Science.gov

Sample records for headpiece c-terminal domain

  1. Evolution of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Stiller, John W.; Hall, Benjamin D.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years a great deal of biochemical and genetic research has focused on the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit (RPB1) of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II. This strongly conserved domain of tandemly repeated heptapeptides has been linked functionally to important steps in the initiation and processing of mRNA transcripts in both animals and fungi. Although they are absolutely required for viability in these organisms, C-terminal tandem repeats do not occur in RPB1 sequences from diverse eukaryotic taxa. Here we present phylogenetic analyses of RPB1 sequences showing that canonical CTD heptads are strongly conserved in only a subset of eukaryotic groups, all apparently descended from a single common ancestor. Moreover, eukaryotic groups in which the most complex patterns of ontogenetic development occur are descended from this CTD-containing ancestor. Consistent with the results of genetic and biochemical investigations of CTD function, these analyses suggest that the enhanced control over RNA polymerase II transcription conveyed by acquired CTD/protein interactions was an important step in the evolution of intricate patterns of gene expression that are a hallmark of large, developmentally complex eukaryotic organisms. PMID:11972039

  2. C-terminal domains of bacterial proteases: structure, function and the biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Wu, C; Liu, D; Yang, X; Wu, R; Zhang, J; Ma, C; He, H

    2017-01-01

    C-terminal domains widely exist in the C-terminal region of multidomain proteases. As a β-sandwich domain in multidomain protease, the C-terminal domain plays an important role in proteolysis including regulation of the secretory process, anchoring and swelling the substrate molecule, presenting as an inhibitor for the preprotease and adapting the protein structural flexibility and stability. In this review, the diversity, structural characteristics and biological function of C-terminal protease domains are described. Furthermore, the application prospects of C-terminal domains, including polycystic kidney disease, prepeptidase C-terminal and collagen-binding domain, in the area of medicine and biological artificial materials are also discussed.

  3. Cytokinin Response Factor 5 has transcriptional activity governed by its C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Striberny, Bernd; Melton, Anthony E; Schwacke, Rainer; Krause, Kirsten; Fischer, Karsten; Goertzen, Leslie R; Rashotte, Aaron M

    2017-02-01

    Cytokinin Response Factors (CRFs) are AP2/ERF transcription factors involved in cytokinin signal transduction. CRF proteins consist of a N-terminal dimerization domain (CRF domain), an AP2 DNA-binding domain, and a clade-specific C-terminal region of unknown function. Using a series of sequential deletions in yeast-2-hybrid assays, we provide evidence that the C-terminal region of Arabidopsis CRF5 can confer transactivation activity. Although comparative analyses identified evolutionarily conserved protein sequence within the C-terminal region, deletion experiments suggest that this transactivation domain has a partially redundant modular structure required for activation of target gene transcription.

  4. Role of the C-terminal domain of PCSK9 in degradation of the LDL receptors.

    PubMed

    Holla, Øystein L; Cameron, Jamie; Tveten, Kristian; Strøm, Thea Bismo; Berge, Knut Erik; Laerdahl, Jon K; Leren, Trond P

    2011-10-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) binds to the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) at the cell surface and disrupts the normal recycling of the LDLR. In this study, we investigated the role of the C-terminal domain for the activity of PCSK9. Experiments in which conserved residues and histidines on the surface of the C-terminal domain were mutated indicated that no specific residues of the C-terminal domain, apart from those responsible for maintaining the overall structure, are required for the activity of PCSK9. Rather, the net charge of the C-terminal domain is important. The more positively charged the C-terminal domain, the higher the activity toward the LDLR. Moreover, replacement of the C-terminal domain with an unrelated protein of comparable size led to significant activity of the chimeric protein. We conclude that the role of the evolutionary, poorly conserved C-terminal domain for the activity of PCSK9 reflects its overall positive charge and size and not the presence of specific residues involved in protein-protein interactions.

  5. The Impact of the Human DNA Topoisomerase II C-Terminal Domain on Activity

    PubMed Central

    Meczes, Emma L.; Gilroy, Kathryn L.; West, Katherine L.; Austin, Caroline A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Type II DNA topoisomerases (topos) are essential enzymes needed for the resolution of topological problems that occur during DNA metabolic processes. Topos carry out an ATP-dependent strand passage reaction whereby one double helix is passed through a transient break in another. Humans have two topoII isoforms, α and β, which while enzymatically similar are differentially expressed and regulated, and are thought to have different cellular roles. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the enzyme has the most diversity, and has been implicated in regulation. We sought to investigate the impact of the CTD domain on activity. Methodology/Principle Findings We have investigated the role of the human topoII C-terminal domain by creating constructs encoding C-terminally truncated recombinant topoIIα and β and topoIIα+β-tail and topoIIβ+α-tail chimeric proteins. We then investigated function in vivo in a yeast system, and in vitro in activity assays. We find that the C-terminal domain of human topoII isoforms is needed for in vivo function of the enzyme, but not needed for cleavage activity. C-terminally truncated enzymes had similar strand passage activity to full length enzymes, but the presence of the opposite C-terminal domain had a large effect, with the topoIIα-CTD increasing activity, and the topoIIβ-CTD decreasing activity. Conclusions/Significance In vivo complementation data show that the topoIIα C-terminal domain is needed for growth, but the topoIIβ isoform is able to support low levels of growth without a C-terminal domain. This may indicate that topoIIβ has an additional localisation signal. In vitro data suggest that, while the lack of any C-terminal domain has little effect on activity, the presence of either the topoIIα or β C-terminal domain can affect strand passage activity. Data indicates that the topoIIβ-CTD may be a negative regulator. This is the first report of in vitro data with chimeric human topoIIs. PMID:18335031

  6. C-terminal domain of mammalian complexin-1 localizes to highly curved membranes

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jihong; Lai, Ying; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Mengxian; Leitz, Jeremy; Hu, Yachong; Zhang, Yunxiang; Choi, Ucheor B.; Cipriano, Daniel; Pfuetzner, Richard A.; Südhof, Thomas C.; Yang, Xiaofei; Brunger, Axel T.

    2016-01-01

    In presynaptic nerve terminals, complexin regulates spontaneous “mini” neurotransmitter release and activates Ca2+-triggered synchronized neurotransmitter release. We studied the role of the C-terminal domain of mammalian complexin in these processes using single-particle optical imaging and electrophysiology. The C-terminal domain is important for regulating spontaneous release in neuronal cultures and suppressing Ca2+-independent fusion in vitro, but it is not essential for evoked release in neuronal cultures and in vitro. This domain interacts with membranes in a curvature-dependent fashion similar to a previous study with worm complexin [Snead D, Wragg RT, Dittman JS, Eliezer D (2014) Membrane curvature sensing by the C-terminal domain of complexin. Nat Commun 5:4955]. The curvature-sensing value of the C-terminal domain is comparable to that of α-synuclein. Upon replacement of the C-terminal domain with membrane-localizing elements, preferential localization to the synaptic vesicle membrane, but not to the plasma membrane, results in suppression of spontaneous release in neurons. Membrane localization had no measurable effect on evoked postsynaptic currents of AMPA-type glutamate receptors, but mislocalization to the plasma membrane increases both the variability and the mean of the synchronous decay time constant of NMDA-type glutamate receptor evoked postsynaptic currents. PMID:27821736

  7. Structure and dynamics of the epidermal growth factor receptor C-terminal phosphorylation domain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam Y; Hazlett, Theodore L; Koland, John G

    2006-05-01

    The C-terminal phosphorylation domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor is believed to regulate protein kinase activity as well as mediate the assembly of signal transduction complexes. The structure and dynamics of this proposed autoregulatory domain were examined by labeling the extreme C terminus of the EGFR intracellular domain (ICD) with an extrinsic fluorophore. Fluorescence anisotropy decay analysis of the nonphosphorylated EGFR-ICD yielded two rotational correlation times: a longer time, consistent with the global rotational motion of a 60- to 70-kDa protein with an elongated globular conformation, and a shorter time, presumably contributed by segmental motion near the fluorophore. A C-terminally truncated form of EGFR-ICD yielded a slow component consistent with the rotational motion of the 38-kDa kinase core. These findings suggested a structural arrangement of the EGFR-ICD in which the C-terminal phosphorylation domain interacts with the kinase core to move as an extended structure. A marked reduction in the larger correlation time of EGFR-ICD was observed upon its autophosphorylation. This dynamic component was faster than predicted for the globular motion of the 62-kDa EGFR-ICD, suggesting an increase in the mobility of the C-terminal domain and a likely displacement of this domain from the kinase core. The interaction between the SH2 domain of c-Src and the phosphorylated EGFR C-terminal domain was shown to impede its mobility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the EGFR C-terminal domain possessed a significant level of secondary structure in the form of alpha-helices and beta-sheets, with a marginal change in beta-sheet content occurring upon phosphorylation.

  8. Structure and dynamics of the epidermal growth factor receptor C-terminal phosphorylation domain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam Y.; Hazlett, Theodore L.; Koland, John G.

    2006-01-01

    The C-terminal phosphorylation domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor is believed to regulate protein kinase activity as well as mediate the assembly of signal transduction complexes. The structure and dynamics of this proposed autoregulatory domain were examined by labeling the extreme C terminus of the EGFR intracellular domain (ICD) with an extrinsic fluorophore. Fluorescence anisotropy decay analysis of the nonphosphorylated EGFR-ICD yielded two rotational correlation times: a longer time, consistent with the global rotational motion of a 60- to 70-kDa protein with an elongated globular conformation, and a shorter time, presumably contributed by segmental motion near the fluorophore. A C-terminally truncated form of EGFR-ICD yielded a slow component consistent with the rotational motion of the 38-kDa kinase core. These findings suggested a structural arrangement of the EGFR-ICD in which the C-terminal phosphorylation domain interacts with the kinase core to move as an extended structure. A marked reduction in the larger correlation time of EGFR-ICD was observed upon its autophosphorylation. This dynamic component was faster than predicted for the globular motion of the 62-kDa EGFR-ICD, suggesting an increase in the mobility of the C-terminal domain and a likely displacement of this domain from the kinase core. The interaction between the SH2 domain of c-Src and the phosphorylated EGFR C-terminal domain was shown to impede its mobility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the EGFR C-terminal domain possessed a significant level of secondary structure in the form of α-helices and β-sheets, with a marginal change in β-sheet content occurring upon phosphorylation. PMID:16597832

  9. Headpiece Domain of Dematin Regulates Calcium Mobilization and Signaling in Platelets*

    PubMed Central

    Wieschhaus, Adam J.; Le Breton, Guy C.; Chishti, Athar H.

    2012-01-01

    Dematin is a broadly expressed membrane cytoskeletal protein that has been well characterized in erythrocytes and to a lesser extent in non-erythroid cells. However, dematin's function in platelets is not known. Here, we show that dematin is abundantly expressed in both human and mouse platelets. Platelets harvested from the dematin headpiece knock-out (HPKO) mouse model exhibit a striking defect in the mobilization of calcium in response to multiple agonists of platelet activation. The reduced calcium mobilization in HPKO platelets is associated with concomitant inhibition of platelet aggregation and granule secretion. Integrin αIIbβ3 activation in response to agonists is attenuated in the HPKO platelets. The mutant platelets show nearly normal spreading on fibrinogen and an unaltered basal cAMP level; however, the clot retraction was compromised in the mutant mice. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that dematin is present both at the dense tubular system and plasma membrane fractions of platelets. Proteomic analysis of dematin-associated proteins in human platelets identified inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase isoform B (IP3KB) as a binding partner, which was confirmed by immunoprecipitation analysis. IP3KB, a dense tubular system protein, is a major regulator of calcium homeostasis. Loss of the dematin headpiece resulted in a decrease of IP3KB at the membrane and increased levels of IP3KB in the cytosol. Collectively, these findings unveil dematin as a novel regulator of internal calcium mobilization in platelets affecting multiple signaling and cytoskeletal functions. Implications of a conserved role of dematin in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in other cell types will be discussed. PMID:23060452

  10. The VSG C-terminal domain is inaccessible to antibodies on live trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Schwede, Angela; Jones, Nicola; Engstler, Markus; Carrington, Mark

    2011-02-01

    In the mammalian host, the Trypanosoma brucei cell surface is covered with a densely packed protein coat of a single protein, the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The VSG is believed to shield invariant surface proteins from host antibodies but there is limited information on how far antibodies can penetrate into the VSG monolayer. Here, the VSG surface coat was probed to determine whether it acts as a barrier to binding of antibodies to the membrane proximal VSG C-terminal domain. The binding of C-terminal domain antibodies to VSG221 or VSG118 was compared with antibodies recognising the cognate whole VSGs. The C-terminal VSG domain was inaccessible to antibodies on live cells but not on fixed cells. This provides further evidence that the VSG coat acts as a barrier and protects the cell from antibodies that would otherwise bind to some of the other externally disposed proteins.

  11. The NMR structure of dematin headpiece reveals a dynamic loop that is conformationally altered upon phosphorylation at a distal site.

    PubMed

    Frank, Benjamin S; Vardar, Didem; Chishti, Athar H; McKnight, C James

    2004-02-27

    Dematin (band 4.9) is found in the junctional complex of the spectrin cytoskeleton that supports the erythrocyte cell membrane. Dematin is a member of the larger class of cytoskeleton-associated proteins that contain a modular "headpiece" domain at their extreme C termini. The dematin headpiece domain provides the second F-actin-binding site required for in vitro F-actin bundling. The dematin headpiece is found in two forms in the cell, one of 68 residues (DHP) and one containing a 22-amino acid insert near its N terminus (DHP+22). In addition, dematin contains the only headpiece domain that is phosphorylated, in vivo. The 22-amino acid insert in DHP+22 appeared unstructured in NMR spectra; therefore, we have determined the three-dimensional structure of DHP by multidimensional NMR methods. Although the overall three-dimensional structure of DHP is similar to that of the villin headpiece, there are two novel characteristics revealed by this structure. First, unlike villin headpiece that contains a single buried salt bridge, DHP contains a buried charged cluster comprising residues Glu(39), Arg(66), Lys(70), and the C-terminal carboxylate of Phe(76). Second, (15)N relaxation experiments indicate that the longer "variable loop" region near the N terminus of DHP (residues 20-29) is dynamic, undergoing significantly greater motions that the rest of the structure. Furthermore, NMR chemical shift changes indicate that the conformation of the dynamic variable loop is altered by phosphorylation of serine 74, which is far in the sequence from the variable loop region. Our results suggest that phosphorylation of the dematin headpiece acts as a conformational switch within this headpiece domain.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Biochemical and Functional Properties of C-Terminal Domains of Autotransporters ▿

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Elvira; Bodelón, Gustavo; Fernández, Luis Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Autotransporters (ATs) are the largest group of proteins secreted by Gram-negative bacteria and include many virulence factors from human pathogens. ATs are synthesized as large precursors with a C-terminal domain that is inserted in the outer membrane (OM) and is essential for the translocation of an N-terminal passenger domain to the extracellular milieu. Several mechanisms have been proposed for AT secretion. Self-translocation models suggest transport across a hydrophilic channel formed by an internal pore of the β-barrel or by the oligomerization of C-terminal domains. Alternatively, an assisted-translocation model suggests that transport employs a conserved machinery of the bacterial OM such as the Bam complex. In this work we have investigated AT secretion by carrying out a comparative study to analyze the conserved biochemical and functional features of different C-terminal domains selected from ATs of gammaproteobacteria, betaproteobacteria, alphaproteobacteria, and epsilonproteobacteria. Our results indicate that C-terminal domains having an N-terminal α-helix and a β-barrel constitute functional transport units for the translocation of peptides and immunoglobulin domains with disulfide bonds. In vivo and in vitro analyses show that multimerization is not a conserved feature in AT C-terminal domains. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the deletion of the conserved α-helix severely impairs β-barrel folding and OM insertion and thereby blocks passenger domain secretion. These observations suggest that the AT β-barrel without its α-helix cannot form a stable hydrophilic channel in the OM for protein translocation. The implications of our data for an understanding of AT secretion are discussed. PMID:20802036

  13. Efficient, chemoselective synthesis of immunomicelles using single-domain antibodies with a C-terminal thioester

    PubMed Central

    Reulen, Sanne WA; van Baal, Ingrid; Raats, Jos MH; Merkx, Maarten

    2009-01-01

    Background Classical bioconjugation strategies for generating antibody-functionalized nanoparticles are non-specific and typically result in heterogeneous compounds that can be compromised in activity. Expression systems based on self-cleavable intein domains allow the generation of recombinant proteins with a C-terminal thioester, providing a unique handle for site-specific conjugation using native chemical ligation (NCL). However, current methods to generate antibody fragments with C-terminal thioesters require cumbersome refolding procedures, effectively preventing application of NCL for antibody-mediated targeting and molecular imaging. Results Targeting to the periplasm of E. coli allowed efficient production of correctly-folded single-domain antibody (sdAb)-intein fusions proteins. On column purification and 2-mercapthoethanesulfonic acid (MESNA)-induced cleavage yielded single-domain antibodies with a reactive C-terminal MESNA thioester in good yields. These thioester-functionalized single-domain antibodies allowed synthesis of immunomicelles via native chemical ligation in a single step. Conclusion A novel procedure was developed to obtain soluble, well-folded single-domain antibodies with reactive C-terminal thioesters in good yields. These proteins are promising building blocks for the chemoselective functionalization via NCL of a broad range of nanoparticle scaffolds, including micelles, liposomes and dendrimers. PMID:19619333

  14. Kinetic and stability properties of Penicillium chrysogenum ATP sulfurylase missing the C-terminal regulatory domain.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Eissa; Ng, Kit Fai; MacRae, Ian J; Bley, Christopher J; Fisher, Andrew J; Segel, Irwin H

    2004-02-06

    ATP sulfurylase from Penicillium chrysogenum is a homohexameric enzyme that is subject to allosteric inhibition by 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate. In contrast to the wild type enzyme, recombinant ATP sulfurylase lacking the C-terminal allosteric domain was monomeric and noncooperative. All kcat values were decreased (the adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (adenylylsulfate) (APS) synthesis reaction to 17% of the wild type value). Additionally, the Michaelis constants for MgATP and sulfate (or molybdate), the dissociation constant of E.APS, and the monovalent oxyanion dissociation constants of dead end E.MgATP.oxyanion complexes were all increased. APS release (the k6 step) was rate-limiting in the wild type enzyme. Without the C-terminal domain, the composite k5 step (isomerization of the central complex and MgPPi release) became rate-limiting. The cumulative results indicate that besides (a) serving as a receptor for the allosteric inhibitor, the C-terminal domain (b) stabilizes the hexameric structure and indirectly, individual subunits. Additionally, (c) the domain interacts with and perfects the catalytic site such that one or more steps following the formation of the binary E.MgATP and E.SO4(2-) complexes and preceding the release of MgPPi are optimized. The more negative entropy of activation of the truncated enzyme for APS synthesis is consistent with a role of the C-terminal domain in promoting the effective orientation of MgATP and sulfate at the active site.

  15. A summary of staphylococcal C-terminal SH3b_5 cell wall binding domains.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Staphylococcal peptidoglycan hydrolases are a potential new source of antimicrobials. A large subset of these proteins contain a C-terminal SH3b_5 cell wall binding domain that has been shown for some to be essential for accurate cell wall recognition and subsequent staphylolytic activity, propert...

  16. Conformational changes accompany phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam Y.; Koland, John G.

    2005-01-01

    The precise regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is crucial to its function in cellular growth control. Various studies have suggested that the C-terminal phosphorylation domain, itself a substrate for the EGFR kinase activity, exerts a regulatory influence upon it, although the molecular mechanism for this regulation is unknown. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique was employed to examine how C-terminal domain conformational changes in the context of receptor activation and autophosphorylation might regulate EGFR enzymatic activity. A novel FRET reporter system was devised in which recombinant purified EGFR intracellular domain (ICD) proteins of varying C-terminal lengths were site-specifically labeled at their extreme C termini with blue fluorescent protein (BFP) and a fluorescent nucleotide analog, 2′(3′)-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-adenosine 5′-triphosphate (TNP-ATP), binding at their active sites. This novel BFP/TNP-ATP FRET pair demonstrated efficient energy transfer as evidenced by appreciable BFP-donor quenching by bound TNP-ATP. In particular, a marked reduction in energy transfer was observed for the full-length BFP-labeled EGFR-ICD protein upon phosphorylation, likely reflecting its movement away from the active site. The estimated distances from the BFP module to the TNP-ATP-occupied active site for the full-length and C-terminally truncated proteins also reveal the possible folding geometry of this domain with respect to the kinase core. The present studies demonstrate the first use of BFP/TNP-ATP as a FRET reporter system. Furthermore, the results described here provide biophysical evidence for phosphorylation-dependent conformational changes in the C-terminal phosphorylation domain and its likely interaction with the kinase core. PMID:16199664

  17. Conformational changes accompany phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam Y; Koland, John G

    2005-11-01

    The precise regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is crucial to its function in cellular growth control. Various studies have suggested that the C-terminal phosphorylation domain, itself a substrate for the EGFR kinase activity, exerts a regulatory influence upon it, although the molecular mechanism for this regulation is unknown. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique was employed to examine how C-terminal domain conformational changes in the context of receptor activation and autophosphorylation might regulate EGFR enzymatic activity. A novel FRET reporter system was devised in which recombinant purified EGFR intracellular domain (ICD) proteins of varying C-terminal lengths were site-specifically labeled at their extreme C termini with blue fluorescent protein (BFP) and a fluorescent nucleotide analog, 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP), binding at their active sites. This novel BFP/TNP-ATP FRET pair demonstrated efficient energy transfer as evidenced by appreciable BFP-donor quenching by bound TNP-ATP. In particular, a marked reduction in energy transfer was observed for the full-length BFP-labeled EGFR-ICD protein upon phosphorylation, likely reflecting its movement away from the active site. The estimated distances from the BFP module to the TNP-ATP-occupied active site for the full-length and C-terminally truncated proteins also reveal the possible folding geometry of this domain with respect to the kinase core. The present studies demonstrate the first use of BFP/TNP-ATP as a FRET reporter system. Furthermore, the results described here provide biophysical evidence for phosphorylation-dependent conformational changes in the C-terminal phosphorylation domain and its likely interaction with the kinase core.

  18. Rearrangement of the histone H2A C-terminal domain in the nucleosome

    SciTech Connect

    Usachenko, S.I.; Bavykin, S.G.; Gavin, I.M.; Bradbury, M. |

    1994-07-19

    Using zero-length covalent protein-DNA crosslinking, the authors have mapped the histone-DNA contacts in nucleosome core particles from which the C- and N-terminal domains of histone H2A were selectively trimmed by trypsin or clostripain. They found that the flexible trypsin-sensitive C-terminal domain of histone H2A contacts the dyad axis, whereas its globular domain contacts the end of DNA in the nucleosome core particle. The appearance of the histone H2A contact at the dyad axis occurs only in the absence of linker DNA and does not depend on the absence of linker histones. The results show the ability of the histone H2A C-terminal domain to rearrange. This rearrangement might play a biological role in nucleosome disassembly and reassembly and the retention of the H2A-H2B dimer (or the whole octamer) during the passing of polymerases through the nucleosome.

  19. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S.

    2015-08-15

    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  20. Resonance assignments and secondary structure of apolipoprotein E C-terminal domain in DHPC micelles.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chi-Jen; Chyan, Chia-Lin; Chen, Yi-Chen; Chang, Chi-Fon; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lin, Ta-Hsien

    2015-04-01

    Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) has been known to play a key role in the transport of plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. It is an apolipoprotein of 299 amino acids with a molecular mass, ~34 kDa. ApoE has three major isoforms, apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4 which differ only at residue 112 or 158. ApoE consists of two independently folded domains (N-terminal and C-terminal domain) separated by a hinge region. The N-terminal domain and C-terminal domain of apoE are responsible for the binding to receptor and to lipid, respectively. Since the high resolution structures of apoE in lipids are still unavailable to date, we therefore aim to resolve the structures in lipids by NMR. Here, we reported the resonance assignments and secondary structure distribution of the C-terminal domain of wild-type human apoE (residue 195-299) in the micelles formed by dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine. Our results may provide a novel structural model of apoE in micelles and may shed new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the apoE related biological processes.

  1. Structural and functional comparisons of retroviral envelope protein C-terminal domains: still much to learn.

    PubMed

    Steckbeck, Jonathan D; Kuhlmann, Anne-Sophie; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2014-01-16

    Retroviruses are a family of viruses that cause a broad range of pathologies in animals and humans, from the apparently harmless, long-term genomic insertion of endogenous retroviruses, to tumors induced by the oncogenic retroviruses and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) resulting from human immunodeficiency virus infection. Disease can be the result of diverse mechanisms, including tumorigenesis induced by viral oncogenes or immune destruction, leading to the gradual loss of CD4 T-cells. Of the virally encoded proteins common to all retroviruses, the envelope (Env) displays perhaps the most diverse functionality. Env is primarily responsible for binding the cellular receptor and for effecting the fusion process, with these functions mediated by protein domains localized to the exterior of the virus. The remaining C-terminal domain may have the most variable functionality of all retroviral proteins. The C-terminal domains from three prototypical retroviruses are discussed, focusing on the different structures and functions, which include fusion activation, tumorigenesis and viral assembly and lifecycle influences. Despite these genetic and functional differences, however, the C-terminal domains of these viruses share a common feature in the modulation of Env ectodomain conformation. Despite their differences, perhaps each system still has information to share with the others.

  2. Confirming the Revised C-Terminal Domain of the MscL Crystal Structure

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Joshua A.; Elmore, Donald E.; Clayton, Daniel; Xiong, Li; Lester, Henry A.; Dougherty, Dennis A.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the C-terminal domain of the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) has generated significant controversy. As a result, several structures have been proposed for this region: the original crystal structure (1MSL) of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis homolog (Tb), a model of the Escherichia coli homolog, and, most recently, a revised crystal structure of Tb-MscL (2OAR). To understand which of these structures represents a physiological conformation, we measured the impact of mutations to the C-terminal domain on the thermal stability of Tb-MscL using circular dichroism and performed molecular dynamics simulations of the original and the revised crystal structures of Tb-MscL. Our results imply that this region is helical and adopts an α-helical bundle conformation similar to that observed in the E. coli MscL model and the revised Tb-MscL crystal structure. PMID:18326638

  3. Dual Thermosensitive Hydrogels Assembled from the Conserved C-Terminal Domain of Spider Dragline Silk.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Ming-Liang; Song, Wen-Wen; Xia, Xiao-Xia

    2015-11-09

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels have great potentials in biomedical and biotechnological applications. Due to the advantages of precise control over molecular weight and being biodegradable, protein-based hydrogels and their applications have been extensively studied. However, protein hydrogels with dual thermosensitive properties are rarely reported. Here we present the first report of dual thermosensitive hydrogels assembled from the conserved C-terminal domain of spider dragline silk. First, we found that recombinant C-terminal domain of major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) of the spider Nephila clavipes formed hydrogels when cooled to approximately 2 °C or heated to 65 °C. The conformational changes and self-assembly of the recombinant protein were studied to understand the mechanism of the gelation processes using multiple methods. It was proposed that the gelation in the low-temperature regime was dominated by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction between folded protein molecules, whereas the gelation in the high-temperature regime was due to cross-linking of the exposed hydrophobic patches resulting from partial unfolding of the protein upon heating. More interestingly, genetic fusion of the C-terminal domain to a short repetitive region of N. clavipes MaSp1 resulted in a chimeric protein that formed a hydrogel with significantly improved mechanical properties at low temperatures between 2 and 10 °C. Furthermore, the formation of similar hydrogels was observed for the recombinant C-terminal domains of dragline silk of different spider species, thus demonstrating the conserved ability to form dual thermosensitive hydrogels. These findings may be useful in the design and construction of novel protein hydrogels with tunable multiple thermosensitivity for applications in the future.

  4. Conserved C-Terminal Domain of Spider Tubuliform Spidroin 1 Contributes to Extensibility in Synthetic Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Gnesa, Eric; Hsia, Yang; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Weber, Warner; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff; Tang, Simon; Agari, Kimiko; Vierra, Craig

    2012-05-24

    Spider silk is renowned for its extraordinary mechanical properties, having a balance of high tensile strength and extensibility. To date, the majority of studies have focused on the production of dragline silks from synthetic spider silk gene products. Here we report the first mechanical analysis of synthetic egg case silk fibers spun from the Latrodectus hesperus tubuliform silk proteins, TuSp1 and ECP-2. We provide evidence that recombinant ECP-2 proteins can be spun into fibers that display mechanical properties similar to other synthetic spider silks. We also demonstrate that silks spun from recombinant thioredoxin-TuSp1 fusion proteins that contain the conserved C-terminal domain exhibit increased extensibility and toughness when compared to the identical fibers spun from fusion proteins lacking the C-terminus. Mechanical analyses reveal that the properties of synthetic tubuliform silks can be modulated by altering the postspin draw ratios of the fibers. Fibers subject to increased draw ratios showed elevated tensile strength and decreased extensibility but maintained constant toughness. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction studies indicate that postdrawn fibers containing the C-terminal domain of TuSp1 have more amorphous content when compared to fibers lacking the C-terminus. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that recombinant tubuliform spidroins that contain the conserved C-terminal domain with embedded protein tags can be effectively spun into fibers, resulting in similar tensile strength but increased extensibility relative to nontagged recombinant dragline silk proteins spun from equivalently sized proteins.

  5. Electrostatic interactions at the C-terminal domain of nucleoplasmin modulate its chromatin decondensation activity.

    PubMed

    Hierro, Aitor; Arizmendi, Jesús M; Bañuelos, Sonia; Prado, Adelina; Muga, Arturo

    2002-05-21

    The chromatin decondensation activity, thermal stability, and secondary structure of recombinant nucleoplasmin, of two deletion mutants, and of the protein isolated from Xenopus oocytes have been characterized. As previously reported, the chromatin decondensation activity of recombinant, unphosphorylated nucleoplasmin is almost negligible. Our data show that deletion of 50 residues at the C-terminal domain of the protein, containing the positively charged nuclear localization sequence, activates its chromatin decondensation ability and decreases its stability. Interestingly, both the decondensation activity and thermal stability of this deletion mutant resemble those of the phosphorylated protein isolated from Xenopus oocytes. Deletion of 80 residues at the C-terminal domain, containing the above-mentioned positively charged region and a poly(Glu) tract, inactivates the protein and increases its thermal stability. These findings, along with the effect of salt on the thermal stability of these proteins, suggest that electrostatic interactions between the positive nuclear localization sequence and the poly(Glu) tract, at the C-terminal domain, modulate protein activity and stability.

  6. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Doval, Carmela; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophage T7 attaches to its host using the C-terminal domains of its six fibres, which are trimers of the gp17 protein. A C-terminal fragment of gp17 consisting of amino acids 371–553 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of two forms were obtained, belonging to space group P212121 (unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 86.0, c = 118.4 Å) and space group C2221 (unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 145.6, c = 172.1 Å). They diffracted to 1.9 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Both crystals are expected to contain one trimer in the asymmetric unit. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress. PMID:22297990

  7. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Doval, Carmela; van Raaij, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Bacteriophage T7 attaches to its host using the C-terminal domains of its six fibres, which are trimers of the gp17 protein. A C-terminal fragment of gp17 consisting of amino acids 371-553 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of two forms were obtained, belonging to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 86.0, c = 118.4 Å) and space group C222(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 145.6, c = 172.1 Å). They diffracted to 1.9 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Both crystals are expected to contain one trimer in the asymmetric unit. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress.

  8. Fusogenic properties of the C-terminal domain of the Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide.

    PubMed

    Pillot, T; Goethals, M; Vanloo, B; Talussot, C; Brasseur, R; Vandekerckhove, J; Rosseneu, M; Lins, L

    1996-11-15

    A series of natural peptides and mutants, derived from the Alzheimer beta-amyloid peptide, was synthesized, and the potential of these peptides to induce fusion of unilamellar lipid vesicles was investigated. These peptide domains were identified by computer modeling and correspond to respectively the C-terminal (e.g. residues 29-40 and 29-42) and a central domain (13-28) of the beta-amyloid peptide. The C-terminal peptides are predicted to insert in an oblique way into a lipid membrane through their N-terminal end, while the mutants are either parallel or perpendicular to the lipid bilayer. Peptide-induced vesicle fusion was demonstrated by several techniques, including lipid-mixing and core-mixing assays using pyrene-labeled vesicles. The effect of peptide elongation toward the N-terminal end of the entire beta-amyloid peptide was also investigated. Peptides corresponding to residues 22-42 and 12-42 were tested using the same techniques. Both the 29-40 and 29-42 beta-amyloid peptides were able to induce fusion of unilamellar lipid vesicles and calcein leakage, and the amyloid 29-42 peptide was the most potent fusogenic peptide. Neither the two mutants or the 13-28 beta-amyloid peptide had any fusogenic activity. Circular dichroism measurements showed an increase of the alpha-helical content of the two C-terminal peptides at increasing concentrations of trifluoroethanol, which was accompanied by an increase of the fusogenic potential of the peptides. Our data suggest that the alpha-helical content and the angle of insertion of the peptide into a lipid bilayer are critical for the fusogenic activity of the C-terminal domain of the amyloid peptide. The differences observed between the fusogenic capacity of the amyloid 29-40 and 29-42 peptides might result from differences in the degree of penetration of the peptides into the membrane and the resulting membrane destabilization. The longer peptides, residues 22-42 and 12-42, had decreased, but significant, fusogenic

  9. C-Terminal Region of MAP7 Domain Containing Protein 3 (MAP7D3) Promotes Microtubule Polymerization by Binding at the C-Terminal Tail of Tubulin

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Saroj; Verma, Paul J.; Panda, Dulal

    2014-01-01

    MAP7 domain containing protein 3 (MAP7D3), a newly identified microtubule associated protein, has been shown to promote microtubule assembly and stability. Its microtubule binding region has been reported to consist of two coiled coil motifs located at the N-terminus. It possesses a MAP7 domain near the C-terminus and belongs to the microtubule associated protein 7 (MAP7) family. The MAP7 domain of MAP7 protein has been shown to bind to kinesin-1; however, the role of MAP7 domain in MAP7D3 remains unknown. Based on the bioinformatics analysis of MAP7D3, we hypothesized that the MAP7 domain of MAP7D3 may have microtubule binding activity. Indeed, we found that MAP7 domain of MAP7D3 bound to microtubules as well as enhanced the assembly of microtubules in vitro. Interestingly, a longer fragment MDCT that contained the MAP7 domain (MD) with the C-terminal tail (CT) of the protein promoted microtubule polymerization to a greater extent than MD and CT individually. MDCT stabilized microtubules against dilution induced disassembly. MDCT bound to reconstituted microtubules with an apparent dissociation constant of 3.0±0.5 µM. An immunostaining experiment showed that MDCT localized along the length of the preassembled microtubules. Competition experiments with tau indicated that MDCT shares its binding site on microtubules with tau. Further, we present evidence indicating that MDCT binds to the C-terminal tail of tubulin. In addition, MDCT could bind to tubulin in HeLa cell extract. Here, we report a microtubule binding region in the C-terminal region of MAP7D3 that may have a role in regulating microtubule assembly dynamics. PMID:24927501

  10. BS69/ZMYND11 C-Terminal Domains Bind and Inhibit EBNA2

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Xu, Muyu; Martinez, Ernest; Peng, Chih-Wen; Song, Jikui

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) plays an important role in driving immortalization of EBV-infected B cells through regulating the expression of many viral and cellular genes. We report a structural study of the tumor suppressor BS69/ZMYND11 C-terminal region, comprised of tandem coiled-coil-MYND domains (BS69CC-MYND), in complex with an EBNA2 peptide containing a PXLXP motif. The coiled-coil domain of BS69 self-associates to bring two separate MYND domains in close proximity, thereby enhancing the BS69 MYND-EBNA2 interaction. ITC analysis of BS69CC-MYND with a C-terminal fragment of EBNA2 further suggests that the BS69CC-MYND homodimer synergistically binds to the two EBNA2 PXLXP motifs that are respectively located in the conserved regions CR7 and CR8. Furthermore, we showed that EBNA2 interacts with BS69 and down-regulates its expression at both mRNA and protein levels in EBV-infected B cells. Ectopic BS69CC-MYND is recruited to viral target promoters through interactions with EBNA2, inhibits EBNA2-mediated transcription activation, and impairs proliferation of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Substitution of critical residues in the MYND domain impairs the BS69-EBNA2 interaction and abolishes the BS69 inhibition of the EBNA2-mediated transactivation and LCL proliferation. This study identifies the BS69 C-terminal domains as an inhibitor of EBNA2, which may have important implications in development of novel therapeutic strategies against EBV infection. PMID:26845565

  11. The C-Terminal Domain of the Virulence Factor MgtC Is a Divergent ACT Domain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yinshan; Labesse, Gilles; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Esteves, Kevin; Kremer, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    MgtC is a virulence factor of unknown function important for survival inside macrophages in several intracellular bacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is also involved in adaptation to Mg2+ deprivation, but previous work suggested that MgtC is not a Mg2+ transporter. In this study, we demonstrated that the amount of the M. tuberculosis MgtC protein is not significantly increased by Mg2+ deprivation. Members of the MgtC protein family share a conserved membrane N-terminal domain and a more divergent cytoplasmic C-terminal domain. To get insights into MgtC functional and structural organization, we have determined the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of the C-terminal domain of M. tuberculosis MgtC. This structure is not affected by the Mg2+ concentration, indicating that it does not bind Mg2+. The structure of the C-terminal domain forms a βαββαβ fold found in small molecule binding domains called ACT domains. However, the M. tuberculosis MgtC ACT domain differs from canonical ACT domains because it appears to lack the ability to dimerize and to bind small molecules. We have shown, using a bacterial two-hybrid system, that the M. tuberculosis MgtC protein can dimerize and that the C-terminal domain somehow facilitates this dimerization. Taken together, these results indicate that M. tuberculosis MgtC does not have an intrinsic function related to Mg2+ uptake or binding but could act as a regulatory factor based on protein-protein interaction that could be facilitated by its ACT domain. PMID:22984256

  12. A C-terminal membrane association domain of phototropin 2 is necessary for chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sam-Geun; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Wada, Masamitsu; Nagatani, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Phototropins (phot1 and phot2), plant-specific blue light receptor kinases, mediate a range of physiological responses in Arabidopsis, including phototropism, chloroplast photorelocation movement, stomatal opening and leaf flattening. Phototropins consist of two photoreceptive domains at their N-terminus, LOV1 (light, oxygen or voltage 1) and LOV2, and a serine/threonine kinase domain at their C-terminus. Here, we determined the molecular moiety for the membrane association of phototropins using the yeast CytoTrap and Arabidopsis protoplast systems. We then examined the physiological significance of the membrane association of phototropins. This detailed study with serial deletions narrowed down the association domain to a relatively small part of the C-terminal domain of phototropin. The functional analysis of phot2 deletion mutants in the phot2-deficient Adiantum and Arabidopsis mutants revealed that the ability to mediate the chloroplast avoidance response correlated well with phot2's membrane association, especially with the Golgi apparatus. Taken together, our data suggest that a small part of the C-terminal domain of phototropins is necessary not only for membrane association but also for the physiological activities that elicit phototropin-specific responses.

  13. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh; Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär; Coutard, Bruno; Tucker, Paul A.

    2009-08-01

    The structure of the cytosolic C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 4 from feline coronavirus has been determined and analyzed. Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P4{sub 3}. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions.

  14. Structure of the C-Terminal Domain of Lettuce Necrotic Yellows Virus Phosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Nicolas; Ribeiro, Euripedes A.; Leyrat, Cédric; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Ruigrok, Rob W. H.

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV) is a prototype of the plant-adapted cytorhabdoviruses. Through a meta-prediction of disorder, we localized a folded C-terminal domain in the amino acid sequence of its phosphoprotein. This domain consists of an autonomous folding unit that is monomeric in solution. Its structure, solved by X-ray crystallography, reveals a lollipop-shaped structure comprising five helices. The structure is different from that of the corresponding domains of other Rhabdoviridae, Filoviridae, and Paramyxovirinae; only the overall topology of the polypeptide chain seems to be conserved, suggesting that this domain evolved under weak selective pressure and varied in size by the acquisition or loss of functional modules. PMID:23785215

  15. Mutational analysis of the C-terminal FATC domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tra1

    PubMed Central

    Hoke, Stephen M. T.; Irina Mutiu, A.; Genereaux, Julie; Kvas, Stephanie; Buck, Michael; Yu, Michael; Gloor, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    Tra1 is a component of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SAGA and NuA4 complexes and a member of the PIKK family, which contain a C-terminal phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like (PI3K) domain followed by a 35-residue FATC domain. Single residue changes of L3733A and F3744A, within the FATC domain, resulted in transcriptional changes and phenotypes that were similar but not identical to those caused by mutations in the PI3K domain or deletions of other SAGA or NuA4 components. The distinct nature of the FATC mutations was also apparent from the additive effect of tra1-L3733A with SAGA, NuA4, and tra1 PI3K domain mutations. Tra1-L3733A associates with SAGA and NuA4 components and with the Gal4 activation domain, to the same extent as wild-type Tra1; however, steady-state levels of Tra1-L3733A were reduced. We suggest that decreased stability of Tra1-L3733A accounts for the phenotypes since intragenic suppressors of tra1-L3733A restored Tra1 levels, and reducing wild-type Tra1 led to comparable growth defects. Also supporting a key role for the FATC domain in the structure/function of Tra1, addition of a C-terminal glycine residue resulted in decreased association with Spt7 and Esa1, and loss of cellular viability. These findings demonstrate the regulatory potential of mechanisms targeting the FATC domains of PIKK proteins. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00294-010-0313-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20635087

  16. Synthesis and characterization of photoaffinity labelling reagents towards the Hsp90 C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Simon, Binto; Huang, Xuexia; Ju, Huangxian; Sun, Guoxuan; Yang, Min

    2017-02-21

    Glucosyl-novobiocin-based diazirine photoaffinity labelling reagents (PALs) were designed and synthesized to probe the Hsp90 C-terminal domain unknown binding pocket and the structure-activity relationship. Five PALs were successfully synthesized from novobiocin in six consecutive steps employing phase transfer catalytic glycosylation. Reactions were monitored and guided by analytical LC/MS which led to different strategies of adding either a PAL precursor or a sugar moiety first. The structures and bonding linkages of these compounds were characterised by various 2D-NMR spectroscopy and MS techniques. Synthetic techniques provide powerful probes for unknown protein binding pockets.

  17. Iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis: functional characterization of the N- and C-terminal domains of human NFU.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yushi; Qi, Wenbin; Cowan, J A

    2009-02-10

    Human NFU (also known as HIRIP5) has been implicated in cellular iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis. Bacterial and yeast forms are smaller than the human protein and are homologous to the C-terminal domain of the latter. This C-terminal domain contains a pair of redox active cysteines and demonstrates thioredoxin-like activity by mediating persulfide bond cleavage of sulfur-loaded NifS (an IscS-type protein), the sulfide donor for [2Fe-2S] cluster assembly on ISU-type scaffold proteins. Herein, the affinity of full-length human NFU and the individual N- and C-terminal domains for sulfide donor and cluster scaffold proteins is assessed. The influence of the N-terminal domain on C-terminal NFU binding to NifS and persulfide reductase activity is also examined. Only the C-terminal domain is required for persulfide reductase activity, while complex formation of NifS with full-length NFU is similar to that of the C-terminal domain alone (K(D) approximately 9.7 +/- 0.7 and 10.1 +/- 0.6 microM, respectively). There is negligible affinity between the isolated C- and N-terminal domains, while the N-terminal domain has negligible affinity for either sulfide donor or cluster scaffold proteins. The temperature dependence of the binding enthalpy for formation of the complex between NifS and the C-terminal domain of NFU yields a change in molar heat capacity (DeltaC(p) approximately 138 cal mol(-1) K(-1)) that suggests bonding at the protein-protein interface is dominated by electrostatic interactions. This is consistent with electrostatic potential maps for bacterial homologues of the N- and C-terminal domains of human NFU, which most likely reflect the structural characteristics expected for full-length human NFU.

  18. Effect of C-terminal domain truncation of Thermus thermophilus trehalose synthase on its substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chang-Bae; Park, Da-Yeon; Lee, Soo-Bok

    2017-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of the three-domain-comprising trehalose synthase from Thermus thermophilus was truncated in order to study the effect on the enzyme's activity and substrate specificity. Compared with the wild-type (WT) enzyme, the two truncated enzymes (DM1 and DM2) showed lower maltose- and trehalose-converting activities and a different transglycosylation reaction mechanism. In the mutants, the glucose moiety cleaved from the maltose substrate was released from the enzyme and intercepted by external glucose oxidase, preventing the production of trehalose. The WT enzyme, however, retained the glucose in the active site to effectively produce trehalose. In addition, DM1 synthesized much higher amounts of mannose-containing disaccharide trehalose analog (Man-TA) than did the WT and DM2. The results suggest that the C-terminal domain in the WT enzyme is important for retaining the glucose moiety within the active site. The mutant enzymes could be used to produce Man-TA, a postulated inhibitor of gut disaccharidases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Crystallization and halide phasing of the C-terminal domain of human KIN17

    SciTech Connect

    Maire, Albane le; Schiltz, Marc; Braud, Sandrine; Gondry, Muriel; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Zinn-Justin, Sophie; Stura, Enrico

    2006-03-01

    Expression, purification, crystallization and phasing procedure are reported for the C-terminal domain of human KIN17. Here, the crystallization and initial phasing of the C-terminal domain of human KIN17, a 45 kDa protein mainly expressed in response to ionizing radiation and overexpressed in certain tumour cell lines, are reported. Crystals diffracting to 1.4 Å resolution were obtained from 10% ethylene glycol, 27% PEG 6000, 500 mM LiCl and 100 mM sodium acetate pH 6.3 in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 45.75, b = 46.31, c = 60.80 Å and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Since this domain has a basic pI, heavy-atom derivatives were obtained by soaking the crystals with negatively charged ions such as tungstate and iodine. The replacement of LiCl by KI in the cryosolution allowed the determination of phases from iodide ions to give an interpretable electron-density map.

  20. Structure of the RecQ C-terminal domain of human Bloom syndrome protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Yong; Hakoshima, Toshio; Kitano, Ken

    2013-11-21

    Bloom syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by genomic instability and cancer predisposition. The disease is caused by mutations of the Bloom syndrome protein (BLM). Here we report the crystal structure of a RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain from human BLM. The structure reveals three novel features of BLM RQC which distinguish it from the previous structures of the Werner syndrome protein (WRN) and RECQ1. First, BLM RQC lacks an aromatic residue at the tip of the β-wing, a key element of the RecQ-family helicases used for DNA-strand separation. Second, a BLM-specific insertion between the N-terminal helices exhibits a looping-out structure that extends at right angles to the β-wing. Deletion mutagenesis of this insertion interfered with binding to Holliday junction. Third, the C-terminal region of BLM RQC adopts an extended structure running along the domain surface, which may facilitate the spatial positioning of an HRDC domain in the full-length protein.

  1. Intrinsic Disorder of the C-Terminal Domain of Drosophila Methoprene-Tolerant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kolonko, Marta; Ożga, Katarzyna; Hołubowicz, Rafał; Taube, Michał; Kozak, Maciej; Ożyhar, Andrzej; Greb-Markiewicz, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Methoprene tolerant protein (Met) has recently been confirmed as the long-sought juvenile hormone (JH) receptor. This protein plays a significant role in the cross-talk of the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and JH signalling pathways, which are important for control of insect development and maturation. Met belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family of transcription factors. In these proteins, bHLH domains are typically responsible for DNA binding and dimerization, whereas the PAS domains are crucial for the choice of dimerization partner and the specificity of target gene activation. The C-terminal region is usually responsible for the regulation of protein complex activity. The sequence of the Met C-terminal region (MetC) is not homologous to any sequence deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and has not been structurally characterized to date. In this study, we show that the MetC exhibits properties typical for an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). The final averaged structure obtained with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments indicates that intrinsically disordered MetC exists in an extended conformation. This extended shape and the long unfolded regions characterise proteins with high flexibility and dynamics. Therefore, we suggest that the multiplicity of conformations adopted by the disordered MetC is crucial for its activity as a biological switch modulating the cross-talk of different signalling pathways in insects. PMID:27657508

  2. Molecular architecture of the nucleoprotein C-terminal domain from the Ebola and Marburg viruses.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura E; Ellena, Jeffrey F; Handing, Katarzyna B; Derewenda, Urszula; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Engel, Daniel A; Derewenda, Zygmunt S

    2016-01-01

    The Filoviridae family of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses is comprised of two species of Marburgvirus (MARV and RAVV) and five species of Ebolavirus, i.e. Zaire (EBOV), Reston (RESTV), Sudan (SUDV), Taï Forest (TAFV) and Bundibugyo (BDBV). In each of these viruses the ssRNA encodes seven distinct proteins. One of them, the nucleoprotein (NP), is the most abundant viral protein in the infected cell and within the viral nucleocapsid. It is tightly associated with the viral RNA in the nucleocapsid, and during the lifecycle of the virus is essential for transcription, RNA replication, genome packaging and nucleocapsid assembly prior to membrane encapsulation. The structure of the unique C-terminal globular domain of the NP from EBOV has recently been determined and shown to be structurally unrelated to any other known protein [Dziubańska et al. (2014), Acta Cryst. D70, 2420-2429]. In this paper, a study of the C-terminal domains from the NP from the remaining four species of Ebolavirus, as well as from the MARV strain of Marburgvirus, is reported. As expected, the crystal structures of the BDBV and TAFV proteins show high structural similarity to that from EBOV, while the MARV protein behaves like a molten globule with a core residual structure that is significantly different from that of the EBOV protein.

  3. Solution structure of the RecQ C-terminal domain of human Bloom syndrome protein.

    PubMed

    Park, Chin-Ju; Ko, Junsang; Ryu, Kyoung-Seok; Choi, Byong-Seok

    2014-02-01

    RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain is known as the main DNA binding module of RecQ helicases such as Bloom syndrome protein (BLM) and Werner syndrome protein (WRN) that recognizes various DNA structures. Even though BLM is able to resolve various DNA structures similarly to WRN, BLM has different binding preferences for DNA substrates from WRN. In this study, we determined the solution structure of the RQC domain of human BLM. The structure shares the common winged-helix motif with other RQC domains. However, half of the N-terminal has unstructured regions (α1-α2 loop and α3 region), and the aromatic side chain on the top of the β-hairpin, which is important for DNA duplex strand separation in other RQC domains, is substituted with a negatively charged residue (D1165) followed by the polar residue (Q1166). The structurally distinctive features of the RQC domain of human BLM suggest that the DNA binding modes of the BLM RQC domain may be different from those of other RQC domains.

  4. Control of cytoplasmic dynein force production and processivity by its C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Matthew P.; Höök, Peter; Brenner, Sibylle; Wynne, Caitlin L.; Vallee, Richard B.; Gennerich, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule motor involved in cargo transport, nuclear migration and cell division. Despite structural conservation of the dynein motor domain from yeast to higher eukaryotes, the extensively studied S. cerevisiae dynein behaves distinctly from mammalian dyneins, which produce far less force and travel over shorter distances. However, isolated reports of yeast-like force production by mammalian dynein have called interspecies differences into question. We report that functional differences between yeast and mammalian dynein are real and attributable to a C-terminal motor element absent in yeast, which resembles a ‘cap’ over the central pore of the mammalian dynein motor domain. Removal of this cap increases the force generation of rat dynein from 1 pN to a yeast-like 6 pN and greatly increases its travel distance. Our findings identify the CT-cap as a novel regulator of dynein function. PMID:25670086

  5. Control of cytoplasmic dynein force production and processivity by its C-terminal domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Matthew P.; Höök, Peter; Brenner, Sibylle; Wynne, Caitlin L.; Vallee, Richard B.; Gennerich, Arne

    2015-02-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule motor involved in cargo transport, nuclear migration and cell division. Despite structural conservation of the dynein motor domain from yeast to higher eukaryotes, the extensively studied S. cerevisiae dynein behaves distinctly from mammalian dyneins, which produce far less force and travel over shorter distances. However, isolated reports of yeast-like force production by mammalian dynein have called interspecies differences into question. We report that functional differences between yeast and mammalian dynein are real and attributable to a C-terminal motor element absent in yeast, which resembles a ‘cap’ over the central pore of the mammalian dynein motor domain. Removal of this cap increases the force generation of rat dynein from 1 pN to a yeast-like 6 pN and greatly increases its travel distance. Our findings identify the CT-cap as a novel regulator of dynein function.

  6. Crystallization of the C-terminal globular domain of avian reovirus fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Raaij, Mark J. van; Hermo Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado Calvo, Pablo; Fox, Gavin C.; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Costas, Celina; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier

    2005-07-01

    Partial proteolysis of the avian reovirus cell-attachment protein σC yields a major homotrimeric C-terminal fragment that presumably contains the receptor-binding domain. This fragment has been crystallized in the presence and absence of zinc sulfate and cadmium sulfate. One of the crystal forms diffracts synchrotron X-rays to 2.2–2.3 Å. Avian reovirus fibre, a homotrimer of the σC protein, is responsible for primary host-cell attachment. Using the protease trypsin, a C-terminal σC fragment containing amino acids 156–326 has been generated which was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained, one grown in the absence of divalent cations and belonging to space group P6{sub 3}22 (unit-cell parameters a = 75.6, c = 243.1 Å) and one grown in the presence of either zinc or cadmium sulfate and belonging to space group P321 (unit-cell parameters a = 74.7, c = 74.5 Å and a = 73.1, c = 69.9 Å for the Zn{sup II}- and Cd{sup II}-grown crystals, respectively). The first crystal form diffracted synchrotron radiation to 3.0 Å resolution and the second form to 2.2–2.3 Å. Its closest related structure, the C-terminal fragment of mammalian reovirus fibre, has only 18% sequence identity and molecular-replacement attempts were unsuccessful. Therefore, a search is under way for suitable heavy-atom derivatives and attempts are being made to grow protein crystals containing selenomethionine instead of methionine.

  7. Autoinhibition of Bacteriophage T4 Mre11 by Its C-terminal Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Nelson, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    Mre11 and Rad50 form a stable complex (MR) and work cooperatively in repairing DNA double strand breaks. In the bacteriophage T4, Rad50 (gene product 46) enhances the nuclease activity of Mre11 (gene product 47), and Mre11 and DNA in combination stimulate the ATPase activity of Rad50. The structural basis for the cross-activation of the MR complex has been elusive. Various crystal structures of the MR complex display limited protein-protein interfaces that mainly exist between the C terminus of Mre11 and the coiled-coil domain of Rad50. To test the role of the C-terminal Rad50 binding domain (RBD) in Mre11 activation, we constructed a series of C-terminal deletions and mutations in bacteriophage T4 Mre11. Deletion of the RBD in Mre11 eliminates Rad50 binding but only has moderate effect on its intrinsic nuclease activity; however, the additional deletion of the highly acidic flexible linker that lies between RBD and the main body of Mre11 increases the nuclease activity of Mre11 by 20-fold. Replacement of the acidic residues in the flexible linker with alanine elevates the Mre11 activity to the level of the MR complex when combined with deletion of RBD. Nuclease activity kinetics indicate that Rad50 association and deletion of the C terminus of Mre11 both enhance DNA substrate binding. Additionally, a short peptide that contains the flexible linker and RBD of Mre11 acts as an inhibitor of Mre11 nuclease activity. These results support a model where the Mre11 RBD and linker domain act as an autoinhibitory domain when not in complex with Rad50. Complex formation with Rad50 alleviates this inhibition due to the tight association of the RBD and the Rad50 coiled-coil. PMID:25077970

  8. The distinct C-terminal acidic domains of HMGB proteins are functionally relevant in Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    de Abreu da Silva, Isabel Caetano; Carneiro, Vitor Coutinho; Vicentino, Amanda Roberta Revoredo; Aguilera, Estefania Anahi; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo; Thiengo, Silvana; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Fantappié, Marcelo Rosado

    2016-04-01

    The Schistosoma mansoni High Mobility Group Box (HMGB) proteins SmHMGB1, SmHMGB2 and SmHMGB3 share highly conserved HMG box DNA binding domains but have significantly different C-terminal acidic tails. Here, we used three full-length and tailless forms of the S. mansoni HMGB proteins to examine the functional roles of their acidic tails. DNA binding assays revealed that the different lengths of the acidic tails among the three SmHMGB proteins significantly and distinctively influenced their DNA transactions. Spectroscopic analyses indicated that the longest acidic tail of SmHMGB3 contributes to the structural stabilisation of this protein. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we showed distinct patterns of SmHMGB1, SmHMGB2 and SmHMGB3 expression in different tissues of adult worms. RNA interference approaches indicated a role for SmHMGB2 and SmHMGB3 in the reproductive system of female worms, whereas for SmHMGB1 no clear phenotype was observed. Schistosome HMGB proteins can be phosphorylated, acetylated and methylated. Importantly, the acetylation and methylation of schistosome HMGBs were greatly enhanced upon removal of the acidic tail. These data support the notion that the C-terminal acidic tails dictate the differences in the structure, expression and function of schistosome HMGB proteins. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structure of the C-terminal Domain of Transcription Facto IIB from Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, B.; Kanneganti, N; Rieckhof, G; Das, A; Laurents, D; Palenchar, J; Bellofatto, V; Wah, D

    2009-01-01

    In trypanosomes, the production of mRNA relies on the synthesis of the spliced leader (SL) RNA. Expression of the SL RNA is initiated at the only known RNA polymerase II promoter in these parasites. In the pathogenic trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, transcription factor IIB (tTFIIB) is essential for SL RNA gene transcription and cell viability, but has a highly divergent primary sequence in comparison to TFIIB in well-studied eukaryotes. Here we describe the 2.3 A resolution structure of the C-terminal domain of tTFIIB (tTFIIBC). The tTFIIBC structure consists of 2 closely packed helical modules followed by a C-terminal extension of 32 aa. Using the structure as a guide, alanine substitutions of basic residues in regions analogous to functionally important regions of the well-studied eukaryotic TFIIB support conservation of a general mechanism of TFIIB function in eukaryotes. Strikingly, tTFIIBC contains additional loops and helices, and, in contrast to the highly basic DNA binding surface of human TFIIB, contains a neutral surface in the corresponding region. These attributes probably mediate trypanosome-specific interactions and have implications for the apparent bidirectional transcription by RNA polymerase II in protein-encoding gene expression in these organisms.

  10. Requirement for the E1 Helicase C-Terminal Domain in Papillomavirus DNA Replication In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bergvall, Monika; Gagnon, David; Titolo, Steve; Lehoux, Michaël; D'Abramo, Claudia M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The papillomavirus (PV) E1 helicase contains a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), located next to its ATP-binding site, whose function in vivo is still poorly understood. The CTD is comprised of an alpha helix followed by an acidic region (AR) and a C-terminal extension termed the C-tail. Recent biochemical studies on bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1) E1 showed that the AR and C-tail regulate the oligomerization of the protein into a double hexamer at the origin. In this study, we assessed the importance of the CTD of human papillomavirus 11 (HPV11) E1 in vivo, using a cell-based DNA replication assay. Our results indicate that combined deletion of the AR and C-tail drastically reduces DNA replication, by 85%, and that further truncation into the alpha-helical region compromises the structural integrity of the E1 helicase domain and its interaction with E2. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail alone or mutation of highly conserved residues within the domain still allows significant levels of DNA replication (55%). This is in contrast to the absolute requirement for the C-tail reported for BPV1 E1 in vitro and confirmed here in vivo. Characterization of chimeric proteins in which the AR and C-tail from HPV11 E1 were replaced by those of BPV1 indicated that while the function of the AR is transferable, that of the C-tail is not. Collectively, these findings define the contribution of the three CTD subdomains to the DNA replication activity of E1 in vivo and suggest that the function of the C-tail has evolved in a PV type-specific manner. IMPORTANCE While much is known about hexameric DNA helicases from superfamily 3, the papillomavirus E1 helicase contains a unique C-terminal domain (CTD) adjacent to its ATP-binding site. We show here that this CTD is important for the DNA replication activity of HPV11 E1 in vivo and that it can be divided into three functional subdomains that roughly correspond to the three conserved regions of the CTD: an alpha helix, needed

  11. Competition between Intradomain and Interdomain Interactions: A Buried Salt Bridge is Essential for Villin Headpiece Folding and Actin-Binding

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Laura E.; Song, Benben; Raleigh, Daniel P.; McKnight, C. James

    2011-01-01

    Villin-type headpiece domains are ~70 residue motifs that reside at the C-terminus of a variety of actin-associated proteins. Villin headpiece (HP67) is a commonly used model system for both experimental and computational studies of protein folding. HP67 is made up of two subdomains that form a tightly packed interface. The isolated C-terminal subdomain of HP67 (HP35) is one of the smallest autonomously-folding proteins known. The N-terminal subdomain requires the presence of the C-terminal subdomain to fold. In the structure of HP67, a conserved salt bridge connects N- and C-terminal subdomains. This buried salt bridge between residues E39 and K70 is unusual in a small protein domain. We used mutational analysis, monitored by CD and NMR, and functional assays to determine the role of this buried salt bridge. First, the two residues in the salt bridge were replaced with strictly hydrophobic amino acids, E39M/K70M. Second, the two residues in the salt bridge were swapped, E39K/K70E. Any change from the wild-type salt bridge residues results in unfolding of the N-terminal subdomain, even when the mutations were made in stabilized variant of HP67. The C-terminal subdomain remains folded in all mutants and is stabilized by some of the mutations. Using actin sedimentation assays we find that a folded N-terminal domain is essential for specific actin binding. Therefore, the buried salt bridge is required for the specific folding of the N-terminal domain which confers actin-binding activity to villin-type headpiece domains, even though the residues required for this specific interaction destabilize the C-terminal subdomain. PMID:21449557

  12. Trypanosoma evansi: identification and characterization of a variant surface glycoprotein lacking cysteine residues in its C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yonggen; Zhao, Xinxin; Zou, Jingru; Suo, Xun

    2011-01-01

    African trypanosomes are flagellated unicellular parasites which proliferate extracellularly in the mammalian host blood-stream and tissue spaces. They evade the hosts' antibody-mediated lyses by sequentially changing their variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). VSG tightly coats the entire parasite body, serving as a physical barrier. In Trypanosoma brucei and the closely related species Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma equiperdum, each VSG polypeptide can be divided into N- and C-terminal domains, based on cysteine distribution and sequence homology. N-terminal domain, the basis of antigenic variation, is hypervariable and contains all the exposed epitopes; C-terminal domain is relatively conserved and a full set of four or eight cysteines were generally observed. We cloned two genes from two distinct variants of T. evansi, utilizing RT-PCR with VSG-specific primers. One contained a VSG type A N-terminal domain followed a C-terminal domain lacking cysteine residues. To confirm that this gene is expressed as a functional VSG, the expression and localization of the corresponding gene product were characterized using Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining of living trypanosomes. Expression analysis showed that this protein was highly expressed, variant-specific, and had a ubiquitous cellular surface localization. All these results indicated that it was expressed as a functional VSG. Our finding showed that cysteine residues in VSG C-terminal domain were not essential; the conserved C-terminal domain generally in T. brucei like VSGs would possibly evolve for regulating the VSG expression.

  13. Design and biological testing of peptidic dimerization inhibitors of human Hsp90 that target the C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Bertan; Ciglia, Emanuele; Ouald-Chaib, Anissa; Groth, Georg; Gohlke, Holger; Jose, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Small molecules targeting the dimerization interface of the C-terminal domain of Hsp90, a validated target for cancer treatment, have yet to be identified. Three peptides were designed with the aim to inhibit the dimerization of Hsp90. Computational and biophysical methods examined the α-helical structure for the three peptides. Based on the Autodisplay technology, a novel flow cytometer dimerization assay was developed to test inhibition of Hsp90 dimerization. Microscale thermophoresis was used to determine the K(D) of the peptides towards the C-terminal domain of Hsp90. MD simulations and CD spectroscopy indicated an α-helical structure for two of the three peptides. By flow cytometer analysis, IC(50) values of 2.08 μM for peptide H2 and 8.96 μM for peptide H3 were determined. Dimer formation of the C-terminal dimerization domain was analyzed by microscale thermophoresis, and a K(D) of 1.29 nM was determined. Furthermore, microscale thermophoresis studies demonstrated a high affinity binding of H2 and H3 to the C-terminal domain, with a K(D) of 1.02 μM and 1.46 μM, respectively. These results revealed the first peptidic inhibitors of Hsp90 dimerization targeting the C-terminal domain. Furthermore, it has been shown that these peptides bind to the C-terminal domain with a low micromolar affinity. These results can be used to design and screen for small molecules that inhibit the dimerization of the C-terminal domain of Hsp90, which could open a new route for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of mouse TLR9

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Bernard; Wilson, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important pattern recognition receptors that function in innate immunity. Elucidating the structure and signaling mechanisms of TLR9, a sensor of foreign and endogenous DNA, is essential for understanding its critical roles in immunity and autoimmunity. Abundant evidence suggests that the TLR9-CTD (C-terminal domain) by itself is capable of DNA-binding and signaling. We present the crystal structure of unliganded mouse TLR9-CTD. TLR9-CTD exhibits one unique feature, a cluster of stacked aromatic and arginine side chains on its concave face. Overall, its structure is most related to the TLR8-CTD, suggesting a similar mode of ligand binding and signaling. PMID:24888966

  15. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh; Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär; Coutard, Bruno; Tucker, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P43. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions. PMID:19622868

  16. Solution structure and dynamics of C-terminal regulatory domain of Vibrio vulnificus extracellular metalloprotease

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Heeyoun; Park, Jung Eun; Lee, Jung Sup; Lee, Weontae

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have determined solution structures of vEP C-terminal regulatory domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 has a compact {beta}-barrel structure with eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution structure of vEP C-ter100 shares its molecular topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residues in the {beta}3 region of vEP C-ter100 might be important in putative ligand/receptor binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron ion. -- Abstract: An extracellular metalloprotease (vEP) secreted by Vibrio vulnificus ATCC29307 is a 45-kDa proteolytic enzyme that has prothrombin activation and fibrinolytic activities during bacterial infection. The action of vEP could result in clotting that could serve to protect the bacteria from the host defense machinery. Very recently, we showed that the C-terminal propeptide (C-ter100), which is unique to vEP, is involved in regulation of vEP activity. To understand the structural basis of this function of vEP C-ter100, we have determined the solution structure and backbone dynamics using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solution structure shows that vEP C-ter100 is composed of eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands with a unique fold that has a compact {beta}-barrel formation which stabilized by hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding networks. Protein dynamics shows that the overall structure, including loops, is very rigid and stabilized. By structural database analysis, we found that vEP C-ter100 shares its topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase, despite low sequence homology between the two domains. Fluorescence assay reveals that vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron (Fe{sup 3+}). These findings suggest that vEP protease might recruit substrate molecules, such as collagen, by binding at C-ter100 and that vEP participates

  17. Topology and dynamics of the 10 kDa C-terminal domain of DnaK in solution.

    PubMed Central

    Bertelsen, E. B.; Zhou, H.; Lowry, D. F.; Flynn, G. C.; Dahlquist, F. W.

    1999-01-01

    Hsp70 molecular chaperones contain three distinct structural domains, a 44 kDa N-terminal ATPase domain, a 17 kDa peptide-binding domain, and a 10 kDa C-terminal domain. The ATPase and peptide binding domains are conserved in sequence and are functionally well characterized. The function of the 10 kDa variable C-terminal domain is less well understood. We have characterized the secondary structure and dynamics of the C-terminal domain from the Escherichia coli Hsp70, DnaK, in solution by high-resolution NMR. The domain was shown to be comprised of a rigid structure consisting of four helices and a flexible C-terminal subdomain of approximately 33 amino acids. The mobility of the flexible region is maintained in the context of the full-length protein and does not appear to be modulated by the nucleotide state. The flexibility of this region appears to be a conserved feature of Hsp70 architecture and may have important functional implications. We also developed a method to analyze 15N nuclear spin relaxation data, which allows us to extract amide bond vector directions relative to a unique diffusion axis. The extracted angles and rotational correlation times indicate that the helices form an elongated, bundle-like structure in solution. PMID:10048327

  18. Lysines in the RNA Polymerase II C-Terminal Domain Contribute to TAF15 Fibril Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Janke, Abigail M; Seo, Da Hee; Rahmanian, Vahid; Conicella, Alexander E; Mathews, Kaylee L; Burke, Kathleen A; Mittal, Jeetain; Fawzi, Nicolas L

    2017-10-11

    Many cancer-causing chromosomal translocations result in transactivating protein products encoding FET family (FUS, EWSR1, TAF15) low-complexity (LC) domains fused to a DNA binding domain from one of several transcription factors. Recent work demonstrates that higher-order assemblies of FET LC domains bind the carboxy-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II CTD), suggesting FET oncoproteins may mediate aberrant transcriptional activation by recruiting RNA polymerase II to promoters of target genes. Here we use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and hydrogel fluorescence microscopy localization and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to visualize atomic details of a model of this process, interactions of RNA pol II CTD with high-molecular weight TAF15 LC assemblies. We report NMR resonance assignments of the intact degenerate repeat half of human RNA pol II CTD alone and verify its predominant intrinsic disorder by molecular simulation. By measuring NMR spin relaxation and dark-state exchange saturation transfer, we characterize the interaction of RNA pol II CTD with amyloid-like hydrogel fibrils of TAF15 and hnRNP A2 LC domains and observe that heptads far from the acidic C-terminal tail of RNA pol II CTD bind TAF15 fibrils most avidly. Mutation of CTD lysines in heptad position 7 to consensus serines reduced the overall level of TAF15 fibril binding, suggesting that electrostatic interactions contribute to complex formation. Conversely, mutations of position 7 asparagine residues and truncation of the acidic tail had little effect. Thus, weak, multivalent interactions between TAF15 fibrils and heptads throughout RNA pol II CTD collectively mediate complex formation.

  19. Structure of metabotropic glutamate receptor C-terminal domains in contact with interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Enz, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) regulate intracellular signal pathways that control several physiological tasks, including neuronal excitability, learning, and memory. This is achieved by the formation of synaptic signal complexes, in which mGluRs assemble with functionally related proteins such as enzymes, scaffolds, and cytoskeletal anchor proteins. Thus, mGluR associated proteins actively participate in the regulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Importantly, dysfunction of mGluRs and interacting proteins may lead to impaired signal transduction and finally result in neurological disorders, e.g., night blindness, addiction, epilepsy, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and Parkinson's disease. In contrast to solved crystal structures of extracellular N-terminal domains of some mGluR types, only a few studies analyzed the conformation of intracellular receptor domains. Intracellular C-termini of most mGluR types are subject to alternative splicing and can be further modified by phosphorylation and SUMOylation. In this way, diverse interaction sites for intracellular proteins that bind to and regulate the glutamate receptors are generated. Indeed, most of the known mGluR binding partners interact with the receptors' C-terminal domains. Within the last years, different laboratories analyzed the structure of these domains and described the geometry of the contact surface between mGluR C-termini and interacting proteins. Here, I will review recent progress in the structure characterization of mGluR C-termini and provide an up-to-date summary of the geometry of these domains in contact with binding partners.

  20. The C-terminal domain promotes the hemorrhagic damage caused by Vibrio vulnificus metalloprotease.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, S; Kawata, K; Tomochika, K; Shinoda, S; Yamamoto, S

    2001-12-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, an opportunistic human pathogen, produces a 45-kDa zinc metalloprotease (V. vulnificus protease; VVP) as an important virulence determinant. VVP injected intradermally into the dorsal skin causes the hemorrhagic damage through specific degradation of type IV collage in the vascular basement membrane. The N-terminal 35-kDa polypeptide (VVP-N), the catalytic domain, also evoked the hemorrhagic skin reaction within minutes. However, the hemorrhagic activity of VVP-N was one-third of that of VVP. Besides, the proteolytic activity of VVP-N toward the reconstituted basement membrane or type IV collagen was found to be about 50 % of VVP. VVP-N, like VVP, was quickly inactivated by an equimolar amount of alpha(2)-macroglobulin, a broad-spectrum plasma protease inhibitor. These findings indicate that the C-terminal 10-kDa polypeptide, the substrate-binding domain mediating the effective binding to protein substrates, functions to augment the hemorrhagic reaction of VVP.

  1. Dynamic condensation of linker histone C-terminal domain regulates chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Luque, Antoni; Collepardo-Guevara, Rosana; Grigoryev, Sergei; Schlick, Tamar

    2014-07-01

    The basic and intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (CTD) of the linker histone (LH) is essential for chromatin compaction. However, its conformation upon nucleosome binding and its impact on chromatin organization remain unknown. Our mesoscale chromatin model with a flexible LH CTD captures a dynamic, salt-dependent condensation mechanism driven by charge neutralization between the LH and linker DNA. Namely, at low salt concentration, CTD condenses, but LH only interacts with the nucleosome and one linker DNA, resulting in a semi-open nucleosome configuration; at higher salt, LH interacts with the nucleosome and two linker DNAs, promoting stem formation and chromatin compaction. CTD charge reduction unfolds the domain and decondenses chromatin, a mechanism in consonance with reduced counterion screening in vitro and phosphorylated LH in vivo. Divalent ions counteract this decondensation effect by maintaining nucleosome stems and expelling the CTDs to the fiber exterior. Additionally, we explain that the CTD folding depends on the chromatin fiber size, and we show that the asymmetric structure of the LH globular head is responsible for the uneven interaction observed between the LH and the linker DNAs. All these mechanisms may impact epigenetic regulation and higher levels of chromatin folding. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Polycomb Group Targeting through Different Binding Partners of RING1B C-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Renjing; Taylor, Alexander B.; Leal, Belinda Z.; Chadwell, Linda V.; Ilangovan, Udayar; Robinson, Angela K.; Schirf, Virgil; Hart, P. John; Lafer, Eileen M.; Demeler, Borries; Hinck, Andrew P.; McEwen, Donald G.; Kim, Chongwoo A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY RING1B, a Polycomb Group (PcG) protein, binds methylated chromatin through its association with another PcG protein called Polycomb (Pc). However, RING1B can associate with nonmethylated chromatin suggesting an alternate mechanism for RING1B interaction with chromatin. Here, we demonstrate that two proteins with little sequence identity between them, the Pc cbox domain and RYBP, bind the same surface on the C-terminal domain of RING1B (C-RING1B). Pc cbox and RYBP each fold into a nearly identical, intermolecular beta sheet with C-RING1B and a loop structure which are completely different in the two proteins. Both the beta sheet and loop are required for stable binding and transcription repression. Further, a mutation engineered to disrupt binding on the Drosophila dRING1 protein prevents chromatin association and PcG function in vivo. These results suggest that PcG targeting to different chromatin locations relies, in part, on binding partners of C-RING1B that are diverse in sequence and structure. PMID:20696397

  3. The N- and C-terminal domains of MecA recognize different partners in the competence molecular switch.

    PubMed

    Persuh, M; Turgay, K; Mandic-Mulec, I; Dubnau, D

    1999-08-01

    ComK is a transcription factor required for the expression of competence genes in Bacillus subtilis. Binding to MecA targets ComK for degradation by the ClpCP protease. MecA therefore acts as an adapter protein recruiting a regulatory protein for proteolysis. However, when ComS is synthesized, ComK is released from binding by MecA and thereby protected from degradation. MecA binds to three protein partners during these processes: ComK, ClpC and ComS. Using limited proteolysis, we have defined N- and C-terminal structural domains of MecA and evaluated the interactions of these domains with the protein partners of MecA. Using surface plasmon resonance, we have determined that the N-terminal domain of MecA interacts with ComK and ComS and the C-terminal domain with ClpC. MecA is shown to exist as a dimer with dimerization sites on both the N- and C-terminal domains. The C-terminal domain stimulates the ATPase activity of ClpC and is degraded by the ClpCP protease, while the N-terminal domain is inactive in both of these assays. In vivo data were consistent with these findings, as comG-lacZ expression was decreased in a strain overproducing the N-terminal domain, indicating reduced ComK activity. We propose a model in which binding of ClpC to the C-terminal domain of MecA induces a conformational change enabling the N-terminal domain to bind ComK with enhanced affinity. MecA is widespread among Gram-positive organisms and may act generally as an adapter protein, targeting proteins for regulated degradation.

  4. Structural basis for the recognition of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain by CREPT and p15RS.

    PubMed

    Mei, Kunrong; Jin, Zhe; Ren, Fangli; Wang, Yinying; Chang, Zhijie; Wang, Xinquan

    2014-01-01

    CREPT and p15RS are two recently identified homologous proteins that regulate cell proliferation in an opposite way and are closely related to human cancer development. Both CREPT and p15RS consist of an N-terminal RPR domain and a C-terminal domain with high sequence homology. The transcription enhancement by CREPT is attributed to its interaction with RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Here we provide biochemical and structural evidence to support and extend this molecular mechanism. Through fluorescence polarization analysis, we show that the RPR domains of CREPT and p15RS (CREPT-RPR and p15RS-RPR) bind to different Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphoisoforms with similar affinity and specificity. We also determined the crystal structure of p15RS-RPR. Sequence and structural comparisons with RPR domain of Rtt103, a homolog of CREPT and p15RS in yeast, reveal structural basis for the similar binding profile of CREPT-RPR and p15RS-RPR with Pol II CTD. We also determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of CREPT (CREPT-CTD), which is a long rod-like dimer and each monomer adopts a coiled-coil structure. We propose that dimerization through the C-terminal domain enhances the binding strength between CREPT or p15RS with Pol II by increasing binding avidity. Our results collectively reveal the respective roles of N-terminal RPR domain and C-terminal domain of CREPT and p15RS in recognizing RNA Pol II.

  5. β-Subunit Binding Is Sufficient for Ligands to Open the Integrin αIIbβ3 Headpiece.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fu-Yang; Zhu, Jianghai; Eng, Edward T; Hudson, Nathan E; Springer, Timothy A

    2016-02-26

    The platelet integrin αIIbβ3 binds to a KQAGDV motif at the fibrinogen γ-chain C terminus and to RGD motifs present in loops in many extracellular matrix proteins. These ligands bind in a groove between the integrin α and β-subunits; the basic Lys or Arg side chain hydrogen bonds to the αIIb-subunit, and the acidic Asp side chain coordinates to a metal ion held by the β3-subunit. Ligand binding induces headpiece opening, with conformational change in the β-subunit. During this opening, RGD slides in the ligand-binding pocket toward αIIb, with movement of the βI-domain β1-α1 loop toward αIIb, enabling formation of direct, charged hydrogen bonds between the Arg side chain and αIIb. Here we test whether ligand interactions with β3 suffice for stable ligand binding and headpiece opening. We find that the AGDV tetrapeptide from KQAGDV binds to the αIIbβ3 headpiece with affinity comparable with the RGDSP peptide from fibronectin. AGDV induced complete headpiece opening in solution as shown by increase in hydrodynamic radius. Soaking of AGDV into closed αIIbβ3 headpiece crystals induced intermediate states similarly to RGDSP. AGDV has very little contact with the α-subunit. Furthermore, as measured by epitope exposure, AGDV, like the fibrinogen γ C-terminal peptide and RGD, caused integrin extension on the cell surface. Thus, pushing by the β3-subunit on Asp is sufficient for headpiece opening and ligand sliding, and no pulling by the αIIb subunit on Arg is required.

  6. β-Subunit Binding Is Sufficient for Ligands to Open the Integrin αIIbβ3 Headpiece*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fu-Yang; Zhu, Jianghai; Eng, Edward T.; Hudson, Nathan E.; Springer, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    The platelet integrin αIIbβ3 binds to a KQAGDV motif at the fibrinogen γ-chain C terminus and to RGD motifs present in loops in many extracellular matrix proteins. These ligands bind in a groove between the integrin α and β-subunits; the basic Lys or Arg side chain hydrogen bonds to the αIIb-subunit, and the acidic Asp side chain coordinates to a metal ion held by the β3-subunit. Ligand binding induces headpiece opening, with conformational change in the β-subunit. During this opening, RGD slides in the ligand-binding pocket toward αIIb, with movement of the βI-domain β1-α1 loop toward αIIb, enabling formation of direct, charged hydrogen bonds between the Arg side chain and αIIb. Here we test whether ligand interactions with β3 suffice for stable ligand binding and headpiece opening. We find that the AGDV tetrapeptide from KQAGDV binds to the αIIbβ3 headpiece with affinity comparable with the RGDSP peptide from fibronectin. AGDV induced complete headpiece opening in solution as shown by increase in hydrodynamic radius. Soaking of AGDV into closed αIIbβ3 headpiece crystals induced intermediate states similarly to RGDSP. AGDV has very little contact with the α-subunit. Furthermore, as measured by epitope exposure, AGDV, like the fibrinogen γ C-terminal peptide and RGD, caused integrin extension on the cell surface. Thus, pushing by the β3-subunit on Asp is sufficient for headpiece opening and ligand sliding, and no pulling by the αIIb subunit on Arg is required. PMID:26631735

  7. Leukocyte integrin αLβ2 headpiece structures: The αI domain, the pocket for the internal ligand, and concerted movements of its loops.

    PubMed

    Sen, Mehmet; Springer, Timothy A

    2016-03-15

    High-resolution crystal structures of the headpiece of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (integrin αLβ2) reveal how the αI domain interacts with its platform formed by the α-subunit β-propeller and β-subunit βI domains. The αLβ2 structures compared with αXβ2 structures show that the αI domain, tethered through its N-linker and a disulfide to a stable β-ribbon pillar near the center of the platform, can undergo remarkable pivoting and tilting motions that appear buffered by N-glycan decorations that differ between αL and αX subunits. Rerefined β2 integrin structures reveal details including pyroglutamic acid at the β2 N terminus and bending within the EGF1 domain. Allostery is relayed to the αI domain by an internal ligand that binds to a pocket at the interface between the β-propeller and βI domains. Marked differences between the αL and αX subunit β-propeller domains concentrate near the binding pocket and αI domain interfaces. Remarkably, movement in allostery in the βI domain of specificity determining loop 1 (SDL1) causes concerted movement of SDL2 and thereby tightens the binding pocket for the internal ligand.

  8. Leukocyte integrin αLβ2 headpiece structures: The αI domain, the pocket for the internal ligand, and concerted movements of its loops

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Mehmet; Springer, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution crystal structures of the headpiece of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (integrin αLβ2) reveal how the αI domain interacts with its platform formed by the α-subunit β-propeller and β-subunit βI domains. The αLβ2 structures compared with αXβ2 structures show that the αI domain, tethered through its N-linker and a disulfide to a stable β-ribbon pillar near the center of the platform, can undergo remarkable pivoting and tilting motions that appear buffered by N-glycan decorations that differ between αL and αX subunits. Rerefined β2 integrin structures reveal details including pyroglutamic acid at the β2 N terminus and bending within the EGF1 domain. Allostery is relayed to the αI domain by an internal ligand that binds to a pocket at the interface between the β-propeller and βI domains. Marked differences between the αL and αX subunit β-propeller domains concentrate near the binding pocket and αI domain interfaces. Remarkably, movement in allostery in the βI domain of specificity determining loop 1 (SDL1) causes concerted movement of SDL2 and thereby tightens the binding pocket for the internal ligand. PMID:26936951

  9. A helix-turn motif in the C-terminal domain of histone H1.

    PubMed Central

    Vila, R.; Ponte, I.; Jiménez, M. A.; Rico, M.; Suau, P.

    2000-01-01

    The structural study of peptides belonging to the terminal domains of histone H1 can be considered as a step toward the understanding of the function of H1 in chromatin. The conformational properties of the peptide Ac-EPKRSVAFKKTKKEVKKVATPKK (CH-1), which belongs to the C-terminal domain of histone H1(o) (residues 99-121) and is adjacent to the central globular domain of the protein, were examined by means of 1H-NMR and circular dichroism. In aqueous solution, CH-1 behaved as a mainly unstructured peptide, although turn-like conformations in rapid equilibrium with the unfolded state could be present. Addition of trifluoroethanol resulted in a substantial increase of the helical content. The helical limits, as indicated by (i,i + 3) nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) cross correlations and significant up-field conformational shifts of the C(alpha) protons, span from Pro100 to Val116, with Glu99 and Ala117 as N- and C-caps. A structure calculation performed on the basis of distance constraints derived from NOE cross peaks in 90% trifluoroethanol confirmed the helical structure of this region. The helical region has a marked amphipathic character, due to the location of all positively charged residues on one face of the helix and all the hydrophobic residues on the opposite face. The peptide has a TPKK motif at the C-terminus, following the alpha-helical region. The observed NOE connectivities suggest that the TPKK sequence adopts a type (I) beta-turn conformation, a sigma-turn conformation or a combination of both, in fast equilibrium with unfolded states. Sequences of the kind (S/T)P(K/R)(K/R) have been proposed as DNA binding motifs. The CH-1 peptide, thus, combines a positively charged amphipathic helix and a turn as potential DNA-binding motifs. PMID:10794405

  10. Crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the RAP74 subunit of human transcription factor IIF

    SciTech Connect

    Kamada, Katsuhiko; De Angelis, Jacqueline; Roeder, Robert G.; Burley, Stephen K.

    2012-12-13

    The x-ray structure of a C-terminal fragment of the RAP74 subunit of human transcription factor (TF) IIF has been determined at 1.02-{angstrom} resolution. The {alpha}/{beta} structure is strikingly similar to the globular domain of linker histone H5 and the DNA-binding domain of hepatocyte nuclear factor 3{gamma} (HNF-3{gamma}), making it a winged-helix protein. The surface electrostatic properties of this compact domain differ significantly from those of bona fide winged-helix transcription factors (HNF-3{gamma} and RFX1) and from the winged-helix domains found within the RAP30 subunit of TFIIF and the {beta} subunit of TFIIE. RAP74 has been shown to interact with the TFIIF-associated C-terminal domain phosphatase FCP1, and a putative phosphatase binding site has been identified within the RAP74 winged-helix domain.

  11. Sub1 Globally Regulates RNA Polymerase II C-Terminal Domain Phosphorylation ▿

    PubMed Central

    García, Alicia; Rosonina, Emanuel; Manley, James L.; Calvo, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The transcriptional coactivator Sub1 has been implicated in several aspects of mRNA metabolism in yeast, such as activation of transcription, termination, and 3′-end formation. Here, we present evidence that Sub1 plays a significant role in controlling phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II large subunit C-terminal domain (CTD). We show that SUB1 genetically interacts with the genes encoding all four known CTD kinases, SRB10, KIN28, BUR1, and CTK1, suggesting that Sub1 acts to influence CTD phosphorylation at more than one step of the transcription cycle. To address this directly, we first used in vitro kinase assays, and we show that, on the one hand, SUB1 deletion increased CTD phosphorylation by Kin28, Bur1, and Ctk1 but, on the other, it decreased CTD phosphorylation by Srb10. Second, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that SUB1 deletion decreased Srb10 chromatin association on the inducible GAL1 gene but increased Kin28 and Ctk1 chromatin association on actively transcribed genes. Taken together, our data point to multiple roles for Sub1 in the regulation of CTD phosphorylation throughout the transcription cycle. PMID:20823273

  12. A rule-based kinetic model of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Stuart; Alexander, Ross D.; Beggs, Jean D.

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of many RNA processing pathways is such that a conventional systems modelling approach is inadequate to represent all the molecular species involved. We demonstrate that rule-based modelling permits a detailed model of a complex RNA signalling pathway to be defined. Phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) C-terminal domain (CTD; a flexible tail-like extension of the largest subunit) couples pre-messenger RNA capping, splicing and 3′ end maturation to transcriptional elongation and termination, and plays a central role in integrating these processes. The phosphorylation states of the serine residues of many heptapeptide repeats of the CTD alter along the coding region of genes as a function of distance from the promoter. From a mechanistic perspective, both the changes in phosphorylation and the location at which they take place on the genes are a function of the time spent by RNAPII in elongation as this interval provides the opportunity for the kinases and phosphatases to interact with the CTD. On this basis, we synthesize the available data to create a kinetic model of the action of the known kinases and phosphatases to resolve the phosphorylation pathways and their kinetics. PMID:23804443

  13. Dynein's C-terminal Domain Plays a Novel Role in Regulating Force Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennerich, Arne; Nicholas, Matthew; Brenner, Sibylle; Lazar, Caitlin; Weil, Sarah; Vallee, Richard; Hook, Peter; Gennerich Lab Collaboration; Vallee Lab Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule motor involved in a wide range of low and high force requiring functions in metazoans. In contrast, yeast dynein is involved in a single, nonessential function, nuclear positioning. Interestingly, the single-molecule function of yeast dynein is also unique: whereas mammalian dyneins generate forces of 1-2 pN, S. cerevisiae dynein stalls at 5-7 pN. The basis for this functional difference is unknown. However, the major structural difference between mammalian and yeast dyneins is a ~30 kDa C-terminal extension (CT) present in higher eukaryotic dyneins, but missing in yeast. To test whether the CT accounts for the differences in function, we produced recombinant rat dynein motor domains (MD) with (WT-MD) and without (ΔCT-MD) the CT, using baculovirus expression. To define motor function, we performed single-molecule optical trapping studies. Dimerized WT-MD stalls at ~1 pN and detaches from microtubules after brief stalls, in agreement with previous studies on native mammalian dynein. In sharp contrast, but similar to yeast dynein, ΔCT-MD stalls at ~6 pN, with stall durations up to minutes. These results identify the CT as a new regulatory element for controlling dynein force generation. Supported by NIH GM094415 (A.G.) and GM102347 (R.B.V.)

  14. Characterization of the surfactin synthetase C-terminal thioesterase domain as a cyclic depsipeptide synthase.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Claire C; Bruner, Steven D; Kohli, Rahul M; Marahiel, Mohamed A; Walsh, Christopher T; Sieber, Stephan A

    2002-11-12

    The C-terminal thioesterase domain of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase producing the lipopetide surfactin (Srf TE) retains autonomous ability to generate the cyclic peptidolactone skeleton of surfactin when provided with a soluble beta-hydroxy-butyryl-heptapeptidyl thioester substrate. Utilizing the recently solved crystal structure [Bruner, S. D., et al. (2002) Structure 10, 301-310], the active-site nucleophile, Ser80, was changed to Cys, and the other members of the catalytic triad, Asp107 and His207, were changed to Ala, with the resulting mutants lacking detectable activity. Two cationic side chains in the active site, Lys111 and Arg120, were changed to Ala, causing an increased partitioning of the product to hydrolysis, as did a P26G mutant, mimicking the behavior of lipases. To evaluate recognition elements in substrates used by Srf TE, alterations to the fatty acyl group, the heptapeptide, and the thioester leaving group were made, and the resulting substrates were characterized for kinetic competency and flux of product to cyclization or hydrolysis. Alterations that could be accepted for cyclization were identified in all three parts of the substrate, although tolerance limits for changes varied. In addition, cocrystal structures of Srf TE with dipeptidyl boronate inhibitors were solved, illustrating the critical binding determinants of the substrate. On the basis of the structures and biochemical data, the cyclizing conformation of the surfactin peptide was modeled into the enzyme active site.

  15. Unique Structural Features of Membrane-Bound C-Terminal Domain Motifs Modulate Complexin Inhibitory Function

    PubMed Central

    Snead, David; Lai, Alex L.; Wragg, Rachel T.; Parisotto, Daniel A.; Ramlall, Trudy F.; Dittman, Jeremy S.; Freed, Jack H.; Eliezer, David

    2017-01-01

    Complexin is a small soluble presynaptic protein that interacts with neuronal SNARE proteins in order to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis. While the SNARE-binding central helix of complexin is required for both the inhibition of spontaneous fusion and the facilitation of synchronous fusion, the disordered C-terminal domain (CTD) of complexin is specifically required for its inhibitory function. The CTD of worm complexin binds to membranes via two distinct motifs, one of which undergoes a membrane curvature dependent structural transition that is required for efficient inhibition of neurotransmitter release, but the conformations of the membrane-bound motifs remain poorly characterized. Visualizing these conformations is required to clarify the mechanisms by which complexin membrane interactions regulate its function. Here, we employ optical and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to precisely define the boundaries of the two CTD membrane-binding motifs and to characterize their conformations. We show that the curvature dependent amphipathic helical motif features an irregular element of helical structure, likely a pi-bulge, and that this feature is important for complexin inhibitory function in vivo. PMID:28596722

  16. Sub1 globally regulates RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    García, Alicia; Rosonina, Emanuel; Manley, James L; Calvo, Olga

    2010-11-01

    The transcriptional coactivator Sub1 has been implicated in several aspects of mRNA metabolism in yeast, such as activation of transcription, termination, and 3'-end formation. Here, we present evidence that Sub1 plays a significant role in controlling phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II large subunit C-terminal domain (CTD). We show that SUB1 genetically interacts with the genes encoding all four known CTD kinases, SRB10, KIN28, BUR1, and CTK1, suggesting that Sub1 acts to influence CTD phosphorylation at more than one step of the transcription cycle. To address this directly, we first used in vitro kinase assays, and we show that, on the one hand, SUB1 deletion increased CTD phosphorylation by Kin28, Bur1, and Ctk1 but, on the other, it decreased CTD phosphorylation by Srb10. Second, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that SUB1 deletion decreased Srb10 chromatin association on the inducible GAL1 gene but increased Kin28 and Ctk1 chromatin association on actively transcribed genes. Taken together, our data point to multiple roles for Sub1 in the regulation of CTD phosphorylation throughout the transcription cycle.

  17. Structure of the C-terminal domain of Tup1, a corepressor of transcription in yeast.

    PubMed

    Sprague, E R; Redd, M J; Johnson, A D; Wolberger, C

    2000-06-15

    The Tup1-Ssn6 corepressor complex regulates the expression of several sets of genes, including genes that specify mating type in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Repression of mating-type genes occurs when Tup1-Ssn6 is brought to the DNA by the Matalpha2 DNA-binding protein and assembled upstream of a- and haploid-specific genes. We have determined the 2.3 A X-ray crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of Tup1 (accesion No. 1ERJ), a 43 kDa fragment that contains seven copies of the WD40 sequence motif and binds to the Matalpha2 protein. Moreover, this portion of the protein can partially substitute for full-length Tup1 in bringing about transcriptional repression. The structure reveals a seven-bladed beta propeller with an N-terminal subdomain that is anchored to the side of the propeller and extends the beta sheet of one of the blades. Point mutations in Tup1 that specifically affect the Tup1-Matalpha2 interaction cluster on one surface of the propeller. We identified regions of Tup1 that are conserved among the fungal Tup1 homologs and may be important in protein-protein interactions with additional components of the Tup1-mediated repression pathways.

  18. NMR assignments of SPOC domain of the human transcriptional corepressor SHARP in complex with a C-terminal SMRT peptide.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Suzuka; Kanaba, Teppei; Ito, Yutaka; Mishima, Masaki

    2013-10-01

    The transcriptional corepressor SMRT/HDAC1-associated repressor protein (SHARP) recruits histone deacetylases. Human SHARP protein is thought to function in processes involving steroid hormone responses and the Notch signaling pathway. SHARP consists of RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) in the N-terminal region and the spen paralog and ortholog C-terminal (SPOC) domain in the C-terminal region. It is known that the SPOC domain binds the LSD motif in the C-terminal tail of corepressors silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptor (SMRT)/nuclear receptor corepressor (NcoR). We are interested in delineating the mechanism by which the SPOC domain recognizes the LSD motif of the C-terminal tail of SMRT/NcoR. To this end, we are investigating the tertiary structure of the SPOC/SMRT peptide using NMR. Herein, we report on the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments of the SPOC domain in complex with a SMRT peptide, which contributes towards a structural understanding of the SPOC/SMRT peptide and its molecular recognition.

  19. Autoinhibition of the Nuclease ARTEMIS Is Mediated by a Physical Interaction between Its Catalytic and C-terminal Domains.

    PubMed

    Niewolik, Doris; Peter, Ingrid; Butscher, Carmen; Schwarz, Klaus

    2017-02-24

    The nuclease ARTEMIS is essential for the development of B and T lymphocytes. It is required for opening DNA hairpins generated during antigen receptor gene assembly from variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) subgenic elements (V(D)J recombination). As a member of the non-homologous end-joining pathway, it is also involved in repairing a subset of pathological DNA double strand breaks. Loss of ARTEMIS function therefore results in radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency (RS-SCID). The hairpin opening activity is dependent on the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), which can bind to and phosphorylate ARTEMIS. The ARTEMIS C terminus is dispensable for cellular V(D)J recombination and in vitro nuclease assays with C-terminally truncated ARTEMIS showing DNA-PKcs-independent hairpin opening activity. Therefore, it has been postulated that ARTEMIS is regulated via autoinhibition by its C terminus. To obtain evidence for the autoinhibition model, we performed co-immunoprecipitation experiments with combinations of ARTEMIS mutants. We show that an N-terminal fragment comprising the catalytic domain can interact both with itself and with a C-terminal fragment. Amino acid exchanges N456A+S457A+E458Q in the C terminus of full-length ARTEMIS resulted in unmasking of the N terminus and in increased ARTEMIS activity in cellular V(D)J recombination assays. Mutations in ARTEMIS-deficient patients impaired the interaction with the C terminus and also affected protein stability. The interaction between the N- and C-terminal domains was not DNA-PKcs-dependent, and phosphomimetic mutations in the C-terminal domain did not result in unmasking of the catalytic domain. Our experiments provide strong evidence that a physical interaction between the C-terminal and catalytic domains mediates ARTEMIS autoinhibition. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. NMR assignment and secondary structure of coiled coil domain of C-terminal myosin binding subunit of myosin phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok K; Rigby, Alan C

    2014-07-01

    Protein-protein interactions between the C-terminal domain of Myosin Binding Subunit (MBS) of MLC Phosphatase (MBS(CT180); C-terminal 180 aa) and the N-terminal coiled coil (CC) leucine zipper (LZ) domain of PKGIα, PKG-Iα(1-159) play an important role in the process of Smooth Muscle Cell relaxation. The paucity of three-dimensional structural information for MBS(CT180) prevents an atomic level understanding of the MBS-PKG contractile complex. MBS(CT180) is comprised of three structurally different sub-domains including a non-canonical CC, a CC, and a LZ. Recently we reported polypeptide purification and biophysical characterization of the CC domain and the LZ domain of MBS(CT180) (Sharma et al, Prot Expr Purif 2012). Here we report (1)H, (13)C, (15)N chemical shift assignments of homodimeric CC MBS domain encompassing amino acid residues Asp931-Leu980 using 2D and 3D heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Secondary structure analyses deduced from these NMR chemical shift data have identified a contiguous stretch of 36 residues from Phe932 to Ala967 that is involved in the formation of coiled coil α-helical region within CC MBS domain. The N-terminal residue Asp931 and the C-terminally positioned residues Thr968-Ala975, Arg977, and Ser978 adopt nonhelical loop conformations.

  1. Structure and regulatory role of the C-terminal winged helix domain of the archaeal minichromosome maintenance complex

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemann, Christoph; Szambowska, Anna; Häfner, Sabine; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Gührs, Karl-Heinz; Görlach, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM) represents the replicative DNA helicase both in eukaryotes and archaea. Here, we describe the solution structure of the C-terminal domains of the archaeal MCMs of Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso) and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (Mth). Those domains consist of a structurally conserved truncated winged helix (WH) domain lacking the two typical ‘wings’ of canonical WH domains. A less conserved N-terminal extension links this WH module to the MCM AAA+ domain forming the ATPase center. In the Sso MCM this linker contains a short α-helical element. Using Sso MCM mutants, including chimeric constructs containing Mth C-terminal domain elements, we show that the ATPase and helicase activity of the Sso MCM is significantly modulated by the short α-helical linker element and by N-terminal residues of the first α-helix of the truncated WH module. Finally, based on our structural and functional data, we present a docking-derived model of the Sso MCM, which implies an allosteric control of the ATPase center by the C-terminal domain. PMID:25712103

  2. Functions of the C-terminal domains of apoptosis-related proteins of the Bcl-2 family.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Fernández, Juan C

    2014-10-01

    Bcl-2 family proteins are involved in cell homeostasis, where they regulate cell death. Some of these proteins are pro-apoptotic and others pro-survival. Moreover, many of them share a similar domain composition with several of the so-called BH domains, although some only have a BH3 domain. A C-terminal domain is present in all the multi-BH domain proteins and in some of the BH3-only ones. This C-terminal domain is hydrophobic or amphipathic, for which reason it was thought when they were discovered that they were membrane anchors. Although this is indeed one of their functions, it has since been observed that they may also serve as regulators of the function of some members of this family, such as Bax. They may also serve to recognize the target membrane of some of these proteins, which only after an apoptotic signal, are incorporated into a membrane. It has been shown that peptides that imitate the sequence of C-terminal domains can form pores and may serve as a model to design cytotoxic molecules.

  3. Cdc15 Phosphorylates the C-terminal Domain of RNA Polymerase II for Transcription during Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Rastogi, Shivangi; Shukla, Harish; Asalam, Mohd; Rath, Srikanta Kumar; Akhtar, Md Sohail

    2017-03-31

    In eukaryotes, the basal transcription in interphase is orchestrated through the regulation by kinases (Kin28, Bur1, and Ctk1) and phosphatases (Ssu72, Rtr1, and Fcp1), which act through the post-translational modification of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. The CTD comprises the repeated Tyr-Ser-Pro-Thr-Ser-Pro-Ser motif with potential epigenetic modification sites. Despite the observation of transcription and periodic expression of genes during mitosis with entailing CTD phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, the associated CTD specific kinase(s) and its role in transcription remains unknown. Here we have identified Cdc15 as a potential kinase phosphorylating Ser-2 and Ser-5 of CTD for transcription during mitosis in the budding yeast. The phosphorylation of CTD by Cdc15 is independent of any prior Ser phosphorylation(s). The inactivation of Cdc15 causes reduction of global CTD phosphorylation during mitosis and affects the expression of genes whose transcript levels peak during mitosis. Cdc15 also influences the complete transcription of clb2 gene and phosphorylates Ser-5 at the promoter and Ser-2 toward the 3' end of the gene. The observation that Cdc15 could phosphorylate Ser-5, as well as Ser-2, during transcription in mitosis is in contrast to the phosphorylation marks put by the kinases in interphase (G1, S, and G2), where Cdck7/Kin28 phosphorylates Ser-5 at promoter and Bur1/Ctk1 phosphorylates Ser-2 at the 3' end of the genes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Structural Basis for Toughness and Flexibility in the C-terminal Passenger Domain of an Acinetobacter Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin*

    PubMed Central

    Koiwai, Kotaro; Hartmann, Marcus D.; Linke, Dirk; Lupas, Andrei N.; Hori, Katsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) on the cell surface of Gram-negative pathogens mediate bacterial adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix proteins. However, AtaA, a TAA in the nonpathogenic Acinetobacter sp. strain Tol 5, shows nonspecific high adhesiveness to abiotic material surfaces as well as to biotic surfaces. It consists of a passenger domain secreted by the C-terminal transmembrane anchor domain (TM), and the passenger domain contains an N-terminal head, N-terminal stalk, C-terminal head (Chead), and C-terminal stalk (Cstalk). The Chead-Cstalk-TM fragment, which is conserved in many Acinetobacter TAAs, has by itself the head-stalk-anchor architecture of a complete TAA. Here, we show the crystal structure of the Chead-Cstalk fragment, AtaA_C-terminal passenger domain (CPSD), providing the first view of several conserved TAA domains. The YadA-like head (Ylhead) of the fragment is capped by a unique structure (headCap), composed of three β-hairpins and a connector motif; it also contains a head insert motif (HIM1) before its last inner β-strand. The headCap, Ylhead, and HIM1 integrally form a stable Chead structure. Some of the major domains of the CPSD fragment are inherently flexible and provide bending sites for the fiber between segments whose toughness is ensured by topological chain exchange and hydrophobic core formation inside the trimer. Thus, although adherence assays using in-frame deletion mutants revealed that the characteristic adhesive sites of AtaA reside in its N-terminal part, the flexibility and toughness of the CPSD part provide the resilience that enables the adhesive properties of the full-length fiber across a wide range of conditions. PMID:26698633

  5. N-terminal and C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain of APOBEC3G inhibit hepatitis B virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yan-Chang; Tian, Yong-Jun; Ding, Hong-Hui; Wang, Bao-Ju; Yang, Yan; Hao, You-Hua; Zhao, Xi-Ping; Lu, Meng-Ji; Gong, Fei-Li; Yang, Dong-Liang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic-polypeptide 3G (APOBEC3G) and its N-terminal or C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain-mediated antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The mammalian hepatoma cells HepG2 and HuH7 were cotransfected with APOBEC3G and its N-terminal or C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain expression vector and 1.3-fold-overlength HBV DNA as well as the linear monomeric HBV of genotype B and C. For in vivo study, an HBV vector-based mouse model was used in which APOBEC3G and its N-terminal or C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain expression vectors were co-delivered with 1.3-fold-overlength HBV DNA via high-volume tail vein injection. Levels of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) in the media of the transfected cells and in the sera of mice were determined by ELISA. The expression of hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) in the transfected cells was determined by Western blot analysis. Core-associated HBV DNA was examined by Southern blot analysis. Levels of HBV DNA in the sera of mice as well as HBV core-associated RNA in the liver of mice were determined by quantitative PCR and quantitative RT-PCR analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Human APOBEC3G exerted an anti-HBV activity in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2 cells, and comparable suppressive effects were observed on genotype B and C as that of genotype A. Interestingly, the N-terminal or C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain alone could also inhibit HBV replication in HepG2 cells as well as Huh7 cells. Consistent with in vitro results, the levels of HBsAg in the sera of mice were dramatically decreased, with more than 50 times decrease in the levels of serum HBV DNA and core-associated RNA in the liver of mice treated with APOBEC3G and its N-terminal or C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain as compared to the controls. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide probably the

  6. Evolution of lysine acetylation in the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Simonti, Corinne N; Pollard, Katherine S; Schröder, Sebastian; He, Daniel; Bruneau, Benoit G; Ott, Melanie; Capra, John A

    2015-03-10

    RPB1, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, contains a highly modifiable C-terminal domain (CTD) that consists of variations of a consensus heptad repeat sequence (Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7). The consensus CTD repeat motif and tandem organization represent the ancestral state of eukaryotic RPB1, but across eukaryotes CTDs show considerable diversity in repeat organization and sequence content. These differences may reflect lineage-specific CTD functions mediated by protein interactions. Mammalian CTDs contain eight non-consensus repeats with a lysine in the seventh position (K7). Posttranslational acetylation of these sites was recently shown to be required for proper polymerase pausing and regulation of two growth factor-regulated genes. To investigate the origins and function of RPB1 CTD acetylation (acRPB1), we computationally reconstructed the evolution of the CTD repeat sequence across eukaryotes and analyzed the evolution and function of genes dysregulated when acRPB1 is disrupted. Modeling the evolutionary dynamics of CTD repeat count and sequence content across diverse eukaryotes revealed an expansion of the CTD in the ancestors of Metazoa. The new CTD repeats introduced the potential for acRPB1 due to the appearance of distal repeats with lysine at position seven. This was followed by a further increase in the number of lysine-containing repeats in developmentally complex clades like Deuterostomia. Mouse genes enriched for acRPB1 occupancy at their promoters and genes with significant expression changes when acRPB1 is disrupted are enriched for several functions, such as growth factor response, gene regulation, cellular adhesion, and vascular development. Genes occupied and regulated by acRPB1 show significant enrichment for evolutionary origins in the early history of eukaryotes through early vertebrates. Our combined functional and evolutionary analyses show that RPB1 CTD acetylation was possible in the early history of animals, and that the K7 content of the

  7. XRCC1 interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain suggests a role in post replication repair.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Scott A; DeRose, Eugene F; London, Robert E

    2013-12-01

    The function of X-ray cross complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1), a scaffold that binds to DNA repair enzymes involved in single-strand break and base excision repair, requires that it be recruited to sites of damaged DNA. However, structural insights into this recruitment are currently limited. Sequence analysis of the first unstructured linker domain of XRCC1 identifies a segment consistent with a possible REV1 interacting region (X1RIR) motif. The X1RIR motif is present in translesion polymerases that can be recruited to the pol /REV1 DNA repair complex via a specific interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain. NMR and fluorescence titration studies were performed on XRCC1-derived peptides containing this putative RIR motif in order to evaluate the binding affinity for the REV1 C-terminal domain. These studies demonstrate an interaction of the XRCC1-derived peptide with the human REV1 C-terminal domain characterized by dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. Ligand competition studies comparing the XRCC1 RIR peptide with previously studied RIR peptides were found to be inconsistent with the NMR based Kd values. These discrepancies were resolved using a fluorescence assay for which the RIR–REV1 system is particularly well suited. The structure of a REV1-XRCC1 peptide complex was determined by using NOE restraints to dock the unlabeled XRCC1 peptide with a labeled REV1 C-terminal domain. The structure is generally homologous with previously determined complexes with the pol κ and pol η RIR peptides, although the helical segment in XRCC1 is shorter than was observed in these cases. These studies suggest the possible involvement of XRCC1 and its associated repair factors in post replication repair.

  8. XRCC1 interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain suggests a role in post replication repair

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Scott A.; DeRose, Eugene F.; London, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The function of X-ray cross complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1), a scaffold that binds to DNA repair enzymes involved in single-strand break and base excision repair, requires that it be recruited to sites of damaged DNA. However, structural insights into this recruitment are currently limited. Sequence analysis of the first unstructured linker domain of XRCC1 identifies a segment consistent with a possible REV1 interacting region (RIR) motif. The RIR motif is present in translesion polymerases that can be recruited to the pol ζ/REV1 DNA repair complex via a specific interaction with the REV1 C-terminal domain. NMR and fluorescence titration studies were performed on XRCC1-derived peptides containing this putative RIR motif in order to evaluate the binding affinity for the REV1 C-terminal domain. These studies demonstrate an interaction of the XRCC1-derived peptide with the human REV1 C-terminal domain characterized by dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. Ligand competition studies comparing the X1 RIR peptide with previously studied RIR peptides were found to be inconsistent with the NMR based Kd values. These discrepancies were resolved using a fluorescence assay for which the RIR – REV1 system is particularly well suited. The structure of a REV1-XRCC1 peptide complex was determined by using NOE restraints to dock the unlabeled XRCC1 peptide with a labeled REV1 C-terminal domain. The structure is generally homologous with previously determined complexes with the pol κ and pol η RIR peptides, although the helical segment in XRCC1 is shorter than was observed in these cases. These studies suggest the possible involvement of XRCC1 and its associated repair factors in post replication repair. PMID:24409475

  9. The C-terminal domain is the primary determinant of histone H1 binding to chromatin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hendzel, Michael J; Lever, Melody A; Crawford, Ellen; Th'ng, John P H

    2004-05-07

    We have used a combination of kinetic measurements and targeted mutations to show that the C-terminal domain is required for high-affinity binding of histone H1 to chromatin, and phosphorylations can disrupt binding by affecting the secondary structure of the C terminus. By measuring the fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching profiles of green fluorescent protein-histone H1 proteins in living cells, we find that the deletion of the N terminus only modestly reduces binding affinity. Deletion of the C terminus, however, almost completely eliminates histone H1.1 binding. Specific mutations of the C-terminal domain identified Thr-152 and Ser-183 as novel regulatory switches that control the binding of histone H1.1 in vivo. It is remarkable that the single amino acid substitution of Thr-152 with glutamic acid was almost as effective as the truncation of the C terminus to amino acid 151 in destabilizing histone H1.1 binding in vivo. We found that modifications to the C terminus can affect histone H1 binding dramatically but have little or no influence on the charge distribution or the overall net charge of this domain. A comparison of individual point mutations and deletion mutants, when reviewed collectively, cannot be reconciled with simple charge-dependent mechanisms of C-terminal domain function of linker histones.

  10. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Domain of Splicing Factor Prp8 Carrying Retinitis Pigmentosa Mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang,L.; Shen, J.; Guarnieri, M.; Heroux, A.; Yang, K.; Zhao, R.

    2007-01-01

    Prp8 is a critical pre-mRNA splicing factor. Prp8 is proposed to help form and stabilize the spliceosome catalytic core and to be an important regulator of spliceosome activation. Mutations in human Prp8 (hPrp8) cause a severe form of the genetic disorder retinitis pigmentosa, RP13. Understanding the molecular mechanism of Prp8's function in pre-mRNA splicing and RP13 has been hindered by its large size (over 2000 amino acids) and remarkably low-sequence similarity with other proteins. Here we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain (the last 273 residues) of Caenorhabditis elegans Prp8 (cPrp8). The core of the C-terminal domain is an / structure that forms the MPN (Mpr1, Pad1 N-terminal) fold but without Zn{sup 2+} coordination. We propose that the C-terminal domain is a protein interaction domain instead of a Zn{sup 2+}-dependent metalloenzyme as proposed for some MPN proteins. Mapping of RP13 mutants on the Prp8 structure suggests that these residues constitute a binding surface between Prp8 and other partner(s), and the disruption of this interaction provides a plausible molecular mechanism for RP13.

  11. Alteration of the C-terminal ligand specificity of the erbin PDZ domain by allosteric mutational effects.

    PubMed

    Murciano-Calles, Javier; McLaughlin, Megan E; Erijman, Ariel; Hooda, Yogesh; Chakravorty, Nishant; Martinez, Jose C; Shifman, Julia M; Sidhu, Sachdev S

    2014-10-23

    Modulation of protein binding specificity is important for basic biology and for applied science. Here we explore how binding specificity is conveyed in PDZ (postsynaptic density protein-95/discs large/zonula occludens-1) domains, small interaction modules that recognize various proteins by binding to an extended C terminus. Our goal was to engineer variants of the Erbin PDZ domain with altered specificity for the most C-terminal position (position 0) where a Val is strongly preferred by the wild-type domain. We constructed a library of PDZ domains by randomizing residues in direct contact with position 0 and in a loop that is close to but does not contact position 0. We used phage display to select for PDZ variants that bind to 19 peptide ligands differing only at position 0. To verify that each obtained PDZ domain exhibited the correct binding specificity, we selected peptide ligands for each domain. Despite intensive efforts, we were only able to evolve Erbin PDZ domain variants with selectivity for the aliphatic C-terminal side chains Val, Ile and Leu. Interestingly, many PDZ domains with these three distinct specificities contained identical amino acids at positions that directly contact position 0 but differed in the loop that does not contact position 0. Computational modeling of the selected PDZ domains shows how slight conformational changes in the loop region propagate to the binding site and result in different binding specificities. Our results demonstrate that second-sphere residues could be crucial in determining protein binding specificity.

  12. Crystal Structure in the Vivo-Assembled Bacillus subtilis Spx/RNA Polymerase alpha Subunit C-Terminal Domain Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Lamour, V.; Westblade, L; Campbell, E; Darst, S

    2009-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis Spx protein is a global transcription factor that interacts with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase {alpha} subunit ({alpha}CTD) and regulates transcription of genes involved in thiol-oxidative stress, sporulation, competence, and organosulfur metabolism. Here we determined the X-ray crystal structure of the Spx/{alpha}CTD complex from an entirely new crystal form than previously reported [Newberry, K.J., Nakano, S., Zuber, P., Brennan, R.G., 2005. Crystal structure of the Bacillus subtilis anti-alpha, global transcriptional regulator, Spx, in complex with the alpha C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15839-15844]. Comparison of the previously reported sulfate-bound complex and our sulfate-free complex reveals subtle conformational changes that may be important for the role of Spx in regulating organosulfur metabolism.

  13. Solution conformation of the C-terminal domain of skeletal troponin C. Cation, trifluoperazine and troponin I binding effects.

    PubMed

    Drabikowski, W; Dalgarno, D C; Levine, B A; Gergely, J; Grabarek, Z; Leavis, P C

    1985-08-15

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the cation (Mg2+, Ca2+)-dependent conformational states of the C-terminal domain of rabbit skeletal troponin C under a variety of solution conditions. Nuclear Overhauser data and paramagnetic probe observations provide definition of the configuration of this region of troponin C. Comparative study of homologous proteins identify common features of the tertiary structure relevant to the cation binding reaction. Complex formation with troponin I and the drug trifluoperazine is observed to adjust the solution conformation of the C-terminal domain of troponin C. The interactive conformational response to cation coordination and the binding of the drug and troponin I are discussed.

  14. Bacillus subtilis GlnR contains an autoinhibitory C-terminal domain required for the interaction with glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Wray, Lewis V; Fisher, Susan H

    2008-04-01

    The Bacillus subtilis GlnR transcription factor regulates gene expression in response to changes in nitrogen availability. Glutamine synthetase transmits the nitrogen regulatory signal to GlnR. The DNA-binding activity of GlnR is activated by a transient protein-protein interaction with feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase that stabilizes GlnR-DNA complexes. This signal transduction mechanism was analysed by creating mutant GlnR proteins with partial or complete truncations of their C-terminal domains. The truncated GlnR proteins were found to constitutively repress gene expression in vivo. This constitutive repression did not require glutamine synthetase. Purified mutant GlnR proteins bound DNA in vitro more tightly than wild-type GlnR protein and this binding was not activated by feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase. While full-length GlnR is monomeric, the truncated GlnR proteins contained significant levels of dimers. These results indicate that the C-terminal region of GlnR acts as an autoinhibitory domain that prevents GlnR dimerization and thus impedes DNA binding. The GlnR C-terminal domain is also required for the interaction between GlnR and feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase. Compared with the full-length GlnR protein, the truncated GlnR proteins were defective in their interaction with feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase in cross-linking experiments.

  15. The AtMYB12 activation domain maps to a short C-terminal region of the transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Stracke, Ralf; Turgut-Kara, Neslihan; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2017-03-11

    The Arabidopsis thaliana R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB12 is a light-inducible, flavonol-specific activator of flavonoid biosynthesis. The transactivation activity of the AtMYB12 protein was analyzed using a C-terminal deletion series in a transient A. thaliana protoplast assay with the goal of mapping the activation domain (AD). Although the deletion of the last 46 C-terminal amino acids did not affect the activation capacity, the deletion of the last 98 amino acids almost totally abolished transactivation of two different target promoters. A domain swap experiment using the yeast GAL4 DNA-binding domain revealed that the region from positions 282 to 328 of AtMYB12 was sufficient for transactivation. In contrast to the R2R3-MYB ADs known thus far, that of AtMYB12 is not located at the rearmost C-terminal end of the protein. The AtMYB12 AD is conserved in other experimentally proven R2R3-MYB flavonol regulators from different species.

  16. Crystal Structures of the S. cerevisiae Spt6 Core and C-Terminal Tandem SH2 Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Close, D.; Robinson, H.; Johnson, S. J.; Sdano, M. A.; McDonald, S. M.; Formosa, T.; Hill, C. P.

    2011-05-13

    The conserved and essential eukaryotic protein Spt6 functions in transcription elongation, chromatin maintenance, and RNA processing. Spt6 has three characterized functions. It is a histone chaperone capable of reassembling nucleosomes, a central component of transcription elongation complexes, and is required for recruitment of RNA processing factors to elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Here, we report multiple crystal structures of the 168-kDa Spt6 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that together represent essentially all of the ordered sequence. Our two structures of the {approx} 900-residue core region reveal a series of putative nucleic acid and protein-protein interaction domains that fold into an elongated form that resembles the bacterial protein Tex. The similarity to a bacterial transcription factor suggests that the core domain performs nucleosome-independent activities, and as with Tex, we find that Spt6 binds DNA. Unlike Tex, however, the Spt6 S1 domain does not contribute to this activity. Crystal structures of the Spt6 C-terminal region reveal a tandem SH2 domain structure composed of two closely associated SH2 folds. One of these SH2 folds is cryptic, while the other shares striking structural similarity with metazoan SH2 domains and possesses structural features associated with the ability to bind phosphorylated substrates including phosphotyrosine. Binding studies with phosphopeptides that mimic the RNAPII C-terminal domain revealed affinities typical of other RNAPII C-terminal domain-binding proteins but did not indicate a specific interaction. Overall, these findings provide a structural foundation for understanding how Spt6 encodes several distinct functions within a single polypeptide chain.

  17. Crystal Structures of the S. cerevisiae Spt6 Core and C-terminal Tandem SH2 Domain

    SciTech Connect

    D Close; S Johnson; M Sdano; S McDonald; H Robinson; T Formosa; C Hill

    2011-12-31

    The conserved and essential eukaryotic protein Spt6 functions in transcription elongation, chromatin maintenance, and RNA processing. Spt6 has three characterized functions. It is a histone chaperone capable of reassembling nucleosomes, a central component of transcription elongation complexes, and is required for recruitment of RNA processing factors to elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Here, we report multiple crystal structures of the 168-kDa Spt6 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that together represent essentially all of the ordered sequence. Our two structures of the {approx} 900-residue core region reveal a series of putative nucleic acid and protein-protein interaction domains that fold into an elongated form that resembles the bacterial protein Tex. The similarity to a bacterial transcription factor suggests that the core domain performs nucleosome-independent activities, and as with Tex, we find that Spt6 binds DNA. Unlike Tex, however, the Spt6 S1 domain does not contribute to this activity. Crystal structures of the Spt6 C-terminal region reveal a tandem SH2 domain structure composed of two closely associated SH2 folds. One of these SH2 folds is cryptic, while the other shares striking structural similarity with metazoan SH2 domains and possesses structural features associated with the ability to bind phosphorylated substrates including phosphotyrosine. Binding studies with phosphopeptides that mimic the RNAPII C-terminal domain revealed affinities typical of other RNAPII C-terminal domain-binding proteins but did not indicate a specific interaction. Overall, these findings provide a structural foundation for understanding how Spt6 encodes several distinct functions within a single polypeptide chain.

  18. Probing the Impact of the EchinT C-Terminal Domain on Structure and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    S Bardaweel; J Pace; T Chou; V Cody; C Wagner

    2011-12-31

    Histidine triad nucleotide binding protein (Hint) is considered as the ancestor of the histidine triad protein superfamily and is highly conserved from bacteria to humans. Prokaryote genomes, including a wide array of both Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, typically encode one Hint gene. The cellular function of Hint and the rationale for its evolutionary conservation in bacteria have remained a mystery. Despite its ubiquity and high sequence similarity to eukaryote Hint1 [Escherichia coli Hint (echinT) is 48% identical with human Hint1], prokaryote Hint has been reported in only a few studies. Here we report the first conformational information on the full-length N-terminal and C-terminal residues of Hint from the E. coli complex with GMP. Structural analysis of the echinT-GMP complex reveals that it crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with four homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Analysis of electron density for both the N-terminal residues and the C-terminal residues of the echinT-GMP complex indicates that the loops in some monomers can adopt more than one conformation. The observation of conformational flexibility in terminal loop regions could explain the presence of multiple homodimers in the asymmetric unit of this structure. To explore the impact of the echinT C-terminus on protein structure and catalysis, we conducted a series of catalytic radiolabeling and kinetic experiments on the C-terminal deletion mutants of echinT. In this study, we show that sequential deletion of the C-terminus likely has no effect on homodimerization and a modest effect on the secondary structure of echinT. However, we observed a significant impact on the folding structure, as reflected by a significant lowering of the T{sub m} value. Kinetic analysis reveals that the C-terminal deletion mutants are within an order of magnitude less efficient in catalysis compared to wild type, while the overall kinetic mechanism that proceeds through a fast step

  19. Probing the impact of the echinT C-terminal domain on structure and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bardaweel, Sanaa; Pace, James; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Cody, Vivian; Wagner, Carston R

    2010-12-10

    Histidine triad nucleotide binding protein (Hint) is considered as the ancestor of the histidine triad protein superfamily and is highly conserved from bacteria to humans. Prokaryote genomes, including a wide array of both Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, typically encode one Hint gene. The cellular function of Hint and the rationale for its evolutionary conservation in bacteria have remained a mystery. Despite its ubiquity and high sequence similarity to eukaryote Hint1 [Escherichia coli Hint (echinT) is 48% identical with human Hint1], prokaryote Hint has been reported in only a few studies. Here we report the first conformational information on the full-length N-terminal and C-terminal residues of Hint from the E. coli complex with GMP. Structural analysis of the echinT-GMP complex reveals that it crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1) with four homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Analysis of electron density for both the N-terminal residues and the C-terminal residues of the echinT-GMP complex indicates that the loops in some monomers can adopt more than one conformation. The observation of conformational flexibility in terminal loop regions could explain the presence of multiple homodimers in the asymmetric unit of this structure. To explore the impact of the echinT C-terminus on protein structure and catalysis, we conducted a series of catalytic radiolabeling and kinetic experiments on the C-terminal deletion mutants of echinT. In this study, we show that sequential deletion of the C-terminus likely has no effect on homodimerization and a modest effect on the secondary structure of echinT. However, we observed a significant impact on the folding structure, as reflected by a significant lowering of the T(m) value. Kinetic analysis reveals that the C-terminal deletion mutants are within an order of magnitude less efficient in catalysis compared to wild type, while the overall kinetic mechanism that proceeds through a fast step

  20. Dissection of Influenza A Virus M1 Protein: pH-Dependent Oligomerization of N-Terminal Domain and Dimerization of C-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Wang, Zhao; Liu, Xiaoling; Yin, Changcheng; Basit, Zeshan; Xia, Bin; Liu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Background The matrix 1 (M1) protein of Influenza A virus plays many critical roles throughout the virus life cycle. The oligomerization of M1 is essential for the formation of the viral matrix layer during the assembly and budding process. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we report that M1 can oligomerize in vitro, and that the oligomerization is pH-dependent. The N-terminal domain of M1 alone exists as multiple-order oligomers at pH 7.4, and the C-terminal domain alone forms an exclusively stable dimer. As a result, intact M1 can display different forms of oligomers and dimer is the smallest oligomerization state, at neutral pH. At pH 5.0, oligomers of the N-terminal domain completely dissociate into monomers, while the C-terminal domain remains in dimeric form. As a result, oligomers of intact M1 dissociate into a stable dimer at acidic pH. Conclusions/Significance Oligomerization of M1 involves both the N- and C-terminal domains. The N-terminal domain determines the pH-dependent oligomerization characteristic, and C-terminal domain forms a stable dimer, which contributes to the dimerization of M1. The present study will help to unveil the mechanisms of influenza A virus assembly and uncoating process. PMID:22655068

  1. Structure of the C-terminal heme-binding domain of THAP domain containing protein 4 from Homo sapiens

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N.

    2012-03-15

    The thanatos (the Greek god of death)-associated protein (THAP) domain is a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain that contains a C2-CH (Cys-Xaa{sub 2-4}-Cys-Xaa{sub 35-50}-Cys-Xaa{sub 2}-His) zinc finger that is similar to the DNA domain of the P element transposase from Drosophila. THAP-containing proteins have been observed in the proteome of humans, pigs, cows, chickens, zebrafish, Drosophila, C. elegans, and Xenopus. To date, there are no known THAP domain proteins in plants, yeast, or bacteria. There are 12 identified human THAP domain-containing proteins (THAP0-11). In all human THAP protein, the THAP domain is located at the N-terminus and is {approx}90 residues in length. Although all of the human THAP-containing proteins have a homologous N-terminus, there is extensive variation in both the predicted structure and length of the remaining protein. Even though the exact function of these THAP proteins is not well defined, there is evidence that they play a role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, chromatin modification, and transcriptional regulation. THAP-containing proteins have also been implicated in a number of human disease states including heart disease, neurological defects, and several types of cancers. Human THAP4 is a 577-residue protein of unknown function that is proposed to bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner similar to THAP1 and has been found to be upregulated in response to heat shock. THAP4 is expressed in a relatively uniform manner in a broad range of tissues and appears to be upregulated in lymphoma cells and highly expressed in heart cells. The C-terminal domain of THAP4 (residues 415-577), designated here as cTHAP4, is evolutionarily conserved and is observed in all known THAP4 orthologs. Several single-domain proteins lacking a THAP domain are found in plants and bacteria and show significant levels of homology to cTHAP4. It appears that cTHAP4 belongs to a large class of proteins that have yet to be fully

  2. The C-terminal helices of heat shock protein 70 are essential for J-domain binding and ATPase activation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue-Chao; Zhou, Chen-Jie; Zhou, Zi-Ren; Wu, Meng; Cao, Chun-Yang; Hu, Hong-Yu

    2012-02-17

    The J-domain co-chaperones work together with the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) chaperone to regulate many cellular events, but the mechanism underlying the J-domain-mediated HSP70 function remains elusive. We studied the interaction between human-inducible HSP70 and Homo sapiens J-domain protein (HSJ1a), a J domain and UIM motif-containing co-chaperone. The J domain of HSJ1a shares a conserved structure with other J domains from both eukaryotic and prokaryotic species, and it mediates the interaction with and the ATPase cycle of HSP70. Our in vitro study corroborates that the N terminus of HSP70 including the ATPase domain and the substrate-binding β-subdomain is not sufficient to bind with the J domain of HSJ1a. The C-terminal helical α-subdomain of HSP70, which was considered to function as a lid of the substrate-binding domain, is crucial for binding with the J domain of HSJ1a and stimulating the ATPase activity of HSP70. These fluctuating helices are likely to contribute to a proper conformation of HSP70 for J-domain binding other than directly bind with the J domain. Our findings provide an alternative mechanism of allosteric activation for functional regulation of HSP70 by its J-domain co-chaperones.

  3. The phage λ CII transcriptional activator carries a C-terminal domain signaling for rapid proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kobiler, Oren; Koby, Simi; Teff, Dinah; Court, Donald; Oppenheim, Amos B.

    2002-01-01

    ATP-dependent proteases, like FtsH (HflB), recognize specific protein substrates. One of these is the λ CII protein, which plays a key role in the phage lysis-lysogeny decision. Here we provide evidence that the conserved C-terminal end of CII acts as a necessary and sufficient cis-acting target for rapid proteolysis. Deletions of this conserved tag, or a mutation that confers two aspartic residues at its C terminus do not affect the structure or activity of CII. However, the mutations abrogate CII degradation by FtsH. We have established an in vitro assay for the λ CIII protein and demonstrated that CIII directly inhibits proteolysis by FtsH to protect CII and CII mutants from degradation. Phage λ carrying mutations in the C terminus of CII show increased frequency of lysogenization, which indicates that this segment of CII may itself be sensitive to regulation that affects the lysis-lysogeny development. In addition, the region coding for the C-terminal end of CII overlaps with a gene that encodes a small antisense RNA called OOP. We show that deletion of the end of the cII gene can prevent OOP RNA, supplied in trans, interfering with CII activity. These findings provide an example of a gene that carries a region that modulates stability at the level of mRNA and protein. PMID:12397182

  4. Contribution of N- and C-terminal Kv4.2 channel domains to KChIP interaction [corrected].

    PubMed

    Callsen, Britta; Isbrandt, Dirk; Sauter, Kathrin; Hartmann, L Sven; Pongs, Olaf; Bähring, Robert

    2005-10-15

    Association of Shal gene-related voltage-gated potassium (Kv4) channels with cytoplasmic Kv channel interacting proteins (KChIPs) influences inactivation gating and surface expression. We investigated both functional and biochemical consequences of mutations in cytoplasmic N and C-terminal Kv4.2 domains to characterize structural determinants for KChIP interaction. We performed a lysine-scanning mutagenesis within the proximal 40 amino acid portion and a structure-based mutagenesis in the tetramerization 1 (T1) domain of Kv4.2. In addition, the cytoplasmic Kv4.2 C-terminus was truncated at various positions. Wild-type and mutant Kv4.2 channels were coexpressed with KChIP2 isoforms in mammalian cell lines. The KChIP2-induced modulation of Kv4.2 currents was studied with whole-cell patch clamp and the binding of KChIP2 isoforms to Kv4.2 channels with coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Our results define one major interaction site for KChIPs, including amino acids in the proximal N-terminus between residues 11 and 23, where binding and functional modulation are essentially equivalent. A further interaction site includes residues in the T1 domain. Notably, C-terminal deletions also had marked effects on KChIP2-dependent gating modulation and KChIP2 binding, revealing a previously unknown involvement of domains within the cytoplasmic Kv4.2 C-terminus in KChIP interaction. Less coincidence of binding and functional modulation indicates a more loose 'anchoring' at T1- and C-terminal interaction sites. Our results refine and extend previously proposed structural models for Kv4.2/KChIP complex formation.

  5. Crystallization of the C-terminal redox domain of the sulfur-assimilatory enzyme APR1 from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Chang, Yu-Yung; Cho, Chao-Cheng; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Plant-type APS reductase (APR), which catalyzes the reduction of activated sulfate to sulfite in plants, consists of a reductase domain and a C-terminal redox domain showing sequence homology to thioredoxin but possessing the activity of glutaredoxin. In order to understand the structural and biochemical properties of the redox domain of plant-type APS reductase, the C-terminal domain of APR1 (APR1C) from Arabidopsis thaliana was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.70 Å on the SPXF beamline BL13B1 at the NSRRC, Taiwan. The crystals belonged to space group P43212 or P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 58.2, c = 86.7 Å. With one molecule per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (VM) is 2.64 Å(3) Da(-1), which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 53.49%. Further structure-based functional studies of APR1C would extend knowledge of the molecular mechanism and regulation of APR.

  6. Chaperone-Like Effect of the Linker on the Isolated C-Terminal Domain of Rabbit Muscle Creatine Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Xiang-Jun; Xia, Mengdie; He, Hua-Wei; Wang, Sha; Liu, Huihui; Gong, Haipeng; Yan, Yong-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Intramolecular chaperones (IMCs), which are specific domains/segments encoded in the primary structure of proteins, exhibit chaperone-like activity against the aggregation of the other domains in the same molecule. In this research, we found that the truncation of the linker greatly promoted the thermal aggregation of the isolated C-terminal domain (CTD) of rabbit muscle creatine kinase (RMCK). Either the existence of the linker covalently linked to CTD or the supply of the synthetic linker peptide additionally could successfully protect the CTD of RMCK against aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. Truncated fragments of the linker also behaved as a chaperone-like effect with lower efficiency, revealing the importance of its C-terminal half in the IMC function of the linker. The aggregation sites in the CTD of RMCK were identified by molecular dynamics simulations. Mutational analysis of the three key hydrophobic residues resulted in opposing effects on the thermal aggregation between the CTD with intact or partial linker, confirming the role of linker as a lid to protect the hydrophobic residues against exposure to solvent. These observations suggested that the linkers in multidomain proteins could act as IMCs to facilitate the correct folding of the aggregation-prone domains. Furthermore, the intactness of the IMC linker after proteolysis modulates the production of off-pathway aggregates, which may be important to the onset of some diseases caused by the toxic effects of aggregated proteolytic fragments. PMID:22947872

  7. [Domain organization of the ORF2 C-terminal region of the German cockroach retroposon R1].

    PubMed

    Kagramanova, A S; Kapelinskaia, T V; Korolev, A L; Mukha, D V

    2010-08-01

    Using cosmid vector, a gene library of German cockroach Blattella germanica was constructed. From this library, clones containing full-length copies of two subfamilies of R1 retroposons were selected. Retroposons R1 of German cockroach belonging to different subfamilies were shown to be different in domain organization of the ORF2 C-terminal region. For the first time, retroposons transmembrane domains were identified in the sequences of R1. It was demonstrated that two retroposon R1 subfamilies of German cockroach arose as a result of intragenomic divergence rather than via horizontal transfer of alien mobile element into cockroach genome. The differences in domain organization appeared not as a result of saltatory recombination processes, but as a consequence of gradual mutation accumulation, which led to either degeneration, or to domain formation.

  8. Development of a tertiary-structure model of the C-terminal domain of DPP IV.

    PubMed

    Brandt, W

    2000-01-01

    Based on the recently published structure of prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) a model of the C-terminal part of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) which contains the active site has been developed. The structure of the model of DPP IV shows considerable similarity to the structure of POP particularly in the active site. A hydrophobic pocket (Tyr666, Tyr670, Tyr 631, Val556) forms the S1-binding site for recognition of proline. Tyr547 may stabilise the oxyanion formed in the tetrahedral intermediates by a strong hydrogen bond. The positively charged N-terminus of ligands of DPP IV is recognised by forming a salt bridge with the acidic side chain Glu668. A second hydrophobic pocket (S2' to S5') may represent an important binding site for HIV-1 Tat-protein derivatives, chemokines and others.

  9. Folding of the C-terminal bacterial binding domain in statherin upon adsorption onto hydroxyapatite crystals

    PubMed Central

    Goobes, Gil; Goobes, Rivka; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Baker, David; Stayton, Patrick S.; Drobny, Gary P.

    2006-01-01

    Statherin is an enamel pellicle protein that inhibits hydroxyapatite (HAP) nucleation and growth, lubricates the enamel surface, and is recognized by oral bacteria in periodontal diseases. We report here from solid-state NMR measurements that the protein's C-terminal region folds into an α-helix upon adsorption to HAP crystals. This region contains the binding sites for bacterial fimbriae that mediate bacterial cell adhesion to the surface of the tooth. The helical segment is shown through long-range distance measurements to fold back onto the intermediate region (residues Y16–P28) defining the global fold of the protein. Statherin, previously shown to be unstructured in solution, undergoes conformation selection on its substrate mineral surface. This surface-induced folding of statherin can be related to its functionality in inhibiting HAP crystal growth and can explain how oral pathogens selectively recognize HAP-bound statherin. PMID:17060618

  10. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T5 L-shaped fibre.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Doval, Carmela; Luque, Daniel; Castón, José R; Boulanger, Pascale; van Raaij, Mark J

    2013-12-01

    Tails of bacteriophage T5 (a member of the Siphoviridae family) were studied by electron microscopy. For the distal parts of the L-shaped tail fibres, which are involved in host cell receptor binding, a low-resolution volume was calculated. Several C-terminal fragments of the fibre were expressed and purified. Crystals of two of them were obtained that belonged to space groups P63 and R32 and diffracted synchrotron radiation to 2.3 and 2.9 Å resolution, respectively. A single-wavelength anomalous dispersion data set to 2.5 Å resolution was also collected from a selenomethionine-derivatized crystal of one of the fragments, which belonged to space group C2.

  11. Insights into the C-terminal Peptide Binding Specificity of the PDZ Domain of Neuronal Nitric-oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Gracia, Javier; Costas-Insua, Carlos; Canales, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Crespo, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal nitric-oxide synthase, unlike its endothelial and inducible counterparts, displays a PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain located at its N terminus involved in subcellular targeting. The C termini of various cellular proteins insert within the binding groove of this PDZ domain and determine the subcellular distribution of neuronal NOS (nNOS). The molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions are poorly understood because the PDZ domain of nNOS can apparently exhibit class I, class II, and class III binding specificity. In addition, it has been recently suggested that the PDZ domain of nNOS binds with very low affinity to the C termini of target proteins, and a necessary simultaneous lateral interaction must take place for binding to occur. We describe herein that the PDZ domain of nNOS can behave as a bona fide class III PDZ domain and bind to C-terminal sequences with acidic residues at the P−2 position with low micromolar binding constants. Binding to C-terminal sequences with a hydrophobic residue at the P−2 position plus an acidic residue at the P−3 position (class II) can also occur, although interactions involving residues extending up to the P−7 position mediate this type of binding. This promiscuous behavior also extends to its association to class I sequences, which must display a Glu residue at P−3 and a Thr residue at P−2. By means of site-directed mutagenesis and NMR spectroscopy, we have been able to identify the residues involved in each specific type of binding and rationalize the mechanisms used to recognize binding partners. Finally, we have analyzed the high affinity association of the PDZ domain of nNOS to claudin-3 and claudin-14, two tight junction tetraspan membrane proteins that are essential components of the paracellular barrier. PMID:27030110

  12. Structural and binding studies of the C-terminal domains of yeast TFIIF subunits Tfg1 and Tfg2.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Adina M; Koharudin, Leonardus M I; Calero, Guillermo A; Gronenborn, Angela M

    2012-02-01

    The general transcription factor TFIIF plays essential roles at several steps during eukaryotic transcription. While several studies have offered insights into the structure/function relationship in human TFIIF, much less is known about the yeast system. Here, we describe the first NMR structural and binding studies of the C-terminal domains (CTDs) of Tfg1 and Tfg2 subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TFIIF. We used the program CS-ROSETTA to determine the three-dimensional folds of these domains in solution, and performed binding studies with DNA and protein targets. CS-ROSETTA models indicate that the Tfg1 and Tfg2 C-terminal domains have winged-helix architectures, similar to the human homologs. We showed that both Tfg1 and Tfg2 CTDs interact with double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides, and mapped the DNA binding interfaces using solution NMR. Tfg1-CTD, but not Tfg2-CTD, also binds to yeast FCP1, an RNA polymerase II-specific phosphatase, and we delineated the interaction surface with the CTD of FCP1. Our results provide insights into the structural basis of yeast TFIIF function and the differential roles of Tfg1 and Tfg2 subunits during transcription. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Using an amino acid fluorescence resonance energy transfer pair to probe protein unfolding: application to the villin headpiece subdomain and the LysM domain.

    PubMed

    Glasscock, Julie M; Zhu, Yongjin; Chowdhury, Pramit; Tang, Jia; Gai, Feng

    2008-10-21

    Previously, we have shown that p-cyanophenylalanine (Phe CN) and tryptophan (Trp) constitute an efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair that has several advantages over commonly used dye pairs. Here, we aim to examine the general applicability of this FRET pair in protein folding-unfolding studies by applying it to the urea-induced unfolding transitions of two small proteins, the villin headpiece subdomain (HP35) and the lysin motif (LysM) domain. Depending on whether Phe CN is exposed to solvent, we are able to extract either qualitative information about the folding pathway, as demonstrated by HP35, which has been suggested to unfold in a stepwise manner, or quantitative thermodynamic and structural information, as demonstrated by LysM, which has been shown to be an ideal two-state folder. Our results show that the unfolding transition of HP35 reported by FRET occurs at a denaturant concentration lower than that measured by circular dichroism (CD) and that the loop linking helix 2 and helix 3 remains compact in the denatured state, which are consistent with the notion that HP35 unfolds in discrete steps and that its unfolded state contains residual structures. On the other hand, our FRET results on the LysM domain allow us to develop a model for extracting structural and thermodynamic parameters about its unfolding, and we find that our results are in agreement with those obtained by other methods. Given the fact that Phe CN is a non-natural amino acid and, thus, amenable to incorporation into peptides and proteins via existing peptide synthesis and protein expression methods, we believe that the FRET method demonstrated here is widely applicable to protein conformational studies, especially to the study of relatively small proteins.

  14. Solution structure of tandem SH2 domains from Spt6 protein and their binding to the phosphorylated RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Jiahai; Gong, Qingguo; Xiong, Peng; Huang, Hongda; Wu, Bo; Lu, Guowei; Wu, Jihui; Shi, Yunyu

    2011-08-19

    Spt6 is a highly conserved transcription elongation factor and histone chaperone. It binds directly to the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (RNAPII CTD) through its C-terminal region that recognizes RNAPII CTD phosphorylation. In this study, we determined the solution structure of the C-terminal region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt6, and we discovered that Spt6 has two SH2 domains in tandem. Structural and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the second SH2 domain was evolutionarily distant from canonical SH2 domains and represented a novel SH2 subfamily with a novel binding site for phosphoserine. In addition, NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments demonstrated that the tandem SH2 domains recognized Tyr(1), Ser(2), Ser(5), and Ser(7) phosphorylation of RNAPII CTD with millimolar binding affinities. The structural basis for the binding of the tandem SH2 domains to different forms of phosphorylated RNAPII CTD and its physiological relevance are discussed. Our results also suggest that Spt6 may use the tandem SH2 domain module to sense the phosphorylation level of RNAPII CTD.

  15. Membrane binding properties of EBV gp110 C-terminal domain; evidences for structural transition in the membrane environment

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung Jean; Seo, Min-Duk; Lee, Suk Kyeong; Lee, Bong Jin

    2008-09-30

    Gp110 of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mainly localizes on nuclear/ER membranes and plays a role in the assembly of EBV nucleocapsid. The C-terminal tail domain (gp110 CTD) is essential for the function of gp110 and the nuclear/ER membranes localization of gp110 is ruled by its C-terminal unique nuclear localization signal (NLS), consecutive four arginines. In the present study, the structural properties of gp110 CTD in membrane mimics were investigated using CD, size-exclusion chromatography, and NMR, to elucidate the effect of membrane environment on the structural transition and to compare the structural feature of the protein in the solution state with that of the membrane-bound form. CD and NMR analysis showed that gp110 CTD in a buffer solution appears to adopt a stable folding intermediate which lacks compactness, and a highly helical structure is formed only in membrane environments. The helical content of gp110 CTD was significantly affected by the negative charge as well as the size of membrane mimics. Based on the elution profiles of the size-exclusion chromatography, we found that gp110 CTD intrinsically forms a trimer, revealing that a trimerization region may exist in the C-terminal domain of gp110 like the ectodomain of gp110. The mutation of NLS (RRRR) to RTTR does not affect the overall structure of gp110 CTD in membrane mimics, while the helical propensity in a buffer solution was slightly different between the wild-type and the mutant proteins. This result suggests that not only the helicity induced in membrane environment but also the local structure around NLS may be related to trafficking to the nuclear membrane. More detailed structural difference between the wild-type and the mutant in membrane environment was examined using synthetic two peptides including the wild-type NLS and the mutant NLS.

  16. The Rrp6 C-terminal domain binds RNA and activates the nuclear RNA exosome

    PubMed Central

    Wasmuth, Elizabeth V.; Lima, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    The eukaryotic RNA exosome is an essential, multi-subunit complex that catalyzes RNA turnover, maturation, and quality control processes. Its non-catalytic donut-shaped core includes 9 subunits that associate with the 3′ to 5′ exoribonucleases Rrp6, and Rrp44/Dis3, a subunit that also catalyzes endoribonuclease activity. Although recent structures and biochemical studies of RNA bound exosomes from S. cerevisiae revealed that the Exo9 central channel guides RNA to either Rrp6 or Rrp44 using partially overlapping and mutually exclusive paths, several issues related to RNA recruitment remain. Here, we identify activities for the highly basic Rrp6 C-terminal tail that we term the ‘lasso’ because it binds RNA and stimulates ribonuclease activities associated with Rrp44 and Rrp6 within the 11-subunit nuclear exosome. Stimulation is dependent on the Exo9 central channel, and the lasso contributes to degradation and processing activities of exosome substrates in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we present evidence that the Rrp6 lasso may be a conserved feature of the eukaryotic RNA exosome. PMID:27899565

  17. Crystallization of the C-terminal globular domain of avian reovirus fibre

    PubMed Central

    van Raaij, Mark J.; Hermo Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado Calvo, Pablo; Fox, Gavin C.; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Costas, Celina; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Avian reovirus fibre, a homotrimer of the σC protein, is responsible for primary host-cell attachment. Using the protease trypsin, a C-terminal σC fragment containing amino acids 156–326 has been generated which was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained, one grown in the absence of divalent cations and belonging to space group P6322 (unit-cell parameters a = 75.6, c = 243.1 Å) and one grown in the presence of either zinc or cadmium sulfate and belonging to space group P321 (unit-cell parameters a = 74.7, c = 74.5 Å and a = 73.1, c = 69.9 Å for the ZnII- and CdII-grown crystals, respectively). The first crystal form diffracted synchrotron radiation to 3.0 Å resolution and the second form to 2.2–2.3 Å. Its closest related structure, the C-­terminal fragment of mammalian reovirus fibre, has only 18% sequence identity and molecular-replacement attempts were unsuccessful. Therefore, a search is under way for suitable heavy-atom derivatives and attempts are being made to grow protein crystals containing selenomethionine instead of methionine. PMID:16511119

  18. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the mouse brain cytosolic long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Serek, Robert; Forwood, Jade K.; Hume, David A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2006-02-01

    The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution. The mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase, the enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids, contains two fused 4HBT (4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase) motifs. The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot7) has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized. The crystals were obtained by vapour diffusion using PEG 2000 MME as precipitant at pH 7.0 and 290 K. The crystals have the symmetry of space group R32 (unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.83, c = 99.82 Å, γ = 120°). Two molecules are expected in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution using the laboratory X-ray source and are suitable for crystal structure determination.

  19. Disruption of C-Terminal Cytoplasmic Domain of βPS Integrin Subunit Has Dominant Negative Properties in Developing Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jannuzi, Alison L.; Bunch, Thomas A.; Brabant, Marc C.; Miller, Steven W.; Mukai, Leona; Zavortink, Michael; Brower, Danny L.

    2002-01-01

    We have analyzed a set of new and existing strong mutations in the myospheroid gene, which encodes the βPS integrin subunit of Drosophila. In addition to missense and other null mutations, three mutants behave as antimorphic alleles, indicative of dominant negative properties. Unlike null alleles, the three antimorphic mutants are synthetically lethal in double heterozygotes with an inflated (αPS2) null allele, and they fail to complement very weak, otherwise viable alleles of myospheroid. Two of the antimorphs result from identical splice site lesions, which create a frameshift in the C-terminal half of the cytoplasmic domain of βPS. The third antimorphic mutation is caused by a stop codon just before the cytoplasmic splice site. These mutant βPS proteins can support cell spreading in culture, especially under conditions that appear to promote integrin activation. Analyses of developing animals indicate that the dominant negative properties are not a result of inefficient surface expression, or simple competition between functional and nonfunctional proteins. These data indicate that mutations disrupting the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of integrin β subunits can have dominant negative effects in situ, at normal levels of expression, and that this property does not necessarily depend on a specific new protein sequence or structure. The results are discussed with respect to similar vertebrate β subunit cytoplasmic mutations. PMID:11950944

  20. The C-terminal Domains of Apoptotic BH3-only Proteins Mediate Their Insertion into Distinct Biological Membranes.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Fernández, Vicente; García-Murria, María J; Bañó-Polo, Manuel; Martin, Juliette; Monticelli, Luca; Orzáez, Mar; Mingarro, Ismael

    2016-11-25

    Changes in the equilibrium of pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein family in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) induce structural changes that commit cells to apoptosis. Bcl-2 homology-3 (BH3)-only proteins participate in this process by either activating pro-apoptotic effectors or inhibiting anti-apoptotic components and by promoting MOM permeabilization. The association of BH3-only proteins with MOMs is necessary for the activation and amplification of death signals; however, the nature of this association remains controversial, as these proteins lack a canonical transmembrane sequence. Here we used an in vitro expression system to study the insertion capacity of hydrophobic C-terminal regions of the BH3-only proteins Bik, Bim, Noxa, Bmf, and Puma into microsomal membranes. An Escherichia coli complementation assay was used to validate the results in a cellular context, and peptide insertions were modeled using molecular dynamics simulations. We also found that some of the C-terminal domains were sufficient to direct green fluorescent protein fusion proteins to specific membranes in human cells, but the domains did not activate apoptosis. Thus, the hydrophobic regions in the C termini of BH3-only members associated in distinct ways with various biological membranes, suggesting that a detailed investigation of the entire process of apoptosis should include studying the membranes as a setting for protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Intracellular Cleavage of the Cx43 C-Terminal Domain by Matrix-Metalloproteases: A Novel Contributor to Inflammation?

    PubMed Central

    De Bock, Marijke; Wang, Nan; Decrock, Elke; Bultynck, Geert; Leybaert, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The coordination of tissue function is mediated by gap junctions (GJs) that enable direct cell-cell transfer of metabolic and electric signals. GJs are formed by connexin (Cx) proteins of which Cx43 is most widespread in the human body. Beyond its role in direct intercellular communication, Cx43 also forms nonjunctional hemichannels (HCs) in the plasma membrane that mediate the release of paracrine signaling molecules in the extracellular environment. Both HC and GJ channel function are regulated by protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications that predominantly take place in the C-terminal domain of Cx43. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a major group of zinc-dependent proteases, known to regulate not only extracellular matrix remodeling, but also processing of intracellular proteins. Together with Cx43 channels, both GJs and HCs, MMPs contribute to acute inflammation and a small number of studies reports on an MMP-Cx43 link. Here, we build further on these reports and present a novel hypothesis that describes proteolytic cleavage of the Cx43 C-terminal domain by MMPs and explores possibilities of how such cleavage events may affect Cx43 channel function. Finally, we set out how aberrant channel function resulting from cleavage can contribute to the acute inflammatory response during tissue injury. PMID:26424967

  2. The N- and C-Terminal Domains Differentially Contribute to the Structure and Function of Dystrophin and Utrophin Tandem Calponin-Homology Domains.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surinder M; Bandi, Swati; Mallela, Krishna M G

    2015-11-24

    Dystrophin and utrophin are two muscle proteins involved in Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy. Both proteins use tandem calponin-homology (CH) domains to bind to F-actin. We probed the role of N-terminal CH1 and C-terminal CH2 domains in the structure and function of dystrophin tandem CH domain and compared with our earlier results on utrophin to understand the unifying principles of how tandem CH domains work. Actin cosedimentation assays indicate that the isolated CH2 domain of dystrophin weakly binds to F-actin compared to the full-length tandem CH domain. In contrast, the isolated CH1 domain binds to F-actin with an affinity similar to that of the full-length tandem CH domain. Thus, the obvious question is why the dystrophin tandem CH domain requires CH2, when its actin binding is determined primarily by CH1. To answer, we probed the structural stabilities of CH domains. The isolated CH1 domain is very unstable and is prone to serious aggregation. The isolated CH2 domain is very stable, similar to the full-length tandem CH domain. These results indicate that the main role of CH2 is to stabilize the tandem CH domain structure. These conclusions from dystrophin agree with our earlier results on utrophin, indicating that this phenomenon of differential contribution of CH domains to the structure and function of tandem CH domains may be quite general. The N-terminal CH1 domains primarily determine the actin binding function whereas the C-terminal CH2 domains primarily determine the structural stability of tandem CH domains, and the extent of stabilization depends on the strength of inter-CH domain interactions.

  3. The retroviral hypermutation specificity of APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G is governed by the C-terminal DNA cytosine deaminase domain.

    PubMed

    Haché, Guylaine; Liddament, Mark T; Harris, Reuben S

    2005-03-25

    The human proteins APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G restrict retroviral infection by deaminating cytosine residues in the first cDNA strand of a replicating virus. These proteins have two putative deaminase domains, and it is unclear whether one or both catalyze deamination, unlike their homologs, AID and APOBEC1, which are well characterized single domain deaminases. Here, we show that only the C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain of APOBEC3F and -3G governs retroviral hypermutation. A chimeric protein with the N-terminal cytosine deaminase domain from APOBEC3G and the C-terminal cytosine deaminase domain from APOBEC3F elicited a dinucleotide hypermutation preference nearly indistinguishable from that of APOBEC3F. This 5'-TC-->TT mutational specificity was confirmed in a heterologous Escherichia coli-based mutation assay, in which the 5'-CC-->CT dinucleotide hypermutation preference of APOBEC3G also mapped to the C-terminal deaminase domain. An N-terminal APOBEC3G deletion mutant displayed a preference indistinguishable from that of the full-length protein, and replacing the C-terminal deaminase domain of APOBEC3F with AID resulted in an AID-like mutational signature. Together, these data indicate that only the C-terminal domain of APOBEC3F and -3G dictates the retroviral minus strand 5'-TC and 5'-CC dinucleotide hypermutation preferences, respectively, leaving the N-terminal domain to perform other aspects of retroviral restriction.

  4. The BARD1 C-Terminal Domain Structure and Interactions with Polyadenylation Factor CstF-50

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Ross A.; Lee, Megan S.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Williams, R. Scott; Tainer, John A.; Glover, J. N. Mark

    2009-07-13

    The BARD1 N-terminal RING domain binds BRCA1 while the BARD1 C-terminal ankyrin and tandem BRCT repeat domains bind CstF-50 to modulate mRNA processing and RNAP II stability in response to DNA damage. Here we characterize the BARD1 structural biochemistry responsible for CstF- 50 binding. The crystal structure of the BARD1 BRCT domain uncovers a degenerate phosphopeptide binding pocket lacking the key arginine required for phosphopeptide interactions in other BRCT proteins.Small angle X-ray scattering together with limited proteolysis results indicates that ankyrin and BRCT domains are linked by a flexible tether and do not adopt a fixed orientation relative to one another. Protein pull-down experiments utilizing a series of purified BARD1 deletion mutants indicate that interactions between the CstF-50 WD-40 domain and BARD1 involve the ankyrin-BRCT linker but do not require ankyrin or BRCT domains. The structural plasticity imparted by the ANK-BRCT linker helps to explain the regulated assembly of different protein BARD1 complexes with distinct functions in DNA damage signaling including BARD1-dependent induction of apoptosis plus p53 stabilization and interactions. BARD1 architecture and plasticity imparted by the ANK-BRCT linker are suitable to allow the BARD1 C-terminus to act as a hub with multiple binding sites to integrate diverse DNA damage signals directly to RNA polymerase.

  5. The Stability Enhancement of Nitrile Hydratase from Bordetella petrii by Swapping the C-terminal Domain of β subunit.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weifeng; Zhu, Longbao; Chen, Xianggui; Wu, Lunjie; Zhou, Zhemin; Liu, Yi

    2016-04-01

    The thermal stability of most nitrile hydratases (NHase) is poor, which has been enhanced to some extent by molecular modifications in several specific regions of the C-terminal domain (C-domain) of β subunit of NHase. Since the C-domain could be present as a naturally separate domain in a few NHases, the whole C-domain is proposed to be related to the NHase stability. The chimeric NHase (SBpNHase) from the thermal-sensitive BpNHase (NHase from Bordetella petrii) and the relatively thermal-stable PtNHase (NHase from Pseudonocardia thermophila) was constructed by swapping the corresponding C-domains. After 30 min incubation at 50 °C, the original BpNHase nearly lost its activity, while the SBpNHase retained 50 % residual activity, compared with the melting temperature (Tm) (50 °C) of the original BpNHase, that of the SBpNHase was 55 °C. The SBpNHase with higher thermal stability would be useful for the thermal stability enhancement of NHase and for the understanding of the relationship between the stability of NHase and its structure.

  6. Functional synergy between the Munc13 C-terminal C1 and C2 domains

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Seven, Alpay Burak; Camacho, Marcial; Esser, Victoria; Xu, Junjie; Trimbuch, Thorsten; Quade, Bradley; Su, Lijing; Ma, Cong; Rosenmund, Christian; Rizo, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release requires SNARE complexes to bring membranes together, NSF-SNAPs to recycle the SNAREs, Munc18-1 and Munc13s to orchestrate SNARE complex assembly, and Synaptotagmin-1 to trigger fast Ca2+-dependent membrane fusion. However, it is unclear whether Munc13s function upstream and/or downstream of SNARE complex assembly, and how the actions of their multiple domains are integrated. Reconstitution, liposome-clustering and electrophysiological experiments now reveal a functional synergy between the C1, C2B and C2C domains of Munc13-1, indicating that these domains help bridging the vesicle and plasma membranes to facilitate stimulation of SNARE complex assembly by the Munc13-1 MUN domain. Our reconstitution data also suggest that Munc18-1, Munc13-1, NSF, αSNAP and the SNAREs are critical to form a ‘primed’ state that does not fuse but is ready for fast fusion upon Ca2+ influx. Overall, our results support a model whereby the multiple domains of Munc13s cooperate to coordinate synaptic vesicle docking, priming and fusion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13696.001 PMID:27213521

  7. Functional synergy between the Munc13 C-terminal C1 and C2 domains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Seven, Alpay Burak; Camacho, Marcial; Esser, Victoria; Xu, Junjie; Trimbuch, Thorsten; Quade, Bradley; Su, Lijing; Ma, Cong; Rosenmund, Christian; Rizo, Josep

    2016-05-23

    Neurotransmitter release requires SNARE complexes to bring membranes together, NSF-SNAPs to recycle the SNAREs, Munc18-1 and Munc13s to orchestrate SNARE complex assembly, and Synaptotagmin-1 to trigger fast Ca(2+)-dependent membrane fusion. However, it is unclear whether Munc13s function upstream and/or downstream of SNARE complex assembly, and how the actions of their multiple domains are integrated. Reconstitution, liposome-clustering and electrophysiological experiments now reveal a functional synergy between the C1, C2B and C2C domains of Munc13-1, indicating that these domains help bridging the vesicle and plasma membranes to facilitate stimulation of SNARE complex assembly by the Munc13-1 MUN domain. Our reconstitution data also suggest that Munc18-1, Munc13-1, NSF, αSNAP and the SNAREs are critical to form a 'primed' state that does not fuse but is ready for fast fusion upon Ca(2+) influx. Overall, our results support a model whereby the multiple domains of Munc13s cooperate to coordinate synaptic vesicle docking, priming and fusion.

  8. Function and Control of RNA Polymerase II C-Terminal Domain Phosphorylation in Vertebrate Transcription and RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, Jing-Ping; Xiang, Kehui

    2014-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (the Rpb1 CTD) is composed of tandem heptad repeats of the consensus sequence Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7. We reported previously that Thr 4 is phosphorylated and functions in histone mRNA 3′-end formation in chicken DT40 cells. Here, we have extended our studies on Thr 4 and to other CTD mutations by using these cells. We found that an Rpb1 derivative containing only the N-terminal half of the CTD, as well as a similar derivative containing all-consensus repeats (26r), conferred full viability, while the C-terminal half, with more-divergent repeats, did not, reflecting a strong and specific defect in snRNA 3′-end formation. Mutation in 26r of all Ser 2 (S2A) or Ser 5 (S5A) residues resulted in lethality, while Ser 7 (S7A) mutants were fully viable. While S2A and S5A cells displayed defects in transcription and RNA processing, S7A cells behaved identically to 26r cells in all respects. Finally, we found that Thr 4 was phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 9 in cells and dephosphorylated both in vitro and in vivo by the phosphatase Fcp1. PMID:24752900

  9. Adaptive evolution has targeted the C-terminal domain of the RXLR effectors of plant pathogenic oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Win, Joe; Morgan, William; Bos, Jorunn; Krasileva, Ksenia V; Cano, Liliana M; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Ammar, Randa; Staskawicz, Brian J; Kamoun, Sophien

    2007-08-01

    Oomycete plant pathogens deliver effector proteins inside host cells to modulate plant defense circuitry and to enable parasitic colonization. These effectors are defined by a conserved motif, termed RXLR (for Arg, any amino acid, Leu, Arg), that is located downstream of the signal peptide and that has been implicated in host translocation. Because the phenotypes of RXLR effectors extend to plant cells, their genes are expected to be the direct target of the evolutionary forces that drive the antagonistic interplay between pathogen and host. We used the draft genome sequences of three oomycete plant pathogens, Phytophthora sojae, Phytophthora ramorum, and Hyaloperonospora parasitica, to generate genome-wide catalogs of RXLR effector genes and determine the extent to which these genes are under positive selection. These analyses revealed that the RXLR sequence is overrepresented and positionally constrained in the secretome of Phytophthora relative to other eukaryotes. The three examined plant pathogenic oomycetes carry complex and diverse sets of RXLR effector genes that have undergone relatively rapid birth and death evolution. We obtained robust evidence of positive selection in more than two-thirds of the examined paralog families of RXLR effectors. Positive selection has acted for the most part on the C-terminal region, consistent with the view that RXLR effectors are modular, with the N terminus involved in secretion and host translocation and the C-terminal domain dedicated to modulating host defenses inside plant cells.

  10. A Novel Fold in the Tral Relaxase-Helicase C-Terminal Domain Is Essential for Conjugative DNA Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Guogas, Laura M.; Kennedy, Sarah A.; Lee, Jin-Hyup; Redinbo, Matthew R.

    2009-06-04

    TraI relaxase-helicase is the central catalytic component of the multiprotein relaxosome complex responsible for conjugative DNA transfer (CDT) between bacterial cells. CDT is a primary mechanism for the lateral propagation of microbial genetic material, including the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. The 2.4-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the multifunctional Escherichia coli F (fertility) plasmid TraI protein is presented, and specific structural regions essential for CDT are identified. The crystal structure reveals a novel fold composed of a 28-residue N-terminal {alpha}-domain connected by a proline-rich loop to a compact {alpha}/{beta}-domain. Both the globular nature of the {alpha}/{beta}-domain and the presence as well as rigidity of the proline-rich loop are required for DNA transfer and single-stranded DNA binding. Taken together, these data establish the specific structural features of this noncatalytic domain that are essential to DNA conjugation.

  11. Characterization of β-domains in C-terminal fragments of TDP-43 by scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Zhu, Li; Liu, Jianghong; Yang, Yanlian; Wu, Jane Y; Wang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    The TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a critical player in a range of neurodegenerative diseases, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recent discoveries demonstrate the important role of carboxyl-terminal fragments of TDP-43 in its proteinopathy. Herein, we report the characterization of β-domains in the C-terminal fragments of TDP-43 using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Careful comparison of the wild-type TDP-43 (Wt) and the three mutant TDP-43 peptides: an ALS-related mutant peptide: phosphorylated A315T mutant TDP-43 (A315T(p)) and two model peptides: A315T mutant TDP-43 (A315T), A315E mutant TDP-43 (A315E) reveals that A315T(p) has a longer core region of the β-domain than Wt. A315E possesses the longest core region of the β-domain and A315T(p) mutant TDP-43 has the second longest core region of the β-domain. The core regions of the β-domains for A315T and Wt TDP-43 have the same length. This observation provides a supportive evidence of a higher tendency in beta-sheet formation of A315T(p) containing TDP-43 fragment, and structural mechanism for the higher cytotoxicity and accelerated fibril formation of the A315T(p) mutation-containing TDP-43 peptide as compared with Wt TDP-43.

  12. NFAT1 C-terminal domains are necessary but not sufficient for inducing cell death.

    PubMed

    Faget, Douglas V; Lucena, Pedro I; Robbs, Bruno K; Viola, João P B

    2012-01-01

    The proteins belonging to the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors are expressed in several cell types and regulate genes involved in differentiation, cell cycle and apoptosis. NFAT proteins share two conserved domains, the NFAT-homology region (NHR) and a DNA-binding domain (DBD). The N- and C-termini display two transactivation domains (TAD-N and TAD-C) that have low sequence similarity. Due to the high sequence conservation in the NHR and DBD, NFAT members have some overlapping roles in gene regulation. However, several studies have shown distinct roles for NFAT proteins in the regulation of cell death. The TAD-C shows low sequence similarity among NFAT family members, but its contribution to specific NFAT1-induced phenotypes is poorly understood. Here, we described at least two regions of NFAT1 TAD-C that confer pro-apoptotic activity to NFAT1. These regions extend from amino acids 699 to 734 and 819 to 850 of NFAT1. We also showed that the NFAT1 TAD-C is unable to induce apoptosis by itself and requires a functional DBD. Furthermore, we showed that when fused to NFAT1 TAD-C, NFAT2, which is associated with cell transformation, induces apoptosis in fibroblasts. Together, these results suggest that the NFAT1 TAD-C includes NFAT death domains that confer to different NFAT members the ability to induce apoptosis.

  13. NFAT1 C-Terminal Domains Are Necessary but Not Sufficient for Inducing Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Faget, Douglas V.; Lucena, Pedro I.; Robbs, Bruno K.; Viola, João P. B.

    2012-01-01

    The proteins belonging to the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors are expressed in several cell types and regulate genes involved in differentiation, cell cycle and apoptosis. NFAT proteins share two conserved domains, the NFAT-homology region (NHR) and a DNA-binding domain (DBD). The N- and C-termini display two transactivation domains (TAD-N and TAD-C) that have low sequence similarity. Due to the high sequence conservation in the NHR and DBD, NFAT members have some overlapping roles in gene regulation. However, several studies have shown distinct roles for NFAT proteins in the regulation of cell death. The TAD-C shows low sequence similarity among NFAT family members, but its contribution to specific NFAT1-induced phenotypes is poorly understood. Here, we described at least two regions of NFAT1 TAD-C that confer pro-apoptotic activity to NFAT1. These regions extend from amino acids 699 to 734 and 819 to 850 of NFAT1. We also showed that the NFAT1 TAD-C is unable to induce apoptosis by itself and requires a functional DBD. Furthermore, we showed that when fused to NFAT1 TAD-C, NFAT2, which is associated with cell transformation, induces apoptosis in fibroblasts. Together, these results suggest that the NFAT1 TAD-C includes NFAT death domains that confer to different NFAT members the ability to induce apoptosis. PMID:23110116

  14. Structure and interactions of the C-terminal metal binding domain of Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopA

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sorabh; Hong, Deli; Desai, Nirav K.; Sazinsky, Matthew H.; Argüello, José M.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    The Cu+-ATPase CopA from Archaeoglobus fulgidus belongs to the P1B family of the P-type ATPases. These integral membrane proteins couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to heavy metal ion translocation across membranes. A defining feature of P1B-1-type ATPases is the presence of soluble metal binding domains at the N-terminus (N-MBDs). The N-MBDs exhibit a conserved ferredoxin-like fold, similar to that of soluble copper chaperones, and bind metal ions via a conserved CXXC motif. The N-MBDs enable Cu+ regulation of turnover rates apparently through Cu-sensitive interactions with catalytic domains. A. fulgidus CopA is unusual in that it contains both an N-terminal MBD and a C-terminal MBD (C-MBD). The functional role of the unique C-MBD has not been established. Here, we report the crystal structure of the apo, oxidized C-MBD to 2.0 Å resolution. In the structure, two C-MBD monomers form a domain-swapped dimer, which has not been observed previously for similar domains. In addition, the interaction of the C-MBD with the other cytoplasmic domains of CopA, the ATP binding domain (ATPBD) and actuator domain (A-domain) has been investigated. Interestingly, the C-MBD interacts specifically with both of these domains, independent of the presence of Cu+ or nucleotides. These data reinforce the uniqueness of the C-MBD and suggest a distinct structural role for the C-MBD in CopA transport. PMID:20602459

  15. The structure of the C-terminal domain of the largest editosome interaction protein and its role in promoting RNA binding by RNA-editing ligase L2.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Jun; Budiarto, Tanya; Wu, Meiting; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Hol, Wim G J

    2012-08-01

    Trypanosomatids, such as the sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei, contain a ∼ 20S RNA-editing complex, also called the editosome, which is required for U-insertion/deletion editing of mitochondrial mRNAs. The editosome contains a core of 12 proteins including the large interaction protein A1, the small interaction protein A6, and the editing RNA ligase L2. Using biochemical and structural data, we identified distinct domains of T. brucei A1 which specifically recognize A6 and L2. We provide evidence that an N-terminal domain of A1 interacts with the C-terminal domain of L2. The C-terminal domain of A1 appears to be required for the interaction with A6 and also plays a key role in RNA binding by the RNA-editing ligase L2 in trans. Three crystal structures of the C-terminal domain of A1 have been elucidated, each in complex with a nanobody as a crystallization chaperone. These structures permitted the identification of putative dsRNA recognition sites. Mutational analysis of conserved residues of the C-terminal domain identified Arg703, Arg731 and Arg734 as key requirements for RNA binding. The data show that the editing RNA ligase activity is modulated by a novel mechanism, i.e. by the trans-acting RNA binding C-terminal domain of A1.

  16. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the mouse brain cytosolic long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase

    PubMed Central

    Serek, Robert; Forwood, Jade K.; Hume, David A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase, the enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids, contains two fused 4HBT (4-­hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase) motifs. The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot7) has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized. The crystals were obtained by vapour diffusion using PEG 2000 MME as precipitant at pH 7.0 and 290 K. The crystals have the symmetry of space group R32 (unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.83, c = 99.82 Å, γ = 120°). Two molecules are expected in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution using the laboratory X-ray source and are suitable for crystal structure determination. PMID:16511283

  17. Solution structure of the calmodulin-like C-terminal domain of Entamoeba α-actinin2.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Göran; Persson, Cecilia; Mayzel, Maxim; Hedenström, Mattias; Backman, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Cell motility is dependent on a dynamic meshwork of actin filaments that is remodelled continuously. A large number of associated proteins that are severs, cross-links, or caps the filament ends have been identified and the actin cross-linker α-actinin has been implied in several important cellular processes. In Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of human amoebiasis, α-actinin is believed to be required for infection. To better understand the role of α-actinin in the infectious process we have determined the solution structure of the C-terminal calmodulin-like domain using NMR. The final structure ensemble of the apo form shows two lobes, that both resemble other pairs of calcium-binding EF-hand motifs, connected with a mobile linker. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the fibre protein from snake adenovirus 1, an atadenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhimanyu K.; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; San Martín, Carmen; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus fibre proteins play an important role in determining viral tropism. The C-terminal domain of the fibre protein from snake adenovirus type 1, a member of the Atadenovirus genus, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals were obtained belonging to space groups P212121 (two different forms), I213 and F23. The best of these diffracted synchrotron radiation to a resolution of 1.4 Å. As the protein lacks methionines or cysteines, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to change two leucine residues to methionines. Crystals of selenomethionine-derivatized crystals of the I213 form were also obtained and a multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion data set was collected. PMID:24316834

  19. Triptonide Effectively Inhibits Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling via C-terminal Transactivation Domain of β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Chinison, Jessica; Aguilar, Jose S.; Avalos, Alan; Huang, Ying; Wang, Zhijun; Cameron, D. Joshua; Hao, Jijun

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is implicated in many diseases including cancer. As a result, therapeutic agents that disrupt this signaling pathway have been highly sought after. Triptonide is a key bioactive small molecule identified in a traditional Chinese medicine named Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., and it has a broad spectrum of biological functions. Here we show that triptonide can effectively inhibit canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by targeting the downstream C-terminal transcription domain of β-catenin or a nuclear component associated with β-catenin. In addition, triptonide treatment robustly rescued the zebrafish “eyeless” phenotype induced by GSK-3β antagonist 6-bromoindirubin-30-oxime (BIO) for Wnt signaling activation during embryonic gastrulation. Finally, triptonide effectively induced apoptosis of Wnt-dependent cancer cells, supporting the therapeutic potential of triptonide. PMID:27596363

  20. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the fibre protein from snake adenovirus 1, an atadenovirus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhimanyu K; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; San Martín, Carmen; van Raaij, Mark J

    2013-12-01

    Adenovirus fibre proteins play an important role in determining viral tropism. The C-terminal domain of the fibre protein from snake adenovirus type 1, a member of the Atadenovirus genus, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals were obtained belonging to space groups P2(1)2(1)2(1) (two different forms), I2(1)3 and F23. The best of these diffracted synchrotron radiation to a resolution of 1.4 Å. As the protein lacks methionines or cysteines, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to change two leucine residues to methionines. Crystals of selenomethionine-derivatized crystals of the I2(1)3 form were also obtained and a multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion data set was collected.

  1. Backbone and Side-chain NMR Assignments for the C-terminal Domain of Mammalian Vps28

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Tabitha A.; Yu, Liping; Piper, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Vps28 is one of four cytosolic proteins comprising the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport I (ESCRT-I). ESCRT-I is involved in sorting ubiquitinated proteins to multivesicular bodies (MVB) as well as in mediating budding of retroviruses. Here, we report the backbone and side-chain assignments of the mammalian C-terminal domain of Vps28 (mVps28CTD), which is involved in interactions with other ESCRT components. We also compare the predicted secondary structures of mVps28CTDwith those of the published X-ray crystal structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis Vps28CTD. These NMR resonance assignments will facilitate chemical shift mapping and structural determination of mammalian Vps28 interactions with other components of the endosomal sorting machinery that sorts ubiquitinated proteins for lysosomal degradation. PMID:24366722

  2. Roles of the N- and C-terminal domains of mammalian mitochondrial initiation factor 3 in protein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Emdadul; Spremulli, Linda L

    2008-12-26

    Bacterial initiation factor 3 (IF3) is organized into N- and C-domains separated by a linker. Mitochondrial IF3 (IF3(mt)) has a similar domain organization, although both domains have extensions not found in the bacterial factors. Constructs of the N- and C-domains of IF3(mt) with and without the connecting linker were prepared. The K(d) values for the binding of full-length IF3(mt) and its C-domain with and without the linker to mitochondrial 28S subunits are 30, 60, and 95 nM, respectively, indicating that much of the ribosome binding interactions are mediated by the C-domain. However, the N-domain binds to 28S subunits with only a 10-fold lower affinity than full-length IF3(mt). This observation indicates that the N-domain of IF3(mt) has significant contacts with the protein-rich small subunit of mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes. The linker also plays a role in modulating the interactions between the 28S subunit and the factor; it is not just a physical connector between the two domains. The presence of the two domains and the linker may optimize the overall affinity of IF3(mt) for the ribosome. These results are in sharp contrast to observations with Escherichia coli IF3. Removal of the N-domain drastically reduces the activity of IF3(mt) in the dissociation of mitochondrial 55S ribosomes, although the C-domain itself retains some activity. This residual activity depends significantly on the linker region. The N-domain alone has no effect on the dissociation of ribosomes. Full-length IF3(mt) reduces the binding of fMet-tRNA to the 28S subunit in the absence of mRNA. Both the C-terminal extension and the linker are required for this effect. IF3(mt) promotes the formation of a binary complex between IF2(mt) and fMet-tRNA that may play an important role in mitochondrial protein synthesis. Both domains play a role promoting the formation of this complex.

  3. δ-COP contains a helix C-terminal to its longin domain key to COPI dynamics and function

    PubMed Central

    Arakel, Eric C.; Richter, Kora P.; Clancy, Anne; Schwappach, Blanche

    2016-01-01

    Membrane recruitment of coatomer and formation of coat protein I (COPI)-coated vesicles is crucial to homeostasis in the early secretory pathway. The conformational dynamics of COPI during cargo capture and vesicle formation is incompletely understood. By scanning the length of δ-COP via functional complementation in yeast, we dissect the domains of the δ-COP subunit. We show that the μ-homology domain is dispensable for COPI function in the early secretory pathway, whereas the N-terminal longin domain is essential. We map a previously uncharacterized helix, C-terminal to the longin domain, that is specifically required for the retrieval of HDEL-bearing endoplasmic reticulum-luminal residents. It is positionally analogous to an unstructured linker that becomes helical and membrane-facing in the open form of the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex. Based on the amphipathic nature of the critical helix it may probe the membrane for lipid packing defects or mediate interaction with cargo and thus contribute to stabilizing membrane-associated coatomer. PMID:27298352

  4. The C-terminal domain of Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase holoenzyme protein p65 induces multiple structural changes in telomerase RNA

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Benjamin M.; Loper, John; Najarro, Kevin; Stone, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The unique cellular activity of the telomerase reverse transcriptase ribonucleoprotein (RNP) requires proper assembly of protein and RNA components into a functional complex. In the ciliate model organism Tetrahymena thermophila, the La-domain protein p65 is required for in vivo assembly of telomerase. Single-molecule and biochemical studies have shown that p65 promotes efficient RNA assembly with the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein, in part by inducing a bend in the conserved stem IV region of telomerase RNA (TER). The domain architecture of p65 consists of an N-terminal domain, a La-RRM motif, and a C-terminal domain (CTD). Using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET), we demonstrate the p65CTD is necessary for the RNA remodeling activity of the protein and is sufficient to induce a substantial conformational change in stem IV of TER. Moreover, nuclease protection assays directly map the site of p65CTD interaction to stem IV and reveal that, in addition to bending stem IV, p65 binding reorganizes nucleotides that comprise the low-affinity TERT binding site within stem–loop IV. PMID:22315458

  5. Histone deacetylases and phosphorylated polymerase II C-terminal domain recruit Spt6 for cotranscriptional histone reassembly.

    PubMed

    Burugula, Bala Bharathi; Jeronimo, Célia; Pathak, Rakesh; Jones, Jeffery W; Robert, François; Govind, Chhabi K

    2014-11-15

    Spt6 is a multifunctional histone chaperone involved in the maintenance of chromatin structure during elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Spt6 has a tandem SH2 (tSH2) domain within its C terminus that recognizes Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD) peptides phosphorylated on Ser2, Ser5, or Try1 in vitro. Deleting the tSH2 domain, however, only has a partial effect on Spt6 occupancy in vivo, suggesting that more complex mechanisms are involved in the Spt6 recruitment. Our results show that the Ser2 kinases Bur1 and Ctk1, but not the Ser5 kinase Kin28, cooperate in recruiting Spt6, genome-wide. Interestingly, the Ser2 kinases promote the association of Spt6 in early transcribed regions and not toward the 3' ends of genes, where phosphorylated Ser2 reaches its maximum level. In addition, our results uncover an unexpected role for histone deacetylases (Rpd3 and Hos2) in promoting Spt6 interaction with elongating Pol II. Finally, our data suggest that phosphorylation of the Pol II CTD on Tyr1 promotes the association of Spt6 with the 3' ends of transcribed genes, independently of Ser2 phosphorylation. Collectively, our results show that a complex network of interactions, involving the Spt6 tSH2 domain, CTD phosphorylation, and histone deacetylases, coordinate the recruitment of Spt6 to transcribed genes in vivo. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Histone Deacetylases and Phosphorylated Polymerase II C-Terminal Domain Recruit Spt6 for Cotranscriptional Histone Reassembly

    PubMed Central

    Burugula, Bala Bharathi; Jeronimo, Célia; Pathak, Rakesh; Jones, Jeffery W.; Robert, François

    2014-01-01

    Spt6 is a multifunctional histone chaperone involved in the maintenance of chromatin structure during elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Spt6 has a tandem SH2 (tSH2) domain within its C terminus that recognizes Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD) peptides phosphorylated on Ser2, Ser5, or Try1 in vitro. Deleting the tSH2 domain, however, only has a partial effect on Spt6 occupancy in vivo, suggesting that more complex mechanisms are involved in the Spt6 recruitment. Our results show that the Ser2 kinases Bur1 and Ctk1, but not the Ser5 kinase Kin28, cooperate in recruiting Spt6, genome-wide. Interestingly, the Ser2 kinases promote the association of Spt6 in early transcribed regions and not toward the 3′ ends of genes, where phosphorylated Ser2 reaches its maximum level. In addition, our results uncover an unexpected role for histone deacetylases (Rpd3 and Hos2) in promoting Spt6 interaction with elongating Pol II. Finally, our data suggest that phosphorylation of the Pol II CTD on Tyr1 promotes the association of Spt6 with the 3′ ends of transcribed genes, independently of Ser2 phosphorylation. Collectively, our results show that a complex network of interactions, involving the Spt6 tSH2 domain, CTD phosphorylation, and histone deacetylases, coordinate the recruitment of Spt6 to transcribed genes in vivo. PMID:25182531

  7. Mechanism for the Selective Interaction of C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain Proteins with Specific Asn-Pro-Phe-containing Partners*

    PubMed Central

    Kieken, Fabien; Sharma, Mahak; Jović, Marko; Giridharan, Sai Srinivas Panapakkam; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve; Sorgen, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase substrate 15 (Eps15) homology (EH)-domain proteins can be divided into two classes: those with an N-terminal EH-domain(s), and the C-terminal Eps15 homology domain-containing proteins (EHDs). Whereas many N-terminal EH-domain proteins regulate internalization events, the best characterized C-terminal EHD, EHD1, regulates endocytic recycling. Because EH-domains interact with the tripeptide Asn-Pro-Phe (NPF), it is of critical importance to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that allow EHD1 and its paralogs to interact selectively with a subset of the hundreds of NPF-containing proteins expressed in mammalian cells. Here, we capitalize on our findings that C-terminal EH-domains possess highly positively charged interaction surfaces and that many NPF-containing proteins that interact with C-terminal (but not N-terminal) EH-domains are followed by acidic residues. Using the recently identified EHD1 interaction partner molecule interacting with CasL (MICAL)-Like 1 (MICAL-L1) as a model, we have demonstrated that only the first of its two NPF motifs is required for EHD1 binding. Because only this first NPF is followed by acidic residues, we have utilized glutathione S-transferase pulldowns, two-hybrid analysis, and NMR to demonstrate that the flanking acidic residues “fine tune” the binding affinity to EHD1. Indeed, our NMR solution structure of the EHD1 EH-domain in complex with the MICAL-L1 NPFEEEEED peptide indicates that the first two flanking Glu residues lie in a position favorable to form salt bridges with Lys residues within the EH-domain. Our data provide a novel explanation for the selective interaction of C-terminal EH-domains with specific NPF-containing proteins and allow for the prediction of new interaction partners with C-terminal EHDs. PMID:20106972

  8. Compaction and binding properties of the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of Henipavirus nucleoprotein as unveiled by deletion studies.

    PubMed

    Blocquel, David; Habchi, Johnny; Gruet, Antoine; Blangy, Stéphanie; Longhi, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Henipaviruses are recently emerged severe human pathogens within the Paramyxoviridae family. Their genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid that recruits the polymerase complex via the phosphoprotein (P). We have previously shown that in Henipaviruses the N protein possesses an intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain, N(TAIL), which undergoes α-helical induced folding in the presence of the C-terminal domain (P(XD)) of the P protein. Using computational approaches, we previously identified within N(TAIL) four putative molecular recognition elements (MoREs) with different structural propensities, and proposed a structural model for the N(TAIL)-P(XD) complex where the MoRE encompassing residues 473-493 adopt an α-helical conformation at the P(XD) surface. In this work, for each N(TAIL) protein, we designed four deletion constructs bearing different combinations of the predicted MoREs. Following purification of the N(TAIL) truncated proteins from the soluble fraction of E. coli, we characterized them in terms of their conformational, spectroscopic and binding properties. These studies provided direct experimental evidence for the structural state of the four predicted MoREs, and showed that two of them have clear α-helical propensities, with the one spanning residues 473-493 being strictly required for binding to P(XD). We also showed that Henipavirus N(TAIL) and P(XD) form heterologous complexes, indicating that the P(XD) binding regions are functionally interchangeable between the two viruses. By combining spectroscopic and conformational analyses, we showed that the content in regular secondary structure is not a major determinant of protein compaction.

  9. Inter-channel scaffolding of presynaptic CaV2.2 via the C terminal PDZ ligand domain.

    PubMed

    Gardezi, Sabiha R; Li, Qi; Stanley, Elise F

    2013-05-15

    Calcium entry through CaV2.2 calcium channels clustered at the active zone (AZ) of the presynaptic nerve terminal gates synaptic vesicle (SV) fusion and the discharge of neurotransmitters, but the mechanism of channel scaffolding remains poorly understood. Recent studies have implicated the binding of a PDZ ligand domain (PDZ-LD) at the tip of the channel C terminal to a partner PDZ domain on RIM1/2, a synaptic vesicle-associated protein. To explore CaV2.2 scaffolding, we created intracellular region fusion proteins and used these to test for binding by 'fishing' for native CaV2.2 channels from cell lysates. Fusion proteins mimicking the distal half of the channel C terminal (C3strep) reliably captured CaV2.2 from whole brain crude membrane or purified synaptosome membrane lysates, whereas channel I-II loop or the distal half of the II-III loop proteins were negative. This capture could be replicated in a non-synaptic environment using CaV2.2 expressed in a cell line. The distal tip PDZ-LD, DDWC-COOH, was confirmed as the critical binding site by block of pull-down with mimetic peptides. Pull-down experiments using brain crude membrane lysates confirmed that RIM1/2 can bind to the DDWC PDZ-LD. However, robust CaV2.2 capture was observed from synaptosome membrane or in the cell line expression system with little or no RIM1/2 co-capture. Thus, we conclude that CaV2.2 channels can scaffold to each other via an interaction that involves the PDZ-LD by an inter-channel linkage bridged by an unknown protein.

  10. NMR Determines Transient Structure and Dynamics in the Disordered C-Terminal Domain of WASp Interacting Protein

    PubMed Central

    Haba, Noam Y.; Gross, Renana; Novacek, Jiri; Shaked, Hadassa; Zidek, Lukas; Barda-Saad, Mira; Chill, Jordan H.

    2013-01-01

    WASp-interacting protein (WIP) is a 503-residue proline-rich polypeptide expressed in human T cells. The WIP C-terminal domain binds to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and regulates its activation and degradation, and the WIP-WASp interaction has been shown to be critical for actin polymerization and implicated in the onset of WAS and X-linked thrombocytopenia. WIP is predicted to be an intrinsically disordered protein, a class of polypeptides that are of great interest because they violate the traditional structure-function paradigm. In this first (to our knowledge) study of WIP in its unbound state, we used NMR to investigate the biophysical behavior of WIPC, a C-terminal domain fragment of WIP that includes residues 407–503 and contains the WASp-binding site. In light of the poor spectral dispersion exhibited by WIPC and the high occurrence (25%) of proline residues, we employed 5D-NMR13C-detected NMR experiments with nonuniform sampling to accomplish full resonance assignment. Secondary chemical-shift analysis, 15N relaxation rates, and protection from solvent exchange all concurred in detecting transient structure located in motifs that span the WASp-binding site. Residues 446–456 exhibited a propensity for helical conformation, and an extended conformation followed by a short, capped helix was observed for residues 468–478. The 13C-detected approach allows chemical-shift assignment in the WIPC polyproline stretches and thus sheds light on their conformation and dynamics. The effects of temperature on chemical shifts referenced to a denatured sample of the polypeptide demonstrate that heating reduces the structural character of WIPC. Thus, we conclude that the disordered WIPC fragment is comprised of regions with latent structure connected by flexible loops, an architecture with implications for binding affinity and function. PMID:23870269

  11. The C-terminal domain controls the mobility of Crumbs 3 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Ivona; Siebrasse, Jan Peter; Schulze, Ulf; Granado, Daniel; Schlüter, Marc A; Kubitscheck, Ulrich; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Weide, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The physiological function of epithelia depends on an asymmetric distribution of their membrane domains. Polarity proteins play a crucial role for distribution processes, however, little is known about their mobility in epithelial cells. In this study, we analyzed the intracellular and plasma-membrane-associated mobility of fluorescence-labeled Crb3A and Crb3B. Both variants belong to the Crumbs protein family, which control size and identity of apical membranes in epithelial cells. Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching measurements revealed different mobilities for the two Crb3 variants. They also differentially affected mobility and localization of the Pals1/Mpp5 protein, which binds to Crb3A but not to Crb3B. In addition, tracking of intracellular vesicles indicated that Crb3A containing vesicles are slightly more immobile than Crb3B ones. Taken together, our data revealed different intracellular mobility patterns for Crb3A and Crb3B.

  12. C-terminal domain on the outer surface of the Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid is required for Sf9 cell binding and internalization.

    PubMed

    Somrit, Monsicha; Watthammawut, Atthaboon; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Ounjai, Puey; Suntimanawong, Wanida; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana

    2017-01-02

    We have shown that Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) was able to infect Sf9 cells and that MrNV virus-like particles (MrNV-VLPs) were capable nanocontainers for delivering nucleic acid-based materials. Here, we demonstrated that chymotryptic removal of a C-terminal peptide and its truncated variant (F344-MrNV-VLPs) exhibited a drastically reduced ability to interact and internalize into Sf9 cells. Electron microscopic observations revealed that the loss of C-terminal domain either from enzyme hydrolysis or genetic truncation did not affect the generated MrNV-VLPs' icosahedral conformation, but did drastically affect the VLPs' internalization ability into Sf9 cells. Homology-based modelling of the MrNV capsid with other icosahedral capsid models revealed that this chymotrypsin-sensitive C-terminal domain was not only exposed on the capsid surface, but also constituted the core of the viral capsid protrusion. These results therefore suggest the importance of the C-terminal domain as a structure for targeted cell interaction which is presumably localized at the protruding domain. This work thus provided the functional insights into the role of the MrNV C-terminal domain in viral entry into Sf9 cells and lead to the development of strategies in combatting MrNV infection in susceptible cells.

  13. The impact of the C-terminal domain on the gating properties of MscCG from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Becker, Michael; Ebrahimian, Haleh; Konishi, Tomoyuki; Kawasaki, Hisashi; Krämer, Reinhard; Martinac, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The mechanosensitive (MS) channel MscCG from the soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum functions as a major glutamate exporter. MscCG belongs to a subfamily of the bacterial MscS-like channels, which play an important role in osmoregulation. To understand the structural and functional features of MscCG, we investigated the role of the carboxyl-terminal domain, whose relevance for the channel gating has been unknown. The chimeric channel MscS-(C-MscCG), which is a fusion protein between the carboxyl terminal domain of MscCG and the MscS channel, was examined by the patch clamp technique. We found that the chimeric channel exhibited MS channel activity in Escherichia coli spheroplasts characterized by a lower activation threshold and slow closing compared to MscS. The chimeric channel MscS-(C-MscCG) was successfully reconstituted into azolectin liposomes and exhibited gating hysteresis in a voltage-dependent manner, especially at high pipette voltages. Moreover, the channel remained open after releasing pipette pressure at membrane potentials physiologically relevant for C. glutamicum. This contribution to the gating hysteresis of the C-terminal domain of MscCG confers to the channel gating properties highly suitable for release of intracellular solutes.

  14. Both the RGS domain and the six C-terminal amino acids of mouse Axin are required for normal embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chia, Ian V; Kim, Min Jung; Itoh, Keiji; Sokol, Sergei Y; Costantini, Frank

    2009-04-01

    Axin is a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling, which promotes the degradation of beta-catenin, the major effector in this signaling cascade. While many protein-binding domains of Axin have been identified, their significance has not been evaluated in vivo. Here, we report the generation and analysis of mice carrying modified Axin alleles in which either the RGS domain or the six C-terminal amino acids (C6 motif) were deleted. The RGS domain is required for APC-binding, while the C6 motif has been implicated in the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, but is not required for the effects of Axin on the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, in vitro. Both mutant Axin alleles caused recessive embryonic lethality at E9.5-E10.5, with defects indistinguishable from those caused by a null allele. As Axin-DeltaRGS protein was produced at normal levels, its inability to support embryogenesis confirms the importance of interactions between Axin and APC. In contrast, Axin-DeltaC6 protein was expressed at only 25-30% of the normal level, which may account for the recessive lethality of this allele. Furthermore, many Axin(DeltaC6/DeltaC6) embryos that were heterozygous for a beta-catenin null mutation survived to term, demonstrating that early lethality was due to failure to negatively regulate beta-catenin.

  15. Solution structure of the C-terminal domain of Ole e 9, a major allergen of olive pollen

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Miguel Á.; Palomares, Oscar; Castrillo, Inés; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Rico, Manuel; Santoro, Jorge; Bruix, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Ole e 9 is an olive pollen allergen belonging to group 2 of pathogenesis-related proteins. The protein is composed of two immunological independent domains: an N-terminal domain (NtD) with 1,3-β-glucanase activity, and a C-terminal domain (CtD) that binds 1,3-β-glucans. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of CtD-Ole e 9 (101 amino acids), which consists of two parallel α-helices forming an angle of ∼55°, a small antiparallel β-sheet with two short strands, and a 3–10 helix turn, all connected by long coil segments, resembling a novel type of folding among allergens. Two regions surrounded by aromatic residues (F49, Y60, F96, Y91 and Y31, H68, Y65, F78) have been localized on the protein surface, and a role for sugar binding is suggested. The epitope mapping of CtD-Ole e 9 shows that B-cell epitopes are mainly located on loops, although some of them are contained in secondary structural elements. Interestingly, the IgG and IgE epitopes are contiguous or overlapped, rather than coincident. The three-dimensional structure of CtD-Ole e 9 might help to understand the underlying mechanism of its biochemical function and to determine possible structure–allergenicity relationships. PMID:18096638

  16. The C-terminal domain of connexin43 modulates cartilage structure via chondrocyte phenotypic changes

    PubMed Central

    Gago-Fuentes, Raquel; Bechberger, John F.; Varela-Eirin, Marta; Varela-Vazquez, Adrian; Acea, Benigno; Fonseca, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Chondrocytes in cartilage and bone cells population express connexin43 (Cx43) and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is essential to synchronize cells for coordinated electrical, mechanical, metabolic and chemical communication in both tissues. Reduced Cx43 connectivity decreases chondrocyte differentiation and defective Cx43 causes skeletal defects. The carboxy terminal domain (CTD) of Cx43 is located in the cytoplasmic side and is key for protein functions. Here we demonstrated that chondrocytes from the CTD-deficient mice, K258stop/Cx43KO and K258stop/K258stop, have reduced GJIC, increased rates of proliferation and reduced expression of collagen type II and proteoglycans. We observed that CTD-truncated mice were significantly smaller in size. Together these results demonstrated that the deletion of the CTD negatively impacts cartilage structure and normal chondrocyte phenotype. These findings suggest that the proteolytic cleavage of the CTD under pathological conditions, such as under the activation of metalloproteinases during tissue injury or inflammation, may account for the deleterious effects of Cx43 in cartilage and bone disorders such as osteoarthritis. PMID:27682878

  17. NEMO trimerizes through its coiled-coil C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Agou, Fabrice; Ye, Fei; Goffinont, Stéphane; Courtois, Gilles; Yamaoka, Shoji; Israël, Alain; Véron, Michel

    2002-05-17

    NEMO/IkappaB kinase (IKK) gamma is the regulatory component of the IKK complex comprising the two protein kinases, IKKalpha and IKKbeta. To investigate the self-assembly properties of NEMO and to understand further the mechanism of activation of the IKK complex, we purified wild-type and mutant NEMO expressed in Escherichia coli. In the absence of its IKK partners, recombinant NEMO (rNEMO) is a metastable functional monomer correctly folded, according to its fluorescence and far-UV CD spectra, which is binding specifically to the IKK complex. A minor fraction of rNEMO was found tightly associated with DnaK (E. coli Hsp70). We also examined the interaction of NEMO with prokaryotic and eukaryotic Hsp70, and we showed that the Hsp70-NEMO complex forms a supramolecular structure probably corresponding to an assembly intermediate. In vivo cross-linking experiments indicate that native NEMO in association with IKK is in equilibrium between a dimeric and a trimeric form. Similarly to native NEMO, a NEMO mutant deleted from its IKK binding N-terminal domain (residues 242-388) forms a stable trimeric coiled-coil, suggesting that the association of NEMO with IKK or with Hsp70 prevents incorrect interdomain pairing reactions that could lead to aggregation or to an non-native oligomeric state of rNEMO. We propose a model in which the activation of the IKK complex occurs through the trimerization of NEMO upon binding to a not yet identified upstream activator.

  18. Evolutionary Divergence of the C-terminal Domain of Complexin Accounts for Functional Disparities between Vertebrate and Invertebrate Complexins

    PubMed Central

    Wragg, Rachel T.; Parisotto, Daniel A.; Li, Zhenlong; Terakawa, Mayu S.; Snead, David; Basu, Ishani; Weinstein, Harel; Eliezer, David; Dittman, Jeremy S.

    2017-01-01

    Complexin is a critical presynaptic protein that regulates both spontaneous and calcium-triggered neurotransmitter release in all synapses. Although the SNARE-binding central helix of complexin is highly conserved and required for all known complexin functions, the remainder of the protein has profoundly diverged across the animal kingdom. Striking disparities in complexin inhibitory activity are observed between vertebrate and invertebrate complexins but little is known about the source of these differences or their relevance to the underlying mechanism of complexin regulation. We found that mouse complexin 1 (mCpx1) failed to inhibit neurotransmitter secretion in Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions lacking the worm complexin 1 (CPX-1). This lack of inhibition stemmed from differences in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of mCpx1. Previous studies revealed that the CTD selectively binds to highly curved membranes and directs complexin to synaptic vesicles. Although mouse and worm complexin have similar lipid binding affinity, their last few amino acids differ in both hydrophobicity and in lipid binding conformation, and these differences strongly impacted CPX-1 inhibitory function. Moreover, function was not maintained if a critical amphipathic helix in the worm CPX-1 CTD was replaced with the corresponding mCpx1 amphipathic helix. Invertebrate complexins generally shared more C-terminal similarity with vertebrate complexin 3 and 4 isoforms, and the amphipathic region of mouse complexin 3 significantly restored inhibitory function to worm CPX-1. We hypothesize that the CTD of complexin is essential in conferring an inhibitory function to complexin, and that this inhibitory activity has been attenuated in the vertebrate complexin 1 and 2 isoforms. Thus, evolutionary changes in the complexin CTD differentially shape its synaptic role across phylogeny. PMID:28603484

  19. Comparative analysis of the QUTR transcription repressor protein and the three C-terminal domains of the pentafunctional AROM enzyme.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H K; Moore, J D; Lakey, J H; Levett, L J; Wheeler, K A; Lago, H; Coggins, J R; Hawkins, A R

    1996-02-01

    The AROM protein is a pentadomain protein catalysing steps two to six in the prechorismate section of the shikimate pathway in microbial eukaryotes. On the basis of amino acid sequence alignments and the properties of mutants unable to utilize quinic acid as a carbon source, the AROM protein has been proposed to be homologous throughout its length with the proteins regulating transcription of the genes necessary for quinate catabolism. The QUTR transcription repressor protein has been proposed to be homologous with the three C-terminal domains of the AROM protein and one-fifth of the penultimate N-terminal domain. We report here the results of experiments designed to overproduce the QUTR and AROM proteins and their constituent domains in Escherichia coli, the purpose being to facilitate domain purification and (in the case of AROM), complementation of E. coli aro- mutations in order to probe the degree to which individual domains are stable and functional. The 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase domain of the AROM protein and the 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase-like domain of the QUTR spectroscopy and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The CD spectra were found to be virtually superimposable. The fluorescence emission spectra of both domains had the signal from the tryptophan residues almost completely quenched, giving a tyrosine-dominated spectrum for both the AROM- and QUTR-derived domains. This unexpected observation was demonstrated to be due to a highly unusual environment provided by the tertiary structure, as addition of the denaturant guanidine hydrochloride gave a typical tryptophan-dominated spectrum for both domains. The spectroscopy experiments had the potential to refute the biologically-based proposal for a common origin for the AROM and QUTR proteins; however, the combined biophysical data are consistent with the hypothesis. We have previously reported that the AROM dehydroquinate synthase and 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase are stable and functional as

  20. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the C-Terminal Domain of Mouse Peptide-N-glycanase Identify it as a Mannose-Binding Module

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou,X.; Zhao, G.; Truglio, J.; Wang, L.; Li, G.; Lennarz, W.; Schindelin, H.

    2006-01-01

    The inability of certain N-linked glycoproteins to adopt their native conformation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to their retrotranslocation into the cytosol and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In this pathway the cytosolic peptide-N-glycanase (PNGase) cleaves the N-linked glycan chains off denatured glycoproteins. PNGase is highly conserved in eukaryotes and plays an important role in ER-associated protein degradation. In higher eukaryotes, PNGase has an N-terminal and a C-terminal extension in addition to its central catalytic domain, which is structurally and functionally related to transglutaminases. Although the N-terminal domain of PNGase is involved in protein-protein interactions, the function of the C-terminal domain has not previously been characterized. Here, we describe biophysical, biochemical, and crystallographic studies of the mouse PNGase C-terminal domain, including visualization of a complex between this domain and mannopentaose. These studies demonstrate that the C-terminal domain binds to the mannose moieties of N-linked oligosaccharide chains, and we further show that it enhances the activity of the mouse PNGase core domain, presumably by increasing the affinity of mouse PNGase for the glycan chains of misfolded glycoproteins.

  1. A C-terminal PDZ domain binding sequence is required for striatal distribution of the dopamine transporter

    PubMed Central

    Rickhag, Mattias; Hansen, Freja Herborg; Sørensen, Gunnar; Strandfelt, Kristine Nørgaard; Andresen, Bjørn; Gotfryd, Kamil; Madsen, Kenneth L.; Vestergaard-Klewe, Ib; Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Eriksen, Jacob; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Gomeza, Jesus; Woldbye, David P.D.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. The cellular mechanisms controlling DAT levels in striatal nerve terminals remain poorly understood. DAT contains a C-terminal PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1) domain binding sequence believed to bind synaptic scaffolding proteins, but its functional significance is uncertain. Here we demonstrate that two different DAT knock-in mice with disrupted PDZ-binding motifs (DAT-AAA and DAT+Ala) are characterized by dramatic loss of DAT expression in the striatum, causing hyperlocomotion and attenuated response to amphetamine. In cultured dopaminergic neurons and striatal slices from DAT-AAA mice, we find markedly reduced DAT surface levels and evidence for enhanced constitutive internalization. In DAT-AAA neurons, but not in wild type neurons, surface levels are rescued in part by expression of a dominant-negative dynamin mutation (K44A). Our findings suggest that PDZ domain interactions are critical for synaptic distribution of DAT in vivo and thereby for proper maintenance of dopamine homeostasis. PMID:23481388

  2. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Phosphorylation Sites Affect Capsid Stability and Transient Exposure of the C-terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Selzer, Lisa; Kant, Ravi; Wang, Joseph C-Y; Bothner, Brian; Zlotnick, Adam

    2015-11-20

    Hepatitis B virus core protein has 183 amino acids divided into an assembly domain and an arginine-rich C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates essential functions including genome packaging, reverse transcription, and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigated the CTD in empty hepatitis B virus (HBV) T=4 capsids. We examined wild-type core protein (Cp183-WT) and a mutant core protein (Cp183-EEE), in which three CTD serines are replaced with glutamate to mimic phosphorylated protein. We found that Cp183-WT capsids were less stable than Cp183-EEE capsids. When we tested CTD sensitivity to trypsin, we detected two different populations of CTDs differentiated by their rate of trypsin cleavage. Interestingly, CTDs from Cp183-EEE capsids exhibited a much slower rate of proteolytic cleavage when compared with CTDs of Cp183-WT capsids. Cryo-electron microscopy studies of trypsin-digested capsids show that CTDs at five-fold symmetry vertices are most protected. We hypothesize that electrostatic interactions between glutamates and arginines in Cp183-EEE, particularly at five-fold, increase capsid stability and reduce CTD exposure. Our studies show that quasi-equivalent CTDs exhibit different rates of exposure and thus might perform distinct functions during the hepatitis B virus lifecycle. Our results demonstrate a structural role for CTD phosphorylation and indicate crosstalk between CTDs within a capsid particle. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Cloning, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal domain of Helicobacter pylori MotB

    SciTech Connect

    Roujeinikova, Anna

    2008-04-01

    The cloning, overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a putative peptidoglycan-binding domain of H. pylori MotB, a stator component of the bacterial flagellar motor, are reported. The C-terminal domain of MotB (MotB-C) contains a putative peptidoglycan-binding motif and is believed to anchor the MotA/MotB stator unit of the bacterial flagellar motor to the cell wall. Crystals of Helicobacter pylori MotB-C (138 amino-acid residues) were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. These crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.8, b = 89.5, c = 66.3 Å, β = 112.5°. The crystals diffract X-rays to at least 1.6 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. Self-rotation function and Matthews coefficient calculations suggest that the asymmetric unit contains one tetramer with 222 point-group symmetry. The anomalous difference Patterson maps calculated for an ytterbium-derivative crystal using diffraction data at a wavelength of 1.38 Å showed significant peaks on the v = 1/2 Harker section, suggesting that ab initio phase information could be derived from the MAD data.

  4. Polyproline type II conformation in the C-terminal domain of the nuclear pore complex protein gp210.

    PubMed

    Pilpel, Yair; Bogin, Oren; Brumfeld, Vlad; Reich, Ziv

    2003-04-01

    gp210 is a major constituent of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) with possible structural and regulatory roles. It interacts with components of the NPC via its C-terminal domain (CTD), which follows a transmembrane domain and a massive ( approximately 200 kDa) N-terminal region that resides in the lumen of the perinuclear space. Here, we report the solution structure of the human gp210 CTD as determined by various spectroscopic techniques. In water, the CTD adopts an extended, largely unordered conformation, which contains a significant amount of left-handed polyproline type II (PII) helical structure. The conformation of the CTD is altered by high pH, charged detergents, and the hydrogen bond-promoting reagent trifluoroethanol (TFE), which decrease the PII fraction of the fragment. TFE also induces a conformational change in a region containing an SPXX motif whose serine becomes specifically phosphorylated during mitosis. We propose that PII elements in the CTD may play a role in its interaction with the NPC and may serve as recognition sites for regulatory proteins bearing WW or other, unknown PII-binding motifs.

  5. Recombinant expression, purification and preliminary biophysical and structural studies of C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain from human galectin-4.

    PubMed

    Rustiguel, Joane K; Kumagai, Patricia S; Dias-Baruffi, Marcelo; Costa-Filho, Antonio J; Nonato, Maria Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Galectin-4 (Gal4), a tandem-repeat type galectin, is expressed in healthy epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract. Altered levels of Gal4 expression are associated with different types of cancer, suggesting its usage as a diagnostic marker as well as target for drug development. The functional data available for this class of proteins suggest that the wide spectrum of cellular activities reported for Gal4 relies on distinct glycan specificity and structural characteristics of its two carbohydrate recognition domains. In the present work, two independent constructs for recombinant expression of the C-terminal domain of human galectin-4 (hGal4-CRD2) were developed. His6-tagged and untagged recombinant proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by affinity chromatography followed by gel filtration. Correct folding and activity of hGal4-CRD2 were assessed by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopies, respectively. Diffraction quality crystals were obtained by vapor-diffusion sitting drop setup and the crystal structure of CRD2 was solved by molecular replacement techniques at 1.78 Å resolution. Our work describes the development of important experimental tools that will allow further studies in order to correlate structure and binding properties of hGal4-CRD2 and human galectin-4 functional activities.

  6. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Phosphorylation Sites Affect Capsid Stability and Transient Exposure of the C-terminal Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Selzer, Lisa; Kant, Ravi; Wang, Joseph C.-Y.; Bothner, Brian; Zlotnick, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus core protein has 183 amino acids divided into an assembly domain and an arginine-rich C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates essential functions including genome packaging, reverse transcription, and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigated the CTD in empty hepatitis B virus (HBV) T=4 capsids. We examined wild-type core protein (Cp183-WT) and a mutant core protein (Cp183-EEE), in which three CTD serines are replaced with glutamate to mimic phosphorylated protein. We found that Cp183-WT capsids were less stable than Cp183-EEE capsids. When we tested CTD sensitivity to trypsin, we detected two different populations of CTDs differentiated by their rate of trypsin cleavage. Interestingly, CTDs from Cp183-EEE capsids exhibited a much slower rate of proteolytic cleavage when compared with CTDs of Cp183-WT capsids. Cryo-electron microscopy studies of trypsin-digested capsids show that CTDs at five-fold symmetry vertices are most protected. We hypothesize that electrostatic interactions between glutamates and arginines in Cp183-EEE, particularly at five-fold, increase capsid stability and reduce CTD exposure. Our studies show that quasi-equivalent CTDs exhibit different rates of exposure and thus might perform distinct functions during the hepatitis B virus lifecycle. Our results demonstrate a structural role for CTD phosphorylation and indicate crosstalk between CTDs within a capsid particle. PMID:26405031

  7. Expression of the C-terminal domain of human apolipoprotein A-I using a chimeric apolipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Sallee, Daniel E; Horn, James V C; Fuentes, Lukas A; Weers, Paul M M

    2017-09-01

    Human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the most abundant protein in high-density lipoprotein, an anti-atherogenic lipid-protein complex responsible for reverse cholesterol transport. The protein is composed of an N-terminal helix bundle domain, and a small C-terminal (CT) domain. To facilitate study of CT-apoA-I, a novel strategy was employed to produce this small domain in a bacterial expression system. A protein construct was designed of insect apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) and residues 179-243 of apoA-I, with a unique methionine residue positioned between the two proteins and an N-terminal His-tag to facilitate purification. The chimera was expressed in E. coli, purified by Ni-affinity chromatography, and cleaved by cyanogen bromide. SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of three proteins with masses of 7 kDa (CT-apoA-I), 18 kDa (apoLp-III), and a minor 26 kDa band of uncleaved chimera. The digest was reloaded on the Ni-affinity column to bind apoLp-III and uncleaved chimera, while CT-apoA-I was washed from the column and collected. Alternatively, CT-apoA-I was isolated from the digest by reversed-phase HPLC. CT-apoA-I was α-helical, highly effective in solubilizing phospholipid vesicles and disaggregating LPS micelles. However, CT-apoA-I was less active compared to full-length apoA-I in protecting lipolyzed low density lipoproteins from aggregating, and disrupting phosphatidylglycerol bilayer vesicles. Thus the novel expression system produced mg quantities of functional CT-apoA-I, facilitating structural and functional studies of this critical domain of apoA-I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The C-Terminal RpoN Domain of sigma54 Forms an unpredictedHelix-Turn-Helix Motif Similar to domains of sigma70

    SciTech Connect

    Doucleff, Michaeleen; Malak, Lawrence T.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Wemmer, David E.

    2005-11-01

    The ''{delta}'' subunit of prokaryotic RNA-polymerase allows gene-specific transcription initiation. Two {sigma} families have been identified, {sigma}{sup 70} and {sigma}{sup 54}, which use distinct mechanisms to initiate transcription and share no detectable sequence homology. Although the {sigma}{sup 70}-type factors have been well characterized structurally by x-ray crystallography, no high-resolution structural information is available for the {sigma}{sup 54}-type factors. Here we present the NMR derived structure of the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} from Aquifex aeolicus. This domain (Thr323 to Gly389), which contains the highly conserved RpoN box sequence, consists of a poorly structured N-terminal tail followed by a three-helix bundle, which is surprisingly similar to domains of the {sigma}{sup 70}-type proteins. Residues of the RpoN box, which have previously been shown to be critical for DNA binding, form the second helix of an unpredicted helix-turn-helix motif. This structure's homology with other DNA binding proteins, combined with previous biochemical data, suggest how the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} binds to DNA.

  9. Five glutamic acid residues in the C-terminal domain of the ChlD subunit play a major role in conferring Mg(2+) cooperativity upon magnesium chelatase.

    PubMed

    Brindley, Amanda A; Adams, Nathan B P; Hunter, C Neil; Reid, James D

    2015-11-10

    Magnesium chelatase catalyzes the first committed step in chlorophyll biosynthesis by inserting a Mg(2+) ion into protoporphyrin IX in an ATP-dependent manner. The cyanobacterial (Synechocystis) and higher-plant chelatases exhibit a complex cooperative response to free magnesium, while the chelatases from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and photosynthetic bacteria do not. To investigate the basis for this cooperativity, we constructed a series of chimeric ChlD proteins using N-terminal, central, and C-terminal domains from Synechocystis and Thermosynechococcus. We show that five glutamic acid residues in the C-terminal domain play a major role in this process.

  10. *The autoinhibitory C-terminal SH2 domain of phospholipase C–γ2 stabilizes B cell receptor signalosome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Sohn, Haewon; Sun, Guangping; Milner, Joshua D.; Pierce, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of antigen to the B cell receptor (BCR) stimulates the assembly of a signaling complex (signalosome) composed initially of the kinases Lyn, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), and Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk), as well as the adaptor protein B cell linker (BLNK). Together, these proteins recruit and activate phospholipase C–γ2 (PLC-γ2), a critical effector that stimulates increases in intracellular Ca2+ and activates various signaling pathways downstream of the BCR. Individuals with one copy of a mutant PLCG2 gene, which encodes a variant PLC-γ2 that lacks the autoinhibitory C-terminal Src homology 2 (cSH2) domain, exhibit PLC-γ2– associated antibody deficiencies and immune dysregulation (PLAID). Paradoxically, although COS-7 cells expressing the variant PLC-γ2 show enhanced basal and stimulated PLC-γ2 activity, B cells from PLAID patients show defective intracellular Ca2+ responses upon crosslinking of the BCR. We found that the cSH2 domain of PLC-γ2 played a critical role in stabilizing the early signaling complex that is stimulated by BCR crosslinking. In the presence of the variant PLC-γ2, Syk, Btk, and BLNK were only weakly phosphorylated and failed to stably associate with the BCR. Thus, BCRs could not form stable clusters, resulting in dysregulation of downstream signaling and trafficking of the BCR. Thus, the cSH2 domain functions not only to inhibit the active site of PLC-γ2, but also to directly or indirectly stabilize the early BCR signaling complex. PMID:25227611

  11. Crystal structure of the C-terminal globular domain of oligosaccharyltransferase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus at 1.75 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Shunsuke; Igura, Mayumi; Nyirenda, James; Matsumoto, Masaki; Yuzawa, Satoru; Noda, Nobuo; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Kohda, Daisuke

    2012-05-22

    Protein N-glycosylation occurs in the three domains of life. Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) transfers glycan to asparagine in the N-glycosylation sequon. The catalytic subunit of OST is called STT3 in eukaryotes, AglB in archaea, and PglB in eubacteria. The genome of a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, encodes three AglB paralogs. Two of them are the shortest AglBs across all domains of life. We determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal globular domain of the smallest AglB to identify the minimal structural unit. The Archaeoglobus AglB lacked a β-barrel-like structure, which had been found in other AglB and PglB structures. In agreement, the deletion in a larger Pyrococcus AglB confirmed its dispensability for the activity. By contrast, the Archaeoglobus AglB contains a kinked helix bearing a conserved motif, called DK/MI motif. The lysine and isoleucine residues in the motif participate in the Ser/Thr recognition in the sequon. The Archaeoglobus AglB structure revealed that the kinked helix contained an unexpected insertion. A revised sequence alignment based on this finding identified a variant type of the DK motif with the insertion. A mutagenesis study of the Archaeoglobus AglB confirmed the contribution of this particular type of the DK motif to the activity. When taken together with our previous results, this study defined the classification of OST: one group consisting of eukaryotes and most archaea possesses the DK-type Ser/Thr pocket, and the other group consisting of eubacteria and the remaining archaea possesses the MI-type Ser/Thr pocket. This classification provides a useful framework for OST studies.

  12. Multimodal Recognition of Diverse Peptides by the C-Terminal SH2 Domain of Phospholipase C-γ1 Protein.

    PubMed

    McKercher, Marissa A; Guan, Xiaoyang; Tan, Zhongping; Wuttke, Deborah S

    2017-04-11

    SH2 domains recognize phosphotyrosine (pY)-containing peptide ligands and play key roles in the regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase pathways. Each SH2 domain has individualized specificity, encoded in the amino acids neighboring the pY, for defined targets that convey their distinct functions. The C-terminal SH2 domain (PLCC) of the phospholipase C-γ1 full-length protein (PLCγ1) typically binds peptides containing small and hydrophobic amino acids adjacent to the pY, including a peptide derived from platelet-derived growth factor receptor B (PDGFRB) and an intraprotein recognition site (Y783 of PLCγ1) involved in the regulation of the protein's lipase activity. Remarkably, PLCC also recognizes unexpected peptides containing amino acids with polar or bulky side chains that deviate from this pattern. This versatility in recognition specificity may allow PLCγ1 to participate in diverse, previously unrecognized, signaling pathways in response to binding chemically dissimilar partners. We have used structural approaches, including nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystallography, to elucidate the mechanisms of noncognate peptide binding to PLCC by ligands derived from receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 and from the insulin receptor. The high-resolution peptide-bound structures reveal that PLCC has a relatively static backbone but contains a chemically rich protein surface comprised of a combination of hydrophobic pockets and amino acids with charged side chains. We demonstrate that this expansive and chemically diverse PLCC interface, in addition to peptide conformational plasticity, permits PLCC to recognize specific noncognate peptide ligands with multimodal specificity.

  13. Functional C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (CEP) plant hormone domains evolved de novo in the plant parasite Rotylenchulus reniformis.

    PubMed

    Eves-Van Den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J; Yusup, Hazijah B; Jones, John T; Urwin, Peter E

    2016-10-01

    Sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) induce and maintain an intimate relationship with their host, stimulating cells adjacent to root vascular tissue to re-differentiate into unique and metabolically active 'feeding sites'. The interaction between PPNs and their host is mediated by nematode effectors. We describe the discovery of a large and diverse family of effector genes, encoding C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (CEP) plant hormone mimics (RrCEPs), in the syncytia-forming plant parasite Rotylenchulus reniformis. The particular attributes of RrCEPs distinguish them from all other CEPs, regardless of origin. Together with the distant phylogenetic relationship of R. reniformis to the only other CEP-encoding nematode genus identified to date (Meloidogyne), this suggests that CEPs probably evolved de novo in R. reniformis. We have characterized the first member of this large gene family (RrCEP1), demonstrating its significant up-regulation during the plant-nematode interaction and expression in the effector-producing pharyngeal gland cell. All internal CEP domains of multi-domain RrCEPs are followed by di-basic residues, suggesting a mechanism for cleavage. A synthetic peptide corresponding to RrCEP1 domain 1 is biologically active and capable of up-regulating plant nitrate transporter (AtNRT2.1) expression, whilst simultaneously reducing primary root elongation. When a non-CEP-containing, syncytia-forming PPN species (Heterodera schachtii) infects Arabidopsis in a CEP-rich environment, a smaller feeding site is produced. We hypothesize that CEPs of R. reniformis represent a two-fold adaptation to sustained biotrophy in this species: (i) increasing host nitrate uptake, whilst (ii) limiting the size of the syncytial feeding site produced. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology Published by British Society for Plant Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The activity of protein phosphatase 5 towards native clients is modulated by the middle- and C-terminal domains of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Haslbeck, Veronika; Eckl, Julia M.; Drazic, Adrian; Rutz, Daniel A.; Lorenz, Oliver R.; Zimmermann, Kerstin; Kriehuber, Thomas; Lindemann, Claudia; Madl, Tobias; Richter, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 5 is involved in the regulation of kinases and transcription factors. The dephosphorylation activity is modulated by the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which binds to the TPR-domain of protein phosphatase 5. This interaction is dependent on the C-terminal MEEVD motif of Hsp90. We show that C-terminal Hsp90 fragments differ in their regulation of the phosphatase activity hinting to a more complex interaction. Also hydrodynamic parameters from analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering data suggest a compact structure for the Hsp90-protein phosphatase 5 complexes. Using crosslinking experiments coupled with mass spectrometric analysis and structural modelling we identify sites, which link the middle/C-terminal domain interface of C. elegans Hsp90 to the phosphatase domain of the corresponding kinase. Studying the relevance of the domains of Hsp90 for turnover of native substrates we find that ternary complexes with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are cooperatively formed by full-length Hsp90 and PPH-5. Our data suggest that the direct stimulation of the phosphatase activity by C-terminal Hsp90 fragments leads to increased dephosphorylation rates. These are further modulated by the binding of clients to the N-terminal and middle domain of Hsp90 and their presentation to the phosphatase within the phosphatase-Hsp90 complex. PMID:26593036

  15. Three-dimensional structure of a Streptomyces sviceus GNAT acetyltransferase with similarity to the C-terminal domain of the human GH84 O-GlcNAcase.

    PubMed

    He, Yuan; Roth, Christian; Turkenburg, Johan P; Davies, Gideon J

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian O-GlcNAc hydrolysing enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is a multi-domain protein with glycoside hydrolase activity in the N-terminus and with a C-terminal domain that has low sequence similarity to known acetyltransferases, prompting speculation, albeit controversial, that the C-terminal domain may function as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT). There are currently scarce data available regarding the structure and function of this C-terminal region. Here, a bacterial homologue of the human OGA C-terminal domain, an acetyltransferase protein (accession No. ZP_05014886) from Streptomyces sviceus (SsAT), was cloned and its crystal structure was solved to high resolution. The structure reveals a conserved protein core that has considerable structural homology to the acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) binding site of GCN5-related acetyltransferases (GNATs). Calorimetric data further confirm that SsAT is indeed able to bind AcCoA in solution with micromolar affinity. Detailed structural analysis provided insight into the binding of AcCoA. An acceptor-binding cavity was identified, indicating that the physiological substrate of SsAT may be a small molecule. Consistent with recently published work, the SsAT structure further questions a HAT function for the human OGA domain.

  16. Chimeras between single-stranded DNA-binding proteins from Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveal that their C-terminal domains interact with uracil DNA glycosylases.

    PubMed

    Handa, P; Acharya, N; Varshney, U

    2001-05-18

    Uracil, a promutagenic base in DNA can arise by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or incorporation of dUMP by DNA polymerase. Uracil is removed from DNA by uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG), the first enzyme in the uracil excision repair pathway. We recently reported that the Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) facilitated uracil excision from certain structured substrates by E. coli UDG (EcoUDG) and suggested the existence of interaction between SSB and UDG. In this study, we have made use of the chimeric proteins obtained by fusion of N- and C-terminal domains of SSBs from E. coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis to investigate interactions between SSBs and UDGs. The EcoSSB or a chimera containing its C-terminal domain interacts with EcoUDG in a binary (SSB-UDG) or a ternary (DNA-SSB-UDG) complex. However, the chimera containing the N-terminal domain from EcoSSB showed no interactions with EcoUDG. Thus, the C-terminal domain (48 amino acids) of EcoSSB is necessary and sufficient for interaction with EcoUDG. The data also suggest that the C-terminal domain (34 amino acids) of MtuSSB is a predominant determinant for mediating its interaction with MtuUDG. The mechanism of how the interactions between SSB and UDG could be important in uracil excision repair pathway has been discussed.

  17. C-terminal domain of the RNA chaperone Hfq drives sRNA competition and release of target RNA

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Frangos, Andrew; Kavita, Kumari; Schu, Daniel J.; Gottesman, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial Sm protein and RNA chaperone Hfq stabilizes small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) and facilitates their annealing to mRNA targets involved in stress tolerance and virulence. Although an arginine patch on the Sm core is needed for Hfq’s RNA chaperone activity, the function of Hfq’s intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (CTD) has remained unclear. Here, we use stopped flow spectroscopy to show that the CTD of Escherichia coli Hfq is not needed to accelerate RNA base pairing but is required for the release of dsRNA. The Hfq CTD also mediates competition between sRNAs, offering a kinetic advantage to sRNAs that contact both the proximal and distal faces of the Hfq hexamer. The change in sRNA hierarchy caused by deletion of the Hfq CTD in E. coli alters the sRNA accumulation and the kinetics of sRNA regulation in vivo. We propose that the Hfq CTD displaces sRNAs and annealed sRNA⋅mRNA complexes from the Sm core, enabling Hfq to chaperone sRNA–mRNA interactions and rapidly cycle between competing targets in the cell. PMID:27681631

  18. Bio-molecular architects: a scaffold provided by the C-terminal domain of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Gill, Gordon N; Zhang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the transcription of genes is accurately orchestrated both spatially and temporally by the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (CTD). The CTD provides a dynamic platform to recruit different regulators of the transcription apparatus. Different posttranslational modifications are precisely applied to specific sites of the CTD to coordinate transcription process. Regulators of the RNA polymerase II must identify specific sites in the CTD for cellular survival, metabolism, and development. Even though the CTD is disordered in the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II crystal structures due to its intrinsic flexibility, recent advances in the complex structural analysis of the CTD with its binding partners provide essential clues for understanding how selectivity is achieved for individual site recognition. The recent discoveries of the interactions between the CTD and histone modification enzymes disclose an important role of the CTD in epigenetic control of the eukaryotic gene expression. The intersection of the CTD code with the histone code discloses an intriguing yet complicated network for eukaryotic transcriptional regulation.

  19. Phosphorylation in the C-terminal domain of Aquaporin-4 is required for Golgi transition in primary cultured astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kadohira, Ikuko; Abe, Yoichiro Nuriya, Mutsuo; Sano, Kazumi; Tsuji, Shoji; Arimitsu, Takeshi; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Yasui, Masato

    2008-12-12

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is expressed in the perivascular and subpial astrocytes end-feet in mammalian brain, and plays a critical component of an integrated water and potassium homeostasis. Here we examine whether AQP4 is phosphorylated in primary cultured mouse astrocytes. Astrocytes were metabolically labeled with [{sup 32}P]phosphoric acid, then AQP4 was immunoprecipitated with anti-AQP4 antibody. We observed that AQP4 was constitutively phosphorylated, which is reduced by treatment with protein kinase CK2 inhibitors. To elucidate the phosphorylation of AQP4 by CK2, myc-tagged wild-type or mutant AQP4 was transiently transfected in primary cultured astrocytes. Substitution of Ala residues for four putative CK2 phosphorylation sites in the C terminus abolished the phosphorylation of AQP4. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that the quadruple mutant was localized in the Golgi apparatus. These observations indicate that the C-terminal domain of AQP4 is constitutively phosphorylated at least in part by protein kinase CK2 and it is required for Golgi transition.

  20. Fission yeast Cdk7 controls gene expression through both its CAK and C-terminal domain kinase activities.

    PubMed

    Devos, Maxime; Mommaerts, Elise; Migeot, Valerie; van Bakel, Harm; Hermand, Damien

    2015-05-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activation and RNA polymerase II transcription are linked by the Cdk7 kinase, which phosphorylates Cdks as a trimeric Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex, and serine 5 within the polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) as transcription factor TFIIH-bound CAK. However, the physiological importance of integrating these processes is not understood. Besides the Cdk7 ortholog Mcs6, fission yeast possesses a second CAK, Csk1. The two enzymes have been proposed to act redundantly to activate Cdc2. Using an improved analogue-sensitive Mcs6-as kinase, we show that Csk1 is not a relevant CAK for Cdc2. Further analyses revealed that Csk1 lacks a 20-amino-acid sequence required for its budding yeast counterpart, Cak1, to bind Cdc2. Transcriptome profiling of the Mcs6-as mutant in the presence or absence of the budding yeast Cak1 kinase, in order to uncouple the CTD kinase and CAK activities of Mcs6, revealed an unanticipated role of the CAK branch in the transcriptional control of the cluster of genes implicated in ribosome biogenesis and cell growth. The analysis of a Cdc2 CAK site mutant confirmed these data. Our data show that the Cdk7 kinase modulates transcription through its well-described RNA Pol II CTD kinase activity and also through the Cdc2-activating kinase activity.

  1. Fission Yeast Cdk7 Controls Gene Expression through both Its CAK and C-Terminal Domain Kinase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Maxime; Mommaerts, Elise; Migeot, Valerie; van Bakel, Harm

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activation and RNA polymerase II transcription are linked by the Cdk7 kinase, which phosphorylates Cdks as a trimeric Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex, and serine 5 within the polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) as transcription factor TFIIH-bound CAK. However, the physiological importance of integrating these processes is not understood. Besides the Cdk7 ortholog Mcs6, fission yeast possesses a second CAK, Csk1. The two enzymes have been proposed to act redundantly to activate Cdc2. Using an improved analogue-sensitive Mcs6-as kinase, we show that Csk1 is not a relevant CAK for Cdc2. Further analyses revealed that Csk1 lacks a 20-amino-acid sequence required for its budding yeast counterpart, Cak1, to bind Cdc2. Transcriptome profiling of the Mcs6-as mutant in the presence or absence of the budding yeast Cak1 kinase, in order to uncouple the CTD kinase and CAK activities of Mcs6, revealed an unanticipated role of the CAK branch in the transcriptional control of the cluster of genes implicated in ribosome biogenesis and cell growth. The analysis of a Cdc2 CAK site mutant confirmed these data. Our data show that the Cdk7 kinase modulates transcription through its well-described RNA Pol II CTD kinase activity and also through the Cdc2-activating kinase activity. PMID:25691663

  2. Glutathione-conjugating and membrane-remodeling activity of GDAP1 relies on amphipathic C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Nina; Bieniossek, Christoph; Wagner, Konstanze Marion; Elsässer, Hans-Peter; Suter, Ueli; Berger, Imre; Niemann, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation associated protein 1 (GDAP1) cause severe peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies called Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. GDAP1 expression induces fission of mitochondria and peroxisomes by a currently elusive mechanism, while disease causing mutations in GDAP1 impede the protein’s role in mitochondrial dynamics. In silico analysis reveals sequence similarities of GDAP1 to glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). However, a proof of GST activity and its possible impact on membrane dynamics are lacking to date. Using recombinant protein, we demonstrate for the first time theta-class-like GST activity for GDAP1, and it’s activity being regulated by the C-terminal hydrophobic domain 1 (HD1) of GDAP1 in an autoinhibitory manner. Moreover, we show that the HD1 amphipathic pattern is required to induce membrane dynamics by GDAP1. As both, fission and GST activities of GDAP1, are critically dependent on HD1, we propose that GDAP1 undergoes a molecular switch, turning from a pro-fission active to an auto-inhibited inactive conformation. PMID:27841286

  3. Structure of FIV capsid C-terminal domain demonstrates lentiviral evasion of genetic fragility by coevolved substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Khwaja, Aya; Galilee, Meytal; Marx, Ailie; Alian, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Viruses use a strategy of high mutational rates to adapt to environmental and therapeutic pressures, circumventing the deleterious effects of random single-point mutations by coevolved compensatory mutations, which restore protein fold, function or interactions damaged by initial ones. This mechanism has been identified as contributing to drug resistance in the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein and especially its capsid proteolytic product, which forms the viral capsid core and plays multifaceted roles in the viral life cycle. Here, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of C-terminal domain of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) capsid and through interspecies analysis elucidate the structural basis of co-evolutionarily and spatially correlated substitutions in capsid sequences, which when otherwise uncoupled and individually substituted into HIV-1 capsid impair virion assembly and infectivity. The ability to circumvent the deleterious effects of single amino acid substitutions by cooperative secondary substitutions allows mutational flexibility that may afford viruses an important survival advantage. The potential of such interspecies structural analysis for preempting viral resistance by identifying such alternative but functionally equivalent patterns is discussed. PMID:27102180

  4. The C-terminal Domain Supports a Novel Function for CETPI as a New Plasma Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    García-González, Victor; Gutiérrez-Quintanar, Nadia; Mas-Oliva, Jaime

    2015-11-05

    Described by our group a few years ago, the cholesteryl-ester transfer protein isoform (CETPI), exclusively expressed in the small intestine and present in human plasma, lacked a functional identification for a role of physiological relevance. Now, this study introduces CETPI as a new protein with the potential capability to recognise, bind and neutralise lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Peptides derived from the C-terminal domain of CETPI showed that CETPI not only might interact with several LPS serotypes but also might displace LPS bound to the surface of cells. Peptide VSAK, derived from the last 18 residues of CETPI, protected against the cytotoxic effect of LPS on macrophages. At high concentrations, when different cell types were tested in culture, it did not exhibit cytotoxicity by itself and it did prevent the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the generation of oxidative stress conditions. In a rabbit model of septic shock, the infusion of peptide VSAK exerted a protective effect against the effects of LPS and reduced the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) in plasma. Therefore, CETPI is proposed as a new protein with the capability to advance the possibilities for better understanding and treatment of the dangerous effects of LPS in vivo.

  5. Control of mRNA decapping by positive and negative regulatory elements in the Dcp2 C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng; Jacobson, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Decapping commits an mRNA to complete degradation and promotes general 5′ to 3′ decay, nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), and transcript-specific degradation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a single decapping enzyme composed of a regulatory subunit (Dcp1) and a catalytic subunit (Dcp2) targets thousands of distinct substrate mRNAs. However, the mechanisms controlling this enzyme's in vivo activity and substrate specificity remain elusive. Here, using a genetic approach, we show that the large C-terminal domain of Dcp2 includes a set of conserved negative and positive regulatory elements. A single negative element inhibits enzymatic activity and controls the downstream functions of several positive elements. The positive elements recruit the specific decapping activators Edc3, Pat1, and Upf1 to form distinct decapping complexes and control the enzyme's substrate specificity and final activation. Our results reveal unforeseen regulatory mechanisms that control decapping enzyme activity and function in vivo, and define roles for several decapping activators in the regulation of mRNA decapping. PMID:26184073

  6. The C-terminal Domain Supports a Novel Function for CETPI as a New Plasma Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    García-González, Victor; Gutiérrez-Quintanar, Nadia; Mas-Oliva, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Described by our group a few years ago, the cholesteryl-ester transfer protein isoform (CETPI), exclusively expressed in the small intestine and present in human plasma, lacked a functional identification for a role of physiological relevance. Now, this study introduces CETPI as a new protein with the potential capability to recognise, bind and neutralise lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Peptides derived from the C-terminal domain of CETPI showed that CETPI not only might interact with several LPS serotypes but also might displace LPS bound to the surface of cells. Peptide VSAK, derived from the last 18 residues of CETPI, protected against the cytotoxic effect of LPS on macrophages. At high concentrations, when different cell types were tested in culture, it did not exhibit cytotoxicity by itself and it did prevent the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the generation of oxidative stress conditions. In a rabbit model of septic shock, the infusion of peptide VSAK exerted a protective effect against the effects of LPS and reduced the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) in plasma. Therefore, CETPI is proposed as a new protein with the capability to advance the possibilities for better understanding and treatment of the dangerous effects of LPS in vivo. PMID:26537318

  7. Solution structure of a hydrocarbon stapled peptide inhibitor in complex with monomeric C-terminal domain of HIV-1 capsid.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Shibani; Zhang, Hongtao; Debnath, Asim K; Cowburn, David

    2008-06-13

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid protein plays a critical role in virus core particle assembly and is an important target for novel therapeutic strategies. In a previous study, we characterized the binding affinity of a hydrocarbon stapled helical peptide, NYAD-1, for the capsid protein (K(d) approximately 1 mum) and demonstrated its ability to penetrate the cell membrane (Zhang, H., Zhao, Q., Bhattacharya, S., Waheed, A. A., Tong, X., Hong, A., Heck, S., Goger, M., Cowburn, D., Freed, E. O., and Debnath, A. K. (2008) J. Mol. Biol. 378, 565-580). In cell-based assays, NYAD-1 colocalized with the Gag polyprotein during traffic to the plasma membrane and disrupted the formation of mature and immature virus particles in vitro systems. Here, we complement the cellular and biochemical data with structural characterization of the interactions between the capsid and a soluble peptide analogue, NYAD-13. Solution NMR methods were used to determine a high resolution structure of the complex between the inhibitor and a monomeric form of the C-terminal domain of the capsid protein (mCA-CTD). The intermolecular interactions are mediated by the packing of hydrophobic side chains at the buried interface and unperturbed by the presence of the olefinic chain on the solvent-exposed surface of the peptide. The results of the structural analysis provide valuable insight into the determinants for high affinity and selective inhibitors for HIV-1 particle assembly.

  8. Human thrombospondin's (TSP-1) C-terminal domain opens to interact with the CD-47 receptor: a molecular modeling study.

    PubMed

    Floquet, Nicolas; Dedieu, Stéphane; Martiny, Laurent; Dauchez, Manuel; Perahia, David

    2008-10-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) interaction with the membranous receptor CD-47 involves the peptide RFYVVMWK (4N-1) located in its C-terminal domain. However, the available X-ray structure of TSP-1 describes this peptide as completely buried into a hydrophobic pocket, preventing any interaction. Where classical standard methods failed, an appropriate approach combining normal mode analysis and an adapted protocol of energy minimization identified the large amplitude motions responsible of the partial solvent exposure of 4N-1. In agreement, the obtained model of the open TSP-1 was further used for protein-protein docking experiments against a homology model generated for CD-47. Considering the multiple applications of the CD-47 receptor as a target, our results open new pharmacological perspectives for the design of TSP-1:CD-47 inhibitors and CD-47 antagonists. We also suggest a common opening mechanism for proteins sharing the same fold as TSP-1. This work also suggests the usefulness of our approach in other topics in which predictions of protein-protein interactions are of importance.

  9. Direct analysis of phosphorylation sites on the Rpb1 C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hyunsuk; Ficarro, Scott B.; Kang, Un-Beom; Chun, Yujin; Marto, Jarrod A.; Buratowski, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dynamic interactions between RNA polymerase II and various mRNA processing and chromatin modifying enzymes are mediated by the changing phosphorylation pattern on the C-terminal domain (CTD) of polymerase subunit Rpb1 during different stages of transcription. Phosphorylations within the repetitive heptamer sequence (YSPTSPS) of CTD have primarily been defined using antibodies, but these do not distinguish different repeats or allow comparative quantitation. Using a CTD modified for mass spectrometry (msCTD), we show that Ser5-P and Ser2-P occur throughout the length of CTD and are far more abundant than other phosphorylation sites. msCTD extracted from cells mutated in several CTD kinases or phosphatases showed the expected changes in phosphorylation. Furthermore, msCTD associated with capping enzyme was enriched for Ser5-P while that bound to the transcription termination factor Rtt103 had higher levels of Ser2-P. These results suggest a relatively sparse and simple "CTD code". PMID:26799764

  10. Site-specific methylation and acetylation of lysine residues in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Kirsten; Forné, Ignasi; Descostes, Nicolas; Hintermair, Corinna; Schüller, Roland; Maqbool, Muhammad Ahmad; Heidemann, Martin; Flatley, Andrew; Imhof, Axel; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Andrau, Jean-Christophe; Eick, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic modification of heptad-repeats with the consensus sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) C-terminal domain (CTD) regulates transcription-coupled processes. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that K7-residues in non-consensus repeats of human RNAPII are modified by acetylation, or mono-, di-, and tri-methylation. K7ac, K7me2, and K7me3 were found exclusively associated with phosphorylated CTD peptides, while K7me1 occurred also in non-phosphorylated CTD. The monoclonal antibody 1F5 recognizes K7me1/2 residues in CTD and reacts with RNAPIIA. Treatment of cellular extracts with phosphatase or of cells with the kinase inhibitor flavopiridol unmasked the K7me1/2 epitope in RNAPII0, consistent with the association of K7me1/2 marks with phosphorylated CTD peptides. Genome-wide profiling revealed high levels of K7me1/2 marks at the transcriptional start site of genes for sense and antisense transcribing RNAPII. The new K7 modifications further expand the mammalian CTD code to allow regulation of differential gene expression. PMID:26566685

  11. P13, an Integral Membrane Protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, Is C-Terminally Processed and Contains Surface-Exposed Domains

    PubMed Central

    Noppa, Laila; Östberg, Yngve; Lavrinovicha, Marija; Bergström, Sven

    2001-01-01

    To elucidate antigens present on the bacterial surface of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato that may be involved in pathogenesis, we characterized a protein, P13, with an apparent molecular mass of 13 kDa. The protein was immunogenic and was expressed in large amounts during in vitro cultivation compared to other known antigens. An immunofluorescence assay, immunoelectron microscopy, and protease sensitivity assays indicated that P13 is surface exposed. The deduced sequence of the P13 peptide revealed a possible signal peptidase type I cleavage site, and computer analysis predicted that P13 is an integral membrane protein with three transmembrane-spanning domains. Mass spectrometry, in vitro translation, and N- and C-terminal amino acid sequencing analyses indicated that P13 was posttranslationally processed at both ends and modified by an unknown mechanism. Furthermore, p13 belongs to a gene family with five additional members in B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. The p13 gene is located on the linear chromosome of the bacterium, in contrast to five paralogous genes, which are located on extrachromosomal plasmids. The size of the p13 transcript was consistent with a monocistronic transcript. This new gene family may be involved in functions that are specific for this spirochete and its pathogenesis. PMID:11292755

  12. RNA polymerase II C-terminal heptarepeat domain Ser-7 phosphorylation is established in a mediator-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Boeing, Stefan; Rigault, Caroline; Heidemann, Martin; Eick, Dirk; Meisterernst, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) C-terminal heptarepeat domain (CTD) is subject to phosphorylation during initiation and elongation of transcription by RNA polymerase II. Here we study the molecular mechanisms leading to phosphorylation of Ser-7 in the human enzyme. Ser-7 becomes phosphorylated before initiation of transcription at promoter regions. We identify cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) as one responsible kinase. Phosphorylation of both Ser-5 and Ser-7 is fully dependent on the cofactor complex Mediator. A subform of Mediator associated with an active RNAPII is critical for preinitiation complex formation and CTD phosphorylation. The Mediator-RNAPII complex independently recruits TFIIB and CDK7 to core promoter regions. CDK7 phosphorylates Ser-7 selectively in the context of an intact preinitiation complex. CDK7 is not the only kinase that can modify Ser-7 of the CTD. ChIP experiments with chemical inhibitors provide evidence that other yet to be identified kinases further phosphorylate Ser-7 in coding regions.

  13. Structure of FIV capsid C-terminal domain demonstrates lentiviral evasion of genetic fragility by coevolved substitutions.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Aya; Galilee, Meytal; Marx, Ailie; Alian, Akram

    2016-04-22

    Viruses use a strategy of high mutational rates to adapt to environmental and therapeutic pressures, circumventing the deleterious effects of random single-point mutations by coevolved compensatory mutations, which restore protein fold, function or interactions damaged by initial ones. This mechanism has been identified as contributing to drug resistance in the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein and especially its capsid proteolytic product, which forms the viral capsid core and plays multifaceted roles in the viral life cycle. Here, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of C-terminal domain of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) capsid and through interspecies analysis elucidate the structural basis of co-evolutionarily and spatially correlated substitutions in capsid sequences, which when otherwise uncoupled and individually substituted into HIV-1 capsid impair virion assembly and infectivity. The ability to circumvent the deleterious effects of single amino acid substitutions by cooperative secondary substitutions allows mutational flexibility that may afford viruses an important survival advantage. The potential of such interspecies structural analysis for preempting viral resistance by identifying such alternative but functionally equivalent patterns is discussed.

  14. A Superhelical Spiral in the Escherichia coli DNA Gyrase A C-terminal Domain Imparts Unidirectional Supercoiling Bias

    SciTech Connect

    Ruthenburg,A.; Graybosch, D.; Huetsch, J.; Verdine, G.

    2005-01-01

    DNA gyrase is unique among type II topoisomerases in that its DNA supercoiling activity is unidirectional. The C-terminal domain of the gyrase A subunit (GyrA-CTD) is required for this supercoiling bias. We report here the x-ray structure of the Escherichia coli GyrA-CTD (Protein Data Bank code 1ZI0). The E. coli GyrA-CTD adopts a circular-shaped {beta}-pinwheel fold first seen in the Borrelia burgdorferi GyrA-CTD. However, whereas the B. burgdorferi GyrA-CTD is flat, the E. coli GyrA-CTD is spiral. DNA relaxation assays reveal that the E. coli GyrA-CTD wraps DNA inducing substantial (+) superhelicity, while the B. burgdorferi GyrA-CTD introduces a more modest (+) superhelicity. The observation of a superhelical spiral in the present structure and that of the Bacillus stearothermophilus ParC-CTD structure suggests unexpected similarities in substrate selectivity between gyrase and Topo IV enzymes. We propose a model wherein the right-handed ((+) solenoidal) wrapping of DNA around the E. coli GyrA-CTD enforces unidirectional (-) DNA supercoiling.

  15. Interplay of positive and negative effectors in function of the C-terminal repeat domain of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Kornberg, R D

    1994-01-01

    RNA polymerase II lacking a C-terminal domain (CTD) was active in transcription with purified proteins from yeast but failed to support transcription in a yeast extract. CTD dependence could be reconstituted in the purified system by addition of two fractions from the extract. An inhibitory fraction abolished transcription by both wild-type and CTD-less RNA polymerases; a stimulatory fraction restored activity of the wild-type polymerase but had a much lesser effect on the CTD-less enzyme. Parallel results were obtained with the use of a kinase inhibitor that prevents phosphorylation of the CTD by RNA polymerase II initiation factor b. The kinase inhibitor abolished transcription by wild-type polymerase in yeast extract but had no significant effect in the purified system. The requirement for both the CTD and kinase action for transcription in an extract indicates that CTD phosphorylation is involved in opposing the negative effector in the extract. Factor b must play a role(s) in addition to phosphorylation of the CTD because it was still required for transcription with polymerase lacking a CTD in the purified system. Images PMID:8134400

  16. Resolving Hot Spots in the C-Terminal Dimerization Domain that Determine the Stability of the Molecular Chaperone Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Sven; Smits, Sander H. J.; Schmitt, Lutz; Groth, Georg; Gohlke, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Human heat shock protein of 90 kDa (hHsp90) is a homodimer that has an essential role in facilitating malignant transformation at the molecular level. Inhibiting hHsp90 function is a validated approach for treating different types of tumors. Inhibiting the dimerization of hHsp90 via its C-terminal domain (CTD) should provide a novel way to therapeutically interfere with hHsp90 function. Here, we predicted hot spot residues that cluster in the CTD dimerization interface by a structural decomposition of the effective energy of binding computed by the MM-GBSA approach and confirmed these predictions using in silico alanine scanning with DrugScorePPI. Mutation of these residues to alanine caused a significant decrease in the melting temperature according to differential scanning fluorimetry experiments, indicating a reduced stability of the mutant hHsp90 complexes. Size exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering studies demonstrate that the reduced stability of the mutant hHsp90 correlates with a lower complex stoichiometry due to the disruption of the dimerization interface. These results suggest that the identified hot spot residues can be used as a pharmacophoric template for identifying and designing small-molecule inhibitors of hHsp90 dimerization. PMID:24760083

  17. The identification of putative RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain associated proteins in red and green algae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunlin; Hager, Paul W; Stiller, John W

    2014-01-01

    A tandemly repeated C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II is functionally essential and strongly conserved in many organisms, including animal, yeast and plant models. Although present in simple, ancestral red algae, CTD tandem repeats have undergone extensive modifications and degeneration during the evolutionary transition to developmentally complex rhodophytes. In contrast, CTD repeats are conserved in both green algae and their more complex land plant relatives. Understanding the mechanistic differences that underlie these variant patterns of CTD evolution requires knowledge of CTD-associated proteins in these 2 lineages. To provide an initial baseline comparison, we bound potential phospho-CTD associated proteins (PCAPs) to artificially synthesized and phosphorylated CTD repeats from the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae and green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our results indicate that red and green algae share a number of PCAPs, including kinases and proteins involved in mRNA export. There also are important taxon-specific differences, including mRNA splicing-related PCAPs recovered from Chlamydomonas but not Cyanidioschyzon, consistent with the relative intron densities in green and red algae. Our results also offer the first experimental indication that different proteins bind 2 distinct types of repeats in Cyanidioschyzon, suggesting a division of function between the proximal and distal CTD, similar to patterns identified in more developmentally complex model organisms.

  18. Haemophilus influenzae protein E recognizes the C-terminal domain of vitronectin and modulates the membrane attack complex.

    PubMed

    Singh, Birendra; Jalalvand, Farshid; Mörgelin, Matthias; Zipfel, Peter; Blom, Anna M; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2011-07-01

    Haemophilus influenzae protein E (PE) is a 16 kDa adhesin that induces a pro-inflammatory immune response in lung epithelial cells. The active epithelial binding region comprising amino acids PE 84-108 also interferes with complement-mediated bacterial killing by capturing vitronectin (Vn) that prevents complement deposition and formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). Here, the interaction between PE and Vn was characterized using site-directed mutagenesis. Protein E variants were produced both in soluble forms and in surface-expressed molecules on Escherichia coli. Mutations within PE(84-108) in the full-length molecule revealed that K85 and R86 residues were important for the Vn binding. Bactericidal activity against H. influenzae was higher in human serum pre-treated with full-length PE as compared with serum incubated with PE(K85E, R86D) , suggesting that PE quenched Vn. A series of truncated Vn molecules revealed that the C-terminal domain comprising Vn(353-363) harboured the major binding region for PE. Interestingly, MAC deposition was significantly higher on mutants devoid of PE due to a decreased Vn-binding capacity when compared with wild-type H. influenzae. Our results define a fine-tuned interaction between H. influenzae and the innate immune system, and identify the mode of control of the MAC that is important for pathogen complement evasion.

  19. Site-specific methylation and acetylation of lysine residues in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kirsten; Forné, Ignasi; Descostes, Nicolas; Hintermair, Corinna; Schüller, Roland; Maqbool, Muhammad Ahmad; Heidemann, Martin; Flatley, Andrew; Imhof, Axel; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Andrau, Jean-Christophe; Eick, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic modification of heptad-repeats with the consensus sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) C-terminal domain (CTD) regulates transcription-coupled processes. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that K7-residues in non-consensus repeats of human RNAPII are modified by acetylation, or mono-, di-, and tri-methylation. K7ac, K7me2, and K7me3 were found exclusively associated with phosphorylated CTD peptides, while K7me1 occurred also in non-phosphorylated CTD. The monoclonal antibody 1F5 recognizes K7me1/2 residues in CTD and reacts with RNAPIIA. Treatment of cellular extracts with phosphatase or of cells with the kinase inhibitor flavopiridol unmasked the K7me1/2 epitope in RNAPII0, consistent with the association of K7me1/2 marks with phosphorylated CTD peptides. Genome-wide profiling revealed high levels of K7me1/2 marks at the transcriptional start site of genes for sense and antisense transcribing RNAPII. The new K7 modifications further expand the mammalian CTD code to allow regulation of differential gene expression.

  20. Pioneering Activity of the C-Terminal Domain of EBF1 Shapes the Chromatin Landscape for B Cell Programming.

    PubMed

    Boller, Sören; Ramamoorthy, Senthilkumar; Akbas, Duygu; Nechanitzky, Robert; Burger, Lukas; Murr, Rabih; Schübeler, Dirk; Grosschedl, Rudolf

    2016-03-15

    Lymphopoiesis requires the activation of lineage-specific genes embedded in naive, inaccessible chromatin or in primed, accessible chromatin. The mechanisms responsible for de novo gain of chromatin accessibility, known as "pioneer" function, remain poorly defined. Here, we showed that the EBF1 C-terminal domain (CTD) is required for the regulation of a specific gene set involved in B cell fate decision and differentiation, independently of activation and repression functions. Using genome-wide analysis of DNaseI hypersensitivity and DNA methylation in multipotent Ebf1(-/-) progenitors and derivative EBF1wt- or EBF1ΔC-expressing cells, we found that the CTD promoted chromatin accessibility and DNA demethylation in previously naive chromatin. The CTD allowed EBF1 to bind at inaccessible genomic regions that offer limited co-occupancy by other transcription factors, whereas the CTD was dispensable for EBF1 binding at regions that are occupied by multiple transcription factors. Thus, the CTD enables EBF1 to confer permissive lineage-specific changes in progenitor chromatin landscape.

  1. C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase links Rho GTPase signaling to Pol II CTD phosphorylation in Arabidopsis and yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Yang, Guohua; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Yihong; Gao, Peng; Liu, Bo; Wang, Haiyang; Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2016-12-13

    Rho GTPases, including the Rho, Cdc42, Rac, and ROP subfamilies, act as pivotal signaling switches in various growth and developmental processes. Compared with the well-defined role of cytoskeletal organization in Rho signaling, much less is known regarding transcriptional regulation. In a mutant screen for phenotypic enhancers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a constitutively active form of ROP2 (designated CA1-1), we identified RNA polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase-like 1 (CPL1) as a transcriptional regulator of ROP2 signaling. We show that ROP2 activation inhibits CPL1 activity by promoting its degradation, leading to an increase in CTD Ser5 and Ser2 phosphorylation. We also observed similar modulation of CTD phosphorylation by yeast Cdc42 GTPase and enhanced degradation of the yeast CTD phosphatase Fcp1 by activated ROP2 signaling. Taken together, our results suggest that modulation of the Pol II CTD code by Rho GTPase signaling represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes.

  2. Structure of the C-terminal domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nup133, a component of the nuclear pore complex

    SciTech Connect

    Sampathkumar, Parthasarathy; Gheyi, Tarun; Miller, Stacy A.; Bain, Kevin T.; Dickey, Mark; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Kim, Seung Joong; Phillips, Jeremy; Pieper, Ursula; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Franke, Josef D.; Martel, Anne; Tsuruta, Hiro; Atwell, Shane; Thompson, Devon A.; Emtage, J. Spencer; Wasserman, Stephen R.; Rout, Michael P.; Sali, Andrej; Sauder, J. Michael; Burley, Stephen K.

    2012-10-23

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), responsible for the nucleo-cytoplasmic exchange of proteins and nucleic acids, are dynamic macromolecular assemblies forming an eight-fold symmetric co-axial ring structure. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) NPCs are made up of at least 456 polypeptide chains of {approx}30 distinct sequences. Many of these components (nucleoporins, Nups) share similar structural motifs and form stable subcomplexes. We have determined a high-resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of yeast Nup133 (ScNup133), a component of the heptameric Nup84 subcomplex. Expression tests yielded ScNup133(944-1157) that produced crystals diffracting to 1.9{angstrom} resolution. ScNup133(944-1157) adopts essentially an all {alpha}-helical fold, with a short two stranded {beta}-sheet at the C-terminus. The 11 {alpha}-helices of ScNup133(944-1157) form a compact fold. In contrast, the previously determined structure of human Nup133(934-1156) bound to a fragment of human Nup107 has its constituent {alpha}-helices are arranged in two globular blocks. These differences may reflect structural divergence among homologous nucleoporins.

  3. C-terminal domain small phosphatase 1 and MAP kinase reciprocally control REST stability and neuronal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Corson, Glen M.; McCleskey, Maxwell; Oyer, Jon A.; Mandel, Gail

    2014-01-01

    The repressor element 1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor (REST) in stem cells represses hundreds of genes essential to neuronal function. During neurogenesis, REST is degraded in neural progenitors to promote subsequent elaboration of a mature neuronal phenotype. Prior studies indicate that part of the degradation mechanism involves phosphorylation of two sites in the C terminus of REST that require activity of beta-transducin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, βTrCP. We identify a proline-directed phosphorylation motif, at serines 861/864 upstream of these sites, which is a substrate for the peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase, Pin1, as well as the ERK1/2 kinases. Mutation at S861/864 stabilizes REST, as does inhibition of Pin1 activity. Interestingly, we find that C-terminal domain small phosphatase 1 (CTDSP1), which is recruited by REST to neuronal genes, is present in REST immunocomplexes, dephosphorylates S861/864, and stabilizes REST. Expression of a REST peptide containing S861/864 in neural progenitors inhibits terminal neuronal differentiation. Together with previous work indicating that both REST and CTDSP1 are expressed to high levels in stem cells and down-regulated during neurogenesis, our results suggest that CTDSP1 activity stabilizes REST in stem cells and that ERK-dependent phosphorylation combined with Pin1 activity promotes REST degradation in neural progenitors. PMID:25197063

  4. The Impact of the C-Terminal Domain on the Interaction of Human DNA Topoisomerase II α and β with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gilroy, Kathryn L.; Austin, Caroline A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Type II DNA topoisomerases are essential, ubiquitous enzymes that act to relieve topological problems arising in DNA from normal cellular activity. Their mechanism of action involves the ATP-dependent transport of one DNA duplex through a transient break in a second DNA duplex; metal ions are essential for strand passage. Humans have two isoforms, topoisomerase IIα and topoisomerase IIβ, that have distinct roles in the cell. The C-terminal domain has been linked to isoform specific differences in activity and DNA interaction. Methodology/Principal Findings We have investigated the role of the C-terminal domain in the binding of human topoisomerase IIα and topoisomerase IIβ to DNA in fluorescence anisotropy assays using full length and C-terminally truncated enzymes. We find that the C-terminal domain of topoisomerase IIβ but not topoisomerase IIα affects the binding of the enzyme to the DNA. The presence of metal ions has no effect on DNA binding. Additionally, we have examined strand passage of the full length and truncated enzymes in the presence of a number of supporting metal ions and find that there is no difference in relative decatenation between isoforms. We find that calcium and manganese, in addition to magnesium, can support strand passage by the human topoisomerase II enzymes. Conclusions/Significance The C-terminal domain of topoisomerase IIβ, but not that of topoisomerase IIα, alters the enzyme's KD for DNA binding. This is consistent with previous data and may be related to the differential modes of action of the two isoforms in vivo. We also show strand passage with different supporting metal ions for human topoisomerase IIα or topoisomerase IIβ, either full length or C-terminally truncated. They all show the same preferences, whereby Mg > Ca > Mn. PMID:21358820

  5. Identification of a Ligand-Binding Site on the Staphylococcus aureus DnaG Primase C-Terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Catazaro, Jonathan; Periago, Jessica; Shortridge, Matthew D; Worley, Bradley; Kirchner, Andrew; Powers, Robert; Griep, Mark A

    2017-02-21

    The interface between the DnaG primase C-terminal domain (CTD) and the N-terminal domain of DnaB helicase is essential for bacterial DNA replication because it allows coordinated priming of DNA synthesis at the replication fork while the DNA is being unwound. Because these two proteins are conserved in all bacteria and distinct from those in eukaryotes, their interface is an attractive antibiotic target. To learn more about this interface, we determined the solution structure and dynamics of the DnaG primase CTD from Staphylococcus aureus, a medically important bacterial species. Comparison with the known primase CTD structures shows there are two biologically relevant conformations, an open conformation that likely binds to DnaB helicase and a closed conformation that does not. The S. aureus primase CTD is in the closed conformation, but nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) dynamic studies indicate there is considerable movement in the linker between the two subdomains and that N564 is the most dynamic residue within the linker. A high-throughput NMR ligand affinity screen identified potential binding compounds, among which were acycloguanosine and myricetin. Although the affinity for these compounds and adenosine was in the millimolar range, all three bind to a common pocket that is present only on the closed conformation of the CTD. This binding pocket is at the opposite end of helices 6 and 7 from N564, the key hinge residue. The identification of this binding pocket should allow the development of stronger-binding ligands that can prevent formation of the CTD open conformation that binds to DnaB helicase.

  6. C-terminal, endoplasmic reticulum-lumenal domain of prosurfactant protein C - structural features and membrane interactions.

    PubMed

    Casals, Cristina; Johansson, Hanna; Saenz, Alejandra; Gustafsson, Magnus; Alfonso, Carlos; Nordling, Kerstin; Johansson, Jan

    2008-02-01

    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) constitutes the transmembrane part of prosurfactant protein C (proSP-C) and is alpha-helical in its native state. The C-terminal part of proSP-C (CTC) is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and binds to misfolded (beta-strand) SP-C, thereby preventing its aggregation and amyloid fibril formation. In this study, we investigated the structure of recombinant human CTC and the effects of CTC-membrane interaction on protein structure. CTC forms noncovalent trimers and supratrimeric oligomers. It contains two intrachain disulfide bridges, and its secondary structure is significantly affected by urea or heat only after disulfide reduction. The postulated Brichos domain of CTC, with homologs found in proteins associated with amyloid and proliferative disease, is up to 1000-fold more protected from limited proteolysis than the rest of CTC. The protein exposes hydrophobic surfaces, as determined by CTC binding to the environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 1,1'-bis(4-anilino-5,5'-naphthalenesulfonate). Fluorescence energy transfer experiments further reveal close proximity between bound 1,1'-bis(4-anilino-5,5'-naphthalenesulfonate) and tyrosine residues in CTC, some of which are conserved in all Brichos domains. CTC binds to unilamellar phospholipid vesicles with low micromolar dissociation constants, and differential scanning calorimetry and CD analyses indicate that membrane-bound CTC is less structurally ordered than the unbound protein. The exposed hydrophobic surfaces and the structural disordering that result from interactions with phospholipid membranes suggest a mechanism whereby CTC binds to misfolded SP-C in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

  7. DNA binding and synapsis by the large C-terminal domain of ϕC31 integrase

    PubMed Central

    McEwan, Andrew R.; Rowley, Paul A.; Smith, Margaret C. M.

    2009-01-01

    The integrase (Int) from phage ϕC31 acts on the phage and host-attachment sites, attP and attB, to form an integrated prophage flanked by attL and attR. Excision (attL × attR recombination) is prevented, in the absence of accessory factors, by a putative coiled-coil motif in the C-terminal domain (CTD). Int has a serine recombinase N-terminal domain, required for synapsis of recombination substrates and catalysis. We show here that the coiled-coil motif mediates protein–protein interactions between CTDs, but only when bound to DNA. Although the histidine-tagged CTD (hCTD) was monomeric in solution, hCTD bound cooperatively to three of the recombination substrates (attB, attL and attR). Furthermore, when provided with attP and attB, hCTD brought these substrates together in a synaptic complex. Substitutions in the coiled-coil motif that greatly reduce Int integration activity, L460P and Y475H, prevented CTD–CTD interactions and led to defective DNA binding and no detectable DNA synapsis. A substitution, E449K, in full length Int confers the ability to perform excision in addition to integration as it has gained the ability to synapse attL × attR. hCTDE449K was similar to hCTD in DNA binding but unable to form the CTD synapse suggesting that the CTD synapse is not essential but could be part of the mechanism that controls directionality. PMID:19515935

  8. An antibody against the C-terminal domain of PCSK9 lowers LDL cholesterol levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Felix; Park, John; Redemann, Norbert; Luippold, Gerd; Nar, Herbert

    2014-02-20

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is associated with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia, a state of elevated levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia can result in severe implications such as stroke and coronary heart disease. The inhibition of PCSK9 function by therapeutic antibodies that block interaction of PCSK9 with the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A domain of LDL receptor (LDLR) was shown to successfully lower LDL cholesterol levels in clinical studies. Here we present data on the identification, structural and biophysical characterization and in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of a PCSK9 antibody (mAb1). The X-ray structure shows that mAb1 binds the module 1 of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of PCSK9. It blocks access to an area bearing several naturally occurring gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations. Although the antibody does not inhibit binding of PCSK9 to epidermal growth factor-like repeat A, it partially reverses PCSK9-induced reduction of the LDLR and LDL cholesterol uptake in a cellular assay. mAb1 is also effective in lowering serum levels of LDL cholesterol in cynomolgus monkeys in vivo. Complete loss of PCSK9 is associated with insufficient liver regeneration and increased risk of hepatitis C infections. Blocking of the CTD is sufficient to partially inhibit PCSK9 function. Antibodies binding the CTD of PCSK9 may thus be advantageous in patients that do not tolerate complete inhibition of PCSK9.

  9. The C-terminal Ca2+-binding domain of SPARC confers anti-spreading activity to human urothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Delostrinos, Catherine F; Hudson, Amber E; Feng, Waldo C; Kosman, Jeffrey; Bassuk, James A

    2006-01-01

    The anti-spreading activity of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) has been assigned to the C-terminal third domain, a region rich in alpha-helices. This "extracellular calcium-binding" (EC) domain contains two EF-hands that each coordinates one Ca2+ ion, forming a helix-loop-helix structure that not only drives the conformation of the protein but is also necessary for biological activity. Recombinant (r) EC, expressed in E. coli, was fused at the C-terminus to a His hexamer and isolated under denaturing conditions by nickel-chelate affinity chromatography. rEC-His was renatured by procedures that simultaneously (i) removed denaturing conditions, (ii) catalyzed disulfide bond isomerization, and (iii) initiated Ca2+-dependent refolding. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies demonstrated that rEC-His exhibited a Ca2+-dependent conformation that was consistent with the known crystal structure. Spreading assays confirmed that rEC-His was biologically active through its ability to inhibit the spreading of freshly plated human urothelial cells propagated from transitional epithelium. rEC-His and rSPARC-His exhibited highly similar anti-spreading activities when measured as a function of concentration or time. In contrast to the wild-type and EC recombinant proteins, rSPARC(E268F)-His, a point substitution mutant at the Z position of EF-hand 2, failed to exhibit both Ca2+-dependent changes in alpha-helical secondary structure and anti-spreading activity. The collective data provide evidence that the motif of SPARC responsible for anti-spreading activity was dependent on the coordination of Ca2+ by a Glu residue at the Z position of EF-hand 2 and provide insights into how adhesive forces are balanced within the extracellular matrix of urothelial cells. .

  10. Three-dimensional structure of a Streptomyces sviceus GNAT acetyltransferase with similarity to the C-terminal domain of the human GH84 O-GlcNAcase

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yuan; Roth, Christian; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Davies, Gideon J.

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of a bacterial acetyltransferase with 27% sequence identity to the C-terminal domain of human O-GlcNAcase has been solved at 1.5 Å resolution. This S. sviceus protein is compared with known GCN5-related acetyltransferases, adding to the diversity observed in this superfamily. The mammalian O-GlcNAc hydrolysing enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is a multi-domain protein with glycoside hydrolase activity in the N-terminus and with a C-terminal domain that has low sequence similarity to known acetyltransferases, prompting speculation, albeit controversial, that the C-terminal domain may function as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT). There are currently scarce data available regarding the structure and function of this C-terminal region. Here, a bacterial homologue of the human OGA C-terminal domain, an acetyltransferase protein (accession No. ZP-05014886) from Streptomyces sviceus (SsAT), was cloned and its crystal structure was solved to high resolution. The structure reveals a conserved protein core that has considerable structural homology to the acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) binding site of GCN5-related acetyltransferases (GNATs). Calorimetric data further confirm that SsAT is indeed able to bind AcCoA in solution with micromolar affinity. Detailed structural analysis provided insight into the binding of AcCoA. An acceptor-binding cavity was identified, indicating that the physiological substrate of SsAT may be a small molecule. Consistent with recently published work, the SsAT structure further questions a HAT function for the human OGA domain.

  11. Guiding strand passage: DNA-induced movement of the gyrase C-terminal domains defines an early step in the supercoiling cycle

    PubMed Central

    Lanz, Martin A.; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    DNA gyrase catalyzes ATP-dependent negative supercoiling of DNA in a strand passage mechanism. A double-stranded segment of DNA, the T-segment, is passed through the gap in a transiently cleaved G-segment by coordinated closing and opening of three protein interfaces in gyrase. T-segment capture is thought to be guided by the C-terminal domains of the GyrA subunit of gyrase that wrap DNA around their perimeter and cause a DNA-crossing with a positive handedness. We show here that the C-terminal domains are in a downward-facing orientation in the absence of DNA, but swing up and rotate away from the gyrase body when DNA binds. The upward movement of the C-terminal domains is an early event in the catalytic cycle of gyrase that is triggered by binding of a G-segment, and first contacts of the DNA with the C-terminal domains, and contributes to T-segment capture and subsequent strand passage. PMID:21880594

  12. Structural and Functional Modularity of the Orange Carotenoid Protein: Distinct Roles for the N- and C-Terminal Domains in Cyanobacterial Photoprotection[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Leverenz, Ryan L.; Jallet, Denis; Li, Ming-De; Mathies, Richard A.; Kirilovsky, Diana; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    The orange carotenoid protein (OCP) serves as a sensor of light intensity and an effector of phycobilisome (PB)–associated photoprotection in cyanobacteria. Structurally, the OCP is composed of two distinct domains spanned by a single carotenoid chromophore. Functionally, in response to high light, the OCP converts from a dark-stable orange form, OCPO, to an active red form, OCPR. The C-terminal domain of the OCP has been implicated in the dynamic response to light intensity and plays a role in switching off the OCP’s photoprotective response through its interaction with the fluorescence recovery protein. The function of the N-terminal domain, which is uniquely found in cyanobacteria, is unclear. To investigate its function, we isolated the N-terminal domain in vitro using limited proteolysis of native OCP. The N-terminal domain retains the carotenoid chromophore; this red carotenoid protein (RCP) has constitutive PB fluorescence quenching activity comparable in magnitude to that of active, full-length OCPR. A comparison of the spectroscopic properties of the RCP with OCPR indicates that critical protein–chromophore interactions within the C-terminal domain are weakened in the OCPR form. These results suggest that the C-terminal domain dynamically regulates the photoprotective activity of an otherwise constitutively active carotenoid binding N-terminal domain. PMID:24399299

  13. Biophysical analysis of the MHR motif in folding and domain swapping of the HIV capsid protein C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, Rebeca; Fuertes, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez-Huete, Alicia; Neira, José Luis; Mateu, Mauricio G

    2015-01-20

    Infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) depends on the function, in virion morphogenesis and other stages of the viral cycle, of a highly conserved structural element, the major homology region (MHR), within the carboxyterminal domain (CTD) of the capsid protein. In a modified CTD dimer, MHR is swapped between monomers. While no evidence for MHR swapping has been provided by structural models of retroviral capsids, it is unknown whether it may occur transiently along the virus assembly pathway. Whatever the case, the MHR-swapped dimer does provide a novel target for the development of anti-HIV drugs based on the concept of trapping a nonnative capsid protein conformation. We have carried out a thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of the domain-swapped CTD dimer in solution. The analysis includes a dissection of the role of conserved MHR residues and other amino acids at the dimerization interface in CTD folding, stability, and dimerization by domain swapping. The results revealed some energetic hotspots at the domain-swapped interface. In addition, many MHR residues that are not in the protein hydrophobic core were nevertheless found to be critical for folding and stability of the CTD monomer, which may dramatically slow down the swapping reaction. Conservation of MHR residues in retroviruses did not correlate with their contribution to domain swapping, but it did correlate with their importance for stable CTD folding. Because folding is required for capsid protein function, this remarkable MHR-mediated conformational stabilization of CTD may help to explain the functional roles of MHR not only during immature capsid assembly but in other processes associated with retrovirus infection. This energetic dissection of the dimerization interface in MHR-swapped CTD may also facilitate the design of anti-HIV compounds that inhibit capsid assembly by conformational trapping of swapped CTD dimers. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier

  14. Biophysical Analysis of the MHR Motif in Folding and Domain Swapping of the HIV Capsid Protein C-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra, Rebeca; Fuertes, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez-Huete, Alicia; Neira, José Luis; Mateu, Mauricio G.

    2015-01-01

    Infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) depends on the function, in virion morphogenesis and other stages of the viral cycle, of a highly conserved structural element, the major homology region (MHR), within the carboxyterminal domain (CTD) of the capsid protein. In a modified CTD dimer, MHR is swapped between monomers. While no evidence for MHR swapping has been provided by structural models of retroviral capsids, it is unknown whether it may occur transiently along the virus assembly pathway. Whatever the case, the MHR-swapped dimer does provide a novel target for the development of anti-HIV drugs based on the concept of trapping a nonnative capsid protein conformation. We have carried out a thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of the domain-swapped CTD dimer in solution. The analysis includes a dissection of the role of conserved MHR residues and other amino acids at the dimerization interface in CTD folding, stability, and dimerization by domain swapping. The results revealed some energetic hotspots at the domain-swapped interface. In addition, many MHR residues that are not in the protein hydrophobic core were nevertheless found to be critical for folding and stability of the CTD monomer, which may dramatically slow down the swapping reaction. Conservation of MHR residues in retroviruses did not correlate with their contribution to domain swapping, but it did correlate with their importance for stable CTD folding. Because folding is required for capsid protein function, this remarkable MHR-mediated conformational stabilization of CTD may help to explain the functional roles of MHR not only during immature capsid assembly but in other processes associated with retrovirus infection. This energetic dissection of the dimerization interface in MHR-swapped CTD may also facilitate the design of anti-HIV compounds that inhibit capsid assembly by conformational trapping of swapped CTD dimers. PMID:25606682

  15. NifS-mediated assembly of [4Fe-4S] clusters in the N- and C-terminal domains of the NifU scaffold protein.

    PubMed

    Smith, Archer D; Jameson, Guy N L; Dos Santos, Patricia C; Agar, Jeffrey N; Naik, Sunil; Krebs, Carsten; Frazzon, Jeverson; Dean, Dennis R; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Johnson, Michael K

    2005-10-04

    NifU is a homodimeric modular protein comprising N- and C-terminal domains and a central domain with a redox-active [2Fe-2S](2+,+) cluster. It plays a crucial role as a scaffold protein for the assembly of the Fe-S clusters required for the maturation of nif-specific Fe-S proteins. In this work, the time course and products of in vitro NifS-mediated iron-sulfur cluster assembly on full-length NifU and truncated forms involving only the N-terminal domain or the central and C-terminal domains have been investigated using UV-vis absorption and Mössbauer spectroscopies, coupled with analytical studies. The results demonstrate sequential assembly of labile [2Fe-2S](2+) and [4Fe-4S](2+) clusters in the U-type N-terminal scaffolding domain and the assembly of [4Fe-4S](2+) clusters in the Nfu-type C-terminal scaffolding domain. Both scaffolding domains of NifU are shown to be competent for in vitro maturation of nitrogenase component proteins, as evidenced by rapid transfer of [4Fe-4S](2+) clusters preassembled on either the N- or C-terminal domains to the apo nitrogenase Fe protein. Mutagenesis studies indicate that a conserved aspartate (Asp37) plays a critical role in mediating cluster transfer. The assembly and transfer of clusters on NifU are compared with results reported for U- and Nfu-type scaffold proteins, and the need for two functional Fe-S cluster scaffolding domains on NifU is discussed.

  16. Intrinsic disorder in the C-terminal domain of the Shaker voltage-activated K+ channel modulates its interaction with scaffold proteins

    PubMed Central

    Magidovich, Elhanan; Orr, Irit; Fass, Deborah; Abdu, Uri; Yifrach, Ofer

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of membrane-embedded voltage-activated potassium channels (Kv) with intracellular scaffold proteins, such as the postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) protein, is mediated by the channel C-terminal segment. This interaction underlies Kv channel clustering at unique membrane sites and is important for the proper assembly and functioning of the synapse. In the current study, we address the molecular mechanism underlying Kv/PSD-95 interaction. We provide experimental evidence, based on hydrodynamic and spectroscopic analyses, indicating that the isolated C-terminal segment of the archetypical Shaker Kv channel (ShB-C) is a random coil, suggesting that ShB-C belongs to the recently defined class of intrinsically disordered proteins. We show that isolated ShB-C is still able to bind its scaffold protein partner and support protein clustering in vivo, indicating that unfoldedness is compatible with ShB-C activity. Pulldown experiments involving C-terminal chains differing in flexibility or length further demonstrate that intrinsic disorder in the C-terminal segment of the Shaker channel modulates its interaction with the PSD-95 protein. Our results thus suggest that the C-terminal domain of the Shaker Kv channel behaves as an entropic chain and support a “fishing rod” molecular mechanism for Kv channel binding to scaffold proteins. The importance of intrinsically disordered protein segments to the complex processes of synapse assembly, maintenance, and function is discussed. PMID:17666528

  17. Computational and experimental studies of the interaction between phospho-peptides and the C-terminal domain of BRCA1.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Victor M; Ziemys, Arturas; Kizhake, Smitha; Yuan, Ziyan; Natarajan, Amarnath; Cavasotto, Claudio N

    2011-11-01

    The C-terminal domain of BRCA1(BRCT) is involved in the DNA repair pathway by recognizing the pSXXF motif in interacting proteins. It has been reported that short peptides containing this motif bind to BRCA1(BRCT) in the micromolar range with high specificity. In this work, the binding of pSXXF peptides has been studied computationally and experimentally in order to characterize their interaction with BRCA1(BRCT). Elucidation of the contacts that drive the protein-ligand interaction is critical for the development of high affinity small-molecule BRCA1 inhibitors. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations revealed the key role of threonine at the peptide P+2 position in providing structural rigidity to the ligand in the bound state. The mutation at P+1 had minor effects. Peptide extension at the N-terminal position with the naphthyl amino acid exhibited a modest increase in binding affinity, what could be explained by the dispersion interaction of the naphthyl side-chain with a hydrophobic patch. Three in silico end-point methods were considered for the calculation of binding free energy. The Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area and the Solvated Interaction Energy methods gave reasonable agreement with experimental data, exhibiting a Pearlman predictive index of 0.71 and 0.78, respectively. The MM-quantum mechanics-surface area method yielded improved results, which was characterized by a Pearlman index of 0.78. The correlation coefficients were 0.59, 0.61 and 0.69, respectively. The ability to apply a QM level of theory within an end-point binding free energy protocol may provide a way for a consistent improvement of accuracy in computer-aided drug design.

  18. SUMOylation of the C-terminal domain of DNA topoisomerase IIα regulates the centromeric localization of Claspin

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyunju; Yoshida, Makoto M; Sridharan, Vinidhra; Kumagai, Akiko; Dunphy, William G; Dasso, Mary; Azuma, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase II (TopoII) regulates DNA topology by its strand passaging reaction, which is required for genome maintenance by resolving tangled genomic DNA. In addition, TopoII contributes to the structural integrity of mitotic chromosomes and to the activation of cell cycle checkpoints in mitosis. Post-translational modification of TopoII is one of the key mechanisms by which its broad functions are regulated during mitosis. SUMOylation of TopoII is conserved in eukaryotes and plays a critical role in chromosome segregation. Using Xenopus laevis egg extract, we demonstrated previously that TopoIIα is modified by SUMO on mitotic chromosomes and that its activity is modulated via SUMOylation of its lysine at 660. However, both biochemical and genetic analyses indicated that TopoII has multiple SUMOylation sites in addition to Lys660, and the functions of the other SUMOylation sites were not clearly determined. In this study, we identified the SUMOylation sites on the C-terminal domain (CTD) of TopoIIα. CTD SUMOylation did not affect TopoIIα activity, indicating that its function is distinct from that of Lys660 SUMOylation. We found that CTD SUMOylation promotes protein binding and that Claspin, a well-established cell cycle checkpoint mediator, is one of the SUMOylation-dependent binding proteins. Claspin harbors 2 SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs), and its robust association to mitotic chromosomes requires both the SIMs and TopoIIα-CTD SUMOylation. Claspin localizes to the mitotic centromeres depending on mitotic SUMOylation, suggesting that TopoIIα-CTD SUMOylation regulates the centromeric localization of Claspin. Our findings provide a novel mechanistic insight regarding how TopoIIα-CTD SUMOylation contributes to mitotic centromere activity. PMID:26131587

  19. Differential roles of C-terminal Eps15 homology domain proteins as vesiculators and tubulators of recycling endosomes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bishuang; Giridharan, Sai Srinivas Panapakkam; Zhang, Jing; Saxena, Sugandha; Bahl, Kriti; Schmidt, John A; Sorgen, Paul L; Guo, Wei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2013-10-18

    Endocytic recycling involves the return of membranes and receptors to the plasma membrane following their internalization into the cell. Recycling generally occurs from a series of vesicular and tubular membranes localized to the perinuclear region, collectively known as the endocytic recycling compartment. Within this compartment, receptors are sorted into tubular extensions that later undergo vesiculation, allowing transport vesicles to move along microtubules and return to the cell surface where they ultimately undergo fusion with the plasma membrane. Recent studies have led to the hypothesis that the C-terminal Eps15 homology domain (EHD) ATPase proteins are involved in the vesiculation process. Here, we address the functional roles of the four EHD proteins. We developed a novel semipermeabilized cell system in which addition of purified EHD proteins to reconstitute vesiculation allows us to assess the ability of each protein to vesiculate MICAL-L1-decorated tubular recycling endosomes (TREs). Using this assay, we show that EHD1 vesiculates membranes, consistent with enhanced TRE generation observed upon EHD1 depletion. EHD4 serves a role similar to that of EHD1 in TRE vesiculation, whereas EHD2, despite being capable of vesiculating TREs in the semipermeabilized cells, fails to do so in vivo. Surprisingly, the addition of EHD3 causes tubulation of endocytic membranes in our semipermeabilized cell system, consistent with the lack of tubulation observed upon EHD3 depletion. Our novel vesiculation assay and in vitro electron microscopy analysis, combined with in vivo data, provide evidence that the functions of both EHD1 and EHD4 are primarily in TRE membrane vesiculation, whereas EHD3 is a membrane-tubulating protein.

  20. Functional interaction of Rpb1 and Spt5 C-terminal domains in co-transcriptional histone modification

    PubMed Central

    Mbogning, Jean; Pagé, Viviane; Burston, Jillian; Schwenger, Emily; Fisher, Robert P.; Schwer, Beate; Shuman, Stewart; Tanny, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is accompanied by a conserved pattern of histone modifications that plays important roles in regulating gene expression. The establishment of this pattern requires phosphorylation of both Rpb1 (the largest RNAPII subunit) and the elongation factor Spt5 on their respective C-terminal domains (CTDs). Here we interrogated the roles of individual Rpb1 and Spt5 CTD phospho-sites in directing co-transcriptional histone modifications in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Steady-state levels of methylation at histone H3 lysines 4 (H3K4me) and 36 (H3K36me) were sensitive to multiple mutations of the Rpb1 CTD repeat motif (Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7). Ablation of the Spt5 CTD phospho-site Thr1 reduced H3K4me levels but had minimal effects on H3K36me. Nonetheless, Spt5 CTD mutations potentiated the effects of Rpb1 CTD mutations on H3K36me, suggesting overlapping functions. Phosphorylation of Rpb1 Ser2 by the Cdk12 orthologue Lsk1 positively regulated H3K36me but negatively regulated H3K4me. H3K36me and histone H2B monoubiquitylation required Rpb1 Ser5 but were maintained upon inactivation of Mcs6/Cdk7, the major kinase for Rpb1 Ser5 in vivo, implicating another Ser5 kinase in these regulatory pathways. Our results elaborate the CTD ‘code’ for co-transcriptional histone modifications. PMID:26275777

  1. Interactions of the C-terminal Domain of Human Ku70 with DNA Substrate: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing a systems biology approach to improve the assessment of health risks associated with space radiation. The primary toxic and mutagenic lesion following radiation exposure is the DNA double strand break (DSB), thus a model incorporating proteins and pathways important in response and repair of this lesion is critical. One key protein heterodimer for systems models of radiation effects is the Ku(sub 70/80) complex. The Ku70/80 complex is important in the initial binding of DSB ends following DNA damage, and is a component of nonhomologous end joining repair, the primary pathway for DSB repair in mammalian cells. The C-terminal domain of Ku70 (Ku70c, residues 559-609), contains an helix-extended strand-helix motif and similar motifs have been found in other nucleic acid-binding proteins critical for DNA repair. However, the exact mechanism of damage recognition and substrate specificity for the Ku heterodimer remains unclear in part due to the absence of a high-resolution structure of the Ku70c/DNA complex. We performed a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on a system with the subunit Ku70c and a 14 base pairs DNA duplex, whose starting structures are designed to be variable so as to mimic their different binding modes. By analyzing conformational changes and energetic properties of the complex during MD simulations, we found that interactions are preferred at DNA ends, and within the major groove, which is consistent with previous experimental investigations. In addition, the results indicate that cooperation of Ku70c with other subunits of Ku(sub 70/80) is necessary to explain the high affinity of binding as observed in experiments.

  2. Trafficking Dynamics of PCSK9-Induced LDLR Degradation: Focus on Human PCSK9 Mutations and C-Terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Steve; Hamouda, Hocine Ait; Villeneuve, Louis; Demers, Annie; Mayer, Gaétan

    2016-01-01

    PCSK9 is a secreted ligand and negative post-translational regulator of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in hepatocytes. Gain-of-function (GOF) or loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in PCSK9 are directly correlated with high or low plasma LDL-cholesterol levels, respectively. Therefore, PCSK9 is a prevailing lipid-lowering target to prevent coronary heart diseases and stroke. Herein, we fused monomeric fluorescent proteins to PCSK9 and LDLR to visualize their intra- and extracellular trafficking dynamics by live confocal microscopy. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) showed that PCSK9 LOF R46L mutant and GOF mutations S127R and D129G, but not the LDLR high-affinity mutant D374Y, significantly accelerate PCSK9 exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Quantitative analysis of inverse FRAP revealed that only R46L presented a much slower trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane and a lower mobile fraction likely suggesting accumulation or delayed exit at the TGN as an underlying mechanism. While not primarily involved in LDLR binding, PCSK9 C-terminal domain (CTD) was found to be essential to induce LDLR degradation both upon its overexpression in cells or via the extracellular pathway. Our data revealed that PCSK9 CTD is required for the localization of PCSK9 at the TGN and increases its LDLR-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, intracellular lysosomal targeting of PCSK9-ΔCTD was able to rescue its capacity to induce LDLR degradation emphasizing a role of the CTD in the sorting of PCSK9-LDLR complex towards late endocytic compartments. Finally, we validated our dual fluorescence system as a cell based-assay by preventing PCSK9 internalization using a PCSK9-LDLR blocking antibody, which may be expended to identify protein, peptide or small molecule inhibitors of PCSK9.

  3. Trafficking Dynamics of PCSK9-Induced LDLR Degradation: Focus on Human PCSK9 Mutations and C-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Louis; Demers, Annie; Mayer, Gaétan

    2016-01-01

    PCSK9 is a secreted ligand and negative post-translational regulator of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in hepatocytes. Gain-of-function (GOF) or loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in PCSK9 are directly correlated with high or low plasma LDL-cholesterol levels, respectively. Therefore, PCSK9 is a prevailing lipid-lowering target to prevent coronary heart diseases and stroke. Herein, we fused monomeric fluorescent proteins to PCSK9 and LDLR to visualize their intra- and extracellular trafficking dynamics by live confocal microscopy. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) showed that PCSK9 LOF R46L mutant and GOF mutations S127R and D129G, but not the LDLR high-affinity mutant D374Y, significantly accelerate PCSK9 exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Quantitative analysis of inverse FRAP revealed that only R46L presented a much slower trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane and a lower mobile fraction likely suggesting accumulation or delayed exit at the TGN as an underlying mechanism. While not primarily involved in LDLR binding, PCSK9 C-terminal domain (CTD) was found to be essential to induce LDLR degradation both upon its overexpression in cells or via the extracellular pathway. Our data revealed that PCSK9 CTD is required for the localization of PCSK9 at the TGN and increases its LDLR-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, intracellular lysosomal targeting of PCSK9-ΔCTD was able to rescue its capacity to induce LDLR degradation emphasizing a role of the CTD in the sorting of PCSK9-LDLR complex towards late endocytic compartments. Finally, we validated our dual fluorescence system as a cell based-assay by preventing PCSK9 internalization using a PCSK9-LDLR blocking antibody, which may be expended to identify protein, peptide or small molecule inhibitors of PCSK9. PMID:27280970

  4. Interactions of the C-terminal Domain of Human Ku70 with DNA Substrate: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing a systems biology approach to improve the assessment of health risks associated with space radiation. The primary toxic and mutagenic lesion following radiation exposure is the DNA double strand break (DSB), thus a model incorporating proteins and pathways important in response and repair of this lesion is critical. One key protein heterodimer for systems models of radiation effects is the Ku(sub 70/80) complex. The Ku70/80 complex is important in the initial binding of DSB ends following DNA damage, and is a component of nonhomologous end joining repair, the primary pathway for DSB repair in mammalian cells. The C-terminal domain of Ku70 (Ku70c, residues 559-609), contains an helix-extended strand-helix motif and similar motifs have been found in other nucleic acid-binding proteins critical for DNA repair. However, the exact mechanism of damage recognition and substrate specificity for the Ku heterodimer remains unclear in part due to the absence of a high-resolution structure of the Ku70c/DNA complex. We performed a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on a system with the subunit Ku70c and a 14 base pairs DNA duplex, whose starting structures are designed to be variable so as to mimic their different binding modes. By analyzing conformational changes and energetic properties of the complex during MD simulations, we found that interactions are preferred at DNA ends, and within the major groove, which is consistent with previous experimental investigations. In addition, the results indicate that cooperation of Ku70c with other subunits of Ku(sub 70/80) is necessary to explain the high affinity of binding as observed in experiments.

  5. Structural dynamics of native and V260E mutant C-terminal domain of HIV-1 integrase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, Balasubramanian; Muthukumaran, Rajagopalan; Amutha, Ramaswamy

    2015-04-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of HIV-1 integrase is a five stranded β-barrel resembling an SH3 fold. Mutational studies on isolated CTD and full-length IN have reported V260E mutant as either homo-dimerization defective or affecting the stability and folding of CTD. In this study, molecular dynamics simulation techniques were used to unveil the effect of V260E mutation on isolated CTD monomer and dimer. Both monomeric and dimeric forms of wild type and V260E mutant are highly stable during the simulated period. However, the stabilizing π-stacking interaction between Trp243 and Trp243' at the dimer interface is highly disturbed in CTD-V260E (>6 Å apart). The loss in entropy for dimerization is -30 and -25 kcal/mol for CTD-wt and CTD-V260E respectively signifying a weak hydrophobic interaction and its perturbation in CTD-V260E. The mutant Glu260 exhibits strong attraction/repulsion with all the basic/acidic residues of CTD. In addition to this, the dynamics of CTD-wild type and V260E monomers at 498 K was analyzed to elucidate the effect of V260E mutation on CTD folding. Increase in SASA and reduction in the number of contacts in CTD-V260E during simulation highlights the instability caused by the mutation. In general, V260E mutation affects both multimerization and protein folding with a pronounced effect on protein folding rather than multimerization. This study emphasizes the importance of the hydrophobic nature and SH3 fold of CTD in proper functioning of HIV integrase and perturbing this nature would be a rational approach toward designing more selective and potent allosteric anti-HIV inhibitors.

  6. A novel vaccine strategy to induce mycobacterial antigen-specific Th1 responses by utilizing the C-terminal domain of heat shock protein 70.

    PubMed

    Uto, Tomohiro; Tsujimura, Kunio; Uchijima, Masato; Seto, Shintaro; Nagata, Toshi; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo; Nakamura, Hirotoshi; Koide, Yukio

    2011-03-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a member of a highly conserved superfamily of intracellular chaperones called stress proteins that can activate innate and adaptive immune responses. We evaluated the effect of a fusion DNA vaccine that encoded mycobacterial HSP70 and MPT51, a major secreted protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Spleen cells from mice immunized with fusion DNA of full-length HSP70 and MPT51 produced a higher amount of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in response to the CD4+, but not the CD8+ T-cell epitope peptide on MPT51 than those from mice immunized with MPT51 DNA. Furthermore, because HSP70 comprises the N-terminal ATPase domain and the C-terminal peptide-binding domain, we attempted to identify the domain responsible for its enhancing effect. The fusion DNA vaccine that encoded the C-terminal domain of HSP70 and MPT51 induced a higher MPT51-specific IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells than the vaccine that encoded MPT51 alone, whereas that with the N-terminal domain did not. Similar results were obtained by immunization with the fusion proteins. These results suggest that the DNA vaccine that encodes a chimeric antigen molecule fused with mycobacterial HSP70, especially with its C-terminal domain, can induce a stronger antigen-specific T-helper cell type 1 response than antigen DNA alone.

  7. In-Frame Deletion and Missense Mutations of the C-Terminal Helicase Domain of SMARCA2 in Three Patients with Nicolaides-Baraitser Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, D.; Endele, S.; Azzarello-Burri, S.; Hoyer, J.; Zweier, M.; Schanze, I.; Schmitt, B.; Rauch, A.; Reis, A.; Zweier, C.

    2012-01-01

    Using high-resolution molecular karyotyping with SNP arrays to identify candidate genes for etiologically unexplained intellectual disability, we identified a 32-kb de novo in-frame deletion of the C-terminal helicase domain of the SMARCA2 gene in a patient with severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, sparse hair, prominent joints, and distinct facial anomalies. Sequencing of the gene in patients with a similar phenotype revealed de novo missense mutations in this domain in 2 further patients, pointing to a crucial role of the SMARCA2 C-terminal helicase domain. The clinical features observed in all 3 patients are typical of Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, an only rarely reported syndrome with mainly moderate to severe intellectual disability. Notably, one of our patients with a p.Gly1132Asp mutation showed typical morphological features but an exceptional good development with borderline overall IQ and learning difficulties, thus expanding the phenotypic spectrum of Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome. PMID:22822383

  8. A K+ channel splice variant common in human heart lacks a C-terminal domain required for expression of rapidly activating delayed rectifier current.

    PubMed

    Kupershmidt, S; Snyders, D J; Raes, A; Roden, D M

    1998-10-16

    We have cloned HERG USO, a C-terminal splice variant of the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (HERG), the gene encoding the rapid component of the delayed rectifier (IKr), from human heart, and we find that its mRNA is approximately 2-fold more abundant than that for HERG1 (the originally described cDNA). After transfection of HERG USO in Ltk- cells, no current was observed. However, coexpression of HERG USO with HERG1 modified IKr by decreasing its amplitude, accelerating its activation, and shifting the voltage dependence of activation 8.8 mV negative. As with HERG USO, HERGDeltaC (a HERG1 construct lacking the C-terminal 462 amino acids) also produced no current in transfected cells. However, IKr was rescued by ligation of 104 amino acids from the C terminus of HERG1 to the C terminus of HERGDeltaC, indicating that the C terminus of HERG1 includes a domain (C-terminal domain not only explains the finding that HERG USO does not generate IKr but also indicates a similar mechanism for hitherto-uncharacterized long QT syndrome HERG mutations that disrupt the splice site or the C-terminal. We suggest that the amplitude and gating of cardiac IKr depends on expression of both HERG1 and HERG USO.

  9. Cysteine endoprotease activity of human ribosomal protein S4 is entirely due to the C-terminal domain, and is consistent with Michaelis-Menten mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sudhamalla, Babu; Kumar, Mahesh; Roy, Karnati R; Kumar, R Sunil; Bhuyan, Abani K

    2013-11-01

    It is known that tandem domains of enzymes can carry out catalysis independently or by collaboration. In the case of cysteine proteases, domain sequestration abolishes catalysis because the active site residues are distributed in both domains. The validity of this argument is tested here by using isolated human ribosomal protein S4, which has been recently identified as an unorthodox cysteine protease. Cleavage of the peptide substrate Z-FR↓-AMC catalyzed by recombinant C-terminal domain of human S4 (CHS4) is studied by fluorescence-monitored steady-state and stopped-flow kinetic methods. Proteolysis and autoproteolysis were analyzed by electrophoresis. The CHS4 domain comprised of sequence residues 116-263 has been cloned and ovreexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified domain is enzymatically active. Barring minor differences, steady-state kinetic parameters for catalysis by CHS4 are very similar to those for full-length human S4. Further, stopped-flow transient kinetics of pre-steady-state substrate binding shows that the catalytic mechanism for both full-length S4 and CHS4 obeys the Michaelis-Menten model adequately. Consideration of the evolutionary domain organization of the S4e family of ribosomal proteins indicates that the central domain (residues 94-170) within CHS4 is indispensable. The C-terminal domain can carry out catalysis independently and as efficiently as the full-length human S4 does. Localization of the enzyme function in the C-terminal domain of human S4 provides the only example of a cysteine endoprotease where substrate-mediated intramolecular domain interaction is irrelevant for catalytic activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sucrose phosphate phosphatase in the green alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Streptophyta) lacks an extensive C-terminal domain and differs from that of land plants.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Manabu; Uemura, Matsuo

    2012-04-01

    Previously, it was reported that like land plants, the green alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Streptophyta) accumulates sucrose during cold acclimation (Nagao et al. Plant Cell Environ 31:872-885, 2008), suggesting that synthesis of sucrose could enhance the freezing tolerance of this alga. Because sucrose phosphate phosphatase (SPP; EC 3.1.3.24) is a key enzyme in the sucrose synthesis pathway in plants, we analyzed the SPP gene in K. flaccidum (KfSPP, GenBank accession number AB669024) to clarify its role in sucrose accumulation. As determined from its deduced amino acid sequence, KfSPP contains the N-terminal domain that is characteristic of the L-2-haloacid-dehalogenase family of phosphatases/hydrolases (the HAD phosphatase domain). However, it lacks the extensive C-terminal domain found in SPPs of land plants. Database searches revealed that the SPPs in cyanobacteria also lack the C-terminal domain. In addition, the green alga Coccomyxa (Chlorophyta) and K. flaccidum, which are closely related to land plants, have cyanobacterial-type SPPs, while Chlorella (Chlorophyta) has a land plant-type SPP. These results demonstrate that even K. flaccidum (Streptophyta), as a recent ancestor of land plants, has the cyanobacterial-type SPP lacking the C-terminal domain. Because SPP and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) catalyze sequential reactions in sucrose synthesis in green plant cells and the lack of the C-terminal domain in KfSPP is predicted to decrease its activity, the interaction between decreased KfSPP activity and SPS activity may alter sucrose synthesis during cold acclimation in K. flaccidum.

  11. Integral role of the I'-helix in the function of the "inactive" C-terminal domain of catalase-peroxidase (KatG).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Goodwin, Douglas C

    2013-01-01

    Catalase-peroxidases (KatGs) have two peroxidase-like domains. The N-terminal domain contains the heme-dependent, bifunctional active site. Though the C-terminal domain lacks the ability to bind heme or directly catalyze any reaction, it has been proposed to serve as a platform to direct the folding of the N-terminal domain. Toward such a purpose, its I'-helix is highly conserved and appears at the interface between the two domains. Single and multiple substitution variants targeting highly conserved residues of the I'-helix were generated for intact KatG as well as the stand-alone C-terminal domain (KatG(C)). Single variants of intact KatG produced only subtle variations in spectroscopic and catalytic properties of the enzyme. However, the double and quadruple variants showed substantial increases in hexa-coordinate low-spin heme and diminished enzyme activity, similar to that observed for the N-terminal domain on its own (KatG(N)). The analogous variants of KatG(C) showed a much more profound loss of function as evaluated by their ability to return KatG(N) to its active conformation. All of the single variants showed a substantial decrease in the rate and extent of KatG(N) reactivation, but with two substitutions, KatG(C) completely lost its capacity for the reactivation of KatG(N). These results suggest that the I'-helix is central to direct structural adjustments in the adjacent N-terminal domain and supports the hypothesis that the C-terminal domain serves as a platform to direct N-terminal domain conformation and bifunctionality.

  12. Solution NMR structure of the C-terminal EF-hand domain of human cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5.

    PubMed

    Chagot, Benjamin; Potet, Franck; Balser, Jeffrey R; Chazin, Walter J

    2009-03-06

    The voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.5 is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential in cardiac tissue. Levels of intracellular calcium modulate inactivation gating of NaV1.5, in part through a C-terminal EF-hand calcium binding domain. The significance of this structure is underscored by the fact that mutations within this domain are associated with specific cardiac arrhythmia syndromes. In an effort to elucidate the molecular basis for calcium regulation of channel function, we have determined the solution structure of the C-terminal EF-hand domain using multidimensional heteronuclear NMR. The structure confirms the existence of the four-helix bundle common to EF-hand domain proteins. However, the location of this domain is shifted with respect to that predicted on the basis of a consensus 12-residue EF-hand calcium binding loop in the sequence. This finding is consistent with the weak calcium affinity reported for the isolated EF-hand domain; high affinity binding is observed only in a construct with an additional 60 residues C-terminal to the EF-hand domain, including the IQ motif that is central to the calcium regulatory apparatus. The binding of an IQ motif peptide to the EF-hand domain was characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The peptide binds between helices I and IV in the EF-hand domain, similar to the binding of target peptides to other EF-hand calcium-binding proteins. These results suggest a molecular basis for the coupling of the intrinsic (EF-hand domain) and extrinsic (calmodulin) components of the calcium-sensing apparatus of NaV1.5.

  13. Mutational analysis of the C-terminal domain of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides response regulator PrrA

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Denise F.; Stenzel, Rachelle A.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    The Rhodobacter sphaeroides response regulator PrrA directly activates transcription of genes necessary for energy conservation at low O2 tensions and under anaerobic conditions. It is proposed that PrrA homologues contain a C-terminal DNA-binding domain (PrrA-CTD) that lacks significant amino acid sequence similarity to those found in other response regulators. To test this hypothesis, single amino acid substitutions were created at 12 residues in the PrrA-CTD. These mutant PrrA proteins were purified and tested for the ability to be phosphorylated by the low-molecular-mass phosphate donor acetyl phosphate, to activate transcription and to bind promoter DNA. Each mutant PrrA protein accepted phosphate from 32P-labelled acetyl phosphate. At micromolar concentrations of acetyl phosphate-treated wild-type PrrA, a single 20 bp region in the PrrA-dependent cycA P2 promoter was protected from DNase I digestion. Of the mutant PrrA proteins tested, only acetyl phosphate-treated PrrA-N168A and PrrA-I177A protected cycA P2 from DNase I digestion at similar protein concentrations compared to wild-type PrrA. The use of in vitro transcription assays with the PrrA-dependent cycA P2 and puc promoters showed that acetyl phosphate-treated PrrA-N168A produced transcript levels similar to that of wild-type PrrA at comparable protein concentrations. Using concentrations of acetyl phosphate-treated PrrA that are saturating for the wild-type protein, PrrA-H170A and PrrA-I177A produced<45%as much transcript as wild-type PrrA. Under identical conditions, the remaining mutant PrrA proteins produced little or no detectable transcripts from either promoter in vitro. Explanations are presented for why these amino acid side chains in the PrrA-CTD are important for its ability to activate transcription. PMID:16339955

  14. C-Terminal Domain Residues Important for Secretion and Attachment of RgpB in Porphyromonas gingivalis▿

    PubMed Central

    Slakeski, Nada; Seers, Christine A.; Ng, Kaiting; Moore, Caroline; Cleal, Steven M.; Veith, Paul D.; Lo, Alvin W.; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, expresses a group of surface proteins with a common C-terminal domain (CTD) that are exported by a novel secretion system to the surface, where they are covalently attached. Using RgpB as a model CTD protein, we have produced a series of site-directed mutations in the CTD sequence at conserved residues and at residues that may be modified and, hence, surface attached. The mutant RgpB proteins were expressed in a P. gingivalis host lacking functional RgpB and RgpA Arg-specific proteases. The RgpB mutants produced were Y674F, Y674F Y718F, T675Q S679Q T682Q T684Q, T693Q, F695A, D696A, N698A, G699P, G716P, T724Q, T728Q T730Q, and K732Q and a protein with a deletion of residues 692 to 702 (Δ692-702). The mutants were characterized for cell-associated Arg-specific protease activity and for cellular distribution using anti-Rgp antibodies and Western blotting of culture fractions. All the mutants exhibited cell-associated Arg-specific activity similar to that of the positive control except for the D696A and Δ692-702 mutants. For all mutants, except D696A and Δ692-702, the RgpB proteins were found modified and attached to the cell surface, which was the same profile found in the positive-control strain. Only trace amounts of the precursor form of the Δ692-702 mutant were detected in the outer membrane, with none detected in the periplasm or culture fluid although cell transcript levels were normal. The results suggest that residues 692 to 702 of the CTD, in particular, residue D696, have an important role in the attachment of RgpB at the cell surface and that without attachment secretion does not occur. PMID:20971915

  15. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Region of Streptococcus mutans Antigen I/II and Characterization of Salivary Agglutinin Adherence Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Matthew R.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Crowley, Paula J.; Kelly, Charles; Mitchell, Tim J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Deivanayagam, Champion

    2012-05-29

    The Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (AgI/II) is a cell surface-localized protein that adheres to salivary components and extracellular matrix molecules. Here we report the 2.5 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the complete C-terminal region of AgI/II. The C-terminal region is comprised of three major domains: C{sub 1}, C{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}. Each domain adopts a DE-variant IgG fold, with two {beta}-sheets whose A and F strands are linked through an intramolecular isopeptide bond. The adherence of the C-terminal AgI/II fragments to the putative tooth surface receptor salivary agglutinin (SAG), as monitored by surface plasmon resonance, indicated that the minimal region of binding was contained within the first and second DE-variant-IgG domains (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}) of the C terminus. The minimal C-terminal region that could inhibit S. mutans adherence to SAG was also confirmed to be within the C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains. Competition experiments demonstrated that the C- and N-terminal regions of AgI/II adhere to distinct sites on SAG. A cleft formed at the intersection between these C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains bound glucose molecules from the cryo-protectant solution, revealing a putative binding site for its highly glycosylated receptor SAG. Finally, electron microscopy images confirmed the elongated structure of AgI/II and enabled building a composite tertiary model that encompasses its two distinct binding regions.

  16. Amyloidogenic properties of a D/N mutated 12 amino acid fragment of the C-terminal domain of the Cholesteryl-Ester Transfer Protein (CETP).

    PubMed

    García-González, Victor; Mas-Oliva, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The cholesteryl-ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the transfer of cholesterol esters and triglycerides between lipoproteins in plasma where the critical site for its function is situated in the C-terminal domain. Our group has previously shown that this domain presents conformational changes in a non-lipid environment when the mutation D(470)N is introduced. Using a series of peptides derived from this C-terminal domain, the present study shows that these changes favor the induction of a secondary β-structure as characterized by spectroscopic analysis and fluorescence techniques. From this type of secondary structure, the formation of peptide aggregates and fibrillar structures with amyloid characteristics induced cytotoxicity in microglial cells in culture. These supramolecular structures promote cell cytotoxicity through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and change the balance of a series of proteins that control the process of endocytosis, similar to that observed when β-amyloid fibrils are employed. Therefore, a fine balance between the highly dynamic secondary structure of the C-terminal domain of CETP, the net charge, and the physicochemical characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment define the type of secondary structure acquired. Changes in this balance might favor misfolding in this region, which would alter the lipid transfer capacity conducted by CETP, favoring its propensity to substitute its physiological function.

  17. IN VITRO EVOLUTION OF AN HIV INTEGRASE BINDING PROTEIN FROM A LIBRARY OF C-TERMINAL DOMAIN γS-CRYSTALLIN VARIANTS

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Issa S.; Verde, Shawn C.; Overstreet, Cathie M.; Robinson, W. Edward; Weiss, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    A protein without natural binding functions was engineered to bind HIV-1 integrase. Phage display selections applied a library of variants based on the C-terminal domain of the eye lens protein human γS-crystallin. Multiple loop regions were altered to encode libraries with ≈3.6×1011 different variants. A crystallin variant, termed Integrase-Binding Protein-10 (IBP-10), inhibits integrase catalysis with nanomolar Ki values. IBP-10 interacts with the integrase C-terminal domain and inhibits integrase substrate affinity. This allosteric mechanism allows IBP-10 to inhibit drug resistant integrase variants. The results demonstrate the applicability of the crystallin scaffold for the discovery of binding partners and enzyme inhibitors. PMID:22858140

  18. Expression, Purification And Preliminary X-Ray Analysis of the C-Terminal Domain of An Arginine Repressor Protein From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, G.J.; Garen, C.R.; Cherney, M.M.; Cherney, L.T.; Lee, C.; James, M.N.J.

    2009-06-03

    The gene product of an open reading frame Rv1657 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a putative arginine repressor protein (ArgR), a transcriptional factor that regulates the expression of arginine-biosynthetic enzymes. Rv1657 was expressed and purified and a C-terminal domain was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data were collected and processed to a resolution of 2.15 {angstrom}. The crystals belong to space group P1 and the Matthews coefficient suggests that the crystals contain six C-terminal domain molecules per unit cell. Previous structural and biochemical studies on the arginine repressor proteins from other organisms have likewise shown the presence of six molecules per unit cell.

  19. High-resolution crystal structure reveals a HEPN domain at the C-terminal region of S. cerevisiae RNA endonuclease Swt1

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Shuxia Zhou, Ke; Wang, Wenjia; Gao, Zengqiang; Dong, Yuhui; Liu, Quansheng

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Crystal structure of the C-terminal (CT) domain of Swt1 was determined at 2.3 Å. • Structure of the CT domain was identified as HEPN domain superfamily member. • Low-resolution envelope of Swt1 full-length in solution was analyzed by SAXS. • The middle and CT domains gave good fit to SAXS structural model. - Abstract: Swt1 is an RNA endonuclease that plays an important role in quality control of nuclear messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) in eukaryotes; however, its structural details remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C-terminal (CT) domain of Swt1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which shares common characteristics of higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide binding (HEPN) domain superfamily. To study in detail the full-length protein structure, we analyzed the low-resolution architecture of Swt1 in solution using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method. Both the CT domain and middle domain exhibited a good fit upon superimposing onto the molecular envelope of Swt1. Our study provides the necessary structural information for detailed analysis of the functional role of Swt1, and its importance in the process of nuclear mRNP surveillance.

  20. Productive association between MHC class I and tapasin requires the tapasin transmembrane/cytosolic region and the tapasin C-terminal Ig-like domain

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Laura C.; Georgesen, Corey J.; Simone, Peter D.; Wang, Xiaojian; Solheim, Joyce C.

    2011-01-01

    The current model of antigen assembly with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules posits that interactions between the tapasin N-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain and the MHC class I peptide-binding groove permit tapasin to regulate antigen selection. Much less is known regarding interactions that might involve the tapasin C-terminal Ig-like domain. Additionally, the tapasin transmembrane/cytoplasmic region enables tapasin to bridge the MHC class I molecule to the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). In this investigation, we made use of two tapasin mutants to determine the relative contribution of the tapasin C-terminal Ig-like domain and the tapasin transmembrane/cytoplasmic region to the assembly of MHC class I molecules. Deletion of a loop within the tapasin C-terminal Ig-like domain (Δ334-342) prevented tapasin association with the MHC class I molecule Kd. Although tapasin Δ334-342 did not increase the efficiency of Kd folding, Kd surface expression was enhanced on cells expressing this mutant relative to tapasin-deficient cells. In contrast to tapasin Δ334-342, a soluble tapasin mutant lacking the transmembrane/cytoplasmic region retained the ability to bind to Kd molecules, but did not facilitate Kd surface expression. Furthermore, when soluble tapasin and tapasin Δ334-342 were co-expressed, soluble tapasin had a dominant negative effect on the folding and surface expression of not only Kd, but also Db and Kb. In addition, our molecular modeling of the MHC class I-tapasin interface revealed novel potential interactions involving tapasin residues 334-342. Together, these findings demonstrate that the tapasin C-terminal and transmembrane/cytoplasmic regions are critical to tapasin's capacity to associate effectively with the MHC class I molecule. PMID:22169163

  1. Sequence analysis of the non-recurring C-terminal domains shows that insect lipoprotein receptors constitute a distinct group of LDL receptor family members.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Kees W; Smolenaars, Marcel M W; Van Hoof, Dennis; Van der Horst, Dick J

    2006-04-01

    Lipoprotein-mediated delivery of lipids in mammals involves endocytic receptors of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) family. In contrast, in insects, the lipoprotein, lipophorin (Lp), functions as a reusable lipid shuttle in lipid delivery, and these animals, therefore, were not supposed to use endocytic receptors. However, recent data indicate additional endocytic uptake of Lp, mediated by a Lp receptor (LpR) of the LDLR family. The two N-terminal domains of LDLR family members are involved in ligand binding and dissociation, respectively, and are composed of a mosaic of multiple repeats. The three C-terminal domains, viz., the optional O-linked glycosylation domain, the transmembrane domain, and the intracellular domain, are of a non-repetitive sequence. The present classification of newly discovered LDLR family members, including the LpRs, bears no relevance to physiological function. Therefore, as a novel approach, the C-terminal domains of LDLR family members across the entire animal kingdom were used to perform a sequence comparison analysis in combination with a phylogenetic tree analysis. The LpRs appeared to segregate into a specific group distinct from the groups encompassing the other family members, and each of the three C-terminal domains of the insect receptors is composed of unique set of sequence motifs. Based on conservation of sequence motifs and organization of these motifs in the domains, LpR resembles most the groups of the LDLRs, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptors, and vitellogenin receptors. However, in sequence aspects in which LpR deviates from these three receptor groups, it most notably resembles LDLR-related protein-2, or megalin. These features might explain the functional differences disclosed between insect and mammalian lipoprotein receptors.

  2. The Conserved Tetratricopeptide Repeat-Containing C-Terminal Domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa FimV Is Required for Its Cyclic AMP-Dependent and -Independent Functions

    PubMed Central

    Buensuceso, Ryan N. C.; Nguyen, Ylan; Zhang, Kun; Daniel-Ivad, Martin; Sugiman-Marangos, Seiji N.; Fleetwood, Aaron D.; Junop, Murray S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT FimV is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa inner membrane protein that regulates intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels—and thus type IV pilus (T4P)-mediated twitching motility and type II secretion (T2S)—by activating the adenylate cyclase CyaB. Its cytoplasmic domain contains three predicted tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs separated by an unstructured region: two proximal to the inner membrane and one within the “FimV C-terminal domain,” which is highly conserved across diverse homologs. Here, we present the crystal structure of the FimV C terminus, FimV861–919, containing a TPR motif decorated with solvent-exposed, charged side chains, plus a C-terminal capping helix. FimV689, a truncated form lacking this C-terminal motif, did not restore wild-type levels of twitching or surface piliation compared to the full-length protein. FimV689 failed to restore wild-type levels of the T4P motor ATPase PilU or T2S, suggesting that it was unable to activate cAMP synthesis. Bacterial two-hybrid analysis showed that TPR3 interacts directly with the CyaB activator, FimL. However, FimV689 failed to restore wild-type motility in a fimV mutant expressing a constitutively active CyaB (fimV cyaB-R456L), suggesting that the C-terminal motif is also involved in cAMP-independent functions of FimV. The data show that the highly conserved TPR-containing C-terminal domain of FimV is critical for its cAMP-dependent and -independent functions. IMPORTANCE FimV is important for twitching motility and cAMP-dependent virulence gene expression in P. aeruginosa. FimV homologs have been identified in several human pathogens, and their functions are not limited to T4P expression. The C terminus of FimV is remarkably conserved among otherwise very diverse family members, but its role is unknown. We provide here biological evidence for the importance of the C-terminal domain in both cAMP-dependent (through FimL) and -independent functions of FimV. We present X-ray crystal structures

  3. Evidence for involvement of the C-terminal domain in the dimerization of the CopY repressor protein from Enterococcus hirae

    SciTech Connect

    Pazehoski, Kristina O.; Cobine, Paul A.; Winzor, Donald J.; Dameron, Charles T.

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} A metal-binding protein domain is directly involved in protein dimerization. {yields} Fusing the metal-binding domain to a monomeric protein induces dimerization. {yields} Frontal size-exclusion chromatography measures the strength of dimer interaction. {yields} Ultracentrifugation studies confirm the influence of metal binding on dimerization. -- Abstract: Metal binding to the C-terminal region of the copper-responsive repressor protein CopY is responsible for homodimerization and the regulation of the copper homeostasis pathway in Enterococcus hirae. Specific involvement of the 38 C-terminal residues of CopY in dimerization is indicated by zonal and frontal (large zone) size-exclusion chromatography studies. The studies demonstrate that the attachment of these CopY residues to the immunoglobulin-binding domain of streptococcal protein G (GB1) promotes dimerization of the monomeric protein. Although sensitivity of dimerization to removal of metal from the fusion protein is smaller than that found for CopY (as measured by ultracentrifugation studies), the demonstration that an unrelated protein (GB1) can be induced to dimerize by extending its sequence with the C-terminal portion of CopY confirms the involvement of this region in CopY homodimerization.

  4. Alternatively spliced C-terminal domains regulate the surface expression of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Ridgway, Lon D.; Zou, Shengwei; Chiu, Yu-Hsin; Dryer, Stuart E.

    2007-01-01

    The Slo1 gene, also known as KCNMA1, encodes the pore-forming subunits of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels. Products of this gene are widely expressed in vertebrate tissues, and occur in a large number (≥ 20) of alternatively spliced variants that vary in their gating properties, susceptibility to modulation, and trafficking to the plasma membrane. Motifs in the large cytoplasmic C-terminal are especially important in determining the functional properties of BKCa channels. Here we report that chick ciliary ganglion neurons express transcripts and proteins of two Slo1 splice variants that differ at the extreme C-terminal. We refer to these variants as VEDEC and QEDRL (or QEERL for the orthologous mammalian versions), after the five terminal amino acid residues in each isoform. Individual ciliary ganglion neurons preferentially express these variants in different subcellular compartments. Moreover, QEERL channels show markedly higher levels of constitutive expression on the plasma membrane than VEDEC channels in HEK293T and NG108-15 cells. However, growth factor treatment can stimulate surface expression of VEDEC channels to levels comparable to those seen with QEERL. In addition, we show that co-expression of a soluble protein comprised of VEDEC C-terminal tail residues markedly increases cell surface expression of full-length VEDEC channels, suggesting that this region binds to proteins that cause retention of the these channels in intracellular stores. PMID:17478049

  5. Cholesterol dependent conformational exchange of the C-terminal domain of the influenza A M2 protein

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwoo S.; Upshur, Mary Alice; Saotome, Kei; Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Feix, Jimmy B.; Lorigan, Gary A.; Howard, Kathleen P.

    2016-01-01

    The C-terminal amphipathic helix of the influenza A M2 protein plays a critical cholesterol dependent role in viral budding. To provide atomic-level detail on the impact cholesterol has on the conformation of M2 protein, we spin-labeled sites right before and within the C-terminal amphipathic helix of the M2 protein. We studied the spin-labeled M2 proteins in membranes both with and without cholesterol. We used a multipronged site-directed spin-label electron paramagnetic resonance (SDSL-EPR) approach and collected data on line shapes, relaxation rates, accessibility of sites to the membrane, and distances between symmetry related sites within the tetrameric protein. We demonstrate that the C-terminal amphipathic helix of M2 populates at least two conformations in POPC/POPG 4:1 bilayers. Furthermore, we show that the conformational state that becomes more populated in the presence of cholesterol is less dynamic, less membrane buried, and more tightly packed than the other state. Cholesterol dependent changes in M2 could be attributed to the changes cholesterol induces in bilayer properties and/or direct binding of cholesterol to the protein. We propose a model consistent with all our experimental data that suggests that the predominant conformation we observe in the presence of cholesterol is relevant for the understanding of viral budding. PMID:26569023

  6. The C-terminal domains of the GABA(b) receptor subunits mediate intracellular trafficking but are not required for receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Calver, A R; Robbins, M J; Cosio, C; Rice, S Q; Babbs, A J; Hirst, W D; Boyfield, I; Wood, M D; Russell, R B; Price, G W; Couve, A; Moss, S J; Pangalos, M N

    2001-02-15

    GABA(B) receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate slow synaptic inhibition in the brain and spinal cord. These receptors are heterodimers assembled from GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits, neither of which is capable of producing functional GABA(B) receptors on homomeric expression. GABA(B1,) although able to bind GABA, is retained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when expressed alone. In contrast, GABA(B2) is able to access the cell surface when expressed alone but does not couple efficiently to the appropriate effector systems or produce any detectable GABA-binding sites. In the present study, we have constructed chimeric and truncated GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits to explore further GABA(B) receptor signaling and assembly. Removal of the entire C-terminal intracellular domain of GABA(B1) results in plasma membrane expression without the production of a functional GABA(B) receptor. However, coexpression of this truncated GABA(B1) subunit with either GABA(B2) or a truncated GABA(B2) subunit in which the C terminal has also been removed is capable of functional signaling via G-proteins. In contrast, transferring the entire C-terminal tail of GABA(B1) to GABA(B2) leads to the ER retention of the GABA(B2) subunit when expressed alone. These results indicate that the C terminal of GABA(B1) mediates the ER retention of this protein and that neither of the C-terminal tails of GABA(B1) or GABA(B2) is an absolute requirement for functional coupling of heteromeric receptors. Furthermore although GABA(B1) is capable of producing GABA-binding sites, GABA(B2) is of central importance in the functional coupling of heteromeric GABA(B) receptors to G-proteins and the subsequent activation of effector systems.

  7. Differential DNA binding by the androgen and glucocorticoid receptors involves the second Zn-finger and a C-terminal extension of the DNA-binding domains.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenmakers, E; Alen, P; Verrijdt, G; Peeters, B; Verhoeven, G; Rombauts, W; Claessens, F

    1999-01-01

    The androgen and glucocorticoid hormones evoke specific in vivo responses by activating different sets of responsive genes. Although the consensus sequences of the glucocorticoid and androgen response elements are very similar, this in vivo specificity can in some cases be explained by differences in DNA recognition between both receptors. This has clearly been demonstrated for the androgen response element PB-ARE-2 described in the promoter of the rat probasin gene. Swapping of different fragments between the androgen- and glucocorticoid-receptor DNA-binding domains demonstrates that (i) the first Zn-finger module is not involved in this sequence selectivity and (ii) that residues in the second Zn-finger as well as a C-terminal extension of the DNA-binding domain from the androgen receptor are required. For specific and high-affinity binding to response elements, the DNA-binding domains of the androgen and glucocorticoid receptors need a different C-terminal extension. The glucocorticoid receptor requires 12 C-terminal amino acids for high affinity DNA binding, while the androgen receptor only involves four residues. However, for specific recognition of the PB-ARE-2, the androgen receptor also requires 12 C-terminal residues. Our data demonstrate that the mechanism by which the androgen receptor binds selectively to the PB-ARE-2 is different from that used by the glucocorticoid receptor to bind a consensus response element. We would like to suggest that the androgen receptor recognizes response elements as a direct repeat rather than the classical inverted repeat. PMID:10417312

  8. Structural investigation of a C-terminal EphA2 receptor mutant: Does mutation affect the structure and interaction properties of the Sam domain?

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Flavia A; Costantini, Susan; Di Natale, Concetta; Pirone, Luciano; Guariniello, Stefano; Scognamiglio, Pasqualina L; Marasco, Daniela; Pedone, Emilia M; Leone, Marilisa

    2017-09-01

    Ephrin A2 receptor (EphA2) plays a key role in cancer, it is up-regulated in several types of tumors and the process of ligand-induced receptor endocytosis, followed by degradation, is considered as a potential path to diminish tumor malignancy. Protein modulators of this mechanism are recruited at the cytosolic Sterile alpha motif (Sam) domain of EphA2 (EphA2-Sam) through heterotypic Sam-Sam associations. These interactions engage the C-terminal helix of EphA2 and close loop regions (the so called End Helix side). In addition, several studies report on destabilizing mutations in EphA2 related to cataract formation and located in/or close to the Sam domain. Herein, we analyzed from a structural point of view, one of these mutants characterized by the insertion of a novel 39 residue long polypeptide at the C-terminus of EphA2-Sam. A 3D structural model was built by computational methods and revealed partial disorder in the acquired C-terminal tail and a few residues participating in an α-helix and two short β-strands. We investigated by CD and NMR studies the conformational properties in solution of two peptides encompassing the whole C-terminal tail and its predicted helical region, respectively. NMR binding experiments demonstrated that these peptides do not interact relevantly with either EphA2-Sam or its interactor Ship2-Sam. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations further indicated that the EphA2 mutant could be represented only through a conformational ensemble and that the C-terminal tail should not largely wrap the EphA2-Sam End-Helix interface and affect binding to other Sam domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Crystal Structure of the C-Terminal Domain of the Salmonella enterica PduO Protein: An Old Fold with a New Heme-Binding Mode

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío; Hickey, Neal; Hensel, Michael; Klare, Johann P.; Geremia, Silvano; Tiufiakova, Tatiana; Torda, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    The two-domain protein PduO, involved in 1,2-propanediol utilization in the pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica is an ATP:Cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase, but this is a function of the N-terminal domain alone. The role of its C-terminal domain (PduOC) is, however, unknown. In this study, comparative growth assays with a set of Salmonella mutant strains showed that this domain is necessary for effective in vivo catabolism of 1,2-propanediol. It was also shown that isolated, recombinantly-expressed PduOC binds heme in vivo. The structure of PduOC co-crystallized with heme was solved (1.9 Å resolution) showing an octameric assembly with four heme moieities. The four heme groups are highly solvent-exposed and the heme iron is hexa-coordinated with bis-His ligation by histidines from different monomers. Static light scattering confirmed the octameric assembly in solution, but a mutation of the heme-coordinating histidine caused dissociation into dimers. Isothermal titration calorimetry using the PduOC apoprotein showed strong heme binding (Kd = 1.6 × 10−7 M). Biochemical experiments showed that the absence of the C-terminal domain in PduO did not affect adenosyltransferase activity in vitro. The evidence suggests that PduOC:heme plays an important role in the set of cobalamin transformations required for effective catabolism of 1,2-propanediol. Salmonella PduO is one of the rare proteins which binds the redox-active metabolites heme and cobalamin, and the heme-binding mode of the C-terminal domain differs from that in other members of this protein family. PMID:27446048

  10. Amyloidogenic processing but not amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular C-terminal domain production requires a precisely oriented APP dimer assembled by transmembrane GXXXG motifs.

    PubMed

    Kienlen-Campard, Pascal; Tasiaux, Bernadette; Van Hees, Joanne; Li, Mingli; Huysseune, Sandra; Sato, Takeshi; Fei, Jeffrey Z; Aimoto, Saburo; Courtoy, Pierre J; Smith, Steven O; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Octave, Jean-Noël

    2008-03-21

    The beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) is the major constituent of the amyloid core of senile plaques found in the brain of patients with Alzheimer disease. Abeta is produced by the sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretases. Cleavage of APP by gamma-secretase also generates the APP intracellular C-terminal domain (AICD) peptide, which might be involved in regulation of gene transcription. APP contains three Gly-XXX-Gly (GXXXG) motifs in its juxtamembrane and transmembrane (TM) regions. Such motifs are known to promote dimerization via close apposition of TM sequences. We demonstrate that pairwise replacement of glycines by leucines or isoleucines, but not alanines, in a GXXXG motif led to a drastic reduction of Abeta40 and Abeta42 secretion. beta-Cleavage of mutant APP was not inhibited, and reduction of Abeta secretion resulted from inhibition of gamma-cleavage. It was anticipated that decreased gamma-cleavage of mutant APP would result from inhibition of its dimerization. Surprisingly, mutations of the GXXXG motif actually enhanced dimerization of the APP C-terminal fragments, possibly via a different TM alpha-helical interface. Increased dimerization of the TM APP C-terminal domain did not affect AICD production.

  11. The C-terminal cytidine deaminase domain of APOBEC3G itself undergoes intersegmental transfer for a target search, as revealed by real-time NMR monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kamba, Keisuke; Nagata, Takashi; Katahira, Masato

    2017-09-14

    APOBEC3G (A3G), an anti-human immunodeficiency virus 1 factor, deaminates cytidines. We examined deamination of two cytidines located separately on substrate ssDNA by the C-terminal domain (CTD) of A3G using real-time NMR monitoring. The deamination preference between the two cytidines was lost when either the substrate or non-substrate ssDNA concentration increased. When the non-substrate ssDNA concentration increased, the deamination activity first increased, but then decreased. This indicates that even a single domain, A3G-CTD, undergoes intersegmental transfer for a target search.

  12. Critical Role of the PA-X C-Terminal Domain of Influenza A Virus in Its Subcellular Localization and Shutoff Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Chaimayo, Chutikarn; McGuinness, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT PA-X is a recently identified influenza virus protein that is composed of the PA N-terminal 191 amino acids and unique C-terminal 41 or 61 residues. We and others showed that PA-X has a strong ability to suppress host protein synthesis via host mRNA decay, which is mediated by endonuclease activity in its N-terminal domain (B. W. Jagger, H. M. Wise, J. C. Kash, K. A. Walters, N. M. Wills, Y. L. Xiao, R. L. Dunfee, L. M. Schwartzman, A. Ozinsky, G. L. Bell, R. M. Dalton, A. Lo, S. Efstathiou, J. F. Atkins, A. E. Firth, J. K. Taubenberger, and P. Digard, 2012, Science 337:199–204, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1222213, and E. A. Desmet, K. A. Bussey, R. Stone, and T. Takimoto, 2013, J Virol 87:3108–3118, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02826-12). However, the mechanism of host mRNA degradation, especially where and how PA-X targets mRNAs, has not been analyzed. In this study, we determined the localization of PA-X and the role of the C-terminal unique region in shutoff activity. Quantitative subcellular localization analysis revealed that PA-X was located equally in both cytoplasm and nucleus. By characterizing a series of PA-X C-terminal deletion mutants, we found that the first 9 amino acids were sufficient for nuclear localization, but an additional 6 residues were required to induce the maximum shutoff activity observed with intact PA-X. Importantly, forced nuclear localization of the PA-X C-terminal deletion mutant enhanced shutoff activity, highlighting the ability of nuclear PA-X to degrade host mRNAs more efficiently. However, PA-X also inhibited luciferase expression from transfected mRNAs synthesized in vitro, suggesting that PA-X also degrades mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Among the basic amino acids in the PA-X C-terminal region, 3 residues, 195K, 198K, and 199R, were identified as key residues for inducing host shutoff and nuclear localization. Overall, our data indicate a critical role for the 15 residues in the PA-X C-terminal domain in

  13. The Host-Pathogen interaction of human cyclophilin A and HIV-1 Vpr requires specific N-terminal and novel C-terminal domains

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cyclophilin A (CypA) represents a potential key molecule in future antiretroviral therapy since inhibition of CypA suppresses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. CypA interacts with the virus proteins Capsid (CA) and Vpr, however, the mechanism through which CypA influences HIV-1 infectivity still remains unclear. Results Here the interaction of full-length HIV-1 Vpr with the host cellular factor CypA has been characterized and quantified by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. A C-terminal region of Vpr, comprising the 16 residues 75GCRHSRIGVTRQRRAR90, with high binding affinity for CypA has been identified. This region of Vpr does not contain any proline residues but binds much more strongly to CypA than the previously characterized N-terminal binding domain of Vpr, and is thus the first protein binding domain to CypA described involving no proline residues. The fact that the mutant peptide Vpr75-90 R80A binds more weakly to CypA than the wild-type peptide confirms that Arg-80 is a key residue in the C-terminal binding domain. The N- and C-terminal binding regions of full-length Vpr bind cooperatively to CypA and have allowed a model of the complex to be created. The dissociation constant of full-length Vpr to CypA was determined to be approximately 320 nM, indicating that the binding may be stronger than that of the well characterized interaction of HIV-1 CA with CypA. Conclusions For the first time the interaction of full-length Vpr and CypA has been characterized and quantified. A non-proline-containing 16-residue region of C-terminal Vpr which binds specifically to CypA with similar high affinity as full-length Vpr has been identified. The fact that this is the first non-proline containing binding motif of any protein found to bind to CypA, changes the view on how CypA is able to interact with other proteins. It is interesting to note that several previously reported key functions of HIV-1 Vpr are associated with the

  14. Structural domains of heparan sulphate for specific recognition of the C-terminal heparin-binding domain of human plasma fibronectin (HEPII).

    PubMed Central

    Walker, A; Gallagher, J T

    1996-01-01

    Heparan sulphate (HS) is an abundant polysaccharide component of the pericellular domain and is found in most soft tissues and all adherent cells in culture. It interacts with a wide spectrum of proteins including polypeptide growth factors and glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix. These interactions might influence fundamental cellular activities such as adhesion, growth and migration. HS might therefore represent a highly adaptive mechanism by which cells respond to their environment. The present study shows that the interaction between fibroblast HS, metabolically labelled with [3H]glucosamine, and the C-terminal heparin-binding domain of human plasma fibronectin (HEPII), is determined by distinct regions of the polysaccharide chain. By using a very sensitive affinity-chromatography method and specific polysaccharide scission it was shown that the HEPII-binding regions of HS reside within sulphated domains that are resistant to degradation by heparinase III. In addition, optimal binding was achieved with specific heparinase III-resistant fragments of 14-16 monosaccharides in length. The affinity of HS for HEPII was significantly decreased when the polysaccharide was cleaved with heparinase I. Chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate were poor competitive inhibitors of [3H]HS binding to HEPII whereas unlabelled HS and heparin gave a strong inhibitory activity, with heparin being the most potent inhibitor. These findings suggest that the interaction between HEPII and HS is specific and requires extended sequences of seven to eight N-sulphated disaccharides in which a proportion of the iduronate residues are sulphated at C-2. The results have important implications for the functions of HS in cell adhesion and migration. PMID:8760376

  15. Proximal C-terminal domain of sulphonylurea receptor 2A interacts with pore-forming Kir6 subunits in KATP channels.

    PubMed Central

    Rainbow, Richard D; James, Marian; Hudman, Diane; Al Johi, Mohammed; Singh, Harprit; Watson, Peter J; Ashmole, Ian; Davies, Noel W; Lodwick, David; Norman, Robert I

    2004-01-01

    Functional KATP (ATP-sensitive potassium) channels are hetero-octamers of four Kir6 (inwardly rectifying potassium) channel subunits and four SUR (sulphonylurea receptor) subunits. Possible interactions between the C-terminal domain of SUR2A and Kir6.2 were investigated by co-immunoprecipitation of rat SUR2A C-terminal fragments with full-length Kir6.2 and by analysis of cloned KATP channel function and distribution in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells) in the presence of competing rSUR2A fragments. Three maltose-binding protein-SUR2A fusions, rSUR2A-CTA (rSUR2A residues 1254-1545), rSUR2A-CTB (residues 1254-1403) and rSUR2A-CTC (residues 1294-1403), were co-immunoprecipitated with full-length Kir6.2 using a polyclonal anti-Kir6.2 antiserum. A fourth C-terminal domain fragment, rSUR2A-CTD (residues 1358-1545) did not co-immunoprecipitate with Kir6.2 under the same conditions, indicating a direct interaction between Kir6.2 and a 65-amino-acid section of the cytoplasmic C-terminal region of rSUR2A between residues 1294 and 1358. ATP- and glibenclamide-sensitive K+ currents were decreased in HEK-293 cells expressing full-length Kir6 and SUR2 subunits that were transiently transfected with fragments rSUR2A-CTA, rSUR2A-CTC and rSUR2A-CTE (residues 1294-1359) compared with fragment rSUR2A-CTD or mock-transfected cells, suggesting either channel inhibition or a reduction in the number of functional KATP channels at the cell surface. Anti-KATP channel subunit-associated fluorescence in the cell membrane was substantially lower and intracellular fluorescence increased in rSUR2A-CTE expressing cells; thus, SUR2A fragments containing residues 1294-1358 reduce current by decreasing the number of channel subunits in the cell membrane. These results identify a site in the C-terminal domain of rSUR2A, between residues 1294 and 1358, whose direct interaction with full-length Kir6.2 is crucial for the assembly of functional KATP channels. PMID:14672537

  16. C terminal retroviral-type zinc finger domain from the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein is structurally similar to the N-terminal zinc finger domain

    SciTech Connect

    South, T.L.; Blake, P.R. ); Hare, D.R.; Summers, M.F. )

    1991-06-25

    Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic and computational methods were employed for the structure determination of an 18-residue peptide with the amino acid sequence of the C-terminal retriviral-type (r.t.) zinc finger domain from the nucleocapsid protein (NCP) of HIV-1 (Zn(HIV1-F2)). Unlike results obtained for the first retroviral-type zinc finger peptide, Zn (HIV1-F1) broad signals indicative of confomational lability were observed in the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of An(HIV1-F2) at 25 C. The NMR signals narrowed upon cooling to {minus}2 C, enabling complete {sup 1}H NMR signal assignment via standard two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Distance restraints obtained from qualitative analysis of 2D nuclear Overhauser effect (NOESY) data were sued to generate 30 distance geometry (DG) structures with penalties in the range 0.02-0.03 {angstrom}{sup 2}. All structures were qualitatively consistent with the experimental NOESY spectrum based on comparisons with 2D NOESY back-calculated spectra. These results indicate that the r.t. zinc finger sequences observed in retroviral NCPs, simple plant virus coat proteins, and in a human single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein share a common structural motif.

  17. Demonstration of N- and C-terminal domain intramolecular interactions in rat liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 that determine its degree of malonyl-CoA sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Faye, Audrey; Borthwick, Karen; Esnous, Catherine; Price, Nigel T.; Gobin, Stéphanie; Jackson, Vicky N.; Zammit, Victor A.; Girard, Jean; Prip-Buus, Carina

    2004-01-01

    We have previously proposed that changes in malonyl-CoA sensitivity of rat L-CPT1 (liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) might occur through modulation of interactions between its cytosolic N- and C-terminal domains. By using a cross-linking strategy based on the trypsin-resistant folded state of L-CPT1, we have now shown the existence of such N–C (N- and C-terminal domain) intramolecular interactions both in wild-type L-CPT1 expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the native L-CPT1 in fed rat liver mitochondria. These N–C intramolecular interactions were found to be either totally (48-h starvation) or partially abolished (streptozotocin-induced diabetes) in mitochondria isolated from animals in which the enzyme displays decreased malonyl-CoA sensitivity. Moreover, increasing the outer membrane fluidity of fed rat liver mitochondria with benzyl alcohol in vitro, which induced malonyl-CoA desensitization, attenuated the N–C interactions. This indicates that the changes in malonyl-CoA sens-itivity of L-CPT1 observed in mitochondria from starved and diabetic rats, previously shown to be associated with altered membrane composition in vivo, are partly due to the disruption of N–C interactions. Finally, we show that mutations in the regulatory regions of the N-terminal domain affect the ability of the N terminus to interact physically with the C-terminal domain, irrespective of whether they increased [S24A (Ser24→Ala)/Q30A] or abrogated (E3A) malonyl-CoA sensitivity. Moreover, we have identified the region immediately N-terminal to transmembrane domain 1 (residues 40–47) as being involved in the chemical N–C cross-linking. These observations provide the first demonstration by a physico-chemical method that L-CPT1 adopts different conformational states that differ in their degree of proximity between the cytosolic N-terminal and the C-terminal domains, and that this determines its degree of malonyl-CoA sensitivity depending on the physiological state

  18. Purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the C-terminal protease domain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP2

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Andrew T.; Watowich, Stanley J.

    2006-06-01

    The C-terminal protease domain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) nsP2 has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and successfully crystallized. Native crystals diffract to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and isomorphous heavy-atom derivatives suitable for phase analysis have been identified. The C-terminal region of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) nsP2 is responsible for proteolytic processing of the VEEV polyprotein replication complex. This action regulates the activity of the replication complex and is essential for viral replication, thus making nsP2 a very attractive target for development of VEEV therapeutics. The 338-amino-acid C-terminal region of VEEV nsP2 has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Crystals diffract to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. Isomorphous heavy-atom derivatives suitable for phase analysis have been obtained and work on building a complete structural model is under way.

  19. Novel human mutation and CRISPR/Cas genome-edited mice reveal the importance of C-terminal domain of MSX1 in tooth and palate development

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Yasue, Akihiro; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Naruto, Takuya; Minegishi, Yoshiyuki; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Noji, Sumihare; Imoto, Issei; Tanaka, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Several mutations, located mainly in the MSX1 homeodomain, have been identified in non-syndromic tooth agenesis predominantly affecting premolars and third molars. We identified a novel frameshift mutation of the highly conserved C-terminal domain of MSX1, known as Msx homology domain 6 (MH6), in a Japanese family with non-syndromic tooth agenesis. To investigate the importance of MH6 in tooth development, Msx1 was targeted in mice with CRISPR/Cas system. Although heterozygous MH6 disruption did not alter craniofacial development, homozygous mice exhibited agenesis of lower incisors with or without cleft palate at E16.5. In addition, agenesis of the upper third molars and the lower second and third molars were observed in 4-week-old mutant mice. Although the upper second molars were present, they were abnormally small. These results suggest that the C-terminal domain of MSX1 is important for tooth and palate development, and demonstrate that that CRISPR/Cas system can be used as a tool to assess causality of human disorders in vivo and to study the importance of conserved domains in genes. PMID:27917906

  20. The structure of S . lividans acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase shows a novel interaction between the C-terminal extension and the N-terminal domain

    DOE PAGES

    Mitchell, Carter A.; Tucker, Alex C.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.; ...

    2014-12-09

    The adenosine monoposphate-forming acyl-CoA synthetase enzymes catalyze a two-step reaction that involves the initial formation of an acyl adenylate that reacts in a second partial reaction to form a thioester between the acyl substrate and CoA. These enzymes utilize a Domain Alternation catalytic mechanism, whereby a ~110 residue C-terminal domain rotates by 140° to form distinct catalytic conformations for the two partial reactions. In this paper, the structure of an acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase (AacS) is presented that illustrates a novel aspect of this C-terminal domain. Specifically, several acetyl- and acetoacetyl-CoA synthetases contain a 30-residue extension on the C-terminus compared to othermore » members of this family. Finally, whereas residues from this extension are disordered in prior structures, the AacS structure shows that residues from this extension may interact with key catalytic residues from the N-terminal domain.« less

  1. The outer-membrane export signal of Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a conserved C-terminal β-sandwich domain

    PubMed Central

    de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Mizgalska, Danuta; Koneru, Lahari; Golik, Przemyslaw; Szmigielski, Borys; Nowak, Magdalena; Nowakowska, Zuzanna; Potempa, Barbara; Houston, John A.; Enghild, Jan J.; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Gao, Jinlong; Kwan, Ann H.; Trewhella, Jill; Dubin, Grzegorz; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the recently characterized Type IX Secretion System (T9SS), the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) in secreted proteins functions as an outer membrane translocation signal for export of virulence factors to the cell surface in the Gram-negative Bacteroidetes phylum. In the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, the CTD is cleaved off by PorU sortase in a sequence-independent manner, and anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) is attached to many translocated proteins, thus anchoring them to the bacterial surface. Here, we solved the atomic structure of the CTD of gingipain B (RgpB) from P. gingivalis, alone and together with a preceding immunoglobulin-superfamily domain (IgSF). The CTD was found to possess a typical Ig-like fold encompassing seven antiparallel β-strands organized in two β-sheets, packed into a β-sandwich structure that can spontaneously dimerise through C-terminal strand swapping. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed no fixed orientation of the CTD with respect to the IgSF. By introducing insertion or substitution of residues within the inter-domain linker in the native protein, we were able to show that despite the region being unstructured, it nevertheless is resistant to general proteolysis. These data suggest structural motifs located in the two adjacent Ig-like domains dictate the processing of CTDs by the T9SS secretion pathway. PMID:27005013

  2. Peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane protein Mep45 of rumen anaerobe Selenomonas ruminantium forms a non-specific diffusion pore via its C-terminal transmembrane domain

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Seiji; Hayashi, Kanako; Tochigi, Saeko; Kusano, Tomonobu; Kaneko, Jun; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The major outer membrane protein Mep45 of Selenomonas ruminantium, an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium, comprises two distinct domains: the N-terminal S-layer homologous (SLH) domain that protrudes into the periplasm and binds to peptidoglycan, and the remaining C-terminal transmembrane domain, whose function has been unknown. Here, we solubilized and purified Mep45 and characterized its function using proteoliposomes reconstituted with Mep45. We found that Mep45 forms a nonspecific diffusion channel via its C-terminal region. The channel was permeable to solutes smaller than a molecular weight of roughly 600, and the estimated pore radius was 0.58 nm. Truncation of the SLH domain did not affect the channel property. On the basis of the fact that Mep45 is the most abundant outer membrane protein in S. ruminantium, we conclude that Mep45 serves as a main pathway through which small solutes diffuse across the outer membrane of this bacterium. PMID:27310312

  3. Novel human mutation and CRISPR/Cas genome-edited mice reveal the importance of C-terminal domain of MSX1 in tooth and palate development.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Yasue, Akihiro; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Naruto, Takuya; Minegishi, Yoshiyuki; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Noji, Sumihare; Imoto, Issei; Tanaka, Eiji

    2016-12-05

    Several mutations, located mainly in the MSX1 homeodomain, have been identified in non-syndromic tooth agenesis predominantly affecting premolars and third molars. We identified a novel frameshift mutation of the highly conserved C-terminal domain of MSX1, known as Msx homology domain 6 (MH6), in a Japanese family with non-syndromic tooth agenesis. To investigate the importance of MH6 in tooth development, Msx1 was targeted in mice with CRISPR/Cas system. Although heterozygous MH6 disruption did not alter craniofacial development, homozygous mice exhibited agenesis of lower incisors with or without cleft palate at E16.5. In addition, agenesis of the upper third molars and the lower second and third molars were observed in 4-week-old mutant mice. Although the upper second molars were present, they were abnormally small. These results suggest that the C-terminal domain of MSX1 is important for tooth and palate development, and demonstrate that that CRISPR/Cas system can be used as a tool to assess causality of human disorders in vivo and to study the importance of conserved domains in genes.

  4. The outer-membrane export signal of Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a conserved C-terminal β-sandwich domain.

    PubMed

    de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Mizgalska, Danuta; Koneru, Lahari; Golik, Przemyslaw; Szmigielski, Borys; Nowak, Magdalena; Nowakowska, Zuzanna; Potempa, Barbara; Houston, John A; Enghild, Jan J; Thøgersen, Ida B; Gao, Jinlong; Kwan, Ann H; Trewhella, Jill; Dubin, Grzegorz; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan

    2016-03-23

    In the recently characterized Type IX Secretion System (T9SS), the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) in secreted proteins functions as an outer membrane translocation signal for export of virulence factors to the cell surface in the Gram-negative Bacteroidetes phylum. In the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, the CTD is cleaved off by PorU sortase in a sequence-independent manner, and anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) is attached to many translocated proteins, thus anchoring them to the bacterial surface. Here, we solved the atomic structure of the CTD of gingipain B (RgpB) from P. gingivalis, alone and together with a preceding immunoglobulin-superfamily domain (IgSF). The CTD was found to possess a typical Ig-like fold encompassing seven antiparallel β-strands organized in two β-sheets, packed into a β-sandwich structure that can spontaneously dimerise through C-terminal strand swapping. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed no fixed orientation of the CTD with respect to the IgSF. By introducing insertion or substitution of residues within the inter-domain linker in the native protein, we were able to show that despite the region being unstructured, it nevertheless is resistant to general proteolysis. These data suggest structural motifs located in the two adjacent Ig-like domains dictate the processing of CTDs by the T9SS secretion pathway.

  5. Essential Role of the C-Terminal Helical Domain in Active Site Formation of Selenoprotein MsrA from Clostridium oremlandii

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Kitaik; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Kim, Hwa-Young

    2015-01-01

    We previously determined the crystal structures of 1-Cys type selenoprotein MsrA from Clostridium oremlandii (CoMsrA). The overall structure of CoMsrA is unusual, consisting of two domains, the N-terminal catalytic domain and the C-terminal distinct helical domain which is absent from other known MsrA structures. Deletion of the helical domain almost completely abolishes the catalytic activity of CoMsrA. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the helical domain-deleted (ΔH-domain) form of CoMsrA at a resolution of 1.76 Å. The monomer structure is composed of the central rolled mixed β-sheet surrounded by α-helices. However, there are significant conformational changes in the N- and C-termini and loop regions of the ΔH-domain protein relative to the catalytic domain structure of full-length CoMsrA. The active site structure in the ΔH-domain protein completely collapses, thereby causing loss of catalytic activity of the protein. Interestingly, dimer structures are observed in the crystal formed by N-terminus swapping between two molecules. The ΔH-domain protein primarily exists as a dimer in solution, whereas the full-length CoMsrA exists as a monomer. Collectively, this study provides insight into the structural basis of the essential role of the helical domain of CoMsrA in its catalysis. PMID:25692691

  6. Mechanism of USP7/HAUSP activation by its C-terminal ubiquitin-like domain and allosteric regulation by GMP-synthetase.

    PubMed

    Faesen, Alex C; Dirac, Annette M G; Shanmugham, Anitha; Ovaa, Huib; Perrakis, Anastassis; Sixma, Titia K

    2011-10-07

    The ubiquitin-specific protease USP7/HAUSP regulates p53 and MDM2 levels, and cellular localization of FOXO4 and PTEN, and hence is critically important for their role in cellular processes. Here we show how the 64 kDa C-terminal region of USP7 can positively regulate deubiquitinating activity. We present the crystal structure of this USP7/HAUSP ubiquitin-like domain (HUBL) comprised of five ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domains organized in 2-1-2 Ubl units. The last di-Ubl unit, HUBL-45, is sufficient to activate USP7, through binding to a "switching" loop in the catalytic domain, which promotes ubiquitin binding and increases activity 100-fold. This activation can be enhanced allosterically by the metabolic enzyme GMPS. It binds to the first three Ubl domains (HUBL-123) and hyperactivates USP7 by stabilization of the HUBL-45-dependent active state. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of a Novel TGF-β-Binding Site in the Zona Pellucida C-terminal (ZP-C) Domain of TGF-β-Receptor-3 (TGFR-3)

    PubMed Central

    Diestel, Uschi; Resch, Marcus; Meinhardt, Kathrin; Weiler, Sigrid; Hellmann, Tina V.; Mueller, Thomas D.; Nickel, Joachim; Eichler, Jutta; Muller, Yves A.

    2013-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) domain is present in extracellular proteins such as the zona pellucida proteins and tectorins and participates in the formation of polymeric protein networks. However, the ZP domain also occurs in the cytokine signaling co-receptor transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor type 3 (TGFR-3, also known as betaglycan) where it contributes to cytokine ligand recognition. Currently it is unclear how the ZP domain architecture enables this dual functionality. Here, we identify a novel major TGF-β-binding site in the FG loop of the C-terminal subdomain of the murine TGFR-3 ZP domain (ZP-C) using protein crystallography, limited proteolysis experiments, surface plasmon resonance measurements and synthetic peptides. In the murine 2.7 Å crystal structure that we are presenting here, the FG-loop is disordered, however, well-ordered in a recently reported homologous rat ZP-C structure. Surprisingly, the adjacent external hydrophobic patch (EHP) segment is registered differently in the rat and murine structures suggesting that this segment only loosely associates with the remaining ZP-C fold. Such a flexible and temporarily-modulated association of the EHP segment with the ZP domain has been proposed to control the polymerization of ZP domain-containing proteins. Our findings suggest that this flexibility also extends to the ZP domain of TGFR-3 and might facilitate co-receptor ligand interaction and presentation via the adjacent FG-loop. This hints that a similar C-terminal region of the ZP domain architecture possibly regulates both the polymerization of extracellular matrix proteins and cytokine ligand recognition of TGFR-3. PMID:23826237

  8. Helicobacter pylori RNA polymerase α-subunit C-terminal domain shows features unique to ɛ-proteobacteria and binds NikR/DNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Borin, Brendan N; Tang, Wei; Krezel, Andrzej M

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial RNA polymerase is a large, multi-subunit enzyme responsible for transcription of genomic information. The C-terminal domain of the α subunit of RNA polymerase (αCTD) functions as a DNA and protein recognition element localizing the polymerase on certain promoter sequences and is essential in all bacteria. Although αCTD is part of RNA polymerase, it is thought to have once been a separate transcription factor, and its primary role is the recruitment of RNA polymerase to various promoters. Despite the conservation of the subunits of RNA polymerase among bacteria, the mechanisms of regulation of transcription vary significantly. We have determined the tertiary structure of Helicobacter pylori αCTD. It is larger than other structurally determined αCTDs due to an extra, highly amphipathic helix near the C-terminal end. Residues within this helix are highly conserved among ɛ-proteobacteria. The surface of the domain that binds A/T rich DNA sequences is conserved and showed binding to DNA similar to αCTDs of other bacteria. Using several NikR dependent promoter sequences, we observed cooperative binding of H. pylori αCTD to NikR:DNA complexes. We also produced αCTD lacking the 19 C-terminal residues, which showed greatly decreased stability, but maintained the core domain structure and binding affinity to NikR:DNA at low temperatures. The modeling of H. pylori αCTD into the context of transcriptional complexes suggests that the additional amphipathic helix mediates interactions with transcriptional regulators.

  9. C-terminal domain phosphatase-like family members (AtCPLs) differentially regulate Arabidopsis thaliana abiotic stress signaling, growth, and development.

    PubMed

    Koiwa, Hisashi; Barb, Adam W; Xiong, Liming; Li, Fang; McCully, Michael G; Lee, Byeong-Ha; Sokolchik, Irina; Zhu, Jianhua; Gong, Zhizhong; Reddy, Muppala; Sharkhuu, Altanbadralt; Manabe, Yuzuki; Yokoi, Shuji; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Bressan, Ray A; Hasegawa, Paul M

    2002-08-06

    Cold, hyperosmolarity, and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling induce RD29A expression, which is an indicator of the plant stress adaptation response. Two nonallelic Arabidopsis thaliana (ecotype C24) T-DNA insertional mutations, cpl1 and cpl3, were identified based on hyperinduction of RD29A expression that was monitored by using the luciferase (LUC) reporter gene (RD29ALUC) imaging system. Genetic linkage analysis and complementation data established that the recessive cpl1 and cpl3 mutations are caused by T-DNA insertions in AtCPL1 (Arabidopsis C-terminal domain phosphatase-like) and AtCPL3, respectively. Gel assays using recombinant AtCPL1 and AtCPL3 detected innate phosphatase activity like other members of the phylogenetically conserved family that dephosphorylate the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). cpl1 mutation causes RD29ALUC hyperexpression and transcript accumulation in response to cold, ABA, and NaCl treatments, whereas the cpl3 mutation mediates hyperresponsiveness only to ABA. Northern analysis confirmed that LUC transcript accumulation also occurs in response to these stimuli. cpl1 plants accumulate biomass more rapidly and exhibit delayed flowering relative to wild type whereas cpl3 plants grow more slowly and flower earlier than wild-type plants. Hence AtCPL1 and AtCPL3 are negative regulators of stress responsive gene transcription and modulators of growth and development. These results suggest that C-terminal domain phosphatase regulation of RNAP II phosphorylation status is a focal control point of complex processes like plant stress responses and development. AtCPL family members apparently have both unique and overlapping transcriptional regulatory functions that differentiate the signal output that determines the plant response.

  10. Tetramerization Dynamics of C-terminal Domain Underlies Isoform-specific cAMP Gating in Hyperpolarization-activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Lolicato, Marco; Nardini, Marco; Gazzarrini, Sabrina; Möller, Stefan; Bertinetti, Daniela; Herberg, Friedrich W.; Bolognesi, Martino; Martin, Holger; Fasolini, Marina; Bertrand, Jay A.; Arrigoni, Cristina; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are dually activated by hyperpolarization and binding of cAMP to their cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD). HCN isoforms respond differently to cAMP; binding of cAMP shifts activation of HCN2 and HCN4 by 17 mV but shifts that of HCN1 by only 2–4 mV. To explain the peculiarity of HCN1, we solved the crystal structures and performed a biochemical-biophysical characterization of the C-terminal domain (C-linker plus CNBD) of the three isoforms. Our main finding is that tetramerization of the C-terminal domain of HCN1 occurs at basal cAMP concentrations, whereas those of HCN2 and HCN4 require cAMP saturating levels. Therefore, HCN1 responds less markedly than HCN2 and HCN4 to cAMP increase because its CNBD is already partly tetrameric. This is confirmed by voltage clamp experiments showing that the right-shifted position of V½ in HCN1 is correlated with its propensity to tetramerize in vitro. These data underscore that ligand-induced CNBD tetramerization removes tonic inhibition from the pore of HCN channels. PMID:22006928

  11. Direct binding of the PDZ domain of Dishevelled to a conserved internal sequence in the C-terminal region of Frizzled.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hing-C; Bourdelas, Audrey; Krauss, Anke; Lee, Ho-Jin; Shao, Youming; Wu, Dianqing; Mlodzik, Marek; Shi, De-Li; Zheng, Jie

    2003-11-01

    The cytoplasmic protein Dishevelled (Dvl) and the associated membrane-bound receptor Frizzled (Fz) are essential in canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this signaling are not well understood. By using NMR spectroscopy, we determined that an internal sequence of Fz binds to the conventional peptide binding site in the PDZ domain of Dvl; this type of site typically binds to C-terminal binding motifs. The C-terminal region of the Dvl inhibitor Dapper (Dpr) and Frodo bound to the same site. In Xenopus, Dvl binding peptides of Fz and Dpr/Frodo inhibited canonical Wnt signaling and blocked Wnt-induced secondary axis formation in a dose-dependent manner, but did not block noncanonical Wnt signaling mediated by the DEP domain. Together, our results identify a missing molecular connection within the Wnt pathway. Differences in the binding affinity of the Dvl PDZ domain and its binding partners may be important in regulating signal transduction by Dvl.

  12. Crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of Bacillus subtilis GabR reveals a closed conformation by γ-aminobutyric acid binding, inducing transcriptional activation.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Ah; Park, Ye Song; Lee, Ki Seog

    2017-05-27

    Bacillus subtilis GabR (BsGabR) is involved in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) catabolism as a transcriptional regulator, consisting of an N-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal aminotransferase-like (AT-like) domain. Research on the C-terminal AT-like domain of BsGabR (BsGabR-CTD) has focused on the interaction with GABA as an effector, but most its functional details remain unclear. To understand the underlying mechanism, we report the crystal structure of BsGabR-CTD in complex with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and GABA at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure of ligand-bound BsGabR-CTD revealed two distinct monomeric states in a homodimer. One subunit is a closed-form containing the PLP-GABA adduct, and the other subunit is a PLP-bound open-form. Our structural studies provide a detailed mechanism indicating that the open-to-closed transition by the binding of GABA induces the conformational rearrangement of BsGabR-CTD, which may trigger the activation of transcription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural and metal binding characterization of the C-terminal metallochaperone domain of membrane fusion protein SilB from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34.

    PubMed

    Bersch, Beate; Derfoufi, Kheiro-Mouna; De Angelis, Fabien; Auquier, Vanessa; Ekendé, Elisabeth Ngonlong; Mergeay, Max; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Vandenbussche, Guy

    2011-03-29

    Detoxification of heavy metal ions in Proteobacteria is tightly controlled by various systems regulating their sequestration and transport. In Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, a model organism for heavy metal resistance studies, the sil determinant is potentially involved in the efflux of silver and copper ions. Proteins SilA, SilB, and SilC form a resistance nodulation cell division (RND)-based transport system in which SilB is the periplasmic adaptor protein belonging to the membrane fusion protein (MFP) family. In addition to the four domains typical of known MFPs, SilB has a fifth additional C-terminal domain, called SilB(440-521), which is characterized here. Structure and backbone dynamics of SilB(440-521) have been investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance, and the residues of the metal site were identified from (15)N- and (13)C-edited HSQC spectra. The solution structure and additional metal binding experiments demonstrated that this C-terminal domain folds independently of the rest of the protein and has a conformation and a Ag(+) and Cu(+) binding specificity similar to those determined for CusF from Escherichia coli. The small protein CusF plays a role in metal trafficking in the periplasm. The similarity with CusF suggests a potential metallochaperone role for SilB(440-521) that is discussed in the context of simultaneous expression of different determinants involved in copper resistance in C. metallidurans CH34.

  14. Direct Binding of the PDZ Domain of Dishevelled to a Conserved Internal Sequence in the C-Terminal Region of Frizzled

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hing-C.; Bourdelas, Audrey; Krauss, Anke; Lee, Ho-Jin; Shao, Youming; Wu, Dianqing; Mlodzik, Marek; Shi, De-Li; Zheng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Summary The cytoplasmic protein Dishevelled (Dvl) and the associated membrane-bound receptor Frizzled (Fz) are essential in canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this signaling are not well understood. By using NMR spectroscopy, we determined that an internal sequence of Fz binds to the conventional peptide binding site in the PDZ domain of Dvl; this type of site typically binds to C-terminal binding motifs. The C-terminal region of the Dvl inhibitor Dapper (Dpr) and Frodo bound to the same site. In Xenopus, Dvl binding peptides of Fz and Dpr/Frodo inhibited canonical Wnt signaling and blocked Wnt-induced secondary axis formation in a dose-dependent manner, but did not block noncanonical Wnt signaling mediated by the DEP domain. Together, our results identify a missing molecular connection within the Wnt pathway. Differences in the binding affinity of the Dvl PDZ domain and its binding partners may be important in regulating signal transduction by Dvl. PMID:14636582

  15. The C-Terminal Flexible Domain of the Heme Chaperone CcmE Is Important but Not Essential for Its Function

    PubMed Central

    Enggist, Elisabeth; Thöny-Meyer, Linda

    2003-01-01

    CcmE is a heme chaperone active in the cytochrome c maturation pathway of Escherichia coli. It first binds heme covalently to strictly conserved histidine H130 and subsequently delivers it to apo-cytochrome c. The recently solved structure of soluble CcmE revealed a compact core consisting of a β-barrel and a flexible C-terminal domain with a short α-helical turn. In order to elucidate the function of this poorly conserved domain, CcmE was truncated stepwise from the C terminus. Removal of all 29 amino acids up to crucial histidine 130 did not abolish heme binding completely. For detectable transfer of heme to type c cytochromes, only one additional residue, D131, was required, and for efficient cytochrome c maturation, the seven-residue sequence 131DENYTPP137 was required. When soluble forms of CcmE were expressed in the periplasm, the C-terminal domain had to be slightly longer to allow detection of holo-CcmE. Soluble full-length CcmE had low activity in cytochrome c maturation, indicating the importance of the N-terminal membrane anchor for the in vivo function of CcmE. PMID:12813076

  16. Structure of the C-Terminal Half of UvrC Reveals an RNase H Endonuclease Domain with an Argonaute-like Catalytic Triad

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas,E.; Truglio, J.; Croteau, D.; Rhau, B.; Wang, L.; Van Houten, B.; Kisker, C.

    2007-01-01

    Removal and repair of DNA damage by the nucleotide excision repair pathway requires two sequential incision reactions, which are achieved by the endonuclease UvrC in eubacteria. Here, we describe the crystal structure of the C-terminal half of UvrC, which contains the catalytic domain responsible for 5' incision and a helix-hairpin-helix-domain that is implicated in DNA binding. Surprisingly, the 5' catalytic domain shares structural homology with RNase H despite the lack of sequence homology and contains an uncommon DDH triad. The structure also reveals two highly conserved patches on the surface of the protein, which are not related to the active site. Mutations of residues in one of these patches led to the inability of the enzyme to bind DNA and severely compromised both incision reactions. Based on our results, we suggest a model of how UvrC forms a productive protein-DNA complex to excise the damage from DNA.

  17. The C-Terminal Domains of Adenovirus Serotype 5 Protein IX Assemble into an Antiparallel Structure on the Facets of the Capsid▿

    PubMed Central

    Fabry, Céline M. S.; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel; Moriscot, Christine; Ruigrok, Rob W. H.; Boulanger, Pierre; Schoehn, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Adenovirus serotype 5 protein IX (pIX) has two domains connected by a flexible linker. Three N-terminal domains form triskelions on the capsid facets that cement hexons together, and the C-terminal domains of four monomers form complexes toward the facet periphery. Here we present a cryoelectron microscopy structure of recombinant adenovirus with a peptide tag added to the C terminus of pIX. The structure, made up by several C termini of pIX, is longer at both ends than the wild-type protein, and Fabs directed against the tag bind to both ends of the oligomer, demonstrating that the pIX C termini associate in an antiparallel manner. PMID:19004948

  18. Dandelion PPO-1/PPO-2 domain-swaps: the C-terminal domain modulates the pH optimum and the linker affects SDS-mediated activation and stability.

    PubMed

    Leufken, Christine M; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Dirks-Hofmeister, Mareike E

    2015-02-01

    Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have a conserved three-domain structure: (i) the N-terminal domain (containing the active site) is connected via (ii) a linker to (iii) the C-terminal domain. The latter covers the active site, thereby maintaining the enzyme in a latent state. Activation can be achieved with SDS but little is known about the mechanism. We prepared domain-swap variants of dandelion PPO-1 and PPO-2 to test the specific functions of individual domains and their impact on enzyme characteristics. Our experiments revealed that the C-terminal domain modulates the pH optimum curve and has a strong influence on the optimal pH value. The linker determines the SDS concentration required for full activation. It also influences the SDS concentration required for half maximal activation (kSDS) and the stability of the enzyme during prolonged incubation in buffers containing SDS, but the N-terminal domain has the strongest effect on these parameters. The N-terminal domain also determines the IC50 of SDS and the stability in buffers containing or lacking SDS. We propose that the linker and C-terminal domain fine-tune the activation of plant PPOs. The C-terminal domain adjusts the pH optimum and the linker probably contains an SDS-binding/interaction site that influences inactivation and determines the SDS concentration required for activation. For the first time, we have determined the influence of the three PPO domains on enzyme activation and stability providing insight into the regulation and activation mechanisms of type-3 copper proteins in general. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The C-terminal domains of human neurofibromin and its budding yeast homologs Ira1 and Ira2 regulate the metaphase to anaphase transition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guangming; Kim, Junwon; Song, Kiwon

    2014-01-01

    The human tumor suppressor neurofibromin contains a cysteine and serine-rich domain/Ras-GTPase activating protein domain (CSRD/RasGAP) and a C-terminal domain (CTD). Domain studies of neurofibromin suggest it has other functions in addition to being a RasGAP, but the mechanisms underlying its tumor suppressor activity are not well understood. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a good model system for studying neurofibromin function because it possesses Ira1 and Ira2, which are homologous to human neurofibromin in both sequence and function. We found that overexpression of CTD or a neurofibromin CTD-homologous domain (CHD) of Ira1/2 in budding yeast delayed degradation of the securin protein Pds1, whereas overexpression of CSRD/RasGAP did not affect Pds1 degradation. We also found that when CTD or CHD was overexpressed, the number of cells in metaphase was higher than in the control. These results demonstrate that CTD and CHD function in the metaphase to anaphase transition. In addition, Δira1Δira2 cells bypassed mitotic arrest in response to spindle damage, indicating that Ira1 and Ira2 may be involved in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). However, Δira1Δira2Δmad2 cells are more sensitive to spindle damage than Δmad2 or Δira1Δira2 cells are, suggesting that Ira1/2 and Mad2 function in different pathways. Overexpression of CTD but not CSRD/RasGAP partially rescued the hypersensitivity of Δira1Δira2Δmad2 cells to microtubule-destabilizing drugs, indicating a role for CTD in the SAC pathway. Taken together, independently of RasGAP activity, the C-terminal domains of neurofibromin, Ira1, and Ira2 regulate the metaphase to anaphase transition in a Mad2-independent fashion.

  20. A protein kinase binds the C-terminal domain of the readthrough protein of Turnip yellows virus and regulates virus accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Boissinot, Sylvaine; Chapuis, Sophie; Gereige, Dalya; Rastegar, Maryam; Erdinger, Monique; Revers, Frédéric; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2015-12-15

    Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a phloem-limited virus, encodes a 74 kDa protein known as the readthrough protein (RT) involved in virus movement. We show here that a TuYV mutant deleted of the C-terminal part of the RT protein (TuYV-∆RT{sub Cter}) was affected in long-distance trafficking in a host-specific manner. By using the C-terminal domain of the RT protein as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a phloem cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana we identified the calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase-7 (AtCIPK7). Transient expression of a GFP:CIPK7 fusion protein in virus-inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves led to local increase of wild-type TuYV accumulation, but not that of TuYV-∆RT{sub Cter}. Surprisingly, elevated virus titer in inoculated leaves did not result in higher TuYV accumulation in systemic leaves, which indicates that virus long-distance movement was not affected. Since GFP:CIPK7 was localized in or near plasmodesmata, CIPK7 could negatively regulate TuYV export from infected cells. - Highlights: • The C-terminal domain of TuYV-RT is required for long-distance movement. • CIPK7 from Arabidopsis interacts with RT{sub Cter} in yeast and in plants. • CIPK7 overexpression increases virus titer locally but not virus systemic movement. • CIPK7 localizes to plasmodesmata. • CIPK7 could be a defense protein regulating virus export.

  1. A Novel Bmal1 Mutant Mouse Reveals Essential Roles of the C-Terminal Domain on Circadian Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Park, Noheon; Kim, Hee-Dae; Cheon, Solmi; Row, Hansang; Lee, Jiyeon; Han, Dong-Hee; Cho, Sehyung; Kim, Kyungjin

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian circadian clock is an endogenous biological timer comprised of transcriptional/translational feedback loops of clock genes. Bmal1 encodes an indispensable transcription factor for the generation of circadian rhythms. Here, we report a new circadian mutant mouse from gene-trapped embryonic stem cells harboring a C-terminus truncated Bmal1 (Bmal1GTΔC) allele. The homozygous mutant (Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC) mice immediately lost circadian behavioral rhythms under constant darkness. The heterozygous (Bmal1+/GTΔC) mice displayed a gradual loss of rhythms, in contrast to Bmal1+/- mice where rhythms were sustained. Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice also showed arrhythmic mRNA and protein expression in the SCN and liver. Lack of circadian reporter oscillation was also observed in cultured fibroblast cells, indicating that the arrhythmicity of Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice resulted from impaired molecular clock machinery. Expression of clock genes exhibited distinct responses to the mutant allele in Bmal1+/GTΔC and Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice. Despite normal cellular localization and heterodimerization with CLOCK, overexpressed BMAL1GTΔC was unable to activate transcription of Per1 promoter and BMAL1-dependent CLOCK degradation. These results indicate that the C-terminal region of Bmal1 has pivotal roles in the regulation of circadian rhythms and the Bmal1GTΔC mice constitute a novel model system to evaluate circadian functional mechanism of BMAL1.

  2. A Novel Bmal1 Mutant Mouse Reveals Essential Roles of the C-Terminal Domain on Circadian Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Solmi; Row, Hansang; Lee, Jiyeon; Han, Dong-Hee; Cho, Sehyung; Kim, Kyungjin

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian circadian clock is an endogenous biological timer comprised of transcriptional/translational feedback loops of clock genes. Bmal1 encodes an indispensable transcription factor for the generation of circadian rhythms. Here, we report a new circadian mutant mouse from gene-trapped embryonic stem cells harboring a C-terminus truncated Bmal1 (Bmal1GTΔC) allele. The homozygous mutant (Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC) mice immediately lost circadian behavioral rhythms under constant darkness. The heterozygous (Bmal1+/GTΔC) mice displayed a gradual loss of rhythms, in contrast to Bmal1+/- mice where rhythms were sustained. Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice also showed arrhythmic mRNA and protein expression in the SCN and liver. Lack of circadian reporter oscillation was also observed in cultured fibroblast cells, indicating that the arrhythmicity of Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice resulted from impaired molecular clock machinery. Expression of clock genes exhibited distinct responses to the mutant allele in Bmal1+/GTΔC and Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice. Despite normal cellular localization and heterodimerization with CLOCK, overexpressed BMAL1GTΔC was unable to activate transcription of Per1 promoter and BMAL1-dependent CLOCK degradation. These results indicate that the C-terminal region of Bmal1 has pivotal roles in the regulation of circadian rhythms and the Bmal1GTΔC mice constitute a novel model system to evaluate circadian functional mechanism of BMAL1. PMID:26394143

  3. Costars, a Dictyostelium protein similar to the C-terminal domain of STARS, regulates the actin cytoskeleton and motility.

    PubMed

    Pang, Te-Ling; Chen, Fung-Chi; Weng, Yi-Lan; Liao, Hsien-Ching; Yi, Yung-Hsiang; Ho, Chia-Lin; Lin, Chi-Hung; Chen, Mei-Yu

    2010-11-01

    Through analysis of a chemotaxis mutant obtained from a genetic screen in Dictyostelium discoideum, we have identified a new gene involved in regulating cell migration and have named it costars (cosA). The 82 amino acid Costars protein sequence appears highly conserved among diverse species, and significantly resembles the C-terminal region of the striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS), a mammalian protein that regulates the serum response factor transcriptional activity through actin binding and Rho GTPase activation. The cosA-null (cosA(-)) cells formed smooth plaques on bacterial lawns, produced abnormally small fruiting bodies when developed on the non-nutrient agar and displayed reduced migration towards the cAMP source in chemotactic assays. Analysis of cell motion in cAMP gradients revealed decreased speed but wild-type-like directional persistence of cosA(-) cells, suggesting a defect in the cellular machinery for motility rather than for chemotactic orientation. Consistent with this notion, cosA(-) cells exhibited changes in the actin cytoskeleton, showing aberrant distribution of F-actin in fluorescence cell staining and an increased amount of cytoskeleton-associated actin. Excessive pseudopod formation was also noted in cosA(-) cells facing chemoattractant gradients. Expressing cosA or its human counterpart mCostars eliminated abnormalities of cosA(-) cells. Together, our results highlight a role for Costars in modulating actin dynamics and cell motility.

  4. Binding of the C-terminal domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein to lipid membranes: a biophysical characterization

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Francisco N.; Hurtado-Gómez, Estefanía; Lidón-Moya, María C.; Neira, José L.

    2005-01-01

    The capsid protein, CA, of HIV-1 forms a capsid that surrounds the viral genome. However, recent studies have shown that an important proportion of the CA molecule does not form part of this capsid, and its location and function are still unknown. In the present work we show, by using fluorescence, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, that the C-terminal region of CA, CA-C, is able to bind lipid vesicles in vitro in a peripheral fashion. CA-C had a greater affinity for negatively charged lipids (phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine) than for zwitterionic lipids [PC/Cho/SM (equimolar mixture of phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and sphingomyelin) and phosphatidylcholine]. The interaction of CA-C with lipid membranes was supported by theoretical studies, which predicted that different regions, occurring close in the three-dimensional CA-C structure, were responsible for the binding. These results show the flexibility of CA-C to undergo conformational rearrangements in the presence of different binding partners. We hypothesize that the CA molecules that do not form part of the mature capsid might be involved in lipid-binding interactions in the inner leaflet of the virion envelope. PMID:16259620

  5. 1H, 13C and 15N assignment of the C-terminal domain of GNA2132 from Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Veronica; Musi, Valeria; Veggi, Daniele; Pizza, Mariagrazia

    2010-01-01

    GNA2132 (Genome-derived Neisseria Antigen 2132) is a surface-exposed lipoprotein discovered by reverse vaccinology and expressed by genetically diverse Neisseria meningitidis strains (Pizza et al. 2000). The protein induces bactericidal antibodies against most strains of Meningococccus and has been included in a multivalent recombinant vaccine against N. meningitidis serogroup B. Structure determination of GNA2132 is important for understanding the antigenic properties of the protein in view of increased efficiency vaccine development. We report practically complete 1H, 13C and 15N assignment of the detectable spectrum of a highly conserved C-terminal region of GNA2132 (residues 245–427) in micellar solution, a medium used to improve the spectral quality. The first 32 residues of our construct up to residue 277 were not visible in the spectrum, presumably because of line broadening due to solvent and/or conformational exchange. Secondary structure predictions based on chemical shift information indicate the presence of an all β-protein with eight β strands. PMID:20300890

  6. 1H, 13C and 15N assignment of the C-terminal domain of GNA2132 from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Veronica; Musi, Valeria; Veggi, Daniele; Pastore, Annalisa; Pizza, Mariagrazia

    2010-04-01

    GNA2132 (Genome-derived Neisseria Antigen 2132) is a surface-exposed lipoprotein discovered by reverse vaccinology and expressed by genetically diverse Neisseria meningitidis strains (Pizza et al. 2000). The protein induces bactericidal antibodies against most strains of Meningococccus and has been included in a multivalent recombinant vaccine against N. meningitidis serogroup B. Structure determination of GNA2132 is important for understanding the antigenic properties of the protein in view of increased efficiency vaccine development. We report practically complete (1)H, (13)C and (15)N assignment of the detectable spectrum of a highly conserved C-terminal region of GNA2132 (residues 245-427) in micellar solution, a medium used to improve the spectral quality. The first 32 residues of our construct up to residue 277 were not visible in the spectrum, presumably because of line broadening due to solvent and/or conformational exchange. Secondary structure predictions based on chemical shift information indicate the presence of an all beta-protein with eight beta strands.

  7. Different Roles of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Domains in Calmodulin for Activation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lübker, Carolin; Dove, Stefan; Tang, Wei-Jen; Urbauer, Ramona J. Bieber; Moskovitz, Jackob; Urbauer, Jeffrey L.; Seifert, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis adenylyl cyclase toxin edema factor (EF) is one component of the anthrax toxin and is essential for establishing anthrax disease. EF activation by the eukaryotic Ca2+-sensor calmodulin (CaM) leads to massive cAMP production resulting in edema. cAMP also inhibits the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase, thus reducing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) used for host defense in activated neutrophils and thereby facilitating bacterial growth. Methionine (Met) residues in CaM, important for interactions between CaM and its binding partners, can be oxidized by ROS. We investigated the impact of site-specific oxidation of Met in CaM on EF activation using thirteen CaM-mutants (CaM-mut) with Met to leucine (Leu) substitutions. EF activation shows high resistance to oxidative modifications in CaM. An intact structure in the C-terminal region of oxidized CaM is sufficient for major EF activation despite altered secondary structure in the N-terminal region associated with Met oxidation. The secondary structures of CaM-mut were determined and described in previous studies from our group. Thus, excess cAMP production and the associated impairment of host defence may be afforded even under oxidative conditions in activated neutrophils. PMID:26184312

  8. The pH sensibility of actin-bundling LIM proteins is governed by the acidic properties of their C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Moes, Danièle; Hoffmann, Céline; Dieterle, Monika; Moreau, Flora; Neumann, Katrin; Papuga, Jessica; Furtado, Angela Tavares; Steinmetz, André; Thomas, Clément

    2015-08-19

    Actin-bundling Arabidopsis LIM proteins are subdivided into two subfamilies differing in their pH sensitivity. Widely-expressed WLIMs are active under low and high physiologically-relevant pH conditions, whereas pollen-enriched PLIMs are inactivated by pH values above 6.8. By a domain swapping approach we identified the C-terminal (Ct) domain of PLIMs as the domain responsible for pH responsiveness. Remarkably, this domain conferred pH sensitivity to LIM proteins, when provided "in trans" (i.e., as a single, independent, peptide), indicating that it operates through the interaction with another domain. An acidic 6xc-Myc peptide functionally mimicked the Ct domain of PLIMs and efficiently inhibited LIM actin bundling activity under high pH conditions. Together, our data suggest a model where PLIMs are regulated by an intermolecular interaction between their acidic Ct domain and another, yet unidentified, domain. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In Sup35p filaments (the [PSI+] prion), the globular C-terminal domains are widely offset from the amyloid fibril backbone

    SciTech Connect

    Baxa, U.; Wall, J.; Keller, P. W.; Cheng, N.; Steven, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    In yeast cells infected with the [PSI+] prion, Sup35p forms aggregates and its activity in translation termination is downregulated. Transfection experiments have shown that Sup35p filaments assembled in vitro are infectious, suggesting that they reproduce or closely resemble the prion. We have used several EM techniques to study the molecular architecture of filaments, seeking clues as to the mechanism of downregulation. Sup35p has an N-terminal 'prion' domain; a highly charged middle (M-)domain; and a C-terminal domain with the translation termination activity. By negative staining, cryo-EM and scanning transmission EM (STEM), filaments of full-length Sup35p show a thin backbone fibril surrounded by a diffuse 65-nm-wide cloud of globular C-domains. In diameter ({approx}8 nm) and appearance, the backbones resemble amyloid fibrils of N-domains alone. STEM mass-per-unit-length data yield -1 subunit per 0.47 nm for N-fibrils, NM-filaments and Sup35p filaments, further supporting the fibril backbone model. The 30 nm radial span of decorating C-domains indicates that the M-domains assume highly extended conformations, offering an explanation for the residual Sup35p activity in infected cells, whereby the C-domains remain free enough to interact with ribosomes.

  10. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the addiction antidote CcdA in complex with its toxin CcdB

    SciTech Connect

    Buts, Lieven; De Jonge, Natalie; Loris, Remy Wyns, Lode; Dao-Thi, Minh-Hoa

    2005-10-01

    The CcdA C-terminal domain was crystallized in complex with CcdB in two crystal forms that diffract to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. CcdA and CcdB are the antidote and toxin of the ccd addiction module of Escherichia coli plasmid F. The CcdA C-terminal domain (CcdA{sub C36}; 36 amino acids) was crystallized in complex with CcdB (dimer of 2 × 101 amino acids) in three different crystal forms, two of which diffract to high resolution. Form II belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.6, b = 60.5, c = 83.8 Å and diffracts to 1.8 Å resolution. Form III belongs to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.0, b = 37.9, c = 69.6 Å, β = 96.9°, and diffracts to 1.9 Å resolution.

  11. Effect of pH on the structure of the recombinant C-terminal domain of Nephila clavipes dragline silk protein.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Martin; Leclerc, Jérémie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Gagné, Stéphane M; Auger, Michèle

    2014-12-08

    Spider silk proteins undergo a complex series of molecular events before being converted into an outstanding hierarchically organized fiber. Recent literature has underlined the crucial role of the C-terminal domain in silk protein stability and fiber formation. However, the effect of pH remains to be clarified. We have thus developed an efficient purification protocol to obtain stable native-like recombinant MaSp1 C-terminal domain of Nephila clavipes (NCCTD). Its structure was investigated as a function of pH using circular dichroism, fluorescence and solution NMR spectroscopy. The results show that the NCCTD structure is very sensitive to pH and suggest that a molten globule state occurs at pH 5.0 and below. Electronic microscopy images also indicate fiber formation at low pH and coarser globular particles at more basic pH. The results are consistent with a spinning process model where the NCCTD acts as an aggregation nucleus favoring the β-aggregation of the hydrophobic polyalanine repeats upon spinning.

  12. Probing Structural Transitions in the Intrinsically Disordered C-Terminal Domain of the Measles Virus Nucleoprotein by Vibrational Spectroscopy of Cyanylated Cysteines

    PubMed Central

    Bischak, Connor G.; Longhi, Sonia; Snead, David M.; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Terrer, Elodie; Londergan, Casey H.

    2010-01-01

    Four single-cysteine variants of the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein (NTAIL) were cyanylated at cysteine and their infrared spectra in the C≡N stretching region were recorded both in the absence and in the presence of one of the physiological partners of NTAIL, namely the C-terminal X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein. Consistent with previous studies showing that XD triggers a disorder-to-order transition within NTAIL, the C≡N stretching bands of the infrared probe were found to be significantly affected by XD, with this effect being position-dependent. When the cyanylated cysteine side chain is solvent-exposed throughout the structural transition, its changing linewidth reflects a local gain of structure. When the probe becomes partially buried due to binding, its frequency reports on the mean hydrophobicity of the microenvironment surrounding the labeled side chain of the bound form. The probe moiety is small compared to other common covalently attached spectroscopic probes, thereby minimizing possible steric hindrance/perturbation at the binding interface. These results show for the first time to our knowledge the suitability of site-specific cysteine mutagenesis followed by cyanylation and infrared spectroscopy to document structural transitions occurring within intrinsically disordered regions, with regions involved in binding and folding being identifiable at the residue level. PMID:20816082

  13. Oxyanion binding alters conformation and quaternary structure of the c-terminal domain of the transcriptional regulator mode. Implications for molybdate-dependent regulation, signaling, storage, and transport.

    PubMed

    Gourley, D G; Schuttelkopf, A W; Anderson, L A; Price, N C; Boxer, D H; Hunter, W N

    2001-06-08

    The molybdate-dependent transcriptional regulator ModE of Escherichia coli functions as a sensor of intracellular molybdate concentration and a regulator for the transcription of several operons that control the uptake and utilization of molybdenum. We present two high-resolution crystal structures of the C-terminal oxyanion-binding domain in complex with molybdate and tungstate. The ligands bind between subunits at the dimerization interface, and analysis reveals that oxyanion selectivity is determined primarily by size. The relevance of the structures is indicated by fluorescence measurements, which show that the oxyanion binding properties of the C-terminal domain of ModE are similar to those of the full-length protein. Comparisons with the apoprotein structure have identified structural rearrangements that occur on binding oxyanion. This molybdate-dependent conformational switch promotes a change in shape and alterations to the surface of the protein and may provide the signal for recruitment of other proteins to construct the machinery for transcription. Sequence and structure-based comparisons lead to a classification of molybdate-binding proteins.

  14. Species-specific functioning of the Pseudomonas XcpQ secretin: role for the C-terminal homology domain and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Bitter, Wilbert; van Boxtel, Ria; Groeneweg, Mathijs; Carballo, Patricia Sánchez; Zähringer, Ulrich; Tommassen, Jan; Koster, Margot

    2007-04-01

    Secretins are oligomeric proteins that mediate the export of macromolecules across the bacterial outer membrane. The members of the secretin superfamily possess a C-terminal homology domain that is important for oligomerization and channel formation, while their N-terminal halves are thought to be involved in system-specific interactions. The XcpQ secretin of Pseudomonas spp. is a component of the type II secretion pathway. XcpQ from Pseudomonas alcaligenes is not able to functionally replace the secretin of the closely related species Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By analysis of chimeric XcpQ proteins, a region important for species-specific functioning was mapped between amino acid residues 344 and 478 in the C-terminal homology domain. Two chromosomal suppressor mutations were obtained that resulted in the proper functioning in P. aeruginosa of P. alcaligenes XcpQ and inactive hybrids. These mutations caused a defect in the synthesis of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer core region. Subsequent analysis of different LPS mutants showed that changes in the outer core and not the loss of O antigen caused the suppressor phenotype. High concentrations of divalent cations in the growth medium also allowed P. alcaligenes XcpQ and inactive hybrids to function properly in P. aeruginosa. Since divalent cations are known to affect the structure of LPS, this observation supports the hypothesis that LPS has a role in the functioning of secretins.

  15. Structure and characterization of a class 3B proline utilization A: Ligand-induced dimerization and importance of the C-terminal domain for catalysis.

    PubMed

    Korasick, David A; Gamage, Thameesha T; Christgen, Shelbi; Stiers, Kyle M; Beamer, Lesa J; Henzl, Michael T; Becker, Donald F; Tanner, John J

    2017-06-09

    The bifunctional flavoenzyme proline utilization A (PutA) catalyzes the two-step oxidation of proline to glutamate using separate proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase active sites. Because PutAs catalyze sequential reactions, they are good systems for studying how metabolic enzymes communicate via substrate channeling. Although mechanistically similar, PutAs vary widely in domain architecture, oligomeric state, and quaternary structure, and these variations represent different structural solutions to the problem of sequestering a reactive metabolite. Here, we studied PutA from Corynebacterium freiburgense (CfPutA), which belongs to the uncharacterized 3B class of PutAs. A 2.7 Å resolution crystal structure showed the canonical arrangement of PRODH, l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, and C-terminal domains, including an extended interdomain tunnel associated with substrate channeling. The structure unexpectedly revealed a novel open conformation of the PRODH active site, which is interpreted to represent the non-activated conformation, an elusive form of PutA that exhibits suboptimal channeling. Nevertheless, CfPutA exhibited normal substrate-channeling activity, indicating that it isomerizes into the active state under assay conditions. Sedimentation-velocity experiments provided insight into the isomerization process, showing that CfPutA dimerizes in the presence of a proline analog and NAD(+) These results are consistent with the morpheein model of enzyme hysteresis, in which substrate binding induces conformational changes that promote assembly of a high-activity oligomer. Finally, we used domain deletion analysis to investigate the function of the C-terminal domain. Although this domain contains neither catalytic residues nor substrate sites, its removal impaired both catalytic activities, suggesting that it may be essential for active-site integrity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular

  16. TFIID TAF6-TAF9 complex formation involves the HEAT repeat-containing C-terminal domain of TAF6 and is modulated by TAF5 protein.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Elisabeth; Delbac, Frédéric; Tora, Laszlo; Moras, Dino; Romier, Christophe

    2012-08-10

    The general transcription factor TFIID recognizes specifically the core promoter of genes transcribed by eukaryotic RNA polymerase II, nucleating the assembly of the preinitiation complex at the transcription start site. However, the understanding in molecular terms of TFIID assembly and function remains poorly understood. Histone fold motifs have been shown to be extremely important for the heterodimerization of many TFIID subunits. However, these subunits display several evolutionary conserved noncanonical features when compared with histones, including additional regions whose role is unknown. Here we show that the conserved additional C-terminal region of TFIID subunit TAF6 can be divided into two domains: a small middle domain (TAF6M) and a large C-terminal domain (TAF6C). Our crystal structure of the TAF6C domain from Antonospora locustae at 1.9 Å resolution reveals the presence of five conserved HEAT repeats. Based on these data, we designed several mutants that were introduced into full-length human TAF6. Surprisingly, the mutants affect the interaction between TAF6 and TAF9, suggesting that the formation of the complex between these two TFIID subunits do not only depend on their histone fold motifs. In addition, the same mutants affect even more strongly the interaction between TAF6 and TAF9 in the context of a TAF5-TAF6-TAF9 complex. Expression of these mutants in HeLa cells reveals that most of them are unstable, suggesting their poor incorporation within endogenous TFIID. Taken together, our results suggest that the conserved additional domains in histone fold-containing subunits of TFIID and of co-activator SAGA are important for the assembly of these complexes.

  17. TFIID TAF6-TAF9 Complex Formation Involves the HEAT Repeat-containing C-terminal Domain of TAF6 and Is Modulated by TAF5 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Elisabeth; Delbac, Frédéric; Tora, Laszlo; Moras, Dino; Romier, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The general transcription factor TFIID recognizes specifically the core promoter of genes transcribed by eukaryotic RNA polymerase II, nucleating the assembly of the preinitiation complex at the transcription start site. However, the understanding in molecular terms of TFIID assembly and function remains poorly understood. Histone fold motifs have been shown to be extremely important for the heterodimerization of many TFIID subunits. However, these subunits display several evolutionary conserved noncanonical features when compared with histones, including additional regions whose role is unknown. Here we show that the conserved additional C-terminal region of TFIID subunit TAF6 can be divided into two domains: a small middle domain (TAF6M) and a large C-terminal domain (TAF6C). Our crystal structure of the TAF6C domain from Antonospora locustae at 1.9 Å resolution reveals the presence of five conserved HEAT repeats. Based on these data, we designed several mutants that were introduced into full-length human TAF6. Surprisingly, the mutants affect the interaction between TAF6 and TAF9, suggesting that the formation of the complex between these two TFIID subunits do not only depend on their histone fold motifs. In addition, the same mutants affect even more strongly the interaction between TAF6 and TAF9 in the context of a TAF5-TAF6-TAF9 complex. Expression of these mutants in HeLa cells reveals that most of them are unstable, suggesting their poor incorporation within endogenous TFIID. Taken together, our results suggest that the conserved additional domains in histone fold-containing subunits of TFIID and of co-activator SAGA are important for the assembly of these complexes. PMID:22696218

  18. Crystallization of the C-terminal head domain of the fibre protein from a siadenovirus, turkey adenovirus 3

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhimanyu K.; Ballmann, Mónika Z.; Benkő, Mária; Harrach, Balázs; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Turkey adenovirus 3 belongs to the genus Siadenovirus. Its predicted fibre protein consists of an N-terminal virus-attachment domain, a central shaft domain and a head domain at the C-terminus. The head domain has little sequence identity to known adenovirus fibre head structures. Crystals of the fibre head domain consisting of amino acids 304–454 with an N-terminal purification tag were produced. Crystals of native and selenomethionine-derivatized protein belonged to space group I23 (unit-cell parameter 99 Å). They diffracted synchrotron radiation to 2.0 and 2.14 Å resolution, respectively, and are expected to contain one monomer in the asymmetric unit. PMID:24100566

  19. Crystallization of the C-terminal head domain of the fibre protein from a siadenovirus, turkey adenovirus 3.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhimanyu K; Ballmann, Mónika Z; Benkő, Mária; Harrach, Balázs; van Raaij, Mark J

    2013-10-01

    Turkey adenovirus 3 belongs to the genus Siadenovirus. Its predicted fibre protein consists of an N-terminal virus-attachment domain, a central shaft domain and a head domain at the C-terminus. The head domain has little sequence identity to known adenovirus fibre head structures. Crystals of the fibre head domain consisting of amino acids 304-454 with an N-terminal purification tag were produced. Crystals of native and selenomethionine-derivatized protein belonged to space group I23 (unit-cell parameter 99 Å). They diffracted synchrotron radiation to 2.0 and 2.14 Å resolution, respectively, and are expected to contain one monomer in the asymmetric unit.

  20. NMR Structure of the C-Terminal Transmembrane Domain of the HDL Receptor, SR-BI, and a Functionally Relevant Leucine Zipper Motif.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Alexandra C; Jensen, Davin R; Hanson, Paul J; Lange, Philip T; Proudfoot, Sarah C; Peterson, Francis C; Volkman, Brian F; Sahoo, Daisy

    2017-03-07

    The interaction of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with its receptor, scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), is critical for lowering plasma cholesterol levels and reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease. The HDL/SR-BI complex facilitates delivery of cholesterol into cells and is likely mediated by receptor dimerization. This work describes the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to generate the first high-resolution structure of the C-terminal transmembrane domain of SR-BI. This region of SR-BI harbors a leucine zipper dimerization motif, which when mutated impairs the ability of the receptor to bind HDL and mediate cholesterol delivery. These losses in function correlate with the inability of SR-BI to form dimers. We also identify juxtamembrane regions of the extracellular domain of SR-BI that may interact with the lipid surface to facilitate cholesterol transport functions of the receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Shapes of Z-α1-Antitrypsin Polymers in Solution Support the C-Terminal Domain-Swap Mechanism of Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Manja A.; Sendall, Timothy J.; Pedersen, Jan S.; Kjeldgaard, Morten; Huntington, James A.; Jensen, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    Emphysema and liver cirrhosis can be caused by the Z mutation (Glu342Lys) in the serine protease inhibitor α1-antitrypsin (α1AT), which is found in more than 4% of the Northern European population. Homozygotes experience deficiency in the lung concomitantly with a massive accumulation of polymers within hepatocytes, causing their destruction. Recently, it was proposed that Z-α1AT polymerizes by a C-terminal domain swap. In this study, small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to characterize Z-α1AT polymers in solution. The data show that the Z-α1AT trimer, tetramer, and pentamer all form ring-like structures in strong support of a common domain-swap polymerization mechanism that can lead to self-terminating polymers. PMID:25418171

  2. The 60-Kilodalton Protein Encoded by orf2 in the cry19A Operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan Functions Like a C-Terminal Crystallization Domain

    PubMed Central

    Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Park, Hyun-Woo; Bideshi, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    The cry19A operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan encodes two proteins, mosquitocidal Cry19A (ORF1; 75 kDa) and an ORF2 (60 kDa) of unknown function. Expression of the cry19A operon in an acrystalliferous strain of B. thuringiensis (4Q7) yielded one small crystal per cell, whereas no crystals were produced when cry19A or orf2 was expressed alone. To determine the function of the ORF2 protein, different combinations of Cry19A, ORF2, and the N- or C-terminal half of Cry1C were synthesized in strain 4Q7. Stable crystalline inclusions of these fusion proteins similar in shape to those in the strain harboring the wild-type operon were observed in sporulating cells. Comparative analysis showed that ORF2 shares considerable amino acid sequence identity with the C-terminal region of large Cry proteins. Together, these results suggest that ORF2 assists in synthesis and crystallization of Cry19A by functioning like the C-terminal domain characteristic of Cry protein in the 130-kDa mass range. In addition, to determine whether overexpression of the cry19A operon stabilized its shape and increased Cry19A yield, it was expressed under the control of the strong chimeric cyt1A-p/STAB-SD promoter. Interestingly, in contrast to the expression seen with the native promoter, overexpression of the operon yielded uniform bipyramidal crystals that were 4-fold larger on average than the wild-type crystal. In bioassays using the 4th instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the strain producing the larger Cry19A crystal showed moderate larvicidal activity that was 4-fold (95% lethal concentration [LC95] = 1.9 μg/ml) more toxic than the activity produced in the strain harboring the wild-type operon (LC95 = 8.2 μg/ml). PMID:22247140

  3. The 60-kilodalton protein encoded by orf2 in the cry19A operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan functions like a C-terminal crystallization domain.

    PubMed

    Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar; Park, Hyun-Woo; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A

    2012-03-01

    The cry19A operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan encodes two proteins, mosquitocidal Cry19A (ORF1; 75 kDa) and an ORF2 (60 kDa) of unknown function. Expression of the cry19A operon in an acrystalliferous strain of B. thuringiensis (4Q7) yielded one small crystal per cell, whereas no crystals were produced when cry19A or orf2 was expressed alone. To determine the function of the ORF2 protein, different combinations of Cry19A, ORF2, and the N- or C-terminal half of Cry1C were synthesized in strain 4Q7. Stable crystalline inclusions of these fusion proteins similar in shape to those in the strain harboring the wild-type operon were observed in sporulating cells. Comparative analysis showed that ORF2 shares considerable amino acid sequence identity with the C-terminal region of large Cry proteins. Together, these results suggest that ORF2 assists in synthesis and crystallization of Cry19A by functioning like the C-terminal domain characteristic of Cry protein in the 130-kDa mass range. In addition, to determine whether overexpression of the cry19A operon stabilized its shape and increased Cry19A yield, it was expressed under the control of the strong chimeric cyt1A-p/STAB-SD promoter. Interestingly, in contrast to the expression seen with the native promoter, overexpression of the operon yielded uniform bipyramidal crystals that were 4-fold larger on average than the wild-type crystal. In bioassays using the 4th instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the strain producing the larger Cry19A crystal showed moderate larvicidal activity that was 4-fold (95% lethal concentration [LC(95)] = 1.9 μg/ml) more toxic than the activity produced in the strain harboring the wild-type operon (LC(95) = 8.2 μg/ml).

  4. The C-terminal domain of the Xenopus cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27Xic1, is both necessary and sufficient for phosphorylation-independent proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Li-Chiou; Zhu, Xi-Ning; Herrera, Carlos R; Tseng, Hui-Min; Pfleger, Cathie M; Block, Karen; Yew, P Renee

    2005-10-21

    Cell cycle progression is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), cyclins, and CDK inhibitors. In the frog, Xenopus laevis, the CDK inhibitor p27(Xic1) (Xic1) inhibits DNA synthesis by negatively regulating CDK2-cyclin E. Using the frog egg extract as a model system for the study of Xic1, studies have demonstrated that Xic1 protein levels are regulated by nuclear ubiquitination and proteolysis. To characterize the molecular mechanism that regulates Xic1 turnover, we have identified the minimal sequences of Xic1 that are necessary and sufficient for its nuclear ubiquitination and degradation. Using deletion mutagenesis, our studies indicated that the C-terminal 50 amino acids of Xic1 are critical for its proteolysis beyond a role in nuclear transport. Replacement of the Xic1 C terminus with the SV40 nuclear localization sequence resulted in the nuclear localization of Xic1 but not its ubiquitination or degradation. Our deletion studies also indicated that the CDK2-cyclin binding domain of Xic1 is important for its efficient retention in the nucleus. Further deletion analyses identified at least 3 lysine residues within the Xic1 C terminus that are targeted for specific ubiquitination. Importantly, our studies demonstrated that the Xic1 C-terminal 50 amino acids can serve as a nuclear degradation signal when fused to a stable heterologous nuclear protein. Moreover, a 30-amino-acid region within the C terminus of Xic1 can serve as a nuclear ubiquitination signal. To address the role of phosphorylation on Xic1 turnover, all the potential phosphorylation sites within the C-terminal 50 amino acids of Xic1 were mutated to alanine to prevent possible phosphorylation. This resulted in a Xic1 protein that was nevertheless degraded in a manner similar to wild-type Xic1, suggesting that phosphorylation of Xic1 is not critical for its nuclear ubiquitination or proteolysis.

  5. Small C-terminal domain phosphatases dephosphorylate the regulatory linker regions of Smad2 and Smad3 to enhance transforming growth factor-beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Wrighton, Katharine H; Willis, Danielle; Long, Jianyin; Liu, Fang; Lin, Xia; Feng, Xin-Hua

    2006-12-15

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) controls a diverse set of cellular processes, and its canonical signaling is mediated via TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of receptor-activated Smads (2 and 3) at the C-terminal SXS motif. We recently discovered that PPM1A can dephosphorylate Smad2/3 at the C-terminal SXS motif, implicating a critical role for phosphatases in regulating TGF-beta signaling. Smad2/3 activity is also regulated by phosphorylation in the linker region (and N terminus) by a variety of intracellular kinases, making it a critical platform for cross-talk between TGF-beta and other signaling pathways. Using a functional genomic approach, we identified the small C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (SCP1) as a specific phosphatase for Smad2/3 dephosphorylation in the linker and N terminus. A catalytically inactive SCP1 mutant (dnSCP1) had no effect on Smad2/3 phosphorylation in vitro or in vivo. Of the other FCP/SCP family members SCP2 and SCP3, but not FCP1, could also dephosphorylate Smad2/3 in the linker/N terminus. Depletion of SCP1/2/3 enhanced Smad2/3 linker phosphorylation. SCP1 increased TGF-beta-induced transcriptional activity in agreement with the idea that phosphorylation in the Smad2/3 linker must be removed for a full transcriptional response. SCP1 overexpression also counteracts the inhibitory effect of epidermal growth factor on TGF-beta-induced p15 expression. Taken together, this work identifies the first example of a Smad2/3 linker phosphatase(s) and reveals an important new substrate for SCPs.

  6. The trimerization domain of NEMO is composed of the interacting C-terminal CC2 and LZ coiled-coil subdomains.

    PubMed

    Agou, Fabrice; Traincard, François; Vinolo, Emilie; Courtois, Gilles; Yamaoka, Shoji; Israël, Alain; Véron, Michel

    2004-07-02

    NEMO (NF-kappaB essential modulator) plays a key role in the canonical NF-kappaB pathway as the scaffold/regulatory component of the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex. The self-association of NEMO involves the C-terminal halves of the polypeptide chains containing two putative coiled-coil motifs (a CC2 and a LZ leucine zipper), a proline-rich region, and a ZF zinc finger motif. Using purified truncation mutants, we showed that the minimal oligomerization domain of NEMO is the CC2-LZ segment and that both CC2 and LZ subdomains are necessary to restore the LPS-dependent activation of the NF-kappaB pathway in a NEMO-deficient cell line. We confirmed the association of the oligomerization domain in a trimer and investigated the specific role of CC2 and LZ subdomains in the building of the oligomer. Whereas a recombinant CC2-LZ polypeptide self-associated into a trimer with an association constant close to that of the wild-type protein, the isolated CC2 and LZ peptides, respectively, formed trimers and dimers with weaker association constants. Upon mixing, isolated CC2 and LZ peptides associated to form a stable hetero-hexamer as shown by gel filtration and fluorescence anisotropy experiments. We propose a structural model for the organization of the oligomerization domain of activated NEMO in which three C-terminal domains associate into a pseudo-hexamer forming a six-helix bundle. This model is discussed in relation to the mechanism of activation of the IKK complex by upstream activators.

  7. A novel COL4A1 frameshift mutation in familial kidney disease: the importance of the C-terminal NC1 domain of type IV collagen.

    PubMed

    Gale, Daniel P; Oygar, D Deren; Lin, Fujun; Oygar, P Derin; Khan, Nadia; Connor, Thomas M F; Lapsley, Marta; Maxwell, Patrick H; Neild, Guy H

    2016-11-01

    Hereditary microscopic haematuria often segregates with mutations of COL4A3, COL4A4 or COL4A5 but in half of families a gene is not identified. We investigated a Cypriot family with autosomal dominant microscopic haematuria with renal failure and kidney cysts. We used genome-wide linkage analysis, whole exome sequencing and cosegregation analyses. We identified a novel frameshift mutation, c.4611_4612insG:p.T1537fs, in exon 49 of COL4A1. This mutation predicts truncation of the protein with disruption of the C-terminal part of the NC1 domain. We confirmed its presence in 20 family members, 17 with confirmed haematuria, 5 of whom also had stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease. Eleven family members exhibited kidney cysts (55% of those with the mutation), but muscle cramps or cerebral aneurysms were not observed and serum creatine kinase was normal in all individuals tested. Missense mutations of COL4A1 that encode the CB3 [IV] segment of the triple helical domain (exons 24 and 25) are associated with HANAC syndrome (hereditary angiopathy, nephropathy, aneurysms and cramps). Missense mutations of COL4A1 that disrupt the NC1 domain are associated with antenatal cerebral haemorrhage and porencephaly, but not kidney disease. Our findings extend the spectrum of COL4A1 mutations linked with renal disease and demonstrate that the highly conserved C-terminal part of the NC1 domain of the α1 chain of type IV collagen is important in the integrity of glomerular basement membrane in humans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  8. Deducing the functional characteristics of the human selenoprotein SELK from the structural properties of its intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Polo, Andrea; Colonna, Giovanni; Guariniello, Stefano; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Costantini, Susan

    2016-03-01

    The intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) cannot be described by a single structural representation but, due to their high structural fluctuation, through conformational ensembles. Certainly, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations represent a useful tool to study their different conformations capturing the conformational distribution. Our group is focusing on the structural characterization of proteins belonging to the seleno-proteome due to their involvement in cancer. They present disordered domains central for their biological function, and, in particular, SELK is a single-pass transmembrane protein that resides in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane (ER) with a C-terminal domain exposed to the cytoplasm that is known to interact with different components of the endoplasmic reticulum associated to the protein degradation (ERAD) pathway. This protein is found to be up-expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and in other cancers. In this work we performed a detailed analysis of the C-terminal domain sequence of SELK and discovered that it is characterized by many prolines, and four negatively and eleven positively charged residues, which are crucial for its biological activity. This region can be considered as a weak polyelectrolyte and, specifically, a polycation, with high disordered propensity and different phosphorylation sites dislocated along the sequence. Then, we modeled its three-dimensional structure by performing MD simulations in water at neutral pH to analyze the structural stability as well as to identify the presence of HUB residues that play a key structural role as evidenced by the residue-residue interaction network analysis. Through this approach, we demonstrate that the C-terminal domain of SELK (i) presents a poor content of regular secondary structure elements, (ii) is dynamically stabilized by a network of intra-molecular H-bonds and H-bonds with water molecules, (iii) is highly fluctuating and, therefore, can be described only through a

  9. Solution structure of the Ubp-M BUZ domain, a highly specific protein module that recognizes the C-terminal tail of free ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Pai, Ming-Tao; Tzeng, Shiou-Ru; Kovacs, Jeffrey J; Keaton, Mignon A; Li, Shawn S-C; Yao, Tso-Pang; Zhou, Pei

    2007-07-06

    The BUZ/Znf-UBP domain is a distinct ubiquitin-binding module found in the cytoplasmic deacetylase HDAC6, the E3 ubiquitin ligase BRAP2/IMP, and a subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes. Here, we report the solution structure of the BUZ domain of Ubp-M, a ubiquitin-specific protease, and its interaction with ubiquitin. Unlike the BUZ domain from isopeptidase T (isoT) that contains a single zinc finger, the Ubp-M BUZ domain features three zinc-binding sites consisting of 12 residues. These zinc ligands form a pair of cross-braced ring fingers encapsulated within a third zinc finger in the primary structure. In contrast to isoT, which can form an N-terminal loop swapped dimer in the crystal state, the formation of additional zinc fingers in the Ubp-M BUZ domain restricts its N-terminal loop to intra-domain interactions. The ubiquitin-binding site of the Ubp-M BUZ domain is mapped to the highly conserved, concave surface formed by the alpha 3 helix and the central beta-sheet. We further show that this site binds to the C-terminal tail of free ubiquitin, and corresponding peptides display essentially the same binding affinities as full-length ubiquitin does for the Ubp-M BUZ domain. However, modification of the G76(Ub) carboxylate group either by a peptide or isopeptide bond abolishes BUZ-domain interaction. The unique ubiquitin-recognition mode of the BUZ domain family suggests that they may function as "sensors" of free ubiquitin in cells to achieve regulatory roles in many aspects of ubiquitin-dependent processes.

  10. Solution Structure of the Ubp-M BUZ Domain, a Highly Specific Protein Module That Recognizes the C-terminal Tail of Free Ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Ming-Tao; Tzeng, Shiou-Ru; Kovacs, Jeffrey J.; Keaton, Mignon A.; Li, Shawn S.-C.; Yao, Tso-Pang; Zhou, Pei

    2010-01-01

    Summary The BUZ/Znf-UBP domain is a distinct ubiquitin-binding module found in the cytoplasmic deacetylase HDAC6, the E3 ubiquitin ligase BRAP2/IMP, and a subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes. Here we report the solution structure of the BUZ domain of Ubp-M, a ubiquitin-specific protease, and its interaction with ubiquitin. Unlike the BUZ domain from isopeptidase T (isoT) that contains a single zinc finger, the Ubp-M BUZ domain features three zinc-binding sites consisted of twelve residues. These zinc ligands form a pair of cross-braced ring fingers encapsulated within a third zinc finger in the primary structure. In contrast to isoT, which can form an N-terminal loop swapped dimer in the crystal state, the formation of additional zinc fingers in the Ubp-M BUZ domain restricts its N-terminal loop to intra-domain interactions. The ubiquitin-binding site of the Ubp-M BUZ domain is mapped to the highly conserved, concave surface formed by the α3 helix and the central β-sheet. We further show that this site binds to the C-terminal tail of free ubiquitin, and corresponding peptides display essentially the same binding affinities as full-length ubiquitin does for the Ubp-M BUZ domain. However, modification of the G76Ub carboxylate group either by a peptide- or isopeptide-bond abolishes BUZ-domain interaction. The unique ubiquitin-recognition mode of the BUZ domain family suggests that they may function as “sensors” of free ubiquitin in cells to achieve regulatory roles in many aspects of ubiquitin-dependent processes. PMID:17512543

  11. Expression, purification, and characterization of coiled coil and leucine zipper domains of C-terminal myosin binding subunit of myosin phosphatase for solution NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok K; Sawhney, Paramvir; Memisoglu, Gonen; Rigby, Alan C

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions between MBS and PKG are mediated by the involvement of C-terminal domain of MBS, MBS(CT180) and N-terminal coiled coil (CC) leucine zipper (LZ) domain of PKG-Iα, PKG-Iα1(-59). MBS(CT180) is comprised of three structurally variant domains of non-CC, CC, and LZ nature. Paucity of three-dimensional structural information of these MBS domains precludes atomic level understanding of MBS-PKG contractile complex structure. Here we present data on cloning, expression, and purification of CC, LZ, and CCLZ domains of MBS(CT180) and their biophysical characterization using size exclusion chromatography (SEC), circular dichroism (CD), and two-dimensional (1)H-(15)N HSQC NMR. The methods as detailed resulted in high level protein expression and high milligram quantities of purified isotopically ((15)N and (13)C) enriched polypeptides. SEC, CD, and (1)H-(15)N HSQC NMR experiments demonstrated that recombinantly expressed MBS CC domain is well folded and exists as a dimer within physiologic pH range, which is supported by our previous findings. The dimerization of CC MBS is likely mediated through formation of coiled coil conformation. In contrast, MBS LZ domain was almost unfolded that exists as non-stable low structured monomer within physiologic pH range. Protein folding and stability of MBS LZ was improved as a function of decrease in pH that adopts a folded, stable, and structured conformation at acidified pH 4.5. SEC and NMR analyses of LZ vs. CCLZ MBS domains indicated that inclusion of CC domain partially improves protein folding of LZ domain.

  12. C-terminal HIV-1 transframe p6* tetra-peptide blocks enhanced Gag cleavage incurred by leucine zipper replacement of a deleted p6* domain.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Hsien; Huang, Kuo-Jung; Wang, Chin-Tien

    2017-03-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) functions as a homodimer mediating virus maturation following virus budding. Gag-Pol dimerization is believed to trigger embedded PR activation by promoting PR dimer formation. Early PR activation can lead to markedly reduced virus yields due to premature Gag cleavage. The p6* peptide, located between Gag and PR, is believed to ensure virus production by preventing early PR maturation. Studies aimed at finding supporting evidence for this proposal are limited due to a reading frame overlap between p6* and the p6gag budding domain. To determine if p6* affects virus production via the modulation of PR activation, we engineered multiple constructs derived from Dp6*PR (an assembly- and processing-competent construct with Pol fused at the inactivated PR C-terminus). The data indicate that a p6* deletion adjacent to active PR significantly impaired virus processing. We also observed that the insertion of a leucine zipper (LZ) dimerization motif in the deleted region eliminated virus production in a PR activity-dependent manner, suggesting that the LZ insertion triggered premature PR activation by facilitating PR dimer formation. As few as four C-terminal p6* residues remaining at the p6*/PR junction were sufficient to restore virus yields, with a Gag processing profile similar to that of the wild type. Our study provides supporting evidence in a virus assembly context that the C-terminal p6* tetra-peptide plays a role in preventing premature PR maturation.IMPORTANCE Supporting evidence is lacking for the assumption that p6* retards PR maturation in the context of virus assembly. We found that replacing p6* with a leucine-zipper peptide abolished virus assembly due to the significant enhancement of Gag cleavage. However, as few as four C-terminal p6* residues remaining in the deleted region were sufficient for significant PR release, as well as for counteracting leucine zipper-incurred premature Gag cleavage. Our data provide evidence that (a) p6

  13. The strong dimerization of the transmembrane domain of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) is modulated by C-terminal juxtamembrane residues

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Weng Chuan; Lin, Xin; Torres, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a member of the FGFR subfamily of the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) involved in signaling across the plasma membrane. Generally, ligand binding leads to receptor dimerization and activation. Dimerization involves the transmembrane (TM) domain, where mutations can lead to constitutive activation in certain cancer types and also in skeletal malformations. Thus, it has been postulated that FGFR homodimerization must be inherently weak to allow regulation, a feature reminiscent of α and β integrin TM interactions. However, we show herein that in FGFR3-TM, four C-terminal residues, CRLR, have a profound destabilizing effect in an otherwise strongly dimerizing TM peptide. In the absence of these four residues, the dimerizing propensity of FGFR3-TM is comparable to glycophorin, as shown using various detergents. In addition, the expected enhanced dimerization induced by the mutation associated to the Crouzon syndrome A391E, was observed only when these four C-terminal residues were present. In the absence of these four residues, A391E was dimer-destabilizing. Finally, using site specific infrared dichroism and convergence with evolutionary conservation data, we have determined the backbone model of the FGFR3-TM homodimer in model lipid bilayers. This model is consistent with, and correlates with the effects of, most known pathological mutations found in FGFR-TM. PMID:19165726

  14. The HIV gp41 pocket binding domain enables C-terminal heptad repeat transition from mediating membrane fusion to immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Klug, Yoel A; Kapach, Gal; Rotem, Etai; Dubreuil, Benjamin; Shai, Yechiel

    2016-04-01

    For successful infection and propagation viruses must overcome many obstacles such as the immune system and entry into their host cells. HIV utilizes its trimeric envelope protein gp160, specifically the gp41 subunit, to enter its host cell. During this process, a gp41-central coiled coil is formed from three N- and three C-terminal heptad repeats, termed the six-helix bundle (SHB), which drives membrane fusion. Recently, T-cell suppression has been reported as an additional function for several regions of gp41 by interfering with the T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling cascade. One of these regions encompasses the conserved pocket binding domain (PBD) that is situated in the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) and stabilizes SHB formation. This could indicate that the PBD plays a role in T-cell suppression in addition to its role in membrane fusion. To investigate this dual function, we used two independent cell cultures coupled with biophysical techniques. The data reveal that the PBD mediates T-cell suppression by stabilizing a TCR-binding conformation in the membrane. Moreover, we show that the clinically used HIV fusion inhibitor T-20 did not show suppressive abilities, in contrast with the potent fusion inhibitor C34. In addition, by focusing on SHB conformation after its assembly, we shed light on a mechanism by which gp41's function alternates from membrane fusion facilitation to suppression of TCR activation.

  15. Recruitment of A20 by the C-terminal domain of NEMO suppresses NF-κB activation and autoinflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Zilberman-Rudenko, Jevgenia; Shawver, Linda Monaco; Wessel, Alex W.; Luo, Yongquan; Pelletier, Martin; Tsai, Wanxia Li; Lee, Younglang; Vonortas, Spiridon; Cheng, Laurence; Ashwell, Jonathan D.; Orange, Jordan S.; Siegel, Richard M.; Hanson, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-induced NF-κB activation is controlled by NEMO, the NF-κB essential modulator. Hypomorphic NEMO mutations result in X-linked ectodermal dysplasia with anhidrosis and immunodeficiency, also referred to as NEMO syndrome. Here we describe a distinct group of patients with NEMO C-terminal deletion (ΔCT-NEMO) mutations. Individuals harboring these mutations develop inflammatory skin and intestinal disease in addition to ectodermal dysplasia with anhidrosis and immunodeficiency. Both primary cells from these patients, as well as reconstituted cell lines with this deletion, exhibited increased IκB kinase (IKK) activity and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Unlike previously described loss-of-function mutations, ΔCT-NEMO mutants promoted increased NF-κB activation in response to TNF and Toll-like receptor stimulation. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed impaired interactions with A20, a negative regulator of NF-κB activation, leading to prolonged accumulation of K63-ubiquitinated RIP within the TNFR1 signaling complex. Recruitment of A20 to the C-terminal domain of NEMO represents a novel mechanism limiting NF-κB activation by NEMO, and its absence results in autoinflammatory disease. PMID:26802121

  16. Urea Unfolding Study of E. coli Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase and Its Monomeric Variants Proves the Role of C-Terminal Domain in Stability

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Baisakhi; Banerjee, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    E. coli alanyl-tRNA exists as a dimer in its native form and the C-terminal coiled-coil part plays an important role in the dimerization process. The truncated N-terminal containing the first 700 amino acids (1–700) forms a monomeric variant possessing similar aminoacylation activity like wild type. A point mutation in the C-terminal domain (G674D) also produces a monomeric variant with a fivefold reduced aminoacylation activity compared to the wild type enzyme. Urea induced denaturation of these monomeric mutants along with another alaRS variant (N461 alaRS) was studied together with the full-length enzyme using various spectroscopic techniques such as intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonic acid binding, near- and far-UV circular dichroism, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Aminoacylation activity assay after refolding from denatured state revealed that the monomeric mutants studied here were unable to regain their activity, whereas the dimeric full-length alaRS gets back similar activity as the native enzyme. This study indicates that dimerization is one of the key regulatory factors that is important in the proper folding and stability of E. coli alaRS. PMID:26617997

  17. The strong dimerization of the transmembrane domain of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) is modulated by C-terminal juxtamembrane residues.

    PubMed

    Peng, Weng Chuan; Lin, Xin; Torres, Jaume

    2009-02-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a member of the FGFR subfamily of the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) involved in signaling across the plasma membrane. Generally, ligand binding leads to receptor dimerization and activation. Dimerization involves the transmembrane (TM) domain, where mutations can lead to constitutive activation in certain cancer types and also in skeletal malformations. Thus, it has been postulated that FGFR homodimerization must be inherently weak to allow regulation, a feature reminiscent of alpha and beta integrin TM interactions. However, we show herein that in FGFR3-TM, four C-terminal residues, CRLR, have a profound destabilizing effect in an otherwise strongly dimerizing TM peptide. In the absence of these four residues, the dimerizing propensity of FGFR3-TM is comparable to glycophorin, as shown using various detergents. In addition, the expected enhanced dimerization induced by the mutation associated to the Crouzon syndrome A391E, was observed only when these four C-terminal residues were present. In the absence of these four residues, A391E was dimer-destabilizing. Finally, using site specific infrared dichroism and convergence with evolutionary conservation data, we have determined the backbone model of the FGFR3-TM homodimer in model lipid bilayers. This model is consistent with, and correlates with the effects of, most known pathological mutations found in FGFR-TM.

  18. Assessing induced folding within the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the Henipavirus nucleoproteins by site-directed spin labeling EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Marlène; Habchi, Johnny; El Habre, Zeina; Nesme, Léo; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Belle, Valérie; Longhi, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at characterizing structural transitions within the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein (NTAIL) from the Nipah and Hendra viruses, two recently emerged pathogens gathered within the Henipavirus genus. To this end, we used site-directed spin labeling combined with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the α-helical-induced folding that Henipavirus NTAIL domains undergo in the presence of the C-terminal X domain of the phosphoprotein (PXD). For each NTAIL protein, six positions located within four previously proposed molecular recognition elements (MoREs) were targeted for spin labeling, with three of these positions (475, 481, and 487) falling within the MoRE responsible for binding to PXD (Box3). A detailed analysis of the impact of the partner protein on the labeled NTAIL variants revealed a dramatic modification in the environment of the spin labels grafted within Box3, with the observed modifications supporting the formation of an induced α-helix within this region. In the free state, the slightly lower mobility of the spin labels grafted within Box3 as compared to the other positions suggests the existence of a transiently populated α-helix, as already reported for measles virus (MeV) NTAIL. Comparison with the well-characterized MeV NTAIL-PXD system, allowed us to validate the structural models of Henipavirus NTAIL-PXD complexes that we previously proposed. In addition, this study highlighted a few notable differences between the Nipah and Hendra viruses. In particular, the observation of composite spectra for the free form of the Nipah virus NTAIL variants spin labeled in Box3 supports conformational heterogeneity of this partly pre-configured α-helix, with the pre-existence of stable α-helical segments. Altogether these results provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of the Henipavirus NTAIL-PXD binding reaction.

  19. Association of Arabidopsis type-II ROPs with the plasma membrane requires a conserved C-terminal sequence motif and a proximal polybasic domain.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Meirav; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2006-06-01

    Plant ROPs (or RACs) are soluble Ras-related small GTPases that are attached to cell membranes by virtue of the post-translational lipid modifications of prenylation and S-acylation. ROPs (RACs) are subdivided into two major subgroups called type-I and type-II. Whereas type-I ROPs terminate with a conserved CaaL box and undergo prenylation, type-II ROPs undergo S-acylation on two or three C-terminal cysteines. In the present work we determined the sequence requirement for association of Arabidopsis type-II ROPs with the plasma membrane. We identified a conserved sequence motif, designated the GC-CG box, in which the modified cysteines are flanked by glycines. The GC-CG box cysteines are separated by five to six mostly non-polar residues. Deletion of this sequence or the introduction of mutations that change its nature disrupted the association of ROPs with the membrane. Mutations that changed the GC-CG box glycines to alanines also interfered with membrane association. Deletion of a polybasic domain proximal to the GC-CG box disrupted the plasma membrane association of AtROP10. A green fluorescent protein fusion protein containing the C-terminal 25 residues of AtROP10, including its polybasic domain and GC-CG box, was primarily associated with the plasma membrane but a similar fusion protein lacking the polybasic domain was exclusively localized in the soluble fraction. These data provide evidence for the minimal sequence required for plasma membrane association of type-II ROPs in Arabidopsis and other plant species.

  20. Crystal Structure of Mouse Elf3 C-terminal DNA-binding Domain in Complex with Type II TGF-[beta] Receptor Promoter DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Agarkar, Vinod B.; Babayeva, Nigar D.; Wilder, Phillip J.; Rizzino, Angie; Tahirov, Tahir H.

    2010-08-18

    The Ets family of transcription factors is composed of more than 30 members. One of its members, Elf3, is expressed in virtually all epithelial cells as well as in many tumors, including breast tumors. Several studies observed that the promoter of the type II TGF-{beta} receptor gene (T{beta}R-II) is strongly stimulated by Elf3 via two adjacent Elf3 binding sites, the A-site and the B-site. Here, we report the 2.2 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a mouse Elf3 C-terminal fragment, containing the DNA-binding Ets domain, in complex with the B-site of mouse type II TGF-{beta} receptor promoter DNA (mT{beta}R-II{sub DNA}). Elf3 contacts the core GGAA motif of the B-site from a major groove similar to that of known Ets proteins. However, unlike other Ets proteins, Elf3 also contacts sequences of the A-site from the minor groove of the DNA. DNA binding experiments and cell-based transcription studies indicate that minor groove interaction by Arg349 located in the Ets domain is important for Elf3 function. Equally interesting, previous studies have shown that the C-terminal region of Elf3, which flanks the Ets domain, is required for Elf3 binding to DNA. In this study, we determined that Elf3 amino acid residues within this flanking region, including Trp361, are important for the structural integrity of the protein as well as for the Efl3 DNA binding and transactivation activity.

  1. The structure of the C-terminal domain of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak and its interaction with model membranes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Senac, María del Mar; Corbalán-García, Senena; Gómez-Fernández, Juan C

    2002-01-01

    Bak is a pro-apoptotic protein widely distributed in different cell types that is associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane, apparently through a C-terminal hydrophobic domain. We used infrared spectroscopy to study the secondary structure of a synthetic peptide ((+)(3)HN-(188)ILNVLVVLGVVLLGQFVVRRFFKS(211)-COO(-)) with the same sequence as the C-terminal domain of Bak. The spectrum of this peptide in D(2)O buffer shows an amide I' band with a maximum at 1636 cm(-1), which clearly indicates the predominance of an extended beta-structure in aqueous solvent. However, the peptide incorporated in multilamellar dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes shows a different amide I' band spectrum, with a maximum at 1658 cm(-1), indicating a predominantly alpha-helical structure induced by its interaction with the membrane. It was observed that through differential scanning calorimetry the transition of the phospholipid model membrane was broadened in the presence of the peptide. Fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) in fluid DMPC vesicles showed that increasing concentrations of the peptide produced increased polarization values, which is compatible with the peptide being inserted into the membrane. High concentrations of the peptide considerably broaden the phase transition of DMPC multilamellar vesicles, and DPH polarization increased, especially at temperatures above the T(c) transition temperature of the pure phospholipid. The addition of peptide destabilized unilamellar vesicles and released encapsulated carboxyfluorescein. These results indicate that this domain is able to insert itself into membranes, where it adopts an alpha-helical structure and considerably perturbs the physical properties of the membrane.

  2. Pub1p C-terminal RRM domain interacts with Tif4631p through a conserved region neighbouring the Pab1p binding site.

    PubMed

    Santiveri, Clara M; Mirassou, Yasmina; Rico-Lastres, Palma; Martínez-Lumbreras, Santiago; Pérez-Cañadillas, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Pub1p, a highly abundant poly(A)+ mRNA binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, influences the stability and translational control of many cellular transcripts, particularly under some types of environmental stresses. We have studied the structure, RNA and protein recognition modes of different Pub1p constructs by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the C-terminal RRM domain (RRM3) shows a non-canonical N-terminal helix that packs against the canonical RRM fold in an original fashion. This structural trait is conserved in Pub1p metazoan homologues, the TIA-1 family, defining a new class of RRM-type domains that we propose to name TRRM (TIA-1 C-terminal domain-like RRM). Pub1p TRRM and the N-terminal RRM1-RRM2 tandem bind RNA with high selectivity for U-rich sequences, with TRRM showing additional preference for UA-rich ones. RNA-mediated chemical shift changes map to β-sheet and protein loops in the three RRMs. Additionally, NMR titration and biochemical in vitro cross-linking experiments determined that Pub1p TRRM interacts specifically with the N-terminal region (1-402) of yeast eIF4G1 (Tif4631p), very likely through the conserved Box1, a short sequence motif neighbouring the Pab1p binding site in Tif4631p. The interaction involves conserved residues of Pub1p TRRM, which define a protein interface that mirrors the Pab1p-Tif4631p binding mode. Neither protein nor RNA recognition involves the novel N-terminal helix, whose functional role remains unclear. By integrating these new results with the current knowledge about Pub1p, we proposed different mechanisms of Pub1p recruitment to the mRNPs and Pub1p-mediated mRNA stabilization in which the Pub1p/Tif4631p interaction would play an important role.

  3. The structure of the C-terminal domain of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak and its interaction with model membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Senac, María del Mar; Corbalán-García, Senena; Gómez-Fernández, Juan C

    2002-01-01

    Bak is a pro-apoptotic protein widely distributed in different cell types that is associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane, apparently through a C-terminal hydrophobic domain. We used infrared spectroscopy to study the secondary structure of a synthetic peptide ((+)(3)HN-(188)ILNVLVVLGVVLLGQFVVRRFFKS(211)-COO(-)) with the same sequence as the C-terminal domain of Bak. The spectrum of this peptide in D(2)O buffer shows an amide I' band with a maximum at 1636 cm(-1), which clearly indicates the predominance of an extended beta-structure in aqueous solvent. However, the peptide incorporated in multilamellar dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes shows a different amide I' band spectrum, with a maximum at 1658 cm(-1), indicating a predominantly alpha-helical structure induced by its interaction with the membrane. It was observed that through differential scanning calorimetry the transition of the phospholipid model membrane was broadened in the presence of the peptide. Fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) in fluid DMPC vesicles showed that increasing concentrations of the peptide produced increased polarization values, which is compatible with the peptide being inserted into the membrane. High concentrations of the peptide considerably broaden the phase transition of DMPC multilamellar vesicles, and DPH polarization increased, especially at temperatures above the T(c) transition temperature of the pure phospholipid. The addition of peptide destabilized unilamellar vesicles and released encapsulated carboxyfluorescein. These results indicate that this domain is able to insert itself into membranes, where it adopts an alpha-helical structure and considerably perturbs the physical properties of the membrane. PMID:11751312

  4. N- and C-terminal flanking regions modulate light-induced signal transduction in the LOV2 domain of the blue light sensor phototropin 1 from Avena sativa.

    PubMed

    Halavaty, Andrei S; Moffat, Keith

    2007-12-11

    Light sensing by photoreceptors controls phototropism, chloroplast movement, stomatal opening, and leaf expansion in plants. Understanding the molecular mechanism by which these processes are regulated requires a quantitative description of photoreceptor dynamics. We focus on a light-driven signal transduction mechanism in the LOV2 domain (LOV, light, oxygen, voltage) of the blue light photoreceptor phototropin 1 from Avena sativa (oat). High-resolution crystal structures of the dark and light states of an oat LOV2 construct including residues Leu404 through Leu546 (LOV2 (404-546)) have been determined at 105 and 293 K. In all four structures, LOV2 (404-546) exhibits the typical Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) fold, flanked by an additional conserved N-terminal turn-helix-turn motif and a C-terminal flanking region containing an amphipathic Jalpha helix. These regions dock on the LOV2 core domain and bury several hydrophobic residues of the central beta-sheet of the core domain that would otherwise be exposed to solvent. Light structures of LOV2 (404-546) reveal that formation of the covalent bond between Cys450 and the C4a atom of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) results in local rearrangement of the hydrogen-bonding network in the FMN binding pocket. These rearrangements are associated with disruption of the Asn414-Asp515 hydrogen bond on the surface of the protein and displacement of the N- and C-terminal flanking regions of LOV2 (404-546), both of which constitute a structural signal.

  5. Identification of Two Pentatricopeptide Repeat Genes Required for RNA Editing and Zinc Binding by C-terminal Cytidine Deaminase-like Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Michael L.; Giang, Karolyn; Berhane, Beniam; Mulligan, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Many transcripts expressed from plant organelle genomes are modified by C-to-U RNA editing. Nuclear encoded pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are required as RNA binding specificity determinants in the RNA editing mechanism. Bioinformatic analysis has shown that most of the Arabidopsis PPR proteins necessary for RNA editing events include a C-terminal portion that shares structural characteristics with a superfamily of deaminases. The DYW deaminase domain includes a highly conserved zinc binding motif that shares characteristics with cytidine deaminases. The Arabidopsis PPR genes, ELI1 and DOT4, both have DYW deaminase domains and are required for single RNA editing events in chloroplasts. The ELI1 DYW deaminase domain was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and was shown to bind two zinc atoms per polypeptide. Thus, the DYW deaminase domain binds a zinc metal ion, as expected for a cytidine deaminase, and is potentially the catalytic component of an editing complex. Genetic complementation experiments demonstrate that large portions of the DYW deaminase domain of ELI1 may be eliminated, but the truncated genes retain the ability to restore editing site conversion in a mutant plant. These results suggest that the catalytic activity can be supplied in trans by uncharacterized protein(s) of the editosome. PMID:24194514

  6. Identification of two pentatricopeptide repeat genes required for RNA editing and zinc binding by C-terminal cytidine deaminase-like domains.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Michael L; Giang, Karolyn; Berhane, Beniam; Mulligan, R Michael

    2013-12-20

    Many transcripts expressed from plant organelle genomes are modified by C-to-U RNA editing. Nuclear encoded pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are required as RNA binding specificity determinants in the RNA editing mechanism. Bioinformatic analysis has shown that most of the Arabidopsis PPR proteins necessary for RNA editing events include a C-terminal portion that shares structural characteristics with a superfamily of deaminases. The DYW deaminase domain includes a highly conserved zinc binding motif that shares characteristics with cytidine deaminases. The Arabidopsis PPR genes, ELI1 and DOT4, both have DYW deaminase domains and are required for single RNA editing events in chloroplasts. The ELI1 DYW deaminase domain was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and was shown to bind two zinc atoms per polypeptide. Thus, the DYW deaminase domain binds a zinc metal ion, as expected for a cytidine deaminase, and is potentially the catalytic component of an editing complex. Genetic complementation experiments demonstrate that large portions of the DYW deaminase domain of ELI1 may be eliminated, but the truncated genes retain the ability to restore editing site conversion in a mutant plant. These results suggest that the catalytic activity can be supplied in trans by uncharacterized protein(s) of the editosome.

  7. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy-defined structure of the C-terminal domain of NaChBac and its role in channel assembly

    PubMed Central

    Powl, Andrew M.; O’Reilly, Andrias O.; Miles, Andrew J.; Wallace, B. A.

    2010-01-01

    Extramembranous domains play important roles in the structure and function of membrane proteins, contributing to protein stability, forming association domains, and binding ancillary subunits and ligands. However, these domains are generally flexible, making them difficult or unsuitable targets for obtaining high-resolution X-ray and NMR structural information. In this study we show that the highly sensitive method of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy can be used as a powerful tool to investigate the structure of the extramembranous C-terminal domain (CTD) of the prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV) from Bacillus halodurans, NaChBac. Sequence analyses predict its CTD will consist of an unordered region followed by an α-helix, which has a propensity to form a multimeric coiled-coil motif, and which could form an association domain in the homotetrameric NaChBac channel. By creating a number of shortened constructs we have shown experimentally that the CTD does indeed contain a stretch of ∼20 α-helical residues preceded by a nonhelical region adjacent to the final transmembrane segment and that the efficiency of assembly of channels in the membrane progressively decreases as the CTD residues are removed. Analyses of the CTDs of 32 putative prokaryotic NaV sequences suggest that a CTD helical bundle is a structural feature conserved throughout the bacterial sodium channel family. PMID:20663949

  8. Interaction between the tRNA-Binding and C-Terminal Domains of Yeast Gcn2 Regulates Kinase Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lageix, Sebastien; Zhang, Jinwei; Rothenburg, Stefan; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    The stress-activated protein kinase Gcn2 regulates protein synthesis by phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2α. Gcn2 is activated in amino acid-deprived cells by binding of uncharged tRNA to the regulatory domain related to histidyl-tRNA synthetase, but the molecular mechanism of activation is unclear. We used a genetic approach to identify a key regulatory surface in Gcn2 that is proximal to the predicted active site of the HisRS domain and likely remodeled by tRNA binding. Mutations leading to amino acid substitutions on this surface were identified that activate Gcn2 at low levels of tRNA binding (Gcd- phenotype), while other substitutions block kinase activation (Gcn- phenotype), in some cases without altering tRNA binding by Gcn2 in vitro. Remarkably, the Gcn- substitutions increase affinity of the HisRS domain for the C-terminal domain (CTD), previously implicated as a kinase autoinhibitory segment, in a manner dampened by HisRS domain Gcd- substitutions and by amino acid starvation in vivo. Moreover, tRNA specifically antagonizes HisRS/CTD association in vitro. These findings support a model wherein HisRS-CTD interaction facilitates the autoinhibitory function of the CTD in nonstarvation conditions, with tRNA binding eliciting kinase activation by weakening HisRS-CTD association with attendant disruption of the autoinhibitory KD-CTD interaction. PMID:25695491

  9. Role of C-Terminal Domains in Surface Attachment of the Fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975

    PubMed Central

    Rathsam, Catherine; Jacques, Nicholas A.

    1998-01-01

    The cell-associated β-d-fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus salivarius, which is devoid of the cell wall anchoring motif, LPXTG, is released on exposure to its substrate, sucrose. Deletions within the C terminus of the enzyme implicated both the hydrophobic and the proline-glycine-serine-threonine-rich wall-associated domain in stabilizing the enzyme on the cell surface. PMID:9829954

  10. Conformational Stability and Interplay of Helical N- and C-Terminal Domains with Implications on Major Ampullate Spidroin Assembly.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Joschka; Scheibel, Thomas

    2017-03-13

    Major ampullate spidroin (MaSp) assembly starts in the abdomen of the spider, where spidroins are stored as a liquid dope at a high concentration. The dope is squeezed into the spinning duct, and assembly is finished upon drawing of fibers. Unwanted aggregation of the spidroin solution in the gland is suppressed by prestructuring of the spidroins in micelle-like assemblies, with their hydrophobic stretches being hidden from the solvent and the hydrophilic nonrepetitive amino (NRN) and carboxy (NRC) terminal domains being exposed on the micelle surface. Conversion of the fluid dope into a solid fiber is induced within the spinning duct by acidification and ion exchange (sodium chloride against potassium phosphate), with the impact on the structure of the NRN and NRC domains acting as a regulatory switch for fiber assembly. While NRN dimerizes pH-dependently in an antiparallel fashion (i.e. quaternary structural changes), the tertiary structure of dimeric NRC is changed by shear stress and a drop in pH, inducing the alignment of the intrinsically unstructured core domains accompanied by β-sheet formation of motifs of the core domain. Here, the conformational stability of NRN1 and NRC1 of Latrodectus hesperus MaSp1 were studied using independent techniques such as circular dichroism, fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy, and scanning electron, transmission electron, and atomic force microscopy. In this context, it could be shown that strong, non-natural acidification drives NRC1 to unfold and aggregate into β-sheet-rich structures, preventing recombinant spidroins from assembling into aligned fibrils. Interestingly, NRN1 and NRC1 apparently do not interact with each other, making spidroin assembly easy to control step-by-step and straightforward due to missing unproductive side reactions.

  11. The binding of TIA-1 to RNA C-rich sequences is driven by its C-terminal RRM domain.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Gallardo, Isabel; Aroca, Ángeles; Gunzburg, Menachem J; Sivakumaran, Andrew; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Angulo, Jesús; Persson, Cecilia; Gorospe, Myriam; Karlsson, B Göran; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Díaz-Moreno, Irene

    2014-01-01

    T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is a key DNA/RNA binding protein that regulates translation by sequestering target mRNAs in stress granules (SG) in response to stress conditions. TIA-1 possesses three RNA recognition motifs (RRM) along with a glutamine-rich domain, with the central domains (RRM2 and RRM3) acting as RNA binding platforms. While the RRM2 domain, which displays high affinity for U-rich RNA sequences, is primarily responsible for interaction with RNA, the contribution of RRM3 to bind RNA as well as the target RNA sequences that it binds preferentially are still unknown. Here we combined nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques to elucidate the sequence specificity of TIA-1 RRM3. With a novel approach using saturation transfer difference NMR (STD-NMR) to quantify protein-nucleic acids interactions, we demonstrate that isolated RRM3 binds to both C- and U-rich stretches with micromolar affinity. In combination with RRM2 and in the context of full-length TIA-1, RRM3 significantly enhanced the binding to RNA, particularly to cytosine-rich RNA oligos, as assessed by biotinylated RNA pull-down analysis. Our findings provide new insight into the role of RRM3 in regulating TIA-1 binding to C-rich stretches, that are abundant at the 5' TOPs (5' terminal oligopyrimidine tracts) of mRNAs whose translation is repressed under stress situations.

  12. The binding of TIA-1 to RNA C-rich sequences is driven by its C-terminal RRM domain

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Gallardo, Isabel; Aroca, Ángeles; Gunzburg, Menachem J; Sivakumaran, Andrew; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Angulo, Jesús; Persson, Cecilia; Gorospe, Myriam; Karlsson, B Göran; Wilce, Jacqueline A; Díaz-Moreno, Irene

    2014-01-01

    T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is a key DNA/RNA binding protein that regulates translation by sequestering target mRNAs in stress granules (SG) in response to stress conditions. TIA-1 possesses three RNA recognition motifs (RRM) along with a glutamine-rich domain, with the central domains (RRM2 and RRM3) acting as RNA binding platforms. While the RRM2 domain, which displays high affinity for U-rich RNA sequences, is primarily responsible for interaction with RNA, the contribution of RRM3 to bind RNA as well as the target RNA sequences that it binds preferentially are still unknown. Here we combined nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) techniques to elucidate the sequence specificity of TIA-1 RRM3. With a novel approach using saturation transfer difference NMR (STD-NMR) to quantify protein–nucleic acids interactions, we demonstrate that isolated RRM3 binds to both C- and U-rich stretches with micromolar affinity. In combination with RRM2 and in the context of full-length TIA-1, RRM3 significantly enhanced the binding to RNA, particularly to cytosine-rich RNA oligos, as assessed by biotinylated RNA pull-down analysis. Our findings provide new insight into the role of RRM3 in regulating TIA-1 binding to C-rich stretches, that are abundant at the 5′ TOPs (5′ terminal oligopyrimidine tracts) of mRNAs whose translation is repressed under stress situations. PMID:24824036

  13. Highly polarized C-terminal transition state of the leucine-rich repeat domain of PP32 is governed by local stability

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Thuy Phuong; Majumdar, Ananya; Barrick, Doug

    2015-01-01

    The leucine-rich repeat domain of PP32 is composed of five β-strand-containing repeats anchored by terminal caps. These repeats differ in sequence but are similar in structure, providing a means to connect topology, sequence, and folding pathway selection. Through kinetic studies of PP32, we find folding to be rate-limited by the formation of an on-pathway intermediate. Destabilizing core substitutions reveal a transition state ensemble that is highly polarized toward the C-terminal repeat and cap. To determine if this nucleus for folding corresponds to the most stable region of PP32, we monitored amide hydrogen exchange by NMR spectroscopy. Indeed, we find the highest protection to be biased toward the C terminus. Sequence manipulations that destabilize the C terminus spread out the transition state toward the middle of the protein. Consistent with results for helical ankyrin repeat proteins, these results suggest that local stabilities determine folding pathways. PMID:25902505

  14. Critical Role of a Loop at C-Terminal Domain on the Conformational Stability and Catalytic Efficiency of Chondroitinase ABC I.

    PubMed

    Akram Shirdel, S; Khalifeh, Khosrow; Golestani, Abolfazl; Ranjbar, Bijan; Khajeh, Khosro

    2015-08-01

    We used a combination of protein engineering and spectroscopic methods to investigate the effect of a long length loop on the conformational stability and activity of chondroitinase ABC I. This study involves manipulation of interactions around Asp(689) as a key residue in the central region of the loop containing residues 681-695 located at C-terminal domain of the enzyme. According to the equilibrium unfolding experiments and considering thermodynamic m value and ΔG(H2O), we found that the folded state of H700N, L701T, and H700N/L701T are more compact relative to the folded state of wild-type protein and they become stabilized upon mutation. However, the compactness and stability of other variants are less than those of wild-type protein. According to enzyme activity measurements, we found that the catalytic efficiency of structurally stabilized variants is decreased, while that of destabilized mutants is improved.

  15. The self-inhibited structure of full-length PCSK9 at 1.9 A reveals structural homology with resistin within the C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Eric N; Knuth, Mark W; Li, Jun; Harris, Jennifer L; Lesley, Scott A; Spraggon, Glen

    2007-09-11

    Mutations in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) are strongly associated with levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood plasma and, thereby, occurrence or resistance to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Despite this importance, relatively little is known about the biology of PCSK9. Here, the crystal structure of a full-length construct of PCSK9 solved to 1.9-A resolution is presented. The structure contains a fully folded C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD), showing a distinct structural similarity to the resistin homotrimer, a small cytokine associated with obesity and diabetes. This structural relationship between the CRD of PCSK9 and the resistin family is not observed in primary sequence comparisons and strongly suggests a distant evolutionary link between the two molecules. This three-dimensional homology provides insight into the function of PCSK9 at the molecular level and will help to dissect the link between PCSK9 and CHD.

  16. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of mouse Elf3 C-terminal DNA-binding domain in complex with type II TGF-[beta] receptor promoter DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Agarkar, Vinod B.; Babayeva, Nigar D.; Rizzino, Angie; Tahirov, Tahir H.

    2010-10-08

    Ets proteins are transcription factors that activate or repress the expression of genes that are involved in various biological processes, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, development, transformation and apoptosis. Like other Ets-family members, Elf3 functions as a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcriptional factor. A mouse Elf3 C-terminal fragment (amino-acid residues 269-371) containing the DNA-binding domain has been crystallized in complex with mouse type II TGF-{beta} receptor promoter (TR-II) DNA. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.66, b = 52, c = 99.78 {angstrom}, and diffracted to a resolution of 2.2 {angstrom}.

  17. Rafoxanide and Closantel Inhibit SPAK and OSR1 Kinases by Binding to a Highly Conserved Allosteric Site on Their C-terminal Domains.

    PubMed

    AlAmri, Mubarak A; Kadri, Hachemi; Alderwick, Luke J; Simpkins, Nigel S; Mehellou, Youcef

    2017-05-09

    SPAK and OSR1 are two protein kinases that have emerged as attractive targets in the discovery of novel antihypertensive agents due to their role in regulating electrolyte balance in vivo. Herein we report the identification of an allosteric pocket on the highly conserved C-terminal domains of these two kinases, which influences their activity. We also show that some known WNK signaling inhibitors bind to this allosteric site. Using in silico screening, we identified the antiparasitic agent rafoxanide as a novel allosteric inhibitor of SPAK and OSR1. Collectively, this work will facilitate the rational design of novel SPAK and OSR1 kinase inhibitors that could be useful antihypertensive agents. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Topogenesis in membranes of the NTB-VPg protein of Tomato ringspot nepovirus: definition of the C-terminal transmembrane domain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiming; Han, Sumin; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2004-02-01

    The putative NTP-binding protein (NTB) of Tomato ringspot nepovirus (ToRSV) contains a hydrophobic region at its C terminus consisting of two adjacent stretches of hydrophobic amino acids separated by a few amino acids. In infected plants, the NTB-VPg polyprotein (containing the domain for the genome-linked protein) is associated with endoplasmic reticulum-derived membranes that are active in ToRSV replication. Recent results from proteinase K protection assays suggested a luminal location for the VPg domain in infected plants, providing support for the presence of a transmembrane domain at the C terminus of NTB. In this study, we have shown that NTB-VPg associates with canine microsomal membranes in the absence of other viral proteins in vitro and adopts a topology similar to that observed in vivo in that the VPg is present in the lumen. Truncated proteins containing 60 amino acids at the C terminus of NTB and the entire VPg exhibited a similar topology, confirming that this region of the protein contains a functional transmembrane domain. Deletion of portions of the C-terminal hydrophobic region of NTB by mutagenesis and introduction of glycosylation sites to map the luminal regions of the protein revealed that only the first stretch of hydrophobic amino acids traverses the membrane, while the second stretch of hydrophobic amino acids is located in the lumen. Our results provide additional evidence supporting the hypothesis that the NTB-VPg polyprotein acts as a membrane-anchor for the replication complex.

  19. A network of SMG-8, SMG-9 and SMG-1 C-terminal insertion domain regulates UPF1 substrate recruitment and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Deniaud, Aurélien; Karuppasamy, Manikandan; Bock, Thomas; Masiulis, Simonas; Huard, Karine; Garzoni, Frédéric; Kerschgens, Kathrin; Hentze, Matthias W.; Kulozik, Andreas E.; Beck, Martin; Neu-Yilik, Gabriele; Schaffitzel, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic surveillance mechanism that degrades mRNAs containing premature translation termination codons. Phosphorylation of the essential NMD effector UPF1 by the phosphoinositide-3-kinase-like kinase (PIKK) SMG-1 is a key step in NMD and occurs when SMG-1, its two regulatory factors SMG-8 and SMG-9, and UPF1 form a complex at a terminating ribosome. Electron cryo-microscopy of the SMG-1–8–9-UPF1 complex shows the head and arm architecture characteristic of PIKKs and reveals different states of UPF1 docking. UPF1 is recruited to the SMG-1 kinase domain and C-terminal insertion domain, inducing an opening of the head domain that provides access to the active site. SMG-8 and SMG-9 interact with the SMG-1 C-insertion and promote high-affinity UPF1 binding to SMG-1–8–9, as well as decelerated SMG-1 kinase activity and enhanced stringency of phosphorylation site selection. The presence of UPF2 destabilizes the SMG-1–8–9-UPF1 complex leading to substrate release. Our results suggest an intricate molecular network of SMG-8, SMG-9 and the SMG-1 C-insertion domain that governs UPF1 substrate recruitment and phosphorylation by SMG-1 kinase, an event that is central to trigger mRNA decay. PMID:26130714

  20. Streptococcus pneumoniae PBP2x mid-cell localization requires the C-terminal PASTA domains and is essential for cell shape maintenance.

    PubMed

    Peters, Katharina; Schweizer, Inga; Beilharz, Katrin; Stahlmann, Christoph; Veening, Jan-Willem; Hakenbeck, Regine; Denapaite, Dalia

    2014-05-01

    The transpeptidase activity of the essential penicillin-binding protein 2x (PBP2x) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is believed to be important for murein biosynthesis required for cell division. To study the molecular mechanism driving localization of PBP2x in live cells, we constructed a set of N-terminal GFP-PBP2x fusions under the control of a zinc-inducible promoter. The ectopic fusion protein localized at mid-cell. Cells showed no growth defects even in the absence of the genomic pbp2x, demonstrating that GFP-PBP2x is functional. Depletion of GFP-PBP2x resulted in severe morphological alterations, confirming the essentiality of PBP2x and demonstrating that PBP2x is required for cell division and not for cell elongation. A genetically or antibiotic inactivated GFP-PBP2x still localized at septal sites. Remarkably, the same was true for a GFP-PBP2x derivative containing a deletion of the central transpeptidase domain, although only in the absence of the protease/chaperone HtrA. Thus localization is independent of the catalytic transpeptidase domain but requires the C-terminal PASTA domains, identifying HtrA as targeting GFP-PBP2x derivatives. Finally, PBP2x was positioned at the septum similar to PBP1a and the PASTA domain containing StkP protein, confirming that PBP2x is a key element of the divisome complex.

  1. Possible paraneoplastic syndrome case of bullous pemphigoid with immunoglobulin G anti-BP180 C-terminal domain antibodies associated with psoriasis and primary macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Maki, Nobuki; Demitsu, Toshio; Umemoto, Naoka; Nagashima, Kazutaka; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Kakurai, Maki; Nakamura, Satoshi; Yamada, Tomoko; Ishii, Norito; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    A 61-year-old Japanese man developed bullous skin lesions during topical therapy for psoriasis vulgaris. Physical examination demonstrated numerous tense bullae and scaly erythemas on the trunk and extremities. Histopathology of the skin biopsy demonstrated subepidermal bullae and lymphocytic infiltration with eosinophils in the dermis. Direct immunofluorescence revealed linear deposits of immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA and C3 along the basement membrane zone. Indirect immunofluorescence of 1 mol/L NaCl-split skin showed IgG reactivity with both epidermal and the dermal sides. IgM reactivity with both the epidermal and dermal sides was also detected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed negative results for both BP180 and BP230. Immunoelectrophoresis of serum and bone marrow aspiration revealed underlying primary macroglobulinemia with M-proteinemia of IgM-κ type. Immunoblot analysis revealed IgG, but not IgM, antibodies to recombinant protein of BP180 C-terminal domain. We diagnosed the present case as bullous pemphigoid with IgG anti-BP180 C-terminal domain autoantibodies associated with primary macroglobulinemia and psoriasis vulgaris. Systemic administration of prednisolone 30 mg/day resulted in dramatic improvement of both bullous and psoriatic skin lesions. When the bullous and psoriatic lesions relapsed, DRC chemotherapy (dexamethasone, rituximab and cyclophosphamide) for macroglobulinemia was performed. Then, the psoriatic lesions improved and the bullous lesions disappeared. We suggested that the present case may be paraneoplastic syndrome of bullous pemphigoid associated with primary macroglobulinemia and psoriasis vulgaris.

  2. Photosynthetic control of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in Vallisneria leaves. II. Presence of putative isogenes and a protein equipped with a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akiko; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Takagi, Shingo

    2002-04-01

    In vitro treatment with trypsin of plasma membrane (PM) vesicles isolated from the leaves of Vallisneria gigantea Graebner, an aquatic monocot, produced a marked decrease in the Km for ATP and an increase in the Vmax of H+-transporting activity. Concomitantly, the removal of 8 kDa of the C-terminal domain from the 94-kDa PM H+-ATPase was confirmed by immunoblotting using different kinds of polyclonal antibody. Three partial clones of putative PM H+-ATPase genes (Vga1, 2, and 3) were isolated from leaves by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Northern blotting analysis revealed that the expression level of Vga3 was high and that of the other two genes was much lower. The H+-transporting activity of PM vesicles was substantially suppressed in the presence of inorganic phosphate (Pi), which has been supposed to be a noncompetitive inhibitor of the PM H+-ATPase, coincident with an increase in the Km for ATP and a decrease in the Vmax. After treatment of the isolated PM vesicles with trypsin, the inhibitory effect of Pi was no longer evident. This result indicates that Pi inhibited the activity through the C-terminal autoinhibitory domain of the PM H+-ATPase. Furthermore, Pi increased the Km for ATP of the H+-transporting activity in the PM vesicles isolated from both dark-adapted and red-light-irradiated leaves. The results suggest that regulation of the Km for ATP through the operation of photosynthesis is independent of regulation through the cytoplasmic level of Pi.

  3. Structures of the nucleoid occlusion protein SlmA bound to DNA and the C-terminal domain of the cytoskeletal protein FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Maria A.; Zeng, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Cell division in most prokaryotes is mediated by FtsZ, which polymerizes to create the cytokinetic Z ring. Multiple FtsZ-binding proteins regulate FtsZ polymerization to ensure the proper spatiotemporal formation of the Z ring at the division site. The DNA-binding protein SlmA binds to FtsZ and prevents Z-ring formation through the nucleoid in a process called “nucleoid occlusion” (NO). As do most FtsZ-accessory proteins, SlmA interacts with the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) that is connected to the FtsZ core by a long, flexible linker. However, SlmA is distinct from other regulatory factors in that it must be DNA-bound to interact with the FtsZ CTD. Few structures of FtsZ regulator–CTD complexes are available, but all reveal the CTD bound as a helix. To deduce the molecular basis for the unique SlmA–DNA–FtsZ CTD regulatory interaction and provide insight into FtsZ–regulator protein complex formation, we determined structures of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, and Klebsiella pneumonia SlmA–DNA–FtsZ CTD ternary complexes. Strikingly, the FtsZ CTD does not interact with SlmA as a helix but binds as an extended conformation in a narrow, surface-exposed pocket formed only in the DNA-bound state of SlmA and located at the junction between the DNA-binding and C-terminal dimer domains. Binding studies are consistent with the structure and underscore key interactions in complex formation. Combined, these data reveal the molecular basis for the SlmA–DNA–FtsZ interaction with implications for SlmA’s NO function and underscore the ability of the FtsZ CTD to adopt a wide range of conformations, explaining its ability to bind diverse regulatory proteins. PMID:27091999

  4. Central domain of DivIB caps the C-terminal regions of the FtsL/DivIC coiled-coil rod.

    PubMed

    Masson, Soizic; Kern, Thomas; Le Gouëllec, Audrey; Giustini, Cécile; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Callow, Philip; Vernet, Thierry; Gabel, Frank; Zapun, André

    2009-10-02

    DivIB(FtsQ), FtsL, and DivIC(FtsB) are enigmatic membrane proteins that are central to the process of bacterial cell division. DivIB(FtsQ) is dispensable in specific conditions in some species, and appears to be absent in other bacterial species. The presence of FtsL and DivIC(FtsB) appears to be conserved despite very low sequence conservation. The three proteins form a complex at the division site, FtsL and DivIC(FtsB) being associated through their extracellular coiled-coil region. We report here structural investigations by NMR, small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering, and interaction studies by surface plasmon resonance, of the complex of DivIB, FtsL, and DivIC from Streptococcus pneumoniae, using soluble truncated forms of the proteins. We found that one side of the "bean"-shaped central beta-domain of DivIB interacts with the C-terminal regions of the dimer of FtsL and DivIC. This finding is corroborated by sequence comparisons across bacterial genomes. Indeed, DivIB is absent from species with shorter FtsL and DivIC proteins that have an extracellular domain consisting only of the coiled-coil segment without C-terminal conserved regions (Campylobacterales). We propose that the main role of the interaction of DivIB with FtsL and DivIC is to help the formation, or to stabilize, the coiled-coil of the latter proteins. The coiled-coil of FtsL and DivIC, itself or with transmembrane regions, could be free to interact with other partners.

  5. Binding of the C-terminal sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain of human p73 to lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Francisco N; Poveda, José A; González-Ros, José M; Neira, José L

    2003-11-21

    The alpha splice variant of p73 (p73alpha), a homologue of the tumor suppressor p53, has close to its C terminus a sterile alpha motif (SAM), SAMp73, that is thought to be involved in protein-protein interactions. Here, we report the lipid binding properties of this domain. Binding was assayed against zwitterionic (phosphatidylcholine) and anionic (phosphatidic acid) lipids and was studied by different biophysical techniques, namely, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopies and differential scanning calorimetry. These techniques unambiguously indicate that SAMp73 binds to lipids. The binding involves protein surface attachment and partial membrane penetration, accompanied by changes in SAMp73 structure.

  6. Identification of conformational epitopes and antigen-specific residues at the D/A domains and the extramembrane C-terminal region of E2 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yi; Huang, Chin-Cheng; Deng, Ming-Chung; Huang, Yeou-Liang; Lin, Yu-Ju; Liu, Hsin-Meng; Lin, Yeou-Liang; Wang, Fun-In

    2012-09-01

    Envelope glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the major antigen that induces neutralizing antibodies in infected pigs. Previous studies revealed that both conformation-dependent and linear epitopes are most present within domains B/C/D/A in the N-terminal half of E2. However, studies of antigenicity beyond the B/C domains remain limited. This study revealed that conformational epitopes were present on the D/A domains as well as the proximal C-terminal of E2, since the mutation of cysteine abrogated their bindings to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The residue R845 at domain A and E902 at the C-terminal region were critical for specific binding to mAbs, further supporting the presence of antigenic determinants on these regions. Substitutions of cysteines in domains D/A not only abrogated the binding to mAbs directed to D/A, but also affected the binding of the downstream C-terminal region to its specific mAbs, suggesting a close interaction between the two conformational epitopes. Mutations on the five proximal cysteines at positions 869, 877, 893, 896 and 930 in the C-terminal region only affected the binding to its specific mAbs binding sites. In addition, mutation on the three distal C-terminal cysteines at positions 945, 966, and 983 resulted in loss of E2 homodimerization. This study demonstrates new antigenic epitopes on D/A domains and C-terminal of E2 that have not been reported before, and that the nine cysteines in the C-terminal function differently in either maintaining the antigenic structure or in intermolecular dimerization of E2.

  7. The pH-sensitive structure of the C-terminal domain of voltage-gated proton channel and the thermodynamic characteristics of Zn²⁺ binding to this domain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Li, Chuanyong; Li, Shu Jie

    2015-01-02

    The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is strongly sensitive to Zn(2+). The H(+) conduction is decreased at a high concentration of Zn(2+) and Hv1 channel closing is slowed by the internal application of Zn(2+). Although the recent studies demonstrated that Zn(2+) interacts with the intracellular C-terminal domain, the binding sites and details of the interaction remain unknown. Here, we studied the pH-dependent structural stability of the intracellular C-terminal domain of human Hv1 and showed that Zn(2+) binds to His(244) and His(266) residues. The thermodynamics signature of Zn(2+) binding to the two sites was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding of Zn(2+) to His(244) (mutant H266A) and His(266) (mutant H244A) were an endothermic heat reaction and an exothermic heat reaction, respectively.

  8. Thermodynamic Linkage Between Calmodulin Domains Binding Calcium and Contiguous Sites in the C-Terminal Tail of CaV1.2

    PubMed Central

    Evans, T. Idil Apak; Hell, Johannes; Shea, Madeline A.

    2011-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) binding to the intracellular C-terminal tail (CTT) of the cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel (CaV1.2) regulates Ca2+ entry by recognizing sites that contribute to negative feedback mechanisms for channel closing. CaM associates with CaV1.2 under low resting [Ca2+], but is poised to change conformation and position when intracellular [Ca2+] rises. CaM binding Ca2+, and the domains of CaM binding the CTT are linked thermodynamic functions. To better understand regulation, we determined the energetics of CaM domains binding to peptides representing pre-IQ sites A1588, and C1614 and the IQ motif studied as overlapping peptides IQ1644 and IQ′1650 as well as their effect on calcium binding. (Ca2+)4-CaM bound to all four peptides very favorably (Kd ≤ 2 nM). Linkage analysis showed that IQ1644–1670 bound with a Kd ~1 pM. In the pre-IQ region, (Ca2+)2-N-domain bound preferentially to A1588, while (Ca2+)2-C-domain preferred C1614. When bound to C1614, calcium binding in the N-domain affected the tertiary conformation of the C-domain. Based on the thermodynamics, we propose a structural mechanism for calcium-dependent conformational change in which the linker between CTT sites A and C buckles to form an A-C hairpin that is bridged by calcium-saturated CaM. PMID:21757287

  9. Bipartite Topology of Treponema pallidum Repeat Proteins C/D and I: OUTER MEMBRANE INSERTION, TRIMERIZATION, AND PORIN FUNCTION REQUIRE A C-TERMINAL β-BARREL DOMAIN.

    PubMed

    Anand, Arvind; LeDoyt, Morgan; Karanian, Carson; Luthra, Amit; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G; Puthenveetil, Robbins; Vinogradova, Olga; Radolf, Justin D

    2015-05-08

    We previously identified Treponema pallidum repeat proteins TprC/D, TprF, and TprI as candidate outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and subsequently demonstrated that TprC is not only a rare OMP but also forms trimers and has porin activity. We also reported that TprC contains N- and C-terminal domains (TprC(N) and TprC(C)) orthologous to regions in the major outer sheath protein (MOSP(N) and MOSP(C)) of Treponema denticola and that TprC(C) is solely responsible for β-barrel formation, trimerization, and porin function by the full-length protein. Herein, we show that TprI also possesses bipartite architecture, trimeric structure, and porin function and that the MOSP(C)-like domains of native TprC and TprI are surface-exposed in T. pallidum, whereas their MOSP(N)-like domains are tethered within the periplasm. TprF, which does not contain a MOSP(C)-like domain, lacks amphiphilicity and porin activity, adopts an extended inflexible structure, and, in T. pallidum, is tightly bound to the protoplasmic cylinder. By thermal denaturation, the MOSP(N) and MOSP(C)-like domains of TprC and TprI are highly thermostable, endowing the full-length proteins with impressive conformational stability. When expressed in Escherichia coli with PelB signal sequences, TprC and TprI localize to the outer membrane, adopting bipartite topologies, whereas TprF is periplasmic. We propose that the MOSP(N)-like domains enhance the structural integrity of the cell envelope by anchoring the β-barrels within the periplasm. In addition to being bona fide T. pallidum rare outer membrane proteins, TprC/D and TprI represent a new class of dual function, bipartite bacterial OMP.

  10. The orientation of the C-terminal domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rap1 protein is determined by its binding to DNA.

    PubMed

    Matot, Béatrice; Le Bihan, Yann-Vaï; Lescasse, Rachel; Pérez, Javier; Miron, Simona; David, Gabriel; Castaing, Bertrand; Weber, Patrick; Raynal, Bertrand; Zinn-Justin, Sophie; Gasparini, Sylvaine; Le Du, Marie-Hélène

    2012-04-01

    Rap1 is an essential DNA-binding factor from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in transcription and telomere maintenance. Its binding to DNA targets Rap1 at particular loci, and may optimize its ability to form functional macromolecular assemblies. It is a modular protein, rich in large potentially unfolded regions, and comprising BRCT, Myb and RCT well-structured domains. Here, we present the architectures of Rap1 and a Rap1/DNA complex, built through a step-by-step integration of small angle X-ray scattering, X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance data. Our results reveal Rap1 structural adjustment upon DNA binding that involves a specific orientation of the C-terminal (RCT) domain with regard to the DNA binding domain (DBD). Crystal structure of DBD in complex with a long DNA identifies an essential wrapping loop, which constrains the orientation of the RCT and affects Rap1 affinity to DNA. Based on our structural information, we propose a model for Rap1 assembly at telomere.

  11. Structural basis of a Kv7.1 potassium channel gating module: studies of the intracellular c-terminal domain in complex with calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Sachyani, Dana; Dvir, Meidan; Strulovich, Roi; Tria, Giancarlo; Tobelaim, William; Peretz, Asher; Pongs, Olaf; Svergun, Dmitri; Attali, Bernard; Hirsch, Joel A

    2014-11-04

    Kv7 channels tune neuronal and cardiomyocyte excitability. In addition to the channel membrane domain, they also have a unique intracellular C-terminal (CT) domain, bound constitutively to calmodulin (CaM). This CT domain regulates gating and tetramerization. We investigated the structure of the membrane proximal CT module in complex with CaM by X-ray crystallography. The results show how the CaM intimately hugs a two-helical bundle, explaining many channelopathic mutations. Structure-based mutagenesis of this module in the context of concatemeric tetramer channels and functional analysis along with in vitro data lead us to propose that one CaM binds to one individual protomer, without crosslinking subunits and that this configuration is required for proper channel expression and function. Molecular modeling of the CT/CaM complex in conjunction with small-angle X-ray scattering suggests that the membrane proximal region, having a rigid lever arm, is a critical gating regulator.

  12. RPRD1A and RPRD1B are human RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain scaffolds for Ser5 dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zuyao; Xu, Chao; Guo, Xinghua; Hunter, Gerald O; Kuznetsova, Olga V; Tempel, Wolfram; Marcon, Edyta; Zhong, Guoqing; Guo, Hongbo; Kuo, Wei-Hung William; Li, Joyce; Young, Peter; Olsen, Jonathan B; Wan, Cuihong; Loppnau, Peter; El Bakkouri, Majida; Senisterra, Guillermo A; He, Hao; Huang, Haiming; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Emili, Andrew; Murphy, Shona; Mosley, Amber L; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Min, Jinrong; Greenblatt, Jack F

    2014-08-01

    The RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) C-terminal domain (CTD) heptapeptide repeats (1-YSPTSPS-7) undergo dynamic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation during the transcription cycle to recruit factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing and chromatin modification. We show here that RPRD1A and RPRD1B form homodimers and heterodimers through their coiled-coil domains and interact preferentially via CTD-interaction domains (CIDs) with RNAPII CTD repeats phosphorylated at S2 and S7. Crystal structures of the RPRD1A, RPRD1B and RPRD2 CIDs, alone and in complex with RNAPII CTD phosphoisoforms, elucidate the molecular basis of CTD recognition. In an example of cross-talk between different CTD modifications, our data also indicate that RPRD1A and RPRD1B associate directly with RPAP2 phosphatase and, by interacting with CTD repeats where phospho-S2 and/or phospho-S7 bracket a phospho-S5 residue, serve as CTD scaffolds to coordinate the dephosphorylation of phospho-S5 by RPAP2.

  13. The trappin gene family: proteins defined by an N-terminal transglutaminase substrate domain and a C-terminal four-disulphide core.

    PubMed Central

    Schalkwijk, J; Wiedow, O; Hirose, S

    1999-01-01

    Recently, several new genes have been discovered in various species which are homologous to the well-characterized human epithelial proteinase inhibitor elafin/SKALP (skin-derived anti-leukoproteinase). Because of the high degree of conservation and the similarities in genomic organization, we propose that these genes belong to a novel gene family. At the protein level, the family members are defined by: (1) an N-terminal domain consisting of a variable number of repeats with the consensus sequence Gly-Gln-Asp-Pro-Val-Lys that can act as an anchoring motif by transglutaminase cross-linking, and (2) a C-terminal four-disulphide core or whey acidic protein (WAP) domain, which harbours a functional motif involved in binding of proteinases and possibly other proteins. We have proposed the name trappin gene family as a unifying nomenclature for this group of proteins (trappin is an acronym for TRansglutaminase substrate and wAP domain containing ProteIN, and refers to its functional property of 'getting trapped' in tissues by covalent cross-linking). Analysis of the trappin family members shows extensive diversification in bovidae and suidae, whereas the number of primate trappins is probably limited. Recent biochemical and cell biological data on the human trappin family member elafin/SKALP suggest that this molecule is induced in epidermis by cellular stress. We hypothesize that trappins play an important role in the regulation of inflammation and in protection against tissue damage in stratified epithelia. PMID:10359639

  14. Residue-by-residue view of in vitro FUS granules that bind the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Kathleen A.; Janke, Abigail M.; Rhine, Christy L.; Fawzi, Nicolas L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Phase-separated states of proteins underlie ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules and nuclear RNA-binding protein assemblies that may nucleate protein inclusions associated with neurodegenerative diseases. We report that the N-terminal low complexity domain of the RNA-binding protein Fused in Sarcoma (FUS LC) is structurally disordered and forms a liquid-like phase-separated state resembling RNP granules. This state directly binds the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Phase-separated FUS lacks static structures as probed by fluorescence microscopy, indicating they are distinct from both protein inclusions and hydrogels. We use solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to directly probe the dynamic architecture within FUS liquid phase-separated assemblies. Importantly, we find that FUS LC retains disordered secondary structure even in the liquid phase-separated state. Therefore, we propose that disordered protein granules, even those made of aggregation-prone prion-like domains, are dynamic and disordered molecular assemblies with transiently formed protein-protein contacts. PMID:26455390

  15. A conserved C-terminal domain of the Aspergillus fumigatus developmental regulator MedA is required for nuclear localization, adhesion and virulence.

    PubMed

    Al Abdallah, Qusai; Choe, Se-In; Campoli, Paolo; Baptista, Stefanie; Gravelat, Fabrice N; Lee, Mark J; Sheppard, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    MedA is a developmental regulator that is conserved in the genome of most filamentous fungi. In the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus MedA regulates conidiogenesis, adherence to host cells, and pathogenicity. The mechanism by which MedA governs these phenotypes remains unknown. Although the nuclear import of MedA orthologues has been reported in other fungi, no nuclear localization signal, DNA-binding domain or other conserved motifs have been identified within MedA. In this work, we performed a deletion analysis of MedA and identified a novel domain within the C-terminal region of the protein, designated MedA(346-557), that is necessary and sufficient for nuclear localization of MedA. We further demonstrate that MedA nuclear localization is required for the function of MedA. Surprisingly, expression of the minimal nuclear localization fragment MedA(346-557) alone was sufficient to restore conidogenesis, biofilm formation and virulence to the medA mutant strain. Collectively these results suggest that MedA functions in the regulation of transcription, and that the MedA(346-557) domain is both necessary and sufficient to mediate MedA function.

  16. Crystal structure of the ternary complex of a NaV C-terminal domain, a fibroblast growth factor homologous factor, and calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaojian; Chung, Ben C; Yan, Haidun; Lee, Seok-Yong; Pitt, Geoffrey S

    2012-07-03

    Voltage-gated Na⁺ (Na(V)) channels initiate neuronal action potentials. Na(V) channels are composed of a transmembrane domain responsible for voltage-dependent Na⁺ conduction and a cytosolic C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates channel function through interactions with many auxiliary proteins, including fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs) and calmodulin (CaM). Most ion channel structural studies have focused on mechanisms of permeation and voltage-dependent gating but less is known about how intracellular domains modulate channel function. Here we report the crystal structure of the ternary complex of a human Na(V) CTD, an FHF, and Ca²⁺-free CaM at 2.2 Å. Combined with functional experiments based on structural insights, we present a platform for understanding the roles of these auxiliary proteins in Na(V) channel regulation and the molecular basis of mutations that lead to neuronal and cardiac diseases. Furthermore, we identify a critical interaction that contributes to the specificity of individual Na(V) CTD isoforms for distinctive FHFs.

  17. Specific Activation of the Plant P-type Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase by Lysophospholipids Depends on the Autoinhibitory N- and C-terminal Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Wielandt, Alex Green; Pedersen, Jesper Torbøl; Falhof, Janus; Kemmer, Gerdi Christine; Lund, Anette; Ekberg, Kira; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Palmgren, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic P-type plasma membrane H+-ATPases are primary active transport systems that are regulated at the post-translation level by cis-acting autoinhibitory domains, which can be relieved by protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation or binding of specific lipid species. Here we show that lysophospholipids specifically activate a plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase (Arabidopsis thaliana AHA2) by a mechanism that involves both cytoplasmic terminal domains of AHA2, whereas they have no effect on the fungal counterpart (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pma1p). The activation was dependent on the glycerol backbone of the lysophospholipid and increased with acyl chain length, whereas the headgroup had little effect on activation. Activation of the plant pump by lysophospholipids did not involve the penultimate residue, Thr-947, which is known to be phosphorylated as part of a binding site for activating 14-3-3 protein, but was critically dependent on a single autoinhibitory residue (Leu-919) upstream of the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain in AHA2. A corresponding residue is absent in the fungal counterpart. These data indicate that plant plasma membrane H+-ATPases evolved as specific receptors for lysophospholipids and support the hypothesis that lysophospholipids are important plant signaling molecules. PMID:25971968

  18. Molecular and functional characterization of proteins interacting with the C-terminal domains of 5-HT2 receptors: emergence of 5-HT2 "receptosomes".

    PubMed

    Gavarini, Sophie; Bécamel, Carine; Chanrion, Benjamin; Bockaert, Joël; Marin, Philippe

    2004-06-01

    Many cellular functions are carried out by multiprotein complexes. The last five years of research have revealed that many G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) functions that are not mediated by G proteins involve protein networks, which interact with their intracellular domains. This review focuses on one family of GPCRs activated by serotonin, the 5-HT(2) receptor family, which comprises three closely related subtypes, the 5-HT(2A), the 5-HT(2B) and the 5-HT(2c) receptors. These receptors still raise particular interest, because a large number of psychoactive drugs including hallucinogens, anti-psychotics, anxiolytics and anti-depressants, mediate their action, at least in part, through activation of 5-HT(2) receptors. Recent studies based on two-hybrid screens, proteomic, biochemical and cell biology approaches, have shown that the C-terminal domains of 5-HT(2) receptors interact with intracellular proteins. To date, the protein network associated with the C-terminus of the 5-HT(2C) receptor has been the most extensively characterized, using a proteomic approach combining affinity chromatography, mass spectrometry and immunoblotting. It includes scaffolding proteins containing one or several PDZ domains, signalling proteins and proteins of the cytoskeleton. Data indicating that the protein complexes interacting with 5-HT(2) receptor C-termini tightly control receptor trafficking and receptor-mediated signalling will also be reviewed.

  19. A Conserved C-Terminal Domain of the Aspergillus fumigatus Developmental Regulator MedA Is Required for Nuclear Localization, Adhesion and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Al Abdallah, Qusai; Choe, Se-In; Campoli, Paolo; Baptista, Stefanie; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Lee, Mark J.; Sheppard, Donald C.

    2012-01-01

    MedA is a developmental regulator that is conserved in the genome of most filamentous fungi. In the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus MedA regulates conidiogenesis, adherence to host cells, and pathogenicity. The mechanism by which MedA governs these phenotypes remains unknown. Although the nuclear import of MedA orthologues has been reported in other fungi, no nuclear localization signal, DNA-binding domain or other conserved motifs have been identified within MedA. In this work, we performed a deletion analysis of MedA and identified a novel domain within the C-terminal region of the protein, designated MedA346–557, that is necessary and sufficient for nuclear localization of MedA. We further demonstrate that MedA nuclear localization is required for the function of MedA. Surprisingly, expression of the minimal nuclear localization fragment MedA346–557 alone was sufficient to restore conidogenesis, biofilm formation and virulence to the medA mutant strain. Collectively these results suggest that MedA functions in the regulation of transcription, and that the MedA346–557 domain is both necessary and sufficient to mediate MedA function. PMID:23185496

  20. 3.3 Å structure of Niemann–Pick C1 protein reveals insights into the function of the C-terminal luminal domain in cholesterol transport

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaochun; Schmiege, Philip; Seemann, Joachim; Wang, Jiawei; Blobel, Günter

    2017-01-01

    Niemann–Pick C1 (NPC1) and NPC2 proteins are indispensable for the export of LDL-derived cholesterol from late endosomes. Mutations in these proteins result in Niemann–Pick type C disease, a lysosomal storage disease. Despite recent reports of the NPC1 structure depicting its overall architecture, the function of its C-terminal luminal domain (CTD) remains poorly understood even though 45% of NPC disease-causing mutations are in this domain. Here, we report a crystal structure at 3.3 Å resolution of NPC1* (residues 314–1,278), which—in contrast to previous lower resolution structures—features the entire CTD well resolved. Notably, all eight cysteines of the CTD form four disulfide bonds, one of which (C909–C914) enforces a specific loop that in turn mediates an interaction with a loop of the N-terminal domain (NTD). Importantly, this loop and its interaction with the NTD were not observed in any previous structures due to the lower resolution. Our mutagenesis experiments highlight the physiological relevance of the CTD–NTD interaction, which might function to keep the NTD in the proper orientation for receiving cholesterol from NPC2. Additionally, this structure allows us to more precisely map all of the disease-causing mutations, allowing future molecular insights into the pathogenesis of NPC disease. PMID:28784760

  1. Cell-Free Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Assembly Dependent on the Core Protein C-Terminal Domain and Regulated by Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Ludgate, Laurie; Liu, Kuancheng; Luckenbaugh, Laurie; Streck, Nicholas; Eng, Stacey; Voitenleitner, Christian; Delaney, William E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multiple subunits of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) assemble into an icosahedral capsid that packages the viral pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). The N-terminal domain (NTD) of HBc is sufficient for capsid assembly, in the absence of pgRNA or any other viral or host factors, under conditions of high HBc and/or salt concentrations. The C-terminal domain (CTD) is deemed dispensable for capsid assembly although it is essential for pgRNA packaging. We report here that HBc expressed in a mammalian cell lysate, rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL), was able to assemble into capsids when (low-nanomolar) HBc concentrations mimicked those achieved under conditions of viral replication in vivo and were far below those used previously for capsid assembly in vitro. Furthermore, at physiologically low HBc concentrations in RRL, the NTD was insufficient for capsid assembly and the CTD was also required. The CTD likely facilitated assembly under these conditions via RNA binding and protein-protein interactions. Moreover, the CTD underwent phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events in RRL similar to those seen in vivo which regulated capsid assembly. Importantly, the NTD alone also failed to accumulate in mammalian cells, likely resulting from its failure to assemble efficiently. Coexpression of the full-length HBc rescued NTD assembly in RRL as well as NTD expression and assembly in mammalian cells, resulting in the formation of mosaic capsids containing both full-length HBc and the NTD. These results have important implications for HBV assembly during replication and provide a facile cell-free system to study capsid assembly under physiologically relevant conditions, including its modulation by host factors. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important global human pathogen and the main cause of liver cancer worldwide. An essential component of HBV is the spherical capsid composed of multiple copies of a single protein, the core protein (HBc). We have

  2. The PGRS domain is responsible for translocation of PE_PGRS30 to cell poles while the PE and the C-terminal domains localize it to the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Chatrath, Shweta; Gupta, Vineet Kumar; Garg, Lalit C

    2014-03-18

    PE_PGRS proteins localize in the mycobacterial cell wall and the cell wall localization of PE_PGRS33 has been shown to be attributed to its PE domain. In this study, we expressed deletion mutants of PE_PGRS30 in Mycobacterium smegmatis to characterize the role of its domains in protein localization. It was revealed that, apart from the PE domain, the C-terminal domain present in few PE_PGRS proteins carries individual cell wall localization signals. Proteinase K sensitivity assay showed that PE_PGRS30 is exposed on the mycobacterial surface through its PGRS domain. PGRS domain was also shown to be responsible for polar localization of PE_PGRS30.

  3. Mass spectrometry defines the C-terminal dimerization domain and enables modeling of the structure of full-length OmpA

    PubMed Central

    Marcoux, Julien; Politis, Argyris; Rinehart, Dennis; Marshall, David P.; Wallace, Mark I.; Tamm, Lukas K.; Robinson, Carol V.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The transmembrane domain of the Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) from Escherichia coli is an excellent model for structural and folding studies of β-barrel membrane proteins. However, full-length OmpA resists crystallographic efforts and the link between its function and tertiary structure remains controversial. Here we use site directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry of different constructs of OmpA, released in the gas phase from detergent micelles, to define the minimal region encompassing the C-terminal dimer interface. Combining knowledge of the location of the dimeric interface with molecular modeling and ion mobility data allows us to propose a low-resolution model for the full-length OmpA dimer. Our model of the dimer is in remarkable agreement with experimental ion mobility data, with none of the unfolding or collapse observed for full-length monomeric OmpA, implying that dimer formation stabilises the overall structure and prevents collapse of the flexible linker that connects the two domains. PMID:24746938

  4. Structural Insights into the Calcium-Mediated Allosteric Transition in the C-Terminal Domain of Calmodulin from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kukic, Predrag; Lundström, Patrik; Camilloni, Carlo; Evenäs, Johan; Akke, Mikael; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-01-12

    Calmodulin is a two-domain signaling protein that becomes activated upon binding cooperatively two pairs of calcium ions, leading to large-scale conformational changes that expose its binding site. Despite significant advances in understanding the structural biology of calmodulin functions, the mechanistic details of the conformational transition between closed and open states have remained unclear. To investigate this transition, we used a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments on the Ca(2+)-saturated E140Q C-terminal domain variant. Using chemical shift restraints in replica-averaged metadynamics simulations, we obtained a high-resolution structural ensemble consisting of two conformational states and validated such an ensemble against three independent experimental data sets, namely, interproton nuclear Overhauser enhancements, (15)N order parameters, and chemical shift differences between the exchanging states. Through a detailed analysis of this structural ensemble and of the corresponding statistical weights, we characterized a calcium-mediated conformational transition whereby the coordination of Ca(2+) by just one oxygen of the bidentate ligand E140 triggers a concerted movement of the two EF-hands that exposes the target binding site. This analysis provides atomistic insights into a possible Ca(2+)-mediated activation mechanism of calmodulin that cannot be achieved from static structures alone or from ensemble NMR measurements of the transition between conformations.

  5. The C-terminal domains of two homologous Oleaceae β-1,3-glucanases recognise carbohydrates differently: Laminarin binding by NMR.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Carreras, Héctor; Torres, María; Bustamante, Noemí; Macedo, Anjos L; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte; Bruix, Marta

    2015-08-15

    Ole e 9 and Fra e 9 are two allergenic β-1,3-glucanases from olive and ash tree pollens, respectively. Both proteins present a modular structure with a catalytic N-terminal domain and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) at the C-terminus. Despite their significant sequence resemblance, they differ in some functional properties, such as their catalytic activity and the carbohydrate-binding ability. Here, we have studied the different capability of the recombinant C-terminal domain of both allergens to bind laminarin by NMR titrations, binding assays and ultracentrifugation. We show that rCtD-Ole e 9 has a higher affinity for laminarin than rCtD-Fra e 9. The complexes have different exchange regimes on the NMR time scale in agreement with the different affinity for laminarin observed in the biochemical experiments. Utilising NMR chemical shift perturbation data, we show that only one side of the protein surface is affected by the interaction and that the binding site is located in the inter-helical region between α1 and α2, which is buttressed by aromatic side chains. The binding surface is larger in rCtD-Ole e 9 which may account for its higher affinity for laminarin relative to rCtD-Fra e 9.

  6. Solution structure and DNA-binding properties of the C-terminal domain of UvrC from E.coli

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S.; Folkers, G.E.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.; Boelens, R.; Wechselberger, R.; Niztayev, A.; Kaptein, R.

    2002-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of the UvrC protein (UvrC CTD) is essential for 5′ incision in the prokaryotic nucleotide excision repair process. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the UvrC CTD using heteronuclear NMR techniques. The structure shows two helix–hairpin–helix (HhH) motifs connected by a small connector helix. The UvrC CTD is shown to mediate structure-specific DNA binding. The domain binds to a single-stranded–double-stranded junction DNA, with a strong specificity towards looped duplex DNA that contains at least six unpaired bases per loop (‘bubble DNA’). Using chemical shift perturbation experiments, the DNA-binding surface is mapped to the first hairpin region encompassing the conserved glycine–valine–glycine residues followed by lysine–arginine–arginine, a positively charged surface patch and the second hairpin region consisting of glycine–isoleucine–serine. A model for the protein– DNA complex is proposed that accounts for this specificity. PMID:12426397

  7. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of the two C-terminal domains of the bifunctional cellulase ctCel9D-Cel44A from Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Najmudin, Shabir; Guerreiro, Catarina I. P. D.; Ferreira, Luís M. A.; Romão, Maria J. C.; Fontes, Carlos M. G. A.; Prates, José A. M.

    2005-12-01

    The two C-terminal domains of the cellulase ctCel9D-Cel44A from C. thermocellum cellulosome have been crystallized in tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 2.1 and 2.8 Å from native and seleno-l-methionine-derivative crystals, respectively. Clostridium thermocellum produces a highly organized multi-enzyme complex of cellulases and hemicellulases for the hydrolysis of plant cell-wall polysaccharides, which is termed the cellulosome. The bifunctional multi-modular cellulase ctCel9D-Cel44A is one of the largest components of the C. thermocellum cellulosome. The enzyme contains two internal catalytic domains belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 9 and 44. The C-terminus of this cellulase, comprising a polycystic kidney-disease module (PKD) and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM44), has been crystallized. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, containing a single molecule in the asymmetric unit. Native and seleno-l-methionine-derivative crystals diffracted to 2.1 and 2.8 Å, respectively.

  8. Penicillin-binding protein 2x of Streptococcus pneumoniae: the mutation Ala707Asp within the C-terminal PASTA2 domain leads to destabilization.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Inga; Peters, Katharina; Stahlmann, Christoph; Hakenbeck, Regine; Denapaite, Dalia

    2014-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin-binding protein 2x (PBP2x) is an enzyme involved in the last stages of peptidoglycan assembly and essential for bacterial growth and survival. PBP2x localizes to the division site, a process that depends on its Penicillin-Binding Protein And Serine-Threonine-kinase Associated (PASTA) domains, which was previously demonstrated via GFP-PBP2x in living cells. During this study a mutant strain was isolated in which the GFP-PBP2x fusion protein did not localize at division sites and it contained reduced amounts of the full-length GFP-PBP2x. We now show that this defect is due to a point mutation within the C-terminal PASTA2 domain of PBP2x. The mutant protein was analyzed in detail in terms of beta-lactam binding, functionality, and localization in live cells. We demonstrate that the mutation affects the GFP-tagged PBP2x variant severely and renders it susceptible to the protease/chaperone HtrA.

  9. Rare RNF213 variants in the C-terminal region encompassing the RING-finger domain are associated with moyamoya angiopathy in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Guey, Stéphanie; Kraemer, Markus; Hervé, Dominique; Ludwig, Thomas; Kossorotoff, Manoëlle; Bergametti, Françoise; Schwitalla, Jan Claudius; Choi, Simone; Broseus, Lucile; Callebaut, Isabelle; Genin, Emmanuelle; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth

    2017-08-01

    Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA) is a cerebral angiopathy affecting the terminal part of internal carotid arteries. Its prevalence is 10 times higher in Japan and Korea than in Europe. In East Asian countries, moyamoya is strongly associated to the R4810K variant in the RNF213 gene that encodes for a protein containing a RING-finger and two AAA+ domains. This variant has never been detected in Caucasian MMA patients, but several rare RNF213 variants have been reported in Caucasian cases. Using a collapsing test based on exome data from 68 European MMA probands and 573 ethnically matched controls, we showed a significant association between rare missense RNF213 variants and MMA in European patients (odds ratio (OR)=2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI)=(1.19-4.11), P=0.01). Variants specific to cases had higher pathogenicity predictive scores (median of 24.2 in cases versus 9.4 in controls, P=0.029) and preferentially clustered in a C-terminal hotspot encompassing the RING-finger domain of RNF213 (P<10(-3)). This association was even stronger when restricting the analysis to childhood-onset and familial cases (OR=4.54, 95% CI=(1.80-11.34), P=1.1 × 10(-3)). All clinically affected relatives who were genotyped were carriers. However, the need for additional factors to develop MMA is strongly suggested by the fact that only 25% of mutation carrier relatives were clinically affected.

  10. The Gly-Arg-rich C-terminal domain of pea nucleolin is a DNA helicase that catalytically translocates in the 5'- to 3'-direction.

    PubMed

    Nasirudin, Khondaker M; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z; Tuteja, Renu; Sopory, Sudhir K; Tuteja, Narendra

    2005-02-15

    Nucleolin is a major nucleolar phosphoprotein of exponentially growing eukaryotic cells. Here we report the cloning, purification, and characterization of the C-terminal glycine/arginine-rich (GAR) domain of pea nucleolin. The purified recombinant protein (17 kDa) shows ATP-/Mg(2+)-dependent DNA helicase and ssDNA-/Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activities. The enzyme unwinds DNA in the 5'- to 3'-direction, which is the first report in plant for this directional activity. It unwinds forked/non-forked DNA with equal efficiency. The anti-nucleolin antibodies immunodepleted the activities of the enzyme. The DNA interacting ligands nogalamycin, daunorubicin, actinomycin C1, and ethidium bromide were inhibitory to DNA unwinding (with K(i) values of 0.40, 2.21, 8.0, and 9.0 microM, respectively) and ATPase (with K(i) values of 0.43, 1.65, 4.6, and 7.0 microM, respectively) activities of the enzyme. This study confirms that the unwinding and ATPase activities of pea nucleolin resided in the GAR domain. This study should make important contribution to our better understanding of DNA transaction in plants, mechanism of DNA unwinding, and the mechanism by which these ligands can disturb genome integrity.

  11. The C-terminal fibrinogen-like domain of angiopoietin-like 4 stimulates adipose tissue lipolysis and promotes energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Allison E; Kanamaluru, Deepthi; Yan, Kimberly; Gray, Nora E; Wu, Leslie; Li, Mei-Lan; Chang, Anthony; Hasan, Adeeba; Stifler, Daniel; Koliwad, Suneil K; Wang, Jen-Chywan

    2017-09-29

    Angptl4 (Angiopoietin-like 4) is a circulating protein secreted by white and brown adipose tissues and the liver. Structurally, Angptl4 contains an N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) connected to a C-terminal fibrinogen-like domain (FLD) via a cleavable linker, and both full-length Angptl4 and its individual domains circulate in the bloodstream. Angptl4 inhibits extracellular lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and stimulates the lipolysis of triacylglycerol stored by adipocytes in the white adipose tissue (WAT). The former activity is furnished by the CCD, but the Angptl4 domain responsible for stimulating adipocyte lipolysis is unknown. We show here that the purified FLD of Angptl4 is sufficient to stimulate lipolysis in mouse primary adipocytes and that increasing circulating FLD levels in mice through adenovirus-mediated overexpression (Ad-FLD) not only induces WAT lipolysis in vivo but also reduces diet-induced obesity without affecting LPL activity. Intriguingly, reduced adiposity in Ad-FLD mice was associated with increased oxygen consumption, fat utilization, and the expression of thermogenic genes (Ucp1 and Ppargc1a) in subcutaneous WAT. Moreover, Ad-FLD mice exhibited increased glucose tolerance. Chronically enhancing WAT lipolysis could produce ectopic steatosis because of an overflow of lipids from the WAT to peripheral tissues; however, this did not occur when Ad-FLD mice were fed a high-fat diet. Rather, these mice had reductions in both circulating triacylglycerol levels and the mRNA levels of lipogenic genes in the liver and skeletal muscle. We conclude that separating the FLD from the CCD-mediated LPL-inhibitory activity of full-length Angptl4 reveals lipolytic and thermogenic properties with therapeutic relevance to obesity and diabetes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. A Novel C-Terminal Domain of RecJ is Critical for Interaction with HerA in Deinococcus radiodurans

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kaiying; Zhao, Ye; Chen, Xuanyi; Li, Tao; Wang, Liangyan; Xu, Hong; Tian, Bing; Hua, Yuejin

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) generates error-free repair products, which plays an important role in double strand break repair and replication fork rescue processes. DNA end resection, the critical step in HR, is usually performed by a series of nuclease/helicase. RecJ was identified as a 5′-3′ exonuclease involved in bacterial DNA end resection. Typical RecJ possesses a conserved DHH domain, a DHHA1 domain, and an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold. However, RecJs from Deinococcus-Thermus phylum, such as Deinococcus radiodurans RecJ (DrRecJ), possess an extra C-terminal domain (CTD), of which the function has not been characterized. Here, we showed that a CTD-deletion of DrRecJ (DrRecJΔC) could not restore drrecJ mutant growth and mitomycin C (MMC)-sensitive phenotypes, indicating that this domain is essential for DrRecJ in vivo. DrRecJΔC displayed reduced DNA nuclease activity and DNA binding ability. Direct interaction was identified between DrRecJ-CTD and DrHerA, which stimulates DrRecJ nuclease activity by enhancing its DNA binding affinity. Moreover, DrNurA nuclease, another partner of DrHerA, inhibited the stimulation of DrHerA on DrRecJ nuclease activity by interaction with DrHerA. Opposing growth and MMC-resistance phenotypes between the recJ and nurA mutants were observed. A novel modulation mechanism among DrRecJ, DrHerA, and DrNurA was also suggested. PMID:26648913

  13. Elongation of the C-terminal domain of an anti-amyloid β single-chain variable fragment increases its thermodynamic stability and decreases its aggregation tendency

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Hernández, Geovanny; Marín-Argany, Marta; Blasco-Moreno, Bernat; Bonet, Jaume; Oliva, Baldomero; Villegas, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) immunotherapy is considered a promising approach to Alzheimer disease treatment. In contrast to the use of complete antibodies, administration of single-chain variable fragments (scFv) has not been associated with either meningoencephalitis or cerebral hemorrhage. ScFv-h3D6 is known to preclude cytotoxicity of the Aβ1–42 peptide by removing its oligomers from the amyloid pathway. As is the case for other scFv molecules, the recombinant production of scFv-h3D6 is limited by its folding and stability properties. Here, we show that its urea-induced unfolding pathway is characterized by the presence of an intermediate state composed of the unfolded VL domain and the folded VH domain, which suggests the VL domain as a target for thermodynamic stability redesign. The modeling of the 3D structure revealed that the VL domain, located at the C-terminal of the molecule, was ending before its latest β-strand was completed. Three elongation mutants, beyond VL-K107, showed increased thermodynamic stability and lower aggregation tendency, as determined from urea denaturation experiments and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Because the mutants maintained the capability of removing Aβ-oligomers from the amyloid pathway, we expect these traits to increase the half-life of scFv-h3D6 in vivo and, consequently, to decrease the effective doses. Our results led to the improvement of a potential Alzheimer disease treatment and may be extrapolated to other class-I scFv molecules of therapeutic interest. PMID:23924802

  14. Elongation of the C-terminal domain of an anti-amyloid β single-chain variable fragment increases its thermodynamic stability and decreases its aggregation tendency.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Hernández, Geovanny; Marin-Argany, Marta; Blasco-Moreno, Bernat; Bonet, Jaume; Oliva, Baldo; Villegas, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) immunotherapy is considered a promising approach to Alzheimer disease treatment. In contrast to the use of complete antibodies, administration of single-chain variable fragments (scFv) has not been associated with either meningoencephalitis or cerebral hemorrhage. ScFv-h3D6 is known to preclude cytotoxicity of the Aβ 1-42 peptide by removing its oligomers from the amyloid pathway. As is the case for other scFv molecules, the recombinant production of scFv-h3D6 is limited by its folding and stability properties. Here, we show that its urea-induced unfolding pathway is characterized by the presence of an intermediate state composed of the unfolded VL domain and the folded VH domain, which suggests the VL domain as a target for thermodynamic stability redesign. The modeling of the 3D structure revealed that the VL domain, located at the C-terminal of the molecule, was ending before its latest β-strand was completed. Three elongation mutants, beyond VL-K107, showed increased thermodynamic stability and lower aggregation tendency, as determined from urea denaturation experiments and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Because the mutants maintained the capability of removing Aβ-oligomers from the amyloid pathway, we expect these traits to increase the half-life of scFv-h3D6 in vivo and, consequently, to decrease the effective doses. Our results led to the improvement of a potential Alzheimer disease treatment and may be extrapolated to other class-I scFv molecules of therapeutic interest.

  15. FGF1 C-terminal domain and phosphorylation regulate intracrine FGF1 signaling for its neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities

    PubMed Central

    Delmas, E; Jah, N; Pirou, C; Bouleau, S; Le Floch, N; Vayssière, J-L; Mignotte, B; Renaud, F

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) is a prototypic member of the FGFs family overexpressed in various tumors. Contrarily to most FGFs, FGF1 lacks a secretion peptide signal and acts mainly in an intracellular and nuclear manner. Intracellular FGF1 induces cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. We previously showed that intracellular FGF1 induces neuronal differentiation and inhibits both p53- and serum-free-medium-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. FGF1 nuclear localization is required for these intracellular activities, suggesting that FGF1 regulates p53-dependent apoptosis and neuronal differentiation by new nuclear pathways. To better characterize intracellular FGF1 pathways, we studied the effect of three mutations localized in the C-terminal domain of FGF1 (i.e., FGF1K132E, FGF1S130A and FGF1S130D) on FGF1 neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities in PC12 cells. The change of the serine 130 to alanine precludes FGF1 phosphorylation, while its mutation to aspartic acid mimics phosphorylation. These FGF1 mutants kept both a nuclear and cytosolic localization in PC12 cells. Our study highlights for the first time the role of FGF1 phosphorylation and the implication of FGF1 C-terminal domain on its intracellular activities. Indeed, we show that the K132E mutation inhibits both the neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic activities of FGF1, suggesting a regulatory activity for FGF1 C terminus. Furthermore, we observed that both FGF1S130A and FGF1S130D mutant forms induced PC12 cells neuronal differentiation. Therefore, FGF1 phosphorylation does not regulate FGF1-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Then, we showed that only FGF1S130A protects PC12 cells against p53-dependent apoptosis, thus phosphorylation appears to inhibit FGF1 anti-apoptotic activity in PC12 cells. Altogether, our results show that phosphorylation does not regulate FGF1 neurotrophic activity but inhibits its anti-apoptotic activity after p53-dependent apoptosis induction, giving new insight

  16. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain regulates the energy requirement for EBV-induced membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Zhang, Xianming; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Longnecker, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is preceded by membrane fusion, which in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is thought to be mediated by the refolding of glycoprotein B (gB) from a prefusion to a postfusion state. In our current studies, we characterized a gB C-terminal tail domain (CTD) mutant truncated at amino acid 843 (gB843). This truncation mutant is hyperfusogenic as monitored by syncytium formation and in a quantitative fusion assay and is dependent on gH/gL for fusion activity. gB843 can rescue the fusion function of other glycoprotein mutants that have null or decreased fusion activity in epithelial and B cells. In addition, gB843 requires less gp42 and gH/gL for fusion, and can function in fusion at a lower temperature than wild-type gB, indicating a lower energy requirement for fusion activation. Since a key step in fusion is the conversion of gB from a prefusion to an active postfusion state by gH/gL, gB843 may access this activated gB state more readily. Our studies indicate that the gB CTD may participate in the fusion function by maintaining gB in an inactive prefusion form prior to activation by receptor binding. Importance: Diseases resulting from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in humans range from the fairly benign disease infectious mononucleosis to life-threatening cancer. As an enveloped virus, EBV must fuse with a host cell membrane for entry and infection by using glycoproteins gH/gL, gB, and gp42. Among these glycoproteins, gB is thought to be the protein that executes fusion. To further characterize the function of the EBV gB cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain (CTD) in fusion, we used a previously constructed CTD truncation mutant and studied its fusion activity in the context of other EBV glycoprotein mutants. From these studies, we find that the gB CTD regulates fusion by altering the energy requirements for the triggering of fusion mediated by gH/gL or gp42. Overall, our studies may lead to a better understanding of EBV fusion

  17. The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Glycoprotein B Cytoplasmic C-Terminal Tail Domain Regulates the Energy Requirement for EBV-Induced Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia; Zhang, Xianming; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is preceded by membrane fusion, which in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is thought to be mediated by the refolding of glycoprotein B (gB) from a prefusion to a postfusion state. In our current studies, we characterized a gB C-terminal tail domain (CTD) mutant truncated at amino acid 843 (gB843). This truncation mutant is hyperfusogenic as monitored by syncytium formation and in a quantitative fusion assay and is dependent on gH/gL for fusion activity. gB843 can rescue the fusion function of other glycoprotein mutants that have null or decreased fusion activity in epithelial and B cells. In addition, gB843 requires less gp42 and gH/gL for fusion, and can function in fusion at a lower temperature than wild-type gB, indicating a lower energy requirement for fusion activation. Since a key step in fusion is the conversion of gB from a prefusion to an active postfusion state by gH/gL, gB843 may access this activated gB state more readily. Our studies indicate that the gB CTD may participate in the fusion function by maintaining gB in an inactive prefusion form prior to activation by receptor binding. IMPORTANCE Diseases resulting from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in humans range from the fairly benign disease infectious mononucleosis to life-threatening cancer. As an enveloped virus, EBV must fuse with a host cell membrane for entry and infection by using glycoproteins gH/gL, gB, and gp42. Among these glycoproteins, gB is thought to be the protein that executes fusion. To further characterize the function of the EBV gB cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain (CTD) in fusion, we used a previously constructed CTD truncation mutant and studied its fusion activity in the context of other EBV glycoprotein mutants. From these studies, we find that the gB CTD regulates fusion by altering the energy requirements for the triggering of fusion mediated by gH/gL or gp42. Overall, our studies may lead to a better understanding of EBV

  18. C-terminal modulatory domain controls coupling of voltage-sensing to pore opening in Cav1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Andreas; Ortner, Nadine; Striessnig, Jörg

    2014-04-01

    Activity of voltage-gated Cav1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels is required for proper hearing as well as sinoatrial node and brain function. This critically depends on their negative activation voltage range, which is further fine-tuned by alternative splicing. Shorter variants miss a C-terminal regulatory domain (CTM), which allows them to activate at even more negative potentials than C-terminally long-splice variants. It is at present unclear whether this is due to an increased voltage sensitivity of the Cav1.3 voltage-sensing domain, or an enhanced coupling of voltage-sensor conformational changes to the subsequent opening of the activation gate. We studied the voltage-dependence of voltage-sensor charge movement (QON-V) and of current activation (ICa-V) of the long (Cav1.3L) and a short Cav1.3 splice variant (Cav1.342A) expressed in tsA-201 cells using whole cell patch-clamp. Charge movement (QON) of Cav1.3L displayed a much steeper voltage-dependence and a more negative half-maximal activation voltage than Cav1.2 and Cav3.1. However, a significantly higher fraction of the total charge had to move for activation of Cav1.3 half-maximal conductance (Cav1.3: 68%; Cav1.2: 52%; Cav3.1: 22%). This indicated a weaker coupling of Cav1.3 voltage-sensor charge movement to pore opening. However, the coupling efficiency was strengthened in the absence of the CTM in Cav1.342A, thereby shifting ICa-V by 7.2 mV to potentials that were more negative without changing QON-V. We independently show that the presence of intracellular organic cations (such as n-methyl-D-glucamine) induces a pronounced negative shift of QON-V and a more negative activation of ICa-V of all three channels. These findings illustrate that the voltage sensors of Cav1.3 channels respond more sensitively to depolarization than those of Cav1.2 or Cav3.1. Weak coupling of voltage sensing to pore opening is enhanced in the absence of the CTM, allowing short Cav1.342A splice variants to activate at lower voltages

  19. C-Terminal Modulatory Domain Controls Coupling of Voltage-Sensing to Pore Opening in Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Andreas; Ortner, Nadine; Striessnig, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Activity of voltage-gated Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels is required for proper hearing as well as sinoatrial node and brain function. This critically depends on their negative activation voltage range, which is further fine-tuned by alternative splicing. Shorter variants miss a C-terminal regulatory domain (CTM), which allows them to activate at even more negative potentials than C-terminally long-splice variants. It is at present unclear whether this is due to an increased voltage sensitivity of the Cav1.3 voltage-sensing domain, or an enhanced coupling of voltage-sensor conformational changes to the subsequent opening of the activation gate. We studied the voltage-dependence of voltage-sensor charge movement (QON-V) and of current activation (ICa-V) of the long (Cav1.3L) and a short Cav1.3 splice variant (Cav1.342A) expressed in tsA-201 cells using whole cell patch-clamp. Charge movement (QON) of Cav1.3L displayed a much steeper voltage-dependence and a more negative half-maximal activation voltage than Cav1.2 and Cav3.1. However, a significantly higher fraction of the total charge had to move for activation of Cav1.3 half-maximal conductance (Cav1.3: 68%; Cav1.2: 52%; Cav3.1: 22%). This indicated a weaker coupling of Cav1.3 voltage-sensor charge movement to pore opening. However, the coupling efficiency was strengthened in the absence of the CTM in Cav1.342A, thereby shifting ICa-V by 7.2 mV to potentials that were more negative without changing QON-V. We independently show that the presence of intracellular organic cations (such as n-methyl-D-glucamine) induces a pronounced negative shift of QON-V and a more negative activation of ICa-V of all three channels. These findings illustrate that the voltage sensors of Cav1.3 channels respond more sensitively to depolarization than those of Cav1.2 or Cav3.1. Weak coupling of voltage sensing to pore opening is enhanced in the absence of the CTM, allowing short Cav1.342A splice variants to activate at lower voltages

  20. Solution structure of the c-terminal dimerization domain of SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein solved by the SAIL-NMR method.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Chang, Chung-ke; Ikeya, Teppei; Güntert, Peter; Chang, Yuan-hsiang; Hsu, Yen-lan; Huang, Tai-huang; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2008-07-18

    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid protein (NP) contains a potential RNA-binding region in its N-terminal portion and also serves as a dimerization domain by forming a homodimer with a molecular mass of 28 kDa. So far, the structure determination of the SARS-CoV NP CTD in solution has been impeded by the poor quality of NMR spectra, especially for aromatic resonances. We have recently developed the stereo-array isotope labeling (SAIL) method to overcome the size problem of NMR structure determination by utilizing a protein exclusively composed of stereo- and regio-specifically isotope-labeled amino acids. Here, we employed the SAIL method to determine the high-quality solution structure of the SARS-CoV NP CTD by NMR. The SAIL protein yielded less crowded and better resolved spectra than uniform (13)C and (15)N labeling, and enabled the homodimeric solution structure of this protein to be determined. The NMR structure is almost identical with the previously solved crystal structure, except for a disordered putative RNA-binding domain at the N-terminus. Studies of the chemical shift perturbations caused by the binding of single-stranded DNA and mutational analyses have identified the disordered region at the N-termini as the prime site for nucleic acid binding. In addition, residues in the beta-sheet region also showed significant perturbations. Mapping of the locations of these residues onto the helical model observed in the crystal revealed that these two regions are parts of the interior lining of the positively charged helical groove, supporting the hypothesis that the helical oligomer may form in solution.

  1. The zinc finger and C-terminal domains of MTA proteins are required for FOG-2-mediated transcriptional repression via the NuRD complex.

    PubMed

    Roche, Andrea E; Bassett, Brett J; Samant, Sadhana A; Hong, Wei; Blobel, Gerd A; Svensson, Eric C

    2008-02-01

    FOG-2 is a transcriptional co-regulator that is required for cardiac morphogenesis as mice deficient in this factor die during mid-gestation of cardiac malformations. FOG-2 interacts with GATA4 to attenuate GATA4-dependent gene expression. The first 12 amino acids of FOG-2 (the FOG Repression Motif) are necessary to mediate this repression. To determine the mechanism by which the FOG Repression Motif functions, we identified 7 polypeptides from rat cardiac nuclear extracts that co-purified with a GST-FOG-2 fusion protein. All proteins identified are members of the NuRD nucleosome remodeling complex. Using in vitro binding and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate that Metastasis-Associated proteins (MTA)-1, 2 and 3 and Retinoblastoma binding proteins RbAp46 and RbAp48 interact with FOG-2, but not with a mutant form of FOG-2 that is unable to repress transcription. Furthermore, we define a novel domain located in the C-terminal portion of MTA-1 that mediates the FOG-2/MTA-1 interaction. We also demonstrate that knockdown of MTA protein expression dramatically impairs the ability of FOG-2 to repress GATA4 activity. Finally, we show that the zinc finger domain of MTA-1 is required for FOG-2-mediated transcriptional repression and that this domain interacts with RbAp46 and RbAp48 subunits of the NuRD complex. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of FOG-2/MTA/RbAp interactions for FOG-2-mediated transcriptional repression and further define the molecular interactions between the FOG Repression Motif and the NuRD complex.

  2. Residues in the RecQ C-terminal Domain of the Human Werner Syndrome Helicase Are Involved in Unwinding G-quadruplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Ketkar, Amit; Voehler, Markus; Mukiza, Tresor; Eoff, Robert L

    2017-02-24

    The structural and biophysical properties typically associated with G-quadruplex (G4) structures render them a significant block for DNA replication, which must be overcome for cell division to occur. The Werner syndrome protein (WRN) is a RecQ family helicase that has been implicated in the efficient processing of G4 DNA structures. The aim of this study was to identify the residues of WRN involved in the binding and ATPase-driven unwinding of G4 DNA. Using a c-Myc G4 DNA model sequence and recombinant WRN, we have determined that the RecQ-C-terminal (RQC) domain of WRN imparts a 2-fold preference for binding to G4 DNA relative to non-G4 DNA substrates. NMR studies identified residues involved specifically in interactions with G4 DNA. Three of the amino acids in the WRN RQC domain that exhibited the largest G4-specific changes in NMR signal were then mutated alone or in combination. Mutating individual residues implicated in G4 binding had a modest effect on WRN binding to DNA, decreasing the preference for G4 substrates by ∼25%. Mutating two G4-interacting residues (T1024G and T1086G) abrogated preferential binding of WRN to G4 DNA. Very modest decreases in G4 DNA-stimulated ATPase activity were observed for the mutant enzymes. Most strikingly, G4 unwinding by WRN was inhibited ∼50% for all three point mutants and >90% for the WRN double mutant (T1024G/T1086G) relative to normal B-form dsDNA substrates. Our work has helped to identify residues in the WRN RQC domain that are involved specifically in the interaction with G4 DNA.

  3. The C-terminal domain of pol II and a DRB-sensitive kinase are required for 3′ processing of U2 snRNA

    PubMed Central

    Medlin, Joanne E.; Uguen, Patricia; Taylor, Alice; Bentley, David L.; Murphy, Shona

    2003-01-01

    The human snRNA genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II (e.g. U1 and U2) have a characteristic TATA-less promoter containing an essential proximal sequence element. Formation of the 3′ end of these non-polyadenylated RNAs requires a specialized 3′ box element whose function is promoter specific. Here we show that truncation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II and treatment of cells with CTD kinase inhibitors, including DRB (5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole), causes a dramatic reduction in proper 3′ end formation of U2 transcripts. Activation of 3′ box recognition by the phosphorylated CTD would be consistent with the role of phospho-CTD in mRNA processing. CTD kinase inhibitors, however, have little effect on initiation or elongation of transcription of the U2 genes, whereas elongation of transcription of the β-actin gene is severely affected. This result highlights differences in transcription of snRNA and mRNA genes. PMID:12574128

  4. The role of the C-terminal extension (CTE) of the estrogen receptor alpha and beta DNA binding domain in DNA binding and interaction with HMGB.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Vida Senkus; Harrell, Chuck; Adelman, James S; Kraus, W Lee; Churchill, Mair; Edwards, Dean P

    2004-04-09

    HMGB-1/-2 are coregulatory proteins that facilitate the DNA binding and transcriptional activity of steroid receptor members of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. We investigated the influence and mechanism of action of HMGB-1/-2 (formerly known as HMG-1/-2) on estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and ERbeta. Both ER subtypes were responsive to HMGB-1/-2 with respect to enhancement of receptor DNA binding affinity and transcriptional activity in cells. Responsiveness to HMGB-1/-2 was dependent on the C-terminal extension (CTE) region of the ER DNA binding domain (DBD) and correlated with a direct protein interaction between HMGB-1/-2 and the CTE. Thus the previously reported higher DNA binding affinity and transcription activity of ERalpha as compared with ERbeta is not due to a lack of ERbeta interaction with HMGB-1/-2. Using chimeric receptor DBDs, the higher intrinsic DNA binding affinity of ERalpha than ERbeta was shown to be due to a unique property of the ERalpha CTE, independent of HMGB-1/-2. The CTE of both ER subtypes was also shown to be required for interaction with ERE half-sites. These studies reveal the importance of the CTE and HMGB-1/-2 for ERalpha and ERbeta interaction with their cognate target DNAs.

  5. Characterization of the promoter and extended C-terminal domain of Arabidopsis WRKY33 and functional analysis of tomato WRKY33 homologues in plant stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jian; Zheng, Zuyu; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis AtWRKY33 plays a critical role in broad plant stress responses. Whether there are evolutionarily conserved homologues of AtWRKY33 in other plants and what make AtWRKY33 such an important protein in plant stress responses are largely unknown. We compared AtWRKY33 with its close homologues to identify AtWRKY33-specific regulatory and structural elements, which were then functionally analysed through complementation. We also performed phylogenetic analysis to identify structural AtWRKY33 homologues in other plants and functionally analysed two tomato homologues through complementation and gene silencing. AtWRKY33 has an extended C-terminal domain (CTD) absent in its close homologue AtWRKY25. Both its CTD and the strong pathogen/stress-responsive expression of AtWRKY33 are necessary to complement the critical phenotypes of atwrky33. Structural AtWRKY33 homologues were identified in both dicot and monocot plants including two (SlWRKY33A and SlWRKY33B) in tomato. Molecular complementation and gene silencing confirmed that the two tomato WRKY genes play a critical role similar to that of AtWRKY33 in plant stress responses. Thus, WRKY33 proteins are evolutionarily conserved with a critical role in broad plant stress responses. Both its CTD and promoter are critical for the uniquely important roles of WRKY33 in plant stress responses. PMID:25969555

  6. Loss of c-Kit and bone marrow failure upon conditional removal of the GATA-2 C-terminal zinc finger domain in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan S; Jin, Jin; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Matatall, Katie A; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Huiyuan; Ullrich, Stephen E; King, Katherine Y; Sun, Shao-Cong; Watowich, Stephanie S

    2016-09-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the transcriptional regulator GATA-2 associate with multilineage immunodeficiency, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The majority of these mutations localize in the zinc finger (ZnF) domains, which mediate GATA-2 DNA binding. Deregulated hematopoiesis with GATA-2 mutation frequently develops in adulthood, yet GATA-2 function in the bone marrow remains unresolved. To investigate this, we conditionally deleted the GATA-2 C-terminal ZnF (C-ZnF) coding sequences in adult mice. Upon Gata2 C-ZnF deletion, we observed rapid peripheral cytopenia, bone marrow failure, and decreased c-Kit expression on hematopoietic progenitors. Transplant studies indicated GATA-2 has a cell-autonomous role in bone marrow hematopoiesis. Moreover, myeloid lineage populations were particularly sensitive to Gata2 hemizygosity, while molecular assays indicated GATA-2 regulates c-Kit expression in multilineage progenitor cells. Enforced c-Kit expression in Gata2 C-ZnF-deficient hematopoietic progenitors enhanced myeloid colony activity, suggesting GATA-2 sustains myelopoiesis via a cell intrinsic role involving maintenance of c-Kit expression. Our results provide insight into mechanisms regulating hematopoiesis in bone marrow and may contribute to a better understanding of immunodeficiency and bone marrow failure associated with GATA-2 mutation.

  7. Protein Kinase C Phosphorylation of a γ-Protocadherin C-terminal Lipid Binding Domain Regulates Focal Adhesion Kinase Inhibition and Dendrite Arborization.

    PubMed

    Keeler, Austin B; Schreiner, Dietmar; Weiner, Joshua A

    2015-08-21

    The γ-protocadherins (γ-Pcdhs) are a family of 22 adhesion molecules with multiple critical developmental functions, including the proper formation of dendritic arbors by forebrain neurons. The γ-Pcdhs bind to and inhibit focal adhesion kinase (FAK) via a constant C-terminal cytoplasmic domain shared by all 22 proteins. In cortical neurons lacking the γ-Pcdhs, aberrantly high activity of FAK and of PKC disrupts dendrite arborization. Little is known, however, about how γ-Pcdh function is regulated by other factors. Here we show that PKC phosphorylates a serine residue situated within a phospholipid binding motif at the shared γ-Pcdh C terminus. Western blots using a novel phospho-specific antibody against this site suggest that a portion of γ-Pcdh proteins is phosphorylated in the cortex in vivo. We find that PKC phosphorylation disrupts both phospholipid binding and the γ-Pcdh inhibition of (but not binding to) FAK. Introduction of a non-phosphorylatable (S922A) γ-Pcdh construct into wild-type cortical neurons significantly increases dendrite arborization. This same S922A construct can also rescue dendrite arborization defects in γ-Pcdh null neurons cell autonomously. Consistent with these data, introduction of a phosphomimetic (S/D) γ-Pcdh construct or treatment with a PKC activator reduces dendrite arborization in wild-type cortical neurons. Together, these data identify a novel mechanism through which γ-Pcdh control of a signaling pathway important for dendrite arborization is regulated.

  8. Chromatin condensing functions of the linker histone C-terminal domain are mediated by specific amino acid composition and intrinsic protein disorder.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xu; Hamkalo, Barbara; Parseghian, Missag H; Hansen, Jeffrey C

    2009-01-13

    Linker histones bind to the nucleosomes and linker DNA of chromatin fibers, causing changes in linker DNA structure and stabilization of higher order folded and oligomeric chromatin structures. Linker histones affect chromatin structure acting primarily through their approximately 100-residue C-terminal domain (CTD). We have previously shown that the ability of the linker histone H1 degrees to alter chromatin structure was localized to two discontinuous 24-/25-residue CTD regions (Lu, X., and Hansen, J. C. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 8701-8707). To determine the biochemical basis for these results, we have characterized chromatin model systems assembled with endogenous mouse somatic H1 isoforms or recombinant H1 degrees CTD mutants in which the primary sequence has been scrambled, the amino acid composition mutated, or the location of various CTD regions swapped. Our results indicate that specific amino acid composition plays a fundamental role in molecular recognition and function by the H1 CTD. Additionally, these experiments support a new molecular model for CTD function and provide a biochemical basis for the redundancy observed in H1 isoform knockout experiments in vivo.

  9. The C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T4 terminase docks on the prohead portal clip region during DNA packaging

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Aparna Banerjee; Ray, Krishanu; Thomas, Julie A.; Black, Lindsay W.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophage ATP-based packaging motors translocate DNA into a pre-formed prohead through a dodecameric portal ring channel to high density. We investigated portal–terminase docking interactions at specifically localized residues within a terminase-interaction region (aa279–316) in the phage T4 portal protein gp20 equated to the clip domain of the SPP1 portal crystal structure by 3D modeling. Within this region, three residues allowed A to C mutations whereas three others did not, consistent with informatics analyses showing the tolerated residues are not strongly conserved evolutionarily. About 7.5 nm was calculated by FCS-FRET studies employing maleimide Alexa488 dye labeled A316C proheads and gp17 CT-ReAsH supporting previous work docking the C-terminal end of the T4 terminase (gp17) closer to the N-terminal GFP-labeled portal (gp20) than the N-terminal end of the terminase. Such a terminase–portal orientation fits better to a proposed “DNA crunching” compression packaging motor and to portal determined DNA headful cutting. PMID:24074593

  10. C-terminal Domain of Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase from Pathogenic Candida albicans Recognizes both tRNASer and tRNALeu*

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Quan-Quan; Fang, Zhi-Peng; Ye, Qing; Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Wang, En-Duo

    2016-01-01

    Leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) is a multidomain enzyme that catalyzes Leu-tRNALeu formation and is classified into bacterial and archaeal/eukaryotic types with significant diversity in the C-terminal domain (CTD). CTDs of both bacterial and archaeal LeuRSs have been reported to recognize tRNALeu through different modes of interaction. In the human pathogen Candida albicans, the cytoplasmic LeuRS (CaLeuRS) is distinguished by its capacity to recognize a uniquely evolved chimeric tRNASer (CatRNASer(CAG)) in addition to its cognate CatRNALeu, leading to CUG codon reassignment. Our previous study showed that eukaryotic but not archaeal LeuRSs recognize this peculiar tRNASer, suggesting the significance of their highly divergent CTDs in tRNASer recognition. The results of this study provided the first evidence of the indispensable function of the CTD of eukaryotic LeuRS in recognizing non-cognate CatRNASer and cognate CatRNALeu. Three lysine residues were identified as involved in mediating enzyme-tRNA interaction in the leucylation process: mutation of all three sites totally ablated the leucylation activity. The importance of the three lysine residues was further verified by gel mobility shift assays and complementation of a yeast leuS gene knock-out strain. PMID:26677220

  11. Identification and characterization of the antimicrobial peptide corresponding to C-terminal beta-sheet domain of tenecin 1, an antibacterial protein of larvae of Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H; Hong, S Y; Oh, J E; Kwon, M; Yoon, J H; Lee, J; Lee, B L; Moon, H M

    1998-08-15

    An active fragment was identified from tenecin 1, an antibacterial protein belonging to the insect defensin family, by synthesizing the peptides corresponding to the three regions of tenecin 1. Only the fragment corresponding to the C-terminal beta-sheet domain showed activity against fungi as well as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, whereas tenecin 1, the native protein, showed activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. CD spectra indicated that each fragment in a membrane-mimetic environment might adopt a secondary structure corresponding to its region in the protein. The leakage of dye from liposomes induced by this fragment suggested that this fragment acts on the membrane of pathogens as a primary mode of action. A comparison between the structure and the activity of each fragment indicated that a net positive charge was a prerequisite factor for activity. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report in which the fragment corresponding to the beta-sheet region in antibacterial proteins, which consists of alpha-helical and beta-sheet regions, has been identified as a primary active fragment.

  12. RECQ5 helicase associates with the C-terminal repeat domain of RNA polymerase II during productive elongation phase of transcription

    PubMed Central

    Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan; Huehn, Daniela; MacKellar, April; Menigatti, Mirco; Zheng, Lu; Urban, Vaclav; Shevelev, Igor; Greenleaf, Arno L.; Janscak, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    It is known that transcription can induce DNA recombination, thus compromising genomic stability. RECQ5 DNA helicase promotes genomic stability by regulating homologous recombination. Recent studies have shown that RECQ5 forms a stable complex with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in human cells, but the cellular role of this association is not understood. Here, we provide evidence that RECQ5 specifically binds to the Ser2,5-phosphorylated C-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNAPII, RPB1, by means of a Set2–Rpb1-interacting (SRI) motif located at the C-terminus of RECQ5. We also show that RECQ5 associates with RNAPII-transcribed genes in a manner dependent on the SRI motif. Notably, RECQ5 density on transcribed genes correlates with the density of Ser2-CTD phosphorylation, which is associated with the productive elongation phase of transcription. Furthermore, we show that RECQ5 negatively affects cell viability upon inhibition of spliceosome assembly, which can lead to the formation of mutagenic R-loop structures. These data indicate that RECQ5 binds to the elongating RNAPII complex and support the idea that RECQ5 plays a role in the maintenance of genomic stability during transcription. PMID:20705653

  13. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 Phosphorylates S/T-P Sites in the Hepadnavirus Core Protein C-Terminal Domain and Is Incorporated into Viral Capsids

    PubMed Central

    Ludgate, Laurie; Ning, Xiaojun; Nguyen, David H.; Adams, Christina; Mentzer, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the hepadnavirus core protein C-terminal domain (CTD) is important for viral RNA packaging, reverse transcription, and subcellular localization. Hepadnavirus capsids also package a cellular kinase. The identity of the host kinase that phosphorylates the core CTD or gets packaged remains to be resolved. In particular, both the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) core CTDs harbor several conserved serine/threonine-proline (S/T-P) sites whose phosphorylation state is known to regulate CTD functions. We report here that the endogenous kinase in the HBV capsids was blocked by chemical inhibitors of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), in particular, CDK2 inhibitors. The kinase phosphorylated the HBV CTD at the serine-proline (S-P) sites. Furthermore, we were able to detect CDK2 in purified HBV capsids by immunoblotting. Purified CDK2 phosphorylated the S/T-P sites of the HBV and DHBV CTD in vitro. Inhibitors of CDKs, of CDK2 in particular, decreased both HBV and DHBV CTD phosphorylation in vivo. Moreover, CDK2 inhibitors blocked DHBV CTD phosphorylation, specifically at the S/T-P sites, in a mammalian cell lysate. These results indicate that cellular CDK2 phosphorylates the functionally critical S/T-P sites of the hepadnavirus core CTD and is incorporated into viral capsids. PMID:22951823

  14. Characterization of Human Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 12 (CDK12) and CDK13 Complexes in C-Terminal Domain Phosphorylation, Gene Transcription, and RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Kaiwei; Gao, Xin; Gilmore, Joshua M.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Smith, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) and CDK12 have each been demonstrated to phosphorylate the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) at serine 2 of the heptad repeat, both in vitro and in vivo. CDK9, as part of P-TEFb and the super elongation complex (SEC), is by far the best characterized of CDK9, CDK12, and CDK13. We employed both in vitro and in vivo assays to further investigate the molecular properties of CDK12 and its paralog CDK13. We isolated Flag-tagged CDK12 and CDK13 and found that they associate with numerous RNA processing factors. Although knockdown of CDK12, CDK13, or their cyclin partner CCNK did not affect the bulk CTD phosphorylation levels in HCT116 cells, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis revealed that CDK12 and CDK13 losses in HCT116 cells preferentially affect expression of DNA damage response and snoRNA genes, respectively. CDK12 and CDK13 depletion also leads to a loss of expression of RNA processing factors and to defects in RNA processing. These findings suggest that in addition to implementing CTD phosphorylation, CDK12 and CDK13 may affect RNA processing through direct physical interactions with RNA processing factors and by regulating their expression. PMID:25561469

  15. Two-track virtual screening approach to identify both competitive and allosteric inhibitors of human small C-terminal domain phosphatase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hwangseo; Lee, Hye Seon; Ku, Bonsu; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Seung Jun

    2017-06-01

    Despite a wealth of persuasive evidence for the involvement of human small C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (Scp1) in the impairment of neuronal differentiation and in Huntington's disease, small-molecule inhibitors of Scp1 have been rarely reported so far. This study aims to the discovery of both competitive and allosteric Scp1 inhibitors through the two-track virtual screening procedure. By virtue of the improvement of the scoring function by implementing a new molecular solvation energy term and by reoptimizing the atomic charges for the active-site Mg2+ ion cluster, we have been able to identify three allosteric and five competitive Scp1 inhibitors with low-micromolar inhibitory activity. Consistent with the results of kinetic studies on the inhibitory mechanisms, the allosteric inhibitors appear to be accommodated in the peripheral binding pocket through the hydrophobic interactions with the nonpolar residues whereas the competitive ones bind tightly in the active site with a direct coordination to the central Mg2+ ion. Some structural modifications to improve the biochemical potency of the newly identified inhibitors are proposed based on the binding modes estimated with docking simulations.

  16. C-terminal domain of p42 Ebp1 is essential for down regulation of p85 subunit of PI3K, inhibiting tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Inwoo; Kim, Chung Kwon; Ko, Hyo Rim; Park, Kye Won; Cho, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Potential tumor suppressor p42, ErbB3-binding protein 1 (EBP1) inhibits phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity reducing the p85 regulatory subunit. In this study, we demonstrated that overexpression of p42 promoted not only a reduction of wild type of p85 subunit but also oncogenic mutant forms of p85 which were identified in human cancers. Moreover, we identified the small fragment of C-terminal domain of p42 is sufficient to exhibit tumor suppressing activity of p42-WT, revealing that this small fragment (280–394) of p42 is required for the binding of both HSP70 and CHIP for a degradation of p85. Furthermore, we showed the small fragment of p42 markedly inhibited the tumor growth in mouse xenograft models of brain and breast cancer, resembling tumor suppressing activity of p42. Through identification of the smallest fragment of p42 that is responsible for its tumor suppressor activity, our findings represent a novel approach for targeted therapy of cancers that overexpress PI3K. PMID:27464702

  17. cis-Proline-mediated Ser(P)5 dephosphorylation by the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphatase Ssu72.

    PubMed

    Werner-Allen, Jon W; Lee, Chul-Jin; Liu, Pengda; Nicely, Nathan I; Wang, Su; Greenleaf, Arno L; Zhou, Pei

    2011-02-18

    RNA polymerase II coordinates co-transcriptional events by recruiting distinct sets of nuclear factors to specific stages of transcription via changes of phosphorylation patterns along its C-terminal domain (CTD). Although it has become increasingly clear that proline isomerization also helps regulate CTD-associated processes, the molecular basis of its role is unknown. Here, we report the structure of the Ser(P)(5) CTD phosphatase Ssu72 in complex with substrate, revealing a remarkable CTD conformation with the Ser(P)(5)-Pro(6) motif in the cis configuration. We show that the cis-Ser(P)(5)-Pro(6) isomer is the minor population in solution and that Ess1-catalyzed cis-trans-proline isomerization facilitates rapid dephosphorylation by Ssu72, providing an explanation for recently discovered in vivo connections between these enzymes and a revised model for CTD-mediated small nuclear RNA termination. This work presents the first structural evidence of a cis-proline-specific enzyme and an unexpected mechanism of isomer-based regulation of phosphorylation, with broad implications for CTD biology.

  18. Nuclear dynamics of topoisomerase IIβ reflects its catalytic activity that is regulated by binding of RNA to the C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Akihisa; Hosoya, Osamu; Sano, Kuniaki; Kiyama, Kazuko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Kawano, Shinji; Furuta, Ryohei; Miyaji, Mary; Tsutsui, Ken; Tsutsui, Kimiko M.

    2014-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) changes DNA topology by cleavage/re-ligation cycle(s) and thus contributes to various nuclear DNA transactions. It is largely unknown how the enzyme is controlled in a nuclear context. Several studies have suggested that its C-terminal domain (CTD), which is dispensable for basal relaxation activity, has some regulatory influence. In this work, we examined the impact of nuclear localization on regulation of activity in nuclei. Specifically, human cells were transfected with wild-type and mutant topo IIβ tagged with EGFP. Activity attenuation experiments and nuclear localization data reveal that the endogenous activity of topo IIβ is correlated with its subnuclear distribution. The enzyme shuttles between an active form in the nucleoplasm and a quiescent form in the nucleolus in a dynamic equilibrium. Mechanistically, the process involves a tethering event with RNA. Isolated RNA inhibits the catalytic activity of topo IIβ in vitro through the interaction with a specific 50-residue region of the CTD (termed the CRD). Taken together, these results suggest that both the subnuclear distribution and activity regulation of topo IIβ are mediated by the interplay between cellular RNA and the CRD. PMID:25034690

  19. Site-specific mutations in a loop region of the C-terminal domain of the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase that influence substrate partitioning.

    PubMed

    Gutteridge, S; Rhoades, D F; Herrmann, C

    1993-04-15

    Amino acids composing a flexible loop (loop 6) of the eight-stranded barrel domain of the L-subunit of Synechococcus ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (EC 4.1.1.39) involved in reaction intermediate stabilization have been modified by site-specific mutagenesis. Changes at positions both distant and within the active site affect overall catalysis and substrate partitioning. Most significantly, replacement of the active site Lys (Lys-334) with Arg at the apex of the loop almost completely suppressed the carboxylase activity of the enzyme relative to oxygenation, with only a modest reduction in overall catalysis. Val-331 and Thr-342, more distant from the active site but with interacting side chains, were changed to larger and smaller residues with differential effects on both turnover and substrate partitioning. Substitution of the loop with the sequence found in more efficient carboxylases only increased partitioning marginally when accompanied by alterations in the C-terminal tail of the L-subunit that interacts with the loop. Generally, modifications to the loop composition also affected enediol formation, the first step of catalysis, suggesting that the geometry and hence flexibility of this segment affect more than just stabilization of the intermediates immediately following reaction with CO2 or O2.

  20. The Evolutionarily Conserved C-terminal Domains in the Mammalian Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor Family Serve as Dual Regulators of Protein Stability and Transcriptional Potency*

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Satyaki; Lingnurkar, Raj; Carey, Timothy S.; Pomaville, Monica; Kar, Parimal; Feig, Michael; Wilson, Catherine A.; Knott, Jason G.; Arnosti, David N.; Henry, R. William

    2015-01-01

    The retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor and related family of proteins play critical roles in development through their regulation of genes involved in cell fate. Multiple regulatory pathways impact RB function, including the ubiquitin-proteasome system with deregulated RB destruction frequently associated with pathogenesis. With the current study we explored the mechanisms connecting proteasome-mediated turnover of the RB family to the regulation of repressor activity. We find that steady state levels of all RB family members, RB, p107, and p130, were diminished during embryonic stem cell differentiation concomitant with their target gene acquisition. Proteasome-dependent turnover of the RB family is mediated by distinct and autonomously acting instability elements (IE) located in their C-terminal regulatory domains in a process that is sensitive to cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK4) perturbation. The IE regions include motifs that contribute to E2F-DP transcription factor interaction, and consistently, p107 and p130 repressor potency was reduced by IE deletion. The juxtaposition of degron sequences and E2F interaction motifs appears to be a conserved feature across the RB family, suggesting the potential for repressor ubiquitination and specific target gene regulation. These findings establish a mechanistic link between regulation of RB family repressor potency and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. PMID:25903125

  1. Two-track virtual screening approach to identify both competitive and allosteric inhibitors of human small C-terminal domain phosphatase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hwangseo; Lee, Hye Seon; Ku, Bonsu; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Seung Jun

    2017-08-01

    Despite a wealth of persuasive evidence for the involvement of human small C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (Scp1) in the impairment of neuronal differentiation and in Huntington's disease, small-molecule inhibitors of Scp1 have been rarely reported so far. This study aims to the discovery of both competitive and allosteric Scp1 inhibitors through the two-track virtual screening procedure. By virtue of the improvement of the scoring function by implementing a new molecular solvation energy term and by reoptimizing the atomic charges for the active-site Mg2+ ion cluster, we have been able to identify three allosteric and five competitive Scp1 inhibitors with low-micromolar inhibitory activity. Consistent with the results of kinetic studies on the inhibitory mechanisms, the allosteric inhibitors appear to be accommodated in the peripheral binding pocket through the hydrophobic interactions with the nonpolar residues whereas the competitive ones bind tightly in the active site with a direct coordination to the central Mg2+ ion. Some structural modifications to improve the biochemical potency of the newly identified inhibitors are proposed based on the binding modes estimated with docking simulations.

  2. Two modes of interaction between the membrane-embedded TARP stargazin's C-terminal domain and the bilayer visualized by electron crystallography.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Matthew F; Taylor, David W; Unger, Vinzenz M

    2011-06-01

    Glutamate-mediated neurotransmission through ligand-gated, ionotropic glutamate receptors is the main form of excitatory neurotransmission in the vertebrate central nervous system where it plays central roles in learning, memory and a variety of disorders. Acting as auxiliary subunits, transmembrane α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) regulatory proteins (TARPs) are essential regulators for glutamate-mediated neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Here, we report the first electron crystallographic reconstructions of full-length mouse stargazin (γ-2) at ∼20Å resolution in a membrane bilayer environment. Formation of ordered arrays required anionic lipids and was modulated by cholesterol and monovalent cations. Projection structures revealed that the C-termini of stargazin monomers closely interacted with the bilayer surface in an extended conformation that placed the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif ∼100Å away from the transmembrane domain and in close proximity to a membrane re-entrant region. The C-termini interaction with the bilayer was modulated by the ionic strength of the solution and overall protein secondary structure increased when membrane-bound. Our data suggest that stargazin interactions with and within the membrane play significant roles in TARP structure and directly visualize TARP functional mechanisms essential for AMPAR trafficking and clustering.

  3. The C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T4 terminase docks on the prohead portal clip region during DNA packaging.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Aparna Banerjee; Ray, Krishanu; Thomas, Julie A; Black, Lindsay W

    2013-11-01

    Bacteriophage ATP-based packaging motors translocate DNA into a pre-formed prohead through a dodecameric portal ring channel to high density. We investigated portal-terminase docking interactions at specifically localized residues within a terminase-interaction region (aa279-316) in the phage T4 portal protein gp20 equated to the clip domain of the SPP1 portal crystal structure by 3D modeling. Within this region, three residues allowed A to C mutations whereas three others did not, consistent with informatics analyses showing the tolerated residues are not strongly conserved evolutionarily. About 7.5nm was calculated by FCS-FRET studies employing maleimide Alexa488 dye labeled A316C proheads and gp17 CT-ReAsH supporting previous work docking the C-terminal end of the T4 terminase (gp17) closer to the N-terminal GFP-labeled portal (gp20) than the N-terminal end of the terminase. Such a terminase-portal orientation fits better to a proposed "DNA crunching" compression packaging motor and to portal determined DNA headful cutting.

  4. The Structure of the C-Terminal Domain of the Protein Kinase AtSOS2 Bound to the Calcium Sensor AtSOS3

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Barrena, María José; Fujii, Hiroaki; Angulo, Ivan; Martínez-Ripoll, Martín; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Albert, Armando

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The plant SOS2 family of protein kinases and their interacting activators, the SOS3 family of calcium-binding proteins, function together in decoding calcium signals elicited by different environmental stimuli. SOS2 is activated by Ca-SOS3 and subsequently phosphorylates the ion transporter SOS1 to bring about cellular ion homeostasis under salt stress. In addition to possessing the kinase activity, members of the SOS2 family of protein kinases can bind to protein phosphatase 2Cs. The crystal structure of the binary complex of Ca-SOS3 with the C-terminal regulatory moiety of SOS2 resolves central questions regarding the dual function of SOS2 as a kinase and a phosphatase-binding protein. A comparison with the structure of unbound SOS3 reveals the basis of the molecular function of this family of kinases and their interacting calcium sensors. Furthermore, our study suggests that the structure of the phosphatase-interaction domain of SOS2 defines a scaffold module conserved from yeast to human. PMID:17499048

  5. Mcm4 C-terminal domain of MCM helicase prevents excessive formation of single-stranded DNA at stalled replication forks

    PubMed Central

    Nitani, Naoki; Yadani, Chie; Yabuuchi, Hayato; Masukata, Hisao; Nakagawa, Takuro

    2008-01-01

    The minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase, composed of subunits Mcm2–7, is essential for the initiation and elongation phases of DNA replication. Even when DNA synthesis is blocked, MCM continues DNA unwinding to some extent for activation of the replication checkpoint and then stops. However, the mechanism of regulation of MCM-helicase activity remains unknown. Here, we show that truncation of the Mcm4 C-terminal domain (CTD) in fission yeast results in hypersensitivity to replication block caused by dNTP depletion. The truncation mcm4-c84 does not affect the activation of the replication checkpoint pathway but delays its attenuation during recovery from replication block. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that mcm4-c84 delays the disappearance of replication intermediates, indicating that the Mcm4 CTD is required for efficient recovery of stalled replication forks. Remarkably, chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that mcm4-c84 brings about an increase rather than a decrease in the association of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein RPA to stalled forks, and MCM and the accessory complex GINS are unaffected. These results suggest that the Mcm4 CTD is required to suspend MCM-helicase activity after the formation of single-stranded DNA sufficient for checkpoint activation. PMID:18753627

  6. cis-Proline-mediated Ser(P)[superscript 5] Dephosphorylation by the RNA Polymerase II C-terminal Domain Phosphatase Ssu72

    SciTech Connect

    Werner-Allen, Jon W.; Lee, Chul-Jin; Liu, Pengda; Nicely, Nathan I.; Wang, Su; Greenleaf, Arno L.; Zhou, Pei

    2012-05-16

    RNA polymerase II coordinates co-transcriptional events by recruiting distinct sets of nuclear factors to specific stages of transcription via changes of phosphorylation patterns along its C-terminal domain (CTD). Although it has become increasingly clear that proline isomerization also helps regulate CTD-associated processes, the molecular basis of its role is unknown. Here, we report the structure of the Ser(P){sup 5} CTD phosphatase Ssu72 in complex with substrate, revealing a remarkable CTD conformation with the Ser(P){sup 5}-Pro{sup 6} motif in the cis configuration. We show that the cis-Ser(P){sup 5}-Pro{sup 6} isomer is the minor population in solution and that Ess1-catalyzed cis-trans-proline isomerization facilitates rapid dephosphorylation by Ssu72, providing an explanation for recently discovered in vivo connections between these enzymes and a revised model for CTD-mediated small nuclear RNA termination. This work presents the first structural evidence of a cis-proline-specific enzyme and an unexpected mechanism of isomer-based regulation of phosphorylation, with broad implications for CTD biology

  7. Interaction between the ligand-binding domain of the LDL receptor and the C-terminal domain of PCSK9 is required for PCSK9 to remain bound to the LDL receptor during endosomal acidification.

    PubMed

    Tveten, Kristian; Holla, Øystein L; Cameron, Jamie; Strøm, Thea Bismo; Berge, Knut Erik; Laerdahl, Jon K; Leren, Trond P

    2012-03-15

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) binds to the epidermal growth factor homology domain repeat A of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) at the cell surface and disrupts recycling of the internalized LDLR. As a consequence, the LDLR is rerouted to the lysosomes for degradation. Although PCSK9 may bind to an LDLR lacking the ligand-binding domain, at least three ligand-binding repeats of the ligand-binding domain are required for PCSK9 to reroute the LDLR to the lysosomes. In this study, we have studied the binding of PCSK9 to an LDLR with or without the ligand-binding domain at increasingly acidic conditions in order to mimic the milieu of the LDLR:PCSK9 complex as it translocates from the cell membrane to the sorting endosomes. These studies have shown that PCSK9 is rapidly released from an LDLR lacking the ligand-binding domain at pH in the range of 6.9-6.1. A similar pattern of release at acidic pH was also observed for the binding to the normal LDLR of mutant PCSK9 lacking the C-terminal domain. Together these data indicate that an interaction between the negatively charged ligand-binding domain of the LDLR and the positively charged C-terminal domain of PCSK9 is required for PCSK9 to remain bound to the LDLR during the early phase of endosomal acidification as the LDLR translocates from the cell membrane to the sorting endosome.

  8. Charged and Hydrophobic Surfaces on the A Chain of Shiga-Like Toxin 1 Recognize the C-Terminal Domain of Ribosomal Stalk Proteins

    PubMed Central

    McCluskey, Andrew J.; Bolewska-Pedyczak, Eleonora; Jarvik, Nick; Chen, Gang; Sidhu, Sachdev S.; Gariépy, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Shiga-like toxins are ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIP) produced by pathogenic E. coli strains that are responsible for hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. The catalytic A1 chain of Shiga-like toxin 1 (SLT-1), a representative RIP, first docks onto a conserved peptide SD[D/E]DMGFGLFD located at the C-terminus of all three eukaryotic ribosomal stalk proteins and halts protein synthesis through the depurination of an adenine base in the sarcin-ricin loop of 28S rRNA. Here, we report that the A1 chain of SLT-1 rapidly binds to and dissociates from the C-terminal peptide with a monomeric dissociation constant of 13 µM. An alanine scan performed on the conserved peptide revealed that the SLT-1 A1 chain interacts with the anionic tripeptide DDD and the hydrophobic tetrapeptide motif FGLF within its sequence. Based on these 2 peptide motifs, SLT-1 A1 variants were generated that displayed decreased affinities for the stalk protein C-terminus and also correlated with reduced ribosome-inactivating activities in relation to the wild-type A1 chain. The toxin-peptide interaction and subsequent toxicity were shown to be mediated by cationic and hydrophobic docking surfaces on the SLT-1 catalytic domain. These docking surfaces are located on the opposite face of the catalytic cleft and suggest that the docking of the A1 chain to SDDDMGFGLFD may reorient its catalytic domain to face its RNA substrate. More importantly, both the delineated A1 chain ribosomal docking surfaces and the ribosomal peptide itself represent a target and a scaffold, respectively, for the design of generic inhibitors to block the action of RIPs. PMID:22355345

  9. Expression, purification and reconstitution of the C-terminal transmembrane domain of scavenger receptor BI into detergent micelles for NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Alexandra C; Jensen, Davin R; Peterson, Francis C; Volkman, Brian F; Sahoo, Daisy

    2015-03-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), the high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, is important for the delivery of HDL-cholesteryl esters to the liver for excretion via bile formation. The focus on therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing cholesterol levels highlights the critical need to understand the structural features of SR-BI that drive cholesterol removal. Yet, in the absence of a high-resolution structure of SR-BI, our understanding of how SR-BI interacts with HDL is limited. In this study, we have optimized the NMR solution conditions for the structural analysis of the C-terminal transmembrane domain of SR-BI that harbors putative domains required for receptor oligomerization. An isotopically-labeled SR-BI peptide encompassing residues 405-475 was bacterially-expressed and purified. [U-(15)N]-SR-BI(405-475) was incorporated into different detergent micelles and assessed by (1)H-(15)N-HSQC in order to determine which detergent micelle best maintained SR-BI(405-475) in a folded, native conformation for subsequent NMR analyses. We also determined the optimal detergent concentration used in micelles, as well as temperature, solution buffer and pH conditions. Based on (1)H-(15)N-HSQC peak dispersion, intensity, and uniformity, we determined that [U-(15)N]-SR-BI(405-475) should be incorporated into 5% detergent micelles consisting of 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phospho-[1'-rac-glycerol] (LPPG) and data collected at 40°C in a non-buffered solution at pH 6.8. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability of SR-BI(405-475) to form dimers upon chemical crosslinking. These studies represent the first steps in obtaining high-resolution structural information by NMR for the HDL receptor that plays a critical role in regulating whole body cholesterol removal.

  10. Sorting of the neuroendocrine secretory protein Secretogranin II into the regulated secretory pathway: role of N- and C-terminal alpha-helical domains.

    PubMed

    Courel, Maïté; Vasquez, Michael S; Hook, Vivian Y; Mahata, Sushil K; Taupenot, Laurent

    2008-04-25

    Secretogranin II (SgII) belongs to the granin family of prohormones widely distributed in dense-core secretory granules (DCGs) of endocrine, neuroendocrine, and neuronal cells, including sympathoadrenal chromaffin cells. The mechanisms by which secretory proteins, and granins in particular, are sorted into the regulated secretory pathway are unsettled. We designed a strategy based on novel chimeric forms of human SgII fused to fluorescent (green fluorescent protein) or chemiluminescent (embryonic alkaline phosphatase) reporters to identify trafficking determinants mediating DCG targeting of SgII in sympathoadrenal cells. Three-dimensional deconvolution fluorescence microscopy and secretagogue-stimulated release studies demonstrate that SgII chimeras are correctly targeted to DCGs and released by exocytosis in PC12 and primary chromaffin cells. Results from a Golgi-retained mutant form of SgII suggest that sorting of SgII into DCGs depends on a saturable sorting machinery at the trans-Golgi/trans-Golgi network. Truncation analyses reveal the presence of DCG-targeting signals within both the N- and C-terminal regions of SgII, with the putative alpha-helix-containing SgII-(25-41) and SgII-(334-348) acting as sufficient, independent sorting domains. This study defines sequence features of SgII mediating vesicular targeting in sympathoadrenal cells and suggests a mechanism by which discrete domains of the molecule function in sorting, perhaps by virtue of a particular arrangement in tertiary structure and/or interaction with a specific component of the DCG membrane.

  11. The pH-sensitive structure of the C-terminal domain of voltage-gated proton channel and the thermodynamic characteristics of Zn{sup 2+} binding to this domain

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Qing; Li, Chuanyong; Li, Shu Jie

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • The α-helical content of the C-terminus is decreased with a pH increase. • The thermostability of the C-terminus is decreased with a pH increase. • Zn{sup 2+} binds to His{sup 244} and His{sup 266} residues within the C-terminal domain. • The binding of Zn{sup 2+} to His{sup 244} residue is an endothermic heat reaction. • The binding of Zn{sup 2+} to His{sup 266} residue is an exothermic heat reaction. - Abstract: The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is strongly sensitive to Zn{sup 2+}. The H{sup +} conduction is decreased at a high concentration of Zn{sup 2+} and Hv1 channel closing is slowed by the internal application of Zn{sup 2+}. Although the recent studies demonstrated that Zn{sup 2+} interacts with the intracellular C-terminal domain, the binding sites and details of the interaction remain unknown. Here, we studied the pH-dependent structural stability of the intracellular C-terminal domain of human Hv1 and showed that Zn{sup 2+} binds to His{sup 244} and His{sup 266} residues. The thermodynamics signature of Zn{sup 2+} binding to the two sites was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding of Zn{sup 2+} to His{sup 244} (mutant H266A) and His{sup 266} (mutant H244A) were an endothermic heat reaction and an exothermic heat reaction, respectively.

  12. Dephosphorylation of the linker regions of Smad1 and Smad2/3 by small C-terminal domain phosphatases has distinct outcomes for bone morphogenetic protein and transforming growth factor-beta pathways.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Gopal; Knockaert, Marie; Alarcón, Claudio; Montalvo, Ermelinda; Brivanlou, Ali H; Massagué, Joan

    2006-12-29

    Smad proteins transduce bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signals upon phosphorylation of their C-terminal SXS motif by receptor kinases. The activity of Smad1 in the BMP pathway and Smad2/3 in the TGFbeta pathway is restricted by pathway cross-talk and feedback through protein kinases, including MAPK, CDK2/4, p38MAPK, JNK, and others. These kinases phosphorylate Smads 1-3 at the region that links the N-terminal DNA-binding domain and the C-terminal transcriptional domain. Phosphatases that dephosphorylate the linker region are therefore likely to play an integral part in the regulation of Smad activity. We reported previously that small C-terminal domain phosphatases 1, 2, and 3 (SCP1-3) dephosphorylate Smad1 C-terminal tail, thereby attenuating BMP signaling. Here we provide evidence that SCP1-3 also dephosphorylate the linker regions of Smad1 and Smad2/3 in vitro, in mammalian cells and in Xenopus embryos. Overexpression of SCP 1, 2, or 3 decreased linker phosphorylation of Smads 1, 2 and 3. Moreover, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of SCP1/2 increased the BMP-dependent phosphorylation of the Smad1 linker region as well as the C terminus. In contrast, SCP1/2 knockdown increased the TGFbeta-dependent linker phosphorylation of Smad2/3 but not the C-terminal phosphorylation. Consequently, SCP1/2 knockdown inhibited TGFbeta transcriptional responses, but it enhanced BMP transcriptional responses. Thus, by dephosphorylating Smad2/3 at the linker (inhibitory) but not the C-terminal (activating) site, the SCPs enhance TGFbeta signaling, and by dephosphorylating Smad1 at both sites, the SCPs reset Smad1 to the basal unphosphorylated state.

  13. Adaptive Immunity against Leishmania Nucleoside Hydrolase Maps Its C-Terminal Domain as the Target of the CD4+ T Cell–Driven Protective Response

    PubMed Central

    Nico, Dirlei; Claser, Carla; Borja-Cabrera, Gulnara P.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Palatnik, Marcos; da Silva Soares, Irene; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2010-01-01

    Nucleoside hydrolases (NHs) show homology among parasite protozoa, fungi and bacteria. They are vital protagonists in the establishment of early infection and, therefore, are excellent candidates for the pathogen recognition by adaptive immune responses. Immune protection against NHs would prevent disease at the early infection of several pathogens. We have identified the domain of the NH of L. donovani (NH36) responsible for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against murine visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Using recombinant generated peptides covering the whole NH36 sequence and saponin we demonstrate that protection against L. chagasi is related to its C-terminal domain (amino-acids 199–314) and is mediated mainly by a CD4+ T cell driven response with a lower contribution of CD8+ T cells. Immunization with this peptide exceeds in 36.73±12.33% the protective response induced by the cognate NH36 protein. Increases in IgM, IgG2a, IgG1 and IgG2b antibodies, CD4+ T cell proportions, IFN-γ secretion, ratios of IFN-γ/IL-10 producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and percents of antibody binding inhibition by synthetic predicted epitopes were detected in F3 vaccinated mice. The increases in DTH and in ratios of TNFα/IL-10 CD4+ producing cells were however the strong correlates of protection which was confirmed by in vivo depletion with monoclonal antibodies, algorithm predicted CD4 and CD8 epitopes and a pronounced decrease in parasite load (90.5–88.23%; p = 0.011) that was long-lasting. No decrease in parasite load was detected after vaccination with the N-domain of NH36, in spite of the induction of IFN-γ/IL-10 expression by CD4+ T cells after challenge. Both peptides reduced the size of footpad lesions, but only the C-domain reduced the parasite load of mice challenged with L. amazonensis. The identification of the target of the immune response to NH36 represents a basis for the rationale development of a bivalent vaccine against leishmaniasis and for

  14. Structure of the TPR Domain of AIP: Lack of Client Protein Interaction with the C-Terminal α-7 Helix of the TPR Domain of AIP Is Sufficient for Pituitary Adenoma Predisposition

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Rhodri M. L.; Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C.; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Zhou, Lihong; Roe, S. Mark; Korbonits, Márta; Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2012-01-01

    Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) have been associated with familial isolated pituitary adenomas predisposing to young-onset acromegaly and gigantism. The precise tumorigenic mechanism is not well understood as AIP interacts with a large number of independent proteins as well as three chaperone systems, HSP90, HSP70 and TOMM20. We have determined the structure of the TPR domain of AIP at high resolution, which has allowed a detailed analysis of how disease-associated mutations impact on the structural integrity of the TPR domain. A subset of C-terminal α-7 helix (Cα-7h) mutations, R304* (nonsense mutation), R304Q, Q307* and R325Q, a known site for AhR and PDE4A5 client-protein interaction, occur beyond those that interact with the conserved MEEVD and EDDVE sequences of HSP90 and TOMM20. These C-terminal AIP mutations appear to only disrupt client-protein binding to the Cα-7h, while chaperone binding remains unaffected, suggesting that failure of client-protein interaction with the Cα-7h is sufficient to predispose to pituitary adenoma. We have also identified a molecular switch in the AIP TPR-domain that allows recognition of both the conserved HSP90 motif, MEEVD, and the equivalent sequence (EDDVE) of TOMM20. PMID:23300914

  15. Structure of the TPR domain of AIP: lack of client protein interaction with the C-terminal α-7 helix of the TPR domain of AIP is sufficient for pituitary adenoma predisposition.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Rhodri M L; Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Zhou, Lihong; Roe, S Mark; Korbonits, Márta; Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2012-01-01

    Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) have been associated with familial isolated pituitary adenomas predisposing to young-onset acromegaly and gigantism. The precise tumorigenic mechanism is not well understood as AIP interacts with a large number of independent proteins as well as three chaperone systems, HSP90, HSP70 and TOMM20. We have determined the structure of the TPR domain of AIP at high resolution, which has allowed a detailed analysis of how disease-associated mutations impact on the structural integrity of the TPR domain. A subset of C-terminal α-7 helix (Cα-7h) mutations, R304* (nonsense mutation), R304Q, Q307* and R325Q, a known site for AhR and PDE4A5 client-protein interaction, occur beyond those that interact with the conserved MEEVD and EDDVE sequences of HSP90 and TOMM20. These C-terminal AIP mutations appear to only disrupt client-protein binding to the Cα-7h, while chaperone binding remains unaffected, suggesting that failure of client-protein interaction with the Cα-7h is sufficient to predispose to pituitary adenoma. We have also identified a molecular switch in the AIP TPR-domain that allows recognition of both the conserved HSP90 motif, MEEVD, and the equivalent sequence (EDDVE) of TOMM20.

  16. The FixL protein of Rhizobium meliloti can be separated into a heme-binding oxygen-sensing domain and a functional C-terminal kinase domain.

    PubMed Central

    Monson, E K; Weinstein, M; Ditta, G S; Helinski, D R

    1992-01-01

    Transcription of nitrogen fixation (nif and fix) genes in Rhizobium meliloti is induced by a decrease in oxygen concentration. The products of two genes, fixL and fixJ, are responsible for sensing and transmitting the low-oxygen signal. The proteins encoded by fixL and fixJ (FixL and FixJ, respectively) are homologous to a family of bacterial proteins that transduce environmental signals through a common phosphotransfer mechanism [David, M., Daveran, M., Batut, J., Dedieu, A., Domergue, O., Ghai, J., Hertig, C., Boistard, P. & Khan, D. (1988) Cell 54, 671-683]. FixL, the oxygen sensor, is a membrane protein. It has previously been shown that a soluble derivative of FixL, FixL*, is an oxygen-binding hemoprotein and a kinase that autophosphorylates and also phosphorylates FixJ [Gilles-Gonzalez, M. A., Ditta, G. S. & Helinski, D. R. (1991) Nature (London) 350, 170-172]. In this work, deletion derivatives of fixL* were constructed and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the truncated proteins were purified. We show that a fragment of FixL from amino acid residue 127 to residue 260 binds heme, retains the ability to bind oxygen, and has no detectable kinase activity. A C-terminal fragment of FixL, beginning at residue 260, fails to bind heme but is active as a kinase. We also demonstrate that anaerobiosis results in an enhancement of FixL* autophosphorylation and FixJ phosphorylation activities in vitro. Finally, we show that the heme-binding region of FixL is required in vitro for oxygen regulation of its kinase activities. Images PMID:1584762

  17. A proprotein convertase subtilisin-like/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) C-terminal domain antibody antigen-binding fragment inhibits PCSK9 internalization and restores low density lipoprotein uptake.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yan G; Condra, Jon H; Orsatti, Laura; Shen, Xun; Di Marco, Stefania; Pandit, Shilpa; Bottomley, Matthew J; Ruggeri, Lionello; Cummings, Richard T; Cubbon, Rose M; Santoro, Joseph C; Ehrhardt, Anka; Lewis, Dale; Fisher, Timothy S; Ha, Sookhee; Njimoluh, Leila; Wood, Dana D; Hammond, Holly A; Wisniewski, Douglas; Volpari, Cinzia; Noto, Alessia; Lo Surdo, Paola; Hubbard, Brian; Carfí, Andrea; Sitlani, Ayesha

    2010-04-23

    PCSK9 binds to the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and leads to LDLR degradation and inhibition of plasma LDL cholesterol clearance. Consequently, the role of PCSK9 in modulating circulating LDL makes it a promising therapeutic target for treating hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease. Although the C-terminal domain of PCSK9 is not involved in LDLR binding, the location of several naturally occurring mutations within this region suggests that it has an important role for PCSK9 function. Using a phage display library, we identified an anti-PCSK9 Fab (fragment antigen binding), 1G08, with subnanomolar affinity for PCSK9. In an assay measuring LDL uptake in HEK293 and HepG2 cells, 1G08 Fab reduced 50% the PCSK9-dependent inhibitory effects on LDL uptake. Importantly, we found that 1G08 did not affect the PCSK9-LDLR interaction but inhibited the internalization of PCSK9 in these cells. Furthermore, proteolysis and site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that 1G08 Fab binds a region of beta-strands encompassing Arg-549, Arg-580, Arg-582, Glu-607, Lys-609, and Glu-612 in the PCSK9 C-terminal domain. Consistent with these results, 1G08 fails to bind PCSK9DeltaC, a truncated form of PCSK9 lacking the C-terminal domain. Additional studies revealed that lack of the C-terminal domain compromised the ability of PCSK9 to internalize into cells, and to inhibit LDL uptake. Together, the present study demonstrate that the PCSK9 C-terminal domain contribute to its inhibition of LDLR function mainly through its role in the cellular uptake of PCSK9 and LDLR complex. 1G08 Fab represents a useful new tool for delineating the mechanism of PCSK9 uptake and LDLR degradation.

  18. The structure of S . lividans acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase shows a novel interaction between the C-terminal extension and the N-terminal domain

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Carter A.; Tucker, Alex C.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2014-12-09

    The adenosine monoposphate-forming acyl-CoA synthetase enzymes catalyze a two-step reaction that involves the initial formation of an acyl adenylate that reacts in a second partial reaction to form a thioester between the acyl substrate and CoA. These enzymes utilize a Domain Alternation catalytic mechanism, whereby a ~110 residue C-terminal domain rotates by 140° to form distinct catalytic conformations for the two partial reactions. In this paper, the structure of an acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase (AacS) is presented that illustrates a novel aspect of this C-terminal domain. Specifically, several acetyl- and acetoacetyl-CoA synthetases contain a 30-residue extension on the C-terminus compared to other members of this family. Finally, whereas residues from this extension are disordered in prior structures, the AacS structure shows that residues from this extension may interact with key catalytic residues from the N-terminal domain.

  19. Role of the C-Terminal Domain of RNA Polymerase II in U2 snRNA Transcription and 3′ Processing

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Erica Y.; Ogiwara, Ikuo; Weiner, Alan M.

    2004-01-01

    U small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and mRNAs are both transcribed by RNA polymerase II (Pol II), but the snRNAs have unusual TATA-less promoters and are neither spliced nor polyadenylated; instead, 3′ processing is directed by a highly conserved 3′ end formation signal that requires initiation from an snRNA promoter. Here we show that the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II is required for efficient U2 snRNA transcription, as it is for mRNA transcription. However, CTD kinase inhibitors, such as 5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) and 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), that block mRNA elongation do not affect U2 transcription, although 3′ processing of the U2 primary transcript is impaired. We show further that U2 transcription is preferentially inhibited by low doses of UV irradiation or actinomycin D, which induce CTD kinase activity, and that UV inhibition can be rescued by treatment with DRB or H7. We propose that Pol II complexes transcribing snRNAs and mRNAs have distinct CTD phosphorylation patterns. mRNA promoters recruit factors including kinases that hyperphosphorylate the CTD, and the CTD in turn recruits proteins needed for mRNA splicing and polyadenylation. We predict that snRNA promoters recruit factors including a CTD kinase(s) whose snRNA-specific phosphorylation pattern recruits factors required for promoter-coupled 3′ end formation. PMID:14701755

  20. Mutations in the C-terminal domain of ColQ in endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency compromise ColQ-MuSK interaction.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Tomohiko; Ito, Mikako; Azuma, Yoshiteru; Otsuka, Kenji; Noguchi, Yoichiro; Komaki, Hirofumi; Okumura, Akihisa; Shiraishi, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Akio; Natsume, Jun; Kojima, Seiji; Ohno, Kinji

    2013-07-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is mostly composed of an asymmetric form in which three tetramers of catalytic AChE subunits are linked to a triple helical collagen Q (ColQ). Mutations in COLQ cause endplate AChE deficiency. We report three patients with endplate AChE deficiency with five recessive COLQ mutations. Sedimentation profiles showed that p.Val322Asp and p.Arg227X, but not p.Cys444Tyr, p.Asp447His, or p.Arg452Cys, inhibit formation of triple helical ColQ. In vitro overlay of mutant ColQ-tailed AChE on muscle sections of Colq(-/-) mice revealed that p.Cys444Tyr, p.Asp447His, and p.Arg452Cys in the C-terminal domain (CTD) abrogate anchoring ColQ-tailed AChE to the NMJ. In vitro plate-binding assay similarly demonstrated that the three mutants inhibit binding of ColQ-tailed AChE to MuSK. We also confirmed the pathogenicity of p.Asp447His by treating Colq(-/-) mice with adeno-associated virus serotype 8 carrying mutant COLQ-p.Asp447His. The treated mice showed no improvement in motor functions and no anchoring of ColQ-tailed AChE at the NMJ. Electroporation of mutant COLQ harboring p.Cys444Tyr, p.Asp447His, and p.Arg452Cys into anterior tibial muscles of Colq(-/-) mice similarly failed to anchor ColQ-tailed AChE at the NMJ. We proved that the missense mutations in ColQ-CTD cause endplate AChE deficiency by compromising ColQ-MuSK interaction at the NMJ.

  1. HIV-1 Tat-associated RNA polymerase C-terminal domain kinase, CDK2, phosphorylates CDK7 and stimulates Tat-mediated transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Nekhai, Sergei; Zhou, Meisheng; Fernandez, Anne; Lane, William S; Lamb, Ned J C; Brady, John; Kumar, Ajit

    2002-01-01

    HIV-1 gene expression is regulated by a viral transactivator protein (Tat) which induces transcriptional elongation of HIV-1 long tandem repeat (LTR). This induction requires hyperphosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) repeats of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). To achieve CTD hyperphosphorylation, Tat stimulates CTD kinases associated with general transcription factors of the promoter complex, specifically TFIIH-associated CDK7 and positive transcription factor b-associated CDK9 (cyclin-dependent kinase 9). Other studies indicate that Tat may bind an additional CTD kinase that regulates the target-specific phosphorylation of RNA Pol II CTD. We previously reported that Tat-associated T-cell-derived kinase (TTK), purified from human primary T-cells, stimulates Tat-dependent transcription of HIV-1 LTR in vivo [Nekhai, Shukla, Fernandez, Kumar and Lamb (2000) Virology 266, 246-256]. In the work presented here, we characterized the components of TTK by biochemical fractionation and the function of TTK in transcription assays in vitro. TTK uniquely co-purified with CDK2 and not with either CDK9 or CDK7. Tat induced the TTK-associated CDK2 kinase to phosphorylate CTD, specifically at Ser-2 residues. The TTK fraction restored Tat-mediated transcription activation of HIV-1 LTR in a HeLa nuclear extract immunodepleted of CDK9, but not in the HeLa nuclear extract double-depleted of CDK9 and CDK7. Direct microinjection of the TTK fraction augmented Tat transactivation of HIV-1 LTR in human primary HS68 fibroblasts. The results argue that TTK-associated CDK2 may function to maintain target-specific phosphorylation of RNA Pol II that is essential for Tat transactivation of HIV-1 promoter. They are also consistent with the observed cell-cycle-specific induction of viral gene transactivation. PMID:12049628

  2. Easy expression of the C-terminal heavy chain domain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A as a vaccine candidate using a bi-cistronic baculovirus system.

    PubMed

    Villaflores, Oliver B; Hsei, Chein-Ming; Teng, Chao-Yi; Chen, Ying-Ju; Wey, Jiunn-Jye; Tsui, Pei-Yi; Shyu, Rong-Hwa; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Yeh, Jui-Ming; Chiao, Der-Jiang; Wu, Tzong-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Clostridial botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is one of the most toxic proteins causing the food borne disease, botulism. In previous studies, recombinant BoNT production by Escherichia coli and yeast Pichia pastoris has been hampered by high AT content and codon bias in the gene encoding BoNT and required a synthetic gene to resolve this intrinsic bottleneck. This paper reports the simultaneous expression of the C-terminal heavy chain domain of BoNT (rBoNT/A-HC-6h) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) using a bi-cistronic baculovirus-insect cell expression system. The expression of EGFP facilitated the monitoring of viral infection, virus titer determination, and isolation of the recombinant virus. Protein fusion with hexa-His-tag and one-step immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) purification produced a homogenous, stable, and immunologically active 55-kDa rBoNT/A-HC-6h (about 3mg/L) with >90% purity. Furthermore, measured levels of serum titers were 8-folds for mice vaccinated with the purified rBoNT/A-HC-6h (2μg) than for mice administered with botulinum toxoid after initial immunization. Challenge experiment with botulinum A toxin demonstrated the immunoprotective activity of purified rBoNT/A-HC-6h providing the mice full protection against 10(2) LD50 botulinum A toxin with a dose as low as 0.2μg. This study provided supportive evidence for the use of a bi-cistronic baculovirus-Sf21 insect cell expression system in the facile expression of an immunogenically active rBoNT/A-HC.

  3. The solution structure of the C-terminal domain of TonB and interaction studies with TonB box peptides.

    PubMed

    Sean Peacock, R; Weljie, Aalim M; Peter Howard, S; Price, Feodor D; Vogel, Hans J

    2005-02-04

    The TonB protein transduces energy from the proton gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane of Gram-negative bacteria to TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors. It is a critically important protein in iron uptake, and deletion of this protein is known to decrease virulence of bacteria in animal models. This system has been used for Trojan horse antibiotic delivery. Here, we describe the high-resolution solution structure of Escherichia coli TonB residues 103-239 (TonB-CTD). TonB-CTD is monomeric with an unstructured N terminus (103-151) and a well structured C terminus (152-239). The structure contains a four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet packed against two alpha-helices and an extended strand in a configuration homologous to the C-terminal domain of the TolA protein. Chemical shift perturbations to the TonB-CTD (1)H-(15)N HSCQ spectrum titrated with TonB box peptides modeled from the E.coli FhuA, FepA and BtuB proteins were all equivalent, indicating that all three peptides bind to the same region of TonB. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements demonstrate that TonB-CTD interacts with the FhuA-derived peptide with a K(D)=36(+/-7) microM. On the basis of chemical shift data, the position of Gln160, and comparison to the TolA gp3 N1 complex crystal structure, we propose that the TonB box binds to TonB-CTD along the beta3-strand.

  4. Lethal mutations in the major homology region and their suppressors act by modulating the dimerization of the rous sarcoma virus capsid protein C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Dalessio, Paula M; Craven, Rebecca C; Lokhandwala, Parvez M; Ropson, Ira J

    2013-02-01

    An infective retrovirus requires a mature capsid shell around the viral replication complex. This shell is formed by about 1500 capsid protein monomers, organized into hexamer and pentamer rings that are linked to each other by the dimerization of the C-terminal domain (CTD). The major homology region (MHR), the most highly conserved protein sequence across retroviral genomes, is part of the CTD. Several mutations in the MHR appear to block infectivity by preventing capsid formation. Suppressor mutations have been identified that are distant in sequence and structure from the MHR and restore capsid formation. The effects of two lethal and two suppressor mutations on the stability and function of the CTD were examined. No correlation with infectivity was found for the stability of the lethal mutations (D155Y-CTD, F167Y-CTD) and suppressor mutations (R185W-CTD, I190V-CTD). The stabilities of three double mutant proteins (D155Y/R185W-CTD, F167Y/R185W-CTD, and F167Y/I190V-CTD) were additive. However, the dimerization affinity of the mutant proteins correlated strongly with biological function. The CTD proteins with lethal mutations did not dimerize, while those with suppressor mutations had greater dimerization affinity than WT-CTD. The suppressor mutations were able to partially correct the dimerization defect caused by the lethal MHR mutations in double mutant proteins. Despite their dramatic effects on dimerization, none of these residues participate directly in the proposed dimerization interface in a mature capsid. These findings suggest that the conserved sequence of the MHR has critical roles in the conformation(s) of the CTD that are required for dimerization and correct capsid maturation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Lethal mutations in the major homology region and their suppressors act by modulating the dimerization of the Rous sarcoma virus capsid protein C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Dalessio, Paula M.; Craven, Rebecca C.; Lokhandwala, Parvez M.; Ropson, Ira J.

    2013-01-01

    An infective retrovirus requires a mature capsid shell around the viral replication complex. This shell is formed by about 1500 capsid protein monomers, organized into hexamer and pentamer rings that are linked to each other by the dimerization of the C-terminal domain (CTD). The major homology region (MHR), the most highly conserved protein sequence across retroviral genomes, is part of the CTD. Several mutations in the MHR appear to block infectivity by preventing capsid formation. Suppressor mutations have been identified that are distant in sequence and structure from the MHR and restore capsid formation. The effects of two lethal and two suppressor mutations on the stability and function of the CTD were examined. No correlation with infectivity was found for the stability of the lethal mutations (D155Y-CTD, F167Y-CTD) and suppressor mutations (R185W-CTD, F167Y-CTD). The stabilities of three double mutant proteins (D155Y/R185W-CTD, F167Y/R185W-CTD and F167Y/I190V-CTD) were additive. However, the dimerization affinity of the mutant proteins correlated strongly with biological function. The CTD proteins with lethal mutations did not dimerize, while those with suppressor mutations had greater dimerization affinity than WT-CTD. The suppressor mutations were able to partially correct the dimerization defect caused by the lethal MHR mutations in double mutant proteins. Despite their dramatic effects on dimerization, none of these residues participate directly in the proposed dimerization interface in a mature capsid. These findings suggest that the conserved sequence of the MHR has critical roles in the conformation(s) of the CTD that are required for dimerization and correct capsid maturation. PMID:23011855

  6. The Small C-terminal Domain Phosphatase 1 Inhibits Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion by Dephosphorylating Ser(P)68-Twist1 to Accelerate Twist1 Protein Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tong; Fu, Junjiang; Shen, Tao; Lin, Xia; Liao, Lan; Feng, Xin-Hua; Xu, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Twist1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that strongly promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells. The MAPK-phosphorylated Twist1 on its serine 68 (Ser(P)68-Twist1) has a significantly enhanced stability and function to drive cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, the phosphatase that dephosphorylates Ser(P)68-Twist1 and destabilizes Twist1 has not been identified and characterized. In this study, we screened a serine/threonine phosphatase cDNA expression library in HEK293T cells with ectopically coexpressed Twist1. We found that the small C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (SCP1) specifically dephosphorylates Ser(P)68-Twist1 in both cell-free reactions and living cells. SCP1 uses its amino acid residues 43–63 to interact with the N terminus of Twist1. Increased SCP1 expression in cells decreased Ser(P)68-Twist1 and total Twist1 proteins, whereas knockdown of SCP1 increased Ser(P)68-Twist1 and total Twist1 proteins. Furthermore, the levels of SCP1 are negatively correlated with Twist1 protein levels in several cancer cell lines. SCP1-dephosphorylated Twist1 undergoes fast degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Importantly, an increase in SCP1 expression in breast cancer cells with either endogenous or ectopically expressed Twist1 largely inhibits the Twist1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype and the migration and invasion capabilities of these cells. These results indicate that SCP1 is the phosphatase that counterregulates the MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of Ser68-Twist1. Thus, an increase in SCP1 expression and activity may be a useful strategy for eliminating the detrimental roles of Twist1 in cancer cells. PMID:26975371

  7. The Small C-terminal Domain Phosphatase 1 Inhibits Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion by Dephosphorylating Ser(P)68-Twist1 to Accelerate Twist1 Protein Degradation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Fu, Junjiang; Shen, Tao; Lin, Xia; Liao, Lan; Feng, Xin-Hua; Xu, Jianming

    2016-05-27

    Twist1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that strongly promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells. The MAPK-phosphorylated Twist1 on its serine 68 (Ser(P)(68)-Twist1) has a significantly enhanced stability and function to drive cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, the phosphatase that dephosphorylates Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 and destabilizes Twist1 has not been identified and characterized. In this study, we screened a serine/threonine phosphatase cDNA expression library in HEK293T cells with ectopically coexpressed Twist1. We found that the small C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (SCP1) specifically dephosphorylates Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 in both cell-free reactions and living cells. SCP1 uses its amino acid residues 43-63 to interact with the N terminus of Twist1. Increased SCP1 expression in cells decreased Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 and total Twist1 proteins, whereas knockdown of SCP1 increased Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 and total Twist1 proteins. Furthermore, the levels of SCP1 are negatively correlated with Twist1 protein levels in several cancer cell lines. SCP1-dephosphorylated Twist1 undergoes fast degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Importantly, an increase in SCP1 expression in breast cancer cells with either endogenous or ectopically expressed Twist1 largely inhibits the Twist1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype and the migration and invasion capabilities of these cells. These results indicate that SCP1 is the phosphatase that counterregulates the MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of Ser(68)-Twist1. Thus, an increase in SCP1 expression and activity may be a useful strategy for eliminating the detrimental roles of Twist1 in cancer cells. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. TAL Effectors Target the C-Terminal Domain of RNA Polymerase II (CTD) by Inhibiting the Prolyl-Isomerase Activity of a CTD-Associated Cyclophilin

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Maria Luiza Peixoto; de Mello, Uli Quirino; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors of plant pathogenic bacteria function as transcription factors in plant cells. However, how TAL effectors control transcription in the host is presently unknown. Previously, we showed that TAL effectors of the citrus canker pathogen Xanthomonas citri, named PthAs, targeted the citrus protein complex comprising the thioredoxin CsTdx, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes CsUev/Ubc13 and cyclophilin CsCyp. Here we show that CsCyp complements the function of Cpr1 and Ess1, two yeast cyclophilins that regulate transcription by the isomerization of proline residues of the regulatory C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II. We also demonstrate that CsCyp, CsTdx, CsUev and four PthA variants interact with the citrus CTD and that CsCyp co-immunoprecipitate with the CTD in citrus cell extracts and with PthA2 transiently expressed in sweet orange epicotyls. The interactions of CsCyp with the CTD and PthA2 were inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA), a cyclophilin inhibitor. Moreover, we present evidence that PthA2 inhibits the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity of CsCyp in a similar fashion as CsA, and that silencing of CsCyp, as well as treatments with CsA, enhance canker lesions in X. citri-infected leaves. Given that CsCyp appears to function as a negative regulator of cell growth and that Ess1 negatively regulates transcription elongation in yeast, we propose that PthAs activate host transcription by inhibiting the PPIase activity of CsCyp on the CTD. PMID:22911812

  9. The C-Terminal SynMuv/DdDUF926 Domain Regulates the Function of the N-Terminal Domain of DdNKAP

    PubMed Central

    Burgute, Bhagyashri D.; Peche, Vivek S.; Müller, Rolf; Matthias, Jan; Gaßen, Berthold; Eichinger, Ludwig; Glöckner, Gernot; Noegel, Angelika A.

    2016-01-01

    NKAP (NF-κB activating protein) is a highly conserved SR (serine/arginine-rich) protein involved in transcriptional control and splicing in mammals. We identified DdNKAP, the Dictyostelium discoideum ortholog of mammalian NKAP, as interacting partner of the nuclear envelope protein SUN-1. DdNKAP harbors a number of basic RDR/RDRS repeats in its N-terminal domain and the SynMuv/DUF926 domain at its C-terminus. We describe a novel and direct interaction between DdNKAP and Prp19 (Pre mRNA processing factor 19) which might be relevant for the observed DdNKAP ubiquitination. Genome wide analysis using cross-linking immunoprecipitation-high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq) revealed DdNKAP association with intergenic regions, exons, introns and non-coding RNAs. Ectopic expression of DdNKAP and its domains affects several developmental aspects like stream formation, aggregation, and chemotaxis. We conclude that DdNKAP is a multifunctional protein, which might influence Dictyostelium development through its interaction with RNA and RNA binding proteins. Mutants overexpressing full length DdNKAP and the N-terminal domain alone (DdN-NKAP) showed opposite phenotypes in development and opposite expression profiles of several genes and rRNAs. The observed interaction between DdN-NKAP and the DdDUF926 domain indicates that the DdDUF926 domain acts as negative regulator of the N-terminus. PMID:27997579

  10. Solution structure of the C-terminal domain from poly(A)-binding protein in Trypanosoma cruzi: A vegetal PABC domain

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Nadeem; Kozlov, Guennadi; D’Orso, Iván; Trempe, Jean-François; Gehring, Kalle

    2003-01-01

    PABC is a phylogenetically conserved peptide-binding domain primarily found within the C terminus of poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs). This domain recruits a series of translation factors including poly(A)-interacting proteins (Paip1 and Paip2) and release factor 3 (RF3/GSPT) to the initiation complex on mRNA. Here, we determine the solution structure of the Trypanosoma cruzi PABC domain (TcPABC), a representative of the vegetal class of PABP proteins. TcPABC is similar to human PABC (hPABC) and consists of five α-helices, in contrast to the four helices observed in PABC domains from yeast (yPABC) and hyper plastic disk proteins (hHYD). A mobile N-terminal helix is observed in TcPABC that does not pack against the core of the protein, as found in hPABC. Characteristic to all PABC domains, the last four helices of TcPABC fold into a right-handed super coil. TcPABC demonstrates high-affinity binding to PABP interacting motif-2 (PAM-2) and reveals a peptide-binding surface homologous to that of hPABC. Our results demonstrate the last four helices in TcPABC are sufficient for peptide recognition and we predict a similar binding mode in PABC domains. Furthermore, these results point to the presence of putative PAM-2 site-containing proteins in trypanosomes. PMID:12930992

  11. Domain Structure of the Redβ Single-Strand Annealing Protein: the C-terminal Domain is Required for Fine-Tuning DNA-binding Properties, Interaction with the Exonuclease Partner, and Recombination in vivo.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher E; Bell, Charles E

    2016-02-13

    Redβ is a component of the Red recombination system of bacteriophage λ that promotes a single strand annealing (SSA) reaction to generate end-to-end concatemers of the phage genome for packaging. Redβ interacts with λ exonuclease (λexo), the other component of the Red system, to form a "synaptosome" complex that somehow integrates the end resection and annealing steps of the reaction. Previous work using limited proteolysis and chemical modification revealed that Redβ consists of an N-terminal DNA binding domain, residues 1-177, and a flexible C-terminal "tail", residues 178-261. Here, we quantitatively compare the binding of the full-length protein (Redβ(FL)) and the N-terminal domain (Redβ(177)) to different lengths of ssDNA substrate and annealed duplex product. We find that in general, Redβ(FL) binds more tightly to annealed duplex product than to ssDNA substrate, while Redβ(177) binds more tightly to ssDNA. In addition, the C-terminal region of Redβ corresponding to residues 182-261 was purified and found to fold into an α-helical domain that is required for the interaction with λexo to form the synaptosome complex. Deletion analysis of Redβ revealed that removal of just eleven residues from the C-terminus disrupts the interaction with λexo as well as ssDNA and dsDNA recombination in vivo. By contrast, the determinants for self-oligomerization of Redβ appear to reside solely within the N-terminal domain. The subtle but significant differences in the relative binding of Redβ(FL) and Redβ(177) to ssDNA substrate and annealed duplex product may be important for Redβ to function as a SSA protein in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Conserved Interaction between a C-Terminal Motif in Norovirus VPg and the HEAT-1 Domain of eIF4G Is Essential for Translation Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Leen, Eoin N.; Sorgeloos, Frédéric; Correia, Samantha; Chaudhry, Yasmin; Cannac, Fabien; Pastore, Chiara; Xu, Yingqi; Graham, Stephen C.; Matthews, Stephen J.; Goodfellow, Ian G.; Curry, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Translation initiation is a critical early step in the replication cycle of the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of noroviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans. Norovirus RNA, which has neither a 5´ m7G cap nor an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), adopts an unusual mechanism to initiate protein synthesis that relies on interactions between the VPg protein covalently attached to the 5´-end of the viral RNA and eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) in the host cell. For murine norovirus (MNV) we previously showed that VPg binds to the middle fragment of eIF4G (4GM; residues 652–1132). Here we have used pull-down assays, fluorescence anisotropy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to demonstrate that a stretch of ~20 amino acids at the C terminus of MNV VPg mediates direct and specific binding to the HEAT-1 domain within the 4GM fragment of eIF4G. Our analysis further reveals that the MNV C terminus binds to eIF4G HEAT-1 via a motif that is conserved in all known noroviruses. Fine mutagenic mapping suggests that the MNV VPg C terminus may interact with eIF4G in a helical conformation. NMR spectroscopy was used to define the VPg binding site on eIF4G HEAT-1, which was confirmed by mutagenesis and binding assays. We have found that this site is non-overlapping with the binding site for eIF4A on eIF4G HEAT-1 by demonstrating that norovirus VPg can form ternary VPg-eIF4G-eIF4A complexes. The functional significance of the VPg-eIF4G interaction was shown by the ability of fusion proteins containing the C-terminal peptide of MNV VPg to inhibit in vitro translation of norovirus RNA but not cap- or IRES-dependent translation. These observations define important structural details of a functional interaction between norovirus VPg and eIF4G and reveal a binding interface that might be exploited as a target for antiviral therapy. PMID:26734730

  13. The Cold Denatured State of the C-terminal Domain of Protein L9 Is Compact and Contains Both Native and Non-native Structure

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Bing; McClendon, Sebastian; Rospigliosi, Carla; Eliezer, David; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2011-01-01

    Cold denaturation is a general property of globular proteins, and the process provides insight into the origins of the cooperativity of protein folding and the nature of partially folded states. Unfortunately, studies of protein cold denaturation have been hindered by the fact that the cold denatured state is normally difficult to access experimentally. Special conditions such as addition of high concentrations of denaturant, encapsulation into reverse micelles, the formation of emulsified solutions, high pressure or extremes of pHs, have been applied, but these can perturb the unfolded state of proteins. The cold denatured state of the C-terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9 can be populated under native like conditions by taking advantage of a destabilizing point mutation which leads to cold denaturation at temperatures above zero °C. This state is in slow exchange with the native state on the NMR time scale. Virtually complete backbone 15N, 13C and 1H as well as side-chain 13Cβ and 1Hβ chemical shift assignments were obtained for the cold denatured state at pH 5.7, 12 °C. Chemical shift analysis, backbone N-H residual dipolar couplings, amide proton NOEs and R2 relaxation rates all indicate that the cold denatured state of CTL9 contains significant native like secondary structure, but also contains non-native structure. The regions corresponding to the two native α-helices show a strong tendency to populate helical Φ and Ψ angles. The segment which connects α-helix 2 and β-strand 2 (residues 107–124) in the native state exhibits a significant preference to form non-native helical structure in the cold denatured state. The structure observed in the cold denatured state of the I98A mutant is similar to that observed in the pH 3.8 unfolded state of wild type CTL9 at 25 °C, suggesting that it is a robust feature of the denatured state ensemble of this protein. The implications for protein folding and for studies of cold denatured states are

  14. Structure and function of the C-terminal domain of MrpA in the Bacillus subtilis Mrp-antiporter complex--the evolutionary progenitor of the long horizontal helix in complex I.

    PubMed

    Virzintiene, Egle; Moparthi, Vamsi K; Al-Eryani, Yusra; Shumbe, Leonard; Górecki, Kamil; Hägerhäll, Cecilia

    2013-10-11

    MrpA and MrpD are homologous to NuoL, NuoM and NuoN in complex I over the first 14 transmembrane helices. In this work, the C-terminal domain of MrpA, outside this conserved area, was investigated. The transmembrane orientation was found to correspond to that of NuoJ in complex I. We have previously demonstrated that the subunit NuoK is homologous to MrpC. The function of the MrpA C-terminus was tested by expression in a previously used Bacillus subtilis model system. At neutral pH, the truncated MrpA still worked, but at pH 8.4, where Mrp-complex formation is needed for function, the C-terminal domain of MrpA was absolutely required.

  15. The secondary cell wall polysaccharide of Bacillus anthracis provides the specific binding ligand for the C-terminal cell wall-binding domain of two phage endolysins, PlyL and PlyG.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Jhuma; Low, Lieh Y; Kamal, Nazia; Saile, Elke; Forsberg, L Scott; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Liddington, Robert; Quinn, Conrad P; Carlson, Russell W; Kannenberg, Elmar L

    2013-07-01

    Endolysins are bacteriophage enzymes that lyse their bacterial host for phage progeny release. They commonly contain an N-terminal catalytic domain that hydrolyzes bacterial peptidoglycan (PG) and a C-terminal cell wall-binding domain (CBD) that confers enzyme localization to the PG substrate. Two endolysins, phage lysin L (PlyL) and phage lysin G (PlyG), are specific for Bacillus anthracis. To date, the cell wall ligands for their C-terminal CBD have not been identified. We recently described structures for a number of secondary cell wall polysaccharides (SCWPs) from B. anthracis and B. cereus strains. They are covalently bound to the PG and are comprised of a -ManNAc-GlcNAc-HexNAc- backbone with various galactosyl or glucosyl substitutions. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed that the endolysins PlyL and PlyG bind to the SCWP from B. anthracis (SCWPBa) with high affinity (i.e. in the μM range with dissociation constants ranging from 0.81 × 10(-6) to 7.51 × 10(-6) M). In addition, the PlyL and PlyG SCWPBa binding sites reside with their C-terminal domains. The dissociation constants for the interactions of these endolysins and their derived C-terminal domains with the SCWPBa were in the range reported for other protein-carbohydrate interactions. Our findings show that the SCWPBa is the ligand that confers PlyL and PlyG lysin binding and localization to the PG. PlyL and PlyG also bound the SCWP from B. cereus G9241 with comparable affinities to SCWPBa. No detectable binding was found to the SCWPs from B. cereus ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 10987 and ATCC 14579, thus demonstrating specificity of lysin binding to SCWPs.

  16. Clinical and Immunological Studies of 332 Japanese Patients Tentatively Diagnosed as Anti-BP180-type Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid: A Novel BP180 C-terminal Domain Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Yasukochi, Atsushi; Teye, Kwesi; Ishii, Norito; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2016-08-23

    Diagnosis of anti-BP180-type mucous membrane pemphigoid (BP180-MMP) is frustrated by the difficulty of detecting BP180 reactivity. A total of 721 patients with suspected MMP, selected from a cohort of 4,698 patients with autoimmune bullous disease (AIBD), were included in this study. Of these, 332 patients were tentatively diagnosed as BP180-MMP if they showed IgG/IgA reactivity with the epidermal side of 1M NaCl-split-skin and/or positive reactivity with BP180 in at least one of our antigen detection methods. Clinically, a predominance of female patients was found. Oral mucosal and cutaneous lesions were found in 85.5% and 41.0% of patients, respectively, and frequent treatments were systemic steroids, tetracycline/minocycline and diaminodiphenyl sulfone. Various immunological methods, including a newly developed BP180 C-terminal domain enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), revealed frequent reactivity with BP180 C-terminal and NC16a domains. Some patients reacted with BP180 and other antigens, indicating that BP180-MMP tends to concur with other AIBDs. This large study of patients with suspected BP180-MMP indicates the difficulty of diagnosis of BP180-MMP and the diagnostic usefulness of BP180 C-terminal domain ELISA.

  17. Exploring the interaction between the human copper transporter, CTR1, c-terminal domain and a methionine motif in the presence of Cu(I) and Ag(I) ions, using EPR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenberger, Yulia; Yarmiayev, Valeria; Ruthstein, Sharon

    2013-10-01

    The essentiality and toxicity of copper in human, yeast, and bacteria cells requires precise mechanisms for acquisition, intimately linked to controlled distribution, which have yet to be fully understood. Herein, we utilise continuous wave and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to explore one aspect in the controlled copper transportation mechanism. This was achieved by probing structural changes that occur in the c-terminal domain of the human copper transporter, CTR1, upon interacting with a methionine segment. The copper transporter CTR1 transports Cu(I) and Ag(I) ions to various intracellular pathways. Methionine motifs are methionine-rich metal binding segments found in many proteins involved in the transportation of copper ions to other cellular pathways. They are also found to bind Ag(I) with an affinity comparable to Cu(I). This study indicates that the methionine motif experiences conformational changes in the presence of the CTR1 c-terminal domain. These structural changes are dependent on the nature of the metal ion, Cu(I) vs. Ag(I). In addition, the data collected in this study emphasise how important the cysteine residue of the CTR1 c-terminal domain is to a correct conformational state of the target metal binding site.

  18. PDZ Domain Dependent Regulation of NHE3 Occurs by Both Internal Class II and C-terminal Class I PDZ Binding Motifs.

    PubMed

    Cha, Boyoung; Yang, Jianbo; Singh, Varsha; Zachos, Nicholas C; Sarker, Rafiquel I; Chen, Tian-E; Chakraborty, Molee; Tse, Chung-Ming; Donowitz, Mark

    2017-03-10

    NHE3 directly binds NHERF family scaffolding proteins that are required for many aspects of NHE3 regulation. The NHERFs bind both to an internal region (aa. 586-660) of the NHE3 C-terminus and to the NHE3 C-terminal four amino acids. The internal NHERF binding region contains both putative Class I (-592SAV-) and Class II (-595CLDM-) PDZ binding motifs (PBM). Point mutagenesis showed that only the Class II motif contributes to NHERF binding. In this study, the roles in regulation of NHE3 activity of these two PBMs were investigated, revealing: 1) Interaction between these binding sites since mutation of either removed nearly all NHERF binding. 2) Mutations in either significantly reduced basal NHE3 activity. Total and percent plasma membrane (PM) NHE3 protein expression were reduced in the C-terminal but not in the internal PBD mutation. 3) cGMP and Ca2+-mediated inhibition of NHE3 were impaired both in the internal and in the C-terminal PBM mutations. 4) A significant reduction in half-life of the PM pool of NHE3 in only the internal PBM mutation but no change in total NHE3 half-life in either. 5) Some difference in NHE3 associating proteins in the two PBM mutations. In conclusion, NHE3 binds to NHERF proteins via both an internal Class II and C-terminal Class I PBM, which interact. The former appears to determine NHE3 stability of a pool in the PM and the letter determines total expression and percent PM expression.

  19. Mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin-binding protein 2x: importance of the C-terminal penicillin-binding protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated domains for beta-lactam binding.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Patrick; Todorova, Katya; Sauerbier, Julia; Hakenbeck, Regine

    2012-06-01

    Penicillin-binding protein 2x (PBP2x) mutations that occur during the selection with beta-lactams are located within the central penicillin-binding/transpeptidase (TP) domain, and are believed to mediate resistance by interfering with the formation of a covalent complex of the active site serine with the antibiotic. We now investigated the effect of two point mutations found in two independently obtained laboratory mutants that are located at the surface of the TP domain with their side chains facing outside (G422D respectively R426C). They have no significant effect on resistance to cefotaxime in vivo or on binding to Bocillin™FL to the active site in vitro using purified PBP2x derivatives, thus apparently do not affect the active site directly. In contrast, in silico modeling revealed that they affect van der Waal's interactions with the PASTA1 (PBP and serine/threonine kinase associated) domain of