analysis will compare birth Length-for-Age Z-score (LAZ) among trial arms (independently for each site, estimated effect size: 0.35). Additional statistical analyses will examine the secondary outcomes and a pooled analysis of data from all sites. Discussion Positive results of this trial will support a paradigm shift in attention to nutrition of all females of

  8. Ear Acupuncture for Acute Sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ear acupuncture for acute sore throat. A randomized controlled trial...Auncular Acupuncture is a low risk option for acute pain control •Battlefield acupuncture (BFA) IS a specific auncular acupuncture technique •BFA IS...Strengths: Prospect1ve RCT •Weaknesses Small sample stze. no sham acupuncture performed, patients not blinded to treatment •Th1s study represents an

  9. Acupuncture for alcohol withdrawal: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Trümpler, François; Oez, Suzan; Stähli, Peter; Brenner, Hans Dieter; Jüni, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Previous trials on acupuncture in alcohol addiction were in outpatients and focused on relapse prevention. Rates of dropout were high and interpretation of results difficult. We compared auricular laser and needle acupuncture with sham laser stimulation in reducing the duration of alcohol withdrawal. Inpatients undergoing alcohol withdrawal were randomly allocated to laser acupuncture (n = 17), needle acupuncture (n = 15) or sham laser stimulation (n = 16). Attempts were made to blind patients, therapists and outcome assessors, but this was not feasible for needle acupuncture. The duration of withdrawal symptoms (as assessed using a nurse-rated scale) was the primary outcome; the duration of sedative prescription was the secondary outcome. Patients randomized to laser and sham laser had identical withdrawal symptom durations (median 4 days). Patients randomized to needle stimulation had a shorter duration of withdrawal symptoms (median 3 days; P = 0.019 versus sham intervention), and tended to have a shorter duration of sedative use, but these differences diminished after adjustment for baseline differences. The data from this pilot trial do not suggest a relevant benefit of auricular laser acupuncture for alcohol withdrawal. A larger trial including adequate sham interventions is needed, however, to reliably determine the effectiveness of any type of auricular acupuncture in this condition.

  10. Head-to-head right-handed cross-links of the antitumor-active bis(mu-N,N'-di-p-tolylformamidinato)dirhodium(II,II) unit with the dinucleotides d(GpA) and d(ApG).

    PubMed

    Chifotides, Helen T; Dunbar, Kim R

    2008-01-01

    Reactions of cis-[Rh(2)(DTolF)(2)(NCCH(3))(6)](BF(4))(2) with the dinucleotides d(GpA) and d(ApG) proceed to form [Rh(2)(DTolF)(2){d(GpA)}] and [Rh(2)(DTolF)(2){d(ApG)}], respectively, with bridging purine bases spanning the Rh-Rh unit in the equatorial positions. Both dirhodium adducts exhibit head-to-head (HH) arrangement of the bases, as indicated by the presence of H8/H8 NOE cross-peaks in the 2D ROESY NMR spectra. The guanine bases bind to the dirhodium core at positions N7 and O6, a conclusion that is supported by the absence of N7 protonation at low pH values and the notable increase in the acidity of the guanine N1H sites (pK(a) approximately 7.4 in 4:1 CD(3)CN/D(2)O), inferred from the pH-dependence titrations of the guanine H8 proton resonances. In both dirhodium adducts, the adenine bases coordinate to the metal atoms through N6 and N7, which induces stabilization of the rare imino tautomer of the bases with a concomitant substantial decrease in the basicity of the N1H adenine sites (pK(a) approximately 7.0-7.1 in 4:1 CD(3)CN/D(2)O), as compared to the imino form of free adenosine. The presence of the adenine bases in the rare imino form is further corroborated by the observation of DQF-COSY H2/N1H and ROE N1H/N6H cross-peaks in the 2D NMR spectra of [Rh(2)(DTolF)(2){d(GpA)}] and [Rh(2)(DTolF)(2){d(ApG)}] in CD(3)CN at -38 degrees C. The 2D NMR spectroscopic data and the molecular modeling results suggest the presence of right-handed variants, HH1R, in solution for both adducts (HH1R refers to the relative base canting and the direction of propagation of the phosphodiester backbone with respect to the 5' base). Complete characterization of [Rh(2)(DTolF)(2){d(GpA)}] and [Rh(2)(DTolF)(2){d(ApG)}] by 2D NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling supports anti-orientation of the sugar residues for both adducts about the glycosyl bonds as well as N- and S-type conformations for the 5'- and 3'-deoxyribose residues, respectively.

  11. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in US combat soldiers: a head-to-head comparison of DSM-5 versus DSM-IV-TR symptom criteria with the PTSD checklist.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Charles W; Riviere, Lyndon A; Wilk, Joshua E; Herrell, Richard K; Weathers, Frank W

    2014-09-01

    The definition of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) underwent substantial changes in the 2013 edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). How this will affect estimates of prevalence, whether clinical utility has been improved, and how many individuals who meet symptom criteria according to the previous definition will not meet new criteria is unknown. Updated screening instruments, including the PTSD checklist (PCL), have not been compared with previously validated methods through head-to-head comparisons. We compared the new 20-item PCL, mapped to DSM-5 (PCL-5), with the original validated 17-item specific stressor version (PCL-S) in 1822 US infantry soldiers, including 946 soldiers who had been deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Surveys were administered in November, 2013. Soldiers alternately received either of two surveys that were identical except for the order of the two PCL versions (911 per group). Standardised scales measured major depression, generalised anxiety, alcohol misuse, and functional impairment. In analysis of all soldiers, 224 (13%) screened positive for PTSD by DSM-IV-TR criteria and 216 (12%) screened positive by DSM-5 criteria (κ 0·67). In soldiers exposed to combat, 177 (19%) screened positive by DSM-IV-TR and 165 (18%) screened positive by DSM-5 criteria (0·66). However, of 221 soldiers with complete data who met DSM-IV-TR criteria, 67 (30%) did not meet DSM-5 criteria, and 59 additional soldiers met only DSM-5 criteria. PCL-5 scores from 15-38 performed similarly to PCL-S scores of 30-50; a PCL-5 score of 38 gave optimum agreement with a PCL-S of 50. The two definitions showed nearly identical association with other psychiatric disorders and functional impairment. Our findings showed the PCL-5 to be equivalent to the validated PCL-S. However, the new PTSD symptom criteria do not seem to have greater clinical utility, and a high percentage of soldiers who met criteria by one definition did not meet

  12. Quantitative comparison of randomization designs in sequential clinical trials based on treatment balance and allocation randomness.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenle; Weng, Yanqiu; Wu, Qi; Palesch, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of randomization designs under various parameter settings and trial sample sizes, and identify optimal designs with respect to both treatment imbalance and allocation randomness, we evaluate 260 design scenarios from 14 randomization designs under 15 sample sizes range from 10 to 300, using three measures for imbalance and three measures for randomness. The maximum absolute imbalance and the correct guess (CG) probability are selected to assess the trade-off performance of each randomization design. As measured by the maximum absolute imbalance and the CG probability, we found that performances of the 14 randomization designs are located in a closed region with the upper boundary (worst case) given by Efron's biased coin design (BCD) and the lower boundary (best case) from the Soares and Wu's big stick design (BSD). Designs close to the lower boundary provide a smaller imbalance and a higher randomness than designs close to the upper boundary. Our research suggested that optimization of randomization design is possible based on quantified evaluation of imbalance and randomness. Based on the maximum imbalance and CG probability, the BSD, Chen's biased coin design with imbalance tolerance method, and Chen's Ehrenfest urn design perform better than popularly used permuted block design, EBCD, and Wei's urn design. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF BIRTHING WITH AND WITHOUT STIRRUPS

    PubMed Central

    CORTON, Marlene M.; LANKFORD, Janice C.; AMES, Rebecca; MCINTIRE, Donald D.; ALEXANDER, James M.; LEVENO, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if bed delivery without stirrups reduces the incidence of perineal lacerations compared to delivery in stirrups. STUDY DESIGN In this randomized trial we compared bed delivery without stirrups to delivery in stirrups in nulliparous women. The primary outcome was any perineal laceration (first- through fourth-degree). RESULTS 108 women were randomized to delivery without stirrups and 106 to stirrups. A total of 82 (76%) women randomized to no stirrups sustained perineal lacerations compared to 83 (78%) in women allocated to stirrups, p = .8. There was no significant difference in the severity of lacerations or in obstetric outcomes such as prolonged second stage of labor, forceps delivery, or cesarean birth. Similarly, infant outcomes were unaffected. CONCLUSION Our results do not incriminate stirrups as a cause of perineal lacerations. Alternatively, our findings of no difference in perineal lacerations suggest that delivering in bed without stirrups confers no advantages nor disadvantages. PMID:22840725

  14. A randomized controlled trial of an electronic informed consent process.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Erin; Wong, Bob; Rose, Nancy C; Anderson, Rebecca; Fedor, Beth; Stark, Louisa A; Botkin, Jeffrey R

    2014-12-01

    A pilot study assessed an electronic informed consent model within a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants who were recruited for the parent RCT project were randomly selected and randomized to either an electronic consent group (n = 32) or a simplified paper-based consent group (n = 30). Results from the electronic consent group reported significantly higher understanding of the purpose of the study, alternatives to participation, and who to contact if they had questions or concerns about the study. However, participants in the paper-based control group reported higher mean scores on some survey items. This research suggests that an electronic informed consent presentation may improve participant understanding for some aspects of a research study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Electronic Informed Consent Process

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Erin; Wong, Bob; Rose, Nancy C.; Anderson, Rebecca; Fedor, Beth; Stark, Louisa A.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.

    2018-01-01

    A pilot study assessed an electronic informed consent model within a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants who were recruited for the parent RCT project were randomly selected and randomized to either an electronic consent group (n = 32) or a simplified paper-based consent group (n = 30). Results from the electronic consent group reported significantly higher understanding of the purpose of the study, alternatives to participation, and who to contact if they had questions or concerns about the study. However, participants in the paper-based control group reported higher mean scores on some survey items. This research suggests that an electronic informed consent presentation may improve participant understanding for some aspects of a research study. PMID:25747685

  16. ADAPTIVE MATCHING IN RANDOMIZED TRIALS AND OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    van der Laan, Mark J.; Balzer, Laura B.; Petersen, Maya L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In many randomized and observational studies the allocation of treatment among a sample of n independent and identically distributed units is a function of the covariates of all sampled units. As a result, the treatment labels among the units are possibly dependent, complicating estimation and posing challenges for statistical inference. For example, cluster randomized trials frequently sample communities from some target population, construct matched pairs of communities from those included in the sample based on some metric of similarity in baseline community characteristics, and then randomly allocate a treatment and a control intervention within each matched pair. In this case, the observed data can neither be represented as the realization of n independent random variables, nor, contrary to current practice, as the realization of n/2 independent random variables (treating the matched pair as the independent sampling unit). In this paper we study estimation of the average causal effect of a treatment under experimental designs in which treatment allocation potentially depends on the pre-intervention covariates of all units included in the sample. We define efficient targeted minimum loss based estimators for this general design, present a theorem that establishes the desired asymptotic normality of these estimators and allows for asymptotically valid statistical inference, and discuss implementation of these estimators. We further investigate the relative asymptotic efficiency of this design compared with a design in which unit-specific treatment assignment depends only on the units’ covariates. Our findings have practical implications for the optimal design and analysis of pair matched cluster randomized trials, as well as for observational studies in which treatment decisions may depend on characteristics of the entire sample. PMID:25097298

  17. The feasibility of a randomized controlled trial of esophagectomy for esophageal cancer - the ROMIO (Randomized Oesophagectomy: Minimally Invasive or Open) study: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for evidence of the clinical effectiveness of minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of esophageal cancer, but randomized controlled trials in surgery are often difficult to conduct. The ROMIO (Randomized Open or Minimally Invasive Oesophagectomy) study will establish the feasibility of a main trial which will examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive and open surgical procedures for the treatment of esophageal cancer. Methods/Design A pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT), in two centers (University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust and Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust) will examine numbers of incident and eligible patients who consent to participate in the ROMIO study. Interventions will include esophagectomy by: (1) open gastric mobilization and right thoracotomy, (2) laparoscopic gastric mobilization and right thoracotomy, and (3) totally minimally invasive surgery (in the Bristol center only). The primary outcomes of the feasibility study will be measures of recruitment, successful development of methods to monitor quality of surgery and fidelity to a surgical protocol, and development of a core outcome set to evaluate esophageal cancer surgery. The study will test patient-reported outcomes measures to assess recovery, methods to blind participants, assessments of surgical morbidity, and methods to capture cost and resource use. ROMIO will integrate methods to monitor and improve recruitment using audio recordings of consultations between recruiting surgeons, nurses, and patients to provide feedback for recruiting staff. Discussion The ROMIO study aims to establish efficient methods to undertake a main trial of minimally invasive surgery versus open surgery for esophageal cancer. Trial registration The pilot trial has Current Controlled Trials registration number ISRCTN59036820(25/02/2013) at http://www.controlled-trials.com; the ROMIO trial record at that site gives a link to the original version of

  18. Electronic prompts significantly increase response rates to postal questionnaires: a randomized trial within a randomized trial and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Laura; Ronaldson, Sarah; Dyson, Lisa; Hewitt, Catherine; Torgerson, David; Adamson, Joy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sending electronic prompts to randomized controlled trial participants to return study questionnaires. A "trial within a trial" embedded within a study determining the effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) screening on smoking cessation. Those participants taking part in DOC who provided a mobile phone number and/or an electronic mail address were randomized to either receive an electronic prompt or no electronic prompt to return a study questionnaire. The results were combined with two previous studies in a meta-analysis. A total of 437 participants were randomized: 226 to the electronic prompt group and 211 to the control group. A total of 285 (65.2%) participants returned the follow-up questionnaire: 157 (69.5%) in the electronic prompt group and 128 (60.7%) in the control group [difference 8.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11%, 17.7%; P = 0.05]. The mean time to response was 23 days in the electronic prompt group and 33 days in the control group (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.105, 1.47). The meta-analysis of all three studies showed an increase in response rate of 7.1% (95% CI: 0.8%, 13.3%). The use of electronic prompts increased response rates and reduces the time to response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Financial management of a large multisite randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sheffet, Alice J; Flaxman, Linda; Tom, MeeLee; Hughes, Susan E; Longbottom, Mary E; Howard, Virginia J; Marler, John R; Brott, Thomas G

    2014-08-01

    The Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST) received five years' funding ($21 112 866) from the National Institutes of Health to compare carotid stenting to surgery for stroke prevention in 2500 randomized participants at 40 sites. Herein we evaluate the change in the CREST budget from a fixed to variable-cost model and recommend strategies for the financial management of large-scale clinical trials. Projections of the original grant's fixed-cost model were compared to the actual costs of the revised variable-cost model. The original grant's fixed-cost budget included salaries, fringe benefits, and other direct and indirect costs. For the variable-cost model, the costs were actual payments to the clinical sites and core centers based upon actual trial enrollment. We compared annual direct and indirect costs and per-patient cost for both the fixed and variable models. Differences between clinical site and core center expenditures were also calculated. Using a variable-cost budget for clinical sites, funding was extended by no-cost extension from five to eight years. Randomizing sites tripled from 34 to 109. Of the 2500 targeted sample size, 138 (5·5%) were randomized during the first five years and 1387 (55·5%) during the no-cost extension. The actual per-patient costs of the variable model were 9% ($13 845) of the projected per-patient costs ($152 992) of the fixed model. Performance-based budgets conserve funding, promote compliance, and allow for additional sites at modest additional cost. Costs of large-scale clinical trials can thus be reduced through effective management without compromising scientific integrity. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  20. Power Calculations for Moderators in Multi-Site Cluster Randomized Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spybrook, Jessaca; Kelcey, Ben; Dong, Nianbo

    2016-01-01

    Cluster randomized trials (CRTs), or studies in which intact groups of individuals are randomly assigned to a condition, are becoming more common in evaluation studies of educational programs. A specific type of CRT in which clusters are randomly assigned to treatment within blocks or sites, known as multisite cluster randomized trials (MSCRTs),…

  1. Beyond the Randomized Controlled Trial: A Review of Alternatives in mHealth Clinical Trial Methods

    PubMed Central

    Wiljer, David; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have long been considered the primary research study design capable of eliciting causal relationships between health interventions and consequent outcomes. However, with a prolonged duration from recruitment to publication, high-cost trial implementation, and a rigid trial protocol, RCTs are perceived as an impractical evaluation methodology for most mHealth apps. Objective Given the recent development of alternative evaluation methodologies and tools to automate mHealth research, we sought to determine the breadth of these methods and the extent that they were being used in clinical trials. Methods We conducted a review of the ClinicalTrials.gov registry to identify and examine current clinical trials involving mHealth apps and retrieved relevant trials registered between November 2014 and November 2015. Results Of the 137 trials identified, 71 were found to meet inclusion criteria. The majority used a randomized controlled trial design (80%, 57/71). Study designs included 36 two-group pretest-posttest control group comparisons (51%, 36/71), 16 posttest-only control group comparisons (23%, 16/71), 7 one-group pretest-posttest designs (10%, 7/71), 2 one-shot case study designs (3%, 2/71), and 2 static-group comparisons (3%, 2/71). A total of 17 trials included a qualitative component to their methodology (24%, 17/71). Complete trial data collection required 20 months on average to complete (mean 21, SD 12). For trials with a total duration of 2 years or more (31%, 22/71), the average time from recruitment to complete data collection (mean 35 months, SD 10) was 2 years longer than the average time required to collect primary data (mean 11, SD 8). Trials had a moderate sample size of 112 participants. Two trials were conducted online (3%, 2/71) and 7 trials collected data continuously (10%, 7/68). Onsite study implementation was heavily favored (97%, 69/71). Trials with four data collection points had a longer study

  2. Beyond the Randomized Controlled Trial: A Review of Alternatives in mHealth Clinical Trial Methods.

    PubMed

    Pham, Quynh; Wiljer, David; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2016-09-09

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have long been considered the primary research study design capable of eliciting causal relationships between health interventions and consequent outcomes. However, with a prolonged duration from recruitment to publication, high-cost trial implementation, and a rigid trial protocol, RCTs are perceived as an impractical evaluation methodology for most mHealth apps. Given the recent development of alternative evaluation methodologies and tools to automate mHealth research, we sought to determine the breadth of these methods and the extent that they were being used in clinical trials. We conducted a review of the ClinicalTrials.gov registry to identify and examine current clinical trials involving mHealth apps and retrieved relevant trials registered between November 2014 and November 2015. Of the 137 trials identified, 71 were found to meet inclusion criteria. The majority used a randomized controlled trial design (80%, 57/71). Study designs included 36 two-group pretest-posttest control group comparisons (51%, 36/71), 16 posttest-only control group comparisons (23%, 16/71), 7 one-group pretest-posttest designs (10%, 7/71), 2 one-shot case study designs (3%, 2/71), and 2 static-group comparisons (3%, 2/71). A total of 17 trials included a qualitative component to their methodology (24%, 17/71). Complete trial data collection required 20 months on average to complete (mean 21, SD 12). For trials with a total duration of 2 years or more (31%, 22/71), the average time from recruitment to complete data collection (mean 35 months, SD 10) was 2 years longer than the average time required to collect primary data (mean 11, SD 8). Trials had a moderate sample size of 112 participants. Two trials were conducted online (3%, 2/71) and 7 trials collected data continuously (10%, 7/68). Onsite study implementation was heavily favored (97%, 69/71). Trials with four data collection points had a longer study duration than trials with two data

  3. A quality assessment of randomized controlled trial reports in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Lucena, C; Souza, E M; Voinea, G C; Pulgar, R; Valderrama, M J; De-Deus, G

    2017-03-01

    To assess the quality of the randomized clinical trial (RCT) reports published in Endodontics between 1997 and 2012. Retrieval of RCTs in Endodontics was based on a search of the Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS) database (March 2013). Quality evaluation was performed using a checklist based on the Jadad criteria, CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement and SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials). Descriptive statistics were used for frequency distribution of data. Student's t-test and Welch test were used to identify the influence of certain trial characteristics upon report quality (α = 0.05). A total of 89 RCTs were evaluated, and several methodological flaws were found: only 45% had random sequence generation at low risk of bias, 75% did not provide information on allocation concealment, and 19% were nonblinded designs. Regarding statistics, only 55% of the RCTs performed adequate sample size estimations, only 16% presented confidence intervals, and 25% did not provide the exact P-value. Also, 2% of the articles used no statistical tests, and in 87% of the RCTs, the information provided was insufficient to determine whether the statistical methodology applied was appropriate or not. Significantly higher scores were observed for multicentre trials (P = 0.023), RCTs signed by more than 5 authors (P = 0.03), articles belonging to journals ranked above the JCR median (P = 0.03), and articles complying with the CONSORT guidelines (P = 0.000). The quality of RCT reports in key areas for internal validity of the study was poor. Several measures, such as compliance with the CONSORT guidelines, are important in order to raise the quality of RCTs in Endodontics. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Patient satisfaction with different interpreting methods: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Leng, Jennifer; Shapiro, Ephraim; Abramson, David; Motola, Ivette; Shield, David C; Changrani, Jyotsna

    2007-11-01

    Growth of the foreign-born population in the U.S. has led to increasing numbers of limited-English-proficient (LEP) patients. Innovative medical interpreting strategies, including remote simultaneous medical interpreting (RSMI), have arisen to address the language barrier. This study evaluates the impact of interpreting method on patient satisfaction. 1,276 English-, Spanish-, Mandarin-, and Cantonese-speaking patients attending the primary care clinic and emergency department of a large New York City municipal hospital were screened for enrollment in a randomized controlled trial. Language-discordant patients were randomized to RSMI or usual and customary (U&C) interpreting. Patients with language-concordant providers received usual care. Demographic and patient satisfaction questionnaires were administered to all participants. 541 patients were language-concordant with their providers and not randomized; 371 were randomized to RSMI, 167 of whom were exposed to RSMI; and 364 were randomized to U&C, 198 of whom were exposed to U&C. Patients randomized to RSMI were more likely than those with U&C to think doctors treated them with respect (RSMI 71%, U&C 64%, p < 0.05), but they did not differ in other measures of physician communication/care. In a linear regression analysis, exposure to RSMI was significantly associated with an increase in overall satisfaction with physician communication/care (beta 0.10, 95% CI 0.02-0.18, scale 0-1.0). Patients randomized to RSMI were more likely to think the interpreting method protected their privacy (RSMI 51%, U&C 38%, p < 0.05). Patients randomized to either arm of interpretation reported less comprehension and satisfaction than patients in language-concordant encounters. While not a substitute for language-concordant providers, RSMI can improve patient satisfaction and privacy among LEP patients. Implementing RSMI should be considered an important component of a multipronged approach to addressing language barriers in health

  5. Hawthorn Extract Randomized Blinded Chronic Heart Failure (HERB CHF) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Suzanna M.; Vautaw, Bonnie Motyka; Gillespie, Brenda; Aaronson, Keith D.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Hawthorn's efficacy when added to contemporary evidence-based heart failure therapy is unknown. We aimed to determine whether hawthorn increases submaximal exercise capacity when added to standard medical therapy. Methods and results We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 120 ambulatory patients aged ≥18 years with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III chronic heart failure. All patients received conventional medical therapy, as tolerated, and were randomized to either hawthorn 450 mg twice daily or placebo for 6 months. The primary outcome was change in 6 min walk distance at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included quality of life (QOL) measures, peak oxygen consumption, and anaerobic threshold during maximal treadmill exercise testing, NYHA classification, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), neurohormones, and measures of oxidative stress and inflammation. There were no significant differences between groups in the change in 6 min walk distance (P = 0.61), or on measures of QOL, functional capacity, neurohormones, oxidative stress, or inflammation. A modest difference in LVEF favoured hawthorn (P = 0.04). There were significantly more adverse events reported in the hawthorn group (P = 0.02), although most were non-cardiac. Conclusion Hawthorn provides no symptomatic or functional benefit when given with standard medical therapy to patients with heart failure. This trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00343902. PMID:19789403

  6. Hawthorn Extract Randomized Blinded Chronic Heart Failure (HERB CHF) trial.

    PubMed

    Zick, Suzanna M; Vautaw, Bonnie Motyka; Gillespie, Brenda; Aaronson, Keith D

    2009-10-01

    Hawthorn's efficacy when added to contemporary evidence-based heart failure therapy is unknown. We aimed to determine whether hawthorn increases submaximal exercise capacity when added to standard medical therapy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 120 ambulatory patients aged > or = 18 years with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III chronic heart failure. All patients received conventional medical therapy, as tolerated, and were randomized to either hawthorn 450 mg twice daily or placebo for 6 months. The primary outcome was change in 6 min walk distance at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included quality of life (QOL) measures, peak oxygen consumption, and anaerobic threshold during maximal treadmill exercise testing, NYHA classification, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), neurohormones, and measures of oxidative stress and inflammation. There were no significant differences between groups in the change in 6 min walk distance (P = 0.61), or on measures of QOL, functional capacity, neurohormones, oxidative stress, or inflammation. A modest difference in LVEF favoured hawthorn (P = 0.04). There were significantly more adverse events reported in the hawthorn group (P = 0.02), although most were non-cardiac. Hawthorn provides no symptomatic or functional benefit when given with standard medical therapy to patients with heart failure. This trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00343902.

  7. Randomized Clinical Trial of Interceptive and Comprehensive Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    King, G.J.; Spiekerman, C.F.; Greenlee, G.M.; Huang, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Focusing public insurance programs on interceptive orthodontics (IO) may increase access for low-income children. This report presents outcomes from a randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing IO with comprehensive orthodontics (CO) in Medicaid patients. One hundred seventy pre-adolescents with Medicaid-eligible malocclusions were randomized to IO (n = 86) followed by observation (OBS) or OBS followed by CO (n = 84). One hundred thirty-four completed the trial. Models at pre-treatment (baseline) and following ≤ 2 years of intervention and 2 years of OBS (48 mos) were scored by calibrated examiners using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) and Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). Overall outcomes and clinically meaningful categorical ICON data on need/acceptability, complexity, and improvement were compared. At baseline, groups were balanced by age, gender, ethnicity, and PAR/ICON scores. Most were minorities. Most (77%) were rated as difficult-to-very difficult. Scores improved significantly for both groups, but CO more than IO (PAR, 18.6 [95%CI 15.1, 22.1] vs.10.1 [95%CI 6.7, 13.4]; ICON, 44.8 [95% CI 39.7, 49.9] vs. 35.2 [95%CI 29.7, 40.6], respectively). On average, IO is effective at reducing malocclusions in Medicaid patients, but less than CO. (ClinicalTrials.gov number CT00067379) PMID:22699670

  8. Review of Randomized Controlled Trials of Massage in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Anna-Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth affects about 10% of infants born in the United States. Massage therapy is being used in some neonatal intensive care units for its potential beneficial effects on preterm infants. This article reviews published randomized controlled trials on the effects of massage in preterm infants. Most studies evaluating the effect of massage in weight gain in premature infants suggest a positive effect on weight gain. Increase in vagal tone has been reported in infants who receive massage and has been suggested as a possible mechanism for improved weight gain. More studies are needed on the underlying mechanisms of the effects of massage therapy on weight gain in preterm infants. While some trials suggest improvements in developmental scores, decreased stress behavior, positive effects on immune system, improved pain tolerance and earlier discharge from the hospital, the number of such studies is small and further evidence is needed. Further studies, including randomized controlled trials, are needed on the effects of massage in preterm infants. PMID:28368368

  9. Validation of Placebo in a Manual Therapy Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chaibi, Aleksander; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Bjørn Russell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    At present, no consensus exists among clinical and academic experts regarding an appropriate placebo for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). Therefore, we investigated whether it was possible to conduct a chiropractic manual-therapy RCT with placebo. Seventy migraineurs were randomized to a single-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial that consisted of 12 treatment sessions over 3 months. The participants were randomized to chiropractic SMT or placebo (sham manipulation). After each session, the participants were surveyed on whether they thought they had undergone active treatment (“yes” or “no”) and how strongly they believed that active treatment was received (numeric rating scale 0–10). The outcome measures included the rate of successful blinding and the certitude of the participants’ beliefs in both treatment groups. At each treatment session, more than 80% of the participants believed that they had undergone active treatment, regardless of group allocation. The odds ratio for believing that active treatment was received was >10 for all treatment sessions in both groups (all p < 0.001). The blinding was maintained throughout the RCT. Our results strongly demonstrate that it is possible to conduct a single-blinded manual-therapy RCT with placebo and to maintain the blinding throughout 12 treatment sessions given over 3 months. PMID:26145718

  10. Inference in randomized trials with death and missingness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenguang; Scharfstein, Daniel O; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Girard, Timothy D; Yan, Ying

    2017-06-01

    In randomized studies involving severely ill patients, functional outcomes are often unobserved due to missed clinic visits, premature withdrawal, or death. It is well known that if these unobserved functional outcomes are not handled properly, biased treatment comparisons can be produced. In this article, we propose a procedure for comparing treatments that is based on a composite endpoint that combines information on both the functional outcome and survival. We further propose a missing data imputation scheme and sensitivity analysis strategy to handle the unobserved functional outcomes not due to death. Illustrations of the proposed method are given by analyzing data from a recent non-small cell lung cancer clinical trial and a recent trial of sedation interruption among mechanically ventilated patients. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  11. Randomized controlled trials for Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Lauretani, Fulvio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Teresi, Giulio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-06-01

    The continuous increase in elderly and oldest-old population, and subsequent rise in prevalence of chronic neurological diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), are a major challenge for healthcare systems. These two conditions are the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases in older persons and physicians should engage treatment for these patients. In this field, Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) specifically focused on elderly populations are still lacking. The aim of this study was to identify RCTs conducted among AD and PD and to examine the difference between mean age of enrollment and incidence of these two neurodegenerative diseases. We found that the scenario is different between PD and AD. In particular, the enrollment for PD trials seems to include younger persons than AD, although the incidence of both diseases is similar and highest after 80 years old. The consequence of these results could influence conclusive guidelines of treatment in older parkinsonian patients.

  12. Random forests of interaction trees for estimating individualized treatment effects in randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaogang; Peña, Annette T; Liu, Lei; Levine, Richard A

    2018-04-29

    Assessing heterogeneous treatment effects is a growing interest in advancing precision medicine. Individualized treatment effects (ITEs) play a critical role in such an endeavor. Concerning experimental data collected from randomized trials, we put forward a method, termed random forests of interaction trees (RFIT), for estimating ITE on the basis of interaction trees. To this end, we propose a smooth sigmoid surrogate method, as an alternative to greedy search, to speed up tree construction. The RFIT outperforms the "separate regression" approach in estimating ITE. Furthermore, standard errors for the estimated ITE via RFIT are obtained with the infinitesimal jackknife method. We assess and illustrate the use of RFIT via both simulation and the analysis of data from an acupuncture headache trial. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A Randomized Trial of Progesterone in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages.

    PubMed

    Coomarasamy, Arri; Williams, Helen; Truchanowicz, Ewa; Seed, Paul T; Small, Rachel; Quenby, Siobhan; Gupta, Pratima; Dawood, Feroza; Koot, Yvonne E M; Bender Atik, Ruth; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Brady, Rebecca; Briley, Annette L; Cavallaro, Rebecca; Cheong, Ying C; Chu, Justin J; Eapen, Abey; Ewies, Ayman; Hoek, Annemieke; Kaaijk, Eugenie M; Koks, Carolien A M; Li, Tin-Chiu; MacLean, Marjory; Mol, Ben W; Moore, Judith; Ross, Jackie A; Sharpe, Lisa; Stewart, Jane; Vaithilingam, Nirmala; Farquharson, Roy G; Kilby, Mark D; Khalaf, Yacoub; Goddijn, Mariette; Regan, Lesley; Rai, Rajendra

    2015-11-26

    Progesterone is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. However, whether progesterone supplementation in the first trimester of pregnancy would increase the rate of live births among women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages is uncertain. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to investigate whether treatment with progesterone would increase the rates of live births and newborn survival among women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage. We randomly assigned women with recurrent miscarriages to receive twice-daily vaginal suppositories containing either 400 mg of micronized progesterone or matched placebo from a time soon after a positive urinary pregnancy test (and no later than 6 weeks of gestation) through 12 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was live birth after 24 weeks of gestation. A total of 1568 women were assessed for eligibility, and 836 of these women who conceived naturally within 1 year and remained willing to participate in the trial were randomly assigned to receive either progesterone (404 women) or placebo (432 women). The follow-up rate for the primary outcome was 98.8% (826 of 836 women). In an intention-to-treat analysis, the rate of live births was 65.8% (262 of 398 women) in the progesterone group and 63.3% (271 of 428 women) in the placebo group (relative rate, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.15; rate difference, 2.5 percentage points; 95% CI, -4.0 to 9.0). There were no significant between-group differences in the rate of adverse events. Progesterone therapy in the first trimester of pregnancy did not result in a significantly higher rate of live births among women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages. (Funded by the United Kingdom National Institute of Health Research; PROMISE Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN92644181.).

  14. Lifestyle Modification for Resistant Hypertension: The TRIUMPH Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, James A.; Sherwood, Andrew; Smith, Patrick J.; Mabe, Stephanie; Watkins, Lana; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Craighead, Linda W.; Babyak, Michael; Tyson, Crystal; Young, Kenlyn; Ashworth, Megan; Kraus, William; Liao, Lawrence; Hinderliter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background Resistant hypertension (RH) is a growing health burden in this country affecting as many as one in five adults being treated for hypertension. RH is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and all-cause mortality. Strategies to reduce blood pressure in this high risk population are a national priority. Methods TRIUMPH is a single site, prospective, randomized clinical trial (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of a center-based lifestyle intervention consisting of exercise training, reduced sodium and calorie DASH eating plan, and weight management compared to standardized education and physician advice in treating patients with RH. Patients (N=150) will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive either a 4-month supervised lifestyle intervention delivered in the setting of a cardiac rehabilitation center or to a standardized behavioral counseling session to simulate real-world medical practice. The primary end point is clinic blood pressure; secondary endpoints include ambulatory blood pressure and an array of CVD biomarkers including left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial stiffness, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, insulin resistance, lipids, sympathetic nervous system activity, and inflammatory markers. Lifestyle habits, blood pressure and CVD risk factors also will be measured at one year follow-up. Conclusions The TRIUMPH randomized clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02342808) is designed to test the efficacy of an intensive, center-based lifestyle intervention compared to a standardized education and physician advice counseling session on blood presssure and CVD biomarkers in patients with RH after 4 months of treatment, and will determine whether lifestyle changes can be maintained for a year. PMID:26542509

  15. Tobacco dependence counseling in a randomized multisite clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Croghan, Ivana T.; Trautman, Judith A.; Winhusen, Theresa; Ebbert, Jon O.; Kropp, Frankie; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Hurt, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy trials for treating tobacco dependence would benefit from behavioral interventions providing treatment consistent with clinical practice guidelines but not directing participants to treatments not evaluated in the trial. The Smoke Free and Living It© behavioral intervention manual includes participant and interventionist guides and is designed to provide both practical counseling and intra-treatment support. We utilized this intervention manual in a multicenter, randomized clinical trial of smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this study, we evaluated how the interventional manual performed in a “train-the-trainer” model requiring uniform counseling across 6 sites and 15 interventionists. We analyzed the skill-adherence of the interventionists and the intervention-adherence of the participants. The 255 randomized participants completed 9.3 ± 2.8 sessions (mean ± SD), with 157 participants (61.6%) completing all 11 of the sessions and 221 (86.7%) completing at least 6 of the 11 sessions. Of the 163 sessions for which the study interventionists were evaluated, 156 (95.7%) were rated as adherent to protocol and “meeting expectations” on at least 6 of 7 established criteria, illustrating that fidelity can be maintained with minimal supervision. The self-help and interventionists guides of the Smoke Free and Living It manual can thus be used to provide behavioral intervention with a high rate of adherence by both the interventionists and the participants. This manual meets the requirements of the United States Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline, can be adapted to specific research protocols, and provides a useful option for behavioral intervention during clinical trials for smoking cessation. PMID:22406192

  16. Tobacco dependence counseling in a randomized multisite clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Trautman, Judith A; Winhusen, Theresa; Ebbert, Jon O; Kropp, Frankie B; Schroeder, Darrell R; Hurt, Richard D

    2012-07-01

    Pharmacotherapy trials for treating tobacco dependence would benefit from behavioral interventions providing treatment consistent with clinical practice guidelines but not directing participants to treatments not evaluated in the trial. The Smoke Free and Living It© behavioral intervention manual includes participant and interventionist guides and is designed to provide both practical counseling and intra-treatment support. We utilized this intervention manual in a multicenter, randomized clinical trial of smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this study, we evaluated how the interventional manual performed in a "train-the-trainer" model requiring uniform counseling across 6 sites and 15 interventionists. We analyzed the skill-adherence of the interventionists and the intervention-adherence of the participants. The 255 randomized participants completed 9.3±2.8 sessions (mean±SD), with 157 participants (61.6%) completing all 11 of the sessions and 221 (86.7%) completing at least 6 of the 11 sessions. Of the 163 sessions for which the study interventionists were evaluated, 156 (95.7%) were rated as adherent to protocol and "meeting expectations" on at least 6 of 7 established criteria, illustrating that fidelity can be maintained with minimal supervision. The self-help and interventionists guides of the Smoke Free and Living It manual can thus be used to provide behavioral intervention with a high rate of adherence by both the interventionists and the participants. This manual meets the requirements of the United States Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline, can be adapted to specific research protocols, and provides a useful option for behavioral intervention during clinical trials for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Randomized trial of an Asthma Internet Self-management Intervention (RAISIN): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Deborah; Wyke, Sally; Thomson, Neil C; McConnachie, Alex; Agur, Karolina; Saunderson, Kathryn; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Mair, Frances S

    2014-05-24

    The financial costs associated with asthma care continue to increase while care remains suboptimal. Promoting optimal self-management, including the use of asthma action plans, along with regular health professional review has been shown to be an effective strategy and is recommended in asthma guidelines internationally. Despite evidence of benefit, guided self-management remains underused, however the potential for online resources to promote self-management behaviors is gaining increasing recognition. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a pilot evaluation of a website 'Living well with asthma' which has been developed with the aim of promoting self-management behaviors shown to improve outcomes. The study is a parallel randomized controlled trial, where adults with asthma are randomly assigned to either access to the website for 12 weeks, or usual asthma care for 12 weeks (followed by access to the website if desired). Individuals are included if they are over 16-years-old, have a diagnosis of asthma with an Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score of greater than, or equal to 1, and have access to the internet. Primary outcomes for this evaluation include recruitment and retention rates, changes at 12 weeks from baseline for both ACQ and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) scores, and quantitative data describing website usage (number of times logged on, length of time logged on, number of times individual pages looked at, and for how long). Secondary outcomes include clinical outcomes (medication use, health services use, lung function) and patient reported outcomes (including adherence, patient activation measures, and health status). Piloting of complex interventions is considered best practice and will maximise the potential of any future large-scale randomized controlled trial to successfully recruit and be able to report on necessary outcomes. Here we will provide results across a range of outcomes which will provide estimates of

  18. Neighborhood Effects in a Behavioral Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Sandi L.; Leonard, Tammy; Murdoch, James; Hughes, Amy; McQueen, Amy; Gupta, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions intended to modify health behaviors may be influenced by neighborhood effects which can impede unbiased estimation of intervention effects. Examining a RCT designed to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (N=5,628), we found statistically significant neighborhood effects: average CRC test use among neighboring study participants was significantly and positively associated with individual patient’s CRC test use. This potentially important spatially-varying covariate has not previously been considered in a RCT. Our results suggest that future RCTs of health behavior interventions should assess potential social interactions between participants, which may cause intervention arm contamination and may bias effect size estimation. PMID:25456014

  19. On Models for Binomial Data with Random Numbers of Trials

    PubMed Central

    Comulada, W. Scott; Weiss, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A binomial outcome is a count s of the number of successes out of the total number of independent trials n = s + f, where f is a count of the failures. The n are random variables not fixed by design in many studies. Joint modeling of (s, f) can provide additional insight into the science and into the probability π of success that cannot be directly incorporated by the logistic regression model. Observations where n = 0 are excluded from the binomial analysis yet may be important to understanding how π is influenced by covariates. Correlation between s and f may exist and be of direct interest. We propose Bayesian multivariate Poisson models for the bivariate response (s, f), correlated through random effects. We extend our models to the analysis of longitudinal and multivariate longitudinal binomial outcomes. Our methodology was motivated by two disparate examples, one from teratology and one from an HIV tertiary intervention study. PMID:17688514

  20. Observational studies are complementary to randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Grootendorst, Diana C; Jager, Kitty J; Zoccali, Carmine; Dekker, Friedo W

    2010-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard study design to investigate the effect of health interventions, including treatment. However, in some situations, it may be unnecessary, inappropriate, impossible, or inadequate to perform an RCT. In these special situations, well-designed observational studies, including cohort and case-control studies, may provide an alternative to doing nothing in order to obtain estimates of treatment effect. It should be noted that such studies should be performed with caution and correctly. The aims of this review are (1) to explain why RCTs are considered the optimal study design to evaluate treatment effects, (2) to describe the situations in which an RCT is not possible and observational studies are an adequate alternative, and (3) to explain when randomization is not needed and can be approximated in observational studies. Examples from the nephrology literature are used for illustration. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Aromatherapy and behaviour disturbances in dementia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, J; Brown, R; Coulter, F; Irvine, E; Copland, C

    2001-10-01

    A random controlled trial of the relaxing effects of an aromatherapy massage on disordered behaviour in dementia was conducted. Twenty-one patients were randomly allocated into one of three conditions, aromatherapy and massage (AM), conversation and aromatherapy (CA) and massage only (M). AM showed the greatest reduction in the frequency of excessive motor behaviour of all three conditions. This reached statistical significance between the hours of three and four pm (p < 0.05). Post hoc analysis suggested that at this time of day the AM consistently reduced motor behaviour when compared with CA (p = 0.05). This provides preliminary evidence of a measurable sedative effect of aromatherapy massage on dementia within a robust scientific paradigm. Further research is recommended with an expanded sample size. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Intermediate outcomes in randomized clinical trials: an introduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intermediate outcomes are common and typically on the causal pathway to the final outcome. Some examples include noncompliance, missing data, and truncation by death like pregnancy (e.g. when the trial intervention is given to non-pregnant women and the final outcome is preeclampsia, defined only on pregnant women). The intention-to-treat approach does not account properly for them, and more appropriate alternative approaches like principal stratification are not yet widely known. The purposes of this study are to inform researchers that the intention-to-treat approach unfortunately does not fit all problems we face in experimental research, to introduce the principal stratification approach for dealing with intermediate outcomes, and to illustrate its application to a trial of long term calcium supplementation in women at high risk of preeclampsia. Methods Principal stratification and related concepts are introduced. Two ways for estimating causal effects are discussed and their application is illustrated using the calcium trial, where noncompliance and pregnancy are considered as intermediate outcomes, and preeclampsia is the main final outcome. Results The limitations of traditional approaches and methods for dealing with intermediate outcomes are demonstrated. The steps, assumptions and required calculations involved in the application of the principal stratification approach are discussed in detail in the case of our calcium trial. Conclusions The intention-to-treat approach is a very sound one but unfortunately it does not fit all problems we find in randomized clinical trials; this is particularly the case for intermediate outcomes, where alternative approaches like principal stratification should be considered. PMID:23510143

  3. The Ethics of Randomized Controlled Trials in Social Settings: Can Social Trials Be Scientifically Promising and Must There Be Equipoise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Allyn; Russell, Daniel W.; Canavan, John; Lyons, Rena; Eaton, Patricia; Devaney, Carmel; Kearns, Norean; O'Brien, Aoife

    2015-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), treatments are assigned randomly and treatments are withheld from participants. Is it ethically permissible to conduct an RCT in a social setting? This paper addresses two conditions for justifying RCTs: that there should be a state of equipoise and that the trial should be scientifically promising.…

  4. Reiki for the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Assefi, Nassim; Bogart, Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra

    2008-11-01

    Fibromyalgia is a common, chronic pain condition for which patients frequently use complementary and alternative medicine, including Reiki. Our objective was to determine whether Reiki is beneficial as an adjunctive fibromyalgia treatment. This was a factorial designed, randomized, sham-controlled trial in which participants, data collection staff, and data analysts were blinded to treatment group. The study setting was private medical offices in the Seattle, Washington metropolitan area. The subjects were comprised 100 adults with fibromyalgia. Four (4) groups received twice-weekly treatment for 8 weeks by either a Reiki master or actor randomized to use direct touch or no touch (distant therapy). The primary outcome was subjective pain as measured by visual analog scale at weeks 4, 8, and 20 (3 months following end of treatment). Secondary outcomes were physical and mental functioning, medication use, and health provider visits. Participant blinding and adverse effects were ascertained by self-report. Improvement between groups was examined in an intention-to-treat analysis. Neither Reiki nor touch had any effect on pain or any of the secondary outcomes. All outcome measures were nearly identical among the 4 treatment groups during the course of the trial. Neither Reiki nor touch improved the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Energy medicine modalities such as Reiki should be rigorously studied before being recommended to patients with chronic pain symptoms.

  5. Reiki for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Assefi, Nassim; Bogart, Andy; Goldberg, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective Fibromyalgia is a common, chronic pain condition for which patients frequently use complementary and alternative medicine, including Reiki. Our objective was to determine whether Reiki is beneficial as an adjunctive fibromyalgia treatment. Design This was a factorial designed, randomized, sham-controlled trial in which participants, data collection staff, and data analysts were blinded to treatment group. Setting/location The study setting was private medical offices in the Seattle, Washington metropolitan area. Subjects The subjects were comprised 100 adults with fibromyalgia. Intervention Four (4) groups received twice-weekly treatment for 8 weeks by either a Reiki master or actor randomized to use direct touch or no touch (distant therapy). Outcome measures The primary outcome was subjective pain as measured by visual analog scale at weeks 4, 8, and 20 (3 months following end of treatment). Secondary outcomes were physical and mental functioning, medication use, and health provider visits. Participant blinding and adverse effects were ascertained by selfreport. Improvement between groups was examined in an intention-to-treat analysis. Results Neither Reiki nor touch had any effect on pain or any of the secondary outcomes. All outcome measures were nearly identical among the 4 treatment groups during the course of the trial. Conclusion Neither Reiki nor touch improved the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Energy medicine modalities such as Reiki should be rigorously studied before being recommended to patients with chronic pain symptoms. PMID:18991519

  6. Antenatal hypnosis training and childbirth experience: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert; Wu, Chun Sen; Nohr, Ellen A

    2013-12-01

    Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience. In a randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial, 1,222 healthy nulliparous women were allocated to one of three groups during pregnancy: A hypnosis group participating in three 1-hour sessions teaching self-hypnosis to ease childbirth, a relaxation group receiving three 1-hour lessons in various relaxation methods and Mindfulness, and a usual care group receiving ordinary antenatal care only. Wijmas Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) was used to measure the childbirth experience 6 weeks postpartum. The intention-to-treat analysis indicated that women in the hypnosis group experienced their childbirth as better compared with the other two groups (mean W-DEQ score of 42.9 in the Hypnosis group, 47.2 in the Relaxation group, and 47.5 in the Care as usual group (p = 0.01)). The tendency toward a better childbirth experience in the hypnosis group was also seen in subgroup analyses for mode of delivery and for levels of fear. In this large randomized controlled trial, a brief course in self-hypnosis improved the women's childbirth experience. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Do Implant Overdentures Improve Dietary Intake? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, N.M.; Gray-Donald, K.; Awad, M.A.; Johnson-Down, L.; Wollin, S.; Feine, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    People wearing mandibular two-implant overdentures (IOD) chew food with less difficulty than those wearing conventional complete dentures (CD). However, there is still controversy over whether or not this results in better dietary intake. In this randomized clinical trials (RCT), the amounts of total dietary fiber (TDF), macronutrients, 9 micronutrients, and energy in diets consumed by persons with IOD and CD were compared. Male and female edentate patients ≥ 65 yrs (n = 255) were randomly divided into 2 groups and assigned to receive a maxillary CD and either a mandibular IOD or a CD. One year following prosthesis delivery, 217 participants (CD = 114, IOD = 103) reported the food and quantities they consumed to a registered dietician through a standard 24-hour dietary recall method. The mean and median values of TDF, macro- and micronutrients, and energy consumed by both groups were calculated and compared analytically. No significant between-group differences were found (ps > .05). Despite quality-of-life benefits from IODs, this adequately powered study reveals no evidence of nutritional advantages for independently living medically healthy edentate elders wearing two-implant mandibular overdentures over those wearing conventional complete dentures in their dietary intake at one year following prosthesis delivery (International Clinical Trials ISRCTN24273915). PMID:24158335

  8. Moving a randomized clinical trial into an observational cohort.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Phyllis J; Hartline, Jo Ann; Tangen, Catherine M; Crowley, John J; Minasian, Lori M; Klein, Eric A; Cook, Elise D; Darke, Amy K; Arnold, Kathryn B; Anderson, Karen; Yee, Monica; Meyskens, Frank L; Baker, Laurence H

    2013-02-01

    The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prostate cancer prevention study funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and conducted by the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG). A total of 35,533 men were assigned randomly to one of the four treatment groups (vitamin E + placebo, selenium + placebo, vitamin E + selenium, and placebo + placebo). The independent Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC) recommended the discontinuation of study supplements because of the lack of efficacy for risk reduction and because futility analyses demonstrated no possibility of benefit of the supplements to the anticipated degree (25% reduction in prostate cancer incidence) with additional follow-up. Study leadership agreed that the randomized trial should be terminated but believed that the cohort should be maintained and followed as the additional follow-up would contribute important information to the understanding of the biologic consequences of the intervention. Since the participants no longer needed to be seen in person to assess acute toxicities or to be given study supplements, it was determined that the most efficient and cost-effective way to follow them was via a central coordinated effort. A number of changes were necessary at the local Study Sites and SELECT Statistical Center to transition to following participants via a Central Coordinating Center. We describe the transition process from a randomized clinical trial to the observational Centralized Follow-Up (CFU) study. The process of transitioning SELECT, implemented at more than 400 Study Sites across the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico, entailed many critical decisions and actions including updates to online documents such as the SELECT Workbench and Study Manual, a protocol amendment, reorganization of the Statistical Center, creation of a Transition Committee, development of materials for SELECT Study Sites, development of procedures

  9. Moving a Randomized Clinical Trial into an Observational Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hartline, Jo Ann; Tangen, Catherine M.; Crowley, John J.; Minasian, Lori M.; Klein, Eric A.; Cook, Elise D.; Darke, Amy K.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Anderson, Karen; Yee, Monica; Meyskens, Frank L.; Baker, Laurence H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled prostate cancer prevention study funded by the National Cancer Institute and conducted by SWOG (Southwest Oncology Group). A total of 35,533 men were assigned randomly to one of four treatment groups (vitamin E + placebo, selenium + placebo, vitamin E + selenium, placebo + placebo. The independent Data and Safety Monitoring Committee recommended the discontinuation of study supplements because of the lack of efficacy for risk reduction and because futility analyses demonstrated no possibility of benefit of the supplements to the anticipated degree (25% reduction in prostate cancer incidence) with additional follow-up. Study leadership agreed that the randomized trial should be terminated but believed that the cohort should be maintained and followed as the additional follow-up would contribute important information to the understanding of the biologic consequences of the intervention. Since the participants no longer needed to be seen in person to assess acute toxicities or to be given study supplements, it was determined that the most efficient and cost-effective way to follow them was via a central coordinated effort. Purpose A number of changes were necessary at the local Study Sites and SELECT Statistical Center to transition to following participants via a Central Coordinating Center. We describe the transition process from a randomized clinical trial to the observational Centralized Follow-up (CFU) study. Methods The process of transitioning SELECT, implemented at more than 400 Study Sites across the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico, entailed many critical decisions and actions including updates to online documents such as the SELECT Workbench and Study Manual, a protocol amendment, reorganization of the Statistical Center, creation of a Transition Committee, development of materials for SELECT Study Sites, development of procedures

  10. Targeting Prodromal Alzheimer Disease With Avagacestat: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Coric, Vladimir; Salloway, Stephen; van Dyck, Christopher H; Dubois, Bruno; Andreasen, Niels; Brody, Mark; Curtis, Craig; Soininen, Hilkka; Thein, Stephen; Shiovitz, Thomas; Pilcher, Gary; Ferris, Steven; Colby, Susan; Kerselaers, Wendy; Dockens, Randy; Soares, Holly; Kaplita, Stephen; Luo, Feng; Pachai, Chahin; Bracoud, Luc; Mintun, Mark; Grill, Joshua D; Marek, Ken; Seibyl, John; Cedarbaum, Jesse M; Albright, Charles; Feldman, Howard H; Berman, Robert M

    2015-11-01

    Early identification of Alzheimer disease (AD) is important for clinical management and affords the opportunity to assess potential disease-modifying agents in clinical trials. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a randomized trial to prospectively enrich a study population with prodromal AD (PDAD) defined by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker criteria and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) symptoms. To assess the safety of the γ-secretase inhibitor avagacestat in PDAD and to determine whether CSF biomarkers can identify this patient population prior to clinical diagnosis of dementia. A randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial with a parallel, untreated, nonrandomized observational cohort of CSF biomarker-negative participants was conducted May 26, 2009, to July 9, 2013, in a multicenter global population. Of 1358 outpatients screened, 263 met MCI and CSF biomarker criteria for randomization into the treatment phase. One hundred two observational cohort participants who met MCI criteria but were CSF biomarker-negative were observed during the same study period to evaluate biomarker assay sensitivity. Oral avagacestat or placebo daily. Safety and tolerability of avagacestat. Of the 263 participants in the treatment phase, 132 were randomized to avagacestat and 131 to placebo; an additional 102 participants were observed in an untreated observational cohort. Avagacestat was relatively well tolerated with low discontinuation rates (19.6%) at a dose of 50 mg/d, whereas the dose of 125 mg/d had higher discontinuation rates (43%), primarily attributable to gastrointestinal tract adverse events. Increases in nonmelanoma skin cancer and nonprogressive, reversible renal tubule effects were observed with avagacestat. Serious adverse event rates were higher with avagacestat (49 participants [37.1%]) vs placebo (31 [23.7%]), attributable to the higher incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer. At 2 years, progression to dementia was more frequent in the PDAD

  11. Clinical impact of 8 prospective, randomized, multicenter glaucoma trials.

    PubMed

    Panarelli, Joseph F; Banitt, Michael R; Sidoti, Paul A; Budenz, Donald L; Singh, Kuldev

    2015-01-01

    To determine the impact of 8 multicenter randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on glaucoma practice. An electronic survey was distributed to the members of the American Glaucoma Society (AGS). Each participant was asked 2 study-specific questions and 1 standard question common to all 8 RCTs assessing the study's impact on clinical practice. RCTs included in the survey were the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS), Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS), Collaborative Normal Tension Glaucoma (CNTG) Study, European Glaucoma Prevention Study (EGPS), Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial (EMGT), Glaucoma Laser Trial (GLT), Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS), and Tube Versus Trabeculectomy (TVT) Study. A 5-point Likert scale was used for rating all responses. The practice setting and duration of glaucoma practice was determined for all AGS members who responded. A total of 206 (23.0%) of 894 AGS members participated in the survey. Among those who responded, 46.4% were self classified as academic practitioners and 53.6% worked in a private practice setting. Mean Likert scores for the standard question evaluating the overall impact of the RCT were OHTS 4.47, CNTG Study 4.13, AGIS 3.78, TVT Study 3.53, EMGT 3.48, CIGTS 3.44, GLT 3.39, and 2.69 EGPS. Substantial differences were observed in the clinical impact of several RCTs in glaucoma. The reported impact of each study likely reflects several factors including study timing, design, conduct, and interpretation of results.

  12. Cognitive Function in a Randomized Trial of Evolocumab.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Robert P; Mach, François; Zavitz, Kenton; Kurtz, Christopher; Im, Kyungah; Kanevsky, Estella; Schneider, Jingjing; Wang, Huei; Keech, Anthony; Pedersen, Terje R; Sabatine, Marc S; Sever, Peter S; Robinson, Jennifer G; Honarpour, Narimon; Wasserman, Scott M; Ott, Brian R

    2017-08-17

    Background Findings from clinical trials of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have led to concern that these drugs or the low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol that result from their use are associated with cognitive deficits. Methods In a subgroup of patients from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of evolocumab added to statin therapy, we prospectively assessed cognitive function using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. The primary end point was the score on the spatial working memory strategy index of executive function (scores range from 4 to 28, with lower scores indicating a more efficient use of strategy and planning). Secondary end points were the scores for working memory (scores range from 0 to 279, with lower scores indicating fewer errors), episodic memory (scores range from 0 to 70, with lower scores indicating fewer errors), and psychomotor speed (scores range from 100 to 5100 msec, with faster times representing better performance). Assessments of cognitive function were performed at baseline, week 24, yearly, and at the end of the trial. The primary analysis was a noninferiority comparison of the mean change from baseline in the score on the spatial working memory strategy index of executive function between the patients who received evolocumab and those who received placebo; the noninferiority margin was set at 20% of the standard deviation of the score in the placebo group. Results A total of 1204 patients were followed for a median of 19 months; the mean (±SD) change from baseline over time in the raw score for the spatial working memory strategy index of executive function (primary end point) was -0.21±2.62 in the evolocumab group and -0.29±2.81 in the placebo group (P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.85 for superiority). There were no significant between-group differences in the secondary end points of scores for working memory (change in raw score, -0.52 in the

  13. Patient Satisfaction with Different Interpreting Methods: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Jennifer; Shapiro, Ephraim; Abramson, David; Motola, Ivette; Shield, David C.; Changrani, Jyotsna

    2007-01-01

    Background Growth of the foreign-born population in the U.S. has led to increasing numbers of limited-English-proficient (LEP) patients. Innovative medical interpreting strategies, including remote simultaneous medical interpreting (RSMI), have arisen to address the language barrier. This study evaluates the impact of interpreting method on patient satisfaction. Methods 1,276 English-, Spanish-, Mandarin-, and Cantonese-speaking patients attending the primary care clinic and emergency department of a large New York City municipal hospital were screened for enrollment in a randomized controlled trial. Language-discordant patients were randomized to RSMI or usual and customary (U&C) interpreting. Patients with language-concordant providers received usual care. Demographic and patient satisfaction questionnaires were administered to all participants. Results 541 patients were language-concordant with their providers and not randomized; 371 were randomized to RSMI, 167 of whom were exposed to RSMI; and 364 were randomized to U&C, 198 of whom were exposed to U&C. Patients randomized to RSMI were more likely than those with U&C to think doctors treated them with respect (RSMI 71%, U&C 64%, p < 0.05), but they did not differ in other measures of physician communication/care. In a linear regression analysis, exposure to RSMI was significantly associated with an increase in overall satisfaction with physician communication/care (β 0.10, 95% CI 0.02–0.18, scale 0–1.0). Patients randomized to RSMI were more likely to think the interpreting method protected their privacy (RSMI 51%, U&C 38%, p < 0.05). Patients randomized to either arm of interpretation reported less comprehension and satisfaction than patients in language-concordant encounters. Conclusions While not a substitute for language-concordant providers, RSMI can improve patient satisfaction and privacy among LEP patients. Implementing RSMI should be considered an important component of a multipronged

  14. A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy.

    PubMed

    Dirksen, A; Dijkman, J H; Madsen, F; Stoel, B; Hutchison, D C; Ulrik, C S; Skovgaard, L T; Kok-Jensen, A; Rudolphus, A; Seersholm, N; Vrooman, H A; Reiber, J H; Hansen, N C; Heckscher, T; Viskum, K; Stolk, J

    1999-11-01

    We have investigated whether restoration of the balance between neutrophil elastase and its inhibitor, alpha(1)-antitrypsin, can prevent the progression of pulmonary emphysema in patients with alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency. Twenty-six Danish and 30 Dutch ex-smokers with alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency of PI*ZZ phenotype and moderate emphysema (FEV(1) between 30% and 80% of predicted) participated in a double-blind trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy. The patients were randomized to either alpha(1)-antitrypsin (250 mg/kg) or albumin (625 mg/kg) infusions at 4-wk intervals for at least 3 yr. Self-administered spirometry performed every morning and evening at home showed no significant difference in decline of FEV(1) between treatment and placebo. Each year, the degree of emphysema was quantified by the 15th percentile point of the lung density histogram derived from computed tomography (CT). The loss of lung tissue measured by CT (mean +/- SEM) was 2.6 +/- 0.41 g/L/yr for placebo as compared with 1.5 +/- 0.41 g/L/yr for alpha(1)-antitrypsin infusion (p = 0.07). Power analysis showed that this protective effect would be significant in a similar trial with 130 patients. This is in contrast to calculations based on annual decline of FEV(1) showing that 550 patients would be needed to show a 50% reduction of annual decline. We conclude that lung density measurements by CT may facilitate future randomized clinical trials of investigational drugs for a disease in which little progress in therapy has been made in the past 30 yr.

  15. Methodological review: quality of randomized controlled trials in health literacy.

    PubMed

    Brainard, Julii; Wilsher, Stephanie Howard; Salter, Charlotte; Loke, Yoon Kong

    2016-07-11

    The growing move towards patient-centred care has led to substantial research into improving the health literacy skills of patients and members of the public. Hence, there is a pressing need to assess the methodology used in contemporary randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions directed at health literacy, in particular the quality (risk of bias), and the types of outcomes reported. We conducted a systematic database search for RCTs involving interventions directed at health literacy in adults, published from 2009 to 2014. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess quality of RCT implementation. We also checked the sample size calculation for primary outcomes. Reported evidence of efficacy (statistical significance) was extracted for intervention outcomes in any of three domains of effect: knowledge, behaviour, health status. Demographics of intervention participants were also extracted, including socioeconomic status. We found areas of methodological strength (good randomization and allocation concealment), but areas of weakness regarding blinding of participants, people delivering the intervention and outcomes assessors. Substantial attrition (losses by monitoring time point) was seen in a third of RCTs, potentially leading to insufficient power to obtain precise estimates of intervention effect on primary outcomes. Most RCTs showed that the health literacy interventions had some beneficial effect on knowledge outcomes, but this was typically for less than 3 months after intervention end. There were far fewer reports of significant improvements in substantive patient-oriented outcomes, such as beneficial effects on behavioural change or health (clinical) status. Most RCTs featured participants from vulnerable populations. Our evaluation shows that health literacy trial design, conduct and reporting could be considerably improved, particularly by reducing attrition and obtaining longer follow-up. More meaningful RCTs would also result if health

  16. ORCHIDS: an observational randomized controlled trial on childhood differential susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Chhangur, Rabia R; Weeland, Joyce; Overbeek, Geertjan; Matthys, Walterchj; Orobio de Castro, Bram

    2012-10-29

    A central tenet in developmental psychopathology is that childhood rearing experiences have a major impact on children's development. Recently, candidate genes have been identified that may cause children to be differentially susceptible to these experiences (i.e., susceptibility genes). However, our understanding of the differential impact of parenting is limited at best. Specifically, more experimental research is needed. The ORCHIDS study will investigate gene-(gene-)environment interactions to obtain more insight into a) moderating effects of polymorphisms on the link between parenting and child behavior, and b) behavioral mechanisms that underlie these gene-(gene-)environment interactions in an experimental design. The ORCHIDS study is a randomized controlled trial, in which the environment will be manipulated with an intervention (i.e., Incredible Years parent training). In a screening, families with children aged 4-8 who show mild to (sub)clinical behavior problems will be targeted through community records via two Dutch regional healthcare organizations. Assessments in both the intervention and control condition will be conducted at baseline (i.e., pretest), after 6 months (i.e., posttest), and after 10 months (i.e., follow-up). This study protocol describes the design of a randomized controlled trial that investigates gene-(gene-)environment interactions in the development of child behavior. Two hypotheses will be tested. First, we expect that children in the intervention condition who carry one or more susceptibility genes will show significantly lower levels of problem behavior and higher levels of prosocial behavior after their parent(s) received the Incredible Years training, compared to children without these genes, or children in the control group. Second, we expect that children carrying one or more susceptibility genes will show a heightened sensitivity to changes in parenting behaviors, and will manifest higher emotional synchronization in dyadic

  17. Hockey Fans in Training: A Pilot Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Petrella, Robert J; Gill, Dawn P; Zou, Guangyong; DE Cruz, Ashleigh; Riggin, Brendan; Bartol, Cassandra; Danylchuk, Karen; Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Bunn, Christopher; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2017-12-01

    Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) is a gender-sensitized weight loss and healthy lifestyle program. We investigated 1) feasibility of recruiting and retaining overweight and obese men into a pilot pragmatic randomized controlled trial and 2) potential for Hockey FIT to lead to weight loss and improvements in other outcomes at 12 wk and 12 months. Male fans of two ice hockey teams (35-65 yr; body mass index ≥28 kg·m) located in Ontario (Canada) were randomized to intervention (Hockey FIT) or comparator (wait-list control). Hockey FIT includes a 12-wk active phase (weekly, coach-led group meetings including provision of dietary information, practice of behavior change techniques, and safe exercise sessions plus incremental pedometer walking) and a 40-wk minimally supported phase (smartphone app for sustaining physical activity, private online social network, standardized e-mails, booster session/reunion). Measurement at baseline and 12 wk (both groups) and 12 months (intervention group only) included clinical outcomes (e.g., weight) and self-reported physical activity, diet, and self-rated health. Eighty men were recruited in 4 wk; trial retention was >80% at 12 wk and >75% at 12 months. At 12 wk, the intervention group lost 3.6 kg (95% confidence interval, -5.26 to -1.90 kg) more than the comparator group (P < 0.001) and maintained this weight loss to 12 months. The intervention group also demonstrated greater improvements in other clinical measures, physical activity, diet, and self-rated health at 12 wk; most sustained to 12 months. Results suggest feasible recruitment/retention of overweight and obese men in the Hockey FIT program. Results provide evidence for the potential effectiveness of Hockey FIT for weight loss and improved health in at-risk men and, thus, evidence to proceed with a definitive trial.

  18. Hockey Fans in Training: A Pilot Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    PETRELLA, ROBERT J.; GILL, DAWN P.; ZOU, GUANGYONG; DE CRUZ, ASHLEIGH; RIGGIN, BRENDAN; BARTOL, CASSANDRA; DANYLCHUK, KAREN; HUNT, KATE; WYKE, SALLY; GRAY, CINDY M.; BUNN, CHRISTOPHER; ZWARENSTEIN, MERRICK

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) is a gender-sensitized weight loss and healthy lifestyle program. We investigated 1) feasibility of recruiting and retaining overweight and obese men into a pilot pragmatic randomized controlled trial and 2) potential for Hockey FIT to lead to weight loss and improvements in other outcomes at 12 wk and 12 months. Methods Male fans of two ice hockey teams (35–65 yr; body mass index ≥28 kg·m−2) located in Ontario (Canada) were randomized to intervention (Hockey FIT) or comparator (wait-list control). Hockey FIT includes a 12-wk active phase (weekly, coach-led group meetings including provision of dietary information, practice of behavior change techniques, and safe exercise sessions plus incremental pedometer walking) and a 40-wk minimally supported phase (smartphone app for sustaining physical activity, private online social network, standardized e-mails, booster session/reunion). Measurement at baseline and 12 wk (both groups) and 12 months (intervention group only) included clinical outcomes (e.g., weight) and self-reported physical activity, diet, and self-rated health. Results Eighty men were recruited in 4 wk; trial retention was >80% at 12 wk and >75% at 12 months. At 12 wk, the intervention group lost 3.6 kg (95% confidence interval, −5.26 to −1.90 kg) more than the comparator group (P < 0.001) and maintained this weight loss to 12 months. The intervention group also demonstrated greater improvements in other clinical measures, physical activity, diet, and self-rated health at 12 wk; most sustained to 12 months. Conclusions Results suggest feasible recruitment/retention of overweight and obese men in the Hockey FIT program. Results provide evidence for the potential effectiveness of Hockey FIT for weight loss and improved health in at-risk men and, thus, evidence to proceed with a definitive trial. PMID:28719494

  19. Using Big Data to Emulate a Target Trial When a Randomized Trial Is Not Available.

    PubMed

    Hernán, Miguel A; Robins, James M

    2016-04-15

    Ideally, questions about comparative effectiveness or safety would be answered using an appropriately designed and conducted randomized experiment. When we cannot conduct a randomized experiment, we analyze observational data. Causal inference from large observational databases (big data) can be viewed as an attempt to emulate a randomized experiment-the target experiment or target trial-that would answer the question of interest. When the goal is to guide decisions among several strategies, causal analyses of observational data need to be evaluated with respect to how well they emulate a particular target trial. We outline a framework for comparative effectiveness research using big data that makes the target trial explicit. This framework channels counterfactual theory for comparing the effects of sustained treatment strategies, organizes analytic approaches, provides a structured process for the criticism of observational studies, and helps avoid common methodologic pitfalls. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sun protection at elementary schools: a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Seft; Love-Jackson, Kymia; Abdulla, Rania; Zhu, Weiwei; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Wells, Kristen J; Roetzheim, Richard

    2010-04-07

    Elementary schools represent both a source of childhood sun exposure and a setting for educational interventions. Sun Protection of Florida's Children was a cluster randomized trial promoting hat use at (primary outcome) and outside of schools among fourth-grade students during August 8, 2006, through May 22, 2007. Twenty-two schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (1115 students) or control group (1376 students). Intervention schools received classroom sessions targeting sun protection attitudes and social norms. Each student attending an intervention school received two free wide-brimmed hats. Hat use at school was measured by direct observation and hat use outside of school was measured by self-report. A subgroup of 378 students (178 in the intervention group and 200 in the control group) underwent serial measurements of skin pigmentation to explore potential physiological effects of the intervention. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the intervention effect by accounting for the cluster randomized trial design. All P values were two-sided and were claimed as statistically significant at a level of .05. The percentage of students observed wearing hats at control schools remained essentially unchanged during the school year (baseline = 2%, fall = 0%, and spring = 1%) but increased statistically significantly at intervention schools (baseline = 2%, fall = 30%, and spring = 41%) (P < .001 for intervention effect comparing the change in rate of hat use over time at intervention vs control schools). Self-reported use of hats outside of school did not change statistically significantly during the study (control: baseline = 14%, fall = 14%, and spring = 11%; intervention: baseline = 24%, fall = 24%, and spring = 23%) nor did measures of skin pigmentation. The intervention increased use of hats among fourth-grade students at school but had no effect on self-reported wide-brimmed hat use outside of school or on measures of skin pigmentation.

  1. A randomized trial of blood donor recruitment strategies.

    PubMed

    Reich, Pascale; Roberts, Paula; Laabs, Nancy; Chinn, Artina; McEvoy, Patrick; Hirschler, Nora; Murphy, Edward L

    2006-07-01

    Improvement in donor return rates, especially among first-time donors, may significantly improve the blood supply. There are few rigorous studies of the effectiveness of various approaches to donor recruitment, however. By use of a single-blind, randomized trial design, 6919 post-September 11, 2001, first-time donors were randomly assigned into the following intervention arms: T-shirt incentive versus none, recruitment scripts with a patient story (Script A) versus a complimentary message including the donor's blood type (Script B), and telephone versus e-mail recruitment. Our primary outcome was a second donation within 6 months. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated with Taylor series methods. A total of 1421 (20.5%) first-time donors returned within the 6 months, including 1252 with a second and 169 with both second and third donations. The T-shirt incentive was not effective in increasing returns compared to no incentive (20.5% vs. 20.6%; RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.91-1.09). Script A was significantly more effective than Script B (22.2% vs. 18.9%; RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.07-1.29). E-mail was substantially less effective than telephone recruitment (13.2% vs. 27.8%; RR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.40-0.57). A T-shirt incentive had no apparent effect, but an empathetic message significantly improved the return donation rate. E-mail recruitment was substantially less effective than telephone recruitment, perhaps due to technical problems. The study illustrates the utility of the randomized clinical trial study design for testing donor recruitment strategies.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Mentoring Interventions for Underrepresented Minorities.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Vivian; Martina, Camille A; McDermott, Michael P; Trief, Paula M; Goodman, Steven R; Morse, Gene D; LaGuardia, Jennifer G; Sharp, Daryl; Ryan, Richard M

    2016-07-01

    To conduct a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of different mentoring interventions on the basic psychological need satisfaction of underrepresented minorities and women in academia. Participants were 150 mentor/protégé dyads from three academic medical centers and eight other colleges and universities in western and central New York, randomized from 2010 to 2013 into mentor training (using principles of self-determination theory); peer mentoring for protégés; mentor training and peer mentoring for protégés combined; or control/usual practice. Protégé participants were graduate students, fellows, and junior faculty who were from underrepresented groups based on race, ethnicity, gender, or disability.The primary analysis was a comparison of intervention effects on changes in protégés' satisfaction of their basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) with their mentor. They completed a well-validated, online questionnaire every two months for one year. There was no significant effect at the end of one year of either mentor training or peer mentoring on protégés' psychological basic need satisfaction with mentor specifically or at work in general. Exploratory analyses showed a significant effect of the mentor-based intervention on the protégés' overall psychological need satisfaction with their mentor at two months, the time point closest to completing mentor training. This randomized controlled trial showed a potential short-term effect of mentor training on changing basic psychological need satisfaction of underrepresented scholars with their mentors. Despite the lack of sustained effect of either mentor training or peer mentoring, these short-term changes suggest feasibility and potential for future study.

  3. Acupuncture for migraine prophylaxis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Zheng, Hui; Witt, Claudia M.; Roll, Stephanie; Yu, Shu-guang; Yan, Jie; Sun, Guo-jie; Zhao, Ling; Huang, Wen-jing; Chang, Xiao-rong; Zhang, Hong-xing; Wang, De-jun; Lan, Lei; Zou, Ran; Liang, Fan-rong

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acupuncture is commonly used to treat migraine. We assessed the efficacy of acupuncture at migraine-specific acupuncture points compared with other acupuncture points and sham acupuncture. Methods: We performed a multicentre, single-blind randomized controlled trial. In total, 480 patients with migraine were randomly assigned to one of four groups (Shaoyang-specific acupuncture, Shaoyang-nonspecific acupuncture, Yangming-specific acupuncture or sham acupuncture [control]). All groups received 20 treatments, which included electrical stimulation, over a period of four weeks. The primary outcome was the number of days with a migraine experienced during weeks 5–8 after randomization. Our secondary outcomes included the frequency of migraine attack, migraine intensity and migraine-specific quality of life. Results: Compared with patients in the control group, patients in the acupuncture groups reported fewer days with a migraine during weeks 5–8, however the differences between treatments were not significant (p > 0.05). There was a significant reduction in the number of days with a migraine during weeks 13–16 in all acupuncture groups compared with control (Shaoyang-specific acupuncture v. control: difference –1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI) –1.77 to –0.5], p = 0.003; Shaoyang-nonspecific acupuncture v. control: difference –1.22 [95% CI –1.92 to –0.52], p < 0.001; Yangming-specific acupuncture v. control: difference –0.91 [95% CI –1.61 to –0.21], p = 0.011). We found that there was a significant, but not clinically relevant, benefit for almost all secondary outcomes in the three acupuncture groups compared with the control group. We found no relevant differences between the three acupuncture groups. Interpretation: Acupuncture tested appeared to have a clinically minor effect on migraine prophylaxis compared with sham acupuncture. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00599586 PMID:22231691

  4. Randomized Trial of Reduced-Nicotine Standards for Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Donny, Eric C; Denlinger, Rachel L; Tidey, Jennifer W; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Benowitz, Neal L; Vandrey, Ryan G; al'Absi, Mustafa; Carmella, Steven G; Cinciripini, Paul M; Dermody, Sarah S; Drobes, David J; Hecht, Stephen S; Jensen, Joni; Lane, Tonya; Le, Chap T; McClernon, F Joseph; Montoya, Ivan D; Murphy, Sharon E; Robinson, Jason D; Stitzer, Maxine L; Strasser, Andrew A; Tindle, Hilary; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2015-10-01

    The Food and Drug Administration can set standards that reduce the nicotine content of cigarettes. We conducted a double-blind, parallel, randomized clinical trial between June 2013 and July 2014 at 10 sites. Eligibility criteria included an age of 18 years or older, smoking of five or more cigarettes per day, and no current interest in quitting smoking. Participants were randomly assigned to smoke for 6 weeks either their usual brand of cigarettes or one of six types of investigational cigarettes, provided free. The investigational cigarettes had nicotine content ranging from 15.8 mg per gram of tobacco (typical of commercial brands) to 0.4 mg per gram. The primary outcome was the number of cigarettes smoked per day during week 6. A total of 840 participants underwent randomization, and 780 completed the 6-week study. During week 6, the average number of cigarettes smoked per day was lower for participants randomly assigned to cigarettes containing 2.4, 1.3, or 0.4 mg of nicotine per gram of tobacco (16.5, 16.3, and 14.9 cigarettes, respectively) than for participants randomly assigned to their usual brand or to cigarettes containing 15.8 mg per gram (22.2 and 21.3 cigarettes, respectively; P<0.001). Participants assigned to cigarettes with 5.2 mg per gram smoked an average of 20.8 cigarettes per day, which did not differ significantly from the average number among those who smoked control cigarettes. Cigarettes with lower nicotine content, as compared with control cigarettes, reduced exposure to and dependence on nicotine, as well as craving during abstinence from smoking, without significantly increasing the expired carbon monoxide level or total puff volume, suggesting minimal compensation. Adverse events were generally mild and similar among groups. In this 6-week study, reduced-nicotine cigarettes versus standard-nicotine cigarettes reduced nicotine exposure and dependence and the number of cigarettes smoked. (Funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse

  5. Targeting Functional Decline in Alzheimer Disease: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Christopher M; Boustani, Malaz A; Schmid, Arlene A; LaMantia, Michael A; Austrom, Mary G; Miller, Douglas K; Gao, Sujuan; Ferguson, Denisha Y; Lane, Kathleen A; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2017-02-07

    Alzheimer disease results in progressive functional decline, leading to loss of independence. To determine whether collaborative care plus 2 years of home-based occupational therapy delays functional decline. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01314950). Urban public health system. 180 community-dwelling participants with Alzheimer disease and their informal caregivers. All participants received collaborative care for dementia. Patients in the intervention group also received in-home occupational therapy delivered in 24 sessions over 2 years. The primary outcome measure was the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Group Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADCS ADL); performance-based measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Short Portable Sarcopenia Measure (SPSM). At baseline, clinical characteristics did not differ significantly between groups; the mean Mini-Mental State Examination score for both groups was 19 (SD, 7). The intervention group received a median of 18 home visits from the study occupational therapists. In both groups, ADCS ADL scores declined over 24 months. At the primary end point of 24 months, ADCS ADL scores did not differ between groups (mean difference, 2.34 [95% CI, -5.27 to 9.96]). We also could not definitively demonstrate between-group differences in mean SPPB or SPSM values. The results of this trial are indeterminate and do not rule out potential clinically important effects of the intervention. The authors could not definitively demonstrate whether the addition of 2 years of in-home occupational therapy to a collaborative care management model slowed the rate of functional decline among persons with Alzheimer disease. This trial underscores the burden undertaken by caregivers as they provide care for family members with Alzheimer disease and the difficulty in slowing functional decline. National Institute on Aging.

  6. Challenges in randomized controlled trials and emerging multiple sclerosis therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Huang, DeRen

    2015-12-01

    The remarkable global development of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) specific for multiple sclerosis (MS) has significantly reduced the frequency of relapse, slowed the progression of disability, and improved the quality of life in patients with MS. With increasing numbers of approved DMTs, neurologists in North America and Europe are able to present multiple treatment options to their patients to achieve a better therapeutic outcome, and in many cases, no evidence of disease activity. MS patients have improved accessibility to various DMTs at no or minimal out-of-pocket cost. The ethical guidelines defined by the Edinburgh revision of the Declaration of Helsinki strongly discourage the use of placebo control groups in modern MS clinical trials. The use of an active comparator control group increases the number of participants in each group that is essential to achieve statistical significance, thus further increasing the difficulty of completing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the development of new MS therapies. There is evidence of a high prevalence of MS and a large number of patients in Asia. The belief of the existence of Asian types of MS that are distinct from Western types, and regulatory policies are among the reasons why DMTs are limited in most Asian countries. Lack of access to approved DMTs provides a good opportunity for clinical trials that are designed for the development of new MS therapies. Recently, data from RCTs have demonstrated excellent recruitment of participants and the completion of multi-nation and single-nation MS trials within this region. Recent studies using the McDonald MS diagnostic criteria carefully excluded patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorder, and demonstrated that patients with MS in Asia have clinical characteristics and treatment responses similar to those in Western countries.

  7. Activity groups for people with schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dean, Madeleine; Weston, Adam R W; Osborn, David P; Willis, Suzie; Patterson, Sue; Killaspy, Helen; Leurent, Baptiste; Crawford, Mike J

    2014-08-01

    UK guidelines recommend that patients with schizophrenia are offered access to social activities, however, the impact of such interventions have not been examined in a large randomized trial. To investigate the effect of an activity group intervention on mental health and global functioning 12 months after randomization compared to standard care alone. Secondary analysis of data from the MATISSE study. Primary outcomes were global functioning, assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), and mental health symptoms measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). About 140 participants were randomized to activity groups and 137 to standard care alone. Follow-up data were collected from 242 (87%) participants. Mental health improved significantly among those offered activity groups (change in PANSS score = -6.0, 95% CI -2.3 to -9.8) but global functioning did not (change in GAF score = 0.8, 95% CI -1.7 to 3.3). No significant differences were found between treatment arms. Offering activity groups to patients with schizophrenia was not associated with any additional clinical benefits. There was poor uptake and attendance at activity groups. Interventions that aim to improve negative symptoms may be useful in enabling engagement in psychosocial interventions.

  8. A random walk rule for phase I clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Durham, S D; Flournoy, N; Rosenberger, W F

    1997-06-01

    We describe a family of random walk rules for the sequential allocation of dose levels to patients in a dose-response study, or phase I clinical trial. Patients are sequentially assigned the next higher, same, or next lower dose level according to some probability distribution, which may be determined by ethical considerations as well as the patient's response. It is shown that one can choose these probabilities in order to center dose level assignments unimodally around any target quantile of interest. Estimation of the quantile is discussed; the maximum likelihood estimator and its variance are derived under a two-parameter logistic distribution, and the maximum likelihood estimator is compared with other nonparametric estimators. Random walk rules have clear advantages: they are simple to implement, and finite and asymptotic distribution theory is completely worked out. For a specific random walk rule, we compute finite and asymptotic properties and give examples of its use in planning studies. Having the finite distribution theory available and tractable obviates the need for elaborate simulation studies to analyze the properties of the design. The small sample properties of our rule, as determined by exact theory, compare favorably to those of the continual reassessment method, determined by simulation.

  9. Six-day randomized safety trial of intravaginal lime juice.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Christine K; Ballagh, Susan A; Creinin, Mitchell D; Weiner, Debra H; Doncel, Gustavo F; Fichorova, Raina N; Schwartz, Jill L; Chandra, Neelima; Callahan, Marianne M

    2008-11-01

    Nigerian women reportedly apply lime juice intravaginally to protect themselves against HIV. In vitro data suggest that lime juice is virucidal, but only at cytotoxic concentrations. This is the first controlled, randomized safety trial of lime juice applied to the human vagina. Forty-seven women were randomized to apply water or lime juice (25%, 50%, or undiluted) intravaginally twice daily for two 6-day intervals, separated by a 3-week washout period. Product application also was randomized: during 1 interval, product was applied using a saturated tampon and in the other by douche. Vaginal pH, symptoms, signs of irritation observed via naked eye examination and colposcopy, microflora, and markers of inflammation in cervicovaginal lavages were evaluated after 1 hour and on days 3 and 7. The largest reduction in pH was about one-half a pH unit, seen 1 hour after douching with 100% lime juice. We observed a dose-dependent pattern of symptoms and clinical and laboratory findings that were consistent with a compromised vaginal barrier function. The brief reduction in pH after vaginal lime juice application is unlikely to be virucidal in the presence of semen. Lime juice is unlikely to protect against HIV and may actually be harmful.

  10. Group patient visits for Parkinson disease: a randomized feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, E R; Deuel, L M; Beck, C A; Gardiner, I F; Scoglio, N J; Scott, J C; Marshall, F J; Biglan, K M

    2011-05-03

    Group patient visits are medical appointments shared among patients with a common medical condition. This care delivery method has demonstrated benefits for individuals with chronic conditions but has not been evaluated for Parkinson disease (PD). We conducted a 12-month, randomized trial of group patient visits vs usual (one-on-one) care for patients with PD. Visits were led by one of 3 study physicians, included patients and caregivers, and lasted approximately 90 minutes. Those receiving group visits had 4 sessions over 12 months. The primary outcome measure was feasibility as measured by the ability to recruit participants and by the proportion of participants who completed the study. The primary efficacy outcome was quality of life as measured by the PD Questionnaire-39. Thirty patients and 27 caregivers enrolled in the study. Thirteen of the 15 patients randomized to group patient visits and 14 of the 15 randomized to usual care completed the study. Quality of life measured 12 months after baseline between the 2 groups was not different (25.9 points for group patient visits vs 26.0 points for usual care; p = 0.99). Group patient visits may be a feasible means of providing care to individuals with PD and may offer an alternative or complementary method of care delivery for some patients and physicians. This study provides Class II evidence that group patient visits did not improve quality of life for individuals with PD over a 1-year period.

  11. Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial (SMART) with Adaptive Randomization for Quality Improvement in Depression Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Bibhas; Davidson, Karina W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Implementation study is an important tool for deploying state-of-the-art treatments from clinical efficacy studies into a treatment program, with the dual goals of learning about effectiveness of the treatments and improving the quality of care for patients enrolled into the program. In this article, we deal with the design of a treatment program of dynamic treatment regimens (DTRs) for patients with depression post acute coronary syndrome. We introduce a novel adaptive randomization scheme for a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial of DTRs. Our approach adapts the randomization probabilities to favor treatment sequences having comparatively superior Q-functions used in Q-learning. The proposed approach addresses three main concerns of an implementation study: it allows incorporation of historical data or opinions, it includes randomization for learning purposes, and it aims to improve care via adaptation throughout the program. We demonstrate how to apply our method to design a depression treatment program using data from a previous study. By simulation, we illustrate that the inputs from historical data are important for the program performance measured by the expected outcomes of the enrollees, but also show that the adaptive randomization scheme is able to compensate poorly specified historical inputs by improving patient outcomes within a reasonable horizon. The simulation results also confirm that the proposed design allows efficient learning of the treatments by alleviating the curse of dimensionality. PMID:25354029

  12. Three controlled trials of interventions to increase recruitment to a randomized controlled trial of mobile phone based smoking cessation support.

    PubMed

    Free, Caroline; Hoile, Elizabeth; Robertson, Steven; Knight, Rosemary

    2010-06-01

    Recruitment is a major challenge for trials but there is little evidence regarding interventions to increase trial recruitment. We report three controlled trials of interventions to increase recruitment to the Txt2stop trial. To evaluate: Trial 1. The impact on registrations of a text message regarding an online registration facility; Trial 2. The impact on randomizations of sending pound5 with a covering letter to those eligible to join the trial; Trial 3. The impact on randomizations of text messages containing quotes from existing participants. Single blind controlled trials with allocation concealment. Trial 1: A text message regarding our new online registration facility; Trial 2: A letter with pound5 enclosed; Trial 3: A series of four text messages containing quotes from participants. The control group in each trial received standard Txt2stop procedures. Trial 1: 3.6% (17/470) of the intervention group and 1.1% (5/467) of the control group registered for the trial, risk difference 2.5% (95% CI 0.6-4.5). 0% (0/ 470) of the intervention group and 0.2% (1/467) of the control group registered successfully online, risk difference -0.2 (95% CI -0.6-0.2); Trial 2: 4.5% (11/246) of the intervention group and 0.4% (1/245) of the control group were randomized into the Txt2stop trial, risk difference 4.0% (95% CI 1.4-6.7); Trial 3: 3.5% (14/405) of the intervention group and 0% (0/406) of the control group were randomized into the Txt2stop trial, risk difference 3.5 (95% CI 1.7-5.2). There were no baseline data available for trial 1. Allocation of participant IDs in trials 2 and 3 were systematic. Sending a text message about an online registration facility increased registrations to Txt2stop, but did not increase online registrations. Sending a pound5 reimbursement for participants' time and sending text messages containing quotes from existing participants increased randomizations into the Txt2stop trial. Clinical Trials 2010; 7: 265-273. http://ctj.sagepub.com.

  13. The Sexunzipped trial: young people's views of participating in an online randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Angela; Bailey, Julia V; Stevenson, Fiona; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-12-12

    Incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among young people in the United Kingdom is increasing. The Internet can be a suitable medium for delivery of sexual health information and sexual health promotion, given its high usage among young people, its potential for creating a sense of anonymity, and ease of access. Online randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are increasingly being used to evaluate online interventions, but while there are many advantages to online methodologies, they can be associated with a number of problems, including poor engagement with online interventions, poor trial retention, and concerns about the validity of data collected through self-report online. We conducted an online feasibility trial that tested the effects of the Sexunzipped website for sexual health compared to an information-only website. This study reports on a qualitative evaluation of the trial procedures, describing participants' experiences and views of the Sexunzipped online trial including methods of recruitment, incentives, methods of contact, and sexual health outcome measurement. Our goal was to determine participants' views of the acceptability and validity of the online trial methodology used in the pilot RCT of the Sexunzipped intervention. We used three qualitative data sources to assess the acceptability and validity of the online pilot RCT methodology: (1) individual interviews with 22 participants from the pilot RCT, (2) 133 emails received by the trial coordinator from trial participants, and (3) 217 free-text comments from the baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. An iterative, thematic analysis of all three data sources was conducted to identify common themes related to the acceptability and feasibility of the online trial methodology. Interview participants found the trial design, including online recruitment via Facebook, online registration, email communication with the researchers, and

  14. A randomized trial comparing concise and standard consent forms in the START trial

    PubMed Central

    Touloumi, Giota; Walker, A. Sarah; Smolskis, Mary; Sharma, Shweta; Babiker, Abdel G.; Pantazis, Nikos; Tavel, Jorge; Florence, Eric; Sanchez, Adriana; Hudson, Fleur; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Emanuel, Ezekiel; Clewett, Megan; Munroe, David; Denning, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    Background Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of research informed consent is a high priority. Some express concern about longer, more complex, written consent forms creating barriers to participant understanding. A recent meta-analysis concluded that randomized comparisons were needed. Methods We conducted a cluster-randomized non-inferiority comparison of a standard versus concise consent form within a multinational trial studying the timing of starting antiretroviral therapy in HIV+ adults (START). Interested sites were randomized to standard or concise consent forms for all individuals signing START consent. Participants completed a survey measuring comprehension of study information and satisfaction with the consent process. Site personnel reported usual site consent practices. The primary outcome was comprehension of the purpose of randomization (pre-specified 7.5% non-inferiority margin). Results 77 sites (2429 participants) were randomly allocated to use standard consent and 77 sites (2000 participants) concise consent, for an evaluable cohort of 4229. Site and participant characteristics were similar for the two groups. The concise consent was non-inferior to the standard consent on comprehension of randomization (80.2% versus 82%, site adjusted difference: 0.75% (95% CI -3.8%, +5.2%)); and the two groups did not differ significantly on total comprehension score, satisfaction, or voluntariness (p>0.1). Certain independent factors, such as education, influenced comprehension and satisfaction but not differences between consent groups. Conclusions An easier to read, more concise consent form neither hindered nor improved comprehension of study information nor satisfaction with the consent process among a large number of participants. This supports continued efforts to make consent forms more efficient. Trial registration Informed consent substudy was registered as part of START study in clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00867048, and EudraCT # 2008

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Mindfulness Meditation for Chronic Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jason C.; Manber, Rachel; Segal, Zindel; Xia, Yinglin; Shapiro, Shauna; Wyatt, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of mindfulness meditation for the treatment of chronic insomnia. Design: Three-arm, single-site, randomized controlled trial. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants: Fifty-four adults with chronic insomnia. Interventions: Participants were randomized to either mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), mindfulness-based therapy for insomnia (MBTI), or an eight-week self-monitoring (SM) condition. Measurements and Results: Patient-reported outcome measures were total wake time (TWT) from sleep diaries, the pre-sleep arousal scale (PSAS), measuring a prominent waking correlate of insomnia, and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) to determine remission and response as clinical endpoints. Objective sleep measures were derived from laboratory polysomnography and wrist actigraphy. Linear mixed models showed that those receiving a meditation-based intervention (MBSR or MBTI) had significantly greater reductions on TWT minutes (43.75 vs 1.09), PSAS (7.13 vs 0.16), and ISI (4.56 vs 0.06) from baseline-to-post compared to SM. Post hoc analyses revealed that each intervention was superior to SM on each of the patient-reported measures, but no significant differences were found when comparing MBSR to MBTI from baseline-to-post. From baseline to 6-month follow-up, MBTI had greater reductions in ISI scores than MBSR (P < 0.05), with the largest difference occurring at the 3-month follow-up. Remission and response rates in MBTI and MBSR were sustained from post-treatment through follow-up, with MBTI showing the highest rates of treatment remission (50%) and response (78.6%) at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions: Mindfulness meditation appears to be a viable treatment option for adults with chronic insomnia and could provide an alternative to traditional treatments for insomnia. Trial Registration: Mindfulness-Based Approaches to Insomnia: clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00768781 Citation: Ong JC, Manber R, Segal Z, Xia Y

  16. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of ZMapp for Ebola Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Data from studies in nonhuman primates suggest that the triple monoclonal antibody cocktail ZMapp is a promising immune-based treatment for Ebola virus disease (EVD). METHODS Beginning in March 2015, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial of ZMapp plus the current standard of care as compared with the current standard of care alone in patients with EVD that was diagnosed in West Africa by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay. Eligible patients of any age were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the current standard of care or the current standard of care plus three intravenous infusions of ZMapp (50 mg per kilogram of body weight, administered every third day). Patients were stratified according to baseline PCR cycle-threshold value for the virus (≤22 vs. >22) and country of enrollment. Oral favipiravir was part of the current standard of care in Guinea. The primary end point was mortality at 28 days. RESULTS A total of 72 patients were enrolled at sites in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, and the United States. Of the 71 patients who could be evaluated, 21 died, representing an overall case fatality rate of 30%. Death occurred in 13 of 35 patients (37%) who received the current standard of care alone and in 8 of 36 patients (22%) who received the current standard of care plus ZMapp. The observed posterior probability that ZMapp plus the current standard of care was superior to the current standard of care alone was 91.2%, falling short of the prespecified threshold of 97.5%. Frequentist analyses yielded similar results (absolute difference in mortality with ZMapp, −15 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, −36 to 7). Baseline viral load was strongly predictive of both mortality and duration of hospitalization in all age groups. CONCLUSIONS In this randomized, controlled trial of a putative therapeutic agent for EVD, although the estimated effect of ZMapp appeared to be beneficial, the result did not meet the prespecified

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Group-Based Modified Story Memory Technique in TBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0726 TITLE: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Group -Based Modified Story Memory Technique in TBI PRINCIPAL...2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Group -Based Modified Story Memory Technique in TBI 5b. GRANT...forthcoming, The current study addresses this need through a double blind, placebo- controlled , randomized clinical trial (RCT) of a group

  18. Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Surgical (CSM-S) Trial: Randomized Controlled Trial Design and Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Ghogawala, Zoher; Benzel, Edward C.; Heary, Robert F.; Riew, K. Daniel; Albert, Todd J.; Butler, William E.; Barker, Fred G.; Heller, John G.; McCormick, Paul C.; Whitmore, Robert G.; Freund, Karen M.; Schwartz, J. Sanford

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in the world. There is significant practice variation and uncertainty as to the optimal surgical approach for treating CSM. Objective The primary objective is to determine if ventral surgery is associated with superior SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) outcome at one year follow-up compared to dorsal (laminectomy/fusion or laminoplasty) surgery for the treatment of CSM. The study will also investigate whether post-operative sagittal balance is an independent predictor of overall outcome and will compare health resource utilization for ventral and dorsal procedures. Methods The study is a randomized, controlled trial with a nonrandomized arm for patients who are eligible but decline randomization. Two hundred fifty patients (159 randomized) with CSM from 11 sites will be recruited over 18 months. The primary outcome is the Short Form-36 PCS score. Secondary outcomes include disease specific outcomes, overall health-related quality of life (EuroQol-5D), and health resource utilization. Expected Outcomes This will be the first randomized controlled trial to compare directly the health-related quality of life outcomes for ventral versus dorsal surgery for treating CSM. Discussion An NIH-funded (1R13AR065834-01) investigator meeting was held prior to initiating the trial in order to bring multiple stakeholders together to finalize the study protocol. Study investigators, coordinators, and major stakeholders were able to attend and discuss strengths, limitations, and concerns regarding the study. The final protocol was approved for funding by PCORI (CE-1304-6173). The RCT began enrollment on April 1, 2014. PMID:24991714

  19. Incentive Spirometry after Lung Resection: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Malik, Peter Ra; Fahim, Christine; Vernon, Jordyn; Thomas, Priya; Schieman, Colin; Finley, Christian J; Agzarian, John; Shargall, Yaron; Farrokhyar, Forough; Hanna, Wael C

    2018-04-24

    Incentive spirometry (IS) is thought to reduce the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) after lung resection. We sought to determine whether the addition of IS to routine physiotherapy following lung resection results in a lower rate of PPC, as compared to physiotherapy alone. A single-blind prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in adults undergoing lung resection. Individuals with previous lung surgery or home oxygen were excluded. Participants randomized to the control arm (PHY) received routine physiotherapy alone (deep breathing, ambulation and shoulder exercises). Those randomized to the intervention arm (PHY/IS) received IS in addition to routine physiotherapy. The trial was powered to detect a 10% difference in the rate of PPC (beta=80%). Student's t-test and chi-square were utilized for continuous and categorical variables respectively, with a significance level of p=0.05. A total of 387 participants (n=195 PHY/IS; n=192 PHY) were randomized between 2014-2017. Baseline characteristics were comparable for both arms. The majority of patients underwent a pulmonary lobectomy (PHY/IS=59.5%, PHY=61.0%, p=0.84), with no difference in the rates of minimally invasive and open procedures. There were no differences in the incidence of PPC at 30 days postoperatively (PHY/IS=12.3%, PHY=13.0%, p=0.88). There were no differences in rates of pneumonia (PHY/IS=4.6%, PHY=7.8%, p=0.21), mechanical ventilation (PHY/IS=2.1%, PHY=1.0%, p=0.41), home-oxygen (PHY/IS=13.8%, PHY=14.6%, p=0.89), hospital length of stay (PHY/IS=4 days, PHY=4 days, p=0.34), or rate of readmission to hospital (PHY/IS=10.3%, PH=9.9%, p=1.00). The addition of IS to routine postoperative physiotherapy does not reduce the incidence of PPC after lung resection. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Park, H C; Kim, M J; Lee, B H

    2017-12-01

    Uncomplicated appendicitis may resolve spontaneously or require treatment with antibiotics or appendicectomy. The aim of this randomized trial was to compare the outcome of a non-antibiotic management strategy with that of antibiotic therapy in uncomplicated appendicitis. Patients presenting to a university teaching hospital with CT-verified uncomplicated simple appendicitis (appendiceal diameter no larger than 11 mm and without any signs of perforation) were randomized to management with a no-antibiotic regimen with supportive care (intravenous fluids, analgesia and antipyretics as necessary) or a 4-day course of antibiotics with supportive care. The primary endpoint was rate of total treatment failure, defined as initial treatment failure within 1 month and recurrence of appendicitis during the follow-up period. Some 245 patients were randomized within the trial, and followed up for a median of 19 months. The duration of hospital stay was shorter (mean 3·1 versus 3·7 days; P < 0·001) and the medical costs lower (€1181 versus 1348; P < 0·001) among those randomized to therapy without antibiotics. There was no difference in total treatment failure rate between the groups: 29 of 124 (23·4 per cent) in the no-antibiotic group and 25 of 121 (20·7 per cent) in the antibiotic group (P = 0·609). Eighteen patients (9 in each group) had initial treatment failure, 15 of whom underwent appendicectomy and three received additional antibiotics. Thirty-six patients (20 in the no-antibiotic group, 16 in the antibiotic group) experienced recurrence, of whom 30 underwent appendicectomy and six received further antibiotics. Treatment failure rates in patients presenting with CT-confirmed uncomplicated appendicitis appeared similar among those receiving supportive care with either a no-antibiotic regimen or a 4-day course of antibiotics. Registration number: KCT0000124 ( http://cris.nih.go.kr). © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Neighborhood effects in a behavioral randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Sandi L; Leonard, Tammy; Murdoch, James; Hughes, Amy; McQueen, Amy; Gupta, Samir

    2014-11-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions intended to modify health behaviors may be influenced by neighborhood effects which can impede unbiased estimation of intervention effects. Examining a RCT designed to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (N=5628), we found statistically significant neighborhood effects: average CRC test use among neighboring study participants was significantly and positively associated with individual patient's CRC test use. This potentially important spatially-varying covariate has not previously been considered in a RCT. Our results suggest that future RCTs of health behavior interventions should assess potential social interactions between participants, which may cause intervention arm contamination and may bias effect size estimation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Are results of randomized controlled trials useful to psychotherapists?

    PubMed

    Persons, J B; Silberschatz, G

    1998-02-01

    Two clinicians provided opposite answers to the title question: Persons argued that information from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is vital to clinicians, and Silberschatz argued that information from RCTs is irrelevant to clinicians. Persons argued that clinicians cannot provide top quality care to their patients without attending to findings of RCTs and that clinicians have an ethical responsibility to inform patients about, recommend, and provide treatments supported by RCTs before informing patients about, recommending, and providing treatments shown to be inferior in RCTs or not evaluated in RCTs. Silberschatz argued that RCTs do not and cannot answer questions that concern practicing clinicians. He advocates alternative research approaches (effectiveness studies, quasi-experimental methods, case-specific research) for studying psychotherapy.

  3. [Critical of the additive model of the randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Boussageon, Rémy; Gueyffier, François; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Felden-Dominiak, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials are currently the best way to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of drugs. Its methodology relies on the method of difference (John Stuart Mill), through which the observed difference between two groups (drug vs placebo) can be attributed to the pharmacological effect of the drug being tested. However, this additive model can be questioned in the event of statistical interactions between the pharmacological and the placebo effects. Evidence in different domains has shown that the placebo effect can influence the effect of the active principle. This article evaluates the methodological, clinical and epistemological consequences of this phenomenon. Topics treated include extrapolating results, accounting for heterogeneous results, demonstrating the existence of several factors in the placebo effect, the necessity to take these factors into account for given symptoms or pathologies, as well as the problem of the "specific" effect.

  4. Information technology and medical missteps: evidence from a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Javitt, Jonathan C; Rebitzer, James B; Reisman, Lonny

    2008-05-01

    We analyze the effect of a decision support tool designed to help physicians detect and correct medical "missteps". The data comes from a randomized trial of the technology on a population of commercial HMO patients. The key findings are that the new information technology lowers average charges by 6% relative to the control group. This reduction in resource utilization was the result of reduced in-patient charges (and associated professional charges) for the most costly patients. The rate at which identified issues were resolved was generally higher in the study group than in the control group, suggesting the possibility of improvements in care quality along measured dimensions and enhanced diffusion of new protocols based on new clinical evidence.

  5. Philosophers assess randomized clinical trials: the need for dialogue.

    PubMed

    Miké, V

    1989-09-01

    In recent years a growing number of professional philosophers have joined in the controversy over ethical aspects of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Morally questionable in their utilitarian approach, RCTs are claimed by some to be in direct violation of the second form of Kant's Categorical Imperative. But the arguments used in these critiques at times derive from a lack of insight into basic statistical procedures and the realities of the biomedical research process. Presented to physicians and other nonspecialists, including the lay public, such distortions can be harmful. Given the great complexity of statistical methodology and the anomalous nature of concepts of evidence, more sustained input into the interdisciplinary dialogue is needed from the statistical profession.

  6. The conflict between randomized clinical trials and the therapeutic obligation.

    PubMed

    Gifford, F

    1986-11-01

    The central dilemma concerning randomized clinical trials (RCTs) arises out of some simple facts about causal methodology (RCTs are the best way to generate the reliable causal knowledge necessary for optimally-informed action) and a prima facie plausible principle concerning how physicians should treat their patients (always do what it is most reasonable to believe will be best for the patient). A number of arguments related to this in the literature are considered. Attempts to avoid the dilemma fail. Appeals to informed consent and mechanisms for minimizing the resulting harm are important for policy, but informed consent is problematic and mechanisms for minimization of harm do not address the dilemma. Appeals to some sort of contract model of justification are promising and illuminating.

  7. Guidelines for randomized clinical trial protocol content: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) require a protocol; however, numerous studies have highlighted protocol deficiencies. Reporting guidelines may improve the content of research reports and, if developed using robust methods, may increase the utility of reports to stakeholders. The objective of this study was to systematically identify and review RCT protocol guidelines, to assess their characteristics and methods of development, and to compare recommendations. Methods We conducted a systematic review of indexed literature (MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Methodology Register from inception to September 2010; reference lists; related article features; forward citation searching) and a targeted search of supplementary sources, including a survey of major trial funding agencies in six countries. Records were eligible if they described a content guideline in English or French relevant to RCT protocols. Guidelines were excluded if they specified content for protocols for trials of specific procedures or conditions or were intended to assess trial quality. We extracted guideline characteristics and methods. Content was mapped for a subset of guidelines that described development methods or had institutional endorsement. Results Forty guidelines published in journals, books and institutional reports were included in the review; seven were specific to RCT protocols. Only eight (20%) described development methods which included informal consensus methods, pilot testing and formal validation; no guideline described all of these methods. No guideline described formal consensus methods or a systematic retrieval of empirical evidence to inform its development. The guidelines included a median of 23 concepts per guideline (interquartile range (IQR) = 14 to 34; range = 7 to 109). Among the subset of guidelines (n = 23) for which content was mapped, approximately 380 concepts were explicitly addressed (median concepts per guideline IQR = 31 (24

  8. Guidelines for randomized clinical trial protocol content: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Chan, An-Wen; Kitchen, Jessica; Sampson, Margaret; Tricco, Andrea C; Moher, David

    2012-09-24

    All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) require a protocol; however, numerous studies have highlighted protocol deficiencies. Reporting guidelines may improve the content of research reports and, if developed using robust methods, may increase the utility of reports to stakeholders. The objective of this study was to systematically identify and review RCT protocol guidelines, to assess their characteristics and methods of development, and to compare recommendations. We conducted a systematic review of indexed literature (MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Methodology Register from inception to September 2010; reference lists; related article features; forward citation searching) and a targeted search of supplementary sources, including a survey of major trial funding agencies in six countries. Records were eligible if they described a content guideline in English or French relevant to RCT protocols. Guidelines were excluded if they specified content for protocols for trials of specific procedures or conditions or were intended to assess trial quality. We extracted guideline characteristics and methods. Content was mapped for a subset of guidelines that described development methods or had institutional endorsement. Forty guidelines published in journals, books and institutional reports were included in the review; seven were specific to RCT protocols. Only eight (20%) described development methods which included informal consensus methods, pilot testing and formal validation; no guideline described all of these methods. No guideline described formal consensus methods or a systematic retrieval of empirical evidence to inform its development. The guidelines included a median of 23 concepts per guideline (interquartile range (IQR) = 14 to 34; range = 7 to 109). Among the subset of guidelines (n = 23) for which content was mapped, approximately 380 concepts were explicitly addressed (median concepts per guideline IQR = 31 (24,80); range = 16 to 150

  9. Moxibustion for breech version: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Guittier, Marie-Julia; Pichon, Michelle; Dong, Hongguang; Irion, Olivier; Boulvain, Michel

    2009-11-01

    To estimate the efficacy of moxibustion between 34 and 38 weeks of gestation to facilitate the cephalic version of fetuses in breech presentation and the acceptability of this method by women. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in a Swiss university hospital maternity unit. We proposed to stimulate the acupoint BL 67 by moxibustion daily for 2 weeks for 212 consenting women between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation with a single fetus in breech presentation. We did the intervention three times weekly in the hospital and a teaching session and information leaflet on the technique for additional daily therapy at home. The control group received expectant management care. The availability of external cephalic version was maintained for both groups. The main outcome measure was the comparison of the proportion of women with cephalic presentation at delivery. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, except more nulliparous women were randomized to moxibustion. The percentage of versions was similar between groups: 18% in the moxibustion group compared with 16% in the control group (relative risk 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.62 to 2.03). Adjustment for the imbalance in parity did not change these results. The frequency of cesarean delivery was similar (64% compared with 58% in the moxibustion group and the control group, respectively). Acceptability of the intervention and women's perceptions of moxibustion were favorable. We observed no beneficial effect of moxibustion to facilitate the cephalic version of fetuses in breech presentation. Despite this lack of proven effectiveness, women had positive opinions on the intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov,NCT00890474. I.

  10. A randomized controlled trial of Moderation-Oriented Cue Exposure.

    PubMed

    Heather, N; Brodie, J; Wale, S; Wilkinson, G; Luce, A; Webb, E; McCarthy, S

    2000-07-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the effectiveness of Moderation-Oriented Cue Exposure (MOCE) in comparison to Behavioral Self-Control Training (BSCT). The main hypothesis was that MOCE would be more effective than BSCT among a sample of problem drinkers aiming at moderate drinking. A subsidiary hypothesis was that MOCE would be relatively more effective than BSCT among problem drinkers with higher levels of alcohol dependence. Clients (N = 91; 75% men) were randomly allocated to either MOCE or BSCT. Treatment was delivered in weekly sessions by two trained therapists, in a nested design in which therapists switched to the alternative treatment modality approximately halfway through the trial. Follow-up was carried out 6 months following posttreatment assessment, with 85% successful contact. There was no evidence for the general superiority of MOCE over BSCT. The subsidiary hypothesis was not confirmed. A subsample of clients (n = 14) showing levels of dependence at baseline above the commonly accepted cut-point for a moderation goal (Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire [SADQ] > 29) showed outcomes at least as favorable as those below the cut-point. The validity of self-reports of alcohol consumption and problems was supported by significant relationships with liver function tests (gamma-glutamyl transferase and alanine transferase). These results provide no grounds for the replacement of BSCT by MOCE in routine, moderation-oriented treatment practice. Assuming they prefer it to abstinence and that it is not contra-indicated on other grounds, there seems no reason why clients showing a higher level of dependence (SADQ = 30-45) should not be offered a moderation goal.

  11. Positive Psychotherapy for Smoking Cessation: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Christopher W; Spillane, Nichea S; Day, Anne M; Cioe, Patricia A; Parks, Acacia; Leventhal, Adam M; Brown, Richard A

    2015-11-01

    Greater depressive symptoms and low positive affect (PA) are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes. Smoking cessation approaches that incorporate a focus on PA may benefit smokers trying to quit. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot randomized clinical trial to compare standard smoking cessation treatment (ST) with smoking cessation treatment that targets positive affect, termed positive psychotherapy for smoking cessation (PPT-S). Smokers who were seeking smoking cessation treatment were assigned by urn randomization to receive, along with 8 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy, either ST (n = 31) or PPT-S (n = 35). Seven-day point prevalence smoking abstinence was biochemically confirmed at 8, 16, and 26 weeks. Compared to ST, a greater percentage of participants in PPT-S were abstinent at 8 weeks, 16 weeks, and 26 weeks, but these differences were nonsignificant. In a more statistically powerful longitudinal model, participants in PPT-S had a significantly higher odds of abstinence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.75; 95% CI = 1.02, 7.42; p = .046) across follow-ups compared to those in ST. The positive effect of PPT-S was stronger for those higher in PA (OR = 6.69, 95% CI = 1.16, 38.47, p = .03). Greater use of PPT-S strategies during the initial 8 weeks of quitting was associated with a less steep decline in smoking abstinence rates over time (OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.06, 6.56, p =.04). This trial suggests substantial promise for incorporating PPT into smoking cessation treatment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Sildenafil Citrate Therapy for Oligohydramnios: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Maher, Mohammad Ahmed; Sayyed, Tarek Mohammad; Elkhouly, Nabih

    2017-04-01

    To compare sildenafil plus hydration with hydration alone in improving the amniotic fluid index and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by idiopathic oligohydramnios ( amniotic fluid index less than 5 cm without underlying maternal or fetal causes and with normal fetal growth). This was an open-label randomized trial for women carrying singleton pregnancies at 30 weeks of gestation or more with idiopathic oligohydramnios detected during routine ultrasonogram. Women received either oral sildenafil citrate (25 mg every 8 hours) plus intravenous infusion of 2 L isotonic solution or fluids only until delivery. The primary study outcome was the amniotic fluid volume at 6 weeks of follow-up or the final volume before delivery, whichever occurred first. Secondary outcomes were duration of pregnancy prolongation, mode of delivery, and select neonatal outcomes. The study was powered to detect a 45% difference between groups, so, at an α level of 0.05 and 80% power, a sample size of 167 women was required. From February 24, 2015, through April 2016, 196 women were screened and 184 were randomized. Follow-up was completed in 166 (90%): 82 in the sildenafil group and 84 in the hydration group. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. The amniotic fluid volume was higher in the sildenafil group at the final assessment (11.5 compared with 5.4 cm, P=.02). The sildenafil group delivered later (38.3 compared with 36.0 weeks of gestation, P=.001), had a lower rate of cesarean delivery (28% compared with 73%), and their neonates were less likely to be admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (11% compared with 41%, P=.001). Sildenafil citrate increases amniotic fluid volume in pregnancies complicated by oligohydramnios. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02372487.

  13. A randomized controlled trial of qigong for fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Fibromyalgia is difficult to treat and requires the use of multiple approaches. This study is a randomized controlled trial of qigong compared with a wait-list control group in fibromyalgia. Methods One hundred participants were randomly assigned to immediate or delayed practice groups, with the delayed group receiving training at the end of the control period. Qigong training (level 1 Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong, CFQ), given over three half-days, was followed by weekly review/practice sessions for eight weeks; participants were also asked to practice at home for 45 to 60 minutes per day for this interval. Outcomes were pain, impact, sleep, physical function and mental function, and these were recorded at baseline, eight weeks, four months and six months. Immediate and delayed practice groups were analyzed individually compared to the control group, and as a combination group. Results In both the immediate and delayed treatment groups, CFQ demonstrated significant improvements in pain, impact, sleep, physical function and mental function when compared to the wait-list/usual care control group at eight weeks, with benefits extending beyond this time. Analysis of combined data indicated significant changes for all measures at all times for six months, with only one exception. Post-hoc analysis based on self-reported practice times indicated greater benefit with the per protocol group compared to minimal practice. Conclusions This study demonstrates that CFQ, a particular form of qigong, provides long-term benefits in several core domains in fibromyalgia. CFQ may be a useful adjuvant self-care treatment for fibromyalgia. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00938834. PMID:22863206

  14. Exercise in Patients on Dialysis: A Multicenter, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, Fabio; Mallamaci, Francesca; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Baggetta, Rossella; Bolignano, Davide; Torino, Claudia; Lamberti, Nicola; Bertoli, Silvio; Ciurlino, Daniele; Rocca-Rey, Lisa; Barillà, Antonio; Battaglia, Yuri; Rapanà, Renato Mario; Zuccalà, Alessandro; Bonanno, Graziella; Fatuzzo, Pasquale; Rapisarda, Francesco; Rastelli, Stefania; Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Messa, Piergiorgio; De Paola, Luciano; Lombardi, Luigi; Cupisti, Adamasco; Fuiano, Giorgio; Lucisano, Gaetano; Summaria, Chiara; Felisatti, Michele; Pozzato, Enrico; Malagoni, Anna Maria; Castellino, Pietro; Aucella, Filippo; Abd ElHafeez, Samar; Provenzano, Pasquale Fabio; Tripepi, Giovanni; Catizone, Luigi; Zoccali, Carmine

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested the benefits of physical exercise for patients on dialysis. We conducted the Exercise Introduction to Enhance Performance in Dialysis trial, a 6-month randomized, multicenter trial to test whether a simple, personalized walking exercise program at home, managed by dialysis staff, improves functional status in adult patients on dialysis. The main study outcomes included change in physical performance at 6 months, assessed by the 6-minute walking test and the five times sit-to-stand test, and in quality of life, assessed by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF) questionnaire. We randomized 296 patients to normal physical activity (control; n =145) or walking exercise ( n =151); 227 patients (exercise n =104; control n =123) repeated the 6-month evaluations. The distance covered during the 6-minute walking test improved in the exercise group (mean distance±SD: baseline, 328±96 m; 6 months, 367±113 m) but not in the control group (baseline, 321±107 m; 6 months, 324±116 m; P <0.001 between groups). Similarly, the five times sit-to-stand test time improved in the exercise group (mean time±SD: baseline, 20.5±6.0 seconds; 6 months, 18.2±5.7 seconds) but not in the control group (baseline, 20.9±5.8 seconds; 6 months, 20.2±6.4 seconds; P =0.001 between groups). The cognitive function score ( P =0.04) and quality of social interaction score ( P =0.01) in the kidney disease component of the KDQOL-SF improved significantly in the exercise arm compared with the control arm. Hence, a simple, personalized, home-based, low-intensity exercise program managed by dialysis staff may improve physical performance and quality of life in patients on dialysis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Exercise in Patients on Dialysis: A Multicenter, Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Manfredini, Fabio; Mallamaci, Francesca; D’Arrigo, Graziella; Baggetta, Rossella; Bolignano, Davide; Torino, Claudia; Lamberti, Nicola; Bertoli, Silvio; Ciurlino, Daniele; Rocca-Rey, Lisa; Barillà, Antonio; Battaglia, Yuri; Rapanà, Renato Mario; Zuccalà, Alessandro; Bonanno, Graziella; Fatuzzo, Pasquale; Rapisarda, Francesco; Rastelli, Stefania; Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Messa, Piergiorgio; De Paola, Luciano; Lombardi, Luigi; Cupisti, Adamasco; Fuiano, Giorgio; Lucisano, Gaetano; Summaria, Chiara; Felisatti, Michele; Pozzato, Enrico; Malagoni, Anna Maria; Castellino, Pietro; Aucella, Filippo; Abd ElHafeez, Samar; Provenzano, Pasquale Fabio; Tripepi, Giovanni; Catizone, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested the benefits of physical exercise for patients on dialysis. We conducted the Exercise Introduction to Enhance Performance in Dialysis trial, a 6-month randomized, multicenter trial to test whether a simple, personalized walking exercise program at home, managed by dialysis staff, improves functional status in adult patients on dialysis. The main study outcomes included change in physical performance at 6 months, assessed by the 6-minute walking test and the five times sit-to-stand test, and in quality of life, assessed by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF) questionnaire. We randomized 296 patients to normal physical activity (control; n=145) or walking exercise (n=151); 227 patients (exercise n=104; control n=123) repeated the 6-month evaluations. The distance covered during the 6-minute walking test improved in the exercise group (mean distance±SD: baseline, 328±96 m; 6 months, 367±113 m) but not in the control group (baseline, 321±107 m; 6 months, 324±116 m; P<0.001 between groups). Similarly, the five times sit-to-stand test time improved in the exercise group (mean time±SD: baseline, 20.5±6.0 seconds; 6 months, 18.2±5.7 seconds) but not in the control group (baseline, 20.9±5.8 seconds; 6 months, 20.2±6.4 seconds; P=0.001 between groups). The cognitive function score (P=0.04) and quality of social interaction score (P=0.01) in the kidney disease component of the KDQOL-SF improved significantly in the exercise arm compared with the control arm. Hence, a simple, personalized, home-based, low-intensity exercise program managed by dialysis staff may improve physical performance and quality of life in patients on dialysis. PMID:27909047

  16. Minocycline in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage: An Early Phase Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Fouda, Abdelrahman Y; Newsome, Andrea S; Spellicy, Samantha; Waller, Jennifer L; Zhi, Wenbo; Hess, David C; Ergul, Adviye; Edwards, David J; Fagan, Susan C; Switzer, Jeffrey A

    2017-10-01

    Minocycline is under investigation as a neurovascular protective agent for stroke. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic, anti-inflammatory, and safety profile of minocycline after intracerebral hemorrhage. This study was a single-site, randomized controlled trial of minocycline conducted from 2013 to 2016. Adults ≥18 years with primary intracerebral hemorrhage who could have study drug administered within 24 hours of onset were included. Patients received 400 mg of intravenous minocycline, followed by 400 mg minocycline oral daily for 4 days. Serum concentrations of minocycline after the last oral dose and biomarkers were sampled to determine the peak concentration, half-life, and anti-inflammatory profile. A total of 16 consecutive eligible patients were enrolled, with 8 randomized to minocycline. Although the literature supports a time to peak concentration (T max ) of 1 hour for oral minocycline, the T max was estimated to be at least 6 hours in this cohort. The elimination half-life (available on 7 patients) was 17.5 hours (SD±3.5). No differences were observed in inflammatory biomarkers, hematoma volume, or perihematomal edema. Concentrations remained at neuroprotective levels (>3 mg/L) throughout the dosing interval in 5 of 7 patients. In intracerebral hemorrhage, a 400 mg dose of minocycline was safe and achieved neuroprotective serum concentrations. However, oral administration led to delayed absorption in these critically ill patients and should not be used when rapid, high concentrations are desired. Given the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of minocycline in intracerebral hemorrhage and promising data in the treatment of ischemic stroke, intravenous minocycline is an excellent candidate for a prehospital treatment trial. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01805895. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. A randomized trial of colchicine for acute pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Imazio, Massimo; Brucato, Antonio; Cemin, Roberto; Ferrua, Stefania; Maggiolini, Stefano; Beqaraj, Federico; Demarie, Daniela; Forno, Davide; Ferro, Silvia; Maestroni, Silvia; Belli, Riccardo; Trinchero, Rita; Spodick, David H; Adler, Yehuda

    2013-10-17

    Colchicine is effective for the treatment of recurrent pericarditis. However, conclusive data are lacking regarding the use of colchicine during a first attack of acute pericarditis and in the prevention of recurrent symptoms. In a multicenter, double-blind trial, eligible adults with acute pericarditis were randomly assigned to receive either colchicine (at a dose of 0.5 mg twice daily for 3 months for patients weighing >70 kg or 0.5 mg once daily for patients weighing ≤70 kg) or placebo in addition to conventional antiinflammatory therapy with aspirin or ibuprofen. The primary study outcome was incessant or recurrent pericarditis. A total of 240 patients were enrolled, and 120 were randomly assigned to each of the two study groups. The primary outcome occurred in 20 patients (16.7%) in the colchicine group and 45 patients (37.5%) in the placebo group (relative risk reduction in the colchicine group, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.72; number needed to treat, 4; P<0.001). Colchicine reduced the rate of symptom persistence at 72 hours (19.2% vs. 40.0%, P=0.001), the number of recurrences per patient (0.21 vs. 0.52, P=0.001), and the hospitalization rate (5.0% vs. 14.2%, P=0.02). Colchicine also improved the remission rate at 1 week (85.0% vs. 58.3%, P<0.001). Overall adverse effects and rates of study-drug discontinuation were similar in the two study groups. No serious adverse events were observed. In patients with acute pericarditis, colchicine, when added to conventional antiinflammatory therapy, significantly reduced the rate of incessant or recurrent pericarditis. (Funded by former Azienda Sanitaria Locale 3 of Turin [now Azienda Sanitaria Locale 2] and Acarpia; ICAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00128453.).

  18. Randomized controlled trial of Anticipatory and Preventive multidisciplinary Team Care

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, William; Lemelin, Jacques; Dahrouge, Simone; Liddy, Clare; Armstrong, Catherine Deri; Legault, Frances; Dalziel, Bill; Zhang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE T o examine whether quality of care (QOC) improves when nurse practitioners and pharmacists work with family physicians in community practice and focus their work on patients who are 50 years of age and older and considered to be at risk of experiencing adverse health outcomes. DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. SETTING A family health network with 8 family physicians, 5 nurses, and 11 administrative personnel serving 10 000 patients in a rural area near Ottawa, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Patients 50 years of age and older at risk of experiencing adverse health outcomes (N = 241). INTERVENTIONS At-risk patients were randomly assigned to receive usual care from their family physicians or Anticipatory and Preventive Team Care (APTCare) from a collaborative team composed of their physicians, 1 of 3 nurse practitioners, and a pharmacist. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Quality of care for chronic disease management (CDM) for diabetes, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. RESULTS Controlling for baseline demographic characteristics, the APTCare approach improved CDM QOC by 9.2% (P < .001) compared with traditional care. The APTCare intervention also improved preventive care by 16.5% (P < .001). We did not observe significant differences in other secondary outcome measures (intermediate clinical outcomes, quality of life [Short-Form 36 and health-related quality of life scales], functional status [instrumental activities of daily living scale] and service usage). CONCLUSION Additional resources in the form of collaborative multidisciplinary care teams with intensive interventions in primary care can improve QOC for CDM in a population of older at-risk patients. The appropriateness of this intervention will depend on its cost-effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT00238836 (CONSORT) PMID:20008582

  19. Randomized Controlled Trial of Primary Care Pediatric Parenting Programs

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.; Huberman, Harris S.; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether pediatric primary care–based programs to enhance parenting and early child development reduce media exposure and whether enhanced parenting mediates the effects. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Urban public hospital pediatric primary care clinic. Participants A total of 410 mother-newborn dyads enrolled after childbirth. Interventions Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 interventions, the Video Interaction Project (VIP) and Building Blocks (BB) interventions, or to a control group. The VIP intervention comprised 1-on-1 sessions with a child development specialist who facilitated interactions in play and shared reading through review of videotapes made of the parent and child on primary care visit days; learning materials and parenting pamphlets were also provided. The BB intervention mailed parenting materials, including age-specific newsletters suggesting activities to facilitate interactions, learning materials, and parent-completed developmental questionnaires (Ages and Stages questionnaires). Outcome Measures Electronic media exposure in the home using a 24-hour recall diary. Results The mean (SD) exposure at 6 months was 146.5 (125.0) min/d. Exposure to VIP was associated with reduced total duration of media exposure compared with the BB and control groups (mean [SD] min/d for VIP, 131.6 [118.7]; BB, 151.2 [116.7]; control, 155.4 [138.7]; P=.009). Enhanced parent-child interactions were found to partially mediate relations between VIP and media exposure for families with a ninth grade or higher literacy level (Sobel statistic=2.49; P=.01). Conclusion Pediatric primary care may represent an important venue for addressing the public health problem of media exposure in young children at a population level. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00212576 PMID:21199979

  20. New treatments compared to established treatments in randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Kumar, Ambuj; Glasziou, Paul P; Perera, Rafael; Reljic, Tea; Dent, Louise; Raftery, James; Johansen, Marit; Di Tanna, Gian Luca; Miladinovic, Branko; Soares, Heloisa P; Vist, Gunn E; Chalmers, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Background The proportion of proposed new treatments that are ’successful’ is of ethical, scientific, and public importance. We investigated how often new, experimental treatments evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are superior to established treatments. Objectives Our main question was: “On average how often are new treatments more effective, equally effective or less effective than established treatments?” Additionally, we wanted to explain the observed results, i.e. whether the observed distribution of outcomes is consistent with the ’uncertainty requirement’ for enrollment in RCTs. We also investigated the effect of choice of comparator (active versus no treatment/placebo) on the observed results. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Methodology Register (CMR) 2010, Issue 1 in The Cochrane Library (searched 31 March 2010); MEDLINE Ovid 1950 to March Week 2 2010 (searched 24 March 2010); and EMBASE Ovid 1980 to 2010 Week 11 (searched 24 March 2010). Selection criteria Cohorts of studies were eligible for the analysis if they met all of the following criteria: (i) consecutive series of RCTs, (ii) registered at or before study onset, and (iii) compared new against established treatments in humans. Data collection and analysis RCTs from four cohorts of RCTs met all inclusion criteria and provided data from 743 RCTs involving 297,744 patients. All four cohorts consisted of publicly funded trials. Two cohorts involved evaluations of new treatments in cancer, one in neurological disorders, and one for mixed types of diseases. We employed kernel density estimation, meta-analysis and meta-regression to assess the probability of new treatments being superior to established treatments in their effect on primary outcomes and overall survival. Main results The distribution of effects seen was generally symmetrical in the size of difference between new versus established treatments. Meta-analytic pooling indicated that, on average, new treatments

  1. A 3-year Randomized Therapeutic Trial of Nitisinone in Alkaptonuria

    PubMed Central

    Introne, Wendy J.; Perry, Monique B.; Troendle, James; Tsilou, Ekaterini; Kayser, Michael A.; Suwannarat, Pim; O’Brien, Kevin E.; Bryant, Joy; Sachdev, Vandana; Reynolds, James C.; Moylan, Elizabeth; Bernardini, Isa; Gahl, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Alkaptonuria is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder of tyrosine degradation due to deficiency of the third enzyme in the catabolic pathway. As a result, homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates and is excreted in gram quantities in the urine, which turns dark upon alkalization. The first symptoms, occurring in early adulthood, involve a painful, progressively debilitating arthritis of the spine and large joints. Cardiac valvular disease and renal and prostate stones occur later. Previously suggested therapies have failed to show benefit, and management remains symptomatic. Nitisinone, a potent inhibitor of the second enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, is considered a potential therapy; proof-of-principle studies showed 95% reduction in urinary HGA. Based on those findings, a prospective, randomized clinical trial was initiated in 2005 to evaluate 40 patients over a 36-month period. The primary outcome parameter was hip total range of motion with measures of musculoskeletal function serving as secondary parameters. Biochemically, this study consistently demonstrated 95% reduction of HGA in urine and plasma over the course of 3 years. Clinically, primary and secondary parameters did not prove benefit from the medication. Side effects were infrequent. This trial illustrates the remarkable tolerability of nitisinone, its biochemical efficacy, and the need to investigate its use in younger individuals prior to development of debilitating arthritis. PMID:21620748

  2. A 3-year randomized therapeutic trial of nitisinone in alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Introne, Wendy J; Perry, Monique B; Troendle, James; Tsilou, Ekaterini; Kayser, Michael A; Suwannarat, Pim; O'Brien, Kevin E; Bryant, Joy; Sachdev, Vandana; Reynolds, James C; Moylan, Elizabeth; Bernardini, Isa; Gahl, William A

    2011-08-01

    Alkaptonuria is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder of tyrosine degradation due to deficiency of the third enzyme in the catabolic pathway. As a result, homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates and is excreted in gram quantities in the urine, which turns dark upon alkalization. The first symptoms, occurring in early adulthood, involve a painful, progressively debilitating arthritis of the spine and large joints. Cardiac valvular disease and renal and prostate stones occur later. Previously suggested therapies have failed to show benefit, and management remains symptomatic. Nitisinone, a potent inhibitor of the second enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, is considered a potential therapy; proof-of-principle studies showed 95% reduction in urinary HGA. Based on those findings, a prospective, randomized clinical trial was initiated in 2005 to evaluate 40 patients over a 36-month period. The primary outcome parameter was hip total range of motion with measures of musculoskeletal function serving as secondary parameters. Biochemically, this study consistently demonstrated 95% reduction of HGA in urine and plasma over the course of 3 years. Clinically, primary and secondary parameters did not prove benefit from the medication. Side effects were infrequent. This trial illustrates the remarkable tolerability of nitisinone, its biochemical efficacy, and the need to investigate its use in younger individuals prior to development of debilitating arthritis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Intravenous nitroglycerin for external cephalic version: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Jennifer; Allan, Bruce; Swaby, Cheryl; Wahba, Raouf; Wah, Raouf; Jarrell, John; Wood, Stephen; Ross, Sue; Tran, Quynh

    2009-09-01

    To estimate whether treatment with intravenous nitroglycerin for uterine relaxation increases the chance of successful external cephalic version. Two double-blind, randomized clinical trials were undertaken: one in nulliparous women and a second in multiparous women. Women presenting for external cephalic version at term were eligible to participate. The primary outcome was immediate success of external cephalic version. Other outcomes were presentation at delivery, cesarean delivery rate, and side effects and complications. Sample size calculations were based on a 100% increase in success of external cephalic version with a one-sided analysis and alpha=0.05 (80% power). In total, 126 women were recruited-82 in the nulliparous trial and 44 in the multiparous trial. Seven patients did not have external cephalic version before delivery but were included in the analysis of success of external cephalic version. One patient was lost to follow-up. The external cephalic version success rate for nulliparous patients was 24% (10 of 42) in patients who received nitroglycerin compared with 8% (3 of 40) in those who receive placebo (P=.04, one-sided Fisher exact test, odds ratio 3.85, lower bound 1.22). In multiparous patients, the external cephalic version success rate did not differ significantly between groups: 44% (10 of 23) in the nitroglycerin group compared with 43% (9 of 21) in the placebo group (P=.60). Treatment with intravenous nitroglycerin increased the rate of successful external cephalic version in nulliparous, but not in multiparous, women. Treatment with intravenous nitroglycerin appeared to be safe, but our numbers were too small to rule out rare serious adverse effects. I.

  4. Aerobic exercise for Alzheimer's disease: A randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Van Sciver, Angela; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Honea, Robyn A.; Brooks, William M.; Billinger, Sandra A.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in the role of physical exercise as a therapeutic strategy for individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We assessed the effect of 26 weeks (6 months) of a supervised aerobic exercise program on memory, executive function, functional ability and depression in early AD. Methods and findings This study was a 26-week randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of 150 minutes per week of aerobic exercise vs. non-aerobic stretching and toning control intervention in individuals with early AD. A total of 76 well-characterized older adults with probable AD (mean age 72.9 [7.7]) were enrolled and 68 participants completed the study. Exercise was conducted with supervision and monitoring by trained exercise specialists. Neuropsychological tests and surveys were conducted at baseline,13, and 26 weeks to assess memory and executive function composite scores, functional ability (Disability Assessment for Dementia), and depressive symptoms (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia). Cardiorespiratory fitness testing and brain MRI was performed at baseline and 26 weeks. Aerobic exercise was associated with a modest gain in functional ability (Disability Assessment for Dementia) compared to individuals in the ST group (X2 = 8.2, p = 0.02). There was no clear effect of intervention on other primary outcome measures of Memory, Executive Function, or depressive symptoms. However, secondary analyses revealed that change in cardiorespiratory fitness was positively correlated with change in memory performance and bilateral hippocampal volume. Conclusions Aerobic exercise in early AD is associated with benefits in functional ability. Exercise-related gains in cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with improved memory performance and reduced hippocampal atrophy, suggesting cardiorespiratory fitness gains may be important in driving brain benefits. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01128361 PMID:28187125

  5. Randomized trial of TAS-102 for refractory metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Robert J; Van Cutsem, Eric; Falcone, Alfredo; Yoshino, Takayuki; Garcia-Carbonero, Rocio; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Tabernero, Josep; Komatsu, Yoshito; Sobrero, Alberto; Boucher, Eveline; Peeters, Marc; Tran, Ben; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Zaniboni, Alberto; Hochster, Howard; Cleary, James M; Prenen, Hans; Benedetti, Fabio; Mizuguchi, Hirokazu; Makris, Lukas; Ito, Masanobu; Ohtsu, Atsushi

    2015-05-14

    Early clinical trials conducted primarily in Japan have shown that TAS-102, an oral agent that combines trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride, was effective in the treatment of refractory colorectal cancer. We conducted a phase 3 trial to further assess the efficacy and safety of TAS-102 in a global population of such patients. In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned 800 patients, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive TAS-102 or placebo. The primary end point was overall survival. The median overall survival improved from 5.3 months with placebo to 7.1 months with TAS-102, and the hazard ratio for death in the TAS-102 group versus the placebo group was 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.81; P<0.001). The most frequently observed clinically significant adverse events associated with TAS-102 were neutropenia, which occurred in 38% of those treated, and leukopenia, which occurred in 21%; 4% of the patients who received TAS-102 had febrile neutropenia, and one death related to TAS-102 was reported. The median time to worsening performance status (a change in Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status [on a scale of 0 to 5, with 0 indicating no symptoms and higher numbers indicating increasing degrees of disability] from 0 or 1 to 2 or more) was 5.7 months with TAS-102 versus 4.0 months with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78; P<0.001). In patients with refractory colorectal cancer, TAS-102, as compared with placebo, was associated with a significant improvement in overall survival. (Funded by Taiho Oncology-Taiho Pharmaceutical; RECOURSE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01607957.).

  6. Review of the randomized clinical stroke rehabilitation trials in 2009.

    PubMed

    Rabadi, Meheroz H

    2011-02-01

    Recent review of the available evidence on interventions for motor recovery after stroke, showed that improvements in recovery of arm function were seen for constraint-induced movement therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, mental practice with motor imagery, and robotics. Similar improvement in transfer ability or balance were seen with repetitive task training, biofeedback, and training with a moving platform. Walking speed was improved by physical fitness training, high-intensity physiotherapy and repetitive task training. However, most of these trials were small and had design limitations. In this article, randomized control trials (RCT's) published in 2009 of rehabilitation therapies for acute (≤ 2 weeks), sub-acute (2 to 12 weeks) and chronic (≥ 12 weeks) stroke was reviewed. A Medline search was performed to identify all RCT's in stroke rehabilitation in the year 2009. The search strategy that was used for PubMed is presented in the Appendix 1. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of these treatment modalities in stroke rehabilitation. This generated 35 RCT's under 5 categories which were found and analyzed. The methodological quality was assessed by using the PEDro scale for external and internal validity. These trials were primarily efficacy studies. Most of these studies enrolled small numbers of patient which precluded their clinical applicability (limited external validity). However, the constraint induced movement therapy (CIT), regularly used in chronic stroke patients did not improve affected arm-hand function when used in acute stroke patients at ≤ 4 weeks. Intensive CIT did not lead to motor improvement in arm-hand function. Robotic arm treatment helped decrease motor impairment and improved function in chronic stroke patients only. Therapist provided exercise programs (when self-administered by patients during their off-therapy time in a rehabilitation setting) did improve arm-hand function. Tai Chi exercises helped improve

  7. Randomized Clinical Trials of Constitutional Acupuncture: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Choi, Sun-Mi; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to compile and critically evaluate the evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for the effectiveness of acupuncture using constitutional medicine compared to standard acupuncture. Ten databases were searched through to December 2008 without language restrictions. We also hand-searched nine Korean journals of oriental medicine. We included prospective RCTs of any form of acupuncture with or without electrical stimulation. The included trials had to investigate constitutional medicine. There were no restrictions on population characteristics. Forty-one relevant studies were identified, and three RCTs were included. The methodological quality of the trials was variable. One RCT found Sasang constitutional acupuncture to be superior to standard acupuncture in terms of the Unified PD Rating Scale and freezing gate in Parkinson's disease (PD). Another two RCTs reported favorable effects of eight constitutional acupuncture on pain reduction in patients with herniated nucleus pulposi and knee osteoarthritis. Meta-analysis demonstrated positive results for eight constitutional acupuncture compared to standard acupuncture on pain reduction (weighted mean difference: 10 cm VAS, 1.69, 95% CI 0.85–2.54, P < 0.0001; heterogeneity: τ2 = 0.00, χ2 = 0.00, P = 0.96, I2 = 0%). Our results provide suggestive evidence for the effectiveness of constitutional acupuncture in treating pain conditions compared to standard acupuncture. However, the total number of RCTs and the total sample size included in our analysis were too small to draw definite conclusions. Future RCTs should assess larger patient samples with longer treatment periods and appropriate controls. PMID:19745012

  8. Hierarchy of evidence: differences in results between non-randomized studies and randomized trials in patients with femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Mohit; Tornetta, Paul; Ellis, Thomas; Audige, Laurent; Sprague, Sheila; Kuo, Jonathann C; Swiontkowski, Marc F

    2004-01-01

    There have been a number of non-randomized studies comparing arthroplasty with internal fixation in patients with femoral neck fractures. However, there remains considerable debate about whether the results of non-randomized studies are consistent with the results of randomized, controlled trials. Given the economic burden of hip fractures, it remains essential to identify therapies to improve outcomes; however, whether data from non-randomized studies of an intervention should be used to guide patient care remains unclear. We aimed to determine whether the pooled results of mortality and revision surgery among non-randomized studies were similar to those of randomized trials in studies comparing arthroplasty with internal fixation in patients with femoral neck fractures. We conducted a Medline search from 1969 to June 2002, identifying both randomized and non-randomized studies comparing internal fixation with arthroplasty in patients with femoral neck fractures. Additional strategies to identify relevant articles included Cochrane database, SCISEARCH, textbooks, annual meeting programs, and content experts. We abstracted information on mortality and revision rates in each study and compared the pooled results between non-randomized and randomized studies. In addition, we explored potential reasons for dissimilar results between the two study designs. We identified 140 citations that addressed the general topic of comparison of arthroplasty and internal fixation for hip fracture. Of these, 27 studies met the eligibility criteria, 13 of which were non-randomized studies and 14 of which were randomized trials. Mortality data was available in all 13 non-randomized studies ( n=3108 patients) and in 12 randomized studies ( n=1767 patients). Non-randomized studies overestimated the risk of mortality by 40% when compared with the results of randomized trials (relative risk 1.44 vs 1.04, respectively). Information on revision risk was available in 9 non-randomized studies

  9. The Danish Cardiovascular Screening Trial (DANCAVAS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Søgaard, Rikke; Lambrechtsen, Jess; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Frost, Lars; Egstrup, Kenneth; Urbonaviciene, Grazina; Busk, Martin; Olsen, Michael Hecht; Mickley, Hans; Hallas, Jesper; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2015-12-05

    The significant increase in the average life expectancy has increased the societal challenge of managing serious age-related diseases, especially cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A routine check by a general practitioner is not sufficient to detect incipient cardiovascular disease. Population-based randomized clinically controlled screening trial. 45,000 Danish men aged 65-74 years living on the Island of Funen, or in the surrounding communities of Vejle and Silkeborg. No exclusion criteria are used. One-third will be invited to cardiovascular seven-faceted screening examinations at one of four locations. The screening will include: (1) low-dose non-contrast CT scan to detect coronary artery calcification and aortic/iliac aneurysms, (2) brachial and ankle blood pressure index to detect peripheral arterial disease and hypertension, (3) a telemetric assessment of the heart rhythm, and (4) a measurement of the cholesterol and plasma glucose levels. Up-to-date cardiovascular preventive treatment is recommended in case of positive findings. To investigate whether advanced cardiovascular screening will prevent death and cardiovascular events, and whether the possible health benefits are cost effective. Registry-based follow-up on all cause death (primary outcome), and costs after 3, 5 and 10 years (secondary outcome). Each of the 45,000 individuals is, by EPIDATA, given a random number from 1-100. Those numbered 67+ will be offered screening; the others will act as a control group. Only those randomized to the screening will be invited to the examination;the remaining participants will not. Numbers randomized: A total of 45,000 men will be randomized 1:2. Recruitment: Enrollment started October 2014. A 5% reduction in overall mortality (HR=0.95), with the risk for a type 1 error=5% and the risk for a type II error=80%, is expected. We expect a 2-year enrollment, a 10-year follow-up, and a median survival of 15 years among the controls. The attendance to screening is

  10. Electroacupuncture treatment for pancreatic cancer pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Liu, Tang-Yi; Kuai, Le; Zhu, Ji; Wu, Cai-Jun; Liu, Lu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is often accompanied by severe abdominal or back pain. It's the first study to evaluate the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture on pancreatic cancer pain. A randomized controlled trial compared electroacupuncture with control acupuncture using the placebo needle. Sixty patients with pancreatic cancer pain were randomly assigned to the electroacupuncture group (n = 30) and the placebo control group (n = 30). Patients were treated on Jiaji (Ex-B2) points T8-T12 bilaterally for 30 min once a day for 3 days. Pain intensity was assessed with numerical rated scales (NRS) before the treatment (Baseline), after 3 treatments, and 2 days follow-up. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. After 3 treatment, pain intensity on NRS decreased compared with Baseline (-1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.46 to -1.87) in the electroacupuncture group; there was little change (-0.13, 95% CI 0.08 to -0.35) in control group; the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Follow-up also found a significant reduction in pain intensity in the electroacupuncture group compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Electroacupuncture was an effective treatment for relieving pancreatic cancer pain. Copyright © 2013 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prospective randomized clinical trial: single and weekly viscosupplementation

    PubMed Central

    Zóboli, Alejandro Agustin Carri; de Rezende, Márcia Uchôa; de Campos, Gustavo Constantino; Pasqualin, Thiago; Frucchi, Renato; de Camargo, Olavo Pires

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two different dosages of an intermediate molecular weight sodium hyaluronate (HA) (Osteonil®-TRB Pharma) assessing whether a single 6 ml application of this HA has the same effectiveness as the classical three-weekly 2 ml dose. METHODS: 108 patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups of 54 patients each. The groups were designated "single" (S) and "weekly" (W). Patients in group S underwent a viscosupplementation procedure by application of only 6 ml of sodium hyaluronate and 1 ml triamcinolone hexacetonide. Patients in group W underwent the procedure of viscosupplementation through three applications with 2 ml sodium hyaluronate with a week interval between them, and the first application was also performed with the infiltration of 1 ml (20 mg) of Triamcinolone Hexacetonide. Both groups were assessed before, at one month and three months after application, by responding to the WOMAC, Lequesne, IKDC and VAS questionnaires. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the single application of 6 ml of sodium hyaluronate and classic application with three weekly injections. However, only the classical regime showed statistically significant improvement in baseline pain (WOMAC pain and VAS). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that both application schemes improve application function, but the three-weekly regimen of 2 ml was more effective in reducing pain. Level of Evidence I, Prospective Randomized, Clinical Trial. PMID:24453681

  12. Online psychoeducational support for infertile women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cousineau, Tara M; Green, Traci C; Corsini, Evelyn; Seibring, A; Showstack, Marianne T; Applegarth, Linda; Davidson, Marie; Perloe, Mark

    2008-03-01

    The study goal was to develop and test the effectiveness of a brief online education and support program for female infertility patients. A randomized-controlled trial was conducted. Using a Solomon-four group design, 190 female patients were recruited from three US fertility centers and were randomized into two experimental and two no-treatment control groups. The psychological outcomes assessed included infertility distress, infertility self-efficacy, decisional conflict, marital cohesion and coping style. Program dosage and satisfaction were also assessed at four weeks follow-up. Women exposed to the online program significantly improved in the area of social concerns (P = 0.038) related to infertility distress, and felt more informed about a medical decision with which they were contending (P = 0.037). Trends were observed for decreased global stress(P = 0.10), sexual concerns (P = 0.059), distress related to child-free living (P = 0.063), increased infertility self-efficacy (P = 0.067) and decision making clarity (P = 0.079). A dosage response was observed in the experimental groups for women who spent >60 min online for decreased global stress (P = 0.028) and increased self efficacy (P = 0.024). This evidence-based eHealth program for women experiencing infertility suggests that a web-based patient education intervention can have beneficial effects in several psychological domains and may be a cost effective resource for fertility practices.

  13. Dry cupping for plantar fasciitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ge, Weiqing; Leson, Chelsea; Vukovic, Corey

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dry cupping on pain and function of patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine subjects (age 15 to 59 years old, 20 females and 9 males), randomly assigned into the two groups (dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy groups), participated in this study. The research design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatments were provided to the subjects twice a week for 4 weeks. Outcome measurements included the Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS) (at rest, first in the morning, and with activities), the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), as well as the pressure pain threshold. [Results]The data indicated that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function significantly in the population tested, as all the 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) did not include 0 except for the pressure pain threshold. There was no significant difference between the dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation groups in all the outcome measurements. [Conclusion] These results support that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function in the population tested.

  14. Dry cupping for plantar fasciitis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Weiqing; Leson, Chelsea; Vukovic, Corey

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dry cupping on pain and function of patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine subjects (age 15 to 59 years old, 20 females and 9 males), randomly assigned into the two groups (dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy groups), participated in this study. The research design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatments were provided to the subjects twice a week for 4 weeks. Outcome measurements included the Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS) (at rest, first in the morning, and with activities), the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), as well as the pressure pain threshold. [Results]The data indicated that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function significantly in the population tested, as all the 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) did not include 0 except for the pressure pain threshold. There was no significant difference between the dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation groups in all the outcome measurements. [Conclusion] These results support that both dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy could reduce pain and increase function in the population tested. PMID:28603360

  15. Evaluating hospital discharge planning: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Evans, R L; Hendricks, R D

    1993-04-01

    To select patients for early discharge planning, a randomized clinical trial evaluated a protocol that used risk factors identified upon hospital admission. The goal of the study was to determine if intervention with high-risk patients could reduce the need for hospital admission or skilled care. Of 13,255 patients screened, 835 study participants were identified as "at risk" for frequent health care resource use. Half of the high-risk patients were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 417) and received discharge planning from day 3 of their hospital stay, while the control group (n = 418) received discharge planning only if there was a written physician request. Those patients receiving early, systematic discharge planning experienced an increased likelihood of successful return to home after hospital admission and a decreased chance of unscheduled readmission for the 9-month study period. Length of the index hospital stay was not affected by early planning, however. The major clinical implication is the potential for discharge planners to decrease the need for, and use of, health care resources after hospital admission.

  16. Motivational interviewing and intimate partner violence: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Saftlas, Audrey F; Harland, Karisa K; Wallis, Anne B; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Dickey, Penny; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-02-01

    To determine if motivational interviewing (MI) improves self-efficacy (primary outcome), depressive symptoms (secondary outcome), and stage-of-readiness-to-change (secondary outcome) among women in abusive relationships. Randomized controlled trial among women who experienced intimate partner violence in a current relationship over the past 12 months. Subjects were recruited from two family planning clinics (December 2007 to May 2010). The intervention included an initial face-to-face session and three telephone sessions administered 1-, 2-, and 4-months postenrollment, each using MI to identify personal goals. Controls were referred to community-based resources. Outcomes were measured by self-administered questionnaires before randomization and 6 months later. Modified intent-to-treat analyses of completed participants were conducted using multivariate analysis of variance for continuous outcomes and polytomous logistic regression for categorical outcomes. Three hundred six eligible women were enrolled (recruitment rate = 64%); 204 completed the 6-month follow-up (completion rate = 67%). Depressive symptoms decreased to a greater extent in MI than referral women (P = .07). Self-efficacy and stage-of-readiness-to-change increased more in MI than referral women, but these differences were not statistically significant. With a lower than projected sample size, our findings did not achieve statistical significance at the 5% level but suggest a beneficial effect of the MI intervention on reducing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nasal saline for chronic sinonasal symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pynnonen, Melissa A; Mukerji, Shraddha S; Kim, H Myra; Adams, Meredith E; Terrell, Jeffrey E

    2007-11-01

    To determine if isotonic sodium chloride (hereinafter "saline") nasal irrigations performed with large volume and delivered with low positive pressure are more effective than saline sprays at improving quality of life and decreasing medication use. A prospective, randomized controlled trial. Community. A total of 127 adults with chronic nasal and sinus symptoms. Patients were randomly assigned to irrigation performed with large volume and delivered with low positive pressure (n = 64) or spray (n = 63) for 8 weeks. Change in symptom severity measured by mean 20-Item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20) score; change in symptom frequency measured with a global question; and change in medication use. A total of 121 patients were evaluable. The irrigation group achieved lower SNOT-20 scores than the spray group at all 3 time points: 4.4 points lower at 2 weeks (P = .02); 8.2 points lower at 4 weeks (P < .001); and 6.4 points lower at 8 weeks (P = .002). When symptom frequency was analyzed, 40% of subjects in the irrigation group reported symptoms "often or always" at 8 weeks compared with 61% in the spray group (absolute risk reduction, 0.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.38 (P = .01). No significant differences in sinus medication use were seen between groups. Nasal irrigations performed with large volume and delivered with low positive pressure are more effective than saline sprays for treatment of chronic nasal and sinus symptoms in a community-based population.

  18. Mindfulness vs psychoeducation in adult ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hoxhaj, E; Sadohara, C; Borel, P; D'Amelio, R; Sobanski, E; Müller, H; Feige, B; Matthies, S; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2018-06-01

    Mindfulness training is a promising treatment approach in adult ADHD. However, there has not yet been a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness to an active control condition. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a mindfulness training program (MAP) compared to structured psychoeducation (PE). After randomization 81 medication-free adult ADHD patients participated either in an 8-week MAP or PE group program. At baseline (T1), after 8 weeks (T2) and after 8 months (T3), severity of ADHD and associated symptoms (depression, general psychopathology, quality of life) were measured with the Conner's ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the SF-36 by self and blind observer ratings. Both groups showed significant pre-post improvements in observer-rated Inattention scale (p < .001, partial η 2  = 0.18) and in associated symptomatology, which persisted through 6 months of follow-up. There were no significant differences regarding symptom reduction between the treatment groups. Women benefited more compared to men irrespective of treatment group. Men showed the most pronounced changes under MAP. In the current study, MAP was not superior to PE regarding symptom reduction in adult ADHD. Both interventions, mindfulness meditation and PE, were efficacious in reducing symptom load in adult ADHD. Furthermore in exploratory post hoc tests the study provides evidence for a potential gender-specific treatment response in adult ADHD.

  19. A randomized prospective multicenter trial of a novel vascular sealant.

    PubMed

    Stone, William M; Cull, David L; Money, Samuel R

    2012-11-01

    Increasing use of anticoagulant medications, particularly antiplatelet therapies, can increase the difficulty in obtaining adequate suture line hemostasis. Multiple vascular sealants have been used as adjuncts to surgical procedures, but none of them have been universally successful. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a new prophylactic vascular sealant in arterial surgery. A randomized prospective multi-institutional trial was undertaken comparing ArterX Vascular Sealant (AVS) with Gelfoam Plus during open arterial reconstruction. Three hundred thirty-one anastomotic sites in 217 patients were randomized. One hundred one of 167 (60.5%) anastomotic sites in the AVS group achieved immediate hemostasis compared with 65 of 164 (39.6%) in the control group (P = 0.001). In anastomoses with polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, 105 of 167 (62.5%) in the AVS group achieved immediate hemostasis compared with 56 of 164 (34.0%) in the control group (P < 0.001). No significant differences were noted in morbidity or mortality. Operative time was significantly less in the AVS group compared with the control group (3.2 vs. 3.8 hours, P < 0.01). Use of AVS results in superior hemostatic effectiveness compared with Gelfoam Plus, with no difference in safety. Although no cost analysis was performed, cost savings likely resulted from significantly decreased operative time. Copyright © 2012 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Do implant overdentures improve dietary intake? A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, N M; Gray-Donald, K; Awad, M A; Johnson-Down, L; Wollin, S; Feine, J S

    2013-12-01

    People wearing mandibular two-implant overdentures (IOD) chew food with less difficulty than those wearing conventional complete dentures (CD). However, there is still controversy over whether or not this results in better dietary intake. In this randomized clinical trials (RCT), the amounts of total dietary fiber (TDF), macronutrients, 9 micronutrients, and energy in diets consumed by persons with IOD and CD were compared. Male and female edentate patients ≥ 65 yrs (n = 255) were randomly divided into 2 groups and assigned to receive a maxillary CD and either a mandibular IOD or a CD. One year following prosthesis delivery, 217 participants (CD = 114, IOD = 103) reported the food and quantities they consumed to a registered dietician through a standard 24-hour dietary recall method. The mean and median values of TDF, macro- and micronutrients, and energy consumed by both groups were calculated and compared analytically. No significant between-group differences were found (ps > .05). Despite quality-of-life benefits from IODs, this adequately powered study reveals no evidence of nutritional advantages for independently living medically healthy edentate elders wearing two-implant mandibular overdentures over those wearing conventional complete dentures in their dietary intake at one year following prosthesis delivery.

  1. The Effectiveness of Propolis on Gingivitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Paulino, Niraldo; Nör, Jacques E.; Moreira, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a propolis rinse on induced gingivitis by using the co-twin study design. Methods: Twenty-one twin pairs (n=42) were enrolled in a gingivitis study with oral hygiene promotion (14 days) and gingivitis induction (21 days). During the gingivitis induction phase, one member of the twin pair was randomly assigned to a 2% typified propolis rinse, and the other was assigned a color-matched 0.05% sodium fluoride plus 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride rinse (positive control). Patients rinsed twice daily with 20 mL for 30 seconds for 21 days. Gingivitis was measured on days −14 (baseline), 0 (after hygiene phase), and 21 (after no-hygiene phase) by using the Papillary Bleeding Score (PBS) and by standard digital imaging of the gum tissues (G-parameter). Results: The 38 persons who completed the study (age 13–22 years) were well balanced according to PBS at baseline and G-parameter after the initial hygiene phase. After 21 days without oral hygiene, the propolis rinse and positive control rinse groups did not differ significantly for average PBS measurements or G-parameter. Conclusions: Use of a 2% typified propolis rinse was equivalent to a positive control rinse during a 21-day no-hygiene period. PMID:25380344

  2. The effectiveness of propolis on gingivitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bretz, Walter A; Paulino, Niraldo; Nör, Jacques E; Moreira, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a propolis rinse on induced gingivitis by using the co-twin study design. Twenty-one twin pairs (n=42) were enrolled in a gingivitis study with oral hygiene promotion (14 days) and gingivitis induction (21 days). During the gingivitis induction phase, one member of the twin pair was randomly assigned to a 2% typified propolis rinse, and the other was assigned a color-matched 0.05% sodium fluoride plus 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride rinse (positive control). Patients rinsed twice daily with 20 mL for 30 seconds for 21 days. Gingivitis was measured on days -14 (baseline), 0 (after hygiene phase), and 21 (after no-hygiene phase) by using the Papillary Bleeding Score (PBS) and by standard digital imaging of the gum tissues (G-parameter). The 38 persons who completed the study (age 13-22 years) were well balanced according to PBS at baseline and G-parameter after the initial hygiene phase. After 21 days without oral hygiene, the propolis rinse and positive control rinse groups did not differ significantly for average PBS measurements or G-parameter. Use of a 2% typified propolis rinse was equivalent to a positive control rinse during a 21-day no-hygiene period.

  3. Effects of auriculotherapy on labour pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mafetoni, Reginaldo Roque; Shimo, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the effects of auriculotherapy in pain control and its outcomes on the duration of labour. This is a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial with preliminary data. Thirty pregnant women with gestational age ≥ 37 weeks, cervical dilatation ≥ 4 cm and two or more contractions in 10 minutes were selected and randomly divided into three groups: auriculotherapy, placebo and control. Auriculotherapy was applied using crystal beads on four strategic points. No statistical significance was found between the groups with regard to pain; however, the women from the auriculotherapy group had lower intensity and less perception of pain at 30, 60 and 120 minutes of treatment. The average duration of labour was shorter in the auriculotherapy group (248.7 versus placebo 414.8 versus control 296.3 minutes); caesarean section rates were higher in the placebo group (50%) and the same in the other groups (10%). Mothers who received auriculotherapy presented a tendency for greater pain control and shorter labour duration; however, caesarean section rates in this group were similar to the control group. This trial precedes a larger study in progress. Registration of Brazilian Clinical Trials: RBR-47hhbj. Avaliar os efeitos da auriculoterapia no controle da dor e seus desfechos na duração do trabalho de parto. Trata-se de um ensaio controlado, randomizado e duplo-cego, com dados preliminares. Foram selecionadas 30 parturientes com idade gestacional ≥ 37 semanas, dilatação cervical ≥ 4 cm e duas ou mais contrações em 10 minutos, divididas aleatoriamente em três grupos: auriculoterapia, placebo ou controle. A auriculoterapia foi aplicada com microesferas de cristais em quatro pontos estratégicos. Não houve significância estatística entre os grupos com relação à dor; no entanto, as mulheres do grupo de auriculoterapia, apresentaram menor intensidade e menor percepção da dor aos 30, 60 e 120 minutos do tratamento. A média de duração do trabalho de

  4. Extended treatment for cigarette smoking cessation: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Laude, Jennifer R; Bailey, Steffani R; Crew, Erin; Varady, Ann; Lembke, Anna; McFall, Danielle; Jeon, Anna; Killen, Diana; Killen, Joel D; David, Sean P

    2017-08-01

    To test the potential benefit of extending cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) relative to not extending CBT on long-term abstinence from smoking. Two-group parallel randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized to receive non-extended CBT (n = 111) or extended CBT (n = 112) following a 26-week open-label treatment. Community clinic in the United States. A total of 219 smokers (mean age: 43 years; mean cigarettes/day: 18). All participants received 10 weeks of combined CBT + bupropion sustained release (bupropion SR) + nicotine patch and were continued on CBT and either no medications if abstinent, continued bupropion + nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) if increased craving or depression scores, or varenicline if still smoking at 10 weeks. Half the participants were randomized at 26 weeks to extended CBT (E-CBT) to week 48 and half to non-extended CBT (no additional CBT sessions). The primary outcome was expired CO-confirmed, 7-day point-prevalence (PP) at 52- and 104-week follow-up. Analyses were based on intention-to-treat. PP abstinence rates at the 52-week follow-up were comparable across non-extended CBT (40%) and E-CBT (39%) groups [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.55, 1.78]. A similar pattern was observed across non-extended CBT (39%) and E-CBT (33%) groups at the 104-week follow-up (OR = 0.79; 95% CI= 0.44, 1.40). Prolonging cognitive-behavioral therapy from 26 to 48 weeks does not appear to improve long-term abstinence from smoking. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Nudging guideline-concordant antibiotic prescribing: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Meeker, Daniella; Knight, Tara K; Friedberg, Mark W; Linder, Jeffrey A; Goldstein, Noah J; Fox, Craig R; Rothfeld, Alan; Diaz, Guillermo; Doctor, Jason N

    2014-03-01

    "Nudges" that influence decision making through subtle cognitive mechanisms have been shown to be highly effective in a wide range of applications, but there have been few experiments to improve clinical practice. To investigate the use of a behavioral "nudge" based on the principle of public commitment in encouraging the judicious use of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Randomized clinical trial in 5 outpatient primary care clinics. A total of 954 adults had ARI visits during the study timeframe: 449 patients were treated by clinicians randomized to the posted commitment letter (335 in the baseline period, 114 in the intervention period); 505 patients were treated by clinicians randomized to standard practice control (384 baseline, 121 intervention). The intervention consisted of displaying poster-sized commitment letters in examination rooms for 12 weeks. These letters, featuring clinician photographs and signatures, stated their commitment to avoid inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs. Antibiotic prescribing rates for antibiotic-inappropriate ARI diagnoses in baseline and intervention periods, adjusted for patient age, sex, and insurance status. Baseline rates were 43.5% and 42.8% for control and poster, respectively. During the intervention period, inappropriate prescribing rates increased to 52.7% for controls but decreased to 33.7% in the posted commitment letter condition. Controlling for baseline prescribing rates, we found that the posted commitment letter resulted in a 19.7 absolute percentage reduction in inappropriate antibiotic prescribing rate relative to control (P = .02). There was no evidence of diagnostic coding shift, and rates of appropriate antibiotic prescriptions did not diminish over time. Displaying poster-sized commitment letters in examination rooms decreased inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs. The effect of this simple, low-cost intervention is comparable in magnitude to costlier, more

  6. Exergaming and older adult cognition: a cluster randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Arciero, Paul J; Brickman, Adam M; Nimon, Joseph P; Okuma, Naoko; Westen, Sarah C; Merz, Molly E; Pence, Brandt D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Kramer, Arthur F; Zimmerman, Earl A

    2012-02-01

    Dementia cases may reach 100 million by 2050. Interventions are sought to curb or prevent cognitive decline. Exercise yields cognitive benefits, but few older adults exercise. Virtual reality-enhanced exercise or "exergames" may elicit greater participation. To test the following hypotheses: (1) stationary cycling with virtual reality tours ("cybercycle") will enhance executive function and clinical status more than traditional exercise; (2) exercise effort will explain improvement; and (3) brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF) will increase. Multi-site cluster randomized clinical trial (RCT) of the impact of 3 months of cybercycling versus traditional exercise, on cognitive function in older adults. Data were collected in 2008-2010; analyses were conducted in 2010-2011. 102 older adults from eight retirement communities enrolled; 79 were randomized and 63 completed. A recumbent stationary ergometer was utilized; virtual reality tours and competitors were enabled on the cybercycle. Executive function (Color Trails Difference, Stroop C, Digits Backward); clinical status (mild cognitive impairment; MCI); exercise effort/fitness; and plasma BDNF. Intent-to-treat analyses, controlling for age, education, and cluster randomization, revealed a significant group X time interaction for composite executive function (p=0.002). Cybercycling yielded a medium effect over traditional exercise (d=0.50). Cybercyclists had a 23% relative risk reduction in clinical progression to MCI. Exercise effort and fitness were comparable, suggesting another underlying mechanism. A significant group X time interaction for BDNF (p=0.05) indicated enhanced neuroplasticity among cybercyclists. Cybercycling older adults achieved better cognitive function than traditional exercisers, for the same effort, suggesting that simultaneous cognitive and physical exercise has greater potential for preventing cognitive decline. This study is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01167400. Copyright

  7. Ghana randomized air pollution and health study (GRAPHS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jack, Darby W; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Wylie, Blair J; Chillrud, Steve N; Whyatt, Robin M; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth A; Quinn, Ashlinn K; Yawson, Abena Konadu; Boamah, Ellen Abrafi; Agyei, Oscar; Mujtaba, Mohammed; Kaali, Seyram; Kinney, Patrick; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2015-09-22

    Household air pollution exposure is a major health risk, but validated interventions remain elusive. The Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study (GRAPHS) is a cluster-randomized trial that evaluates the efficacy of clean fuels (liquefied petroleum gas, or LPG) and efficient biomass cookstoves in the Brong-Ahafo region of central Ghana. We recruit pregnant women into LPG, efficient cookstove, and control arms and track birth weight and physician-assessed severe pneumonia incidence in the first year of life. A woman is eligible to participate if she is in the first or second trimester of pregnancy and carrying a live singleton fetus, if she is the primary cook, and if she does not smoke. We hypothesize that babies born to intervention mothers will weigh more and will have fewer cases of physician-assessed severe pneumonia in the first year of life. Additionally, an extensive personal air pollution exposure monitoring effort opens the way for exposure-response analyses, which we will present alongside intention-to-treat analyses. Major funding was provided by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, The Thrasher Research Fund, and the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves. Household air pollution exposure is a major health risk that requires well-tested interventions. GRAPHS will provide important new evidence on the efficacy of both efficient biomass cookstoves and LPG, and will thus help inform health and energy policies in developing countries. The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov on 13 April 2011 with the identifier NCT01335490 .

  8. A pilot randomized controlled trial of EKG for neonatal resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Katheria, Anup; Arnell, Kathy; Brown, Melissa; Hassen, Kasim; Maldonado, Mauricio; Finer, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Background The seventh edition of the American Academy of Pediatrics Neonatal Resuscitation Program recommends the use of a cardiac monitor in infants that need resuscitation. Previous trials have shown that EKG heart rate is available before pulse rate from a pulse oximeter. To date no trial has looked at how the availability of electrocardiogram (EKG) affects clinical interventions in the delivery room. Objective To determine whether the availability of an EKG heart rate value and tracing to the clinical team has an effect on physiologic measures and related interventions during the stabilization of preterm infants. Design/Methods Forty (40) premature infants enrolled in a neuro-monitoring study (The Neu-Prem Trial: NCT02605733) who had an EKG monitor available were randomized to have the heart rate information from the bedside EKG monitor either displayed or not displayed to the clinical team. Heart rate, oxygen saturation, FiO2 and mean airway pressure from a data acquisition system were recorded every 2 seconds. Results were averaged over 30 seconds and the differences analyzed using two-tailed t-test. Interventions analyzed included time to first change in FiO2, first positive pressure ventilation, first increase in airway pressure, and first intubation. Results There were no significant differences in time to clinical interventions between the blinded and unblinded group, despite the unblinded group having access to a visible heart rate at 66 +/- 20 compared to 114 +/- 39 seconds for the blinded group (p < .0001). Pulse rate from oximeter was lower than EKG heart rate during the first 2 minutes of life, but this was not significant. Conclusion(s) EKG provides an earlier, and more accurate heart rate than pulse rate from an oximeter during stabilization of preterm infants, allowing earlier intervention. All interventions were started earlier in the unblinded EKG group but these numbers were not significant in this small trial. Earlier EKG placement before

  9. Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Angela; Buscemi, Joanna; Stolley, Melinda R.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Kim, Yoonsang; Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez-Perez, Sandra L.; Blumstein, Lara B.; Van Horn, Linda; Dyer, Alan R.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The preschool years provide a unique window of opportunity to intervene on obesity-related lifestyle risk factors during the formative years of a child’s life. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a preschool-based obesity prevention effectiveness trial at 1-year follow-up. Design RCT. Settings/participants Primarily African American children (aged 3–5 years, N=618) attending Head Start preschool programs administered by Chicago Public Schools. Methods Eighteen preschools were randomly assigned in 2007–2008 to receive either: (1) a 14-week teacher-delivered intervention focused on healthy lifestyle behaviors; or (2) a 14-week teacher-delivered general health curriculum (control group). Main outcome measures The primary outcome, BMI, was measured at baseline, post-intervention, and 1-year follow-up. Diet and screen time behaviors were also assessed at these time points. Multilevel mixed effects models were used to test for between-group differences. Data were analyzed in 2014. Results Significant between-group differences were observed in diet, but not in BMI z-score or screen time at 1-year follow-up. Diet differences favored the intervention arm over controls in overall diet quality (p=0.02) and in subcomponents of diet quality, as measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005, and in fruit intake (servings/day, excludes juice) (p=0.02). Diet quality worsened more among controls than the intervention group at 1-year follow-up. Conclusions The adaptation of Hip-Hop to Health Jr. produced modest benefits in diet quality, but did not significantly impact weight gain trajectory. Not unlike other effectiveness trials, this real-world version delivered by Head Start teachers produced fewer benefits than the more rigorous efficacy trial. It is important to understand and build upon the lessons learned from these types of trials so that we can design, implement, and disseminate successful evidence-based programs more widely and effectively

  10. Surgical trial in traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (STITCH(Trauma)): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intracranial hemorrhage occurs in over 60% of severe head injuries in one of three types: extradural (EDH); subdural (SDH); and intraparenchymal (TICH). Prompt surgical removal of significant SDH and EDH is established and widely accepted. However, TICH is more common and is found in more than 40% of severe head injuries. It is associated with a worse outcome but the role for surgical removal remains undefined. Surgical practice in the treatment of TICHs differs widely around the world. The aim of early surgery in TICH removal is to prevent secondary brain injury. There have been trials of surgery for spontaneous ICH (including the STICH II trial), but none so far of surgery for TICH. Methods/Design The UK National Institutes of Health Research has funded STITCH(Trauma) to determine whether a policy of early surgery in patients with TICH improves outcome compared to a policy of initial conservative treatment. It will include a health economics component and carry out a subgroup analysis of patients undergoing invasive monitoring. This is an international multicenter pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Patients are eligible if: they are within 48 h of injury; they have evidence of TICH on CT scan with a confluent volume of attenuation significantly raised above that of the background white and grey matter that has a total volume >10 mL; and their treating neurosurgeon is in equipoise. Patients will be ineligible if they have: a significant surface hematoma (EDH or SDH) requiring surgery; a hemorrhage/contusion located in the cerebellum; three or more separate hematomas fulfilling inclusion criteria; or severe pre-existing physical or mental disability or severe co-morbidity which would lead to poor outcome even if the patient made a full recovery from the head injury. Patients will be randomized via an independent service. Patients randomized to surgery receive surgery within 12 h. Both groups will be monitored according to standard neurosurgical

  11. Protocol for the Locomotor Experience Applied Post-stroke (LEAPS) trial: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Pamela W; Sullivan, Katherine J; Behrman, Andrea L; Azen, Stanley P; Wu, Samuel S; Nadeau, Stephen E; Dobkin, Bruce H; Rose, Dorian K; Tilson, Julie K

    2007-01-01

    Background Locomotor training using body weight support and a treadmill as a therapeutic modality for rehabilitation of walking post-stroke is being rapidly adopted into clinical practice. There is an urgent need for a well-designed trial to determine the effectiveness of this intervention. The objective of the Locomotor Experience Applied Post-Stroke (LEAPS) trial is to determine if there is a difference in the proportion of participants who recover walking ability at one year post-stroke when randomized to a specialized locomotor training program (LTP), conducted at 2- or 6-months post-stroke, or those randomized to a home based non-specific, low intensity exercise intervention (HEP) provided 2 months post-stroke. We will determine if the timing of LTP delivery affects gait speed at 1 year and whether initial impairment severity interacts with the timing of LTP. The effect of number of treatment sessions will be determined by changes in gait speed taken pre-treatment and post-12, -24, and -36 sessions. Methods/Design We will recruit 400 adults with moderate or severe walking limitations within 30 days of stroke onset. At two months post stroke, participants are stratified by locomotor impairment severity as determined by overground walking speed and randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) LTP-Early; (b) LTP-Late or (c) Home Exercise Program -Early. The LTP program includes body weight support on a treadmill and overground training. The LTP and HEP interventions are delivered for 36 sessions over 12 weeks. Primary outcome measure include successful walking recovery defined as the achievement of a 0.4 m/s gait speed or greater by persons with initial severe gait impairment or the achievement of a 0.8 m/s gait speed or greater by persons with initial moderate gait impairment. LEAPS is powered to detect a 20% difference in the proportion of participants achieving successful locomotor recovery between the LTP groups and the HEP group, and a 0.1 m/s mean

  12. Head-to-head comparison of procalcitonin and presepsin for the diagnosis of sepsis in critically ill adult patients: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kei; Kondo, Yutaka; Hara, Yoshitaka; Aihara, Morio; Yamakawa, Kazuma

    2017-03-06

    Early diagnosis and immediate therapeutic intervention, including appropriate antibiotic therapy and goal-directed resuscitation, are necessary to reduce mortality in patients with sepsis. However, a single clinical or biological marker indicative of sepsis has not been adopted unanimously. Although procalcitonin and presepsin are promising biomarkers that can effectively differentiate between sepsis/infection and systemic inflammatory response syndrome of non-infectious origin, little is known about which marker is superior. We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of procalcitonin and presepsin for the diagnosis of sepsis/infection in critically ill adult patients. The primary objective is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these 2 biomarkers to a reference standard of sepsis/infection and to compare the diagnostic accuracy with each other. We will search electronic bibliographic databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for retrospective and prospective diagnostic test studies. We will assign 2 reviewers to review all collected titles and associated abstracts, review full articles, and extract study data. We will use the Quality of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-II tool to report study characteristics and to evaluate methodological quality. If pooling is possible, we will use bivariate random effects and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) models to calculate parameter estimates to output summary ROCs, pooled sensitivity and specificity data, and 95% CIs around the summary operating point. We will also assess heterogeneity via clinical and methodological subgroup and sensitivity analyses. This systematic review will provide guidance on the triage of these tests, help to determine whether existing tests should be revised or replaced, and may also identify knowledge gaps in sepsis diagnosis that could direct further research in the field. Research ethics is not required for this

  13. The Apathy in Dementia Methylphenidate Trial 2 (ADMET 2): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Roberta W; Drye, Lea; Mintzer, Jacobo; Lanctôt, Krista; Rosenberg, Paul; Herrmann, Nathan; Padala, Prasad; Brawman-Mintzer, Olga; Burke, William; Craft, Suzanne; Lerner, Alan J; Levey, Allan; Porsteinsson, Anton; van Dyck, Christopher H

    2018-01-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized not only by cognitive and functional decline, but also often by the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Apathy, which can be defined as a lack of motivation, is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD and typically leads to a worse quality of life and greater burden for caregivers. Treatment options for apathy in AD are limited, but studies have examined the use of the amphetamine, methylphenidate. The Apathy in Dementia Methylphenidate Trial (ADMET) found that treatment of apathy in AD with methylphenidate was associated with significant improvement in apathy in two of three outcome measures, some evidence of improvement in global cognition, and minimal adverse events. However, the trial only enrolled 60 participants who were followed for only 6 weeks. A larger, longer-lasting trial is required to confirm these promising findings. The Apathy in Dementia Methylphenidate Trial 2 (ADMET 2) is a phase III, placebo-controlled, masked, 6-month, multi-center, randomized clinical trial targeted to enroll 200 participants with AD and apathy. Participants are randomly assigned 1:1 to 20 mg methylphenidate per day prepared as four over-encapsulated tablets or to matching placebo. The primary outcomes include (1) the mean difference in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Apathy subscale scores measured as change from baseline to 6 months, and (2) the odds of having a given rating or better on the modified AD Cooperative Study Clinical Global Impression of Change ratings at month 6 compared with the baseline rating. Other outcomes include change in cognition, safety, and cost-effectiveness measured at monthly follow-up visits up to 6 months. Given the prevalence of apathy in AD and its impact on both patients and caregivers, an intervention to alleviate apathy would be of great benefit to society. ADMET 2 follows on the promising results from the original ADMET to evaluate the efficacy of methylphenidate as a

  14. 19. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Neurosteroid Intervention in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Chris; Naylor, Jennifer; Kilts, Jason; Allan, Trina; Smith, Karen; Szabo, Steven; Wagner, Ryan; Buchanan, Robert; Keefe, Richard; Shampine, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Neurosteroids are endogenous molecules synthesized de novo in brain, adrenals, and other tissues. They demonstrate pleiotropic actions that are highly relevant to the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Clozapine markedly elevates neurosteroids in rodent hippocampus, potentially contributing to its superior therapeutic efficacy. Clinical evidence from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in Singapore suggests that pregnenolone significantly enhances functional capacity (as demonstrated by improvements in the UPSA Total Score and UPSA Communication Subscale Score) and that neurosteroid changes posttreatment predict therapeutic response (Marx et al 2014; Psychopharmacology). We thus conducted an RCT investigating adjunctive pregnenolone in schizophrenia. Methods: After a 2-week placebo lead-in, 88 participants with schizophrenia were randomized to pregnenolone (n = 42) or placebo (n = 46) for 8 weeks. Neurosteroids were quantified at baseline and posttreatment by mass spectrometry. Functional end points included the UPSA Total Score and UPSA Communication Subscale. Cognitive end points included the MCCB Composite Score and MCCB Subscales. Modified intent-to-treat analyses were conducted. Results: Participants randomized to the pregnenolone group did not outperform placebo on the UPSA Total Score or MCCB Composite Score. However, the pregnenolone group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in the UPSA Communication Subscale compared to participants randomized to placebo (P = .034), replicating prior RCT findings from Singapore. Elevations in pregnenolone post-treatment also predicted improvements in UPSA Total Score (r = .373; P = .039), again replicating prior efforts. In addition, the pregnenolone group demonstrated significantly greater improvement in the MCCB Verbal Learning Subscale compared to placebo (P = .023). Pregnenolone did not outperform placebo in the BACS Composite Score, SANS Total Score, or PANSS Total

  15. Key Items to Get Right When Conducting a Randomized Controlled Trial in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This is a checklist of key items to get right when conducting a randomized controlled trial to evaluate an educational program or practice ("intervention"). It is intended as a practical resource for researchers and sponsors of research, describing items that are often critical to the success of a randomized controlled trial. A significant…

  16. Improving Language Comprehension in Preschool Children with Language Difficulties: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Åste M.; Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lervåg, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children with language comprehension difficulties are at risk of educational and social problems, which in turn impede employment prospects in adulthood. However, few randomized trials have examined how such problems can be ameliorated during the preschool years. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized trial in 148 preschool…

  17. A Randomized Trial of Telephone Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy for Depression: Continuation and Durability of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludman, Evette J.; Simon, Gregory E.; Tutty, Steve; Von Korff, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Randomized trial evidence and expert guidelines are mixed regarding the value of combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy as initial treatment for depression. This study describes long-term results of a randomized trial (N = 393) evaluating telephone-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus care management for primary care patients…

  18. Breast Cancer Screening by Physical Examination: Randomized Trial in the Phillipines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    J -4327 TITLE: Breast Cancer Screening by Physical Examination: Randomized Trial in the Phillipines...Examination: Randomized Trial in the 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Phillipines 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-94- J -4327 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Grant DAMD17-94- J -4327 3 Table of

  19. Treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Newnham, John P; Newnham, Ian A; Ball, Colleen M; Wright, Michelle; Pennell, Craig E; Swain, Jonathan; Doherty, Dorota A

    2009-12-01

    To investigate whether treating periodontal disease prevents preterm birth and other major complications of pregnancy. This single-center trial was conducted across six obstetric sites in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. Pregnant women identified by history to be at risk (n=3,737) were examined for periodontal disease. Approximately 1,000 women with periodontal disease were allocated at random to receive periodontal treatment commencing around 20 weeks of gestation (n=542) or 6 weeks after the pregnancy was completed (controls; n=540). The treatment included mechanical removal of oral biofilms together with oral hygiene instruction and motivation at a minimum of three weekly visits, with further visits if required. There were no differences between the control and treatment groups in preterm birth (9.3% compared with 9.7%, odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI 0.7-1.58], P=.81), birth weight (3,450 compared with 3,410 g, P=.12), preeclampsia (4.1% compared with 3.4%, OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.44-1.56, P=.55), or other obstetric endpoints. There were four unexplained stillbirths in the control group and no pregnancy losses in the treated group (P=.12). Measures of fetal and neonatal well-being were similar in the two groups, including abnormalities in fetal heart rate recordings (P=.26), umbilical artery flow studies (P=.96), and umbilical artery blood gas values (P=.37). The periodontal treatment was highly successful in improving health of the gums (P<.01). The evidence provided by the present study does not support the hypothesis that treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy in this population prevents preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, or preeclampsia. Periodontal treatment was not hazardous to the women or their pregnancies. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00133926. I.

  20. Ophthalmic randomized controlled trials reports: the statement of the hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun Fan; Cheng, Andy Chi On; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether the ophthalmic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were designed properly, their hypotheses stated clearly, and their conclusions drawn correctly. A systematic review of 206 ophthalmic RCTs. The objective statement, methods, and results sections and the conclusions of RCTs published in 4 major general clinical ophthalmology journals from 2009 through 2011 were assessed. The clinical objective and specific hypothesis were the main outcome measures. The clinical objective of the trial was presented in 199 (96.6%) studies and the hypothesis was specified explicitly in 56 (27.2%) studies. One hundred ninety (92.2%) studies tested superiority. Among them, 17 (8.3%) studies comparing 2 or more active treatments concluded equal or similar effectiveness between the 2 arms after obtaining insignificant results. There were 5 noninferiority studies and 4 equivalence studies. How the treatments were compared was not mentioned in 1 of the noninferiority studies. Two of the equivalence studies did not specify the equivalence margin and used tests for detecting difference rather than confirming equivalence. The clinical objective commonly was stated, but the prospectively defined hypothesis tended to be understated in ophthalmic RCTs. Superiority was the most common type of comparison. Conclusions made in some of them with negative results were not consistent with the hypothesis, indicating that noninferiority or equivalence may be a more appropriate design. Flaws were common in the noninferiority and equivalence studies. Future ophthalmic researchers should choose the type of comparison carefully, specify the hypothesis clearly, and draw conclusions that are consistent with the hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A randomized trial comparing treatments for varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Brittenden, Julie; Cotton, Seonaidh C; Elders, Andrew; Ramsay, Craig R; Norrie, John; Burr, Jennifer; Campbell, Bruce; Bachoo, Paul; Chetter, Ian; Gough, Michael; Earnshaw, Jonothan; Lees, Tim; Scott, Julian; Baker, Sara A; Francis, Jill; Tassie, Emma; Scotland, Graham; Wileman, Samantha; Campbell, Marion K

    2014-09-25

    Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy and endovenous laser ablation are widely used alternatives to surgery for the treatment of varicose veins, but their comparative effectiveness and safety remain uncertain. In a randomized trial involving 798 participants with primary varicose veins at 11 centers in the United Kingdom, we compared the outcomes of foam, laser, and surgical treatments. Primary outcomes at 6 months were disease-specific quality of life and generic quality of life, as measured on several scales. Secondary outcomes included complications and measures of clinical success. After adjustment for baseline scores and other covariates, the mean disease-specific quality of life was slightly worse after treatment with foam than after surgery (P=0.006) but was similar in the laser and surgery groups. There were no significant differences between the surgery group and the foam or the laser group in measures of generic quality of life. The frequency of procedural complications was similar in the foam group (6%) and the surgery group (7%) but was lower in the laser group (1%) than in the surgery group (P<0.001); the frequency of serious adverse events (approximately 3%) was similar among the groups. Measures of clinical success were similar among the groups, but successful ablation of the main trunks of the saphenous vein was less common in the foam group than in the surgery group (P<0.001). Quality-of-life measures were generally similar among the study groups, with the exception of a slightly worse disease-specific quality of life in the foam group than in the surgery group. All treatments had similar clinical efficacy, but complications were less frequent after laser treatment and ablation rates were lower after foam treatment. (Funded by the Health Technology Assessment Programme of the National Institute for Health Research; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN51995477.).

  2. Aerobic exercise for Alzheimer's disease: A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D; Johnson, David K; Van Sciver, Angela; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Honea, Robyn A; Wilkins, Heather M; Brooks, William M; Billinger, Sandra A; Swerdlow, Russell H; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of physical exercise as a therapeutic strategy for individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We assessed the effect of 26 weeks (6 months) of a supervised aerobic exercise program on memory, executive function, functional ability and depression in early AD. This study was a 26-week randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of 150 minutes per week of aerobic exercise vs. non-aerobic stretching and toning control intervention in individuals with early AD. A total of 76 well-characterized older adults with probable AD (mean age 72.9 [7.7]) were enrolled and 68 participants completed the study. Exercise was conducted with supervision and monitoring by trained exercise specialists. Neuropsychological tests and surveys were conducted at baseline,13, and 26 weeks to assess memory and executive function composite scores, functional ability (Disability Assessment for Dementia), and depressive symptoms (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia). Cardiorespiratory fitness testing and brain MRI was performed at baseline and 26 weeks. Aerobic exercise was associated with a modest gain in functional ability (Disability Assessment for Dementia) compared to individuals in the ST group (X2 = 8.2, p = 0.02). There was no clear effect of intervention on other primary outcome measures of Memory, Executive Function, or depressive symptoms. However, secondary analyses revealed that change in cardiorespiratory fitness was positively correlated with change in memory performance and bilateral hippocampal volume. Aerobic exercise in early AD is associated with benefits in functional ability. Exercise-related gains in cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with improved memory performance and reduced hippocampal atrophy, suggesting cardiorespiratory fitness gains may be important in driving brain benefits. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01128361.

  3. A randomized trial of immunotherapy for persistent genital warts

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, David; Lu, Jieqiang; Pang, James; Palmer, Cheryn; Tu, Quanmei; Chuah, John; Frazer, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine whether immunotherapy with HPV6 L1 virus like particles (VLPs) without adjuvant (VLP immunotherapy) reduces recurrence of genital warts following destructive therapy. Trial design A randomized placebo controlled blinded study of treatment of recurrent genital warts amenable to destructive therapy, conducted independently in Australia and China. Methods Patients received conventional destructive therapy of all evident warts together with intramuscular administration of 1, 5 or 25 µg of VLP immunotherapy, or of placebo immunotherapy (0.9% NaCl), as immunotherapy at week 0 and week 4. Primary outcome, assessed at week 8, was recurrence of visible warts. Results Of 33 protocol compliant Brisbane recipients of placebo immunotherapy, 11 were disease free at two months, and a further 9 demonstrated reduction of > 50% in total wart area. Wart area reduction following destructive treatment correlated with prior duration of disease. Among 102 protocol compliant Brisbane recipients of VLP immunotherapy, disease reduction was significantly greater than among the placebo immunotherapy (50% ± s.e.m. 7%) recipients for subjects receiving 5 µg or 25 µg of VLP immunotherapy/dose (71% ± s.e.m.7%) but not for those receiving 1 µg VLP immunotherapy/dose (42% ± 7%). Of 52 protocol compliant placebo immunotherapy recipients in Wenzhou, 37 were disease free at two months, and a further 8 had > 50% disease reduction. Prior disease duration was much shorter in Wenzhou subject (8.1 ± 1.1 mo) than in Brisbane subjects (53.7 ± 5.5 mo). No significant reduction in mean wart area was observed for the 168 Wenzhou protocol compliant subjects who also received VLP immunotherapy. Conclusions This study confirms the findings in a previous open label trial that administration of VLP immunotherapy may assist in clearance of recurrent genital warts in patients for whom destructive therapy is unsuccessful and that unsuccessful destructive therapy is more common with increasing

  4. Trace element supplementation in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Marcello; Wiebe, Natasha; Thompson, Stephanie; Kinniburgh, David; Klarenbach, Scott W; Walsh, Michael; Bello, Aminu K; Faruque, Labib; Field, Catherine; Manns, Braden J; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2015-04-11

    People with kidney failure are often deficient in zinc and selenium, but little is known about the optimal way to correct such deficiency. We did a double-blind randomized trial evaluating the effects of zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and vitamin E added to the standard oral renal vitamin supplement (B and C vitamins) among hemodialysis patients in Alberta, Canada. We evaluated the effect of two daily doses of the new supplement (medium dose: 50 mg Zn, 75 mcg Se, 250 IU vitamin E; low dose: 25 mg Zn, 50 mcg Se, 250 IU vitamin E) compared to the standard supplement on blood concentrations of Se and Zn at 90 days (primary outcome) and 180 days (secondary outcome) as well as safety outcomes. We enrolled 150 participants. The proportion of participants with low zinc status (blood level <815 ug/L) did not differ between the control group and the two intervention groups at 90 days (control 23.9% vs combined intervention groups 23.9%, P > 0.99) or 180 days (18.6% vs 28.2%, P = 0.24). The proportion with low selenium status (blood level <121 ug/L) was similar for controls and the combined intervention groups at 90 days (32.6 vs 19.6%, P = 0.09) and 180 days (34.9% vs 23.5%, P = 0.17). There were no significant differences in the risk of adverse events between the groups. Supplementation with low or medium doses of zinc and selenium did not correct low zinc or selenium status in hemodialysis patients. Future studies should consider higher doses of zinc (≥75 mg/d) and selenium (≥100 mcg/d) with the standard supplement. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01473914).

  5. Pupil dilation using a pledget sponge: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Austin; Srinivasan, Sathish; Harun, Shabbir; Watts, Mark

    2006-08-01

    To show that a pledget soaked in mydriatics and placed in the lower conjunctival fornix is as effective as drops in providing mydriasis for cataract surgery. A randomized, masked, controlled trial of 56 patients assigned to either a pledget group (n=25) or a control eye drops group (n=31) was carried out. Controls had the routine practice of repeated topical mydriatic drops: tropicamide, phenylepherine and atropine. The trial group had a 3-mm pledget trimmed, soaked in mydriatics and placed in the inferior fornix for 20 min. Pupil diameter was measured using a photographic technique with a standard scale shown in each picture. Two masked observers measured the pupils using the scale of the ruler in the developed photograph. All patients completed a 0-10 stinging score prior to surgery. There were no complications. The mean pupil diameter in the control group was 7.23 (6.91-7.94 95% confidence intervals [CI]) and 7.44 (6.96-7.92 95% CI) in the pledget group. There was no statistically significant difference in pupil diameter between the two groups: difference between means 0.21 (-0.32 to 0.75 95% CI) and Student's t-test of the difference between means (t=0.8 and two-tailed) probability P=0.43. There was no significant difference in the stinging scores: Mann-Whitney test P=0.69. The use of a pledget cellulose sponge to deliver mydriatics prior to cataract surgery is as effective as the conventional method of repeated drop administration and was not associated with any adverse effects.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Compression Rates during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with 120 compressions per minute (CPM) to CPR with 100 CPM in patients with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We randomly assigned patients with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest into two groups upon arrival to the emergency department (ED). The patients received manual CPR either with 100 CPM (CPR-100 group) or 120 CPM (CPR-120 group). The primary outcome measure was sustained restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The secondary outcome measures were survival discharge from the hospital, one-month survival, and one-month survival with good functional status. Of 470 patients with cardiac arrest, 136 patients in the CPR-100 group and 156 patients in the CPR-120 group were included in the final analysis. A total of 69 patients (50.7%) in the CPR-100 group and 67 patients (42.9%) in the CPR-120 group had ROSC (absolute difference, 7.8% points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.7 to 19.2%; P = 0.183). The rates of survival discharge from the hospital, one-month survival, and one-month survival with good functional status were not different between the two groups (16.9% vs. 12.8%, P = 0.325; 12.5% vs. 6.4%, P = 0.073; 5.9% vs. 2.6%, P = 0.154, respectively). We did not find differences in the resuscitation outcomes between those who received CPR with 100 CPM and those with 120 CPM. However, a large trial is warranted, with adequate power to confirm a statistically non-significant trend toward superiority of CPR with 100 CPM. (Clinical Trial Registration Information: www.cris.nih.go.kr, cris.nih.go.kr number, KCT0000231) PMID:27510396

  7. A randomized controlled trial of storytelling as a communication tool.

    PubMed

    Hartling, Lisa; Scott, Shannon D; Johnson, David W; Bishop, Ted; Klassen, Terry P

    2013-01-01

    Stories may be an effective tool to communicate with patients because of their ability to engage the reader. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of story booklets compared to standard information sheets for parents of children attending the emergency department (ED) with a child with croup. Parents were randomized to receive story booklets (n=208) or standard information sheets (n=205) during their ED visit. The primary outcome was change in anxiety between triage to ED discharge as measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted at 1 and 3 days after discharge, then every other day until 9 days (or until resolution of symptoms), and at 1 year. Secondary outcomes included: expected future anxiety, event impact, parental knowledge, satisfaction, decision regret, healthcare utilization, time to symptom resolution. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome of change in parental anxiety between recruitment and ED discharge (change of 5 points for the story group vs. 6 points for the comparison group, p=0.78). The story group showed significantly greater decision regret regarding their decision to go to the ED (p<0.001): 6.7% of the story group vs. 1.5% of the comparison group strongly disagreed with the statement "I would go for the same choice if I had to do it over again". The story group reported shorter time to resolution of symptoms (mean 3.7 days story group vs. 4.0 days comparison group, median 3 days both groups; log rank test, p=0.04). No other outcomes were different between study groups. Stories about parent experiences managing a child with croup did not reduce parental anxiety. The story group showed significantly greater decision regret and quicker time to resolution of symptoms. Further research is needed to better understand whether stories can be effective in improving patient-important outcomes. Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN39642997 (http://www.controlled-trials

  8. Delivering successful randomized controlled trials in surgery: Methods to optimize collaboration and study design.

    PubMed

    Blencowe, Natalie S; Cook, Jonathan A; Pinkney, Thomas; Rogers, Chris; Reeves, Barnaby C; Blazeby, Jane M

    2017-04-01

    Randomized controlled trials in surgery are notoriously difficult to design and conduct due to numerous methodological and cultural challenges. Over the last 5 years, several UK-based surgical trial-related initiatives have been funded to address these issues. These include the development of Surgical Trials Centers and Surgical Specialty Leads (individual surgeons responsible for championing randomized controlled trials in their specialist fields), both funded by the Royal College of Surgeons of England; networks of research-active surgeons in training; and investment in methodological research relating to surgical randomized controlled trials (to address issues such as recruitment, blinding, and the selection and standardization of interventions). This article discusses these initiatives more in detail and provides exemplar cases to illustrate how the methodological challenges have been tackled. The initiatives have surpassed expectations, resulting in a renaissance in surgical research throughout the United Kingdom, such that the number of patients entering surgical randomized controlled trials has doubled.

  9. A randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Berkhemer, Olvert A; Fransen, Puck S S; Beumer, Debbie; van den Berg, Lucie A; Lingsma, Hester F; Yoo, Albert J; Schonewille, Wouter J; Vos, Jan Albert; Nederkoorn, Paul J; Wermer, Marieke J H; van Walderveen, Marianne A A; Staals, Julie; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; van Oostayen, Jacques A; Lycklama à Nijeholt, Geert J; Boiten, Jelis; Brouwer, Patrick A; Emmer, Bart J; de Bruijn, Sebastiaan F; van Dijk, Lukas C; Kappelle, L Jaap; Lo, Rob H; van Dijk, Ewoud J; de Vries, Joost; de Kort, Paul L M; van Rooij, Willem Jan J; van den Berg, Jan S P; van Hasselt, Boudewijn A A M; Aerden, Leo A M; Dallinga, René J; Visser, Marieke C; Bot, Joseph C J; Vroomen, Patrick C; Eshghi, Omid; Schreuder, Tobien H C M L; Heijboer, Roel J J; Keizer, Koos; Tielbeek, Alexander V; den Hertog, Heleen M; Gerrits, Dick G; van den Berg-Vos, Renske M; Karas, Giorgos B; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Flach, H Zwenneke; Marquering, Henk A; Sprengers, Marieke E S; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F M; Beenen, Ludo F M; van den Berg, René; Koudstaal, Peter J; van Zwam, Wim H; Roos, Yvo B W E M; van der Lugt, Aad; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Majoie, Charles B L M; Dippel, Diederik W J

    2015-01-01

    In patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by a proximal intracranial arterial occlusion, intraarterial treatment is highly effective for emergency revascularization. However, proof of a beneficial effect on functional outcome is lacking. We randomly assigned eligible patients to either intraarterial treatment plus usual care or usual care alone. Eligible patients had a proximal arterial occlusion in the anterior cerebral circulation that was confirmed on vessel imaging and that could be treated intraarterially within 6 hours after symptom onset. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin scale score at 90 days; this categorical scale measures functional outcome, with scores ranging from 0 (no symptoms) to 6 (death). The treatment effect was estimated with ordinal logistic regression as a common odds ratio, adjusted for prespecified prognostic factors. The adjusted common odds ratio measured the likelihood that intraarterial treatment would lead to lower modified Rankin scores, as compared with usual care alone (shift analysis). We enrolled 500 patients at 16 medical centers in The Netherlands (233 assigned to intraarterial treatment and 267 to usual care alone). The mean age was 65 years (range, 23 to 96), and 445 patients (89.0%) were treated with intravenous alteplase before randomization. Retrievable stents were used in 190 of the 233 patients (81.5%) assigned to intraarterial treatment. The adjusted common odds ratio was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 2.30). There was an absolute difference of 13.5 percentage points (95% CI, 5.9 to 21.2) in the rate of functional independence (modified Rankin score, 0 to 2) in favor of the intervention (32.6% vs. 19.1%). There were no significant differences in mortality or the occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. In patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by a proximal intracranial occlusion of the anterior circulation, intraarterial treatment administered within 6 hours after stroke onset

  10. A randomized trial of tai chi for fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H; Rones, Ramel; Kalish, Robert; Yinh, Janeth; Goldenberg, Don L; Lee, Yoojin; McAlindon, Timothy

    2010-08-19

    Previous research has suggested that tai chi offers a therapeutic benefit in patients with fibromyalgia. We conducted a single-blind, randomized trial of classic Yang-style tai chi as compared with a control intervention consisting of wellness education and stretching for the treatment of fibromyalgia (defined by American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria). Sessions lasted 60 minutes each and took place twice a week for 12 weeks for each of the study groups. The primary end point was a change in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) score (ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating more severe symptoms) at the end of 12 weeks. Secondary end points included summary scores on the physical and mental components of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). All assessments were repeated at 24 weeks to test the durability of the response. Of the 66 randomly assigned patients, the 33 in the tai chi group had clinically important improvements in the FIQ total score and quality of life. Mean (+/-SD) baseline and 12-week FIQ scores for the tai chi group were 62.9+/-15.5 and 35.1+/-18.8, respectively, versus 68.0+/-11 and 58.6+/-17.6, respectively, for the control group (change from baseline in the tai chi group vs. change from baseline in the control group, -18.4 points; P<0.001). The corresponding SF-36 physical-component scores were 28.5+/-8.4 and 37.0+/-10.5 for the tai chi group versus 28.0+/-7.8 and 29.4+/-7.4 for the control group (between-group difference, 7.1 points; P=0.001), and the mental-component scores were 42.6+/-12.2 and 50.3+/-10.2 for the tai chi group versus 37.8+/-10.5 and 39.4+/-11.9 for the control group (between-group difference, 6.1 points; P=0.03). Improvements were maintained at 24 weeks (between-group difference in the FIQ score, -18.3 points; P<0.001). No adverse events were observed. Tai chi may be a useful treatment for fibromyalgia and merits long-term study in larger study populations. (Funded by

  11. Effects of Exercise on Cognition: The Finnish Alzheimer Disease Exercise Trial: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Öhman, Hannareeta; Savikko, Niina; Strandberg, Timo E; Kautiainen, Hannu; Raivio, Minna M; Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Tilvis, Reijo; Pitkälä, Kaisu H

    2016-04-01

    To examine whether a regular, long-term exercise program performed by individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) at home or as group-based exercise at an adult daycare center has beneficial effects on cognition; to examine secondary outcomes of a trial that has been published earlier. Randomized, controlled trial. Community. Community-dwelling dyads (N = 210) of individuals with AD and their spousal caregivers randomized into three groups. Two types of intervention comprising customized home-based exercise (HE) and group-based exercise (GE), each twice a week for 1 year, were compared with a control group (CG) receiving usual community care. Cognitive function was measured using the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), Verbal Fluency (VF), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. Executive function, measured using CDT, improved in the HE group, and changes in the score were significantly better than those of the CG at 12 months (adjusted for age, sex, and CDR, P = .03). All groups deteriorated in VF and MMSE score during the intervention, and no significant differences between the groups were detected at 12-month follow-up when analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and CDR. Regular, long-term, customized HE improved the executive function of community-dwelling older people with memory disorders, but the effects were mild and were not observed in other domains of cognition. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Rural providers' access to online resources: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Laura J.; McElfresh, Karen R.; Warner, Teddy D.; Stromberg, Tiffany L.; Trost, Jaren; Jelinek, Devin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The research determined the usage and satisfaction levels with one of two point-of-care (PoC) resources among health care providers in a rural state. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, twenty-eight health care providers in rural areas were stratified by occupation and region, then randomized into either the DynaMed or the AccessMedicine study arm. Study participants were physicians, physician assistants, and nurses. A pre- and post-study survey measured participants' attitudes toward different information resources and their information-seeking activities. Medical student investigators provided training and technical support for participants. Data analyses consisted of analysis of variance (ANOVA), paired t tests, and Cohen's d statistic to compare pre- and post-study effects sizes. Results Participants in both the DynaMed and the AccessMedicine arms of the study reported increased satisfaction with their respective PoC resource, as expected. Participants in both arms also reported that they saved time in finding needed information. At baseline, both arms reported too little information available, which increased to “about right amounts of information” at the completion of the study. DynaMed users reported a Cohen's d increase of +1.50 compared to AccessMedicine users' reported use of 0.82. DynaMed users reported d2 satisfaction increases of 9.48 versus AccessMedicine satisfaction increases of 0.59 using a Cohen's d. Conclusion Participants in the DynaMed arm of the study used this clinically oriented PoC more heavily than the users of the textbook-based AccessMedicine. In terms of user satisfaction, DynaMed users reported higher levels of satisfaction than the users of AccessMedicine. PMID:26807050

  13. A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation for chronic insomnia.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jason C; Manber, Rachel; Segal, Zindel; Xia, Yinglin; Shapiro, Shauna; Wyatt, James K

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of mindfulness meditation for the treatment of chronic insomnia. Three-arm, single-site, randomized controlled trial. Academic medical center. Fifty-four adults with chronic insomnia. Participants were randomized to either mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), mindfulness-based therapy for insomnia (MBTI), or an eight-week self-monitoring (SM) condition. Patient-reported outcome measures were total wake time (TWT) from sleep diaries, the pre-sleep arousal scale (PSAS), measuring a prominent waking correlate of insomnia, and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) to determine remission and response as clinical endpoints. Objective sleep measures were derived from laboratory polysomnography and wrist actigraphy. Linear mixed models showed that those receiving a meditation-based intervention (MBSR or MBTI) had significantly greater reductions on TWT minutes (43.75 vs 1.09), PSAS (7.13 vs 0.16), and ISI (4.56 vs 0.06) from baseline-to-post compared to SM. Post hoc analyses revealed that each intervention was superior to SM on each of the patient-reported measures, but no significant differences were found when comparing MBSR to MBTI from baseline-to-post. From baseline to 6-month follow-up, MBTI had greater reductions in ISI scores than MBSR (P < 0.05), with the largest difference occurring at the 3-month follow-up. Remission and response rates in MBTI and MBSR were sustained from post-treatment through follow-up, with MBTI showing the highest rates of treatment remission (50%) and response (78.6%) at the 6-month follow-up. Mindfulness meditation appears to be a viable treatment option for adults with chronic insomnia and could provide an alternative to traditional treatments for insomnia. Mindfulness-Based Approaches to Insomnia: clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00768781. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Effects of professional oral health care on elderly: randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Morino, T; Ookawa, K; Haruta, N; Hagiwara, Y; Seki, M

    2014-11-01

    To better understand the role of the professional oral health care for elderly in improving geriatric oral health, the effects of short-term professional oral health care (once per week for 1 month) on oral microbiological parameters were assessed. Parallel, open-labelled, randomize-controlled trial was undertaken in a nursing home for elderly in Shizuoka, Japan. Thirty-four dentate elderly over 74 years were randomly assigned from ID number to the intervention (17/34) and control (17/34) groups. The outcomes were changes in oral microbiological parameters (number of bacteria in unstimulated saliva; whole bacteria, Streptococcus, Fusobacterium and Prevotella: opportunistic pathogens detection: and index of oral hygiene evaluation [Dental Plaque Index, DPI]) within the intervention period. Each parameter was evaluated at before and after intervention period. Four elderly were lost from mortality (1), bone fracture (1), refused to participate (1) and multi-antibiotics usage (1). Finally, 30 elderly were analysed (14/intervention and 16/control). At baseline, no difference was found between the control and intervention groups. After the intervention period, the percentage of Streptococcus species increased significantly in the intervention group (Intervention, 86% [12/14]; Control, 50% [8/16]: Fisher's, right-tailed, P < 0.05). Moreover, DPI significantly improved in the intervention group (Intervention, 57% [8/14]; Control, 13% [2/16]: Fisher's, two-tailed, P < 0.05). The improvement in DPI extended for 3 months after intervention. None of side effects were reported. The short-term professional oral health care can improve oral conditions in the elderly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Snoezelen Room and Childbirth Outcome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi Manesh, Mansoureh; Kalati, Mahnaz; Hosseini, Fatemeh

    2015-05-01

    One of the strategies for a good outcome and pain free childbearing is to design the delivery room. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of snoezelen room on childbearing outcome such as pain intensity, duration of labor, and perinea status in nulliparous women. This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial consists of 100 childbearing women. They were randomly divided into 2 groups. The experimental group went to snoezelen room when their cervix dilation was 4 cm, while the control group went to physiologic delivery room with the same cervix dilation. The mean ± SD of VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) pain intensity of the experimental and control groups before the intervention were 5.1 ± 1.95 and 5.58 ± 1.62, respectively (P = 0.13). The mean ± SD of VAS pain intensity scores of the experimental and control groups after 3 hours spending in their assigned rooms were 5.26 ± 0.86 and 9.56 ± 1.48, respectively (P = 0.01). The mean ± SD of the first stage scores of the experimental and control groups were 6.95 ± 0.97 and 8.41 ± 0.67, respectively (P = 0.042). About 92% of participants' intervention vs. 66% of control participants had perinea laceration (P = 0.041). According to the findings of the present study, distracting senses in snoezelen room decreases mother's pain intensity, the length of labor, and incidence of episiotomy.

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Mentoring Interventions for Underrepresented Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Vivian; Martina, Camille A.; McDermott, Michael P.; Trief, Paula; Goodman, Steven R.; Morse, Gene D.; LaGuardia, Jennifer G.; Sharp, Daryl; Ryan, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effects of different mentoring interventions on the basic psychological need satisfaction of underrepresented minorities and women in academia. Method Participants were 150 mentor/protégé dyads from three academic medical centers and eight other colleges and universities in western and central New York, randomized from 2010–2013 into: mentor training (using principles of self-determination theory); peer mentoring for protégés; mentor training and peer mentoring for protégés combined; or control/usual practice. Protégé participants were graduate students, fellows and junior faculty who were from underrepresented groups based on race, ethnicity, gender, or disability. The primary analysis was a comparison of intervention effects on changes in protégés’ satisfaction of their basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness) with their mentor. They completed a well-validated, online questionnaire every 2 months for 1 year. Results There was no significant effect at the end of 1 year of either mentor training or peer mentoring on protégés’ psychological basic need satisfaction with mentor specifically or at work in general. Exploratory analyses showed a significant effect of the mentor-based intervention on the protégés’ overall psychological need satisfaction with their mentor at 2 months, the time point closest to completing mentor training. Conclusions This RCT showed a potential short-term effect of mentor training on changing basic psychological need satisfaction of underrepresented scholars with their mentors. Despite the lack of sustained effect of either mentor training or peer mentoring, these short-term changes suggest feasibility and potential for future study. PMID:26717501

  17. Snoezelen Room and Childbirth Outcome: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi Manesh, Mansoureh; Kalati, Mahnaz; Hosseini, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the strategies for a good outcome and pain free childbearing is to design the delivery room. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of snoezelen room on childbearing outcome such as pain intensity, duration of labor, and perinea status in nulliparous women. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial consists of 100 childbearing women. They were randomly divided into 2 groups. The experimental group went to snoezelen room when their cervix dilation was 4 cm, while the control group went to physiologic delivery room with the same cervix dilation. Results: The mean ± SD of VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) pain intensity of the experimental and control groups before the intervention were 5.1 ± 1.95 and 5.58 ± 1.62, respectively (P = 0.13). The mean ± SD of VAS pain intensity scores of the experimental and control groups after 3 hours spending in their assigned rooms were 5.26 ± 0.86 and 9.56 ± 1.48, respectively (P = 0.01). The mean ± SD of the first stage scores of the experimental and control groups were 6.95 ± 0.97 and 8.41 ± 0.67, respectively (P = 0.042). About 92% of participants’ intervention vs. 66% of control participants had perinea laceration (P = 0.041). Conclusions: According to the findings of the present study, distracting senses in snoezelen room decreases mother’s pain intensity, the length of labor, and incidence of episiotomy. PMID:26082849

  18. Endurance exercise training in orthostatic intolerance: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Winker, Robert; Barth, Alfred; Bidmon, Daniela; Ponocny, Ivo; Weber, Michael; Mayr, Otmar; Robertson, David; Diedrich, André; Maier, Richard; Pilger, Alex; Haber, Paul; Rüdiger, Hugo W

    2005-03-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms of light-headedness, fatigue, nausea, orthostatic tachycardia, and aggravated norepinephrine levels while standing. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of exercise endurance training on orthostatic symptoms and to examine its usefulness in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. 2768 military recruits were screened for orthostatic intolerance by questionnaire. Tilt-table testing identified 36 cases of orthostatic intolerance out of the 2768 soldiers. Subsequently, 31 of these subjects with orthostatic intolerance entered a randomized, controlled trial. The patients were allocated randomly to either a "training" (3 months jogging) or a "control" group. The influence of exercise training on orthostatic intolerance was assessed by determination of questionnaire scores and tilt-table testing before and after intervention. After training, only 6 individuals of 16 still had orthostatic intolerance compared with 10 of 11 in the control group. The Fisher exact test showed a highly significant difference in diagnosis between the 2 groups (P=0.008) at the end of the study. Analysis of the questionnaire-score showed significant interaction between time and group (P=0.001). The trained subjects showed an improvement in the average symptom score from 1.79+/-0.4 to 1.04+/-0.4, whereas the control subjects showed no significant change in average symptom score (2.09+/-0.6 and 2.14+/-0.5, respectively). Our data demonstrate that endurance exercise training leads to an improvement of symptoms in the majority of patients with orthostatic intolerance. Therefore, we suggest that endurance training should be considered in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance patients.

  19. Endoscopic versus traditional saphenous vein harvesting: a prospective, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Allen, K B; Griffith, G L; Heimansohn, D A; Robison, R J; Matheny, R G; Schier, J J; Fitzgerald, E B; Shaar, C J

    1998-07-01

    Saphenous vein harvested with a traditional longitudinal technique often results in leg wound complications. An alternative endoscopic harvest technique may decrease these complications. One hundred twelve patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were prospectively randomized to have vein harvested using either an endoscopic (group A, n = 54) or traditional technique (group B, n = 58). Groups A and B, respectively, were similar with regard to length of vein harvested (41 +/- 8 cm versus 40 +/- 14 cm), bypasses done (4.1 +/- 1.1 versus 4.2 +/- 1.4), age, preoperative risk stratification, and risks for wound complication (diabetes, sex, obesity, preoperative anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and peripheral vascular disease). Leg wound complications were significantly (p < or = 0.02) reduced in group A (4% [2 of 51] versus 19% [11 of 58]). Univariate analysis identified traditional incision (p < or = 0.02) and diabetes (p < or = 0.05) as wound complication risk factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified only the traditional harvest technique as a risk factor for leg wound complications with no significant interaction between harvest technique and any preoperative risk factor (p < or = 0.03). Harvest rate (0.9 +/- 0.4 cm/min versus 1.2 +/- 0.5 cm/min) was slower for group A (p < or = 0.02) and conversion from endoscopic to a traditional harvest occurred in 5.6% (3 of 54) of patients. In a prospective, randomized trial, saphenous vein harvested endoscopically was associated with fewer wound complications than the traditional longitudinal method.

  20. Cognitive rehabilitation in patients with gliomas: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Karin; Sitskoorn, Margriet M; Gundy, Chad M; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Klein, Martin; Postma, Tjeerd J; van den Bent, Martin J; Beute, Guus N; Enting, Roelien H; Kappelle, Arnoud C; Boogerd, Willem; Veninga, Theo; Twijnstra, Albert; Boerman, Dolf H; Taphoorn, Martin J B; Aaronson, Neil K

    2009-08-01

    Patients with gliomas often experience cognitive deficits, including problems with attention and memory. This randomized, controlled trial evaluated the effects of a multifaceted cognitive rehabilitation program (CRP) on cognitive functioning and selected quality-of-life domains in patients with gliomas. One hundred forty adult patients with low-grade and anaplastic gliomas, favorable prognostic factors, and both subjective cognitive symptoms and objective cognitive deficits were recruited from 11 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group or to a waiting-list control group. The intervention incorporated both computer-based attention retraining and compensatory skills training of attention, memory, and executive functioning. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological (NP) tests and self-report questionnaires on cognitive functioning, fatigue, mental health-related quality of life, and community integration at baseline, after completion of the CRP, and at 6-month follow-up. At the immediate post-treatment evaluation, statistically significant intervention effects were observed for measures of subjective cognitive functioning and its perceived burden but not for the objective NP outcomes or for any of the other self-report measures. At the 6-month follow-up, the CRP group performed significantly better than the control group on NP tests of attention and verbal memory and reported less mental fatigue. Group differences in other subjective outcomes were not significant at 6 months. The CRP has a salutary effect on short-term cognitive complaints and on longer-term cognitive performance and mental fatigue. Additional research is needed to identify which elements of the intervention are most effective.

  1. Dextrose prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rabago, David; Patterson, Jeffrey J; Mundt, Marlon; Kijowski, Richard; Grettie, Jessica; Segal, Neil A; Zgierska, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common, debilitating chronic disease. Prolotherapy is an injection therapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain. We conducted a 3-arm, blinded (injector, assessor, injection group participants), randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis. Ninety adults with at least 3 months of painful knee osteoarthritis were randomized to blinded injection (dextrose prolotherapy or saline) or at-home exercise. Extra- and intra-articular injections were done at 1, 5, and 9 weeks with as-needed additional treatments at weeks 13 and 17. Exercise participants received an exercise manual and in-person instruction. Outcome measures included a composite score on the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC; 100 points); knee pain scale (KPS; individual knee), post-procedure opioid medication use, and participant satisfaction. Intention-to-treat analysis using analysis of variance was used. No baseline differences existed between groups. All groups reported improved composite WOMAC scores compared with baseline status (P <.01) at 52 weeks. Adjusted for sex, age, and body mass index, WOMAC scores for patients receiving dextrose prolotherapy improved more (P <.05) at 52 weeks than did scores for patients receiving saline and exercise (score change: 15.3 ± 3.5 vs 7.6 ± 3.4, and 8.2 ± 3.3 points, respectively) and exceeded the WOMAC-based minimal clinically important difference. Individual knee pain scores also improved more in the prolotherapy group (P = .05). Use of prescribed postprocedure opioid medication resulted in rapid diminution of injection-related pain. Satisfaction with prolotherapy was high. There were no adverse events. Prolotherapy resulted in clinically meaningful sustained improvement of pain, function, and stiffness scores for knee osteoarthritis compared with blinded saline injections and at-home exercises.

  2. Eating marshmallows reduces ileostomy output: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Clarebrough, E; Guest, G; Stupart, D

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotally, many ostomates believe that eating marshmallows can reduce ileostomy effluent. There is a plausible mechanism for this, as the gelatine contained in marshmallows may thicken small bowel fluid, but there is currently no evidence that this is effective. This was a randomized crossover trial. Adult patients with well-established ileostomies were included. Ileostomy output was measured for 1 week during which three marshmallows were consumed three times daily, and for one control week where marshmallows were not eaten. There was a 2-day washout period. Patients were randomly allocated to whether the control or intervention week occurred first. In addition, a questionnaire was administered regarding patient's subjective experience of their ileostomy function. Thirty-one participants were recruited; 28 completed the study. There was a median reduction in ileostomy output volume of 75 ml per day during the study period (P = 0.0054, 95% confidence interval 23.4-678.3) compared with the control week. Twenty of 28 subjects (71%) experienced a reduction in their ileostomy output, two had no change and six reported an increase. During the study period, participants reported fewer ileostomy bag changes (median five per day vs six in the control period, P = 0.0255). Twenty of 28 (71%) reported that the ileostomy effluent was thicker during the study week (P = 0.023). Overall 19 (68%) participants stated they would use marshmallows in the future if they wanted to reduce or thicken their ileostomy output. Eating marshmallows leads to a small but statistically significant reduction in ileostomy output. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. The reporting quality of randomized controlled trials in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Lempesi, Evangelia; Koletsi, Despina; Fleming, Padhraig S; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2014-06-01

    Accurate trial reporting facilitates evaluation and better use of study results. The objective of this article is to investigate the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in leading orthodontic journals, and to explore potential predictors of improved reporting. The 50 most recent issues of 4 leading orthodontic journals until November 2013 were electronically searched. Reporting quality assessment was conducted using the modified CONSORT statement checklist. The relationship between potential predictors and the modified CONSORT score was assessed using linear regression modeling. 128 RCTs were identified with a mean modified CONSORT score of 68.97% (SD = 11.09). The Journal of Orthodontics (JO) ranked first in terms of completeness of reporting (modified CONSORT score 76.21%, SD = 10.1), followed by American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO) (73.05%, SD = 10.1). Journal of publication (AJODO: β = 10.08, 95% CI: 5.78, 14.38; JO: β = 16.82, 95% CI: 11.70, 21.94; EJO: β = 7.21, 95% CI: 2.69, 11.72 compared to Angle), year of publication (β = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.28, 1.67 for each additional year), region of authorship (Europe: β = 5.19, 95% CI: 1.30, 9.09 compared to Asia/other), statistical significance (significant: β = 3.10, 95% CI: 0.11, 6.10 compared to non-significant) and methodologist involvement (involvement: β = 5.60, 95% CI: 1.66, 9.54 compared to non-involvement) were all significant predictors of improved modified CONSORT scores in the multivariable model. Additionally, median overall Jadad score was 2 (IQR = 2) across journals, with JO (median = 3, IQR = 1) and AJODO (median = 3, IQR = 2) presenting the highest score values. The reporting quality of RCTs published in leading orthodontic journals is considered suboptimal in various CONSORT areas. This may have a bearing in trial result interpretation and use in clinical decision making and evidence- based orthodontic treatment interventions. Copyright

  4. Novel electronic refreshers for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently the American Red Cross requires that individuals renew their cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification annually; this often requires a 4- to 8-hour refresher course. Those trained in CPR often show a decrease in essential knowledge and skills within just a few months after training. New electronic means of communication have expanded the possibilities for delivering CPR refreshers to members of the general public who receive CPR training. The study’s purpose was to determine the efficacy of three novel CPR refreshers - online website, e-mail and text messaging – for improving three outcomes of CPR training - skill retention, confidence for using CPR and intention to use CPR. These three refreshers may be considered “novel” in that they are not typically used to refresh CPR knowledge and skills. Methods The study conducted two randomized clinical trials of the novel CPR refreshers. A mailed brochure was a traditional, passive refresher format and served as the control condition. In Trial 1, the refreshers were delivered in a single episode at 6 months after initial CPR training. In Trial 2, the refreshers were delivered twice, at 6 and 9 months after initial CPR training, to test the effect of a repeated delivery. Outcomes for the three novel refreshers vs. the mailed brochure were determined at 12 months after initial CPR training. Results Assignment to any of three novel refreshers did not improve outcomes of CPR training one year later in comparison with receiving a mailed brochure. Comparing outcomes for subjects who actually reviewed some of the novel refreshers vs. those who did not indicated a significant positive effect for one outcome, confidence for performing CPR. The website refresher was associated with increased behavioral intent to perform CPR. Stated satisfaction with the refreshers was relatively high. The number of episodes of refreshers (one vs. two) did not have a significant effect on any outcomes

  5. Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Mark A.; Wang, Tongtong; Shapiro, Stan; Robinson, Ann; Ducruet, Thierry; Huynh, Thao; Gamsa, Ann; Bennett, Gary J.; Collet, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic neuropathic pain affects 1%–2% of the adult population and is often refractory to standard pharmacologic treatment. Patients with chronic pain have reported using smoked cannabis to relieve pain, improve sleep and improve mood. Methods Adults with post-traumatic or postsurgical neuropathic pain were randomly assigned to receive cannabis at four potencies (0%, 2.5%, 6% and 9.4% tetrahydrocannabinol) over four 14-day periods in a crossover trial. Participants inhaled a single 25-mg dose through a pipe three times daily for the first five days in each cycle, followed by a nine-day washout period. Daily average pain intensity was measured using an 11-point numeric rating scale. We recorded effects on mood, sleep and quality of life, as well as adverse events. Results We recruited 23 participants (mean age 45.4 [standard deviation 12.3] years, 12 women [52%]), of whom 21 completed the trial. The average daily pain intensity, measured on the 11-point numeric rating scale, was lower on the prespecified primary contrast of 9.4% v. 0% tetrahydrocannabinol (5.4 v. 6.1, respectively; difference = 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02–1.4). Preparations with intermediate potency yielded intermediate but nonsignificant degrees of relief. Participants receiving 9.4% tetrahydrocannabinol reported improved ability to fall asleep (easier, p = 0.001; faster, p < 0.001; more drowsy, p = 0.003) and improved quality of sleep (less wakefulness, p = 0.01) relative to 0% tetrahydrocannabinol. We found no differences in mood or quality of life. The most common drug-related adverse events during the period when participants received 9.4% tetrahydrocannabinol were headache, dry eyes, burning sensation in areas of neuropathic pain, dizziness, numbness and cough. Conclusion A single inhalation of 25 mg of 9.4% tetrahydrocannabinol herbal cannabis three times daily for five days reduced the intensity of pain, improved sleep and was well tolerated. Further long

  6. Review of the randomized clinical stroke rehabilitation trials in 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rabadi, Meheroz H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Recent review of the available evidence on interventions for motor recovery after stroke, showed that improvements in recovery of arm function were seen for constraint-induced movement therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, mental practice with motor imagery, and robotics. Similar improvement in transfer ability or balance were seen with repetitive task training, biofeedback, and training with a moving platform. Walking speed was improved by physical fitness training, high-intensity physiotherapy and repetitive task training. However, most of these trials were small and had design limitations. Material/Methods In this article, randomized control trials (RCT’s) published in 2009 of rehabilitation therapies for acute (≤2 weeks), sub-acute (2 to 12 weeks) and chronic (≥12 weeks) stroke was reviewed. A Medline search was performed to identify all RCT’s in stroke rehabilitation in the year 2009. The search strategy that was used for PubMed is presented in the Appendix 1. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of these treatment modalities in stroke rehabilitation. Results This generated 35 RCT’s under 5 categories which were found and analyzed. The methodological quality was assessed by using the PEDro scale for external and internal validity. Conclusions These trials were primarily efficacy studies. Most of these studies enrolled small numbers of patient which precluded their clinical applicability (limited external validity). However, the constraint induced movement therapy (CIT), regularly used in chronic stroke patients did not improve affected arm-hand function when used in acute stroke patients at ≤4 weeks. Intensive CIT did not lead to motor improvement in arm-hand function. Robotic arm treatment helped decrease motor impairment and improved function in chronic stroke patients only. Therapist provided exercise programs (when self-administered by patients during their off-therapy time in a rehabilitation setting) did improve

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Storytelling as a Communication Tool

    PubMed Central

    Hartling, Lisa; Scott, Shannon D.; Johnson, David W.; Bishop, Ted; Klassen, Terry P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Stories may be an effective tool to communicate with patients because of their ability to engage the reader. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of story booklets compared to standard information sheets for parents of children attending the emergency department (ED) with a child with croup. Methods Parents were randomized to receive story booklets (n=208) or standard information sheets (n=205) during their ED visit. The primary outcome was change in anxiety between triage to ED discharge as measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted at 1 and 3 days after discharge, then every other day until 9 days (or until resolution of symptoms), and at 1 year. Secondary outcomes included: expected future anxiety, event impact, parental knowledge, satisfaction, decision regret, healthcare utilization, time to symptom resolution. Results There was no significant difference in the primary outcome of change in parental anxiety between recruitment and ED discharge (change of 5 points for the story group vs. 6 points for the comparison group, p=0.78). The story group showed significantly greater decision regret regarding their decision to go to the ED (p<0.001): 6.7% of the story group vs. 1.5% of the comparison group strongly disagreed with the statement “I would go for the same choice if I had to do it over again”. The story group reported shorter time to resolution of symptoms (mean 3.7 days story group vs. 4.0 days comparison group, median 3 days both groups; log rank test, p=0.04). No other outcomes were different between study groups. Conclusions Stories about parent experiences managing a child with croup did not reduce parental anxiety. The story group showed significantly greater decision regret and quicker time to resolution of symptoms. Further research is needed to better understand whether stories can be effective in improving patient-important outcomes. Trial Registration Current Controlled

  8. Sustained Aeration of Infant Lungs (SAIL) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Foglia, Elizabeth E; Owen, Louise S; Thio, Marta; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Lista, Gianluca; Te Pas, Arjan; Hummler, Helmut; Nadkarni, Vinay; Ades, Anne; Posencheg, Michael; Keszler, Martin; Davis, Peter; Kirpalani, Haresh

    2015-03-15

    Extremely preterm infants require assistance recruiting the lung to establish a functional residual capacity after birth. Sustained inflation (SI) combined with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) may be a superior method of aerating the lung compared with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with PEEP in extremely preterm infants. The Sustained Aeration of Infant Lungs (SAIL) trial was designed to study this question. This multisite prospective randomized controlled unblinded trial will recruit 600 infants of 23 to 26 weeks gestational age who require respiratory support at birth. Infants in both arms will be treated with PEEP 5 to 7 cm H2O throughout the resuscitation. The study intervention consists of performing an initial SI (20 cm H20 for 15 seconds) followed by a second SI (25 cm H2O for 15 seconds), and then PEEP with or without IPPV, as needed. The control group will be treated with initial IPPV with PEEP. The primary outcome is the combined endpoint of bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death at 36 weeks post-menstrual age. www.clinicaltrials.gov , Trial identifier NCT02139800 , Registered 13 May 2014.

  9. The Risk of Oxygen during Cardiac Surgery (ROCS) trial: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcos G; Pretorius, Mias; Shotwell, Matthew S; Deegan, Robert; Eagle, Susan S; Bennett, Jeremy M; Sileshi, Bantayehu; Liang, Yafen; Gelfand, Brian J; Kingeter, Adam J; Siegrist, Kara K; Lombard, Frederick W; Richburg, Tiffany M; Fornero, Dane A; Shaw, Andrew D; Hernandez, Antonio; Billings, Frederic T

    2017-06-26

    Anesthesiologists administer excess supplemental oxygen (hyper-oxygenation) to patients during surgery to avoid hypoxia. Hyper-oxygenation, however, may increase the generation of reactive oxygen species and cause oxidative damage. In cardiac surgery, increased oxidative damage has been associated with postoperative kidney and brain injury. We hypothesize that maintenance of normoxia during cardiac surgery (physiologic oxygenation) decreases kidney injury and oxidative damage compared to hyper-oxygenation. The Risk of Oxygen during Cardiac Surgery (ROCS) trial will randomly assign 200 cardiac surgery patients to receive physiologic oxygenation, defined as the lowest fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO 2 ) necessary to maintain an arterial hemoglobin saturation of 95 to 97%, or hyper-oxygenation (FIO 2  = 1.0) during surgery. The primary clinical endpoint is serum creatinine change from baseline to postoperative day 2, and the primary mechanism endpoint is change in plasma concentrations of F 2 -isoprostanes and isofurans. Secondary endpoints include superoxide production, clinical delirium, myocardial injury, and length of stay. An endothelial function substudy will examine the effects of oxygen treatment and oxidative stress on endothelial function, measured using flow mediated dilation, peripheral arterial tonometry, and wire tension myography of epicardial fat arterioles. The ROCS trial will test the hypothesis that intraoperative physiologic oxygenation decreases oxidative damage and organ injury compared to hyper-oxygenation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02361944 . Registered on the 30th of January 2015.

  10. Music intervention during daily weaning trials-A 6 day prospective randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhan; Ren, Dianxu; Choi, JiYeon; Happ, Mary Beth; Hravnak, Marylyn; Hoffman, Leslie A

    2016-12-01

    To examine the effect of patient-selected music intervention during daily weaning trials for patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation. Using a crossover repeated measures design, patients were randomized to music vs no music on the first intervention day. Provision of music was alternated for 6 days, resulting in 3 music and 3 no music days. During weaning trials on music days, data were obtained for 30min prior to music listening and continued for 60min while patients listened to selected music (total 90min). On no music days, data were collected for 90min. Outcome measures were heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ), blood pressure (BP), dyspnea and anxiety assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS-D, VAS-A) and weaning duration (meanh per day on music and non-music days). Of 31 patients randomized, 23 completed the 6-day intervention. When comparisons were made between the 3 music and 3 no music days, there were significant decreases in RR and VAS-D and a significant increase in daily weaning duration on music days (p<0.05). A multivariate mixed-effects model analysis that included patients who completed ≥2 days of the intervention (n=28) demonstrated significant decreases in HR, RR, VAS-A, and VAS-D and a significant increase in daily weaning duration on music days (p<0.05). Providing patient selected music during daily weaning trials is a simple, low-cost, potentially beneficial intervention for patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation. Further study is indicated to test ability of this intervention to promote weaning success and benefits earlier in the weaning process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anaesthesiological strategies in elective craniotomy: randomized, equivalence, open trial--the NeuroMorfeo trial.

    PubMed

    Citerio, Giuseppe; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Latini, Roberto; Masson, Serge; Barlera, Simona; Guzzetti, Stefano; Pesenti, Antonio

    2009-04-06

    Many studies have attempted to determine the "best" anaesthetic technique for neurosurgical procedures in patients without intracranial hypertension. So far, no study comparing intravenous (IA) with volatile-based neuroanaesthesia (VA) has been able to demonstrate major outcome differences nor a superiority of one of the two strategies in patients undergoing elective supratentorial neurosurgery. Therefore, current practice varies and includes the use of either volatile or intravenous anaesthetics in addition to narcotics. Actually the choice of the anaesthesiological strategy depends only on the anaesthetists' preferences or institutional policies. This trial, named NeuroMorfeo, aims to assess the equivalence between volatile and intravenous anaesthetics for neurosurgical procedures. NeuroMorfeo is a multicenter, randomized, open label, controlled trial, based on an equivalence design. Patients aged between 18 and 75 years, scheduled for elective craniotomy for supratentorial lesion without signs of intracranial hypertension, in good physical state (ASA I-III) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) equal to 15, are randomly assigned to one of three anaesthesiological strategies (two VA arms, sevoflurane + fentanyl or sevoflurane + remifentanil, and one IA, propofol + remifentanil). The equivalence between intravenous and volatile-based neuroanaesthesia will be evaluated by comparing the intervals required to reach, after anaesthesia discontinuation, a modified Aldrete score > or = 9 (primary end-point). Two statistical comparisons have been planned: 1) sevoflurane + fentanyl vs. propofol + remifentanil; 2) sevoflurane + remifentanil vs. propofol + remifentanil. Secondary end-points include: an assessment of neurovegetative stress based on (a) measurement of urinary catecholamines and plasma and urinary cortisol and (b) estimate of sympathetic/parasympathetic balance by power spectrum analyses of electrocardiographic tracings recorded during anaesthesia; intraoperative

  12. Green Juice in Human Metabolism: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Chiochetta, Marina; Ferreira, Eduarda Jardim; Moreira, Isabel Taís da Silva; Avila, Richard Chuquel Silveira de; Oliveira, Alcyr Alves de; Busnello, Fernanda Michielin; Braganhol, Elizandra; Barschak, Alethéa Gatto

    2018-04-27

    Fruits and vegetables contain many compounds presenting potential antioxidant activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a green juice recipe in adult metabolism in order to identify new preventive dietary sources. This was a single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Recruitment and data were, respectively, made and collected at the Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre. Individuals who met all the inclusion criteria during the period of recruitment were included. Green juice (experimental group) or placebo (control group) were consumed from Monday to Friday between 8 and 9 am, in the amount of 300 mL for 60 days (except Saturdays and Sundays). To verify the effect of green juice on metabolism, the following were evaluated: (a) glycemia, plasma lipid profile, renal and liver functions, redox profile, and antioxidant enzymes; (b) anthropometry; and (c) well-being and anxiety. This study included 14 participants in the test group (juice group) and 13 controls (placebo group), with mean ages of 31.07 and 30.15 years, respectively. We did not observe a significant difference between the treatments. Dietary properties of vegetable and fruit juices are an area of significant interest. Together with an analysis of previous works, we suggest that green juice did not cause an improvement in metabolic function and there is a need for further research on this issue, mainly through different interventions and other samples.

  13. Randomized trial of intensive motivational interviewing for methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Polcin, Douglas L; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Nayak, Madhabika B; Galloway, Gantt P; Evans, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    An intensive, 9-session motivational interviewing (IMI) intervention was assessed using a randomized clinical trial of 217 methamphetamine (MA) dependent individuals. Intensive motivational interviewing (IMI) was compared with a single standard session of MI (SMI) combined with eight nutrition education sessions. Interventions were delivered weekly over 2 months. All study participants also received standard outpatient group treatment three times per week. Both study groups showed significant decreases in MA use and Addiction Severity Index drug scores, but there were no significant differences between the two groups. However, reductions in Addiction Severity Index psychiatric severity scores and days of psychiatric problems during the past 30 days were found for clients in the IMI group but not the SMI group. SMI may be equally beneficial to IMI in reducing MA use and problem severity, but IMI may help alleviate co-occurring psychiatric problems that are unaffected by shorter MI interventions. Additional studies are needed to assess the problems, populations, and contexts for which IMI is effective.

  14. Minilaparotomy vs. laparoscopic cholecystectomy: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Mendoza, José Dolores; Villagrán-Murillo, Francisco Javier; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Currently, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered the gold standard for treatment of gallstones with advantages in regard to postoperative pain, hospital stay, early return to activities of daily living and acceptable cosmetic results. Open cholecystectomy in the form of minilaparotomy may be an effective alternative for the management of symptomatic cholelithiasis. We undertook this study to compare the results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and minilaparotomy cholecystectomy techniques. methods: We conducted a randomized clinical trial between January 2009 and December 2009. We included patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis divided into two groups: group A--minilaparotomy and group B--laparoscopic cholecystectomy. End-point variables were age, gender, pre- and postoperative diagnosis, operative time, conversion or extension, hospital stay, complications and pain. Statistical analysis included Fisher's exact test, χ(2) test and Student t test. There were 88 patients with cholelithiasis: 37 men and 51 women. Mean age was 45.65 years. There were 45 patients in Group A and 43 patients in Group B. Mean operative time was 79.02 min for minilaparotomy and 86.04 min for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.33). Average hospital stay was 2.75 days for minilaparotomy and of 2.02 days for laparoscopy (p = 0.60). Complications of minilaparotomy were demonstrated in 6.6% of patients and for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 16.3% of patients (p = 0.16). There were three extensions and five conversions. Minilaparotomy cholecystectomy has results similar to laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  15. Effects of nattokinase on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Gum, Si Nae; Paik, Jean Kyung; Lim, Hyo Hee; Kim, Kyong-Chol; Ogasawara, Kazuya; Inoue, Kenichi; Park, Sungha; Jang, Yangsoo; Lee, Jong Ho

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nattokinase supplementation on blood pressure in subjects with pre-hypertension or stage 1 hypertension. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 86 participants ranging from 20 to 80 years of age with an initial untreated systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 130 to 159 mmHg received nattokinase (2,000 FU/capsule) or a placebo capsule for 8 weeks. Seventy-three subjects completed the protocol. Compared with the control group, the net changes in SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were -5.55 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.5 to -0.57 mmHg; p<0.05) and -2.84 mmHg (CI, -5.33 to -0.33 mmHg; p<0.05), respectively, after the 8-week intervention. The corresponding net change in renin activity was -1.17 ng/mL/h for the nattokinase group compared with the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, nattokinase supplementation resulted in a reduction in SBP and DBP. These findings suggest that increased intake of nattokinase may play an important role in preventing and treating hypertension.

  16. Reducing medical service utilization by encouraging vaccines: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Berg, Gregory D; Thomas, Eileen; Silverstein, Steven; Neel, Cheryl L; Mireles, Matthew

    2004-11-01

    Vaccination against influenza is associated with reductions in hospitalizations for heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, pneumonia, or influenza, and the risk of death from all causes during the influenza season. Randomized controlled trial. All members enrolled in the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association's Government Wide Service Benefit Program in the states of Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Kentucky, California, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado in October 2002. The sample size was 339,220 members. Two identical influenza/pneumonia direct mail marketing pieces that encouraged members to receive influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. The study period was October 15, 2002 through March 15, 2003 when most influenza cases occur. Data were collected in July 2003 and analyzed during August 2003. Administrative claims based on influenza/pneumonia inpatient admissions and emergency department (ED) visits. The intervention group experienced a 2.62% (p=0.010) higher rate of influenza vaccinations; 4.61% (p=0.080) higher rate of pneumonia vaccinations; 9.67% (p=0.136) lower rate of influenza/pneumonia inpatient admissions; and 22.64% (p=0.002) lower rate of influenza/pneumonia ED visits compared to the control group. The benefit-cost ratio (return on investment) from this intervention was estimated to be US dollar 2.21 per dollar spent. Administrative claims data suggest that members respond to health plan mailings with an increase in influenza vaccination rates. Health plans can cost-effectively impact medical service utilization and vaccination rates by mailing information to their members.

  17. A randomized controlled trial to promote volunteering in older adults.

    PubMed

    Warner, Lisa M; Wolff, Julia K; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    Volunteering is presumed to confer health benefits, but interventions to encourage older adults to volunteer are sparse. Therefore, a randomized controlled trial with 280 community-dwelling older German adults was conducted to test the effects of a theory-based social-cognitive intervention against a passive waiting-list control group and an active control intervention designed to motivate physical activity. Self-reports of weekly volunteering minutes were assessed at baseline (5 weeks before the intervention) as well as 2 and 6 weeks after the intervention. Participants in the treatment group increased their weekly volunteering minutes to a greater extent than participants in the control groups 6 weeks after the intervention. We conclude that a single, face-to-face group session can increase volunteering among older community-dwelling adults. However, the effects need some time to unfold because changes in volunteering were not apparent 2 weeks after the intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Infant Sleep After Immunization: Randomized Controlled Trial of Prophylactic Acetaminophen

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Caryl L.; Lynch, Mary; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of acetaminophen and axillary temperature responses on infant sleep duration after immunization. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled trial to compare the sleep of 70 infants monitored by using ankle actigraphy for 24 hours before and after their first immunization series at ∼2 months of age. Mothers of infants in the control group received standard care instructions from their infants' health care provider, and mothers of infants in the intervention group were provided with predosed acetaminophen and instructed to administer a dose 30 minutes before the scheduled immunization and every 4 hours thereafter, for a total of 5 doses. Infant age and birth weight and immunization factors, such as acetaminophen use and timing of administration, were evaluated for changes in infant sleep times after immunization. RESULTS: Sleep duration in the first 24 hours after immunization was increased, particularly for infants who received their immunizations after 1:30 pm and for those who experienced elevated temperatures in response to the vaccines. Infants who received acetaminophen at or after immunization had smaller increases in sleep duration than did infants who did not. However, acetaminophen use was not a significant predictor of sleep duration when other factors were controlled. CONCLUSIONS: If further research confirms the relationship between time of day of vaccine administration, increased sleep duration after immunization, and antibody responses, then our findings suggest that afternoon immunizations should be recommended to facilitate increased sleep in the 24 hours after immunization, regardless of acetaminophen administration. PMID:22123869

  19. A mediator effect size in randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura

    2014-12-01

    To understand the process by which a treatment (T) achieves an effect on outcome (O) and thus to improve the effect of T on O, it is vital to detect mediators, to compare the impact of different mediators, and to develop hypotheses about the causal factors (all mediators) linking T and O. An index is needed to facilitate interpretation of the potential clinical importance of a mediator (M) of choice of T on treatment O in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Ideally such a mediator effect size should (1) be invariant under any rescaling of M and O consistent with the model used, and (2) reflect the difference between the overall observed effect of T on O and what the maximal effect of T on O could be were the association between T and M broken. A mediator effect size is derived first for the traditional linear model, and then more generally for any categorical (ordered or non-ordered) potential mediator. Issues such as the problem of multiple treatments, outcomes and mediators, and of causal inferences, and the correspondence between this approach and earlier ones, are discussed. Illustrations are given of the application of the approach. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Hypnosis for Smoking Relapse Prevention: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Timothy P; Duncan, Carol L; Solkowitz, Sharon N; Huggins, Joy; Simon, Joel A

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether hypnosis would be more effective than standard behavioral counseling in helping smokers to remain abstinent. A total of 140 current smokers were enrolled in a randomized controlled smoking cessation trial at an urban Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants (n = 102) who were able to quit for at least 3 days received either a hypnosis or behavioral relapse prevention intervention. Both relapse prevention interventions consisted of two 60 min face-to-face sessions and four 20 min follow-up phone calls (two phone calls per week). At 26 weeks, the validate\\d point-prevalence quit rate was 35% for the hypnosis group and 42% for the behavioral counseling group (relative risk = 0.85; 95% confidence interval: 0.52-1.40). At 52 weeks, the validated quit rate was 29% for the hypnosis group and 28% for the behavioral group (relative risk  = 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.91). It was concluded that hypnosis warrants further investigation as an intervention for facilitating maintenance of quitting.

  1. Generated effect modifiers (GEM’s) in randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Petkova, Eva; Tarpey, Thaddeus; Su, Zhe; Ogden, R. Todd

    2017-01-01

    In a randomized clinical trial (RCT), it is often of interest not only to estimate the effect of various treatments on the outcome, but also to determine whether any patient characteristic has a different relationship with the outcome, depending on treatment. In regression models for the outcome, if there is a non-zero interaction between treatment and a predictor, that predictor is called an “effect modifier”. Identification of such effect modifiers is crucial as we move towards precision medicine, that is, optimizing individual treatment assignment based on patient measurements assessed when presenting for treatment. In most settings, there will be several baseline predictor variables that could potentially modify the treatment effects. This article proposes optimal methods of constructing a composite variable (defined as a linear combination of pre-treatment patient characteristics) in order to generate an effect modifier in an RCT setting. Several criteria are considered for generating effect modifiers and their performance is studied via simulations. An example from a RCT is provided for illustration. PMID:27465235

  2. Generated effect modifiers (GEM's) in randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Petkova, Eva; Tarpey, Thaddeus; Su, Zhe; Ogden, R Todd

    2017-01-01

    In a randomized clinical trial (RCT), it is often of interest not only to estimate the effect of various treatments on the outcome, but also to determine whether any patient characteristic has a different relationship with the outcome, depending on treatment. In regression models for the outcome, if there is a non-zero interaction between treatment and a predictor, that predictor is called an "effect modifier". Identification of such effect modifiers is crucial as we move towards precision medicine, that is, optimizing individual treatment assignment based on patient measurements assessed when presenting for treatment. In most settings, there will be several baseline predictor variables that could potentially modify the treatment effects. This article proposes optimal methods of constructing a composite variable (defined as a linear combination of pre-treatment patient characteristics) in order to generate an effect modifier in an RCT setting. Several criteria are considered for generating effect modifiers and their performance is studied via simulations. An example from a RCT is provided for illustration. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Randomized controlled trial of ionization and photoelectric smoke alarm functionality.

    PubMed

    Mueller, B A; Sidman, E A; Alter, H; Perkins, R; Grossman, D C

    2008-04-01

    To compare functionality, reasons for non-function, and nuisance alarm levels of two common types of smoke alarms after installation in low- to mid-level income households in King County, Washington. Randomized controlled trial of 761 households. An ionization or photoelectric smoke alarm was installed between June 1, 2000 and July 31, 2002. Main outcome measures were: percentage of study alarms that were working, observed reasons for non-functional status, and self-reported frequency of nuisance alarms at 9 and 15 months of follow-up. At 9 months after installation, 20% of ionization, vs 5% of photoelectric alarms were non-functional, a difference that persisted at 15 months, with the most common reasons for both types being a disconnected or absent battery. The risk ratio for ionization, relative to photoelectric alarms, being non-functional or removed was 2.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 4.1) at 15 months of follow-up. These findings were not altered by educational level, or the presence of smokers, children <5 years, or adults > or =65 years. Burn prevention efforts are geared towards increasing smoke alarm ownership and improving maintenance of functional status. Results suggest that the selective use of photoelectric alarms by fire injury prevention programs or consumers may provide longer-term protection in similar populations. Designing smoke alarms that minimize nuisance alarming may also result in longer term functionality.

  4. Prenatal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and infant morbidity: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Imhoff-Kunsch, Beth; Stein, Aryeh D; Martorell, Reynaldo; Parra-Cabrera, Socorro; Romieu, Isabelle; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2011-09-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) influence immune function and inflammation; however, the influence of maternal DHA supplementation on infant morbidity is unknown. We investigated the effects of prenatal DHA supplementation on infant morbidity. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in Mexico, pregnant women received daily supplementation with 400 mg of DHA or placebo from 18 to 22 weeks' gestation through parturition. In infants aged 1, 3, and 6 months, caregivers reported the occurrence of common illness symptoms in the preceding 15 days. Data were available at 1, 3, and 6 months for 849, 834, and 834 infants, respectively. The occurrence of specific illness symptoms did not differ between groups; however, the occurrence of a combined measure of cold symptoms was lower in the DHA group at 1 month (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-1.00). At 1 month, the DHA group experienced 26%, 15%, and 30% shorter duration of cough, phlegm, and wheezing, respectively, but 22% longer duration of rash (all P ≤ .01). At 3 months, infants in the DHA group spent 14% less time ill (P < .0001). At 6 months, infants in the DHA group experienced 20%, 13%, 54%, 23%, and 25% shorter duration of fever, nasal secretion, difficulty breathing, rash, and "other illness," respectively, but 74% longer duration of vomiting (all P < .05). DHA supplementation during pregnancy decreased the occurrence of colds in children at 1 month and influenced illness symptom duration at 1, 3, and 6 months.

  5. Vilazodone for Cannabis Dependence: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Gray, Kevin M.; Killeen, Therese; Hartwell, Karen J.; Simonian, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vilazodone, a selective serotonin receptor inhibitor and partial 5-HT1A agonist, for treatment of cannabis dependence. Methods Seventy-six cannabis-dependent adults were randomized to receive either up to 40 mg/day of vilazodone (n=41) or placebo (n=35) for eight weeks combined with a brief motivational enhancement therapy intervention and contingency management to encourage study retention. Cannabis use outcomes were assessed via weekly urine cannabinoid tests; secondary outcomes included cannabis use self-report and cannabis craving. Results Participants in both groups reported reduced self-reported cannabis use over the course of the study; however, vilazodone provided no advantage over placebo in reducing cannabis use. Men had significantly lower creatinine-adjusted cannabinoid levels and a trend for increased negative urine cannabinoid tests than women. Discussion and Conclusions Vilazodone was not more efficacious than placebo in reducing cannabis use. Important gender differences were noted, with women having worse cannabis use outcomes than men. Scientific Significance Further medication development efforts for cannabis use disorders are needed, and gender should be considered as an important variable in future trials. PMID:26685701

  6. Estimation of treatment efficacy with complier average causal effects (CACE) in a randomized stepped wedge trial.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Joshua S; Arnold, Benjamin F; Reygadas, Fermin; Hubbard, Alan E; Colford, John M

    2014-05-01

    Complier average causal effects (CACE) estimate the impact of an intervention among treatment compliers in randomized trials. Methods used to estimate CACE have been outlined for parallel-arm trials (e.g., using an instrumental variables (IV) estimator) but not for other randomized study designs. Here, we propose a method for estimating CACE in randomized stepped wedge trials, where experimental units cross over from control conditions to intervention conditions in a randomized sequence. We illustrate the approach with a cluster-randomized drinking water trial conducted in rural Mexico from 2009 to 2011. Additionally, we evaluated the plausibility of assumptions required to estimate CACE using the IV approach, which are testable in stepped wedge trials but not in parallel-arm trials. We observed small increases in the magnitude of CACE risk differences compared with intention-to-treat estimates for drinking water contamination (risk difference (RD) = -22% (95% confidence interval (CI): -33, -11) vs. RD = -19% (95% CI: -26, -12)) and diarrhea (RD = -0.8% (95% CI: -2.1, 0.4) vs. RD = -0.1% (95% CI: -1.1, 0.9)). Assumptions required for IV analysis were probably violated. Stepped wedge trials allow investigators to estimate CACE with an approach that avoids the stronger assumptions required for CACE estimation in parallel-arm trials. Inclusion of CACE estimates in stepped wedge trials with imperfect compliance could enhance reporting and interpretation of the results of such trials.

  7. Meditation for migraines: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wells, Rebecca Erwin; Burch, Rebecca; Paulsen, Randall H; Wayne, Peter M; Houle, Timothy T; Loder, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Our objective was to assess the safety, feasibility, and effects of the standardized 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course in adults with migraines. Stress is a well-known trigger for headaches. Research supports the general benefits of mind/body interventions for migraines, but there are few rigorous studies supporting the use of specific standardized interventions. MBSR is a standardized 8-week mind/body intervention that teaches mindfulness meditation/yoga. Preliminary research has shown MBSR to be effective for chronic pain syndromes, but it has not been evaluated for migraines. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 19 episodic migraineurs randomized to either MBSR (n = 10) or usual care (n = 9). Our primary outcome was change in migraine frequency from baseline to initial follow-up. Secondary outcomes included change in headache severity, duration, self-efficacy, perceived stress, migraine-related disability/impact, anxiety, depression, mindfulness, and quality of life from baseline to initial follow-up. MBSR was safe (no adverse events), with 0% dropout and excellent adherence (daily meditation average: 34 ± 11 minutes, range 16-50 minutes/day). Median class attendance from 9 classes (including retreat day) was 8 (range [3, 9]); average class attendance was 6.7 ± 2.5. MBSR participants had 1.4 fewer migraines/month (MBSR: 3.5 to 1.0 vs control: 1.2 to 0 migraines/month, 95% confidence interval CI [-4.6, 1.8], P = .38), an effect that did not reach statistical significance in this pilot sample. Headaches were less severe, although not significantly so (-1.3 points/headache on 0-10 scale, [-2.3, 0.09], P = .053) and shorter (-2.9 hours/headache, [-4.6, -0.02], P = .043) vs control. Migraine Disability Assessment and Headache Impact Test-6 dropped in MBSR vs control (-12.6, [-22.0, -1.0], P = .017 and -4.8, [-11.0, -1.0], P = .043, respectively). Self-efficacy and mindfulness improved in MBSR vs control (13.2 [1.0, 30.0], P

  8. A randomized controlled Alzheimer's disease prevention trial's evolution into an exposure trial: the PREADViSE Trial.

    PubMed

    Kryscio, R J; Abner, E L; Schmitt, F A; Goodman, P J; Mendiondo, M; Caban-Holt, A; Dennis, B C; Mathews, M; Klein, E A; Crowley, J J

    2013-01-01

    To summarize the ongoing prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by vitamin E and selenium (PREADViSE) trial as an ancillary study to SELECT (a large prostate cancer prevention trial) and to present the blinded results of the first year as an exposure study. PREADViSE was designed as a double blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). SELECT terminated after median of 5.5 years of exposure to supplements due to a futility analysis. Both trials then converted into an exposure study. In the randomized component PREADViSE enrolled 7,547 men age 62 or older (60 if African American). Once the trial terminated 4,246 of these men volunteered for the exposure study. Demographics were similar for both groups with exposure volunteers having baseline mean age 67.3 ± 5.2 years, 15.3 ± 2.4 years of education, 9.8% African Americans, and 22.0% reporting a family history of dementia. In the RCT men were randomly assigned to either daily doses of 400 IU of vitamin E or placebo and 200 µg of selenium or placebo using a 2x2 factorial structure. In the RCT, participants completed the memory impairment screen (MIS), and if they failed, underwent a longer screening (based on an expanded Consortium to Establish a Registry in AD [CERAD] battery). CERAD failure resulted in visits to their clinician for medical examination with records of these examinations forwarded to the PREADViSE center for further review. In the exposure study, men are contacted by telephone and complete the telephone version of the memory impairment screen (MIS-T) screen. If they fail the MIS-T, a modified telephone interview of cognitive status (TICS-M) exam is given. A failed TICS-M exam also leads to a visit to their clinician for an in-depth examination and forwarding of records for a centralized consensus diagnosis by expert clinicians. A subgroup of the men who pass the MIS-T also take the TICS-M exam for validation purposes. While this ancillary trial was open to all 427 SELECT clinical sites, only 130 (30

  9. Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally

  10. Mortality results from a randomized prostate-cancer screening trial.

    PubMed

    Andriole, Gerald L; Crawford, E David; Grubb, Robert L; Buys, Saundra S; Chia, David; Church, Timothy R; Fouad, Mona N; Gelmann, Edward P; Kvale, Paul A; Reding, Douglas J; Weissfeld, Joel L; Yokochi, Lance A; O'Brien, Barbara; Clapp, Jonathan D; Rathmell, Joshua M; Riley, Thomas L; Hayes, Richard B; Kramer, Barnett S; Izmirlian, Grant; Miller, Anthony B; Pinsky, Paul F; Prorok, Philip C; Gohagan, John K; Berg, Christine D

    2009-03-26

    The effect of screening with prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) testing and digital rectal examination on the rate of death from prostate cancer is unknown. This is the first report from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial on prostate-cancer mortality. From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 76,693 men at 10 U.S. study centers to receive either annual screening (38,343 subjects) or usual care as the control (38,350 subjects). Men in the screening group were offered annual PSA testing for 6 years and digital rectal examination for 4 years. The subjects and health care providers received the results and decided on the type of follow-up evaluation. Usual care sometimes included screening, as some organizations have recommended. The numbers of all cancers and deaths and causes of death were ascertained. In the screening group, rates of compliance were 85% for PSA testing and 86% for digital rectal examination. Rates of screening in the control group increased from 40% in the first year to 52% in the sixth year for PSA testing and ranged from 41 to 46% for digital rectal examination. After 7 years of follow-up, the incidence of prostate cancer per 10,000 person-years was 116 (2820 cancers) in the screening group and 95 (2322 cancers) in the control group (rate ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 1.29). The incidence of death per 10,000 person-years was 2.0 (50 deaths) in the screening group and 1.7 (44 deaths) in the control group (rate ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.70). The data at 10 years were 67% complete and consistent with these overall findings. After 7 to 10 years of follow-up, the rate of death from prostate cancer was very low and did not differ significantly between the two study groups. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00002540.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  11. Determining optimal approaches for weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Kelly S.; McAuley, Kirsten A.; Taylor, Rachael W.; Williams, Sheila M.; Farmer, Victoria L.; Hansen, Paul; Vorgers, Sue M.; Chisholm, Alexandra W.; Mann, Jim I.

    2009-01-01

    Background Weight regain often occurs after weight loss in overweight individuals. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of 2 support programs and 2 diets of different macronutrient compositions intended to facilitate long-term weight maintenance. Methods Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 200 women who had lost 5% or more of their initial body weight to an intensive support program (implemented by nutrition and activity specialists) or to an inexpensive nurse-led program (involving “weigh-ins” and encouragement) that included advice about high-carbohydrate diets or relatively high-monounsaturated-fat diets. Results In total, 174 (87%) participants were followed-up for 2 years. The average weight loss (about 2 kg) did not differ between those in the support programs (0.1 kg, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.8 to 1.9, p = 0.95) or diets (0.7 kg, 95% CI −1.1 to 2.4, p = 0.46). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly higher among those on the high-monounsaturated-fat diet (total cholesterol: 0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.33; p = 0.040; LDL cholesterol: 0.16 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.31; p = 0.039) than among those on the high-carbohydrate diet. Those on the high-monounsaturated-fat diet also had significantly higher intakes of total fat (5% total energy, 95% CI 3% to 6%, p < 0.001) and saturated fat (2% total energy, 95% CI 1% to 2%, p < 0.001). All of the other clinical and laboratory measures were similar among those in the support programs and diets. Interpretation A relatively inexpensive program involving nurse support is as effective as a more resource-intensive program for weight maintenance over a 2-year period. Diets of different macronutrient composition produced comparable beneficial effects in terms of weight loss maintenance. ClinicalTrials.gov trial register no. NCT00128336. PMID:19433812

  12. FIT for FUNCTION: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Julie; Tang, Ada; Guyatt, Gordon; Thabane, Lehana; Xie, Feng; Sahlas, Demetrios; Hart, Robert; Fleck, Rebecca; Hladysh, Genevieve; Macrae, Louise

    2018-01-15

    The current state of evidence suggests that community-based exercise programs are beneficial in improving impairment, function, and health status, and are greatly needed for persons with stroke. However, limitations of these studies include risk of bias, feasibility, and cost issues. This single-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 216 participants with stroke will compare the effectiveness of a 12-week YMCA community-based wellness program (FIT for FUNCTION) specifically designed for community-dwelling persons with stroke to persons who receive a standard YMCA membership. The primary outcome will be community reintegration using the Reintegration to Normal Living Index at 12 and 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include measurement of physical activity level using the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity and accelerometry; balance using the Berg Balance Scale; lower extremity function using the Short Physical Performance Battery; exercise capacity using the 6-min walk test; grip strength and isometric knee extension strength using hand held dynamometry; and health-related quality of life using the European Quality of Life 5-Dimension Questionnaire. We are also assessing cardiovascular health and lipids; glucose and inflammatory markers will be collected following 12-h fast for total cholesterol, insulin, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. Self-efficacy for physical activity will be assessed with a single question and self-efficacy for managing chronic disease will be assessed using the Stanford 6-item Scale. The Patient Activation Measure will be used to assess the patient's level of knowledge, skill, and confidence for self-management. Healthcare utilization and costs will be evaluated. Group, time, and group × time interaction effects will be estimated using generalized linear models for continuous variables, including relevant baseline variables as covariates in the analysis that differ appreciably between groups at baseline. Cost data will be treated

  13. Pediatric selective mutism therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Maria; Gimigliano, Francesca; Barillari, Maria R; Precenzano, Francesco; Ruberto, Maria; Sepe, Joseph; Barillari, Umberto; Gimigliano, Raffaele; Militerni, Roberto; Messina, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare disease in children coded by DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. Despite the disabling nature of the disease, there is still no specific treatment. The aims of this study were to verify the efficacy of six-month standard psychomotor treatment and the positive changes in lifestyle, in a population of children affected by SM. Randomized controlled trial registered in the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuDract 2015-001161-36). University third level Centre (Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic). Study population was composed by 67 children in group A (psychomotricity treatment) (35 M, mean age 7.84±1.15) and 71 children in group B (behavioral and educational counseling) (37 M, mean age 7.75±1.36). Psychomotor treatment was administered by trained child therapists in residential settings three times per week. Each child was treated for the whole period by the same therapist and all the therapists shared the same protocol. The standard psychomotor session length is of 45 minutes. At T0 and after 6 months (T1) of treatments, patients underwent a behavioral and SM severity assessment. To verify the effects of the psychomotor management, the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL) and Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) were administered to the parents. After 6 months of psychomotor treatment SM children showed a significant reduction among CBCL scores such as in social relations, anxious/depressed, social problems and total problems (P<0.001), Withdrawn (P=0.007) and Internalizing problems (P=0.020). Regarding SM severity according to SMQ assessment, children of group A showed a reduction of SM symptoms in all situations (school, P=0.003; family, P=0.018; and social, P=0.030 situations) and in SMQ total score (P<0.001). Our preliminary results suggest the positive effect of the psychomotor treatment in rehabilitative program for children affected by selective mutism, even if further studies are needed. The present study

  14. Randomized trial of preventive angioplasty in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wald, David S; Morris, Joan K; Wald, Nicholas J; Chase, Alexander J; Edwards, Richard J; Hughes, Liam O; Berry, Colin; Oldroyd, Keith G

    2013-09-19

    In acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to treat the artery responsible for the infarct (infarct, or culprit, artery) improves prognosis. The value of PCI in noninfarct coronary arteries with major stenoses (preventive PCI) is unknown. From 2008 through 2013, at five centers in the United Kingdom, we enrolled 465 patients with acute STEMI (including 3 patients with left bundle-branch block) who were undergoing infarct-artery PCI and randomly assigned them to either preventive PCI (234 patients) or no preventive PCI (231 patients). Subsequent PCI for angina was recommended only for refractory angina with objective evidence of ischemia. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiac causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or refractory angina. An intention-to-treat analysis was used. By January 2013, the results were considered conclusive by the data and safety monitoring committee, which recommended that the trial be stopped early. During a mean follow-up of 23 months, the primary outcome occurred in 21 patients assigned to preventive PCI and in 53 patients assigned to no preventive PCI (infarct-artery-only PCI), which translated into rates of 9 events per 100 patients and 23 per 100, respectively (hazard ratio in the preventive-PCI group, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21 to 0.58; P<0.001). Hazard ratios for the three components of the primary outcome were 0.34 (95% CI, 0.11 to 1.08) for death from cardiac causes, 0.32 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.75) for nonfatal myocardial infarction, and 0.35 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.69) for refractory angina. In patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease undergoing infarct-artery PCI, preventive PCI in noninfarct coronary arteries with major stenoses significantly reduced the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, as compared with PCI limited to the infarct artery. (Funded by Barts and the London Charity; PRAMI Current Controlled Trials

  15. A randomized, controlled trial of an aerosolized vaccine against measles.

    PubMed

    Low, Nicola; Bavdekar, Ashish; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Ramanathan, Kavitha; Andrews, Nicholas J; Shaikh, Naseem; Jadi, Ramesh S; Rajagopal, Arunachalam; Brown, Kevin E; Brown, David; Fink, James B; John, Oommen; Scott, Pippa; Riveros-Balta, A Ximena; Greco, Michel; Dhere, Rajeev; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Henao Restrepo, Ana Maria

    2015-04-16

    Aerosolized vaccine can be used as a needle-free method of immunization against measles, a disease that remains a major cause of illness and death. Data on the immunogenicity of aerosolized vaccine against measles in children are inconsistent. We conducted an open-label noninferiority trial involving children 9.0 to 11.9 months of age in India who were eligible to receive a first dose of measles vaccine. Children were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of vaccine by means of either aerosol inhalation or a subcutaneous injection. The primary end points were seropositivity for antibodies against measles and adverse events 91 days after vaccination. The noninferiority margin was 5 percentage points. A total of 1001 children were assigned to receive aerosolized vaccine, and 1003 children were assigned to receive subcutaneous vaccine; 1956 of all the children (97.6%) were followed to day 91, but outcome data were missing for 331 children because of thawed specimens. In the per-protocol population, data on 1560 of 2004 children (77.8%) could be evaluated. At day 91, a total of 662 of 775 children (85.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 82.5 to 88.0) in the aerosol group, as compared with 743 of 785 children (94.6%; 95% CI, 92.7 to 96.1) in the subcutaneous group, were seropositive, a difference of -9.2 percentage points (95% CI, -12.2 to -6.3). Findings were similar in the full-analysis set (673 of 788 children in the aerosol group [85.4%] and 754 of 796 children in the subcutaneous group [94.7%] were seropositive at day 91, a difference of -9.3 percentage points [95% CI, -12.3 to -6.4]) and after multiple imputation of missing results. No serious adverse events were attributable to measles vaccination. Adverse-event profiles were similar in the two groups. Aerosolized vaccine against measles was immunogenic, but, at the prespecified margin, the aerosolized vaccine was inferior to the subcutaneous vaccine with respect to the rate of seropositivity. (Funded by the

  16. Placebo Effects and the Common Cold: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Bruce; Brown, Roger; Rakel, Dave; Rabago, David; Marchand, Lucille; Scheder, Jo; Mundt, Marlon; Thomas, Gay; Barlow, Shari

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE We wanted to determine whether the severity and duration of illness caused by the common cold are influenced by randomized assignment to open-label pills, compared with conventional double-blind allocation to active and placebo pills, compared with no pills at all. METHODS We undertook a randomized controlled trial among a population with new-onset common cold. Study participants were allocated to 4 parallel groups: (1) those receiving no pills, (2) those blinded to placebo, (3) those blinded to echinacea, and (4) those given open-label echinacea. Primary outcomes were illness duration and area-under-the-curve global severity. Secondary outcomes included neutrophil count and interleukin 8 levels from nasal wash at intake and 2 days later. RESULTS Of 719 randomized study participants, 2 were lost and 4 exited early. Participants were 64% female, 88% white, and aged 12 to 80 years. Mean illness duration for each group was 7.03 days for those in the no-pill group, 6.87 days for those blinded to placebo, 6.34 days for those blinded to echinacea, and 6.76 days for those in the open-label echinacea group. Mean global severity scores for the 4 groups were no pills, 286; blinded to placebo, 264; blinded to echinacea, 236; and open-label echinacea, 258. Between-group differences were not statistically significant. Comparing the no-pill with blinded to placebo groups, differences (95% confidence interval [CI]) were −0.16 days (95% CI, −0.90 to 0.58 days) for illness duration and −22 severity points (95% CI, −70 to 26 points) for global severity. Comparing the group blinded to echinacea with the open-label echinacea group, differences were 0.42 days (95% CI, −0.28 to 1.12 days) and 22 severity points (95% CI, −19 to 63 points). Median change in interleukin 8 concentration and neutrophil cell count, respectively by group, were 30 pg/mL and 1 cell for the no-pill group, 39 pg/mL and 1 cell for the group binded to placebo, 58 pg/mL and 2 cells for the group

  17. A randomized controlled trial of group Stepping Stones Triple P: a mixed-disability trial.

    PubMed

    Roux, Gemma; Sofronoff, Kate; Sanders, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting program designed for families of a child with a disability. The current study involved a randomized controlled trial of Group Stepping Stones Triple P (GSSTP) for a mixed-disability group. Participants were 52 families of children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder, Down syndrome, Cerebral Palsy, or an intellectual disability. The results demonstrated significant improvements in parent-reported child behavior, parenting styles, parental satisfaction, and conflict about parenting. Results among participants were similar despite children's differing impairments. The intervention effect was maintained at 6-month follow-up. The results indicate that GSSTP is a promising intervention for a mixed-disability group. Limitations of the study, along with areas for future research, are also discussed. © FPI, Inc.

  18. A randomized controlled trial of interim methadone maintenance.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Robert P; Highfield, David A; Jaffe, Jerome H; Brady, Joseph V; Butler, Carol B; Rouse, Charles O; Callaman, Jason M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Battjes, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Effective alternatives to long waiting lists for entry into methadone hydrochloride maintenance treatment are needed to reduce the complications of continuing heroin dependence and to increase methadone treatment entry. To compare the effectiveness of interim methadone maintenance with that of the usual waiting list condition in facilitating methadone treatment entry and reducing heroin and cocaine use and criminal behavior. Randomized, controlled, clinical trial using 2 conditions, with treatment assignment on a 3:2 basis to interim maintenance-waiting list control. A methadone treatment program in Baltimore. A total of 319 individuals meeting the criteria for current heroin dependence and methadone maintenance treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to either interim methadone maintenance, consisting of an individually determined methadone dose and emergency counseling only for up to 120 days, or referral to community-based methadone treatment programs. Entry into comprehensive methadone maintenance therapy at 4 months from baseline; self-reported days of heroin use, cocaine use, and criminal behavior; and number of urine drug test results positive for heroin and cocaine at the follow-up interview conducted at time of entry into comprehensive methadone treatment (or at 4 months from baseline for participants who did not enter regular treatment). Significantly more participants assigned to the interim methadone maintenance condition entered comprehensive methadone maintenance treatment by the 120th day from baseline (75.9%) than those assigned to the waiting list control condition (20.8%) (P<.001). Overall, in the past 30 days at follow-up, interim participants reported significantly fewer days of heroin use (P<.001), had a significant reduction in heroin-positive drug test results (P<.001), reported spending less money on drugs (P<.001), and received less illegal income (P<.02) than the waiting list participants. Interim methadone maintenance results in a

  19. Myopia Control with Bifocal Contact Lenses: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Aller, Thomas A; Liu, Maria; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2016-04-01

    Most studies have reported only minimal reductions in myopia progression with bifocal or progressive multifocal spectacles, although somewhat larger, although mostly still clinically insignificant, effects have been reported in children with nearpoint esophoria and/or accommodative dysfunctions. The CONTROL study was a 1-year, prospective, randomized, clinical trial of bifocal contact lenses for control of myopia in children with eso fixation disparities at near. Eighty-six myopic subjects, aged 8 to 18 years, were enrolled in the study after passing the screening examination. Of these, 79 completed lens assignment and 78 completed the study. The mean refractive error of these 79 subjects was -2.69 ± 1.40D (SD), and all had progressed by -0.50D or more since their last examination. All subjects also had eso fixation disparity at near. Subjects were randomly assigned to wear either Vistakon Acuvue 2 (single-vision soft contact lenses [SVSCLs]) or Vistakon Acuvue Bifocal (bifocal soft contact lenses [BFSCLs]). Bifocal adds were selected to neutralize the associated phoria. Treatment outcomes included cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length, assessed in terms of changes after 6 and 12 months of treatment from pretreatment baseline values. The BFSCLs significantly slowed myopia progression, with statistically significant differences between the treatment groups after 6 months. After 12 months of treatment, the SVSCL group had progressed by -0.79 ± 0.43D compared with -0.22 ± 0.34D for the BFSCL group (cycloplegic objective spherical equivalent, average of two eyes). Corresponding axial length changes were 0.24 ± 0.17 mm and 0.05 ± 0.14 mm, respectively. All of these differences were found to be statistically significant (unpaired t-tests, p < 0.001). The distance center bifocal contact lenses tested in this study achieved greater control over myopia progression and axial elongation (>70%) compared with most published results with multifocal spectacles. Further

  20. Empowerment Program for People With Prediabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Fang; Hung, Shu-Ling; Chen, Shu-Lin

    2017-04-01

    Practicing a health-promoting lifestyle is believed to be effective for delaying or preventing the onset of diabetes. However, although empowerment interventions have proven effective for encouraging the adoption of a health-promoting lifestyle in people with diabetes, these interventions are rarely promoted to people with prediabetes. The aims of this study were to develop an empowerment program for people with prediabetes and to examine its efficacy in terms of the adoption of a health-promoting lifestyle and improvements in blood sugar, body mass index, and self-efficacy. A randomized controlled trial was conducted between May and December 2013. A convenience sample of people with a fasting blood sugar level of 100-125 mg/dl during the previous 3 months was recruited from the health examination center of a hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Participants were assigned to either the experimental group or the control group using block randomization with a block size of 8. The experimental group (n = 38) participated in a 4-month empowerment program (the ABC empowerment program), which encouraged participants to practice a health-promoting lifestyle in three phases: awareness raising, behavior building, and results checking. The control group (n = 40) received routine clinical care. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, independent t test, paired t test, and generalized estimated equations. After controlling for the differences at baseline and considering the interaction between group and time from baseline to 1 week and 3 months after completing the intervention, the generalized estimating equation showed significantly larger improvements in a health-promoting lifestyle, blood sugar, and self-efficacy in the experimental group than in the control group (p < .01). Furthermore, the experimental group achieved a larger reduction in body mass index than the control group at 3 months after completing the intervention (p = .001). The empowerment program was

  1. Aromatherapy as treatment for postoperative nausea: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Ronald; Dienemann, Jacqueline; Norton, H James; Hartley, Wendy; Hudgens, Amanda; Stern, Thomas; Divine, George

    2013-09-01

    Postoperative nausea (PON) is a common complication of anesthesia and surgery. Antiemetic medication for higher-risk patients may reduce but does not reliably prevent PON. We examined aromatherapy as a treatment for patients experiencing PON after ambulatory surgery. Our primary hypothesis was that in comparison with inhaling a placebo, PON will be reduced significantly by aromatherapy with (1) essential oil of ginger, (2) a blend of essential oils of ginger, spearmint, peppermint, and cardamom, or (3) isopropyl alcohol. Our secondary hypothesis was that the effectiveness of aromatherapy will depend upon the agent used. A randomized trial of aromatherapy with patients who reported nausea in the postanesthesia care unit was conducted at one ambulatory surgical center. Eligibility criteria were adult, able to give consent, and no history of coagulation problems or allergy to the aromatherapy agents. Before surgery, demographic and risk factors were collected. Patients with a nausea level of 1 to 3 on a verbal descriptive scale (0-3) received a gauze pad saturated with a randomly chosen aromatherapy agent and were told to inhale deeply 3 times; nausea (0-3) was then measured again in 5 minutes. Prophylactic and postnausea antiemetics were given as ordered by physicians or as requested by the patient. A total of 1151 subjects were screened for inclusion; 303 subjects reporting nausea were enrolled (26.3%), and 301 meeting protocol were analyzed (26.2%). The change in nausea level was significant for the blend (P < 0.001) and ginger (P = 0.002) versus saline but not for alcohol (P < 0.76). The number of antiemetic medications requested after aromatherapy was also significantly reduced with ginger or blend aromatherapy versus saline (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). The hypothesis that aromatherapy would be effective as a treatment for PON was supported. On the basis of our results, future research further evaluating aromatherapy is warranted. Aromatherapy is

  2. A Randomized Trial of Tai Chi for Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H.; Rones, Ramel; Kalish, Robert; Yinh, Janeth; Goldenberg, Don L.; Lee, Yoojin; McAlindon, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that tai chi offers a therapeutic benefit in patients with fibromyalgia. Methods We conducted a single-blind, randomized trial of classic Yang-style tai chi as compared with a control intervention consisting of wellness education and stretching for the treatment of fibromyalgia (defined by American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria). Sessions lasted 60 minutes each and took place twice a week for 12 weeks for each of the study groups. The primary end point was a change in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) score (ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating more severe symptoms) at the end of 12 weeks. Secondary end points included summary scores on the physical and mental components of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). All assessments were repeated at 24 weeks to test the durability of the response. Results Of the 66 randomly assigned patients, the 33 in the tai chi group had clinically important improvements in the FIQ total score and quality of life. Mean (±SD) baseline and 12-week FIQ scores for the tai chi group were 62.9±15.5 and 35.1±18.8, respectively, versus 68.0±11 and 58.6±17.6, respectively, for the control group (change from baseline in the tai chi group vs. change from baseline in the control group, −18.4 points; P<0.001). The corresponding SF-36 physical-component scores were 28.5±8.4 and 37.0±10.5 for the tai chi group versus 28.0±7.8 and 29.4±7.4 for the control group (between-group difference, 7.1 points; P = 0.001), and the mental-component scores were 42.6±12.2 and 50.3±10.2 for the tai chi group versus 37.8±10.5 and 39.4±11.9 for the control group (between-group difference, 6.1 points; P = 0.03). Improvements were maintained at 24 weeks (between-group difference in the FIQ score, −18.3 points; P<0.001). No adverse events were observed. Conclusions Tai chi may be a useful treatment for fibromyalgia and merits long-term study in

  3. Randomized controlled trial of a dose consolidation program.

    PubMed

    Delate, Thomas; Fairman, Kathleen A; Carey, Shelly M; Motheral, Brenda R

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and financial impact of a drug dose consolidation (optimization) program using letter intervention. This pilot program in a large, mid-Atlantic health plan utilized a randomized controlled trial research design. A review of adjudicated pharmacy claims records was performed monthly for 3 consecutive months from November 2002 through February 2003 to identify inefficient (i.e., >once-daily) regimens for any one of 68 dosage strengths of 37 single-source maintenance drugs with once-daily dosing recommendations. Prescribers who had prescribed one or more inefficient regimens were identified and randomized to one of the 2 intervention arms or a control arm. Prescribers in both intervention arms were sent personalized letters with information on their patients. inefficient regimens and suggested dose consolidation options. Patients of prescribers in one intervention arm received a complementary, patient-oriented letter. Pharmacy claims for patients in all arms were examined at 180 days after the date of the letter mailing for conversion to an efficient (once-daily) regimen. Financial modeling analysis calculated net savings as changes in pharmacy expenditures minus administrative costs. A total of 2,614 inefficient regimens, representing 6.7% of claims for the targeted medications, were identified. The rate of consolidation to a suggested dosing option was lower for the Physician Letter arm (7.3%) than for the Physician/Member Letter arm (10.2%) (P = 0.046). Both intervention arms had higher consolidation rates than the Control arm (3.9%) (P = 0.018 and P = 0.000, respectively.). Approximately 30% of the regimens in each study arm were never refilled after being targeted. Financial modeling indicated that a dose consolidation intervention could save 0.03 dollars to 0.07 dollars per member per month (PMPM) in 2003 dollars with full medication compliance but only 0.02 dollars to 0.03 dollars PMPM when savings were calculated with realistic

  4. Randomized controlled trial of atorvastatin in clinically isolated syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Waubant, E.; Pelletier, D.; Mass, M.; Cohen, J.A.; Kita, M.; Cross, A.; Bar-Or, A.; Vollmer, T.; Racke, M.; Stüve, O.; Schwid, S.; Goodman, A.; Kachuck, N.; Preiningerova, J.; Weinstock-Guttman, B.; Calabresi, P.A.; Miller, A.; Mokhtarani, M.; Iklé, D.; Murphy, S.; Kopetskie, H.; Ding, L.; Rosenberg, E.; Spencer, C.; Zamvil, S.S.; Waubant, E.; Pelletier, D.; Mass, M.; Bourdette, D.; Egan, R.; Cohen, J.; Stone, L.; Kita, M.; Elliott, M.; Cross, A.; Parks, B.J.; Bar-Or, A.; Vollmer, T.; Campagnolo, D.; Racke, M.; Stüve, O.; Frohman, E.; Schwid, S.; Goodman, A.; Segal, B.; Kachuck, N.; Weiner, L.; Preiningerova, J.; Carrithers, M.; Weinstock-Guttman, B.; Calabresi, P.; Kerr, D.; Miller, A.; Lublin, F.; Sayre, Peter; Hayes, Deborah; Rosenberg, Ellen; Gao, Wendy; Ding, Linna; Adah, Steven; Mokhtarani, Masoud; Neuenburg, Jutta; Bromstead, Carolyn; Olinger, Lynn; Mullen, Blair; Jamison, Ross; Speth, Kelly; Saljooqi, Kerensa; Phan, Peter; Phippard, Deborah; Seyfert-Margolis, Vicki; Bourcier, Katarzyna; Debnam, Tracia; Romaine, Jennifer; Wolin, Stephanie; O'Dale, Brittany; Iklé, David; Murphy, Stacey; Kopetskie, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To test efficacy and safety of atorvastatin in subjects with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Methods: Subjects with CIS were enrolled in a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 14-center randomized trial testing 80 mg atorvastatin on clinical and brain MRI activity. Brain MRIs were performed quarterly. The primary endpoint (PEP) was development of ≥3 new T2 lesions, or one clinical relapse within 12 months. Subjects meeting the PEP were offered additional weekly interferon β-1a (IFNβ-1a). Results: Due to slow recruitment, enrollment was discontinued after 81 of 152 planned subjects with CIS were randomized and initiated study drug. Median (interquartile range) numbers of T2 and gadolinium-enhancing (Gd) lesions were 15.0 (22.0) and 0.0 (0.0) at baseline. A total of 53.1% of atorvastatin recipients (n = 26/49) met PEP compared to 56.3% of placebo recipients (n = 18/32) (p = 0.82). Eleven atorvastatin subjects (22.4%) and 7 placebo subjects (21.9%) met the PEP by clinical criteria. Proportion of subjects who did not develop new T2 lesions up to month 12 or to starting IFNβ-1a was 55.3% in the atorvastatin and 27.6% in the placebo group (p = 0.03). Likelihood of remaining free of new T2 lesions was significantly greater in the atorvastatin group compared with placebo (odds ratio [OR] = 4.34, p = 0.01). Likelihood of remaining free of Gd lesions tended to be higher in the atorvastatin group (OR = 2.72, p = 0.11). Overall, atorvastatin was well tolerated. No clear antagonistic effect of atorvastatin plus IFNβ-1a was observed on MRI measures. Conclusion: Atorvastatin treatment significantly decreased development of new brain MRI T2 lesion activity, although it did not achieve the composite clinical and imaging PEP. Classification of Evidence: This study provided Class II evidence that atorvastatin did not reduce the proportion of patients with CIS meeting imaging and clinical criteria for starting immunomodulating therapy after 12 months

  5. Randomized open-label trial of dextromethorphan in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith-Hicks, Constance L; Gupta, Siddharth; Ewen, Joshua B; Hong, Manisha; Kratz, Lisa; Kelley, Richard; Tierney, Elaine; Vaurio, Rebecca; Bibat, Genila; Sanyal, Abanti; Yenokyan, Gayane; Brereton, Nga; Johnston, Michael V; Naidu, Sakkubai

    2017-10-17

    To determine safety and perform a preliminary assessment of dose-dependent efficacy of dextromethorphan in normalizing electrographic spikes, clinical seizures, and behavioral and cognitive functions in girls with Rett syndrome. We used a prospective randomized, open-label trial in fast metabolizers of dextromethorphan to examine the effect of dextromethorphan on core clinical features of Rett syndrome. Interictal spike activity and clinical seizures were determined using EEG and parent reporting. Cognitive data were obtained using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, while behavioral data were obtained from parent-completed checklists, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Version, and the Screen for Social Interaction. Anthropometric data were obtained according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The Rett Syndrome Severity Scale provided a clinical global impression of the effect of dextromethorphan on clinical severity. Dextromethorphan is safe for use in 3- to 15-year-old girls with Rett syndrome. Thirty-five girls were treated with 1 of 3 doses of dextromethorphan over a period of 6 months. Statistically significant dose-dependent improvements were seen in clinical seizures, receptive language, and behavioral hyperactivity. There was no significant improvement in global clinical severity as measured by the Rett Syndrome Severity Scale. Dextromethorphan is a potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor channel that is safe for use in young girls with Rett syndrome. Preliminary evidence suggests that dextromethorphan may improve some core features of Rett syndrome. This study provides Class IV evidence that dextromethorphan at various doses does not change EEG spike counts over 6 months, though precision was limited to exclude an important effect. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Oxytocin and autism: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Preti, Antonio; Melis, Mariangela; Siddi, Sara; Vellante, Marcello; Doneddu, Giuseppe; Fadda, Roberta

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions on autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This is a systematic review of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of oxytocin interventions in autism, made from January 1990 to September 2013. A search of computerized databases was supplemented by manual search in the bibliographies of key publications. The methodological quality of the studies included in the review was evaluated independently by two researchers, according to a set of formal criteria. Discrepancies in scoring were resolved through discussion. The review yielded seven RCTs, including 101 subjects with ASD (males=95) and 8 males with Fragile X syndrome. The main categories of target symptoms tested in the studies were repetitive behaviors, eye gaze, and emotion recognition. The studies had a medium to high risk of bias. Most studies had small samples (median=15). All the studies but one reported statistically significant between-group differences on at least one outcome variable. Most findings were characterized by medium effect size. Only one study had evidence that the improvement in emotion recognition was maintained after 6 weeks of treatment with intranasal oxytocin. Overall, oxytocin was well tolerated and side effects, when present, were generally rated as mild; however, restlessness, increased irritability, and increased energy occurred more often under oxytocin. RCTs of oxytocin interventions in autism yielded potentially promising findings in measures of emotion recognition and eye gaze, which are impaired early in the course of the ASD condition and might disrupt social skills learning in developing children. There is a need for larger, more methodologically rigorous RCTs in this area. Future studies should be better powered to estimate outcomes with medium to low effect size, and should try to enroll female participants, who were rarely considered in previous studies. Risk of bias should be minimized. Human long

  7. Pragmatic Randomized Trials Without Standard Informed Consent?: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Rahul K; Wendler, David; Miller, Franklin G; Kim, Scott Y H

    2015-09-01

    Significant debate surrounds the issue of whether written consent is necessary for pragmatic randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) with low risk. To assess the U.S. public's views on alternatives to written consent for low-risk pragmatic RCTs. National experimental survey (2 × 2 factorial design) examining support for written consent versus general notification or verbal consent in 2 research scenarios. Web-based survey conducted in December 2014. 2130 U.S. adults sampled from a nationally representative, probability-based online panel (response rate, 64.0%). Respondent's recommendation to an ethics review board and personal preference as a potential participant on how to obtain consent or notification in the 2 research scenarios. Most respondents in each of the 4 groups (range, 60.3% to 71.5%) recommended written informed consent, and personal preferences were generally in accord with that advice. Most (78.9%) believed that the pragmatic RCTs did not pose additional risks, but 62.5% of these respondents would still recommend written consent. In contrast, a substantial minority in all groups (28.5% to 39.7%) recommended the alternative option (general notification or verbal consent) over written consent. Framing effects could have affected respondents' attitudes, and nonrespondents may have differed in levels of trust toward research or health care institutions. Most of the public favored written informed consent over the most widely advocated alternatives for low-risk pragmatic RCTs; however, a substantial minority favored general notification or verbal consent. Time-sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences and Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center.

  8. Parent Mentors and Insuring Uninsured Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hua; Walker, Candy; Lee, Michael; Currie, Janet M.; Allgeyer, Rick; Fierro, Marco; Henry, Monica; Portillo, Alberto; Massey, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Six million US children are uninsured, despite two-thirds being eligible for Medicaid/Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and minority children are at especially high risk. The most effective way to insure uninsured children, however, is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial of the effects of parent mentors (PMs) on insuring uninsured minority children. PMs were experienced parents with ≥1 Medicaid/CHIP-covered child who received 2 days of training, then assisted families for 1 year with insurance applications, retaining coverage, medical homes, and social needs; controls received traditional Medicaid/CHIP outreach. The primary outcome was obtaining insurance 1 year post-enrollment. RESULTS: We enrolled 237 participants (114 controls; 123 in PM group). PMs were more effective (P< .05 for all comparisons) than traditional methods in insuring children (95% vs 68%), and achieving faster coverage (median = 62 vs 140 days), high parental satisfaction (84% vs 62%), and coverage renewal (85% vs 60%). PM children were less likely to have no primary care provider (15% vs 39%), problems getting specialty care (11% vs 46%), unmet preventive (4% vs 22%) or dental (18% vs 31%) care needs, dissatisfaction with doctors (6% vs 16%), and needed additional income for medical expenses (6% vs 13%). Two years post-PM cessation, more PM children were insured (100% vs 76%). PMs cost $53.05 per child per month, but saved $6045.22 per child insured per year. CONCLUSIONS: PMs are more effective than traditional Medicaid/CHIP methods in insuring uninsured minority children, improving health care access, and achieving parental satisfaction, but are inexpensive and highly cost-effective. PMID:27244706

  9. Strategies for Improving Vaccine Delivery: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Fu, Linda Y; Zook, Kathleen; Gingold, Janet A; Gillespie, Catherine W; Briccetti, Christine; Cora-Bramble, Denice; Joseph, Jill G; Haimowitz, Rachel; Moon, Rachel Y

    2016-06-01

    New emphasis on and requirements for demonstrating health care quality have increased the need for evidence-based methods to disseminate practice guidelines. With regard to impact on pediatric immunization coverage, we aimed to compare a financial incentive program (pay-for-performance [P4P]) and a virtual quality improvement technical support (QITS) learning collaborative. This single-blinded (to outcomes assessor), cluster-randomized trial was conducted among unaffiliated pediatric practices across the United States from June 2013 to June 2014. Practices received either the P4P or QITS intervention. All practices received a Vaccinator Toolkit. P4P practices participated in a tiered financial incentives program for immunization coverage improvement. QITS practices participated in a virtual learning collaborative. Primary outcome was percentage of all needed vaccines received (PANVR). We also assessed immunization up-to-date (UTD) status. Data were analyzed from 3,147 patient records from 32 practices. Practices in the study arms reported similar QI activities (∼6 to 7 activities). We found no difference in PANVR between P4P and QITS (mean ± SE, 90.7% ± 1.1% vs 86.1% ± 1.3%, P = 0.46). Likewise, there was no difference in odds of being UTD between study arms (adjusted odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.68 to 1.52, P = .93). In within-group analysis, patients in both arms experienced nonsignificant increases in PANVR. Similarly, the change in adjusted odds of UTD over time was modest and nonsignificant for P4P but reached significance in the QITS arm (adjusted odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.60, P = .03). Participation in either a financial incentives program or a virtual learning collaborative led to self-reported improvements in immunization practices but minimal change in objectively measured immunization coverage. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Using an informed consent in mammography screening: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Baena-Cañada, José M; Rosado-Varela, Petra; Expósito-Álvarez, Inmaculada; González-Guerrero, Macarena; Nieto-Vera, Juan; Benítez-Rodríguez, Encarnación

    2015-12-01

    Spanish women do not make an informed choice regarding breast cancer screening (BCS). Our aim was to evaluate the impact of receiving information regarding real BCS benefits and risks on knowledge, attitude, decision, feelings, and worries about cancer. Randomized controlled clinical trial of 355 women aged between 45 and 67 years, 177 and 178 assigned to the intervention group (IG) and control group (CG), respectively. After breast screening, women received either Nordic Cochrane Centre information on BCS or standard information. The primary outcome (knowledge) was determined from questionnaire administered at baseline and after a month. Answers were scored from 0 to 10 and scores of 5 or more indicated that women were well informed (had "good knowledge"). Questionnaires regarding attitudes, future screening intentions, and psychosocial impact were also administered. The Chi-squared and Student's t-tests were used to compare qualitative and quantitative variables, respectively. Good knowledge was acquired by 32 (18.10%) IG women and 15 (8.40%) CG women (P = 0.008). Mean scores from first to second interview increased from 2.97 (SD 1.16) to 3.43 (SD 1.39) in the CG and from and from 2.96 (SD 1.23) to 3.95 (SD 1.78) (P = 0.002) in the IG. No differences were found in the secondary endpoints. Women receiving information based on the Nordic Cochrane Centre document were better informed. This means of providing information is not very efficacious, nor does it modify attitude, decision, feelings, or worries about cancer. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Randomized Crossover Trial of Silicone Hydrogel Presbyopic Contact Lenses.

    PubMed

    Sivardeen, Ahmed; Laughton, Deborah; Wolffsohn, James S

    2016-02-01

    To assess the performance of four commercially available silicone hydrogel multifocal monthly contact lens designs against monovision. A double-masked randomized crossover trial of Air Optix Aqua multifocal, PureVision 2 for Presbyopia, Acuvue OASYS for Presbyopia, Biofinity multifocal, and monovision with Biofinity contact lenses was conducted on 35 presbyopes (54.3 ± 6.2 years). After 4 weeks of wear, visual performance was quantified by high- and low-contrast visual acuity under photopic and mesopic conditions, reading speed, defocus curves, stereopsis, halometry, aberrometry, Near Activity Visual Questionnaire rating, and subjective quality of vision scoring. Bulbar, limbal, and palpebral hyperemia and corneal staining were graded to monitor the impact of each contact lens on ocular physiology. High-contrast photopic visual acuity (p = 0.102), reading speed (F = 1.082, p = 0.368), and aberrometry (F = 0.855, p = 0.493) were not significantly different between presbyopic lens options. Defocus curve profiles (p < 0.001), stereopsis (p < 0.001), halometry (F = 4.101, p = 0.004), Near Activity Visual Questionnaire (F = 3.730, p = 0.007), quality of vision (p = 0.002), bulbar hyperemia (p = 0.020), and palpebral hyperemia (p = 0.012) differed significantly between lens types, with the Biofinity multifocal lens design principal (center-distance lens was fitted to the dominant eye and a center-near lens to the nondominant eye) typically outperforming the other lenses. Although ocular aberration variation between individuals largely masks the differences in optics between current multifocal contact lens designs, certain design strategies can outperform monovision, even in early presbyopes.

  12. Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Infant Morbidity: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Imhoff-Kunsch, Beth; Stein, Aryeh D.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Parra-Cabrera, Socorro; Romieu, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) influence immune function and inflammation; however, the influence of maternal DHA supplementation on infant morbidity is unknown. We investigated the effects of prenatal DHA supplementation on infant morbidity. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in Mexico, pregnant women received daily supplementation with 400 mg of DHA or placebo from 18 to 22 weeks' gestation through parturition. In infants aged 1, 3, and 6 months, caregivers reported the occurrence of common illness symptoms in the preceding 15 days. RESULTS: Data were available at 1, 3, and 6 months for 849, 834, and 834 infants, respectively. The occurrence of specific illness symptoms did not differ between groups; however, the occurrence of a combined measure of cold symptoms was lower in the DHA group at 1 month (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58–1.00). At 1 month, the DHA group experienced 26%, 15%, and 30% shorter duration of cough, phlegm, and wheezing, respectively, but 22% longer duration of rash (all P ≤ .01). At 3 months, infants in the DHA group spent 14% less time ill (P < .0001). At 6 months, infants in the DHA group experienced 20%, 13%, 54%, 23%, and 25% shorter duration of fever, nasal secretion, difficulty breathing, rash, and “other illness,” respectively, but 74% longer duration of vomiting (all P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: DHA supplementation during pregnancy decreased the occurrence of colds in children at 1 month and influenced illness symptom duration at 1, 3, and 6 months. PMID:21807696

  13. Modifying media content for preschool children: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Garrison, Michelle M; Herrenkohl, Todd; Haggerty, Kevin; Rivara, Frederick P; Zhou, Chuan; Liekweg, Kimberly

    2013-03-01

    Although previous studies have revealed that preschool-aged children imitate both aggression and prosocial behaviors on screen, there have been few population-based studies designed to reduce aggression in preschool-aged children by modifying what they watch. We devised a media diet intervention wherein parents were assisted in substituting high quality prosocial and educational programming for aggression-laden programming without trying to reduce total screen time. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 565 parents of preschool-aged children ages 3 to 5 years recruited from community pediatric practices. Outcomes were derived from the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation at 6 and 12 months. At 6 months, the overall mean Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation score was 2.11 points better (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78-3.44) in the intervention group as compared with the controls, and similar effects were observed for the externalizing subscale (0.68 [95% CI: 0.06-1.30]) and the social competence subscale (1.04 [95% CI: 0.34-1.74]). The effect for the internalizing subscale was in a positive direction but was not statistically significant (0.42 [95% CI: -0.14 to 0.99]). Although the effect sizes did not noticeably decay at 12 months, the effect on the externalizing subscale was no longer statistically significant (P = .05). In a stratified analysis of the effect on the overall scores, low-income boys appeared to derive the greatest benefit (6.48 [95% CI: 1.60-11.37]). An intervention to reduce exposure to screen violence and increase exposure to prosocial programming can positively impact child behavior.

  14. Improving influenza vaccination rates in the workplace: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Toback, Seth L; Rousculp, Matthew D; Eby, Charles; Raymund, Mahlon; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2010-03-01

    To minimize absenteeism resulting from influenza, employers frequently offer on-site influenza vaccination to employees. Yet the level of uptake of vaccine is low among working adults. This study was designed to increase workplace influenza vaccination rates by offering both a choice of intranasal (LAIV) and injectable (TIV) influenza vaccines to eligible employees, and an incentive for being vaccinated, and by increasing awareness of the vaccine clinic. This study used a stratified randomized cluster trial. A total of 12,222 employees in 53 U.S. companies with previous influenza vaccine clinics were examined. Control sites advertised and offered vaccine clinics as previously done. Choice sites offered LAIV or TIV and maintained their previous advertising level but promoted the choice of vaccines. Choice Plus sites increased advertising and promoted and offered a choice of vaccines and a nominal incentive. These included vaccination rates among eligible employees. Hierarchic linear modeling (HLM) was used to determine factors associated with vaccination. The overall vaccination rate increased from 39% in 2007-2008 to 46% in 2008-2009 (p<0.001). The difference in vaccination rates for LAIV was 6.5% for Choice versus Control and 9.9% for Choice Plus versus Control (both p<0.001). Rates of TIV increased by 15.9 percentage points in the Choice Plus arm versus Control for workers aged > or =50 years (p=0.024). Rates of TIV did not change in workers aged 18-49 years in either intervention arm or in workers aged > or =50 years in the Choice arm. In HLM analyses, factors significantly associated with increased vaccination were older age, female gender, previous company vaccination rate, and the Choice Plus intervention. An incentive for vaccination, an intensified advertising campaign, and offering a choice of influenza vaccines improved vaccination rates in the workplace. Copyright (c) 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Identifying randomized clinical trials in Spanish-language dermatology journals.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente, G; Pardo, H; Sánchez, S; Bonfill, X

    2015-06-01

    The necessary foundation for good clinical practice lies in knowledge derived from clinical research. Evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) is the pillar on which decisions about therapy are based. To search exhaustively and rigorously to identify RCTs in dermatology journals published in Spanish. We located dermatology journals through the following search engines and indexes: PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Periódica, Latindex, Índice Médico Español, C-17, IBECS, EMBASE, and IMBIOMED. We also sought information through dermatology associations and dermatologists in countries where Spanish was the usual language of publication, and we searched the Internet (Google). Afterwards we searched the journals electronically and manually to identify RCTs in all available volumes and issues, checking from the year publication started through 2012. Of 28 journals identified, we included 21 in the search. We found a total of 144 RCTs published since 1969; 78 (54%) were in Latin American journals and 66 (46%) were in Spanish journals. The most frequent disease contexts for RCTs in Spanish journals were psoriasis, mycoses, and acne vulgaris. In Latin American journals, the most frequent disease contexts were common warts, mycoses, acne vulgaris, and skin ulcers on the lower limbs. Manual searches identified more RCTs than electronic searches. Manual searches found a larger number of RCTs. Relatively fewer RCTs are published in Spanish and Latin American journals than in English-language journals. Internet facilitated access to full texts published by many journals; however, free open access to these texts is still unavailable and a large number of journal issues are still not posted online. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary Fiber Supplementation for Fecal Incontinence: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann; Sheng, Xioayan

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fiber supplements are used to manage fecal incontinence (FI), but little is known about the fiber type to recommend or the level of effectiveness of such supplements, which appear related to the fermentability of the fiber. The aim of this single-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of three dietary fiber supplements (carboxymethylcellulose [CMC], gum arabic [GA], or psyllium) with differing levels of fermentability to a placebo in community-living individuals incontinent of loose/liquid feces. The primary outcome was FI frequency; secondary outcomes included FI amount and consistency, supplement intolerance, and quality of life (QoL). Possible mechanisms underlying supplement effects were also examined. After a 14-day baseline, 189 subjects consumed a placebo or 16g total fiber/day of one of the fiber supplements for 32 days. FI frequency significantly decreased after psyllium supplementation versus placebo, in both intent-to-treat and per-protocol mixed model analyses. CMC increased FI frequency. In intent-to-treat analysis, the number of FI episodes/week after supplementation was estimated to be 5.5 for Placebo, 2.5 for Psyllium, 4.3 for GA, and 6.2 for CMC. Only psyllium consumption resulted in a gel in feces. Supplement intolerance was low. QoL scores did not differ among groups. Patients with FI may experience a reduction in FI frequency after psyllium supplementation, and decreased FI frequency has been shown to be an important personal goal of treatment for patients with FI. Formation of a gel in feces appears to be a mechanism by which residual psyllium improved FI. PMID:25155992

  17. Behavioral neurocardiac training in hypertension: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Robert P; Floras, John S; Harvey, Paula J; Kamath, Markad V; Picton, Peter E; Chessex, Caroline; Hiscock, Natalie; Powell, Jonathan; Catt, Michael; Hendrickx, Hilde; Talbot, Duncan; Chen, Maggie H

    2010-04-01

    It is not established whether behavioral interventions add benefit to pharmacological therapy for hypertension. We hypothesized that behavioral neurocardiac training (BNT) with heart rate variability biofeedback would reduce blood pressure further by modifying vagal heart rate modulation during reactivity and recovery from standardized cognitive tasks ("mental stress"). This randomized, controlled trial enrolled 65 patients with uncomplicated hypertension to BNT or active control (autogenic relaxation), with six 1-hour sessions over 2 months with home practice. Outcomes were analyzed with linear mixed models that adjusted for antihypertensive drugs. BNT reduced daytime and 24-hour systolic blood pressures (-2.4+/-0.9 mm Hg, P=0.009, and -2.1+/-0.9 mm Hg, P=0.03, respectively) and pulse pressures (-1.7+/-0.6 mm Hg, P=0.004, and -1.4+/-0.6 mm Hg, P=0.02, respectively). No effect was observed for controls (P>0.10 for all indices). BNT also increased RR-high-frequency power (0.15 to 0.40 Hz; P=0.01) and RR interval (P<0.001) during cognitive tasks. Among controls, high-frequency power was unchanged (P=0.29), and RR interval decreased (P=0.03). Neither intervention altered spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (P>0.10). In contrast to relaxation therapy, BNT with heart rate variability biofeedback modestly lowers ambulatory blood pressure during wakefulness, and it augments tonic vagal heart rate modulation. It is unknown whether efficacy of this treatment can be improved with biofeedback of baroreflex gain. BNT, alone or as an adjunct to drug therapy, may represent a promising new intervention for hypertension.

  18. Regression Discontinuity and Randomized Controlled Trial Estimates: An Application to The Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trials.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Catherine E; Venkatesh Prajna, N; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Rajaraman, Revathi; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Ray, Kathryn J; O'Brien, Kieran S; Glymour, M Maria; Porco, Travis C; Acharya, Nisha R; Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer; Lietman, Thomas M

    2018-08-01

    We compare results from regression discontinuity (RD) analysis to primary results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) utilizing data from two contemporaneous RCTs for treatment of fungal corneal ulcers. Patients were enrolled in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trials I and II (MUTT I & MUTT II) based on baseline visual acuity: patients with acuity ≤ 20/400 (logMAR 1.3) enrolled in MUTT I, and >20/400 in MUTT II. MUTT I investigated the effect of topical natamycin versus voriconazole on best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. MUTT II investigated the effect of topical voriconazole plus placebo versus topical voriconazole plus oral voriconazole. We compared the RD estimate (natamycin arm of MUTT I [N = 162] versus placebo arm of MUTT II [N = 54]) to the RCT estimate from MUTT I (topical natamycin [N = 162] versus topical voriconazole [N = 161]). In the RD, patients receiving natamycin had mean improvement of 4-lines of visual acuity at 3 months (logMAR -0.39, 95% CI: -0.61, -0.17) compared to topical voriconazole plus placebo, and 2-lines in the RCT (logMAR -0.18, 95% CI: -0.30, -0.05) compared to topical voriconazole. The RD and RCT estimates were similar, although the RD design overestimated effects compared to the RCT.

  19. Review of Recent Methodological Developments in Group-Randomized Trials: Part 1—Design

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fan; Gallis, John A.; Prague, Melanie; Murray, David M.

    2017-01-01

    In 2004, Murray et al. reviewed methodological developments in the design and analysis of group-randomized trials (GRTs). We have highlighted the developments of the past 13 years in design with a companion article to focus on developments in analysis. As a pair, these articles update the 2004 review. We have discussed developments in the topics of the earlier review (e.g., clustering, matching, and individually randomized group-treatment trials) and in new topics, including constrained randomization and a range of randomized designs that are alternatives to the standard parallel-arm GRT. These include the stepped-wedge GRT, the pseudocluster randomized trial, and the network-randomized GRT, which, like the parallel-arm GRT, require clustering to be accounted for in both their design and analysis. PMID:28426295

  20. Review of Recent Methodological Developments in Group-Randomized Trials: Part 1-Design.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth L; Li, Fan; Gallis, John A; Prague, Melanie; Murray, David M

    2017-06-01

    In 2004, Murray et al. reviewed methodological developments in the design and analysis of group-randomized trials (GRTs). We have highlighted the developments of the past 13 years in design with a companion article to focus on developments in analysis. As a pair, these articles update the 2004 review. We have discussed developments in the topics of the earlier review (e.g., clustering, matching, and individually randomized group-treatment trials) and in new topics, including constrained randomization and a range of randomized designs that are alternatives to the standard parallel-arm GRT. These include the stepped-wedge GRT, the pseudocluster randomized trial, and the network-randomized GRT, which, like the parallel-arm GRT, require clustering to be accounted for in both their design and analysis.

  1. Design and rationale for the Influenza vaccination After Myocardial Infarction (IAMI) trial. A registry-based randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fröbert, Ole; Götberg, Matthias; Angerås, Oskar; Jonasson, Lena; Erlinge, David; Engstrøm, Thomas; Persson, Jonas; Jensen, Svend E; Omerovic, Elmir; James, Stefan K; Lagerqvist, Bo; Nilsson, Johan; Kåregren, Amra; Moer, Rasmus; Yang, Cao; Agus, David B; Erglis, Andrejs; Jensen, Lisette O; Jakobsen, Lars; Christiansen, Evald H; Pernow, John

    2017-07-01

    Registry studies and case-control studies have demonstrated that the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is increased following influenza infection. Small randomized trials, underpowered for clinical end points, indicate that future cardiovascular events can be reduced following influenza vaccination in patients with established cardiovascular disease. Influenza vaccination is recommended by international guidelines for patients with cardiovascular disease, but uptake is varying and vaccination is rarely prioritized during hospitalization for AMI. The Influenza vaccination After Myocardial Infarction (IAMI) trial is a double-blind, multicenter, prospective, registry-based, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. A total of 4,400 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI undergoing coronary angiography will randomly be assigned either to in-hospital influenza vaccination or to placebo. Baseline information is collected from national heart disease registries, and follow-up will be performed using both registries and a structured telephone interview. The primary end point is a composite of time to all-cause death, a new AMI, or stent thrombosis at 1 year. The IAMI trial is the largest randomized trial to date to evaluate the effect of in-hospital influenza vaccination on death and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with STEMI or non-STEMI. The trial is expected to provide highly relevant clinical data on the efficacy of influenza vaccine as secondary prevention after AMI. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of the Finnish Alzheimer disease exercise trial (FINALEX): a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Pöysti, Minna M; Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Tilvis, Reijo S; Savikko, Niina; Kautiainen, Hannu; Strandberg, Timo E

    2013-05-27

    Few rigorous clinical trials have investigated the effectiveness of exercise on the physical functioning of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). To investigate the effects of intense and long-term exercise on the physical functioning and mobility of home-dwelling patients with AD and to explore its effects on the use and costs of health and social services. A randomized controlled trial. A total of 210 home-dwelling patients with AD living with their spousal caregiver. The 3 trial arms included (1) group-based exercise (GE; 4-hour sessions with approximately 1-hour training) and (2) tailored home-based exercise (HE; 1-hour training), both twice a week for 1 year, and (3) a control group (CG) receiving the usual community care. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Short Physical Performance Battery, and information on the use and costs of social and health care services. All groups deteriorated in functioning during the year after randomization, but deterioration was significantly faster in the CG than in the HE or GE group at 6 (P = .003) and 12 (P = .015) months. The FIM changes at 12 months were -7.1 (95% CI, -3.7 to -10.5), -10.3 (95% CI, -6.7 to -13.9), and -14.4 (95% CI, -10.9 to -18.0) in the HE group, GE group, and CG, respectively. The HE and GE groups had significantly fewer falls than the CG during the follow-up year. The total costs of health and social services for the HE patient-caregiver dyads (in US dollars per dyad per year) were $25,112 (95% CI, $17,642 to $32,581) (P = .13 for comparison with the CG), $22,066 in the GE group ($15,931 to $28,199; P = .03 vs CG), and $34,121 ($24,559 to $43,681) in the CG. An intensive and long-term exercise program had beneficial effects on the physical functioning of patients with AD without increasing the total costs of health and social services or causing any significant adverse effects. anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12608000037303.

  3. Factors Associated With Time to Site Activation, Randomization, and Enrollment Performance in a Stroke Prevention Trial.

    PubMed

    Demaerschalk, Bart M; Brown, Robert D; Roubin, Gary S; Howard, Virginia J; Cesko, Eldina; Barrett, Kevin M; Longbottom, Mary E; Voeks, Jenifer H; Chaturvedi, Seemant; Brott, Thomas G; Lal, Brajesh K; Meschia, James F; Howard, George

    2017-09-01

    Multicenter clinical trials attempt to select sites that can move rapidly to randomization and enroll sufficient numbers of patients. However, there are few assessments of the success of site selection. In the CREST-2 (Carotid Revascularization and Medical Management for Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Trials), we assess factors associated with the time between site selection and authorization to randomize, the time between authorization to randomize and the first randomization, and the average number of randomizations per site per month. Potential factors included characteristics of the site, specialty of the principal investigator, and site type. For 147 sites, the median time between site selection to authorization to randomize was 9.9 months (interquartile range, 7.7, 12.4), and factors associated with early site activation were not identified. The median time between authorization to randomize and a randomization was 4.6 months (interquartile range, 2.6, 10.5). Sites with authorization to randomize in only the carotid endarterectomy study were slower to randomize, and other factors examined were not significantly associated with time-to-randomization. The recruitment rate was 0.26 (95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.28) patients per site per month. By univariate analysis, factors associated with faster recruitment were authorization to randomize in both trials, principal investigator specialties of interventional radiology and cardiology, pre-trial reported performance >50 carotid angioplasty and stenting procedures per year, status in the top half of recruitment in the CREST trial, and classification as a private health facility. Participation in StrokeNet was associated with slower recruitment as compared with the non-StrokeNet sites. Overall, selection of sites with high enrollment rates will likely require customization to align the sites selected to the factor under study in the trial. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02089217. © 2017

  4. Mirror therapy in unilateral neglect after stroke (MUST trial): a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Arora, Rajni; Kaur, Paramdeep; Sharma, Deepika; Vishwambaran, Dheeraj K; Arima, Hisatomi

    2014-09-09

    We explored the effectiveness of mirror therapy (MT) in the treatment of unilateral neglect in stroke patients. This is an open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial carried out from January 2011 to August 2013. We included stroke patients with thalamic and parietal lobe lesions with unilateral neglect 48 hours after stroke. Patients were randomized to the MT group or the control group (sham MT), and both the groups received limb activation. Patients received treatment for 1-2 hours a day 5 days a week for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was unilateral neglect assessed by a blinded assessor using the star cancellation test, the line bisection test, and a picture identification task at 1, 3, and 6 months. This study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01735877). Forty-eight patients were randomized to MT (n = 27) or the control group (n = 21). Improvement in scores on the star cancellation test over 6 months was greater in the MT group (mean difference 23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 19-28; p < 0.0001). Similarly, improvement in the MT group was observed in the scores on the picture identification task (mean difference 3.2, 95% CI 2.4-4.0; p < 0.0001) and line bisection test (mean difference 8.6, 95% CI 2.7-14.6; p = 0.006). In patients with stroke, MT is a simple treatment that improves unilateral neglect. This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with neglect from thalamic and parietal lobe strokes, MT improves neglect. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Procedural and Physical Interventions for Vaccine Injections: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials and Quasi-Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Taddio, Anna; Shah, Vibhuti; McMurtry, C Meghan; MacDonald, Noni E; Ipp, Moshe; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T

    2015-10-01

    This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of physical and procedural interventions for reducing pain and related outcomes during vaccination. Databases were searched using a broad search strategy to identify relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Data were extracted according to procedure phase (preprocedure, acute, recovery, and combinations of these) and pooled using established methods. A total of 31 studies were included. Acute infant distress was diminished during intramuscular injection without aspiration (n=313): standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.18, -0.46). Injecting the most painful vaccine last during vaccinations reduced acute infant distress (n=196): SMD -0.69 (95% CI: -0.98, -0.4). Simultaneous injections reduced acute infant distress compared with sequential injections (n=172): SMD -0.56 (95% CI: -0.87, -0.25). There was no benefit of simultaneous injections in children. Less infant distress during the acute and recovery phases combined occurred with vastus lateralis (vs. deltoid) injections (n=185): SMD -0.70 (95% CI: -1.00, -0.41). Skin-to-skin contact in neonates (n=736) reduced acute distress: SMD -0.65 (95% CI: -1.05, -0.25). Holding infants reduced acute distress after removal of the data from 1 methodologically diverse study (n=107): SMD -1.25 (95% CI: -2.05, -0.46). Holding after vaccination (n=417) reduced infant distress during the acute and recovery phases combined: SMD -0.65 (95% CI: -1.08, -0.22). Self-reported fear was reduced for children positioned upright (n=107): SMD -0.39 (95% CI: -0.77, -0.01). Non-nutritive sucking (n=186) reduced acute distress in infants: SMD -1.88 (95% CI: -2.57, -1.18). Manual tactile stimulation did not reduce pain across the lifespan. An external vibrating device and cold reduced pain in children (n=145): SMD -1.23 (95% CI: -1.58, -0.87). There was no benefit of warming the vaccine in adults. Muscle tension was beneficial in selected

  6. Experiences of randomization: interviews with patients and clinicians in the SPCG-IV trial.

    PubMed

    Bill-Axelson, Anna; Christensson, Anna; Carlsson, Marianne; Norlén, Bo Johan; Holmberg, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Recruitment of both patients and clinicians to randomized trials is difficult. Low participation carries the risk of terminating studies early and making them invalid owing to insufficient statistical power. This study investigated patients' and clinicians' experiences of randomization with the aim of facilitating trial participation in the future. This was a qualitative study using content analysis. Patients offered to participate in a randomized trial and randomizing clinicians were interviewed. Five participants, four non-participants and five randomizing clinicians were interviewed, 2-8 years from randomization. Clinicians used strategies in interaction with the patients to facilitate decision making. Patients' attitudes differed and experiences of relatives or friends were often stated as reasons for treatment preferences. Patients described that letting chance decide treatment was a difficult barrier to overcome for randomization. The clinicians used a number of different strategies perceived to make randomization more acceptable to their patients. The clinicians' own motivation for randomizing patients for trials depended on the medical relevance of the study question and the clinicians' major obstacle was to maintain equipoise over time. Regular meetings with the study group helped to maintain equipoise and motivation. To establish a good platform for randomization the clinician needs to know about the patient's treatment preferences and the patient's attitude concerning the role of the clinician to facilitate decision making. The strategies used by the clinicians were perceived as helpful and could be tested in an intervention study.

  7. A Data Management System Integrating Web-based Training and Randomized Trials: Requirements, Experiences and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Muroff, Jordana; Amodeo, Maryann; Larson, Mary Jo; Carey, Margaret; Loftin, Ralph D

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a data management system (DMS) developed to support a large-scale randomized study of an innovative web-course that was designed to improve substance abuse counselors' knowledge and skills in applying a substance abuse treatment method (i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy; CBT). The randomized trial compared the performance of web-course-trained participants (intervention group) and printed-manual-trained participants (comparison group) to determine the effectiveness of the web-course in teaching CBT skills. A single DMS was needed to support all aspects of the study: web-course delivery and management, as well as randomized trial management. The authors briefly reviewed several other systems that were described as built either to handle randomized trials or to deliver and evaluate web-based training. However it was clear that these systems fell short of meeting our needs for simultaneous, coordinated management of the web-course and the randomized trial. New England Research Institute's (NERI) proprietary Advanced Data Entry and Protocol Tracking (ADEPT) system was coupled with the web-programmed course and customized for our purposes. This article highlights the requirements for a DMS that operates at the intersection of web-based course management systems and randomized clinical trial systems, and the extent to which the coupled, customized ADEPT satisfied those requirements. Recommendations are included for institutions and individuals considering conducting randomized trials and web-based training programs, and seeking a DMS that can meet similar requirements.

  8. Analysis of Factors Affecting Successful Clinical Trial Enrollment in the Context of Three Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Jennifer K.; Tang, Chad; Liao, Zhongxing

    Purpose: Challenges can arise when attempting to maximize patient enrollment in clinical trials. There have been limited studies focusing on the barriers to enrollment and the efficacy of alternative study design to improve accrual. We analyzed barriers to clinical trial enrollment, particularly the influence of timing, in context of three prospective, randomized oncology trials where one arm was considered more aggressive than the other. Methods and Materials: From June 2011 to March 2015, patients who were enrolled on 3 prospective institutional protocols (an oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC] trial and 2 proton vs intensity modulated radiation therapy trials inmore » NSCLC and esophageal cancer) were screened for protocol eligibility. Eligible candidates were approached about trial participation, and patient characteristics (age, sex, T/N categorization) were recorded along with details surrounding trial presentation (appointment number). Fisher's exact test, Student's t tests, and multivariate analysis were performed to assess differences between enrolled and refusal patients. Results: A total of 309 eligible patients were approached about trial enrollment. The enrollment success rate during this time span was 52% (n=160 patients). Enrolled patients were more likely to be presented trial information at an earlier appointment (oligometastatic protocol: 5 vs 3 appointments [P<.001]; NSCLC protocol: 4 vs 3 appointments [P=.0018]; esophageal protocol: 3 vs 2 appointments [P=.0086]). No other factors or patient characteristics significantly affected enrollment success rate. Conclusion: Improvement in enrollment rates for randomized control trials is possible, even in difficult accrual settings. Earlier presentation of trial information to patients is the most influential factor for success and may help overcome accrual barriers without compromising trial design.« less

  9. Randomization in clinical trials: stratification or minimization? The HERMES free simulation software.

    PubMed

    Fron Chabouis, Hélène; Chabouis, Francis; Gillaizeau, Florence; Durieux, Pierre; Chatellier, Gilles; Ruse, N Dorin; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Operative clinical trials are often small and open-label. Randomization is therefore very important. Stratification and minimization are two randomization options in such trials. The first aim of this study was to compare stratification and minimization in terms of predictability and balance in order to help investigators choose the most appropriate allocation method. Our second aim was to evaluate the influence of various parameters on the performance of these techniques. The created software generated patients according to chosen trial parameters (e.g., number of important prognostic factors, number of operators or centers, etc.) and computed predictability and balance indicators for several stratification and minimization methods over a given number of simulations. Block size and proportion of random allocations could be chosen. A reference trial was chosen (50 patients, 1 prognostic factor, and 2 operators) and eight other trials derived from this reference trial were modeled. Predictability and balance indicators were calculated from 10,000 simulations per trial. Minimization performed better with complex trials (e.g., smaller sample size, increasing number of prognostic factors, and operators); stratification imbalance increased when the number of strata increased. An inverse correlation between imbalance and predictability was observed. A compromise between predictability and imbalance still has to be found by the investigator but our software (HERMES) gives concrete reasons for choosing between stratification and minimization; it can be downloaded free of charge. This software will help investigators choose the appropriate randomization method in future two-arm trials.

  10. Latent Subgroup Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial Through a Semiparametric Accelerated Failure Time Mixture Model

    PubMed Central

    Altstein, L.; Li, G.

    2012-01-01

    Summary This paper studies a semiparametric accelerated failure time mixture model for estimation of a biological treatment effect on a latent subgroup of interest with a time-to-event outcome in randomized clinical trials. Latency is induced because membership is observable in one arm of the trial and unidentified in the other. This method is useful in randomized clinical trials with all-or-none noncompliance when patients in the control arm have no access to active treatment and in, for example, oncology trials when a biopsy used to identify the latent subgroup is performed only on subjects randomized to active treatment. We derive a computational method to estimate model parameters by iterating between an expectation step and a weighted Buckley-James optimization step. The bootstrap method is used for variance estimation, and the performance of our method is corroborated in simulation. We illustrate our method through an analysis of a multicenter selective lymphadenectomy trial for melanoma. PMID:23383608

  11. A randomized trial on folic acid supplementation and risk of recurrent colorectal adenoma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Evidence from observational studies suggests that inadequate folate status enhances colorectal carcinogenesis, but results from some randomized trials do not support this hypothesis. Objective: To assess the effect of folic acid supplementation on recurrent colorectal adenoma, we conduc...

  12. Review of Recent Methodological Developments in Group-Randomized Trials: Part 2-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth L; Prague, Melanie; Gallis, John A; Li, Fan; Murray, David M

    2017-07-01

    In 2004, Murray et al. reviewed methodological developments in the design and analysis of group-randomized trials (GRTs). We have updated that review with developments in analysis of the past 13 years, with a companion article to focus on developments in design. We discuss developments in the topics of the earlier review (e.g., methods for parallel-arm GRTs, individually randomized group-treatment trials, and missing data) and in new topics, including methods to account for multiple-level clustering and alternative estimation methods (e.g., augmented generalized estimating equations, targeted maximum likelihood, and quadratic inference functions). In addition, we describe developments in analysis of alternative group designs (including stepped-wedge GRTs, network-randomized trials, and pseudocluster randomized trials), which require clustering to be accounted for in their design and analysis.

  13. Central coordination as an alternative for local coordination in a multicenter randomized controlled trial: the FAITH trial experience.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Stephanie M; Viveiros, Helena; Heetveld, Martin J; Swiontkowski, Marc F; Bhandari, Mohit; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2012-01-08

    Surgeons in the Netherlands, Canada and the US participate in the FAITH trial (Fixation using Alternative Implants for the Treatment of Hip fractures). Dutch sites are managed and visited by a financed central trial coordinator, whereas most Canadian and US sites have local study coordinators and receive per patient payment. This study was aimed to assess how these different trial management strategies affected trial performance. Details related to obtaining ethics approval, time to trial start-up, inclusion, and percentage completed follow-ups were collected for each trial site and compared. Pre-trial screening data were compared with actual inclusion rates. Median trial start-up ranged from 41 days (P25-P75 10-139) in the Netherlands to 232 days (P25-P75 98-423) in Canada (p = 0.027). The inclusion rate was highest in the Netherlands; median 1.03 patients (P25-P75 0.43-2.21) per site per month, representing 34.4% of the total eligible population. It was lowest in Canada; 0.14 inclusions (P25-P75 0.00-0.28), representing 3.9% of eligible patients (p < 0.001). The percentage completed follow-ups was 83% for Canadian and Dutch sites and 70% for US sites (p = 0.217). In this trial, a central financed trial coordinator to manage all trial related tasks in participating sites resulted in better trial progression and a similar follow-up. It is therefore a suitable alternative for appointing these tasks to local research assistants. The central coordinator approach can enable smaller regional hospitals to participate in multicenter randomized controlled trials. Circumstances such as available budget, sample size, and geographical area should however be taken into account when choosing a management strategy. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00761813.

  14. Depression Prevention Research: Design, Implementation, and Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; And Others

    This document contains three papers concerned with prevention intervention research, a new area of depression research which has shown great promise for contributing new knowledge to the understanding of depression. The first paper, "Clinical Trials vs. Prevention Trials: Methodological Issues in Depression Research" (Ricardo F. Munoz), emphasizes…

  15. Brief telephone interventions for problem gambling: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Max; Hodgins, David C; Bellringer, Maria; Vandal, Alain C; Palmer Du Preez, Katie; Landon, Jason; Sullivan, Sean; Rodda, Simone; Feigin, Valery

    2018-05-01

    Problem gambling is a significant public health issue world-wide. There is substantial investment in publicly funded intervention services, but limited evaluation of effectiveness. This study investigated three brief telephone interventions to determine whether they were more effective than standard helpline treatment in helping people to reduce gambling. Randomized clinical trial. National gambling helpline in New Zealand. A total of 462 adults with problem gambling. INTERVENTIONS AND COMPARATOR: (1) Single motivational interview (MI), (2) single motivational interview plus cognitive-behavioural self-help workbook (MI + W) and (3) single motivational interview plus workbook plus four booster follow-up telephone interviews (MI + W + B). Comparator was helpline standard care [treatment as usual (TAU)]. Blinded follow-up was at 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes were days gambled, dollars lost per day and treatment goal success. There were no differences across treatment arms, although participants showed large reductions in gambling during the 12-month follow-up period [mean reduction of 5.5 days, confidence interval (CI) = 4.8, 6.2; NZ$38 lost ($32, $44; 80.6%), improved (77.2%, 84.0%)]. Subgroup analysis revealed improved days gambled and dollars lost for MI + W + B over MI or MI + W for a goal of reduction of gambling (versus quitting) and improvement in dollars lost by ethnicity, gambling severity and psychological distress (all P < 0.01). MI + W + B was associated with greater treatment goal success for higher gambling severity than TAU or MI at 12 months and also better for those with higher psychological distress and lower self-efficacy to MI (all P < 0.01). TAU and MI were found to be equivalent in terms of dollars lost. In treatment of problem gambling in New Zealand, brief telephone interventions are associated with changes in days gambling and dollars lost similar to more intensive interventions, suggesting that more treatment

  16. Gabapentin treatment for alcohol dependence: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mason, Barbara J; Quello, Susan; Goodell, Vivian; Shadan, Farhad; Kyle, Mark; Begovic, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Approved medications for alcohol dependence are prescribed for less than 9% of US alcoholics. To determine if gabapentin, a widely prescribed generic calcium channel/γ-aminobutyric acid-modulating medication, increases rates of sustained abstinence and no heavy drinking and decreases alcohol-related insomnia, dysphoria, and craving, in a dose-dependent manner. A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized dose-ranging trial of 150 men and women older than 18 years with current alcohol dependence, conducted from 2004 through 2010 at a single-site, outpatient clinical research facility adjoining a general medical hospital. Oral gabapentin (dosages of 0 [placebo], 900 mg, or 1800 mg/d) and concomitant manual-guided counseling. Rates of complete abstinence and no heavy drinking (coprimary) and changes in mood, sleep, and craving (secondary) over the 12-week study. RESULTS Gabapentin significantly improved the rates of abstinence and no heavy drinking. The abstinence rate was 4.1% (95% CI, 1.1%-13.7%) in the placebo group, 11.1% (95% CI, 5.2%-22.2%) in the 900-mg group, and 17.0% (95% CI, 8.9%-30.1%) in the 1800-mg group (P = .04 for linear dose effect; number needed to treat [NNT] = 8 for 1800 mg). The no heavy drinking rate was 22.5% (95% CI, 13.6%-37.2%) in the placebo group, 29.6% (95% CI, 19.1%-42.8%) in the 900-mg group, and 44.7% (95% CI, 31.4%-58.8%) in the 1800-mg group (P = .02 for linear dose effect; NNT = 5 for 1800 mg). Similar linear dose effects were obtained with measures of mood (F2 = 7.37; P = .001), sleep (F2 = 136; P < .001), and craving (F2 = 3.56; P = .03). There were no serious drug-related adverse events, and terminations owing to adverse events (9 of 150 participants), time in the study (mean [SD], 9.1 [3.8] weeks), and rate of study completion (85 of 150 participants) did not differ among groups. Gabapentin (particularly the 1800-mg dosage) was effective in treating alcohol dependence and relapse-related symptoms of insomnia

  17. Psychosocial benefits of workplace physical exercise: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-10-10

    While benefits of workplace physical exercise on physical health is well known, little is known about the psychosocial effects of such initiatives. This study evaluates the effect of workplace versus home-based physical exercise on psychosocial factors among healthcare workers. A total of 200 female healthcare workers (Age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1) from 18 departments at three hospitals were cluster-randomized to 10 weeks of: 1) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed alone during leisure time for 10 min 5 days per week or 2) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 10 min 5 days per week and up to 5 group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise. Vitality and mental health (SF-36, scale 0-100), psychosocial work environment (COPSOQ, scale 0-100), work- and leisure disability (DASH, 0-100), control- (Bournemouth, scale 0-10) and concern about pain (Pain Catastrophizing Scale, scale 0-10) were assessed at baseline and at 10-week follow-up. Vitality as well as control and concern about pain improved more following WORK than HOME (all p < 0.05) in spite of increased work pace (p < 0.05). Work- and leisure disability, emotional demands, influence at work, sense of community, social support and mental health remained unchanged. Between-group differences at follow-up (WORK vs. HOME) were 7 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3 to 10] for vitality, -0.8 [95% CI -1.3 to -0.3] for control of pain and -0.9 [95% CI -1.4 to -0.5] for concern about pain, respectively. Performing physical exercise together with colleagues during working hours was more effective than home-based exercise in improving vitality and concern and control of pain among healthcare workers. These benefits occurred in spite of increased work pace. NCT01921764 at ClinicalTrials.gov . Registered 10 August 2013.

  18. Massage Therapy and Labor Outcomes: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Patricia; Shroff, Farah; Jaspar, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Massage is a time-honored method by which women have received comfort throughout the millennia, yet it has not been rigorously evaluated in the modern day delivery suite. No study to date that we are aware of has evaluated the effect of massage therapy by a regulated massage therapist on labor pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of massage therapy provided by registered massage therapists in managing pain among women in active labor. Methods BC Women’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC. Research Design: a randomized controlled trial. Participants: 77 healthy nulliparous women presenting in spontaneous labor. Intervention: Swedish massage administered for up to five hours by a registered massage therapist during labor vs. standard care. Main outcome measures include: cervical dilation at the time of administration of epidural, compared using estimated marginal means in an analysis of covariance. We also compared perception of pain at three time periods during labor according to cervical dilation at 3–4 cm, 5–7 cm, and 8–10 cm using the McGill Present Pain Intensity Scale. Results The mean cervical dilation at the time of epidural insertion after adjustment for station of the presenting part, cervical dilation, and status of membranes on admission to hospital was 5.9 cm (95% CI 5.2–6.7) compared to 4.9 in the control group (95% CI 4.2–5.8). Scores on the McGill Pain Scale were consistently lower in the massage therapy group (13.3 vs. 16.9 at 3–4 cm, 13.3 vs. 15.8 at 5–6 cm, and 19.4 vs. 28.3 at 7–8 cm), although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Our findings from this pilot study suggest that massage therapy by a registered massage therapist has the potential to be an effective means of pain management that may be associated with delayed use of epidural analgesia. It may therefore have the potential to reduce exposure to epidural analgesia during labor and decrease rates of associated

  19. Preprocedural Ultrasound for Infant Lumbar Puncture: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kessler, David; Pahalyants, Vartan; Kriger, Joshua; Behr, Gerald; Dayan, Peter

    2018-04-12

    Our purpose was to determine the potential effect of preprocedural ultrasound (US) to increase lumbar puncture (LP) success compared with standard palpation method. Further, we assessed feasibility of and clinician satisfaction with a standardized US protocol. This prospective, two-arm, parallel-group randomized trial was conducted in a single-center pediatric emergency department. We compared preprocedural US versus palpation method on success with infant LPs. Infants less than 3 months of age requiring LP were enrolled. Sixteen pediatric emergency medicine physicians with varied US experience were trained to conduct the USs to mark interspace locations. Primary outcome was successful LP, defined as obtaining a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample on first attempt with < 1,000 red blood cells per high-powered field (clear CSF). Secondary outcomes included clear CSF on any attempt, any CSF on the first attempt, traumatic LP proportion, and LP attempt frequency. Feasibility was assessed by comparing provider number attempting the LP and procedure duration. Clinician satisfaction and sonographer perceptions of US acceptability and impact were assessed. Eighty-one patients consented and 80 were analyzed (99%): 40 per group. No statistical difference was seen for the primary outcome (p > 0.05) between intervention and control groups (difference 3%; 95% confidence interval = -19% to 24%). There were no statistical differences between intervention and controls groups for secondary outcomes including the rate of traumatic LPs, number of attempts, and the duration of LP procedure. Most sonographers (84%) strongly agreed or agreed that the US protocol was technically easy to perform, well tolerated by the patient (94%), well accepted by the family (100%), and well accepted by the LP procedural clinicians (99%). In the US group, the majority of clinicians who performed the LPs (68.4%) noted that the preprocedural US influenced their behavior, most commonly helping with

  20. Randomized trial of tocilizumab in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Brunner, Hermine I; Ruperto, Nicolino; Kenwright, Andrew; Wright, Stephen; Calvo, Inmaculada; Cuttica, Ruben; Ravelli, Angelo; Schneider, Rayfel; Woo, Patricia; Wouters, Carine; Xavier, Ricardo; Zemel, Lawrence; Baildam, Eileen; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Dolezalova, Pavla; Garay, Stella M; Merino, Rosa; Joos, Rik; Grom, Alexei; Wulffraat, Nico; Zuber, Zbigniew; Zulian, Francesco; Lovell, Daniel; Martini, Alberto

    2012-12-20

    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most severe subtype of JIA; treatment options are limited. Interleukin-6 plays a pathogenic role in systemic JIA. We randomly assigned 112 children, 2 to 17 years of age, with active systemic JIA (duration of ≥6 months and inadequate responses to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and glucocorticoids) to the anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab (at a dose of 8 mg per kilogram of body weight if the weight was ≥30 kg or 12 mg per kilogram if the weight was <30 kg) or placebo given intravenously every 2 weeks during the 12-week, double-blind phase. Patients meeting the predefined criteria for nonresponse were offered open-label tocilizumab. All patients could enter an open-label extension. At week 12, the primary end point (an absence of fever and an improvement of 30% or more on at least three of the six variables in the American College of Rheumatology [ACR] core set for JIA, with no more than one variable worsening by more than 30%) was met in significantly more patients in the tocilizumab group than in the placebo group (64 of 75 [85%] vs. 9 of 37 [24%], P<0.001). At week 52, 80% of the patients who received tocilizumab had at least 70% improvement with no fever, including 59% who had 90% improvement; in addition, 48% of the patients had no joints with active arthritis, and 52% had discontinued oral glucocorticoids. In the double-blind phase, 159 adverse events, including 60 infections (2 serious), occurred in the tocilizumab group, as compared with 38, including 15 infections, in the placebo group. In the double-blind and extension periods combined, 39 serious adverse events (0.25 per patient-year), including 18 serious infections (0.11 per patient-year), occurred in patients who received tocilizumab. Neutropenia developed in 19 patients (17 patients with grade 3 and 2 patients with grade 4), and 21 had aminotransferase levels that were more than 2.5 times the upper limit of the normal range

  1. Curricular intervention increases adolescents' knowledge about asthma: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Ana Carla C; Souza-Machado, Carolina de; Oliveira, Thiara S de; Santos, Tássia Natalie N Dos; Cruz, Álvaro A; Souza-Machado, Adelmir

    To evaluate the impact of a curricular intervention concerning the knowledge about asthma among adolescents from a public school. This was a randomized, controlled trial study on a curricular intervention in asthma, carried out with asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents. The study participants were divided into a curricular intervention group for asthma (IG), and a control group with traditional curriculum (CG). Topics related to asthma were included in the curriculum, such as the disease concept, triggering factors, treatment, symptoms, action plan, and beliefs in popular myths about the disease. These topics were evaluated through a questionnaire with scores ranging from 0 to 20 points, expressed by the mean score. The acquisition of knowledge was evaluated 90 days and 540 days after the start of the intervention (baseline), by applying the mixed linear model for analysis of associations. 181 students participated in the study (IG=101 and CG=80). As shown by their scores before the intervention; the students were unaware about asthma (IG: x¯=10.7±2.9vs. CG: x¯=11.5±2.7 points), its treatment (IG: x¯=1.6±0.9vs. CG: x¯=1.6±0.8 points), and reported beliefs in popular myths about the disease (IG: x¯=1.5±1.1vs. CG: x¯=1.7±1.1 points). After the intervention, the IG showed higher overall knowledge (GI: x¯=15.5±3.1 points), as well as knowledge about the treatment (GI: x¯=2.5±1.0 points), and two times more knowledge in the field "beliefs in popular myths about the disease" when compared to the CG. A greater probability of achieving satisfactory knowledge about asthma was noted in the IG (RR=3.5), with NTT=2.0. The inclusion of the asthma topic in the curriculum improved knowledge about the disease in a subgroup of students. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Kilifi epilepsy education programme: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ibinda, Fredrick; Mbuba, Caroline K; Kariuki, Symon M; Chengo, Eddie; Ngugi, Anthony K; Odhiambo, Rachael; Lowe, Brett; Fegan, Greg; Carter, Julie A; Newton, Charles R

    2014-02-01

    The epilepsy treatment gap is largest in resource-poor countries. We evaluated the efficacy of a 1-day health education program in a rural area of Kenya. The primary outcome was adherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as measured by drug levels in the blood, and the secondary outcomes were seizure frequency and Kilifi Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitudes Scores (KEBAS). Seven hundred thirty-eight people with epilepsy (PWE) and their designated supporter were randomized to either the intervention (education) or nonintervention group. Data were collected at baseline and 1 year after the education intervention was administered to the intervention group. There were 581 PWE assessed at both time points. At the end of the study, 105 PWE from the intervention group and 86 from the nonintervention group gave blood samples, which were assayed for the most commonly used AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine). The proportions of PWE with detectable AED levels were determined using a standard blood assay method. The laboratory technicians conducting the assays were blinded to the randomization. Secondary outcomes were evaluated using questionnaires administered by trained field staff. Modified Poisson regression was used to investigate the factors associated with improved adherence (transition from nonoptimal AED level in blood at baseline to optimal levels at follow-up), reduced seizures, and improved KEBAS, which was done as a post hoc analysis. This trial is registered in ISRCTN register under ISRCTN35680481. There was no significant difference in adherence to AEDs based on detectable drug levels (odds ratio [OR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.74-2.90, p = 0.28) or by self-reports (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.71-1.40, p = 1.00) between the intervention and nonintervention group. The intervention group had significantly fewer beliefs about traditional causes of epilepsy, cultural treatment, and negative stereotypes than the nonintervention group. There was no

  3. Randomized Trial of Asprin as Adjuvant Therapy for Node-Positive Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO...within the proposed time frame. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer, adjuvant treatment, aspirin, randomized controlled trial 16. SECURITY...propose a randomized controlled trial to test that promise. There is compelling epidemiologic, in-vitro, and in-vivo, evidence of aspirin’s potential

  4. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Successful Clinical Trial Enrollment in the Context of Three Prospective Randomized Control Trials

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Jennifer K; Tang, Chad; Liao, Zhongxing; Lee, J. Jack; Heymach, John V.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Welsh, James W.; Zhang, Jianjun; Lin, Steven H.; Gomez, Daniel R.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Effective clinical trial enrollment can be difficult in a protocol designs that contain one treatment arm that is perceived as being more “aggressive” or “favorable.” There have been limited studies focusing on the barriers to enrollment and the efficacy of alternative study design to improve accrual. We analyzed barriers to enrollment, particularly the influence of timing, in context of three prospective randomized oncology trials where one arm was considered more aggressive. Methods and materials From June 2011 to March 2015, patients who were enrolled on three prospective institutional protocols (an oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) trial, and two proton vs. intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) trials in NSCLC and esophageal cancer) were screened for protocol eligibility. Eligible candidates were approached about trial participation, and patient characteristics (age, sex, T/N categorization) were recorded along with details surrounding trial presentation (appointment number). Fisher’s exact test, Student’s t tests, and multivariate analysis were performed to assess differences between enrolled and refusal patients. Results 309 eligible patients were approached about trial enrollment. The enrollment success rate (ESR) during this time span was 52% (n=160 patients). Enrolled patients were more likely to be presented trial information at an earlier appointment (oligomet protocol: 5 vs. 3 appointments (P<0.001), NSCLC protocol: 4 vs. 3 appointments (P = 0.0018), esophageal protocol: 3 vs. 2 appointments (P = 0.0086No other factors or patient characteristics significantly affected ESR. Conclusion Improvement in enrollment rates for randomized control trials is possible, even in difficult accrual settings. Earlier presentation of trial information to patients is the most influential factor for success, and may help overcome accrual barriers without compromising trial design. PMID:28244413

  5. Vitamin K Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Angela M; Tile, Lianne; Lee, Yuna; Tomlinson, George; Hawker, Gillian; Scher, Judy; Hu, Hanxian; Vieth, Reinhold; Thompson, Lilian; Jamal, Sophie; Josse, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background Vitamin K has been widely promoted as a supplement for decreasing bone loss in postmenopausal women, but the long-term benefits and potential harms are unknown. This study was conducted to determine whether daily high-dose vitamin K1 supplementation safely reduces bone loss, bone turnover, and fractures. Methods and Findings This single-center study was designed as a 2-y randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, extended for earlier participants for up to an additional 2 y because of interest in long-term safety and fractures. A total of 440 postmenopausal women with osteopenia were randomized to either 5 mg of vitamin K1 or placebo daily. Primary outcomes were changes in BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip at 2 y. Secondary outcomes included changes in BMD at other sites and other time points, bone turnover markers, height, fractures, adverse effects, and health-related quality of life. This study has a power of 90% to detect 3% differences in BMD between the two groups. The women in this study were vitamin D replete, with a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 77 nmol/l at baseline. Over 2 y, BMD decreased by −1.28% and −1.22% (p = 0.84) (difference of −0.06%; 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.67% to 0.54%) at the lumbar spine and −0.69% and −0.88% (p = 0.51) (difference of 0.19%; 95% CI −0.37% to 0.75%) at the total hip in the vitamin K and placebo groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in changes in BMD at any site between the two groups over the 2- to 4-y period. Daily vitamin K1 supplementation increased serum vitamin K1 levels by 10-fold, and decreased the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin and total osteocalcin levels (bone formation marker). However, C-telopeptide levels (bone resorption marker) were not significantly different between the two groups. Fewer women in the vitamin K group had clinical fractures (nine versus 20, p = 0.04) and fewer had cancers (three versus 12, p = 0

  6. Effective Recruitment of Schools for Randomized Clinical Trials: Role of School Nurses.

    PubMed

    Petosa, R L; Smith, L

    2017-01-01

    In school settings, nurses lead efforts to improve the student health and well-being to support academic success. Nurses are guided by evidenced-based practice and data to inform care decisions. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) is considered the gold standard of scientific rigor for clinical trials. RCTs are critical to the development of evidence-based health promotion programs in schools. The purpose of this article is to present practical solutions to implementing principles of randomization to RCT trials conducted in school settings. Randomization is a powerful sampling method used to build internal and external validity. The school's daily organization and educational mission provide several barriers to randomization. Based on the authors' experience in conducting school-based RCTs, they offer a host of practical solutions to working with schools to successfully implement randomization procedures. Nurses play a critical role in implementing RCTs in schools to promote rigorous science in support of evidence-based practice.

  7. Randomized clinical trials and observational studies in the assessment of drug safety.

    PubMed

    Sawchik, J; Hamdani, J; Vanhaeverbeek, M

    2018-05-01

    Randomized clinical trials are considered as the preferred design to assess the potential causal relationships between drugs or other medical interventions and intended effects. For this reason, randomized clinical trials are generally the basis of development programs in the life cycle of drugs and the cornerstone of evidence-based m