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Sample records for health aging study

  1. Health and aging: development of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing health assessment.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Hilary; O'Regan, Clare; Finucane, Ciaran; Kearney, Patricia; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-05-01

    To assist researchers planning studies similar to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), concerning the development of the health assessment component, to promote use of the archived data set, to inform researchers of the methods employed, and to complement the accompanying article on normative values. Prospective, longitudinal study of older adults. Republic of Ireland. Eight thousand five hundred four community-dwelling adults who participated in wave 1 of the TILDA study. The main areas of focus for the TILDA health assessments are neurocardiovascular instability, locomotion, and vision. The article describes the scientific rationale for the choice of assessments and seeks to determine the potential advantages of incorporating novel biomeasures and technologies in population-based studies to advance understanding of aging-related disorders. The detailed description of the physical measures will facilitate cross-national comparative research and put into context the normative values outlined in the subsequent article. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Progression of aging in Mexico: the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) 2012

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra; Palloni, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; González-González, César; López-Ortega, Mariana; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the third wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), completed in 2012, and present preliminary results. Materials and methods Descriptive analyses by gender and age group of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health conditions and health behaviors, as well as social support and life satisfaction measures are presented. In addition, external validations are presented by comparing MHAS 2012 indicators with other national data sources. Results For the panel of older adults in the sample, the rate of health care insurance coverage increased greatly between 2001 and 2012, a significantly higher change in rural compared to urban areas. The results for 2012 are consistent with the previous two waves for the main indicators of health and physical disability prevalence, risk factors, and behaviors. Conclusions The MHAS offers a unique opportunity to study aging in Mexico, as well as to complete cross-national comparisons. The cumulative number of deaths in the cohort should support the study of mortality and its association with health outcomes and behaviors over the life cycle. In addition, the sub-samples of objective markers will enable methodological research on self-reports and associations of biomarkers in old age with similar health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:26172238

  3. Progression of aging in Mexico: the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) 2012.

    PubMed

    Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra; Palloni, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; González-González, César; López-Ortega, Mariana; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura Rosario

    2015-01-01

    To describe the third wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), completed in 2012, and present preliminary results. Descriptive analyses by gender and age group of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health conditions and health behaviors, as well as social support and life satisfaction measures are presented. In addition, external validations are presented by comparing MHAS 2012 indicators with other national data sources. For the panel of older adults in the sample, the rate of health care insurance coverage increased greatly between 2001 and 2012, a significantly higher change in rural compared to urban areas. The results for 2012 are consistent with the previous two waves for the main indicators of health and physical disability prevalence, risk factors,and behaviors. The MHAS offers a unique opportunity to study aging in Mexico, as well as to complete cross-national comparisons. The cumulative number of deaths in the cohort should support the study of mortality and its association with health outcomes and behaviors over the life cycle. In addition, the sub-samples of objective markers will enable methodological research on self-reports and associations of biomarkers in old age with similar health outcomes and behaviors.

  4. Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties

    2012-12-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata).

  5. Data Resource Profile: The World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties; Yawson, A.; Mensah, G.; Yong, J.; Guo, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Parasuraman, P.; Lhungdim, H.; Sekher, TV.; Rosa, R.; Belov, VB.; Lushkina, NP; Peltzer, K.; Makiwane, M.; Zuma, K.; Ramlagan, S.; Davids, A.; Mbelle, N.; Matseke, G.; Schneider, M.; Tabane, C.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Ng, N.; Juvekar, S.; Sankoh, O.; Debpuur, CY.; Nguyen, TK Chuc; Gomez-Olive, FX.; Hakimi, M.; Hirve, S.; Abdullah, S.; Hodgson, A.; Kyobutungi, C.; Egondi, T.; Mayombana, C.; Minh, HV.; Mwanyangala, MA.; Razzaque, A.; Wilopo, S.; Streatfield, PK.; Byass, P.; Wall, S.; Scholten, F.; Mugisha, J.; Seeley, J.; Kinyanda, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M-L.

    2012-01-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18–49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007–2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18–49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO’s SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO’s archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715

  6. Adverse Oral Health and Cognitive Decline: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Robert; Weyant, Robert J.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore J.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Newman, Anne B.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives Periodontal disease has been associated with poorer cross-sectional cognitive function and is correlated with adverse vascular outcomes, but has received little prospective investigation in relation to cognitive decline. Design Analysis of a prospective cohort study. Setting The Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study Participants and measurements We examined the prospective association between a range of oral health parameters and cognitive function using data on 1053 participants who were administered the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) at year 1 (baseline) and year 3, and had participated in a comprehensive periodontal examination at year 2. We investigated 3MS decline from year 3 to 5 in 947 (89.9%) participants. Covariates included age, sex, education, race, cardiovascular disease/risk and depressive symptoms. Results Most indicators of adverse oral health at year 2 were associated with cognitive impairment based on averaged 3MS scores <80 for years 1 and 3, but these associations were substantially confounded by education and race. Higher gingival index, a measure of gingival inflammation, at year 2 remained independently associated with this definition of cognitive impairment and, in fully adjusted analyses, was also an independent predictor of a 5+ point cognitive decline from years 3 to 5. Conclusion Periodontitis may be a risk factor for cognitive decline. Gingivitis is reversible and periodontitis to some degree is preventable and controllable when manifest. Therefore, further research is needed to clarify potential underlying mechanisms and oral health interventions that potentially might ameliorate cognitive decline. PMID:23405916

  7. The New Mexico aging process study (1979-2003). A longitudinal study of nutrition, health and aging.

    PubMed

    Garry, P J; Wayne, S J; Vellas, B

    2007-01-01

    In 1979, Dr. James S. Goodwin, M.D., assisted by Philip J. Garry, Ph.D., submitted a grant proposal to the United States Public Health Service/ National Institute on Aging (NIA) entitled, "A prospective study of nutrition in the elderly". This study was approved and funded by the NIA beginning in 1979. Initially, approximately 300 men and women over 65 years of age with no known medical illnesses and no prescription medications were selected for this study. The primary purpose of this multi disciplinary study, known in the literature as the New Mexico Aging Process Study (NMAPS), was to examine the role of nutrition and resultant changes in body composition and organ function in relation to the aging process and health status of the elderly. This was accomplished by following prospectively healthy elderly volunteers, obtaining in-depth information about dietary habits, lifestyle, body composition, organ function, cognitive status, vitamin metabolism, genetic markers, and biochemical measures of nutritional status and then examining these data in relationship to age and health status and changes in health status. Some of the specific aims of the study were modified over the course of this longitudinal study because of availability of University of New Mexico School of Medicine faculty with expertise in different areas of aging research. In 1988, Dr. Bruno Vellas from the University Hospital in Toulouse, France became an on-going visiting professor at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. From 1988, until the study was terminated in 2003, Dr. Vellas has collaborated with the faculty involved in the NMAPS on a number of research projects. In this article, we provide information about the studies overall design and briefly describe some of the major finding of the NMAPS.

  8. Health literacy in old age: results of a German cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Dominique; Schaeffer, Doris; Messer, Melanie; Berens, Eva-Maria; Hurrelmann, Klaus

    2017-03-22

    Health literacy is especially important for older people to maintain or enhance remaining health resources and self-management skills. The aim of the study was to determine the level of health literacy and the association between health literacy, demographic and socio-economic factors in German older adults aged 65 years and above stratified by age group. Health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using HLS-EU-Q47 on a representative sample of the German-speaking population. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression modelling stratified by age group were conducted to assess health literacy of 475 respondents aged 65 years and above. Overall, 66.3% of all respondents aged 65 years and above had limited health literacy. Limited health literacy was especially prevalent among respondents above 76 years of age (80.6%). Limited health literacy was associated with financial deprivation (OR: 3.05; 95% CI: 1.99-4.67) and limited functional health literacy (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.29-3.61). Financial deprivation was strongest predictor for limited health literacy in the total sample and stratified by age group. Limited health literacy is a frequent phenomenon in German adults aged 65 years and above. Research on health literacy in old age and the role in health disparities is urgently needed.

  9. A longitudinal study of age-related changes in intraocular pressure: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2014-09-02

    To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 274,064 young and middle-aged Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings, following them from January 1, 2002, to February 28, 2010. Health exams were scheduled annually or biennially. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes using automated noncontact tonometers. The longitudinal change in IOP with age was evaluated using three-level mixed models for longitudinal paired-eye data, accounting for correlations between paired eyes and repeated measurements over time. In fully adjusted models, the average longitudinal change in IOP per 1-year increase in age was -0.065 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.068 to -0.063), with marked sex differences (P < 0.001). In men, the average annual IOP change was -0.093 mm Hg (95% CI -0.096 to -0.091) throughout follow-up. In women, the average annual IOP change was -0.006 mm Hg (95% CI -0.010 to -0.003), with a relatively flat association in the age range of 30 to 59 years and more marked annual decreases at younger and older ages. Intraocular pressure was inversely associated with age in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health-screening visits. For men, this inverse association was observed throughout the entire age range, while for women it was evident only in younger (<30 years of age) and older (≥60 years of age) women, with no association in women aged 30 to 59. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to reconsider cutoffs for defining high IOP by age and sex groups in Asian populations. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  10. Age, mode of conception, health service use and pregnancy health: a prospective cohort study of Australian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence about the ways in which maternal age and mode of conception interact with psychological, sociodemographic, health and health service factors in governing pregnancy health. The aim of this study was to establish in what ways maternal age and mode of conception are associated with, health behaviours, health service use and self-rated physical and mental health during pregnancy. Method A prospective cohort study was conducted in a collaboration between universities, infertility treatment services and public and private obstetric hospitals in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia,. Consecutive cohorts of nulliparous English-literate women at least 28 weeks pregnant who had conceived through ART (ARTC) or spontaneously (SC) in three age-groups: 20–30; 31–36 and at least 37 years were recruited. Data were obtained via structured individual telephone interviews and self-report postal questionnaires at recruitment and four months postpartum. Study-specific questions assessed: sociodemographic characteristics; reproductive health; health behaviours and health service use. Standardized instruments assessed physical health: SF 12 Physical Component Score (PCS) and mental health: SF12 Mental Component Score (MCS); State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The main outcome measures were the SF 12 PCS, SF12 MCS scores and pregnancy-related hospital admissions. Results Of 1179 eligible women 791 (67%) participated, 27 had fertility treatment without oocyte retrieval and were excluded and 592/764 (78%) completed all pregnancy assessments. When other factors were controlled speaking a language other than English, having private health insurance and multiple gestation were associated with worse physical health and having private health insurance and better physical health were associated with better mental health. Pregnancy-related hospital admissions were associated with worse physical health and multiple gestation

  11. A study of aged population and associated health risks in rural India.

    PubMed

    Yadava, K N; Yadava, S S; Vajpeyi, D K

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence of age-related diseases in different socioeconomic and demographic groups. The study is based on a sample of 267 aged persons (> 60 years) collected through a survey entitled "Aging and Health Conditions in Rural Area-A Sample Survey, 1990" conducted in the rural areas of the Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh, a northern province of India. Various socio-behavioral factors are found to play a significant role in determining the health conditions of aged people. Also, illiteracy and poverty are found to have their own impact on health during aging. It is also noted that due to adverse familial relationships, many stress-related disorders occur which may result in the poor health of the elderly. Demands for old age pensions were made by most of the elderly people in the sample.

  12. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

  13. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  14. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  15. Older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning: a systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Warmoth, Krystal; Tarrant, Mark; Abraham, Charles; Lang, Iain A

    2016-07-01

    Many older people perceive ageing negatively, describing it in terms of poor or declining health and functioning. These perceptions may be related to older adults' health. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing research on the relationship between older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases (ASSIA, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and PsycINFO). Citations within identified reports were also searched. Observational studies were included if they included perceptions of ageing and health-related measures involving participants aged 60 years and older. Study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using predefined criteria. Twenty-eight reports met the criteria for inclusion. Older adults' perceptions of ageing were assessed with a variety of measures. Perceptions were related to health and functioning across seven health domains: memory and cognitive performance, physical and physiological performance, medical conditions and outcomes, disability, care-seeking, self-rated health, quality of life and death. How ageing is perceived by older adults is related to their health and functioning in multiple domains. However, higher quality and longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate this relationship.

  16. Inequalities in health and health service utilisation among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dubikaytis, Tatiana; Larivaara, Meri; Kuznetsova, Olga; Hemminki, Elina

    2010-11-11

    Russian society has faced dramatic changes in terms of social stratification since the collapse of the Soviet Union. During this time, extensive reforms have taken place in the organisation of health services, including the development of the private sector. Previous studies in Russia have shown a wide gap in mortality between socioeconomic groups. There are just a few studies on health service utilisation in post-Soviet Russia and data on inequality of health service use are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyse health (self-rated health and self-reported chronic diseases) and health care utilisation patterns by socioeconomic status (SES) among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg. The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 (n = 1147), with a response rate of 67%. Education and income were used as dimensions of SES. The association between SES and health and use of health services was assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for age. As expected low SES was associated with poor self-rated health (education: OR = 1.48; personal income: OR = 1.42: family income: OR = 2.31). University education was associated with use of a wider range of outpatient medical services and increased use of the following examinations: Pap smear (age-adjusted OR = 2.06), gynaecological examinations (age-adjusted OR = 1.62) and mammography among older (more than 40 years) women (age-adjusted OR = 1.98). Personal income had similar correlations, but family income was related only to the use of mammography among older women. Our study suggests a considerable inequality in health and utilisation of preventive health service among reproductive age women. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify barriers to health promotion resources.

  17. Inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease (The Health, Aging and Body Composition [Health ABC] Study).

    PubMed

    Cesari, Matteo; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Newman, Anne B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Nicklas, Barbara J; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Tracy, Russell P; Rubin, Susan M; Harris, Tamara B; Pahor, Marco

    2003-09-01

    This study investigates the association of several inflammatory markers with subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in older men and women. Data are from the baseline assessment of 3,045 well-functioning persons aged 70 to 79 years, participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. The study sample was divided into 3 groups: "cardiovascular disease" (diagnosis of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, or stroke), "subclinical cardiovascular disease" (positive findings on the Rose questionnaire for angina or claudication, ankle-brachial index <0.9, or electrocardiographic abnormalities), and "no cardiovascular disease." Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and the soluble receptors IL-6 soluble receptor, IL-2 soluble receptor, TNF soluble receptor I, and TNF soluble receptor II were assessed. Of those with IL-6 levels in the highest compared with the lowest tertile, the odds ratio (OR) for subclinical cardiovascular disease was 1.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26 to 1.97) and for clinical cardiovascular disease was 2.35 (95% CI 1.79 to 3.09). A similar association was found for TNF-alpha (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.88 and OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.72, respectively). In adjusted analyses, CRP was not significantly associated with overall subclinical or clinical cardiovascular disease, although additional analyses did find a strong specific association between CRP and congestive heart failure (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.41). Of the soluble cytokine receptors, only TNF soluble receptor I showed a significant association with clinical cardiovascular disease. Thus, our findings suggest an important role for IL-6 and TNF-alpha in clinical as well as subclinical cardiovascular disease. In this study, CRP had a weaker association with cardiovascular disease than the cytokines.

  18. Sexual orientation disparities in physical health: age and gender effects in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bränström, Richard; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Pachankis, John E

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have identified substantial health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals compared to heterosexuals. However, possible variation in sexual orientation health disparities by age and according to gender remains largely unexplored. To examine physical health disparities between LGB and heterosexual individuals in a general population sample in Sweden, to explore potential age and gender differences in these disparities, and to test potential mechanisms underlying any observed disparities. Between 2008 and 2013, 60,922 individuals (16-84 years of age) responded to nationwide population-based health surveys. In the sample, 430 (0.7%) individuals self-identified as gay/lesbian and 757 (1.3%) self-identified as bisexual. Logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were used to explore health disparities based on sexual orientation. Overall, LGB individuals were more likely to report worse self-rated health as well as more physical health symptoms (e.g., pain, insomnia, dermatitis, tinnitus, intestinal problems) and conditions (e.g., diabetes, asthma, high blood pressure) compared to heterosexuals. However, these physical health disparities differed by age. Disparities were largest among adolescents and young adults and generally smallest in older age groups. Health behaviors and elevated reports of exposure to perceived discrimination, victimization, and threats of violence among sexual minorities partially explained the sexual orientation disparities in physical health. Age emerged as an important effect modifier of physical health disparities based on sexual orientation. Gender-specific findings suggest that sexual orientation disparities persist into adulthood for women but are gradually attenuated for older age groups; in contrast, for men, these disparities disappear starting with young adults. These results support a developmental model of minority stress and physical health among LGB individuals.

  19. Successful mental health aging: results from a longitudinal study of older Australian men.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Norman, Paul; Hankey, Graeme; Jamrozik, Konrad; Flicker, Leon

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the associations of medical and lifestyle factors with the mental health of men in their 80s. This was a prospective study of a community-representative cohort of older men. Successful mental health aging was defined as reaching age 80 years with Mini-Mental State Examination score (MMSE) of 24 or more and Geriatric Depression Scale-15 items (GDS-15) score of 5 or less. Of 601 men followed for 4.8 years, 76.0% enjoyed successful mental health aging. Successful mental health aging was inversely associated with age (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.94), non-English-speaking background (HR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.21-0.85), and the consumption of full-cream milk (HR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.45-0.89), and directly associated with high school or university education (HR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.34-2.75) and vigorous (HR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.17-3.05) and nonvigorous physical activity (HR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.05-2.14). Marital status, smoking and alcohol use, weekly consumption of meat or fish, and a medical history of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke were not associated with mental health outcomes in men aged 80 years or over. Three in four men who reach age 80 years undergo successful mental health aging. Factors associated with successful mental health aging include education and lifestyle behaviors such as physical activity. Lifestyle modification by means of increasing physical activity and reducing saturated fat intake may prove to be a safe, inexpensive, and readily available strategy to help maximize the successful mental health aging of the population.

  20. Planning for End-of-Life Care: Findings from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Douglas D.; Tuokko, Holly; Stajduhar, Kelli I.; Lindsay, Joan; Buehler, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Steps involved in formalizing end-of-life care preferences and factors related to these steps are unclear in the literature. Using data from the third wave of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-3), we examined the relations between demographic and health predictors, on the one hand, and three outcomes, on the other (whether participants…

  1. Self-rated health among Hispanic vs non-Hispanic white adults: the San Luis Valley Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed Central

    Shetterly, S M; Baxter, J; Mason, L D; Hamman, R F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether objective health indicators explained lower self-rated health among Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites. It also considered socioeconomic and cultural explanations. METHODS: Health ratings of 429 Hispanics and 583 non-Hispanic Whites aged 20 through 74 were analyzed with logistic regression. RESULTS: Illness indicators were found to be strongly correlated with self-rated health in both ethnic groups, but after such markers were controlled for, Hispanics remained 3.6 times more likely to report fair or poor health (95% confidence interval = 2.4, 5.3). Adjustment for socioeconomic factors accounted for a portion of Hispanics' lower health rating, but the strongest explanatory factor was acculturation. CONCLUSIONS: Because of cultural and economic influences on definitions of health, ethnic differences in self-assessed health may not accurately reflected patterns resulting from objective health measurements. PMID:9003141

  2. Predictors and Sequelae of Fractures in the Elderly: The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostbye, Truls; Walton, Ruth E.; Steenhuis, Runa; Hodsman, Anthony B.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence, type, risk factors, and sequelae of fractures experienced by community-dwelling elderly Canadians. Data are from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA), a longitudinal cohort study, collected in three waves: baseline (1991), wave 2 (1996), and wave 3 (2001). In CSHA-2 (1996),…

  3. Predictors and Sequelae of Fractures in the Elderly: The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostbye, Truls; Walton, Ruth E.; Steenhuis, Runa; Hodsman, Anthony B.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence, type, risk factors, and sequelae of fractures experienced by community-dwelling elderly Canadians. Data are from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA), a longitudinal cohort study, collected in three waves: baseline (1991), wave 2 (1996), and wave 3 (2001). In CSHA-2 (1996),…

  4. Intergenerational Activities for Teaching About Aging and the Aged in Health, Physical Education and Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, Linda; And Others

    It is proposed that the most effective technique for teaching about aging and the aged at the secondary level is through the use of intergenerational activities, providing opportunities for the interaction of young and old. Including older adults in various class activities is suggested. Using these individuals as guest instructors and aides in…

  5. Mental Health Status Among Rural Women of Reproductive Age: Findings From the Central Pennsylvania Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Weisman, Carol S.; Chase, Gary A.; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to examine variables associated with mental health among rural women of reproductive age, with particular attention given to rural area type and farm residence. Methods. We analyzed data from the Central Pennsylvania Women’s Health Study, which included a random-digit-dialed survey of women aged 18 to 45 years. Hierarchical multiple linear and logistic regression models were estimated to predict 3 mental health outcomes: score on a mental health measure, depressive symptoms, and diagnosed depression or anxiety. Results. Mental health outcomes were associated with different factors. Farm residence was associated with higher mental health score, and the most isolated rural residence was associated with less diagnosed depression or anxiety. Elevated psychosocial stress was consistently significant across all models. A key stress modifier, self-esteem, was also consistently significant across models. Other variables associated with 2 of the outcomes were intimate partner violence exposure and affectionate social support. Conclusions. Farm residence may be protective of general mental health for women of reproductive age, and residence in isolated rural areas may decrease access to mental health screening and treatment, resulting in fewer diagnoses of depression or anxiety. PMID:18511738

  6. The methodology of the Italian HBSC 2010 study (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children).

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, G; Giacchi, M V; Dalmasso, P; Vieno, A; Nardone, P; Lamberti, A; Spinelli, A; Cavallo, F

    2013-01-01

    Italy has participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study since 2000. These surveys collect data every four years on the well-being and health behaviour of boys and girls aged 11, 13 and 15. Until 2007, the coordination group of the University of Turin, Siena and Padua directly sent the questionnaires to each sampled school to collect the data. The sample of about 4500 students was nationally representative. In 2008 the HBSC became part of the project "Surveys on behavioral risks in children aged 6-17 years", coordinated by the National Institute of Health (ISS) and promoted by the Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, University and Research. For the first time, in 2010, the survey was conducted by health workers in collaboration with teachers in all regions with a representative sample, not just at the national level, but also at regional level. In the 2,504 sampled schools, 77,113 students (25,079 eleven-year-old, 26,048 thirteen-year-old and 25,986 fifteen-year-old) completed an anonymous questionnaire. Knowledge of the health-related behaviour of school-aged adolescents may help monitoring and enable policies for young people to be formulated and implemented.

  7. Aging, longevity and health

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2016-01-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5–7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of Medicine, USA) as well as a lecture discussing the art-science interface by Thomas Söderqvist (Director, Medical Museion, University of Copenhagen). The topics of the first six Sessions of the Congress were: Neuroscience and DNA damage, Aging and Stress, Life Course, Environmental Factors and Neuroscience, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health. PMID:21820462

  8. Aging, longevity and health.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2011-10-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5-7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of Medicine, USA) as well as a lecture discussing the art-science interface by Thomas Söderqvist (Director, Medical Museion, University of Copenhagen). The topics of the first six Sessions of the Congress were: Neuroscience and DNA damage, Aging and Stress, Life Course, Environmental Factors and Neuroscience, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health.

  9. [Dementia in the focus of health research : A comparative analysis of current ageing studies].

    PubMed

    Illiger, Kristin; Walter, Ulla; Koppelin, Frauke

    2017-03-23

    Health research on an increasingly aging population calls for careful consideration of aging-associated phenomena, such as dementia. Accounting for such diseases is a necessary step for gaining a view of health in the elderly. It is moreover imperative to gather data on subjects' mental limitations in surveys to better evaluate the validity of answers disclosed by elderly participants. This article discusses the availability of data on individuals suffering from dementia in national studies on aging. It centers on the question of how surveys respond to the challenge of diagnosing dementia. The analysis is based on a literature review, which focuses on national studies on aging that were conducted no later than 2005, and that enforced an upper age limit of at least 79 years old for their subjects. By evaluating these published studies, and analyzing their data descriptively, it was determined how many subjects suffering from dementia were part of each sample, and which methods were applied to diagnose such illnesses. Overall, the availability of data on age and aging is satisfactory in Germany. The literature review discovered seven studies on aging, as well as five that lend themselves to a framework oriented toward research on aging. The number of subjects suffering from dementia in the samples is between 0 and 14% - over half of the studies reach less than 1.5% of those affected. These results thus point out problems in surveying individuals suffering from dementia. They highlight the limitations of studies on aging that do not account for dementia in their subjects. The following discussion aims to contribute to the debate on relevant research methodology, and to the development of methodological approaches that consider dementia as a crucial factor.

  10. Identifying adults aging with disability using existing data: The case of the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Caitlin E; Putnam, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    The population of persons aging with disabilities is growing. Being able to segment aging with disability sub-populations within national data sets is becoming increasingly important in order to understand the relationship of aging with disability to a range of outcomes in later life including health and wellness, economic security, and health and long-term service and support need and use. The purpose of this study was to identify viable sub-samples of adults aging with disabilities within the Health and Retirement Study, one of the most used secondary data sets to study aging and older adults. Samples used in this research are drawn from wave 11 (2012) of the HRS. Five operationalizations of disability were used: childhood disability (n = 719), childhood chronic condition (n = 3070), adult chronic condition (n = 13,723), functional limitation in adulthood (n = 4448) and work disability (n = 5632). These subsamples are not mutually exclusive. Among respondents that reported having a childhood disability, 87% also report having at least one chronic disease in adulthood, 50% report having functional limitations in adulthood and 38% report interruption in their ability to work due to a disability. Compared to the childhood disability samples, rates of reporting fair/poor health are nearly double among adults with functional limitations or those with work disruptions because of disability. Work disability and functional limitation appeared to be the most viable sub-sample options to consider when using the HRS to study experiences of adults aging with disability. Overall, age at onset is unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of maternal age with child health: A Japanese longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Average maternal age at birth has been rising steadily in Western and some Asian countries. Older maternal age has been associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes; however, studies on the relationship between maternal age and young children’s health remain scarce. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association of maternal age with child health outcomes in the Japanese population. We analyzed data from two birth cohorts of the nationwide Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in 21st Century (n2001 = 47,715 and n2010 = 38,554). We estimated risks of unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 and 66 months according to maternal age, controlling for the following potential confounders: parental education; maternal parity, smoking status, and employment status; household income; paternal age, and sex of the child. We also included the following as potential mediators: preterm births and birthweight. We observed a decreasing trend in the risks of children’s unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 months according to maternal age in both cohorts. In the 2001 cohort, compared to mothers <25 years, odds ratios of hospital admission at 18 months were 0.97 [95% CI: 0.86, 1.09], 0.92 [0.81, 1.05], 0.76 [0.65, 0.90], and 0.71 [0.51, 0.98] for mothers aged 25.0–29.9, 30.0–34.9, 35.0–39.9, and >40.0 years, respectively, controlling for confounders. Our findings were in line with previous findings from population-based studies conducted in the United Kingdom and Canada suggesting that older maternal age may be beneficial for early child health. PMID:28234951

  12. Elementary school-aged children's reports of their health: a cognitive interviewing study.

    PubMed

    Rebok, G; Riley, A; Forrest, C; Starfield, B; Green, B; Robertson, J; Tambor, E

    2001-01-01

    There are no standard methods for assessing the quality of young children's perceptions of their health and well-being and their ability to comprehend the tasks involved in reporting their health. This research involved three cross-sectional studies using cognitive interviews of 5-11-year-old children (N = 114) to determine their ability to respond to various presentations of pictorially illustrated questions about their health. The samples had a predominance of children in the 5-7-year-old range and families of lower and middle socio-economic status. The research questions in Study 1 involved children's ability to convert their health experiences into scaled responses and relate them to illustrated items (n = 35); Study 2 focused on the type of response format most effectively used by children (n = 19); and Study 3 involved testing children's understanding of health-related terms and use of a specific recall period (n = 60). The results of Study 1 showed that children identified with the cartoon drawing of a child depicted in the illustrated items, typically responding that the child was at or near their own age and of the same gender, with no differences related to race. Study 2 results indicated that children responded effectively to circles of graduated sizes to indicate their response and preferred them to same-size circles or a visual analogue scale. Tests of three-, four-, and five-point response formats demonstrated that children could use them all without confusion. In Study 3, expected age-related differences in understanding were obtained. In fact, the 5-year-old children were unable to understand a sufficient number of items to adequately describe their health. Virtually all children 8 years of age and older were able to fully understand the key terms and presentation of items, used the full five-point range of response options, and accurately used a 4-week recall period. Six- and seven-year-olds were more likely than older children to use only the

  13. Psychosocial biomarker research: integrating social, emotional and economic factors into population studies of aging and health.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    There are complex reciprocal relationships between health and social, emotional and economic factors in aging populations. Social and affective neurosciences are rapidly developing an understanding of the mechanisms underlying these phenomena using sophisticated behavioural, neuroimaging and psychophysiological methods. These techniques are often complex and expensive, so are generally used in relatively small selected samples rather than in large-scale cohort studies. However, an understanding of the significance of these processes in health and well-being depends on integrating findings from social and affective neuroscience into population-level studies. The aim of this article is to describe how a population perspective on the determinants of health and well-being in old age articulates with the agenda of social, affective and economic neuroscience, particularly through the application of psychosocial biomarker research. Social and affective neuroscience and epidemiological approaches provide complementary research strategies for understanding the mechanisms linking social, emotional and economic factors with health risk. This will be illustrated primarily from findings from two studies conducted at University College London, the Whitehall II Study and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

  14. Assistive walking device use and knee osteoarthritis: results from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study (Health ABC Study).

    PubMed

    Carbone, Laura D; Satterfield, Suzanne; Liu, Caiqin; Kwoh, Kent C; Neogi, Tuhina; Tolley, Elizabeth; Nevitt, Michael

    2013-02-01

    To identify factors that predicted incident use of assistive walking devices (AWDs) and to explore whether AWD use was associated with changes in osteoarthritis of the knee. Prospective cohort study. Community. Older adults (N=2639) in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study including a subset of 874 patients with prevalent knee pain. Not applicable. Incident use of AWDs, mean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain scores, and the frequency of joint space narrowing on knee radiographs over a 3-year time period. AWD use was initiated by 9% of the entire Health ABC cohort and 12% of the knee pain subset. Factors that predicted use in both groups were age ≥73 (entire cohort: odds ratio [OR]=2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-3.01; knee pain subset: OR=1.87; 95% CI, 1.16-3.03), black race (entire cohort: OR=2.95; 95% CI, 2.09-4.16; knee pain subset: OR=3.21; 95% CI, 2.01-5.11), and lower balance ratios (entire cohort: OR=3.18; 95% CI, 2.21-4.59; knee pain subset: OR=3.77; 95% CI, 2.34-6.07). Mean WOMAC pain scores decreased slightly over time in both AWD and non-AWD users. Twenty percent of non-AWD users and 28% of AWD users had radiographic progression in joint space narrowing of the tibiofemoral joint in at least 1 knee. Fourteen percent of non-AWD users and 12% of AWD users had radiographic progression in joint space narrowing in the patellofemoral joint in at least 1 knee. AWDs are frequently used by older adults. Knee pain and balance problems are significant reasons why older adults initiate use of an AWD. In an exploratory analysis, there was no consistent relation between the use or nonuse of an AWD and WOMAC pain scores or knee joint space narrowing progression. Further studies of the relation of use of AWDs to changes in knee osteoarthritis are needed. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assistive Walking Device Use and Knee Osteoarthritis: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (Health ABC Study)

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Laura D.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Liu, Caiqin; Kwoh, Kent C.; Neogi, Tuhina; Tolley, Elizabeth; Nevitt, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify factors that predicted incident use of assistive walking devices (AWDs) and to explore whether AWD use was associated with changes in osteoarthritis of the knee. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 2,639 elderly men and women in the Health ABC (Health, Aging and Body Composition). Study followed for incident use of AWDs, including a subset of 874 with prevalent knee pain. Participants NA Interventions NA Main Outcome Measures Incident use of AWDs, mean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain scores and frequency of joint space narrowing on knee radiographs over a three year time period. Results AWD use was initiated by 9% of the entire Health ABC cohort and 12% of the knee pain subset. Factors that predicted use in both groups were age ≥73 [entire cohort: OR 2.07 (95% CI 1.43, 3.01); knee pain subset: OR 1.87 (95% CI 1.16, 3.03)], black race [entire cohort: OR 2.95 (95% CI 2.09, 4.16); knee pain subset: OR 3.21 (95% CI 2.01, 5.11)] and lower balance ratios [entire cohort: OR 3.18 (95% CI 2.21, 4.59); knee pain subset: OR 3.77 (95% CI 2.34, 6.07)]. Mean WOMAC pain scores decreased slightly over time in both AWD and non-AWD users. 20% of non-AWD users and 28% of AWD users had radiographic progression in joint space narrowing of the tibiofemoral joint in at least one knee. 14% of non-AWD users and 12% of AWD users had radiographic progression in joint space narrowing in the patellofemoral joint in at least one knee. Conclusions Assistive walking devices are frequently used by elderly men and women. Knee pain and balance problems are significant reasons why elderly individuals initiate use of an assistive walking device. In an exploratory analysis, there was no consistent relationship between use or nonuse of an AWD and WOMAC pain scores or knee joint space narrowing progression. Further studies of the relationship of use of AWDs to changes in knee osteoarthritis are needed. PMID:23041146

  16. Association Between Age at Menarche and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Schoenaker, Danielle A J M; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-03-05

    In this study, we aimed to examine the association between age at menarche and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data were from 4,749 women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health between 2000 and 2012. Age at menarche was reported at baseline in 2000 when women were aged 22-27 years. During 12 years of follow-up, information on GDM diagnosis was obtained for each live birth. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Analyses adjusted for mother's highest completed educational qualification, nulliparity, polycystic ovary syndrome, physical activity, and body mass index. Mean age at menarche was 12.9 years (standard deviation, 1.4). A first diagnosis of GDM was reported by 357 women (7.5%). Compared with women with menarche at age 13 years, women who had their first menstruation at age ≤11 years had a 51% higher risk of developing GDM (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 2.07) after adjustment for GDM risk factors. Our findings indicate that a young age at menarche may identify women at higher risk of GDM. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings and to elucidate the role of early-life exposures in age at menarche and subsequent GDM risk.

  17. Mental health differences among retirees and workers: findings from the Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Bossé, R; Aldwin, C M; Levenson, M R; Ekerdt, D J

    1987-12-01

    Researchers during the past decade have found little effect of retirement on physical health. However, retirement entails a number of losses, and its effect on mental health, as measured by the prevalence of psychological symptoms, is unclear. We examined psychological symptoms in a sample of 1,513 older men, participants in the Normative Aging Study, using the SCL-90-R (Derogatis, 1983). Analyses of variance indicated that retirees reported more psychological symptoms than did workers, even after controlling for physical health status. Exploratory analyses examining the circumstances of retirement found no effects for length of retirement or part-time employment, but did find effects for the timing of retirement. Both early and late retirees reported more psychological symptoms. Late workers (aged 66 and older) reported the fewest symptoms. Reasons for these findings are discussed.

  18. Operationalizing multimorbidity and autonomy for health services research in aging populations - the OMAHA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As part of a Berlin-based research consortium on health in old age, the OMAHA (Operationalizing Multimorbidity and Autonomy for Health Services Research in Aging Populations) study aims to develop a conceptual framework and a set of standardized instruments and indicators for continuous monitoring of multimorbidity and associated health care needs in the population 65 years and older. Methods/Design OMAHA is a longitudinal epidemiological study including a comprehensive assessment at baseline and at 12-month follow-up as well as brief intermediate telephone interviews at 6 and 18 months. In order to evaluate different sampling procedures and modes of data collection, the study is conducted in two different population-based samples of men and women aged 65 years and older. A geographically defined sample was recruited from an age and sex stratified random sample from the register of residents in Berlin-Mitte (Berlin OMAHA study cohort, n = 299) for assessment by face-to-face interview and examination. A larger nationwide sample (German OMAHA study cohort, n = 730) was recruited for assessment by telephone interview among participants in previous German Telephone Health Surveys. In both cohorts, we successfully applied a multi-dimensional set of instruments to assess multimorbidity, functional disability in daily life, autonomy, quality of life (QoL), health care services utilization, personal and social resources as well as socio-demographic and biographical context variables. Response rates considerably varied between the Berlin and German OMAHA study cohorts (22.8% vs. 59.7%), whereas completeness of follow-up at month 12 was comparably high in both cohorts (82.9% vs. 81.2%). Discussion The OMAHA study offers a wide spectrum of data concerning health, functioning, social involvement, psychological well-being, and cognitive capacity in community-dwelling older people in Germany. Results from the study will add to methodological and content

  19. Capturing how age-friendly communities foster positive health, social participation and health equity: a study protocol of key components and processes that promote population health in aging Canadians.

    PubMed

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Dubois, Marie-France; Généreux, Mélissa; Menec, Verena; Raina, Parminder; Roy, Mathieu; Gabaude, Catherine; Couturier, Yves; St-Pierre, Catherine

    2017-05-25

    To address the challenges of the global aging population, the World Health Organization promoted age-friendly communities as a way to foster the development of active aging community initiatives. Accordingly, key components (i.e., policies, services and structures related to the communities' physical and social environments) should be designed to be age-friendly and help all aging adults to live safely, enjoy good health and stay involved in their communities. Although age-friendly communities are believed to be a promising way to help aging Canadians lead healthy and active lives, little is known about which key components best foster positive health, social participation and health equity, and their underlying mechanisms. This study aims to better understand which and how key components of age-friendly communities best foster positive health, social participation and health equity in aging Canadians. Specifically, the research objectives are to: 1) Describe and compare age-friendly key components of communities across Canada 2) Identify key components best associated with positive health, social participation and health equity of aging adults 3) Explore how these key components foster positive health, social participation and health equity METHODS: A mixed-method sequential explanatory design will be used. The quantitative part will involve a survey of Canadian communities and secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). The survey will include an age-friendly questionnaire targeting key components in seven domains: physical environment, housing options, social environment, opportunities for participation, community supports and healthcare services, transportation options, communication and information. The CLSA is a large, national prospective study representative of the Canadian aging population designed to examine health transitions and trajectories of adults as they age. In the qualitative part, a multiple

  20. Common health predictors of early retirement: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Rice, Neil E; Lang, Iain A; Henley, William; Melzer, David

    2011-01-01

    facing the costs of population ageing, many governments aim to keep older people in employment for longer. Summary health measures predict early retirement, but more specific symptoms and conditions need to be identified to guide efforts to delay retirement. to identify common symptoms and conditions that predict early work exit, at the population level. cohort study of community dwelling respondents to the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. a total of 1,693 workers aged 50 and over at baseline who were younger than the contemporaneous retirement age (60 for women, 65 for men) at 4-year follow-up. a total of 308 (18.2%) individuals moved out of employment during the follow-up period. Advancing age, female gender, partner retirement, greater pension wealth, high alcohol consumption and fair or poor self-rated health were all associated with work exit. Accounting for these factors, reported difficulty walking a quarter mile was predictive of early work exit (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-3.52), especially where symptoms included lower limb pain and/or shortness of breath. Symptomatic depression (measured by Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale) was also predictive of early work exit (OR = 1.52, CI 1.07, 2.18). About 50.8% of early retirees reported one or more of these specific health symptoms (depression, general pain, mobility limitations and leg pain when walking). older workers who report depressive symptoms or impaired physical mobility, especially with lower limb pain and shortness of breath, are at increased risk of early transition out of work. Health interventions targeting these conditions may enable older workers to remain in the labour force.

  1. Precautionary Savings in Mexico: Evidence from the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Velandia Naranjo, Durfari; van Gameren, Edwin

    2016-06-01

    Precautionary saving is the additional saving done by individuals to protect them financially in situations of uncertainty and reduce their vulnerability for negative shocks that may affect their consumption levels. This paper investigates the existence and extent of savings motivated by precaution in Mexico for people aged between 50 and 75, using data from the Mexican Health and Ageing Study 2003. The empirical strategy is based on a test of the direct relationship between the accumulated wealth and the uncertainty generated by the social security status, in particular the availability of health insurance, accounting also for the expectation to receive a retirement pension. The endogeneity-corrected estimates do not yield results that unequivocally support the existence of private savings as a risk protection mechanism, implying that the public protection system has an important role in reducing the vulnerability of the population studied.

  2. Precautionary Savings in Mexico: Evidence from the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Velandia Naranjo, Durfari; van Gameren, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Precautionary saving is the additional saving done by individuals to protect them financially in situations of uncertainty and reduce their vulnerability for negative shocks that may affect their consumption levels. This paper investigates the existence and extent of savings motivated by precaution in Mexico for people aged between 50 and 75, using data from the Mexican Health and Ageing Study 2003. The empirical strategy is based on a test of the direct relationship between the accumulated wealth and the uncertainty generated by the social security status, in particular the availability of health insurance, accounting also for the expectation to receive a retirement pension. The endogeneity-corrected estimates do not yield results that unequivocally support the existence of private savings as a risk protection mechanism, implying that the public protection system has an important role in reducing the vulnerability of the population studied. PMID:27698512

  3. Aging and Health: Cataracts

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Cataracts Basic Facts & Information What are Cataracts? The lens of the eye is a clear ... in the US. The Most Common Types of Cataracts Cataracts are categorized depending on their location. They ...

  4. Health service use, out-of-pocket payments and catastrophic health expenditure among older people in India: the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Brinda, Ethel Mary; Kowal, Paul; Attermann, Jørn; Enemark, Ulrika

    2015-05-01

    Healthcare financing through out-of-pocket payments and inequities in healthcare utilisation are common in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Given the dearth of pertinent studies on these issues among older people in LMICs, we investigated the determinants of health service use, out-of-pocket and catastrophic health expenditures among older people in one LMIC, India. We accessed data from a nationally representative, multistage sample of 2414 people aged 65 years and older from the WHO's Study on global AGEing and adult health in India. Sociodemographic characteristics, health profiles, health service utilisation and out-of-pocket health expenditure were assessed using standard instruments. Multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to evaluate the determinants of health service visits. Multivariate Heckman sample selection regression models were used to assess the determinants of out-of-pocket and catastrophic health expenditures. Out-of-pocket health expenditures were higher among participants with disability and lower income. Diabetes, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, heart disease and tuberculosis increased the number of health visits and out-of-pocket health expenditures. The prevalence of catastrophic health expenditure among older people in India was 7% (95% CI 6% to 8%). Older men and individuals with chronic diseases were at higher risk of catastrophic health expenditure, while access to health insurance lowered the risk. Reducing out-of-pocket health expenditure among older people is an important public health issue, in which social as well as medical determinants should be prioritised. Enhanced public health sector performance and provision of publicly funded insurance may protect against catastrophic health expenses and healthcare inequities in India. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Sexual Health questions included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study: an international methodological pilot investigation.

    PubMed

    Young, Honor; Költő, András; Reis, Marta; Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Moreau, Nathalie; Burke, Lorraine; Cosma, Alina; Windlin, Béat; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2016-12-05

    This paper describes the methodological developments of the sexual health items included in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study since their mandatory inclusion in the study in 2002. The current methodological, ethical and pedagogical challenges in measuring young people's sexual health behaviours are discussed along with the issues associated with the sexual health items introduced to the HBSC study in 2002. The development and piloting of new cross-national items for use in the 2013/14 HBSC data collection are presented and discussed. An international pilot study was undertaken to determine the impact of these proposed changes. Questionnaires and classroom discussion groups were conducted in five pilot countries in 2012/2013 (France, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania) with a total of 612 school-aged children (age M = 15.55 years, SD = 0.95). The majority of participants in each country provided positive feedback about the appropriateness of the questions. Some small cross-national differences were found in the self-reported quantitative data relating to the appropriateness of the questions (χ(2) = 22.831, df = 9, p = .007, V = .117). Qualitative feedback suggests that for the vast majority of students the phrasing and age-targeting of the questions were considered appropriate. With the exception of a small number of respondents who commented on the clarity and/or personal nature of the content, no specific issues with the questions were identified. These findings provide guidance on the answerability (including the extent of missing and inconsistent data), understandability, acceptability (including in different cultures) and relevance of questions to potential participants. The findings from the pilot study suggest that in general, the questions are understandable, acceptable, and of a high priority to the target population, and that the simplification has significantly reduced the proportion of missing data

  6. A longitudinal study of dental health from the age of 14 to 41.

    PubMed

    Crossner, Claes-Göran; Unell, Lennart

    2007-01-01

    The aim of present study was to longitudinally follow dental health from the age of 14 to 41. Originally an entire age group attending one of the compulsory schools in the city of Orebro, Sweden was selected and 115 children born in 1962 were included in the study. At the last examination 27 years later, 73 (63%) individuals, 35 males and 38 females, could still be located and were willing to participate. The drop out analysis did not show any statistical difference between the drop-outs and this final material. All participants had experienced a comprehensive whole population based preventive dental care, free of charge, during the first 19 years of their lives, and after that the increment of dental diseases had been limited. Only two individuals were diagnosed with chronic periodontitis at 41, and 70% of all DMFS registered at 41 were present already at 19. This positive development during adulthood seemed to be unrelated to socio-economic status. In addition, the dental health at 41 did not seem to be obviously influenced by if the participants, as adults, had paid yearly visits to the dentist or not, and there was no evidence supporting that regularly seeing a dental hygienist or using daily inter-dental cleaning would improve dental health. The most obvious difference in dental health at 41 was due to gender where e.g. the experience of proximal caries and bleeding after probing were twice as frequent in males as in females. Based on the results of the present study it can be concluded that uncritically abandoning whole population preventive strategies might not be in the best interest of public dental health. Furthermore, if already existing dental care resources should be reallocated for a better long-term dental health investment it should be on the expense of the young adults to the benefit of the young teenagers (as population sub-groups) and not the other way around based on individual indications.

  7. Financial strain is associated with increased oxidative stress levels: the Women's Health and Aging Studies.

    PubMed

    Palta, Priya; Szanton, Sarah L; Semba, Richard D; Thorpe, Roland J; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P

    2015-01-01

    Elevated oxidative stress levels may be one mechanism contributing to poor health outcomes. Financial strain and oxidative stress are each predictors of morbidity and mortality, but little research has investigated their relationship. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 728) from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Financial strain was ascertained as an ordinal response to: "At the end of the month, do you have more than enough money left over, just enough, or not enough?" Oxidative stress was measured using serum protein carbonyl concentrations. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship between financial strain and oxidative stress. Participants who reported high financial strain exhibited 13.4% higher protein carbonyl concentrations compared to individuals who reported low financial strain (p = 0.002). High financial strain may be associated with increased oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress could mediate associations between financial strain and poor health.

  8. Cohort profile: the lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation.

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-12-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx).

  9. The Effects of Housing on Health and Health Risks in an Aging Population: A Qualitative Study in Rural Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Somrongthong, Ratana; Dullyaperadis, Saovalux; Wulff, Anne Louise; Ward, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Over the last decade, Thailand has experienced an aging population, especially in rural areas. Research finds a strong, positive relationship between good quality housing and health, and this paper assesses the impact and living experience of housing of older people in rural Thailand. Methods. This was a mixed-method study, using data from observations of the physical adequacy of housing, semistructured interviews with key informants, and archival information from health records for 13 households in rural Thailand. Results. There were four main themes, each of which led to health risks for the older people: “lighting and unsafe wires,” “house design and composition,” “maintenance of the house,” and “health care equipment.” The housing was not appropriately designed to accommodate health care equipment or to fully support individual daily activities of older people. Numerous accidents occurred as a direct result of inadequate housing and the majority of houses had insufficient and unsafe lighting, floor surfaces and furniture that created health risks, and toilets or beds that were at an unsuitable height for older people. Conclusion. This paper provides an improved and an important understanding of the housing situation among older people living in rural areas in Thailand. PMID:25101268

  10. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age.

  11. Intimations of mortality: perceived age of leaving middle age as a predictor of future health outcomes within the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Kuper, Hannah; Marmot, Michael

    2003-03-01

    to determine the association between the subjective rate of ageing and future health outcomes. prospective cohort study (Whitehall II study). At the third phase of the study (1991-1993), participants were asked at what age they think most people leave middle age. Participants were followed until the end of phase 5 (1997-2000), so that mean length of follow-up was 7 years. London based office staff in 20 civil service departments. 5,262 male and 2,277 female civil servants aged 40-60. validated new cases of coronary heart disease and health function, measured by the SF-36 General Health Survey, at phase 5. perceived age of leaving middle age increased with age, self-rated health and grade of employment, and was higher in women. Adjusting for age and sex, people who believed middle age ends < or =60 years, compared to > or =70 years, were at higher risk for coronary heart disease (HR=1.43, 95% CI=1.05-1.94), fatal coronary heart disease and non-fatal myocardial infarction (HR=1.52, 0.95-2.42), and poor physical (OR=1.29, 1.10-1.50) and mental (OR=1.25, 1.07-1.45) functioning during follow-up. Adjustment for self-rated health, employment grade, health behaviours, social networks, control and baseline health status, respectively, did not eliminate these associations. the reported age at which middle age ends predicts future health outcomes. We hypothesise that perceived end of middle age acts as a general summary of the subjective rate of ageing.

  12. Racial differences in self-rated health at similar levels of physical functioning: an examination of health pessimism in the health, aging, and body composition study.

    PubMed

    Spencer, S Melinda; Schulz, Richard; Rooks, Ronica N; Albert, Steven M; Thorpe, Roland J; Brenes, Gretchen A; Harris, Tamara B; Koster, Annemarie; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Newman, Anne B

    2009-01-01

    The health pessimism hypothesis suggests that Black elders are more pessimistic about health than Whites and therefore tend to report lower self-rated health (SRH) at comparable health status. The current analysis examined the factors associated with SRH and tested the health pessimism hypothesis among older adults at similar levels of physical functioning. The study example included 2,729 Health, Aging, and Body Composition study participants aged 70-79 years. We used hierarchical logistic regression to examine the association between race and SRH while adjusting for demographic, physical health, and psychosocial factors. The analyses were repeated for participants at similar levels of objective functioning to test the health pessimism hypothesis. The association between race and SRH remained independent of physical and psychosocial health variables, with Whites being 3.7 times more likely than Black elders to report favorable SRH. This association was significant at each level of physical functioning and greater at the higher (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5) versus lower (OR = 2.2) levels of functioning. The results suggest greater health pessimism among Black elders and expand previous work by including objective functioning in multidimensional models to deconstruct race variations in the SRH of older adults.

  13. The benefits of introducing electronic health records in residential aged care facilities: a multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiting; Yu, Ping; Shen, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Information and communications technology solutions have been introduced into the residential aged care system in order to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of aged care, however to date, the actual benefits have not been systematically analysed. The aim of this study was to identify the benefits of electronic health records (EHR) in residential aged care services and to examine how the benefits have been achieved. A qualitative interview study was conducted in nine residential aged care facilities (RACFs) belonging to three organisations in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, Australia. A longitudinal investigation after the implementation of the aged care EHR systems was conducted at two data points: January 2009 to December 2009 and December 2010 to February 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 110 care staff members selected through theoretical sampling, representing all levels of care staff who worked in those facilities. Three categories of benefits were perceived by the care staff members according to who gain the benefits: the benefits to individual care staff members, to residents and to the RACFs. The benefits to individual care staff members include an improvement of documentation efficiency, information and knowledge growth as well as empowering the staff; the benefits to residents are an improvement in the quality of individual residents' health records, the higher quality of care and smoother communication between the residents and aged care staff; the RACFs gain an increased ability to manage information and acquire funding, an increase in their ability to control the care quality and improvements in the working environment and educational benefits. Three factors leading to these benefits were examined: the nature of the aged care EHR systems in comparison with paper-based records; the way the systems were used by the staff and one benefit that could lead to another. In this study, EHR

  14. Aging Without Driving: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study, 1993 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moon; Mezuk, Briana

    2013-01-01

    This study characterized older adults who do not drive (former and never drivers) and examined how this group of elders has changed over the past 15 years. Sample included community-living adults aged 70–85 who do not drive from the 1993 Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old Study (N = 1,979) and 2008 Health and Retirement Study (N = 1,119). Chi-square and t-tests were used to assess differences between never and former drivers and between cohorts. Logistic regression was used to examine the predictors of having never driven. The driving status among older adults has improved over the past 15 years as the proportion of never drivers declined from 11% to 2%. However, non-driving has become more concentrated among ethnic minority women, and the gaps in education and net worth between former and never drivers widened over the 15 years. PMID:24860237

  15. Is complexity of work associated with risk of dementia? The Canadian Study of Health And Aging.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Edeltraut; Andel, Ross; Lindsay, Joan; Benounissa, Zohra; Verreault, René; Laurin, Danielle

    2008-04-01

    The authors evaluated the association of complexity of work with data, people, and things with the incidence of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, while adjusting for work-related physical activity. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging is a 10-year population study, from 1991 to 2001, of a representative sample of persons aged 65 years or older. Lifetime job history allowed application of complexity scores and classification of work-related physical activity. Analyses included 3,557 subjects, of whom 400 were incident dementia cases, including 299 with Alzheimer's disease and 93 with vascular dementia. In fully adjusted Cox regression models, high complexity of work with people or things reduced risk of dementia (hazard ratios were 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.98) and 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.52, 0.99), respectively) but not Alzheimer's disease. For vascular dementia, hazard ratios were 0.36 (95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.90) for high complexity of work with people and 0.50 (95% confidence interval: 0.25, 1.00) for high complexity of work with things. Subgroup analyses according to median duration (23 years) of principal occupation showed that associations with complexity varied according to duration of employment. High complexity of work appears to be associated with risk of dementia, but effects may vary according to subtype.

  16. Normative and standardized data for cognitive measures in the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Arango, Silvia; Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the cognitive instrument used in the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) in Mexican individuals aged 60 and over and to provide normative values for the Cross Cultural Cognitive Examination test and its modified versions (CCCE). Materials and methods The CCCE was administered to 5 120 subjects as part of a population-based sample free of neurologic and psychiatric disease from the MHAS 2012 survey. Normative data were generated by age and education for each test in the cognitive instrument as well as for the total cognition score. Pearson correlations and analysis of variance were used to examine the relationship of scores to demographic variables. Results Results present standardized normed scores for eight cognitive domains: orientation, attention, verbal learning memory, verbal recall memory, visuospatial abilities, visual memory, executive function, and numeracy in three education groups within three age groups. Conclusion These highlight the need for population-based norms for the CCCE, which has been used in population-based studies. Demographic factors such as age and education must be considered when interpreting the cognitive measures. PMID:26172239

  17. Buddhist social networks and health in old age: A study in central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sasiwongsaroj, Kwanchit; Wada, Taizo; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Imai, Hissei; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Sakamoto, Ryota; Fujisawa, Michiko; Kimura, Yumi; Chen, Wen-ling; Fukutomi, Eriko; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2015-11-01

    Religious social networks are well known for their capacity to improve individual health, yet the effects of friendship networks within the Buddhist context remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to compare health status and social support in community-dwelling older adults according to their level of Buddhist social network (BSN) involvement, and to examine the association between BSN involvement and functional health among older adults. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 427 Buddhist community-dwelling older adults aged ≥60 years in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. Data were collected from home-based personal interviews using a structured questionnaire. Health status was defined according to the measures of basic and advanced activities of daily living (ADL), the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and subjective quality of life. Perceived social support was assessed across the four dimensions of tangible, belonging, emotional and information support. Multiple logistic regression was used for analysis. Older adults with BSN involvement reported better functional, mental and social health status, and perceived greater social support than those without BSN involvement. In addition, BSN involvement was positively associated with independence in basic and advanced ADL. After adjusting for age, sex, education, income, morbidity and depressive symptoms, BSN showed a strong association with advanced ADL and a weak association with basic ADL. The results show that involvement in BSN could contribute positively to functional health, particularly with regard to advanced ADL. Addressing the need for involvement in these networks by older adults might help delay functional decline and save on healthcare costs. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Seafood types and age-related cognitive decline in the Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard; Kang, Jae H; Cook, Nancy R; Manson, Joann E; Buring, Julie E; Willett, Walter C; Okereke, Olivia I

    2013-10-01

    Seafood consumption may prevent age-related cognitive decline. However, benefits may vary by nutrient contents in different seafood types. We examined associations between total seafood consumption and cognitive decline and whether these associations differ by seafood types. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 5,988 women (mean age, 72 years) from the Women's Health Study who self-reported seafood intake at Women's Health Study baseline and also participated in telephone assessments of general cognition, verbal memory, and category fluency administered 5.6 years after Women's Health Study baseline and 2 and 4 years thereafter. Primary outcomes were standardized composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. After adjusting for potential confounders, different amounts of total seafood consumption were not associated with changes in global cognition (p = .56) or verbal memory (p = .29). Considering seafood types, however, compared with women consuming less than once-weekly tuna or dark-meat finfish, those with once-weekly or higher consumption had significantly better verbal memory (0.079 standard units; p < .01) after 4 years-a difference comparable to that for women 2.1 years apart in age. There was also a statistically nonsignificant suggestion of better global cognition (p = .13) with once-weekly or higher tuna or dark-meat fish consumption. No significant associations were observed for light-meat finfish or shellfish. The relation of seafood to cognition may depend on the types consumed. Total consumption levels of seafood were unrelated to cognitive change. However, consumption of tuna and dark-meat fish once weekly or higher was associated with lower decline in verbal memory for a period of 4 years.

  19. Seafood Types and Age-Related Cognitive Decline in the Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Seafood consumption may prevent age-related cognitive decline. However, benefits may vary by nutrient contents in different seafood types. We examined associations between total seafood consumption and cognitive decline and whether these associations differ by seafood types. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 5,988 women (mean age, 72 years) from the Women’s Health Study who self-reported seafood intake at Women’s Health Study baseline and also participated in telephone assessments of general cognition, verbal memory, and category fluency administered 5.6 years after Women’s Health Study baseline and 2 and 4 years thereafter. Primary outcomes were standardized composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. Results. After adjusting for potential confounders, different amounts of total seafood consumption were not associated with changes in global cognition (p = .56) or verbal memory (p = .29). Considering seafood types, however, compared with women consuming less than once-weekly tuna or dark-meat finfish, those with once-weekly or higher consumption had significantly better verbal memory (0.079 standard units; p < .01) after 4 years—a difference comparable to that for women 2.1 years apart in age. There was also a statistically nonsignificant suggestion of better global cognition (p = .13) with once-weekly or higher tuna or dark-meat fish consumption. No significant associations were observed for light-meat finfish or shellfish. Conclusions. The relation of seafood to cognition may depend on the types consumed. Total consumption levels of seafood were unrelated to cognitive change. However, consumption of tuna and dark-meat fish once weekly or higher was associated with lower decline in verbal memory for a period of 4 years. PMID:23554464

  20. Differences in Health at Age 100 According to Sex: Population-Based Cohort Study of Centenarians Using Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Nisha C; Dregan, Alex; Jackson, Stephen; Gulliford, Martin C

    2015-07-01

    To use primary care electronic health records (EHRs) to evaluate the health of men and women at age 100. Population-based cohort study. Primary care database in the United Kingdom, 1990-2013. Individuals reaching the age of 100 between 1990 and 2013 (N = 11,084, n = 8,982 women, n = 2,102 men). Main categories of morbidity and an index of multiple morbidities, geriatric syndromes and an index of multiple impairments, cardiovascular risk factors. The number of new female centenarians per year increased from 16 per 100,000 in 1990-94 to 25 per 100,000 in 2010-13 (P < .001) and of male centenarians from four per 100,000 to six per 100,000 (P = .06). The most prevalent morbidities at the age of 100 were musculoskeletal diseases, disorders of the senses, and digestive diseases. Women had greater multiple morbidity than men (odds ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.42-1.89, P < .001). Geriatric syndromes, including falls, fractures, hearing and vision impairment, and dementia, were frequent; 30% of women and 49% of men had no recorded geriatric syndromes. Women had greater likelihood of having multiple geriatric syndromes (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.90-2.41, P < .001). Fewer men than women reach the age of 100, but male centenarians have lower morbidity and fewer geriatric syndromes than women. Research using EHRs offers opportunities to understand the epidemiology of aging and improve care of the oldest old. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Hospital Versus Home Death: Results from the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Tovalín-Ahumada, Horacio; Nates, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Context Characterizing where people die is needed to inform palliative care programs in Mexico. Objectives To determine whether access to health care influences the place of death of older Mexicans and examine the modifying effects of demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods We analyzed 2001 baseline and 2003 follow-up data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Cases included adults who completed the baseline interview and died before the follow-up interview and for whom a proxy interview was obtained in 2003. The main outcome variable was the place of death (hospital vs. home). The predictors of the place of death were identified using logistic regression analysis. Results The study group included 473 deceased patients; 52.9% died at home. Factors associated with hospital death were having spent at least one night in a hospital during the last year of life (odds ratio [OR]: 6.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.29, 13.78) and dying in a city other than the city of usual residence (OR: 4.68, 95% CI: 2.56, 8.57). Factors associated with home death were not having health care coverage (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.34, 5.88), living in a city of less than 100,000 residents (OR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.43, 4.17), and older age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05). Conclusion Older Mexicans with access to health care services were more likely to die in the hospital even after controlling for important clinical and demographic characteristics. Findings from the study may be used to plan the provision of accessible end-of-life hospital and home-based services. PMID:21146354

  2. Validation of the FRAIL scale in Mexican elderly: results from the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Díaz de León González, Enrique; Gutiérrez Hermosillo, Hugo; Martinez Beltran, Jesus Avilio; Medina Chavez, Juan Humberto; Palacios Corona, Rebeca; Salinas Garza, Deborah Patricia; Rodriguez Quintanilla, Karina Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The aging population in Latin America is characterized by not optimal conditions for good health, experiencing high burden of comorbidity, which contribute to increase the frequency of frailty; thus, identification should be a priority, to classify patients at high risk to develop its negative consequences. Aim The objective of this analysis was to validate the FRAIL instrument to measure frailty in Mexican elderly population, from the database of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Materials and methods Prospective, population study in Mexico, that included subjects of 60 years and older who were evaluated for the variables of frailty during the year 2001 (first wave of the study). Frailty was measured with the five-item FRAIL scale (fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illnesses, and weight loss). The robust, pre-frail or intermediate, and the frail group were considered when they had zero, one, and at least two components, respectively. Mortality, hospitalizations, falls, and functional dependency were evaluated during 2003 (second wave of the study). Relative risk was calculated for each complications, as well as hazard ratio (for mortality) through Cox regression model and odds ratio with logistic regression (for the rest of the outcomes), adjusted for covariates. Results The state of frailty was independently associated with mortality, hospitalizations, functional dependency, and falls. The pre-frailty state was only independently associated with hospitalizations, functional dependency, and falls. Conclusions Frailty measured through the FRAIL scale, is associated with an increase in the rate of mortality, hospitalizations, dependency in activities of daily life, and falls. PMID:26646253

  3. Evidence for Cognitive Aging in Midlife Women: Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Karlamangla, Arun S.; Lachman, Margie E.; Han, WeiJuan; Huang, MeiHua; Greendale, Gail A.

    2017-01-01

    Although cross-sectional studies suggest that cognitive aging starts in midlife, few longitudinal studies have documented within-individual declines in cognitive performance before the seventh decade. Learning from repeat testing, or practice effects, can mask the decline in younger cohorts. In women, the menopause transition also affects test performance and can confound estimates of underlying decline. We designed this study to determine if, after controlling for practice effects, the menopause transition, and the symptoms associated with it, there is evidence of cognitive aging in midlife women. We used data from a longitudinal observational study in 2,124 participants from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Outcomes examined were scores on annual tests of processing speed, verbal episodic memory (immediate and delayed), and working memory. To reduce the impact of practice effects and of the menopause transition, we used the third cognition testing visit as the baseline. Average age at this baseline was 54 years, and the majority of the women were postmenopausal; half the cohort was 2 or more years beyond the final menstrual period. There were 7,185 cognition assessments with median follow-up time of 6.5 years. In mixed effects regression, adjusted for practice effects, retention, menopause symtoms (depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep disturbance), and covariates, scores on 2 of 4 cognition tests declined. Mean decline in cognitive speed was 0.28 per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.20 to 0.36) or 4.9% in 10 years, and mean decline in verbal episodic memory (delayed testing) was 0.02 per year (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.03) or 2% in 10 years. Our results provide strong, longitudinal evidence of cognitive aging in midlife women, with substantial within-woman declines in processing speed and memory. Further research is needed to identify factors that influence decline rates and to develop interventions that slow cognitive aging. PMID:28045986

  4. Turnaround in an aged persons' mental health service in crisis: a case study of organisational renewal.

    PubMed

    Stafrace, Simon; Lilly, Alan

    2008-08-01

    This case study demonstrates how leadership was harnessed to turn around a decline in the performance of an aged persons' mental health service - the Namarra Nursing Home at Caulfield General Medical Centre in Melbourne, Australia. In 2000 the nursing home faced a crisis of public confidence due to failings in the management of quality, clinical risk and human resources within the service. These problems reflected structural and operational shortcomings in the clinical directorate and wider organisation. In this article, we detail the process of turnaround from the perspective of senior executive managers with professional and operational responsibility for the service. This turnaround required attention to local clinical accountability and transformation of the mental health program from a collocated but operationally isolated service to one integrated within the governance structures of the auspicing organisation.

  5. Canadian study of health and aging: study methods and prevalence of dementia.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of dementia and its subtypes by sex and age group for five regions of Canada. DESIGN: Prevalence survey. SETTING: Community and institutional settings in Canada, excluding those in the two territories, Indian reserves and military units. PARTICIPANTS: Representative sample of people aged 65 and over interviewed between February 1991 and May 1992. Those in the community (9008 subjects) were chosen randomly from medicare lists in nine provinces or from the Enumeration Composite Record in Ontario. People in institutions (1255) were randomly selected from residents in stratified random samples of institutions in each region. INTERVENTIONS: Screening with the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Examination to identify cognitive impairment. Clinical examination of all those in institutions, those in the community with a 3MS score of less than 78 and a sample of those in the community with a 3MS score of 78 or more to diagnose dementia. Dementia and Alzheimer's disease were defined according to established criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of dementia of all types, by region, sex and age group, the estimated number of cases in the population by type of dementia and the age-standardized rate per 1000 population. RESULTS: The prevalence estimates suggested that 252,600 (8.0%) of all Canadians aged 65 and over met the criteria for dementia (95% confidence interval [CI] 236,800 to 268,400). These were divided roughly equally between the community and institutional samples; the female:male ratio was 2:1. The age-standardized rate ranged from 2.4%, among those aged 65 to 74 years, to 34.5%, among those aged 85 and over. The corresponding figures for Alzheimer's disease were 5.1% overall (161,000 cases; 95% CI 148,100 to 173,900), ranging from 1.0% to 26.0%; for vascular dementia it was 1.5% overall, ranging from 0.6% to 4.8%. If the prevalence estimates remain constant, the number of Canadians with dementia will rise to 592,000 by

  6. Muscle weakness is associated with diabetes in older Mexicans: The Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; McGrath, Ryan; Zhang, Peng; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Snih, Soham Al; Wong, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    Background The risk of cardiovascular problems due to diabetes mellitus is highest among older Mexicans, and yet what remains to be determined is the association between muscle weakness and diabetes in this population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the association between muscle strength and diabetes among Mexican adults greater than 50 years old. Design Cross-sectional. Setting National sample of households in both urban and rural areas. Participants A sub-sample of 1,841 individuals, aged 50 years and older, was included from the 2012 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Measurements Strength was assessed using a hand-held dynamometer, and the single largest reading from either hand was normalized to body mass (NGS). Conditional inference tree analyses were used to identify sex-specific NGS weakness thresholds. Linear regression was used to examine the association between NGS and HbA1c, and logistic regression was used to assess the association between weakness and risk of diabetes (HbA1c ≥6.5% [≥48 mmol/mol]), after controlling for age, sex and waist circumference. Results Normalized grip strength was inversely associated with HbA1c (β=−1.56; p<0.001). Optimal sex-specific NGS weakness thresholds to detect diabetes were ≤0.46 and ≤0.30 for men and women respectively. Weakness was associated with significantly increased odds of diabetes (OR: 1.69, 95%CI: 1.37-2.10), even after adjusting for age, sex, and waist circumference. Conclusions NGS was robustly associated with diabetes and other cardiometabolic risk factors in older Mexicans. This simple screen may serve as a valuable tool to identify adults that are at risk for negative health consequences or early mortality, and that might benefit from lifestyle interventions to reduce risk. PMID:27450948

  7. Predictors of Optimal Cognitive Aging in 80+ Women: The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    PubMed

    Goveas, Joseph S; Rapp, Stephen R; Hogan, Patricia E; Driscoll, Ira; Tindle, Hilary A; Smith, J Carson; Kesler, Shelli R; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Rossom, Rebecca C; Ockene, Judith K; Yaffe, Kristine; Manson, JoAnn E; Resnick, Susan M; Espeland, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    Independent predictors of preserved cognitive functioning and factors associated with maintaining high preserved cognitive function in women ≥ 80 years remain elusive. Two thousand two hundred twenty-eight women with a mean age of 85 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study were classified as cognitively normal (n = 1,905, 85.5%), mild cognitive impairment (n = 88, 3.9%), dementia (n = 121, 5.4%) or other cognitive impairment (n = 114, n = 5.1%) by central adjudication. Global cognitive functioning was assessed using telephone interview for cognitive status-modified in those women who did not meet cognitive impairment criteria. Differences between women grouped by cognitive status with respect to each potential risk factor were assessed using chi-squared tests and t-tests. Backward stepwise logistic regression was used to select factors that were independently associated with cognitive status. Factors associated with preserved cognitive functioning were younger age, higher education, and family incomes, being non-Hispanic white, better emotional wellbeing, fewer depressive symptoms, more insomnia complaints, being free of diabetes, and not carrying the apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele. Cognitively normal women who demonstrated sustained high preserved cognition were younger, more educated, and endorsed better self-reported general health, emotional wellbeing, and higher physical functioning. Addressing sociodemographic disparities such as income inequality, and targeting interventions to improve depressive symptoms and vascular risk factors, including diabetes, may play an important role in preserving cognition among women who survive to 80 years of age. Person-centered approaches that combine interventions to improve physical, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning may promote maintenance of high preserved cognitive health in the oldest-old. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological

  8. Predictors of Optimal Cognitive Aging in 80+ Women: The Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Stephen R.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Driscoll, Ira; Tindle, Hilary A.; Smith, J. Carson; Kesler, Shelli R.; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Rossom, Rebecca C.; Ockene, Judith K.; Yaffe, Kristine; Manson, JoAnn E.; Resnick, Susan M.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Independent predictors of preserved cognitive functioning and factors associated with maintaining high preserved cognitive function in women ≥80 years remain elusive. Methods. Two thousand two hundred twenty-eight women with a mean age of 85 years who participated in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study were classified as cognitively normal (n = 1,905, 85.5%), mild cognitive impairment (n = 88, 3.9%), dementia (n = 121, 5.4%) or other cognitive impairment (n = 114, n = 5.1%) by central adjudication. Global cognitive functioning was assessed using telephone interview for cognitive status-modified in those women who did not meet cognitive impairment criteria. Differences between women grouped by cognitive status with respect to each potential risk factor were assessed using chi-squared tests and t-tests. Backward stepwise logistic regression was used to select factors that were independently associated with cognitive status. Results. Factors associated with preserved cognitive functioning were younger age, higher education, and family incomes, being non-Hispanic white, better emotional wellbeing, fewer depressive symptoms, more insomnia complaints, being free of diabetes, and not carrying the apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele. Cognitively normal women who demonstrated sustained high preserved cognition were younger, more educated, and endorsed better self-reported general health, emotional wellbeing, and higher physical functioning. Conclusions. Addressing sociodemographic disparities such as income inequality, and targeting interventions to improve depressive symptoms and vascular risk factors, including diabetes, may play an important role in preserving cognition among women who survive to 80 years of age. Person-centered approaches that combine interventions to improve physical, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning may promote maintenance of high preserved cognitive health in the oldest-old. PMID:26858326

  9. Trajectories of positive aging: observations from the women's health initiative study.

    PubMed

    Zaslavsky, Oleg; Cochrane, Barbara B; Woods, Nancy Fugate; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Liu, Jingmin; Herting, Jerald R; Goveas, Joseph S; Johnson, Karen C; Kuller, Lewis H; Martin, Lisa W; Michael, Yvonne L; Robinson, Jennifer G; Stefanick, Marcia; Tinker, Lesley F

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the longitudinal trajectories and bidirectional relationships of the physical-social and emotional functioning (EF) dimensions of positive aging and to identify their baseline characteristics. Women age 65 and older who enrolled in one or more Women's Health Initiative clinical trials (WHI CTs) and who had positive aging indicators measured at baseline and years 1, 3, 6, and 9 were included in these analyses (N = 2281). Analytic strategies included latent class growth modeling to identify longitudinal trajectories and multinomial logistic regression to examine the effects of baseline predictors on these trajectories. A five-trajectory model was chosen to best represent the data. For Physical-Social Functioning (PSF), trajectory groups included Low Maintainer (8.3%), Mid-Low Improver (10.4%), Medium Decliner (10.7%), Mid-High Maintainer (31.2%), and High Maintainer (39.4%); for EF, trajectories included Low Maintainer (3%), Mid-Low Improver (9%), Medium Decliner (7.7%), Mid-High Maintainer (22.8%), and High Maintainer (57.5%). Cross-classification of the groups of trajectories demonstrated that the impact of a high and stable EF on PSF might be greater than the reverse. Low depression symptoms, low pain, and high social support were the most consistent predictors of high EF trajectories. Aging women are heterogeneous in terms of positive aging indicators for up to 9 years of follow-up. Interventions aimed at promoting sustainable EF might have diffused effects on other domains of healthy aging.

  10. Health-related behaviour in relation to transition into age retirement: An observational study based on HUNT3

    PubMed Central

    Øverland, Simon; Knudsen, Ann K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In western countries, more years are being spent in age retirement. The transition phase into age retirement may be important for physical and mental health in the years following retirement. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether age retirement is associated with changes in the level of physical activity, smoking habits and alcohol habits. Design Using data on self-reported health-related behaviour from a population-based study (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3)) linked to registry data on age retirement, participants who retired within two years prior to and two years after participating in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (N = 2,197) were compared. Participants A total of 2,197 participants were included. Setting Population-based study in Norway. Main outcome measures Registry data on age retirement. Results No systematic differences in alcohol consumption, smoking or physical activity over the strata defined by time before or after age retirement were identified. Conclusion The current and previous findings do not suggest that transition into age retirement changes health-related behaviours. However, there is probably merit in investigating complicating factors related to the retirement process, such as degree of voluntariness, as these factors may influence the impact of age retirement on health behaviours. PMID:28050257

  11. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  12. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  13. Selected psychological characteristics and health behaviors of aging marathon runners: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, W P; Costill, D L

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the health behaviors and psychological characteristics of fifteen male marathon runners who were first tested in 1969 (N = 8) and 1976 (N = 7). The participants in this study averaged 29 years of age at the outset, and the mean age at the time of follow-up was 50 years. These subjects were found to score in the normal range on all of the psychological variables, and they were characterized by the "iceberg" profile described earlier for elite athletes in various sports. This profile includes scores that fall below the population average on mood states such as tension, depression, anger, fatigue and confusion along with above average scores on vigor. Also, the psychological traits of these former runners have been remarkably stable across the past two decades, with the exception that a uniform decline has been observed for the neuroticism measure. Earlier research by Eysenck has shown that neuroticism decreases with age. These former marathon runners continue to be moderately active, and it is noteworthy that they first became involved as runners while in high school. All but one of the participants had attended college, and each had participated in competitive running while in college. Training for marathon competition took place following the college years. It is likely that much of the early success enjoyed by this group was governed to a substantial degree by heredity. This sample possessed an average aerobic power of 70 ml.kg-1.min-1 along with a unique somatotype when first tested, and these factors are known to have a substantial heritability component. The health behaviors studied in this group were uniformly positive. They were found to be physically active, and their physical self-esteem fell above that of other men in their age group. The subjects reported moderate use of alcohol, no insomnia, few physical problems and good overall mood. The sample of former marathon runners described in this report is unique in a number of respects

  14. Paradoxical Trend for Improvement in Mental Health With Aging: A Community-Based Study of 1,546 Adults Aged 21-100 Years.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael L; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Palmer, Barton W; Depp, Colin A; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Glorioso, Danielle K; Thompson, Wesley K; Jeste, Dilip V

    2016-08-01

    Studies of aging usually focus on trajectories of physical and cognitive function, with far less emphasis on overall mental health, despite its impact on general health and mortality. This study examined linear and nonlinear trends of physical, cognitive, and mental health over the entire adult lifespan. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1,546 individuals aged 21-100 years, selected using random digit dialing for the Successful AGing Evaluation (SAGE) study, a structured multicohort investigation that included telephone interviews and in-home surveys of community-based adults without dementia. Data were collected from 1/26/2010 to 10/07/2011 targeting participants aged 50-100 years and from 6/25/2012 to 7/15/2013 targeting participants aged 21-100 years with an emphasis on adding younger individuals. Data included self-report measures of physical health, measures of both positive and negative attributes of mental health, and a phone interview-based measure of cognition. Comparison of age cohorts using polynomial regression suggested a possible accelerated deterioration in physical and cognitive functioning, averaging 1.5 to 2 standard deviations over the adult lifespan. In contrast, there appeared to be a linear improvement of about 1 standard deviation in various attributes of mental health over the same life period. These cross-sectional findings suggest the possibility of a linear improvement in mental health beginning in young adulthood rather than a U-shaped curve reported in some prior studies. Lifespan research combining psychosocial and biological markers may improve our understanding of resilience to mental disability in older age and lead to broad-based interventions promoting mental health in all age groups. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  15. Age and Gender Differences in the Well-Being of Midlife and Aging Parents with Children with Mental Health or Developmental Problems: Report of a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Hong, Jinkuk; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the Study of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), this article examines: (1) the effect of having children with developmental or mental health problems on parents mental and physical health, (2) the extent to which this effect varies by parental age and gender, and (3) the effects of disability-related factors on the well-being of…

  16. Age and Gender Differences in the Well-Being of Midlife and Aging Parents with Children with Mental Health or Developmental Problems: Report of a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Hong, Jinkuk; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the Study of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), this article examines: (1) the effect of having children with developmental or mental health problems on parents mental and physical health, (2) the extent to which this effect varies by parental age and gender, and (3) the effects of disability-related factors on the well-being of…

  17. Comparative health system performance in six middle-income countries: cross-sectional analysis using World Health Organization study of global ageing and health.

    PubMed

    Alshamsan, Riyadh; Lee, John Tayu; Rana, Sangeeta; Areabi, Hasan; Millett, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Objective To assess and compare health system performance across six middle-income countries that are strengthening their health systems in pursuit of universal health coverage. Design Cross-sectional analysis from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health, collected between 2007 and 2010. Setting Six middle-income countries: China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Participants Nationally representative sample of adults aged 50 years and older. Main outcome measures We present achievement against key indicators of health system performance across effectiveness, cost, access, patient-centredness and equity domains. Results We found areas of poor performance in prevention and management of chronic conditions, such as hypertension control and cancer screening coverage. We also found that cost remains a barrier to healthcare access in spite of insurance schemes. Finally, we found evidence of disparities across many indicators, particularly in the effectiveness and patient centredness domains. Conclusions These findings identify important focus areas for action and shared learning as these countries move towards achieving universal health coverage.

  18. Health information literacy in everyday life: a study of Finns aged 65-79 years.

    PubMed

    Eriksson-Backa, Kristina; Ek, Stefan; Niemelä, Raimo; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the health information literacy of elderly Finns. The results are based on a survey conducted in January 2011. The questionnaire was distributed to 1000 persons that were randomly drawn from the Finnish Population Register. The respondents were aged 65-79 years (mean age 70 years) and lived in the Turku region in Finland. A total of 281 questionnaires (28%) were returned. χ(2) analyses were used to find possible relationships between demographic factors, as well as interest, seeking activity, current self-rated health and different dimensions of health information literacy, including needs, seeking and use of health-related information. Significant relationships were found between education level, interest in health information, seeking activity, self-rated current health and dimensions of health information literacy. Some categories of elderly people are more vulnerable regarding obtaining and use of health information: those with lower levels of education, those with poor health, and those who are not interested in and active at seeking information. For people who are found in any of these categories, it is important that available health-related information is understandable and can be accessed without too much effort-something that information providers should take into account.

  19. The value of time in longitudinal studies of ageing. Lessons from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Byles, Julie E; Dobson, Annette

    2011-10-01

    The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) involves three cohorts of women born in 1921-1926, 1946-1951 and 1973-1978, who have been surveyed every 3 years since 1996. We describe how the 1921-1926 cohort have changed over time. We also describe trends in health risks among the younger cohorts, providing an indication of future health threats. By Survey 5, 28.4% of the 1921-1926 cohort had died. Among those who survived and remained in the study, 61% maintained high physical function scores over time. Chronic conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, heart disease and stroke were associated with lower physical function scores and decline in scores over time. ALSWH will continue to provide information on changes in health and health service use as we follow the oldest cohort through their 90 s, and as younger cohorts accumulate increasing burden of disease and disability as they age. © 2011 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2011 ACOTA.

  20. Weight gain among elderly women as risk factor for disability: Health, Well-being and Aging Study (SABE Study).

    PubMed

    Corona, Ligiana Pires; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2013-02-01

    To examine the association between weight change and the incidence of disability in activities of daily living (ADL) among elderly women. In 2006, 227 women aged ≥75 years and independent in ADL were selected from SABE Study (Health, Well-being, and Aging) in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The dependent variable was the report of difficulty on ≥1 ADL in 2009. Differences in weight were calculated between baseline and second interview, and converted to percentage change in relation to initial weight. A change (gain or loss) ≥5% was considered significant. A logistic regression analysis was performed including sociodemographic and health-related variables. After adjusting, weight gain remained associated to disability (OR = 2.42; p = .027), whereas weigh loss lost significance (OR = 1.66; p = .384). Weight loss is generally considered more worrisome than weight gain in elderly. However, weight loss alone was not a risk factor for disability in our study.

  1. Dietary Antioxidants and FEV1 Decline: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Amy R; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Harris, Tamara B; Holvoet, Paul; Jensen, Robert L; Newman, Anne B; Lee, Jung Sun; Yende, Sachin; Bauer, Doug; Cassano, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    Increased antioxidant defenses are hypothesized to decrease age- and smoking-related decline in lung function. The relation of dietary antioxidants, smoking, and forced expiratory volume in the 1st second of effort (FEV1) was investigated in community-dwelling older adults in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. 1,443 participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, self-reported smoking history, and had measurements of FEV1 at both baseline and after 4 years of follow-up. The association of dietary intake of nutrients and foods with antioxidant properties and rate of FEV1 decline was investigated using hierarchical linear regression models. In continuing smokers (current smokers at both time points), higher vitamin C and higher intake of fruits and vegetables were associated with an 18 and 24 ml/year slower rate of FEV1 decline compared to lower intake (P<0.0001 and 0.003, respectively). In quitters (current smoker at study baseline, quit during follow-up), higher intake was associated with an attenuated rate of decline for each nutrient studied (p<0.003, all models). In non-smoking participants, there was little or no association of diet and rate of decline in FEV1. The intake of nutrients with antioxidant properties may modulate lung function decline in older adults exposed to cigarette smoke. PMID:22005919

  2. Register-based data indicated nonparticipation bias in a health study among aging people.

    PubMed

    Nummela, Olli; Sulander, Tommi; Helakorpi, Satu; Haapola, Ilkka; Uutela, Antti; Heinonen, Heikki; Valve, Raisa; Fogelholm, Mikael

    2011-12-01

    To examine nonparticipation in a survey by linking it with register information and identify potential nonresponse bias of inequalities in health status among aging people. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey with clinical checkups carried out in 2002 among persons born in 1926-1930, 1936-1940, and 1946-1950 in Southern Finland. The sample was linked with register information from Statistics Finland and analyzed in terms of participation and health status as measured by medicine reimbursements. Participation in the survey was more frequent among those who were older, female, married or cohabiting, higher educated and nonurban residents, and those with higher income and moderate health. Among nonrespondents, women were less healthy than men, whereas among respondents, the results were reversed. Among nonrespondents, better income was associated with unfavorable health. Poor health was generally more common among nonrespondents than respondents in several subgroups. Differences in response rates were found in sociodemographic factors, health, and socioeconomic position. Favorable health was generally more frequent among respondents than nonrespondents. In particular, health inequalities by gender and income differed between respondents and nonrespondents. Thus, nonresponse may lead to bias in analyses of health inequalities among aging people. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults: findings from the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Wong, Rebeca; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence and determinants of prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Methods We examined 2012 participants from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Measures included sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, central obesity, medical conditions, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and vitamin D. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and self-reported diabetes. Results Prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed, and self-reported diabetes in this cohort was 44.2%, 18.0%, and 21.4%, respectively. Participants with high waist-hip ratio (1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05–2.45) and high cholesterol (1.85, 95% CI = 1.36–2.51) had higher odds of prediabetes. Overweight (1.68, 95% CI = 1.07–2.64), obesity (2.38, 95% CI = 1.41–4.02), and high waist circumference (1.60, 95% CI = 1.06–2.40) were significantly associated with higher odds of having undiagnosed diabetes. Those residing in a Mexican state with high U.S. migration had lower odds of prediabetes (0.61, 95% CI = 0.45–0.82) and undiagnosed diabetes (0.53, 95% CI = 0.41–0.70). Those engaged in regular physical activity had lower odds of undiagnosed diabetes (0.74, 95% CI = 0.57–0.97). Conclusions There is a high prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes among Mexican adults in this subsample. Findings suggest the need for resources to prevent, identify, and treat persons with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes. PMID:26872919

  4. Prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults: findings from the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Wong, Rebeca; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence and determinants of prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. We examined 2012 participants from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Measures included sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, central obesity, medical conditions, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and vitamin D. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and self-reported diabetes. Prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed, and self-reported diabetes in this cohort was 44.2%, 18.0%, and 21.4%, respectively. Participants with high waist-hip ratio (1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.45) and high cholesterol (1.85, 95% CI = 1.36-2.51) had higher odds of prediabetes. Overweight (1.68, 95% CI = 1.07-2.64), obesity (2.38, 95% CI = 1.41-4.02), and high waist circumference (1.60, 95% CI = 1.06-2.40) were significantly associated with higher odds of having undiagnosed diabetes. Those residing in a Mexican state with high U.S. migration had lower odds of prediabetes (0.61, 95% CI = 0.45-0.82) and undiagnosed diabetes (0.53, 95% CI = 0.41-0.70). Those engaged in regular physical activity had lower odds of undiagnosed diabetes (0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.97). There is a high prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes among Mexican adults in this subsample. Findings suggest the need for resources to prevent, identify, and treat persons with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in dementia: the Canadian Study of Health and Aging.

    PubMed

    Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc; Ayotte, Pierre; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Kröger, Edeltraut; Verreault, René; Lindsay, Joan; Dewailly, Éric; Tyas, Suzanne L; Bureau, Alexandre; Laurin, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    Even though polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides are recognized as neurotoxicants, few studies have investigated their associations with dementia. Here, we assess associations of plasma PCB and OC pesticide concentrations with all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Analyses are based on data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a population-based study of men and women aged 65+ years at baseline. PCB and OC pesticide concentrations were measured in 2023 participants who had complete clinical evaluations and blood samples; 574 had dementia, including 399 cases of AD. Concentrations were log-transformed and used as continuous variables in logistic regression models to assess their individual associations with dementia and AD. After adjustment for blood collection period, total plasma lipids, age, sex, education, apolipoprotein E e4 allele (ApoE4), tobacco and alcohol use, rural/urban residence, and comorbidities, elevated plasma PCB concentrations were not associated with increased prevalence of dementia and AD. Elevated concentrations of some OC pesticides and metabolites such as hexachlorobenzene, cis-nonachlor and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane were significantly associated with a reduced prevalence of dementia. A significant reduced prevalence of AD was also observed with elevated hexachlorobenzene concentrations. Other OC pesticides and metabolites were not associated with the prevalence of dementia or AD. No effect modification by sex and ApoE4 was observed for either dementia or AD. Elevated plasma PCB and OC pesticide concentrations were not associated with higher prevalence of all-cause dementia and AD. The possibility of modest reductions in prevalence with specific OC pesticides remains to be further investigated given the cross-sectional design of this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants of health-related quality of life in school-aged children: a general population study in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Houben-van Herten, Marieke; Bai, Guannan; Hafkamp, Esther; Landgraf, Jeanne M; Raat, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Health related quality of life is the functional effect of a medical condition and/or its therapy upon a patient, and as such is particularly suitable for describing the general health of children. The objective of this study was to identify and confirm potential determinants of health-related quality of life in children aged 4-11 years in the general population in the Netherlands. Understanding such determinants may provide insights into more targeted public health policy. As part of a population based cross sectional study, the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) Parental Form 28 was used to measure health-related quality of life in school-aged children in a general population sample. Parents of 10,651 children aged 4-11 years were interviewed from January 2001 to December 2009. Multivariate and regression analyses demonstrated a declined CHQ Physical Summary score for children who had >1 conditions, disorders or acute health complaints and who were greater consumers of healthcare; children with a non-western immigrant background; and children whose parents did not work. Lower CHQ Psychosocial Summary score was reported for children who had >1 conditions, disorders or acute health complaints, boys, children of single parents and obese children. The best predictors of health-related quality of life are variables that describe use of health care and the number of disorders and health complaints. Nonetheless, a number of demographic, socio-economic and family/environmental determinants contribute to a child's health-related quality of life as well.

  7. Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A

    2015-02-14

    Subjective wellbeing and health are closely linked to age. Three aspects of subjective wellbeing can be distinguished-evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, anger, stress, and pain), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in the specialty of psychological wellbeing, and present new analyses about the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, a continuing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relation between evaluative wellbeing and age in high-income, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing in ages 45-54 years. But this pattern is not universal. For example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe show a large progressive reduction in wellbeing with age, respondents from Latin America also shows decreased wellbeing with age, whereas wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relation between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people with illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis, and chronic lung disease show both increased levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing might also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we identify that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with increased survival; 29·3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died during the average follow-up period of 8·5 years compared with 9·3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, sex, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of elderly people is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Present psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in patterns

  8. Psychological wellbeing, health and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Psychological wellbeing and health are closely linked at older ages. Three aspects of psychological wellbeing can be distinguished: evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, etc), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in this field, and present new analyses concerning the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, an ongoing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relationship between evaluative wellbeing and age in rich, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing around ages 45-54. But this pattern is not universal: for example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe show a large progressive decline in wellbeing with age; Latin America also shows falling wellbeing with age, while wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relationship between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people suffering from illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis and chronic lung disease show both raised levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing may also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an illustrative analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we find that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with longer survival; 29.3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died over the average follow-up period of 8.5 years compared with 9.3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, gender, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of the elderly is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Current psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in pattern of wellbeing with age across

  9. Weight Change and Cognitive Function: Findings from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Ira; Espeland, Mark A.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Ding, Jingzhong; Granek, Iris; Ockene, Judith K.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Yaffe, Kristine; Resnick, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2283 older, post-menopausal women (age 65-79) prospectively followed through the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA). We assessed the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference collected up to 5 years prior to WHISCA enrollment and mean levels of global and domain-specific cognitive performance across an average of 5.4 years of subsequent follow-up. There was a lack of associations between weight and cognition in women who remained stable or gained weight. The only significant relationships observed were in association with weight loss (p≤0.05), most likely signaling incipient disease. Moreover, cognition was not related to changes in waist circumference. Relationships were largely independent of initial BMI, self-reported caloric intake or dieting. The lack of associations between weight gain and cognition in women is consistent with the existent literature. PMID:21394095

  10. SABE Colombia: Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Colombia—Study Design and Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Corchuelo, Jairo; Curcio, Carmen-Lucia; Calzada, Maria-Teresa; Mendez, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design of the SABE Colombia study. The major health study of the old people in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in LAC, SABE (from initials in Spanish: SAlud, Bienestar & Envejecimiento). Methods. The SABE Colombia is a population-based cross-sectional study on health, aging, and well-being of elderly individuals aged at least 60 years focusing attention on social determinants of health inequities. Methods and design were similar to original LAC SABE. The total sample size of the study at the urban and rural research sites (244 municipalities) was 23.694 elderly Colombians representative of the total population. The study had three components: (1) a questionnaire covering active aging determinants including anthropometry, blood pressure measurement, physical function, and biochemical and hematological measures; (2) a subsample survey among family caregivers; (3) a qualitative study with gender and cultural perspectives of quality of life to understand different dimensions of people meanings. Conclusions. The SABE Colombia is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary study of the elderly with respect to active aging determinants. The results of this study are intended to inform public policies aimed at tackling health inequalities for the aging society in Colombia. PMID:27956896

  11. SABE Colombia: Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Colombia-Study Design and Protocol.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Fernando; Corchuelo, Jairo; Curcio, Carmen-Lucia; Calzada, Maria-Teresa; Mendez, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design of the SABE Colombia study. The major health study of the old people in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging in LAC, SABE (from initials in Spanish: SAlud, Bienestar & Envejecimiento). Methods. The SABE Colombia is a population-based cross-sectional study on health, aging, and well-being of elderly individuals aged at least 60 years focusing attention on social determinants of health inequities. Methods and design were similar to original LAC SABE. The total sample size of the study at the urban and rural research sites (244 municipalities) was 23.694 elderly Colombians representative of the total population. The study had three components: (1) a questionnaire covering active aging determinants including anthropometry, blood pressure measurement, physical function, and biochemical and hematological measures; (2) a subsample survey among family caregivers; (3) a qualitative study with gender and cultural perspectives of quality of life to understand different dimensions of people meanings. Conclusions. The SABE Colombia is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary study of the elderly with respect to active aging determinants. The results of this study are intended to inform public policies aimed at tackling health inequalities for the aging society in Colombia.

  12. Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Cognitive Aging in the Northern Manhattan Study.

    PubMed

    Gardener, Hannah; Wright, Clinton B; Dong, Chuanhui; Cheung, Ken; DeRosa, Janet; Nannery, Micaela; Stern, Yaakov; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L

    2016-03-16

    The American Heart Association defined target levels for 7 cardiovascular health (CVH) factors: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose. We hypothesized that a greater number of American Heart Association ideal CVH metrics would be associated with less decline in cognitive performance in our multiethnic population. A subsample from the population-based Northern Manhattan Study underwent repeated neuropsychological testing (mean interval 6±2 years). Domain-specific Z scores were derived by using factor analysis for the domains of Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, Executive Function, and Processing Speed, based on initial performance and decline over time. Linear regression models were constructed to examine the relationship between the number of ideal CVH metrics at enrollment with later cognitive performance and decline, adjusting for sociodemographics and magnetic resonance imaging brain markers. Among 1033 participants (mean age at initial cognitive assessment 72±8 years, 39% male, 19% black, 16% white, 65% Hispanic; n=722 with repeat testing), 3% had 0 ideal factors, 15% had 1 factor, 33% had 2 factors, 30% had 3 factors, 14% had 4 factors, 4% had 5 factors, 1% had 6 factors, and 0% had 7 factors. An increasing number of ideal CVH factors was associated with better processing speed at initial assessment and less decline. The association was driven by nonsmoking and glucose. Among those with better cognitive performance at initial assessment, positive associations were observed between the number of ideal CVH factors and less decline in the domains of Executive Function and Episodic Memory. The number of ideal CVH metrics was associated with less decline in the domains of Processing Speed and, to a lesser extent, of Executive Function and Episodic Memory. Ideal CVH promotion benefits brain health and cognitive aging. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley

  13. Food insecurity and health: data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Emily A; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Goulet, Joseph; Bryant, Kendall; Gibert, Cynthia; Leaf, David A; Mattocks, Kristin; Fiellin, Lynn E; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Justice, Amy C; Fiellin, David A

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity may be a modifiable and independent risk factor for worse control of medical conditions, but it has not been explored among veterans. We determined the prevalence of, and factors independently associated with, food insecurity among veterans in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). Using data from VACS from 2002-2008, we determined the prevalence of food insecurity among veterans who have accessed health care in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) as defined by "concern about having enough food for you or your family in the past month." We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors independently associated with food insecurity and tests of trend to measure the association between food insecurity and control of hypertension, diabetes, HIV, and depression. Of the 6,709 veterans enrolled in VACS, 1,624 (24%) reported being food insecure. Food insecurity was independently associated with being African American, earning <$25,000/year, recent homelessness, marijuana use, and depression. Being food insecure was also associated with worse control of hypertension, diabetes, HIV, and depression (p<0.001). Food insecurity is prevalent and associated with worse control of medical conditions among veterans who have accessed care in the VA.

  14. Food Insecurity and Health: Data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Goulet, Joseph; Bryant, Kendall; Gibert, Cynthia; Leaf, David A.; Mattocks, Kristin; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Justice, Amy C.; Fiellin, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Food insecurity may be a modifiable and independent risk factor for worse control of medical conditions, but it has not been explored among veterans. We determined the prevalence of, and factors independently associated with, food insecurity among veterans in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). Methods Using data from VACS from 2002–2008, we determined the prevalence of food insecurity among veterans who have accessed health care in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) as defined by “concern about having enough food for you or your family in the past month.” We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors independently associated with food insecurity and tests of trend to measure the association between food insecurity and control of hypertension, diabetes, HIV, and depression. Results Of the 6,709 veterans enrolled in VACS, 1,624 (24%) reported being food insecure. Food insecurity was independently associated with being African American, earning <$25,000/year, recent homelessness, marijuana use, and depression. Being food insecure was also associated with worse control of hypertension, diabetes, HIV, and depression (p<0.001). Conclusion Food insecurity is prevalent and associated with worse control of medical conditions among veterans who have accessed care in the VA. PMID:25931630

  15. Calf circumference predicts mobility disability: A secondary analysis of the Mexican health and ageing study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, M.U.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calf circumference is a surrogate measurement of muscle mass. However, there is scarce evidence on its validity in predicting adverse outcomes such as mobility disability. The aim of this report is to determine if calf circumference could predict incident mobility disability in Mexican 60-year or older adults. Methods This is a secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study and in particular of its two first waves. Sixty-year or older adults without mobility disability in the first assessment were included and followed-up for two years. Calf circumference quartile groups were compared to test the difference of incident mobility disability. Logistic regression models were fitted to test the independent association when including confounding variables. Results A total of 745 older adults were assessed, from which 24.4% of the older adults developed mobility disability at follow-up. A calf circumference > 38 cm was associated with a higher risk of developing mobility disability, even after adjustment in the multivariate model, with an odds ratio 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.31–0.99, P = 0.049). Conclusions High calf circumference in Mexican older adults is independently associated with incident mobility disability. This could reflect the impact of adverse health conditions such as obesity (with high fat tissue) or edema. Further research should aim at testing these results in different populations. PMID:27656259

  16. Distinct age and self-rated health crossover mortality effects for African Americans: Evidence from a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roth, David L; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Crews, Deidra C; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L

    2016-05-01

    The predictive effects of age and self-rated health (SRH) on all-cause mortality are known to differ across race and ethnic groups. African American adults have higher mortality rates than Whites at younger ages, but this mortality disparity diminishes with advancing age and may "crossover" at about 75-80 years of age, when African Americans may show lower mortality rates. This pattern of findings reflects a lower overall association between age and mortality for African Americans than for Whites, and health-related mechanisms are typically cited as the reason for this age-based crossover mortality effect. However, a lower association between poor SRH and mortality has also been found for African Americans than for Whites, and it is not known if the reduced age and SRH associations with mortality for African Americans reflect independent or overlapping mechanisms. This study examined these two mortality predictors simultaneously in a large epidemiological study of 12,181 African Americans and 17,436 Whites. Participants were 45 or more years of age when they enrolled in the national REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study between 2003 and 2007. Consistent with previous studies, African Americans had poorer SRH than Whites even after adjusting for demographic and health history covariates. Survival analysis models indicated statistically significant and independent race*age, race*SRH, and age*SRH interaction effects on all-cause mortality over an average 9-year follow-up period. Advanced age and poorer SRH were both weaker mortality risk factors for African Americans than for Whites. These two effects were distinct and presumably tapped different causal mechanisms. This calls into question the health-related explanation for the age-based mortality crossover effect and suggests that other mechanisms, including behavioral, social, and cultural factors, should be considered in efforts to better understand the age-based mortality

  17. Inflammatory markers and incident heart failure risk in older adults: the Health ABC (Health, Aging, and Body Composition) study.

    PubMed

    Kalogeropoulos, Andreas; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki; Psaty, Bruce M; Rodondi, Nicolas; Smith, Andrew L; Harrison, David G; Liu, Yongmei; Hoffmann, Udo; Bauer, Douglas C; Newman, Anne B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Harris, Tamara B; Butler, Javed

    2010-05-11

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between inflammation and heart failure (HF) risk in older adults. Inflammation is associated with HF risk factors and also directly affects myocardial function. The association of baseline serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and C-reactive protein (CRP) with incident HF was assessed with Cox models among 2,610 older persons without prevalent HF enrolled in the Health ABC (Health, Aging, and Body Composition) study (age 73.6 +/- 2.9 years; 48.3% men; 59.6% white). During follow-up (median 9.4 years), HF developed in 311 (11.9%) participants. In models controlling for clinical characteristics, ankle-arm index, and incident coronary heart disease, doubling of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and CRP concentrations was associated with 29% (95% confidence interval: 13% to 47%; p < 0.001), 46% (95% confidence interval: 17% to 84%; p = 0.001), and 9% (95% confidence interval: -1% to 24%; p = 0.087) increase in HF risk, respectively. In models including all 3 markers, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but not CRP, remained significant. These associations were similar across sex and race and persisted in models accounting for death as a competing event. Post-HF ejection fraction was available in 239 (76.8%) cases; inflammatory markers had stronger association with HF with preserved ejection fraction. Repeat IL-6 and CRP determinations at 1-year follow-up did not provide incremental information. Addition of IL-6 to the clinical Health ABC HF model improved model discrimination (C index from 0.717 to 0.734; p = 0.001) and fit (decreased Bayes information criterion by 17.8; p < 0.001). Inflammatory markers are associated with HF risk among older adults and may improve HF risk stratification. Copyright 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Social Capital as a Determinant of Self-Rated Health in Women of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Baheiraei, Azam; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Bakouei, Sareh; Eskandari, Narges; Ahmari Tehran, Hoda

    2015-07-19

    Recognition of the factors related to women's health is necessary. Evidence is available that the social structure including social capital plays an important role in the shaping people's health. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between self-rated health and social capital in women of reproductive age. This study is a population-based cross-sectional survey on 770 women of reproductive age, residing in any one of the 22 municipality areas across Tehran (capital of Iran) with the multi stage sampling technique. Self-rated health (Dependent variable), social capital (Independent variable) and covariates were studied. Analysis of data was done by one-way ANOVA test and multiple linear regressions. Depending on logistic regression analyses, the significant associations were found between self-rated health and age, educational level, crowding index, sufficiency of income for expenses and social cohesion. Data show that women with higher score in social cohesion as an outcome dimension of social capital have better self-rated health (PV = 0.001). Given the findings of this study, the dimensions of social capital manifestations (groups and networks, trust and solidarity, collective action and cooperation) can potentially lead to the dimensions of social capital outcomes (social cohesion and inclusion, and empowerment and political action). Following that, social cohesion as a dimension of social capital outcomes has positively relationship with self- rated health after controlling covariates. Therefore, it is required to focus on the social capital role on health promotion and health policies.

  19. Pesticide Use and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Martha P; Postel, Eric; Umbach, David M; Richards, Marie; Watson, Mary; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei; Sandler, Dale P; Schmidt, Silke; Kamel, Freya

    2017-07-19

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in developed countries. Few studies have investigated its relationship to environmental neurotoxicants. In previous cross-sectional studies, we found an association between pesticide use and self-reported retinal degeneration. We evaluated the association of pesticide use with physician-confirmed incident AMD. The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses enrolled from 1993-1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Cohort members reported lifetime use of 50 specific pesticides at enrollment. Self-reports of incident AMD during follow-up through 2007 were confirmed by reports from participants' physicians and by independent evaluation of retinal photographs provided by the physicians. Confirmed cases (n=161) were compared with AHS cohort members without AMD (n=39,108). We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by logistic regression with adjustment for age, gender, and smoking. AMD was associated with ever use of organochlorine [OR=2.7 (95% CI: 1.8, 4.0)] and organophosphate [OR=2.0 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.0)] insecticides and phenoxyacetate herbicides [OR=1.9 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.8)]. Specific pesticides consistently associated with AMD included chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), malathion, and captan; others with notable but slightly less consistent associations were heptachlor, diazinon, phorate, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Results were similar for men and women. Some specific pesticides were associated with both early- and late-stage AMD, but others were associated with only one stage. Exposures to specific pesticides may be modifiable risk factors for AMD. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP793.

  20. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia: the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people Methods A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH) - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively). Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively). No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion The results suggest a consistent association among people with subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. PMID:20515500

  1. Social engagement and health in younger, older, and oldest-old adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Walker, Erin Jackson; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Volaufova, Julia; LaMotte, Lynn R; Welsh, David A; Su, L Joseph; Jazwinski, S Michal; Ellis, Rebecca; Wood, Robert H; Frisard, Madlyn I

    2013-02-01

    Social support has been shown to influence health outcomes in later life. In this study, we focus on social engagement as an umbrella construct that covers select social behaviors in a life span sample that included oldest-old adults, a segment of the adult population for whom very little data currently exist. We examined relationships among social engagement, positive health behaviors, and physical health to provide new evidence that addresses gaps in the extant literature concerning social engagement and healthy aging in very old adults. Participants were younger (21-59 years), older (60-89 years), and oldest-old (90-97 years) adults (N = 364) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Linear regression analyses indicated that age, gender, and hours spent outside of the house were significantly associated with self-reported health. The number of clubs and hours outside of home were more important factors in the analyses of objective health status than positive health behaviors, after considering age group and education level. These data strongly suggest that social engagement remains an important determinant of physical health into very late adulthood. The discussion focuses on practical applications of these results including social support interventions to maintain or improve late-life health.

  2. Swedish parents' activities together with their children and children's health: a study of children aged 2-17 years.

    PubMed

    Berntsson, Leeni T; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2014-11-01

    Nordic children's health has declined. Studies show that parents' engagement in children's leisure-time activities might provide beneficial health outcomes for children. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between Swedish parents' activities together with their children, the parents' experiences of time pressure and their children's health. Data of 1461 Swedish children aged 2-17 years old that were collected in the NordChild study of 2011 were used. We analyzed physical health, diseases and disabilities, psychosomatic health and well-being, and the parents' experiences of time pressure; and we calculated the associations between parental activity together with the child and health indicators. Activities that were significantly and positively associated with children's health at ages 2-17 years of age were: playing and playing games; going to the cinema, theatre, and sporting events; reading books; playing musical instruments/singing; sports activities; watching TV/video/DVD. Playing video games or computer games, driving child to activities and going for walks were significantly and positively associated at age groups 7-12 years and 13-17 years. Activities that were negatively associated with health were: surfing/blogging on the Internet, going shopping and doing homework. Parents who were not experiencing time pressures had a higher level of activity together with their children. The parental experience of time pressure was associated with work time, with less homework activity and more symptoms in children. The family and home are important settings for the development of children's health we found eight parental activities together with their children that promoted the children's health parents' working time and their time pressure experiences affected their activities with their children there is a need for an increased focus on parental activities that are positively associated with children's health. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of

  3. Visual impairment and incident mobility limitations: the health, aging and body composition study.

    PubMed

    Swenor, Bonnielin K; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Newman, Anne B; Rubin, Susan; Wilson, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between multiple measures of visual impairment (VI) and incident mobility limitations in older adults. Prospective observational cohort study. Memphis, Tennessee, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Health, Aging and Body Composition study participants aged 70 to 79 without mobility limitations at the Year 3 visit (N = 1,862). Vision was measured at the Year 3 visit, and VI was defined as distance visual acuity (VA) worse than 20/40, contrast sensitivity (CS) less than 1.55 log Contrast, and stereoacuity (SA) greater than 85 arcsec. Incident persistent walking and stair climbing limitation was defined as two consecutive 6-month reports of any difficulty walking one-quarter of a mile or walking up 10 steps after 1, 3, and 5 years of follow-up. At Year 3 (baseline for these analyses), 7.4% had impaired VA, 27.2% had impaired CS, and 29.2% had impaired SA. At all follow-up times, the incidence of walking and stair climbing limitations was higher in participants with VA, CS, or SA impairment. After 5 years, impaired CS and SA were independently associated with greater risk of walking limitation (hazard ratio (HR)CS = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-1.7; HRSA = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6) and stair climbing limitation (HRCS = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8; HRSA = 1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.7). Having impaired CS and SA was associated with greater risk of mobility limitations (HRwalking limitations = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.6-2.5; HRstair limitation = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.6-2.8). Multiple aspects of VI may contribute to mobility limitations in older adults. Addressing more than one component of vision may be needed to reduce the effect of vision impairment on functional decline. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Association between Soluble Klotho and Change in Kidney Function: The Health Aging and Body Composition Study.

    PubMed

    Drew, David A; Katz, Ronit; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Ix, Joachim; Shlipak, Michael; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Newman, Anne; Hoofnagle, Andy; Fried, Linda; Semba, Richard D; Sarnak, Mark

    2017-06-01

    CKD appears to be a condition of soluble klotho deficiency. Despite known associations between low soluble klotho levels and conditions that promote kidney damage, such as oxidative stress and fibrosis, little information exists regarding the longitudinal association between soluble klotho levels and change in kidney function. We assayed serum soluble α-klotho in 2496 participants within the Health Aging and Body Composition study, a cohort of older adults. The associations between soluble klotho levels and decline in kidney function (relative decline: eGFR decline ≥30%; absolute decline: eGFR decline >3 ml/min per year) and incident CKD (incident eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and >1 ml/min per year decline) were evaluated. We adjusted models for demographics, baseline eGFR, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, comorbidity, and measures of mineral metabolism. Among participants, the mean (SD) age was 75 (3) years, 52% were women, and 38% were black. Median (25th, 75th percentiles) klotho level was 630 (477, 817) pg/ml. In fully adjusted models, each two-fold higher level of klotho associated with lower odds of decline in kidney function (odds ratio, 0.78 [95% confidence interval, 0.66 to 0.93] for 30% decline in eGFR, and 0.85 [95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.98] for >3 ml/min per year decline in eGFR), but not of incident CKD (incident rate ratio, 0.90 [95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.04]). Overall, a higher soluble klotho level independently associated with a lower risk of decline in kidney function. Future studies should attempt to replicate these results in other cohorts and evaluate the underlying mechanism. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Bicarbonate Concentration, Acid-Base Status, and Mortality in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Rachel A.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Huston, Hunter K.; Sebastian, Anthony; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.; Patel, Kushang V.; Newman, Anne B.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Ix, Joachim H.; Fried, Linda F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Low serum bicarbonate associates with mortality in CKD. This study investigated the associations of bicarbonate and acid-base status with mortality in healthy older individuals. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We analyzed data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, a prospective study of well functioning black and white adults ages 70–79 years old from 1997. Participants with arterialized venous blood gas measurements (n=2287) were grouped into <23.0 mEq/L (low), 23.0–27.9 mEq/L (reference group), and ≥28.0 mEq/L (high) bicarbonate categories and according to acid-base status. Survival data were collected through February of 2014. Mortality hazard ratios (HRs; 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) in the low and high bicarbonate groups compared with the reference group were determined using Cox models adjusted for demographics, eGFR, albuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking, and systemic pH. Similarly adjusted Cox models were performed according to acid-base status. Results The mean age was 76 years, 51% were women, and 38% were black. Mean pH was 7.41, mean bicarbonate was 25.1 mEq/L, 11% had low bicarbonate, and 10% had high bicarbonate. Mean eGFR was 82.1 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 12% had CKD. Over a mean follow-up of 10.3 years, 1326 (58%) participants died. Compared with the reference group, the mortality HRs were 1.24 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.49) in the low bicarbonate and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.26) in the high bicarbonate categories. Compared with the normal acid-base group, the mortality HRs were 1.17 (95% CI, 0.94 to 1.47) for metabolic acidosis, 1.21 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.46) for respiratory alkalosis, and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.69) for metabolic alkalosis categories. Respiratory acidosis did not associate with mortality. Conclusions In generally healthy older individuals, low serum bicarbonate associated with higher mortality independent of systemic pH and potential confounders. This

  6. Bicarbonate Concentration, Acid-Base Status, and Mortality in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Kalani L; Murphy, Rachel A; Shlipak, Michael G; Satterfield, Suzanne; Huston, Hunter K; Sebastian, Anthony; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Patel, Kushang V; Newman, Anne B; Sarnak, Mark J; Ix, Joachim H; Fried, Linda F

    2016-02-05

    Low serum bicarbonate associates with mortality in CKD. This study investigated the associations of bicarbonate and acid-base status with mortality in healthy older individuals. We analyzed data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, a prospective study of well functioning black and white adults ages 70-79 years old from 1997. Participants with arterialized venous blood gas measurements (n=2287) were grouped into <23.0 mEq/L (low), 23.0-27.9 mEq/L (reference group), and ≥28.0 mEq/L (high) bicarbonate categories and according to acid-base status. Survival data were collected through February of 2014. Mortality hazard ratios (HRs; 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) in the low and high bicarbonate groups compared with the reference group were determined using Cox models adjusted for demographics, eGFR, albuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking, and systemic pH. Similarly adjusted Cox models were performed according to acid-base status. The mean age was 76 years, 51% were women, and 38% were black. Mean pH was 7.41, mean bicarbonate was 25.1 mEq/L, 11% had low bicarbonate, and 10% had high bicarbonate. Mean eGFR was 82.1 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and 12% had CKD. Over a mean follow-up of 10.3 years, 1326 (58%) participants died. Compared with the reference group, the mortality HRs were 1.24 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.49) in the low bicarbonate and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.26) in the high bicarbonate categories. Compared with the normal acid-base group, the mortality HRs were 1.17 (95% CI, 0.94 to 1.47) for metabolic acidosis, 1.21 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.46) for respiratory alkalosis, and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.69) for metabolic alkalosis categories. Respiratory acidosis did not associate with mortality. In generally healthy older individuals, low serum bicarbonate associated with higher mortality independent of systemic pH and potential confounders. This association seemed to be present regardless of whether the cause of low bicarbonate was metabolic

  7. Health service deficits and school-aged children with asthma: a population-based study using data from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Child Health.

    PubMed

    Lutfiyya, M Nawal; McCullough, Joel Emery; Lipsky, Martin S

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common and costly illnesses of childhood. This study addresses health services deficits experienced by school-aged children with asthma. Analyzing data from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Child Health, this cross-sectional study used household income, race/ethnicity, and geographic residency as the primary independent variables and health service deficits as the dependent variable. Multivariate analysis yielded that other/multiracial (odds ratio [OR], 1.234; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.226-1.242) and Hispanic (OR, 2.207; 95% CI, 1.226-1.242) school-aged children with asthma had greater odds of having health services deficits as did both urban (OR, 1.106; 95% CI, 1.099-1.113) and rural (OR, 1.133; 95% CI, 1.124-1.142) school-aged children with asthma. Children with either moderate (OR, 1.195; 95% CI, 1.184-1.207) or mild (OR, 1.445; 95% CI, 1.431-1.459) asthma had greater odds of having a health services deficit than those with severe asthma. Low-income school-aged children with asthma had greater odds of having a health services deficit than high-income children (OR, 1.031; 95% CI, 1.026-1.036). At lesser odds of having a health service deficit were those who were African American, of middle-range income, male, or who were school-aged children with asthma in good to excellent health. Both African American and other/multiracial school-aged children were at greater risk of having asthma than either Caucasian or Hispanic children. Three vulnerable subgroups of school-aged children with asthma-rural, Hispanic, and those of low income were the most likely to have health service deficits.

  8. Cohort profile: The lidA Cohort Study—a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation

    PubMed Central

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-01-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). PMID:24618186

  9. [The Health, Well-Being, and Aging ("SABE") survey: methodology applied and profile of the study population].

    PubMed

    Albala, Cecilia; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; León Díaz, Esther María; Ham-Chande, Roberto; Hennis, Anselm J; Palloni, Alberto; Peláez, Martha; Pratts, Omar

    2005-01-01

    This document outlines the methodology of the Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (Health, Well-Being, and Aging) survey (known as the "SABE survey"), and it also summarizes the challenges that the rapid aging of the population in Latin America and the Caribbean imposes on society in general and especially on health services. The populations of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean are aging at a rate that has not been seen in the developed world. The evaluation of health problems and disability among older adults in those countries indicates that those persons are aging with more functional limitations and worse health than is true for their counterparts in developed nations. In addition, family networks in Latin America and the Caribbean are changing rapidly and have less capacity to make up for the lack of protections provided by social institutions. The multicenter SABE study was developed with the objective of evaluating the state of health of older adults in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean: Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Havana, Cuba; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. The SABE survey has established the starting point for systematic research on aging in urban areas of Latin America and the Caribbean. Comparative studies of these characteristics and with this comparative nature should be extended to other countries, areas, and regions of the world in order to expand the knowledge available on older adults.

  10. Predictors of mental health in post-menopausal women: results from the Australian healthy aging of women study.

    PubMed

    Seib, Charrlotte; Anderson, Debra; Lee, Kathryn; Humphreys, Janice

    2013-12-01

    To examine the extent to which socio-demographics, modifiable lifestyle, and physical health status influence the mental health of post-menopausal Australian women. Cross-sectional data on health status, chronic disease and modifiable lifestyle factors were collected from a random cross-section of 340 women aged 60-70 years, residing in Queensland, Australia. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to measure the effect of a range of socio-demographic characteristics, modifiable lifestyle factors, and health markers (self-reported physical health, history of chronic illness) on the latent construct of mental health status. Mental health was evaluated using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12 (SF-12(®)) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The model was a good fit for the data (χ(2)=4.582, df=3, p=0.205) suggesting that mental health is negatively correlated with sleep disturbance (β=-0.612, p<0.001), and a history of depression (β=-0.141, p=0.024).While mental health was associated with poor sleep, it was not correlated with most lifestyle factors (BMI, alcohol consumption, or cigarette smoking) or socio-demographics like age, income or employment category and they were removed from the final model. Research suggests that it is important to engage in a range of health promoting behaviors to preserve good health. We found that predictors of current mental health status included sleep disturbance, and past mental health problems, while socio-demographics and modifiable lifestyle had little impact. It may be however, that these factors influenced other variables associated with the mental health of post-menopausal women, and these relationships warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The respiratory health of urban indigenous children aged less than 5 years: study protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kerry K; Chang, Anne B; Sloots, Theo P; Anderson, Jennie; Kemp, Anita; Hammill, Jan; Otim, Michael; O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F

    2015-05-14

    Despite the burden of acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children being a substantial cause of childhood morbidity and associated costs to families, communities and the health system, data on disease burden in urban children are lacking. Consequently evidence-based decision-making, data management guidelines, health resourcing for primary health care services and prevention strategies are lacking. This study aims to comprehensively describe the epidemiology, impact and outcomes of ARI in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children (hereafter referred to as Indigenous) in the greater Brisbane area. An ongoing prospective cohort study of Indigenous children aged less than five years registered with a primary health care service in Northern Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Children are recruited at time of presentation to the service for any reason. Demographic, epidemiological, risk factor, microbiological, economic and clinical data are collected at enrolment. Enrolled children are followed for 12 months during which time ARI events, changes in child characteristics over time and monthly nasal swabs are collected. Children who develop an ARI with cough as a symptom during the study period are more intensely followed-up for 28 (±3) days including weekly nasal swabs and parent completed cough diary cards. Children with persistent cough at day 28 post-ARI are reviewed by a paediatrician. Our study will be one of the first to comprehensively evaluate the natural history, epidemiology, aetiology, economic impact and outcomes of ARIs in this population. The results will inform studies for the development of evidence-based guidelines to improve the early detection, prevention and management of chronic cough and setting of priorities in children during and after ARI. Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry Registration Number: 12614001214628 . Registered 18 November 2014.

  12. Is Social Capital a Determinant of Oral Health among Older Adults? Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Chandola, Tarani; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of studies linking social capital to oral health among older adults, although the evidence base mainly relies on cross-sectional study designs. The possibility of reverse causality is seldom discussed, even though oral health problems could potentially lead to lower social participation. Furthermore, few studies clearly distinguish between the effects of different dimensions of social capital on oral health. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations between individual social capital and oral health among older adults. We analyzed longitudinal data from the 3rd and 5th waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Structural social capital was operationalized using measures of social participation, and volunteering. Number of close ties and perceived emotional support comprised the functional dimension of social capital. Oral health measures were having no natural teeth (edentate vs. dentate), self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Time-lag and autoregressive models were used to explore the longitudinal associations between social capital and oral health. We imputed all missing data, using multivariate imputation by chained equations. We found evidence of bi-directional longitudinal associations between self-rated oral health, volunteering and functional social capital. Functional social capital was a strong predictor of change in oral health-related quality of life – the adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor oral health-related quality of life was 1.75 (1.33–2.30) for older adults with low vs. high social support. However in the reverse direction, poor oral health-related quality of life was not associated with changes in social capital. This suggests that oral health may not be a determinant of social capital. In conclusion, social capital may be a determinant of subjective oral health among older adults rather than edentulousness, despite many cross-sectional studies on the

  13. Impact of physical and mental health on life satisfaction in old age: a population based observational study.

    PubMed

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; de Craen, Antonius J M; Slaets, Joris P J; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-11-25

    It is widely assumed that poor health lowers life satisfaction when ageing. Yet, research suggests this relationship is not straightforward. This study investigated how older people evaluate their life when facing disease and disabilities. The Leiden 85-plus Study, a prospectively followed cohort of a cohort of a middle-sized city in the Netherlands, all aged 85 years, that was age-representative of the general population, was used. Those with severe cognitive dysfunction were excluded (n = 501). Comorbidities, physical performance, cognitive function, functional status, residual lifespan, depressive symptoms and experienced loneliness were measured during home visits. Life satisfaction was self-reported with Cantril's ladder. All analyses were performed using regression analysis. Participants reported high life satisfaction (median 8 out of 10 points) despite having representative levels of disease and disability. Comorbidity, low cognitive function, and residual lifespan as markers of health were not associated with life satisfaction. Poor physical performance and low functional status were weakly but significantly associated with lower life satisfaction (p < 0.05 respectively p < 0.001), but significance was lost after adjustment for depressive symptoms and perceived loneliness. Depressive symptoms and perceived loneliness were strongly related to lower life satisfaction (both p < 0.001), even after adjustment for physical health characteristics. Poor physical health was hardly related to lower life satisfaction, whereas poor mental health was strongly related to lower life satisfaction. This indicates that mental health has a greater impact on life satisfaction at old age than physical health, and that physical health is less relevant for a satisfactory old age.

  14. [Cross sectional study of the relationship between physical fitness and life style, health-status in healthy aged males].

    PubMed

    Minami, Masaki; Demura, Shinichi; Nagasawa, Yoshinori

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between physical fitness and life style, as well as health-status in aged males living in a community. A total of 304 males aged 60 to 89 years volunteered as subjects for this study. Eleven performance-test items were selected from four physical fitness domains of muscle, joint, neuromuscular and lung functions, with consideration given to the safety, reliability, and feasibility of the tests. To assess life style and health-status, a questionnaire consisting of 40 items was constructed. Principal component analysis was applled to the correlation matrix consisting of 11 physical fitness variables. Statistical techniques for Creamer's association coefficient and theory of quantification I were used to examine the relationships between life style, medical condition and fundamental physical fitness (FPF). Cramer's association coefficient was only significant for the variable of quantity consumed at dinner. Multiple correlation coefficient between FPF and age-grade, life style, and health-status were significant (P < 0.01). Partial correlation coefficients were high for the variables of aged-grade, sleeping hours, and receiving medical treatment. Fundamental physical fitness showed a decreasing trend with age. It was inferred that acquisltion of adequate sleeping hours and not taking medical treatment for injury of illness might be related to the decline of FPF level with aging in aged males.

  15. Lifecourse study of bone health at age 49–51 years: the Newcastle thousand families cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, M.; Birrell, F.; Francis, R.; Rawlings, D.; Tuck, S.; Parker, L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the direct and indirect effects of fetal (position in family, weight, and social class at birth), childhood (breast feeding, growth, infections, and social class in childhood, age at menarche), and adult life (social class, alcohol consumption, smoking, diet, reproductive history, exercise, hormone replacement therapy use), and adult size (height, weight) on bone health at age 49–51 years, as measured by bone mineral density, total scanned bone area of the hip and lumbar spine, and femoral neck shaft angle. Design: Follow up study of the Newcastle thousand families birth cohort established in 1947. Participants: 171 men and 218 women who attended for dual energy x ray absorptiometry scanning. Main results: Fetal life explained around 6% of variation in adult bone mineral density for men, but accounted for less than 1% for women. Adult lifestyle, including effects mediated through adult weight accounted for over 10% of variation in density for men and around 6% for women. Almost half of variation in bone area for men was explained by early life. However, most of this was mediated through achieved adult height and weight. In women, less than 5% of variation in bone area was accounted for by early life, after adjusting for adult size. Most of the variation in each of the indicators for both sexes was contributed either directly or indirectly by adult lifestyle and achieved adult height and weight. Conclusions: The effect of fetal life on bone health in adulthood seems to be mediated through achieved adult height. PMID:15911643

  16. Cancer and frailty in older adults: a nested case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Eduardo; Cesari, Matteo; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how the convergence between chronic and complex diseases-such as cancer-and emerging conditions of older adults-such as frailty-takes place would help in halting the path that leads to disability in this age group. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the association between a past medical history of cancer and frailty in Mexican older adults. This is a nested in cohort case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Frailty was categorized by developing a 55-item frailty index that was also used to define cases in two ways: incident frailty (incident >0.25 frailty index score) and worsening frailty (negative residuals from a regression between 2001 and 2012 frailty index scores). Exposition was defined as self-report of cancer between 2001 and 2012. Older adults with a cancer history were further divided into recently diagnosed (<10 years) and remotely diagnosed (>10 years from the initial diagnosis). Odds ratios were estimated by fitting a logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. Out of a total of 8022 older adults with a mean age of 70.6 years, the prevalence of a past medical history of cancer was 3.6 % (n = 288). Among these participants, 45.1 % had been diagnosed with cancer more than 10 years previously. A higher risk of incident frailty compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.26, p = 0.03); adjusted model OR 1.74 (95 % CI 1.15-2.61, p = 0.008)] was found in the group with a recent cancer diagnosis. Also, an inverse association between a remote cancer diagnosis and worsening frailty was found [OR = 0.56 (95 % CI 0.39-0.8), p = 0.002; adjusted model OR 0.61 (95 % CI 0.38-0.99, p = 0.046)]. Cancer is associated with a higher frailty index, with a potential relevant role of the time that has elapsed since the cancer diagnosis. Cancer survivors may be more likely to develop frailty or worsening of the health status at an older age. This

  17. Cancer and frailty in older adults: a nested case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Eduardo; Cesari, Matteo; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Understanding how the convergence between chronic and complex diseases—such as cancer—and emerging conditions of older adults—such as frailty—takes place would help in halting the path that leads to disability in this age group. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the association between a past medical history of cancer and frailty in Mexican older adults. Methods This is a nested in cohort case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Frailty was categorized by developing a 55-item frailty index that was also used to define cases in two ways: incident frailty (incident >0.25 frailty index score) and worsening frailty (negative residuals from a regression between 2001 and 2012 frailty index scores). Exposition was defined as self-report of cancer between 2001 and 2012. Older adults with a cancer history were further divided into recently diagnosed (<10 years) and remotely diagnosed (>10 years from the initial diagnosis). Odds ratios were estimated by fitting a logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. Results Out of a total of 8022 older adults with a mean age of 70.6 years, the prevalence of a past medical history of cancer was 3.6 % (n = 288). Among these participants, 45.1 % had been diagnosed with cancer more than 10 years previously. A higher risk of incident frailty compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04–2.26, p = 0.03); adjusted model OR 1.74 (95 % CI 1.15–2.61, p = 0.008)] was found in the group with a recent cancer diagnosis. Also, an inverse association between a remote cancer diagnosis and worsening frailty was found [OR = 0.56 (95 % CI 0.39–0.8), p = 0.002; adjusted model OR 0.61 (95 % CI 0.38–0.99, p = 0.046)]. Conclusions Cancer is associated with a higher frailty index, with a potential relevant role of the time that has elapsed since the cancer diagnosis. Implications for cancer survivors Cancer survivors may be more likely to develop frailty or

  18. Obesity and underweight among Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Sandhi M; Passos, Valéria M A; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda F

    2003-01-01

    The coexistence of obesity (body mass index, BMI > or = 30kg/m ) and underweight (BMI <= 20kg/m ) and related factors were investigated among all residents aged 60+ years in Bambu , Minas Gerais State, using multinomial logistic regression. 1,451 (85.5%) of the town's elderly participated. Mean BMI was 25.0 (SD = 4.9kg/m ) and was higher for women and decreased with age. Prevalence of obesity was 12.5% and was positively associated with female gender, family income, hypertension, and diabetes and inversely related to physical activity. Underweight affected 14.8% of participants, increased with age, and was higher among men and low-income families. It was negatively associated with hypertension and diabetes and directly associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection and > or = 2 hospitalizations in the previous 12 months. Both obesity and underweight were associated with increased morbidity. The association of underweight with T. cruzi infection, increased hospitalization, and low family income may reflect illness-related weight loss and social deprivation of elderly in this community. Aging in poverty may lead to an increase in nutritional deficiencies and health-related problems among the elderly.

  19. Association of comorbidity with disability in older women: the Women's Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Fried, L P; Bandeen-Roche, K; Kasper, J D; Guralnik, J M

    1999-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that physical disability results from chronic diseases and that the number of chronic diseases is associated with the presence and severity of disability. There is some evidence that interactions between specific diseases are of import in causing disability. Beyond arthritis, however, little is known of the disease pairs that may be important to focus on in future research. This study explores the associations between multiple disease pairs and different types of physical disability, with the objective of hypothesis development regarding the importance of disease interactions. The study population comprised a representative sample of 3841 women 65 years and older living in Baltimore, screened for participation in the Women's Health and Aging Study. The study design was cross-sectional. An interviewer-administered screening questionnaire was administered regarding self-reported physical disability in 15 tasks of daily life, history of physician diagnosis of 14 chronic diseases, and MiniMental State examination. Task difficulty was empirically grouped into six subsets of minimally overlapping disabilities, with a comparison group consisting of those with no difficulty in any task subset. Multiple logistic regression models were fit assessing the relationship of major chronic diseases and of interactions of disease pairs with each disability subtype and with any disability, adjusting for confounders. Fourteen percent of the population reported mobility difficulty only; 5%, upper extremity difficulty only; 9%, both of these difficulties but no others; 7%, difficulty in higher function but not self-care tasks; 7%, self-care task difficulty but not higher function tasks; and 15%, difficulty in both higher function and self-care (weighted data). Almost all in the latter three groups had difficulty, as well, in mobility or upper extremity tasks. In regression models, specific disease pairs were synergistically associated with different types

  20. Impact of Incident Heart Failure on Body Composition Over Time in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study Population.

    PubMed

    Forman, Daniel E; Santanasto, Adam J; Boudreau, Robert; Harris, Tamara; Kanaya, Alka M; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Butler, Javed; Kizer, Jorge R; Newman, Anne B

    2017-09-01

    Prevalence of heart failure (HF) increases significantly with age, coinciding with age-related changes in body composition that are common and consequential. Still, body composition is rarely factored in routine HF care. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort study of nondisabled adults. Using yearly dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, body composition was assessed in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study over 6 years, comparing those who developed incident HF versus those who did not. Among 2815 Health, Aging, and Body Composition participants (48.5% men; 59.6% whites; mean age, 73.6±2.9 years), 111 developed incident HF over the 6-year study period. At entry into the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, men and women who later developed HF had higher total body mass when compared with those versus those who did not develop HF (men, 80.9±10 versus 78.6±12.9 kg, P=0.05; women, 72.7±15.0 versus 68.2±14.2 kg, P=0.01, respectively). However, after developing HF, loss of total lean body mass was disproportionate; men with HF lost 654.6 versus 391.4 g/y in non-HF participants, P=0.02. Loss of appendicular lean mass was also greater with HF (-419.9 versus -318.2 g/y; P=0.02), even after accounting for total weight change. Among women with HF, loss of total and appendicular lean mass were also greater than in non-HF participants but not to the extent seen among men. Incident HF in older adults was associated with disproportionate loss of lean mass, particularly among men. Prognostic implications are significant, with key sex-specific inferences on physical function, frailty, disability, and pharmacodynamics that all merit further investigation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Age at Menarche and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Singaporean Chinese Women: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, NT; Odegaard, AO; Gross, MD; Koh, WP; Yuan, JM; Pereira, MA

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether menarcheal age was inversely associated with CVD mortality in Singaporean Chinese women. Methods 34,022 Chinese women aged 45–74 at enrollment (1993–1998), with complete data on study variables, were followed prospectively through 2009 for primary cause of death due to CVD, including coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CERE). Hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD mortality were computed across menarcheal age categories and adjusted for potential confounders and BMI. Results Over 460,374 person-years of follow-up, 1,852 women died from CVD; 998 of them from CHD and 557 from CERE. There was a significant interaction between menarcheal age and smoking (p<0.05). In nonsmokers, menarcheal age was inversely associated with risk for CVD and CHD mortality. HRs (and 95% CI) for CVD mortality across menarcheal age categories (≤12, 13–14, 15–16, ≥17) were: 1.06 (0.87–1.29), 1 (referent), 0.89 (0.79–1.00), and 0.80 (0.69–0.93), respectively (ptrend<0.001); HRs for CHD mortality were: 1.06 (0.80–1.34), 1 (referent), 0.76 (0.65–0.90), and 0.72 (0.58–0.88), respectively (ptrend<0.001). In nonsmokers there was no association between menarcheal age and CERE mortality. Among smokers, menarcheal age was not associated with CVD, CHD or CERE mortality. Conclusion Menarcheal age was inversely associated with risk of CVD mortality in nonsmoking Chinese women. PMID:22939833

  2. Ophthalmologic changes related to radiation exposure and age in adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Choshi, K; Takaku, I; Mishima, H; Takase, T; Neriishi, S; Finch, S C; Otake, M

    1983-12-01

    A 2-year ophthalmologic study of age and radiation-related ophthalmologic lesions among the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was conducted in 1978-80. The study sample in both cities was composed of all persons exposed to 100+ rad, their controls, and all other persons with a previous record of axial opacities or posterior subcapsular changes. Most of the losses were due to persons who refused to participate or for whom it was not possible to arrange for an ophthalmologic examination at the time of the regularly scheduled medical examination. It should be emphasized, however, that the loss of persons in both the control and the 100+ rad groups did not change systematically with increasing age by city. Increased lenticular opacities, other lens changes, and loss of visual acuity and accommodation occurred with increasing age in both exposed and control subjects as manifestations of the normal aging process. A highly significant excess risk for all age categories in the 300+ rad group in comparison to those in the control group was observed for both axial opacities and posterior subcapsular changes in Hiroshima, but not in Nagasaki. A stronger radiosensitive aging effect for persons who were under 15 years old at the time of the bombing (ATB) was observed for both axial opacities and posterior subcapsular changes in Hiroshima.

  3. Accelerated increase and relative decrease in subjective age and changes in attitudes toward own aging over a 4-year period: results from the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud; Ayalon, Liat; Avidor, Sharon; Palgi, Yuval

    2017-03-01

    The passage of time may force people to adjust their subjective age in response to changes in their attitudes toward own aging (ATOA). Although positive associations have been found between well-being and both positive ATOA and younger subjective age, the relationships between changes in these measures have not been examined yet. We expected (1) a decrease in positive ATOA to be associated with an accelerated increase in subjective age and (2) an increase in positive ATOA to be associated with a relative decrease in subjective age. Participants were individuals and their spouses, aged 50 and over, recruited by the Health and Retirement Study, who provided responses to a question concerning one's subjective age in 2008 and 2012 (n = 4174). A change in subjective age over the two waves was regarded as (1) an accelerated increase if it was greater than 5 years (36.2 % of the sample); (2) a relative decrease (39.1 %), if it was less than the 3 years; (3) no change if it did not comply with criteria 1 or 2 (24.7 %). A decrease in positive ATOA over the two waves resulted in an accelerated increase in subjective age, and an increase resulted in a relative decrease in subjective age. Older age and more physical impairments and depressive symptoms in 2012 compared with 2008 were associated with an accelerated increase in subjective age. Our findings emphasize the consequences ATOA might have on subjective age experiences, and the need to improve them.

  4. Effect of health protective factors on health deficit accumulation and mortality risk in older adults in the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxiu; Song, Xiaowei; Mitnitski, Arnold; Fang, Xianghua; Tang, Zhe; Yu, Pulin; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate transitions in health status and risk of death in older adults in relation to baseline health deficits and protective factors. Prospective cohort study with reassessments at 5, 8, and 15 years. Secondary analysis of data from the Beijing Longitudinal Study on Aging. Urban and rural community-dwelling people aged 55 and older at baseline (n = 3,275), followed from 1992 to 2007, during which time 51% died. Health status was quantified using the deficit accumulation-based frailty index (FI), constructed from 30 intrinsic health measures. A protection index was constructed using 14 extrinsic items (e.g., exercise, education). The probabilities of health changes, including death, were evaluated using a multistate transition model. Women had more health deficits (mean baseline FI 0.13 ± 0.11) than did men (mean baseline FI 0.11 ± 0.10). Although health declined on average (mean FIs increased), improvement and stability were common. Baseline health significantly affected health transitions and survival over various follow-up durations (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-1.37 for men; OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.16-1.33 for women for each increment of deficits). Each protective factor reduced the risk of health decline and the risk of death in men and women by 13% to 25%. Deficit accumulation-based transition modeling demonstrates persisting effects of baseline health status on age-related health outcomes. Some mitigation by protective factors can be demonstrated, suggesting that improving physical and social conditions might be beneficial. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Post-fall reporting in aged acute inpatient mental health units: an 18-month observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Furness, Trentham; Mnatzaganian, George; Garlick, Robyn; Ireland, Susan; McKenna, Brian; Hill, Keith D

    2017-09-04

    Despite the high risk of falling for people with severe mental illness, there is limited falls research in mental health settings. Therefore, the objective of this observational cohort study was to conduct a focused post-fall review of fall episodes within aged acute inpatient mental health units at one of Australia's largest publicly funded mental health organizations. A post-fall reporting tool was developed to collect intrinsic and extrinsic fall risk factors among three aged acute mental health inpatient units over an 18-month period. Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted to describe fall risk factors and predictors of fall risk. There were a total of 115 falls, of which the tool was used for 93 (80.9%) episodes. Falls occurred most often in consumer's bedroom/bathroom and were unwitnessed. Intrinsic risk factors were most often attributed to postural drop and losing balance during walking. However, that was in contrast to consumer's who self-reported feeling dizzy as the reason of the fall. Based on the cohort, future falls could be reduced by targeting those aged above 82 years, or with a diagnosis of dementia. Recurrent falls during admission could be reduced by targeting those with psychotic illness and males with a diagnosis of dementia. A clearer dialogue among consumers and clinical staff reporting about fall episodes may support future remedial interventions and inform programs to reduce fall risk and assist the challenge of describing unwitnessed falls in aged acute inpatient mental health settings.

  6. Ageing with cerebral palsy; what are the health experiences of adults with cerebral palsy? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Mudge, Suzie; Rosie, Juliet; Stott, Susan; Taylor, Denise; Signal, Nada; McPherson, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Objective To enhance understanding of the experiences of ageing with cerebral palsy (CP) in adulthood with a particular focus on experiences with health services. Design A qualitative descriptive methodology was applied to capture adults' views of ageing with CP and related interactions with health services. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with data systematically coded and interpreted by grouping information into categories. Themes that encompassed the categories were identified through thematic analysis. Setting All healthcare settings. Participants 28 adults (14 women) with CP, aged 37–70 years. Results 5 themes covered the breadth of participants' experiences: (1) acceptance of change; (2) exploring identity: cerebral palsy as only one part of self; (3) taking charge of help; (4) rethinking the future and (5) interacting with health professionals. Being seen and being heard were the features described in positive healthcare interactions. Participants also valued health professionals who reflected on who holds the knowledge?; demonstrated a willingness to learn and respected participants' knowledge and experience. Conclusions Our findings could, and arguably should, inform more responsive strategies for disabled people in health services and, indeed, all health consumers. Our study supports other findings that impairments related to CP change and, for many, severity of disabling impact increases with age. Increased interactions with health and rehabilitation professionals, as a consequence of these changes, have the potential to impact the person's healthcare experience either positively or negatively. A ‘listening health professional’ may bridge their knowledge gap and, in recognising the person's own expertise, may achieve three things: a more contextualised healthcare intervention; a better healthcare experience for the person with CP and positive impact on the person's sense of autonomy and identity by recognising their expertise. Future

  7. Sexuality: Measures of Partnerships, Practices, Attitudes, and Problems in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Laumann, Edward O.; Das, Aniruddha; Schumm, L. Philip

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) was designed to examine the relationship between sexual behavior, sexual problems, and health among older women and men. We describe measures of sexual partnerships, sexual practices, sexual problems, attitudes toward sex, and nonsexual intimacy in the first wave of NSHAP. Methods We compare measures of sexuality for those 57–85 years old, by age, separately for men and women. We construct scales of sexual mores, sexual interest, and relationship satisfaction and discuss properties of each scale. Results Sexuality among older adults tends to vary with age and gender. At all ages in this study, men are more likely than women to have a partner, more likely to be sexually active with that partner, and tend to have more positive and permissive attitudes toward sex. The proportions in a sexual partnership, behavior, problems, and attitudes all differ substantially by age. And these age patterns often differ for men and women. Discussion Data obtained in the NSHAP can be used to construct key measures of sexuality among older adults; to examine sexuality itself; and to explore the link between sexuality, health, well-being, and other dimensions of the lives of older adults. PMID:19497930

  8. Space age health care delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Space age health care delivery is being delivered to both NASA astronauts and employees with primary emphasis on preventive medicine. The program relies heavily on comprehensive health physical exams, health education, screening programs and physical fitness programs. Medical data from the program is stored in a computer bank so epidemiological significance can be established and better procedures can be obtained. Besides health care delivery to the NASA population, NASA is working with HEW on a telemedicine project STARPAHC, applying space technology to provide health care delivery to remotely located populations.

  9. Space age health care delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Space age health care delivery is being delivered to both NASA astronauts and employees with primary emphasis on preventive medicine. The program relies heavily on comprehensive health physical exams, health education, screening programs and physical fitness programs. Medical data from the program is stored in a computer bank so epidemiological significance can be established and better procedures can be obtained. Besides health care delivery to the NASA population, NASA is working with HEW on a telemedicine project STARPAHC, applying space technology to provide health care delivery to remotely located populations.

  10. Social Capital and Oral Health Among Adults 50 Years and Older: Results From the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the differential associations of structural and functional social capital with objective and subjective measures of oral health, and the interactions between social capital and other sociodemographic and health factors. Secondary analysis of data on 8552 adults 50 years and older from the third wave (2006-2007) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing was conducted. Oral health outcomes were self-rated oral health, edentulousness (having no natural teeth), and Oral Impacts on Daily Performances. Structural social capital was measured by membership of social organizations and volunteering. Functional social capital was measured by the number of close ties and perceived emotional social support. Logistic regression models were sequentially adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, health-related factors, and smoking status. Structural social capital was primarily associated with edentulousness. Not being a member of any organization was associated with higher odds of being edentate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.43-2.16). Functional social capital was associated with self-rated oral health and oral impacts. Low social support was associated with poor self-rated oral health (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.16-1.72) and Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24). The association of structural social capital with edentulousness may reflect health selection effects. The availability of a supportive social network seems to be the aspect of social capital most strongly associated with oral health.

  11. Age and Functional Health Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    gender such that energy level declined with older age for males, but energy level was lowest for females in the 35-49 age group. The correlations...psychosocial function," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 185, 1963, pp. 914-919. Health Status 42 Koenig, H., "Depression and dysphoria among

  12. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  13. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  14. Hearing Sensitivity in Older Adults: Associations with cardiovascular risk factors in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Helzner, Elizabeth P.; Patel, Ami S.; Pratt, Sheila; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Cauley, Jane A; Talbott, Evelyn; Kenyon, Emily; Harris, Tamara B.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ding, Jingzhong; Newman, Anne B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors with age-associated hearing loss, in a cohort of older black and white adults. Study Design Cross-sectional cohort study Setting The Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study; A community-based cohort study of older adults from Pittsburgh, PA and Memphis TN. Participants 2,049 well-functioning adults (mean age: 77.5 years; 37% black) Measurements Pure-tone audiometry and history of clinical CVD were obtained at the 4th annual follow-up visit. Pure-tone averages in decibels reflecting low frequencies (250, 500, and 1000 Hz) middle frequencies (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz) and high frequencies (2000, 4000, and 8000Hz) were calculated for each ear. CVD risk factors, aortic pulse-wave velocity, and ankle-arm index were obtained at the study baseline. Results In gender-stratified models, after adjustment for age, race, study site and occupational noise exposure, risk factors associated with poorer hearing sensitivity among men included higher triglyceride levels, higher resting heart rate and history of smoking. Among women, poorer hearing sensitivity was associated with higher BMI, higher resting heart rate, faster pulse-wave velocity, and low ankle-arm index. Conclusion Modifiable risk factors for CVD may play a role in the development of age-related hearing loss. PMID:21649629

  15. Epigenetic Aging and Immune Senescence in Women With Insomnia Symptoms: Findings From the Women's Health Initiative Study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Judith E; Irwin, Michael R; Levine, Morgan; Seeman, Teresa E; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles; Horvath, Steve

    2017-01-15

    Insomnia symptoms are associated with vulnerability to age-related morbidity and mortality. Cross-sectional data suggest that accelerated biological aging may be a mechanism through which sleep influences risk. A novel method for determining age acceleration using epigenetic methylation to DNA has demonstrated predictive utility as an epigenetic clock and prognostic of age-related morbidity and mortality. We examined the association of epigenetic age and immune cell aging with sleep in the Women's Health Initiative study (N = 2078; mean 64.5 ± 7.1 years of age) with assessment of insomnia symptoms (restlessness, difficulty falling asleep, waking at night, trouble getting back to sleep, and early awakenings), sleep duration (short sleep 5 hours or less; long sleep greater than 8 hours), epigenetic age, naive T cell (CD8+CD45RA+CCR7+), and late differentiated T cells (CD8+CD28-CD45RA-). Insomnia symptoms were related to advanced epigenetic age (β ± SE = 1.02 ± 0.37, p = .005) after adjustments for covariates. Insomnia symptoms were also associated with more late differentiated T cells (β ± SE = 0.59 ± 0.21, p = .006), but not with naive T cells. Self-reported short and long sleep duration were unrelated to epigenetic age. Short sleep, but not long sleep, was associated with fewer naive T cells (p < .005) and neither was related to late differentiated T cells. Symptoms of insomnia were associated with increased epigenetic age of blood tissue and were associated with higher counts of late differentiated CD8+ T cells. Short sleep was unrelated to epigenetic age and late differentiated cell counts, but was related to a decline in naive T cells. In this large population-based study of women in the United States, insomnia symptoms are implicated in accelerated aging. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  17. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  18. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  19. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  20. Health screening - men - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - men - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - men - ages 40 to 64; Men's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - men - ages ...

  1. Social capital in association with health status of women in reproductive age: study protocol for a sequential explanatory mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Baheiraei, Azam; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2014-05-09

    Women's health is a general health priority. Preserving and improving women's health is not only a basic human right, but it is also essential for the health of all nations. Women's health in Reproductive age affects long-term health of theirs, their family members, and community. Origins of health inequalities are very complicated. Health outcomes are influenced by biological, social and political factors, so to improve women's health it is necessary to recognize all these factors. Social capital is one of the social determinants of health that might play a considerable role in health inequalities. The association between social capital and health varies according on the sample studied, the type of health outcome and the context in which it is studied. This mixed methods study was designed to determine and explore of relationship between social capital and health status of women of reproductive age in Tehran (capital city of Iran) with its specific social-cultural characteristics. This study is sequential explanatory mixed methods study, follow-up explanations variant, with two strands (phases). This design will be implemented in two distinct phases. The first phase is a population-based cross-sectional survey on 770 women of reproductive age residing in any of the 22 municipal districts across Tehran. Based on a need to further understand the quantitative results, researchers will implement a second qualitative phase that is designed to help explain the initial quantitative results. Finally, the researchers will present an interpretation about explanation of quantitative results using the qualitative data. This study promotes women's health by determining the priorities and designing evidence-based interventions founded on the basic and insightful information provided on social capital and the status of the health of women.

  2. Do Health Behaviors Explain the Effect of Neuroticism on Mortality? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Mroczek, Daniel K.; Spiro, Avron; Turiano, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that higher levels of neuroticism are associated with greater risk of mortality. Yet what accounts for this association? One major theoretical position holds that persons higher in neuroticism engage in poorer health behaviors, such as smoking and excessive drinking, thus leading to earlier death. We tested this hypothesis using 30-year mortality in 1,788 men from the VA Normative Aging Study. Using proportional hazards (Cox) models we found that one health behavior, smoking, attenuated the effect of neuroticism on mortality by 40%. However, 60% remained unexplained, suggesting that the effects of other pathways (e.g., biological) also influence the relationship between neuroticism and mortality. PMID:20161240

  3. Primary health-care costs associated with special health care needs up to age 7 years: Australian population-based study.

    PubMed

    Quach, Jon; Oberklaid, Frank; Gold, Lisa; Lucas, Nina; Mensah, Fiona K; Wake, Melissa

    2014-10-01

    We studied infants and children with and without special health care needs (SHCN) during the first 8 years of life to compare the (i) types and costs to the government's Medicare system of non-hospital health-care services and prescription medication in each year and (ii) cumulative costs according to persistence of SHCN. Data from the first two biennial waves of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, comprising two independent cohorts recruited in 2004, at ages 0-1 (n = 5107) and 4-5 (n = 4983) years. Exposure condition: parent-reported Children with Special Health Care Needs Screener at both waves, spanning ages 0-7 years. Federal Government Medicare expenditure, via data linkage to the Medicare database, on non-hospital health-care attendances and prescriptions from birth to 8 years. At both waves and in both cohorts, >92% of children had complete SHCN and Medicare data. The proportion of children with SHCN increased from 6.1% at age 0-1 years to 15.0% at age 6-7 years. Their additional Medicare costs ranged from $491 per child at 6-7 years to $1202 at 0-1 year. This equates to an additional $161.8 million annual cost or 0.8% of federal funding for non-hospital-based health care. In both cohorts, costs were highest for children with persistent SHCNs. SHCNs incur substantial non-hospital costs to Medicare, and no doubt other sources of care, from early childhood. This suggests that economic evaluations of early prevention and intervention services for SHCNs should consider impacts on not only the child and family but also the health-care system. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. A Gradient in Education Due to Health? Evidence from the Study of Health Behavior in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saab, Hana; Klinger, Don A.

    2011-01-01

    Research exploring the relationship between education and health suggests that people with higher levels of schooling report better health. To emphasize health as a determinant of educational achievement, this article establishes a gradient in education by health among Canadian students. Using data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged…

  5. A Gradient in Education Due to Health? Evidence from the Study of Health Behavior in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saab, Hana; Klinger, Don A.

    2011-01-01

    Research exploring the relationship between education and health suggests that people with higher levels of schooling report better health. To emphasize health as a determinant of educational achievement, this article establishes a gradient in education by health among Canadian students. Using data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged…

  6. Sugar-containing beverage intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Felix, Janine F; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-09-17

    Consumption of sugar-containing beverages (SCBs) in adults has been associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Although the effect of SCB on body weight in children is well established, little is known about the cardiometabolic effects in young children. We studied the associations of SCB intake at the age of 1 year with cardiometabolic health at age 6 years. This study was performed among 2,045 Dutch children from a population based prospective birth cohort. SCB intake was assessed with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at the age of 13 months and sex-specific tertiles were created. Children visited the research center at the age of 6 years. We created a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score including: body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Age-and sex-specific standard deviation (SD) scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed with adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables of mother and child. In the total population, we observed an association between higher SCB intake at 13 months of age and a higher cardiometabolic risk factor score at the age of 6 years (0.13SD (95 % CI 0.01; 0.25), highest vs. lowest tertile) After stratification by sex, we found that boys in the highest tertile of SCB intake had a higher cardiometabolic risk factor score (0.18 SD (95 % CI 0.01; 0.34)), as compared to boys in the lowest tertile of SCB intake. There was no significant association in girls. We did not find associations of SCB intake with the individual cardiometabolic risk factors in the total population, or in the stratified analyses. Higher SCB intake at 1 year of age was associated with a higher cardiometabolic risk factor score at age 6 years in boys, but not in girls. Further research on sex-specific effects of SCBs is needed.

  7. The Canadian community health survey as a potential recruitment vehicle for the Canadian longitudinal study on aging.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Christina; Raina, Parminder S; Kirkland, Susan A; Pelletier, Amélie; Uniat, Jennifer; Furlini, Linda; Angus, Camille L; Strople, Geoff; Keshavarz, Homa; Szala-Meneok, Karen

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTThe goal of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is to recruit 50,000 participants aged 45 to 85 years of age and follow them for at least 20 years. The sampling and recruitment processes for a study of this scope and magnitude present important challenges. Statistics Canada was approached to collaborate with the CLSA with the goal of determining whether the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) could be used as a recruitment vehicle for the CLSA. In this pilot study conducted in 2004, it was determined that 63.8 per cent and 75.8 per cent of the respondents agreed to share their contact information and their survey responses with the CLSA, respectively. The most commonly reported concerns were confidentiality/privacy issues, lack of interest, and commitment issues. This pilot study identified some challenges to the use of the CCHS as a recruitment vehicle for the CLSA.

  8. Lutein intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-09-28

    Lutein is a carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties. Previous studies in adults suggest a beneficial role of lutein on cardiometabolic health. However, it is unknown whether this relation also exists in children; therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between lutein intake at 13 months of age and cardiometabolic outcomes at the age of 6 years. We included 2044 Dutch children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Diet was measured at 13 months of age with an FFQ. Lutein intake was standardised for energy and β-carotene intake. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, serum lipids and insulin were measured at the age of 6 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure total and regional fat and lean mass. A continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score was created, including the components body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed, including socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Median (energy-standardised) lutein intake was 1317 mcg/d (95% range 87, 6069 mcg/d). There were no consistent associations between lutein intake at 13 months and anthropometrics and body composition measures at 6 years of age. In addition, lutein intake was not associated with a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score, nor was it associated with any of the individual components of the cardiometabolic risk factor score. Results from this large population-based prospective cohort study do not support the hypothesis that lutein intake early in life has a beneficial role for later cardiometabolic health.

  9. Dietary and lifestyle predictors of age at natural menopause and reproductive span in the Shanghai Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Dorjgochoo, Tsogzolmaa; Kallianpur, Asha; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Modifiable factors predicting the onset of menopause, a transition with important implications for women's health, have not been fully characterized. We evaluated the impact of dietary, lifestyle and reproductive factors on age at natural menopause and reproductive span in Chinese women. Design: Study participants were Chinese women aged 40–70 who experienced natural menopause and participated in a population-based, prospective study, the Shanghai Women's Health Study (n=33,054). Dietary intakes at the baseline survey were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. Regression (β) coefficients, calculated by multivariable linear regression, were used to estimate the effects of dietary, lifestyle, and reproductive patterns on age at menopause and the number of reproductive years, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: Early menarche, younger age at first-live birth, older age at last live-birth, longer duration of breastfeeding, and higher parity were associated with longer reproductive years (Ptrend<0.01 for all). Higher body-mass index at age 20, mid-life weight gain, and leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and adulthood predicted later menopause and longer reproductive span (Ptrend<0.01 for all). Total intakes of calories, fruits, protein, and possibly carbohydrates were positively associated with later menopause (Ptrend <0.05 for all) and longer reproductive span [Ptrend <0.05, except for carbohydrates (Ptrend =0.06)], and long-term tea consumption predicted longer reproductive span (Ptrend =0.03). Vegetable, fat, soy, and fiber intakes did not significantly affect reproductive span or age at menopause. Smoking was inversely related to both age at menopause and reproductive span (Ptrend <0.01). Conclusions: In addition to reproductive factors, intakes of fruit, protein, smoking, and tea consumption, lifetime patterns of physical activity, and weight gain influenced the onset of menopause and/or reproductive span in

  10. Pulmonary Disease and Age at Immigration among Hispanics. Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Davis, Sonia M.; Aldrich, Tom K.; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Henderson, Ashley G.; Kaplan, Robert C.; LaVange, Lisa; Liu, Kiang; Loredo, Jose S.; Mendes, Eliana S.; Ni, Ai; Ries, Andrew; Salathe, Matthias; Smith, Lewis J.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma has been reported to be more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanics and among Hispanics born in the United States or who immigrated as children than among those who came as adults; however, direct comparisons across Hispanic groups are lacking. Objectives: To test whether asthma is more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanic groups, whether asthma is associated with age of immigration, and whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease varies by heritage in a large, population-based cohort of Hispanics in the United States. Methods: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos researchers recruited a population-based probability sample of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos, 18–74 years of age, in New York City, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. Participants self-reported Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Central American, or South American heritage; birthplace; and, if relevant, age at immigration. A respiratory questionnaire and standardized spirometry were performed with post-bronchodilator measures for those with airflow limitation. Measurements and Main Results: The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among Puerto Ricans (36.5%; 95% confidence interval, 33.6–39.5%) was higher than among other Hispanics (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 3.3–4.6). Hispanics who were born in the mainland United States or had immigrated as children had a higher asthma prevalence than those who had immigrated as adults (19.6, 19.4, and 14.1%, respectively; P < 0.001). Current asthma, bronchodilator responsiveness, and wheeze followed similar patterns. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence was higher among Puerto Ricans (14.1%) and Cubans (9.8%) than among other Hispanics (<6.0%), but it did not vary across Hispanic heritages after adjustment for smoking and prior asthma (P = 0.22), by country of birth, or by age at immigration. Conclusions: Asthma

  11. Pulmonary Disease and Age at Immigration among Hispanics. Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    PubMed

    Barr, R Graham; Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Davis, Sonia M; Aldrich, Tom K; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Henderson, Ashley G; Kaplan, Robert C; LaVange, Lisa; Liu, Kiang; Loredo, Jose S; Mendes, Eliana S; Ni, Ai; Ries, Andrew; Salathe, Matthias; Smith, Lewis J

    2016-02-15

    Asthma has been reported to be more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanics and among Hispanics born in the United States or who immigrated as children than among those who came as adults; however, direct comparisons across Hispanic groups are lacking. To test whether asthma is more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanic groups, whether asthma is associated with age of immigration, and whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease varies by heritage in a large, population-based cohort of Hispanics in the United States. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos researchers recruited a population-based probability sample of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos, 18-74 years of age, in New York City, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. Participants self-reported Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Central American, or South American heritage; birthplace; and, if relevant, age at immigration. A respiratory questionnaire and standardized spirometry were performed with post-bronchodilator measures for those with airflow limitation. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among Puerto Ricans (36.5%; 95% confidence interval, 33.6-39.5%) was higher than among other Hispanics (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-4.6). Hispanics who were born in the mainland United States or had immigrated as children had a higher asthma prevalence than those who had immigrated as adults (19.6, 19.4, and 14.1%, respectively; P < 0.001). Current asthma, bronchodilator responsiveness, and wheeze followed similar patterns. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence was higher among Puerto Ricans (14.1%) and Cubans (9.8%) than among other Hispanics (<6.0%), but it did not vary across Hispanic heritages after adjustment for smoking and prior asthma (P = 0.22), by country of birth, or by age at immigration. Asthma was more prevalent among Puerto Ricans, other Hispanics born in the United States

  12. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development reaches age 70: maintaining participation at older ages in a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Shah, Imran; Moore, Adam; Popham, Maria; Curran, Philip; Davis, Daniel; Sharma, Nikhil; Richards, Marcus; Stafford, Mai; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel

    2016-11-01

    A life course approach to ageing relies on maintaining participation rates in national birth cohorts and other long-term longitudinal studies. This reduces the risk of selective attrition biasing associations between lifetime risk factors and health outcomes in later life and ensures the studies remain as representative as possible of the original population. We report the participation patterns for a postal questionnaire and home visit at 68-69 years of study members in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, the oldest and longest-running British birth cohort study. We investigated how participation varied by lifetime and recent contact, health status, previous clinical feedback and study engagement, taking account of prior socioeconomic and cognitive characteristics. Overall participation and home visit participation remained high (94 and 80%, respectively) and there were no gender differences. Participation was higher in those with higher levels of prior contact and lower in those with the poorest health status. Having previously received clinical feedback on actionable blood results was associated with reduced home visit participation but other forms of clinical feedback were not associated with subsequent participation. Activities that fostered study engagement were associated with increased home visit participation. These findings inform strategies to maintain participation in life course studies.

  13. Using an eHealth Intervention to Stimulate Health Behavior for the Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Dutch Adults: A Study Protocol for the Brain Aging Monitor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-delivered intervention programs are an effective way of changing health behavior in an aging population. The same population has an increasing number of people with cognitive decline or cognitive impairments. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep, and stress all influence the probability of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Objective This study aims to answer two questions: (1) Is the use of a self-motivated, complex eHealth intervention effective in changing multiple health behaviors related to cognitive aging in Dutch adults in the work force, especially those aged 40 and over? and (2) Does this health behavior change result in healthier cognitive aging patterns and contribute to preventing or delaying future onset of neurodegenerative syndromes? Methods The Brain Aging Monitor study uses a quasi-experimental 2-year pre-posttest design. The Brain Aging Monitor is an online, self-motivated lifestyle intervention program. Recruitment is done both in medium to large organizations and in the Dutch general population over the age of 40. The main outcome measure is the relationship between lifestyle change and cognitive aging. The program uses different strategies and modalities such as Web content, email, online newsletters, and online games to aid its users in behavior change. To build self-regulatory skills, the Brain Aging Monitor offers its users goal-setting activities, skill-building activities, and self-monitoring. Results Study results are expected to be published in early 2016. Conclusions This study will add to the body of evidence on the effectiveness of eHealth intervention programs with the combined use of state-of-the-art applied games and established behavior change techniques. This will lead to new insights on how to use behavior change techniques and theory in multidimensional lifestyle eHealth research, and how these techniques

  14. Using an eHealth Intervention to Stimulate Health Behavior for the Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Dutch Adults: A Study Protocol for the Brain Aging Monitor.

    PubMed

    Aalbers, Teun; Baars, Maria Ae; Qin, Li; de Lange, Annet; Kessels, Roy Pc; Olde Rikkert, Marcel Gm

    2015-11-10

    Internet-delivered intervention programs are an effective way of changing health behavior in an aging population. The same population has an increasing number of people with cognitive decline or cognitive impairments. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep, and stress all influence the probability of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This study aims to answer two questions: (1) Is the use of a self-motivated, complex eHealth intervention effective in changing multiple health behaviors related to cognitive aging in Dutch adults in the work force, especially those aged 40 and over? and (2) Does this health behavior change result in healthier cognitive aging patterns and contribute to preventing or delaying future onset of neurodegenerative syndromes? The Brain Aging Monitor study uses a quasi-experimental 2-year pre-posttest design. The Brain Aging Monitor is an online, self-motivated lifestyle intervention program. Recruitment is done both in medium to large organizations and in the Dutch general population over the age of 40. The main outcome measure is the relationship between lifestyle change and cognitive aging. The program uses different strategies and modalities such as Web content, email, online newsletters, and online games to aid its users in behavior change. To build self-regulatory skills, the Brain Aging Monitor offers its users goal-setting activities, skill-building activities, and self-monitoring. Study results are expected to be published in early 2016. This study will add to the body of evidence on the effectiveness of eHealth intervention programs with the combined use of state-of-the-art applied games and established behavior change techniques. This will lead to new insights on how to use behavior change techniques and theory in multidimensional lifestyle eHealth research, and how these techniques and theories apply when they are used in a setting

  15. Health-promoting behaviors and social support of women of reproductive age, and strategies for advancing their health: Protocol for a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Determining the health-promoting behaviors of women during the important period of reproduction provides valuable information for designing appropriate intervention programs for advancing women's health. There is no study on the health-promoting behaviors of women of reproductive age in Iran. Thus, the aim of this study is to explore these health-promoting behaviors for the purpose of developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive health advancement strategies for Iranian women. Methods/Design This study has a sequential explanatory mixed methods design. The follow-up explanation model is used to elaborate the quantitative results by collecting qualitative data from participants who could best assist in elucidating the results. The study is conducted in two sequential phases. The first phase is a population-based cross-sectional survey in which 1350 Iranian women of reproductive age are selected by proportional random multistage cluster sampling of the 22 main municipal sectors of Tehran, Iran. Questionnaires are completed through a face-to-face interview. The second phase is a qualitative study in which participants are selected using purposive sampling in the form of extreme case sampling on the basis of health-promoting behavior scores. The qualitative phase is based on data collected from focus group discussions or individual in-depth interviews. A conventional qualitative content analysis approach is used, and the data are managed with a computer-assisted program. Women's health-promoting strategies are developed using the qualitative and quantitative results, a review of the related literature, and the nominal group technique among experts. Discussion The findings of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study, obtained using a culturally sensitive approach, provide insights into the health behavioral factors that need to be considered if preventive strategies and intervention programs are to be designed to promote women's health in the

  16. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  17. Association of Healthy Habits Beliefs and Mortality in Older Adults: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Villa, Julio M; Marquez, David X; Sanchez-Garrido, Natalia; Perez-Zepeda, Mario U; Gonzalez-Lara, Mariana

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to establish the association between beliefs about healthy habits and mortality in a group of Mexican older adults. This is an 11-year follow-up secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. There was a significant difference ( p < .001) in survival rate between those participants who believed that healthy habits have the potential to improve health compared with those who did not. After adjustment for confounders, Cox regression models showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.07, 0.38], p < .001) for the group that believed in healthy habits. Although the mechanism is not completely clear, according to our results, believing that healthy habits can improve health was associated with lower rates of mortality. Further research should elucidate potential strategies for changing beliefs in older adults with the goal of improving their overall health.

  18. Age at presentation and management of pediatric intussusception: A Pediatric Health Information System database study.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Kate B; Thomas, Fridtjof; Nouer, Simonne S; Langham, Max R; Huang, Eunice Y

    2017-04-01

    Intussusception is uncommon in children older than 3 years, and use of enema reduction in older children is controversial. We sought to determine whether older children are at greater risk of requiring operative intervention and/or having pathology causing lead points, such that enema reduction should not be attempted. The Pediatric Health Information System database was reviewed from January 1, 2009-June 30, 2014. Patients were followed for 6 months from initial presentation or until bowel resection occurred. Successful enema reduction was defined as having radiologic reduction without additional procedures. A total of 7,412 patients were identified: 6,681 were <3 years old, 731 patients were >3 years old. In those >3 years old, 450 (62%) were treated successfully with enema reduction; the rate of patients with a tumor diagnosis was similar in patients <3 years old and patients >3 years old (5% vs 6%, P = .07). The rate of a Meckel's diagnosis was greater in patients >3 years old (2% vs 14%, P < .0001). In patients >3 years old, duration of stay between patients who underwent primary operative therapy versus those who underwent operative therapy after enema reduction was similar (4 days vs 4 days, P = .06). Older age was not associated with increased risk of recurrent admission for intussusception (P = .45). Pediatric Health Information System data suggest that enema reduction may be safe and effective for a majority of children even if older than 3 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study to the Epidemiology of Cataract, Age-Related Macular Degeneration, and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Juan; Cho, Eunyoung; Ogata, Soshiro; Jacques, Paul; Taylor, Allen; Chiu, Chung-Jung; Wiggs, Janey L.; Seddon, Johanna M.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Pasquale, Louis R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) to understanding the genetic and lifestyle factors that influence the risk of cataract, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS between 1976 and 2016. Results. The NHS has helped to elucidate the roles of genetics, lifestyle factors (e.g., cigarette smoking associated with cataract extraction and age-related macular degeneration), medical conditions (e.g., diabetes associated with cataract extraction and glaucoma), and dietary factors (e.g., greater carotenoid intake and lower glycemic diet associated with lower risk of age-related macular degeneration) in the etiology of degree and progression of lens opacities, cataract extraction, age-related macular degeneration, primary open-angle glaucoma, and exfoliation glaucoma. Conclusions. The findings from the NHS, combined with those of other studies, have provided compelling evidence to support public health recommendations for helping to prevent age-related eye diseases: abstinence from cigarette smoking, maintenance of healthy weight and diabetes prevention, and a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables. PMID:27459452

  20. Mediators of the relationship between socioeconomic status and allostatic load in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study (CHASRS)

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Lavelle, Leah A.; Berntson, Gary G.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with higher levels of allostatic load (AL). Posited mechanisms for this association include stress, personality, psychosocial variables, coping, social networks, and health behaviors. This study examines whether these variables explain the SES-AL relationship in a population-based sample of 208 51–69 year-old White, Black, and Hispanic adults in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study. AL was based on nine markers of physiological dysregulation. SES was inversely associated with a composite measure of AL; hostility and poor sleep quality helped to explain the association between AL and SES. Factor analyses revealed four AL components corresponding to the bodily systems of interest. SES was significantly associated with two AL components, suggesting that the effects of SES on physiological dysregulation are specific to certain systems in a middle to early-old age population. PMID:21342206

  1. Age Differences in the Association of Social Support and Mental Health in Male U.S. Veterans: Results From the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Melissa R; Monin, Joan K; Mota, Natalie; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    To examine the associations between multiple aspects of social support-perceived support, structural support, and community integration-and mental health difficulties in younger and older male veterans. Drawing from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST), we hypothesized that greater support would be more strongly negatively related to mental health difficulties in older than younger veterans. Cross-sectional Web survey of younger and older male veterans recruited from a contemporary, nationally representative sample of veterans residing in the United States. Data were drawn from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. Participants were 290 younger male veterans (mean age: 37.0 years, SD: 6.9, range: 21-46) and 326 older male veterans (mean age: 81.7 years, SD: 3.2, range: 78-96). Participants completed measures of sociodemographic and military characteristics, perceived and structural social support, community integration, and mental health difficulties. In contrast to SST, higher perceived support was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in younger but not older veterans. In line with SST, community integration was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in older but not younger veterans. Structural support was not associated with mental health difficulties in either group. Results of this study provide mixed support for SST and suggest that different aspects of social support may help promote the mental health of younger and older male U.S. veterans. Promotion of community engagement may help promote mental health in older veterans, whereas promotion of functional social support may help promote mental health in younger veterans. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  2. Age Differences in the Association of Social Support and Mental Health in Male U.S. Veterans: Results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Melissa R.; Monin, Joan K.; Mota, Natalie; Pietrzak, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between multiple aspects of social support—perceived support, structural support, and community integration—and mental health difficulties in younger and older male veterans. Drawing from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST), we hypothesized that greater support would be more strongly negatively related to mental health difficulties in older than younger veterans. Design Cross-sectional web survey of younger and older male veterans drawn from a contemporary, nationally representative sample of veterans residing in the United States. Setting Data were drawn from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS). Participants Participants were 290 younger male veterans (mean age=37.0, SD=6.9, range=21–46) and 326 older male veterans (mean age=81.7, SD=3.2, range=78–96). Measurements Participants completed measures of socio-demographic and military characteristics, perceived and structural social support, community integration, and mental health difficulties. Results In contrast to SST, higher perceived support was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in younger but not older veterans. In line with SST, community integration was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in older but not younger veterans. Structural support was not associated with mental health difficulties in either group. Conclusion Results of this study provide mixed support for SST and suggest that different aspects of social support may help promote the mental health of younger and older male U.S. veterans. Promotion of community engagement may protect mental health in older veterans, while promotion of functional social support may protect mental health in younger veterans. PMID:26880612

  3. Health screening - men - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - men - ages 18 to 39; Men's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care exam - men - ...

  4. Frailty among Mexican community-dwelling elderly: a story told 11 years later. The Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Navarro, Sara G; Amieva, Hélène; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Avila-Funes, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics and prognosis of subjects classified as frail in a large sample of Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Materials and methods An eleven-year longitudinal study of 5 644 old adults participating in the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Frailty was defined loss, weakness, exhaustion, slow walking speed and low physical activity. The main outcomes were incident disability and death. Multiple covariates were used to test the prognostic value of frailty. Results Thirty-seven percent of participants (n = 2 102) met the frailty criteria. Frail participants were significantly older, female, less disease, lower income, and poorer self-reported health status, in comparison with their non-frail counterparts. Frailty was a predictor both for disability activities of daily living and for mortality. Conclusion After a follow-up of more than ten years, the phenotype of frailty was a predictor for adverse health-related outcomes, including ADL disability and death. PMID:26172236

  5. Association between Sleep Duration and Mortality Is Mediated by Markers of Inflammation and Health in Older Adults: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Martica H.; Smagula, Stephen F.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Ayonayon, Hilsa N.; Goldman, Suzanne E.; Harris, Tamara B.; Naydeck, Barbara L.; Rubin, Susan M.; Samuelsson, Laura; Satterfield, Suzanne; Stone, Katie L.; Visser, Marjolein; Newman, Anne B.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Inflammation may represent a common physiological pathway linking both short and long sleep duration to mortality. We evaluated inflammatory markers as mediators of the relationship between sleep duration and mortality in community-dwelling older adults. Design: Prospective cohort with longitudinal follow-up for mortality outcomes. Setting: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee. Participants: Participants in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study (mean age 73.6 ± 2.9 years at baseline) were sampled and recruited from Medicare listings. Measurements and Results: Baseline measures of subjective sleep duration, markers of inflammation (serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and C-reactive protein) and health status were evaluated as predictors of all-cause mortality (average follow-up = 8.2 ± 2.3 years). Sleep duration was related to mortality, and age-, sex-, and race-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were highest for those with the shortest (< 6 h HR: 1.30, CI: 1.05–1.61) and longest (> 8 h HR: 1.49, CI: 1.15–1.93) sleep durations. Adjustment for inflammatory markers and health status attenuated the HR for short (< 6 h) sleepers (HR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.83–1.34). Age-, sex-, and race-adjusted HRs for the > 8-h sleeper group were less strongly attenuated by adjustment for inflammatory markers than by other health factors associated with poor sleep with adjusted HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.93–1.63. Inflammatory markers remained significantly associated with mortality. Conclusions: Inflammatory markers, lifestyle, and health status explained mortality risk associated with short sleep, while the mortality risk associated with long sleep was explained predominantly by lifestyle and health status. Citation: Hall MH, Smagula SF, Boudreau RM, Ayonayon HN, Goldman SE, Harris TB, Naydeck BL, Rubin SM, Samuelsson L, Satterfield S, Stone KL, Visser M, Newman AB. Association between sleep duration and mortality is mediated by

  6. Psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS): secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Torres-Castro, Sara; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar

    2016-12-09

    The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) has been widely used and has proven to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing satisfaction with life in diverse population groups, however, research on satisfaction with life and validation of different measuring instruments in Mexican adults is still lacking. The objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in a representative sample of Mexican adults. This is a methodological study to evaluate a satisfaction with life scale in a sample of 13,220 Mexican adults 50 years of age or older from the 2012 Mexican Health and Aging Study. The scale's reliability (internal consistency) was analysed using Cronbach's alpha and inter-item correlations. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed. Known-groups validity was evaluated comparing good-health and bad-health participants. Comorbidity, perceived financial situation, self-reported general health, depression symptoms, and social support were included to evaluate the validity between these measures and the total score of the scale using Spearman's correlations. The analysis of the scale's reliability showed good internal consistency (α = 0.74). The exploratory factor analysis confirmed the existence of a unique factor structure that explained 54% of the variance. SWLS was related to depression, perceived health, financial situation, and social support, and these relations were all statistically significant (P < .01). There was significant difference in life satisfaction between the good- and bad-health groups. Results show good internal consistency and construct validity of the SWLS. These results are comparable with results from previous studies. Meeting the study's objective to validate the scale, the results show that the Spanish version of the SWLS is a reliable and valid measure of satisfaction with life in the Mexican context.

  7. Who Works Among Older Black and White, Well-Functioning Adults in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study?

    PubMed Central

    Rooks, Ronica N.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Schulz, Richard; Rubin, Susan; Harris, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to examine social, economic, and health factors related to paid work in well-functioning older adults and if and how these factors vary by race. Method: We used sex-stratified logistic and multinomial logistic regression to examine cross-sectional data in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition cohort study. The sample included 3,075 community-dwelling Black (42%) and White adults aged 70 to 79 at baseline. Results: Multinomial logistic regression analyses show Black men were more likely to work full-time, and Black women were more likely to work part-time. Men with ≥US$50,000 family income were more likely to work full-time. Men with better physical functioning were more likely to work full- and part-time. Women with ≥US$50,000 family income and fewer chronic diseases were more likely to work full-time. Women who were overweight and had fewer chronic diseases were more likely to work part-time. Discussion: Results suggest that well-functioning, older Black adults were more likely to work than their White counterparts, and working relates to better health and higher income, providing support for a productive or successful aging perspective. PMID:28894767

  8. [Gender, age, occupation, economic sector and mental health in the workplace: the results of the study SALVEO].

    PubMed

    Marchand, Alain; Blanc, Marie-Eve; Durand, Pierre

    2015-04-29

    This article examined the contribution of gender, age, occupation and economic sector on psychological distress, depression and burnout. The data came from the SALVEO study carried out in 2009- 2012 among 2,162 workers employed in 63 Canadian workplaces. Multilevel logistic regression models were estimated on the total sample and separately for men and women. The prevalences of psychological distress, depression and burnout were 23.8%, 5.8% and 3.9% respectively. Mental health problems varied between workplaces, but variations between workplaces were stronger for burnout. Differences between men and women were significant only for psychological distress, depression, and emotional exhaustion. Unskilled workers were found more at risk for depression and burnout. Associations among age, occupation and economic sector were not the same between genders. Results from the SALVEO study highlight important mental health problems in workers that vary between workplaces, and that differences in symptomatology are associated with gender, age, occupation and economic sector. Gender reveals differentiated profiles of relationships. These results point towards the development of targeted approaches to the prevention of and intervention on mental health problems in workplaces.

  9. Health needs, access to healthcare, and perceptions of ageing in an urbanizing community in India: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bhan, Nandita; Madhira, Pavitra; Muralidharan, Arundati; Kulkarni, Bharati; Murthy, Gvs; Basu, Sanjay; Kinra, Sanjay

    2017-07-19

    India's elderly population is rising at an unprecedented rate, with a majority living in rural areas. Health challenges associated with ageing, changing social networks and limited public health infrastructure are issues faced by the elderly and caregivers. We examined perceptions of health needs of the elderly across local stakeholders in an urbanizing rural area. The qualitative study was conducted among participants in the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS) site in Rangareddy district, Telangana. We collected data using focus group discussions and interviews among communities (n = 6), health providers (n = 9) and administrators (n = 6). We assessed stakeholders' views on the influence of urbanization on health issues faced and interventions for alleviating these challenges. We used a conceptual-analytical model to derive themes and used an inductive approach to organizing emerging codes as per a priori themes. These were organized as per thematic groups and ranked by different authors in order of importance. Bronfebrenner's theory was used to understand stakeholder perspectives and suggest interventions within four identified spheres of influence - individual, household, community and services. Stakeholders reported frailty, lack of transport and dependence on others as factors impacting health access of the elderly. Existing public health systems were perceived as overburdened and insensitive towards the elderly. Urbanization was viewed positively, but road accidents, crime and loneliness were significant concerns. Interventions suggested by stakeholders included health service outreach, lifestyle counseling, community monitoring of healthcare and engagement activities. We recommend integrating outreach services and lifestyle counseling within programs for care of the elderly. Community institutions can play an important role in the delivery and monitoring of health and social services for the elderly.

  10. Health and ageing in Nairobi's informal settlements-evidence from the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH): a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wilunda, Boniface; Ng, Nawi; Stewart Williams, Jennifer

    2015-12-11

    Much of the focus on population ageing has been in high-income counties. Relatively less attention is given to the world's poorest region, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where children and adolescents still comprise a high proportion of the population. Yet the number of adults aged 60-plus in SSA is already twice that in northern Europe. In addition, SSA is experiencing massive rural to urban migration with consequent expansion of informal urban settlements, or slums, whose health problems are usually unrecognised and not addressed. This study aims to improve understanding of functional health and well-being in older adult slum-dwellers in Nairobi (Kenya). The study sample comprised men and women, aged 50 years and over, living in Korogocho and Viwandani, Nairobi, Kenya (n = 1,878). Data from the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) and the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE Wave 1) were analysed. The prevalence of poor self-reported quality of life (QoL) and difficulties in domain-specific function is estimated by age and sex. Logistic regression investigates associations between difficulties in the domains of function and poor QoL, adjusting for age, sex and socio-demographic factors. Statistical significance is set at P<0.05. Women reported poorer QoL and greater functional difficulties than men in all domains except self-care. In the multivariable logistic regression the odds of poor QoL among respondents with problems or difficulties in relation to affect (OR = 7.0; 95%CI = 3.0-16.0), pain/discomfort (OR = 3.6; 95%CI = 2.3-5.8), cognition (OR = 1.8; 95 %CI = 1.2-2.9) and mobility (OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.1-2.8) were statistically significant. The findings underscore differences in the domains of functional health that encapsulate women and men's capacities to perform regular activities and the impact of poor functioning on QoL. Investing in the health and Qo

  11. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith; Goodson, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses, and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  12. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Keith T; Goodson, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter, we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered.

  13. Health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families: A qualitative study in Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadele, Getnet; Aseffa, Abraham; McBride, Colleen M.; Davey, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Background Several studies have suggested investigation of health beliefs in children to be an important pre-condition for primary prevention of disease. However, little effort has been made to understand these in the context of podoconiosis. This study therefore aimed to explore the health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families. Methodology/Principal findings A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in March 2016 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs), with a total of one hundred seventeen 9 to15-year-old children recruited from podoconiosis affected families. The study revealed various misconceptions regarding risk factors for podoconiosis. Most children believed barefoot exposure to dew, worms, snake bite, frog urine, other forms of poison, and contact with affected people to be major causes of the disease. Their knowledge about the role of heredity and that of long term barefoot exposure to irritant mineral particles was also weak. Though most participants correctly appraised their susceptibility to podoconiosis in relation to regular use of footwear and foot hygiene, others based their risk perceptions on factors they think beyond their control. They described several barriers to preventive behaviour, including uncomfortable footwear, shortage and poor adaptability of footwear for farm activities and sports, and shortage of soap for washing. Children also perceived low self-efficacy to practice preventive behaviour in spite of the barriers. Conclusion/Significance Health education interventions may enhance school-age children’s health literacy and be translated to preventive action. Overcoming practical challenges such as shortage of footwear and other hygiene facilities requires other forms of interventions such as livelihood strengthening activities. Linking podoconiosis-affected families with local governmental or non

  14. Disability and ageing in China and India - decomposing the effects of gender and residence. Results from the WHO study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Norström, Fredrik; Ng, Nawi

    2017-08-31

    China and India are the world's two most populous countries. Although their populations are growing in number and life expectancies are extending they have different trajectories of economic growth, epidemiological transition and social change. Cross-country comparisons can allow national and global insights and provide evidence for policy and decision-making. The aim of this study is to measure and compare disability in men and women, and in urban and rural dwellers in China and India, and assess the extent to which social and other factors contribute to the inequalities. National samples of adults aged 50 to 79 years in China (n = 11,694) and India (n = 6187) from the World Health Organization (WHO) longitudinal Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 were analysed. Stratified multiple linear regressions were undertaken to assess disability differences by sex and residence, controlling for other biological and socioeconomic determinants of disability. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition partitioned the two-group inequalities into explained and unexplained components. In both countries women and rural residents reported more disability. In India, the gender inequality is attributed to the distribution of the determinants (employment, education and chronic conditions) but in China about half the inequality is attributed to the same. In India, more than half of the urban rural inequality is attributed to the distribution of the determinants (education, household wealth) compared with under 20% in China. Education and employment were important drivers of these measured inequalities. Overall inequalities in disability among older adults in China and India were shaped by gender and residence, suggesting the need for policies that target women and rural residents. There is a need for further research, using both qualitative and quantitative methods, to question and challenge entrenched practices and institutions and grasp the implications of global economic

  15. Ethnicity and first birth: age, smoking, delivery, gestation, weight and feeding: Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Narinder; Chalmers, James W T; Fischbacher, Colin M; Steiner, Markus F C; Bhopal, Raj S

    2014-12-01

    We linked census and health service data sets to address the shortage of information comparing maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes by ethnic group in Scotland. Retrospective cohort study linking the 2001 National Census for Scotland and hospital obstetric data (2001-08), comparing maternal age, smoking status, gestational age, caesarean section rates, birthweight, preterm birth and breastfeeding rates by ethnic group. In all, 144 344 women were identified as having had a first birth between 1 May 2001 and 30 April 2008. White Scottish mothers were younger [mean age 27.3 years; 95% confidence interval (CI): 27.3, 27.4] than other white groups and most non-white groups. They had the highest smoking rates (25.8%; CI: 25.5, 26.0) and the lowest rates of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks (23.4%; CI: 23.1, 23.6), with most of the other groups being around 40%. Women from non-white minority ethnic groups in Scotland tended to have babies of lower birthweight (e.g. Pakistani mean birthweight-3105 g, white Scottish-3356 g), even after adjustment for gestational age, maternal age, education, smoking and housing tenure. This effect was more noticeable for women born in the UK. White English, Irish and other white babies tended to have higher birthweights. There was little variation between groups in caesarean section rates. Pregnant women from ethnic minority populations in Scotland have more favourable health behaviour than the white Scottish, although the non-white groups tend to have lower birthweight. Further exploration of the reasons for these differences has potential to benefit women from the majority population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictors of Back Pain in Middle-Aged Women: Data From the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Brady, Sharmayne R E; Monira Hussain, Sultana; Brown, Wendy J; Heritier, Stephane; Wang, Yuanyuan; Teede, Helena; Urquhart, Donna M; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2017-05-01

    Back pain causes greater disability worldwide than any other condition, with women more likely to experience back pain than men. Our aim was to identify modifiable risk factors for back pain in middle-aged women. Women born between 1946 and 1951 were randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme database to participate in The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Self-reported data on back pain in the last 12 months, and on weight, physical activity, and other sociodemographic factors, were collected in 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007, 2010, and 2013. In 1998, a total of 12,338 women completed the survey and 10,011 (74%) completed the 2013 survey. At baseline, median (range) age was 49.5 years (44.6-53.5 years), and 54% reported back pain. In multivariate analysis, baseline weight and depression were positive predictors of back pain over each 3-year survey interval and over the following 15 years, whereas participation in vigorous physical activity was protective. The effects of weight on back pain were most marked in women with a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m(2) . Back pain is common in middle-aged women. Increased weight, weight gain, and depression were independent predictors of back pain over 15 years, whereas participation in vigorous physical activity was protective. Targeting these lifestyle factors is an important area for future research on reducing the burden of back pain in middle-aged women. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  17. An exploratory study of ageing women's perception on access to health informatics via a mobile phone-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lishan; Yen, Ching Chiuan; Chang, Leanne; Chan, Hock Chuan; Tai, Bee Choo; Tan, Say Beng; Duh, Henry Been Lirn; Choolani, Mahesh

    2012-09-01

    This is an exploratory study examining the perceived attitudes and readiness of women aged 50 years or older on adopting a mobile phone-based intervention named as Infohealth in Singapore. Infohealth is designed as a health informatics to tailor personalized healthcare advice for the well-being for women - very little is known about the acceptability level of self-care technology, especially the older among the female population. To explore participants' perceptions and acceptance, a telephone survey was developed from concepts identified from various user acceptance theories and models. Correlation was used to identify significant dependent variables while partial least square and boot-strapping procedures were used to estimate the significance of the path coefficients. Analysis supports the validity and reliability of the 27-item research model consisting of 8 constructs. 700 women aged 50years and older responded to the survey. Findings show the extent of ageing women's existing dependency on others for help, regard for close ones whom they care for, opinion from family and friends, and guarding the health of people who are important for them do not directly affect the intention of using Infohealth, but are rather mediated by perceived usefulness. This study validated some ageing-specific and female-posited variables to suggest as main constructs in future innovation adoption studies about older women. Technological anxiety and perceived physical condition both have no direct relationship with perceived ease of use and usefulness, lifestyle and intention to use. Findings reinforced the significant roles of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, compatibility, and subjective norm in predicting the adoption intention of Infohealth among ageing women. More extensive statistical analysis is needed to discover more interesting findings while qualitative analysis can help to detect humanistic design opportunities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  18. Cultural aspects of ageing and health promotion.

    PubMed

    Mariño, R J

    2015-03-01

    The emphasis of Australian Government policy is on the promotion of good health in later life and positive experiences with ageing. Conceptually, a new gerontology framework has replaced the study of disease, decline, loss and disability. Within this framework, health promotion offers a mechanism by which individuals can be assisted to create environments that offer better opportunities for continued participation in society and improved quality of health and self-care. Oral health is instrumental to older people's health, life satisfaction, quality of life and perception of self. Australia is culturally diverse, composed of numerous ethno-cultural groups coexisting within a larger, predominant culture, creating a multicultural and multiracial society. However, despite this cultural diversity, the well documented ageing profile of the Australian population and repeated calls for comprehensive geriatric assessment, the oral health of older adults remains a challenge for oral health providers and for society. A major challenge will be to translate existing knowledge and experience of disease prevention and health promotion into appropriate programmes for older adults. Health promotion is the key to improving oral health in later life as it encourages older adults to be proactive in regard to their health. Therefore, increased efforts should be directed towards identifying opportunities for health promotion activities and the development of community based models that encourage older people to improve and maintain their oral health. Ignoring opportunities for health promotion may increase inequalities in oral health and may lead to even greater demands for curative and oral rehabilitative services from these groups This article firstly provides a brief rationale for oral health promotion. Its second part explores the influence of culture on health beliefs, behaviours and outcomes in older adults and how oral health can relate to cultural background. The last section

  19. Patterns of Hospitalization Risk for Women Surviving Into Very Old Age: Findings From the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Dolja-Gore, Xenia; Harris, Melissa L; Kendig, Hal; Byles, Julie E

    2017-04-01

    By 2050, adults aged 80 years and over will represent around 20% of the global population. Little is known about how adults surviving into very old age use hospital services over time. The objective of the study was to examine patterns of hospital usage over a 10-year period for women who were aged 84 to 89 in 2010 and examine factors associated with increased use. Survey data from 1936 women from the 1921 to 1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were matched with the state-based Admitted Patients Data Collection. Hospital use profiles were determined using repeated measures latent class analysis. Four latent class trajectories were identified. One-quarter of the sample were at low risk of hospitalization, while 20.6% demonstrated increased risk of hospitalization and a further 38.1% had moderate hospitalization risk over time. Only 16.8% of the sample was classified as having high hospitalization risk. Correlates of hospital use for very old women differed according to hospital use class and were contingent on the timing of exposure (ie, short-term or long-term). Despite the perception that older adults place a significant burden on health care systems, the majority of women demonstrated relatively low hospital use over an extended period, even in the presence of chronic health conditions. High hospitalization risk was found to be concentrated among a small minority of these long-term survivors. The findings suggest the importance of service planning and treatment regimes that take account of the diverse trajectories of hospital use into and through advanced old age.

  20. Neighborhood physical disorder, social cohesion, and insomnia: results from participants over age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Augustinavicius, Jura L; Mojtabai, Ramin; Parisi, Jeanine M; Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Smith, Michael T; Spira, Adam P

    2014-09-15

    ABSTRACT Background: We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods: Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g. vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, and cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g. friendliness of people, availability of help when needed, etc.); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, and feeling unrested). Results: After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.14), waking too early (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 years (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and feeling unrested (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15). Conclusions: Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population.

  1. Neighborhood Physical Disorder, Social Cohesion and Insomnia: Results from Participants Over Age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P.; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Augustinavicius, Jura L.; Mojtabai, Ramin; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Wennberg, Alexandra M. V.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    Background We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g., vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g., friendliness of people, availability of help when needed); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, feeling unrested). Results After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR)=1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.14), waking too early (OR=1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.02–1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.11) and feeling unrested (OR=1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15). Conclusions Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population. PMID:25222023

  2. A prospective study of cognitive health in the elderly (Oregon Brain Aging Study): effects of family history and apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed

    Payami, H; Grimslid, H; Oken, B; Camicioli, R; Sexton, G; Dame, A; Howieson, D; Kaye, J

    1997-04-01

    The oldest old are the fastest-growing segment of our population and have the highest prevalence of dementia. Little is known about the genetics of cognitive health in the very old. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genetic risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD)--namely, apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele and a family history of dementia-continue to be important factors in the cognitive health of the very old. Case-control studies suggest that the effect of genetic factors diminishes at age >75 years. The present prospective study provided evidence to the contrary. We studied 114 Caucasian subjects who were physically healthy and cognitively intact at age 75 years and who were followed, for an average of 4 years, with neurological, psychometric, and neuroimaging examinations. Excellent health at entry did not protect against cognitive decline. Incidence of cognitive decline rose sharply with age. epsilon4 and a family history of dementia (independent of epsilon4) were associated with an earlier age at onset of dementia. Subjects who had epsilon4 or a family history of dementia had a ninefold-higher age-specific risk for dementia than did those who had neither epsilon4 nor a family history of dementia. These observations suggest that the rate of cognitive decline increases with age and that APOE and other familial/genetic factors influence the onset age throughout life.

  3. A prospective study of cognitive health in the elderly (Oregon Brain Aging Study): effects of family history and apolipoprotein E genotype.

    PubMed Central

    Payami, H; Grimslid, H; Oken, B; Camicioli, R; Sexton, G; Dame, A; Howieson, D; Kaye, J

    1997-01-01

    The oldest old are the fastest-growing segment of our population and have the highest prevalence of dementia. Little is known about the genetics of cognitive health in the very old. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genetic risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD)--namely, apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele and a family history of dementia-continue to be important factors in the cognitive health of the very old. Case-control studies suggest that the effect of genetic factors diminishes at age >75 years. The present prospective study provided evidence to the contrary. We studied 114 Caucasian subjects who were physically healthy and cognitively intact at age 75 years and who were followed, for an average of 4 years, with neurological, psychometric, and neuroimaging examinations. Excellent health at entry did not protect against cognitive decline. Incidence of cognitive decline rose sharply with age. epsilon4 and a family history of dementia (independent of epsilon4) were associated with an earlier age at onset of dementia. Subjects who had epsilon4 or a family history of dementia had a ninefold-higher age-specific risk for dementia than did those who had neither epsilon4 nor a family history of dementia. These observations suggest that the rate of cognitive decline increases with age and that APOE and other familial/genetic factors influence the onset age throughout life. PMID:9106542

  4. From Social Structural Factors to Perceptions of Relationship Quality and Loneliness: The Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Hughes, Mary Elizabeth; Waite, Linda J.; Masi, Christopher M.; Thisted, Ronald A.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to test a conceptual model of loneliness in which social structural factors are posited to operate through proximal factors to influence perceptions of relationship quality and loneliness. Methods We used a population-based sample of 225 White, Black, and Hispanic men and women aged 50 through 68 from the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study to examine the extent to which associations between sociodemographic factors and loneliness were explained by socioeconomic status, physical health, social roles, stress exposure, and, ultimately, by network size and subjective relationship quality. Results Education and income were negatively associated with loneliness and explained racial/ethnic differences in loneliness. Being married largely explained the association between income and loneliness, with positive marital relationships offering the greatest degree of protection against loneliness. Independent risk factors for loneliness included male gender, physical health symptoms, chronic work and/or social stress, small social network, lack of a spousal confidant, and poor-quality social relationships. Discussion Longitudinal research is needed to evaluate the causal role of social structural and proximal factors in explaining changes in loneliness. PMID:19092047

  5. From social structural factors to perceptions of relationship quality and loneliness: the Chicago health, aging, and social relations study.

    PubMed

    Hawkley, Louise C; Hughes, Mary Elizabeth; Waite, Linda J; Masi, Christopher M; Thisted, Ronald A; Cacioppo, John T

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to test a conceptual model of loneliness in which social structural factors are posited to operate through proximal factors to influence perceptions of relationship quality and loneliness. We used a population-based sample of 225 White, Black, and Hispanic men and women aged 50 through 68 from the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study to examine the extent to which associations between sociodemographic factors and loneliness were explained by socioeconomic status, physical health, social roles, stress exposure, and, ultimately, by network size and subjective relationship quality. Education and income were negatively associated with loneliness and explained racial/ethnic differences in loneliness. Being married largely explained the association between income and loneliness, with positive marital relationships offering the greatest degree of protection against loneliness. Independent risk factors for loneliness included male gender, physical health symptoms, chronic work and/or social stress, small social network, lack of a spousal confidant, and poor-quality social relationships. Longitudinal research is needed to evaluate the causal role of social structural and proximal factors in explaining changes in loneliness.

  6. The association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and dementia: The Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Carole E; Bauer, Douglas C; da Costa, Bruno R; Feller, Martin; Rieben, Carole; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2017-08-29

    Data on the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and dementia are limited and conflicting. We aimed to determine whether subclinical thyroid dysfunction was associated with dementia and cognitive decline. Population-based prospective cohort study. Adults aged 70-79 years with measured thyroid function, but no dementia at baseline, and Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) at baseline and follow-up. Primary outcome was incident-adjudicated dementia, based on 3MS, hospital records and dementia drugs. Secondary outcome was change in 3MS. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, education and baseline 3MS, and then further for cardiovascular risk factors. Among 2558 adults, 85% were euthyroid (TSH 0.45-4.49mIU/L), 2% had subclinical hyperthyroidism with mildly decreased TSH (TSH 0.10-0.44 mIU/L), 1% subclinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed TSH (TSH < 0.10 mIU/L with normal free thyroxine [FT4]) and 12% subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH 4.50-19.99 mIU/L with normal FT4). Over 9 years, 22% developed dementia. Compared to euthyroidism, risk of dementia was higher in participants with subclinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed TSH (HR 2.38, 95% CI = 1.13;5.04), while we found no significant association in those with mildly decreased TSH (HR 0.79, 95% CI = 0.45;1.38) or with subclinical hypothyroidism (HR 0.91, 95% CI = 0.70;1.19). Participants with subclinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed TSH had a larger decline in 3MS (-3.89, 95% CI = -7.62; -0.15). Among older adults, subclinical hyperthyroidism with a TSH < 0.10 mIU/L was associated with a higher risk of dementia and a larger cognitive decline, while subclinical hyperthyroidism with mildly decreased TSH or subclinical hypothyroidism were not. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.

  8. Sleep duration and its correlates in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women: the Shanghai Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal sleep duration, either long or short, is associated with disease risk and mortality. Little information is available on sleep duration and its correlates among Chinese women. Methods Using information collected from 68,832 women who participated in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS), we evaluated sleep duration and its correlations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, health status, and anthropometric measurements and their indexes using polynomial logistic regression. Results The mean age of the study population was 59.6 years (SD=9.0; range: 44.6–79.9 years) at time of sleep duration assessment. Approximately 80% of women reported sleeping 6–8 hours per day, 11.5% slept five hours or less, and 8.7% slept nine hours or more. As expected, age was the strongest predictor for sleep duration and was negatively correlated with sleep duration. In general, sleep duration was positively associated with energy intake, intakes of total meat and fruits, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC) after adjustment for age and other factors. Both short and long sleep duration were negatively associated with education level, family income, and leisure-time physical activity and positively associated with number of live births, history of night shift work, and certain chronic diseases, compared to sleep duration around seven hours/day (6.5–7.4 hours/day). Short sleep duration was related to tea consumption and passive smoking. Long sleep duration was related to menopausal status and marital status. Conclusions In this large, population-based study, we found that sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women was associated with several sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and with disease status. The main limitation of the study is the cross-sectional design that does not allow us to draw any causal inference. However, this study provides information for future investigation into the nature of

  9. A 10-Year Follow-Up Study of Social Ties and Functional Health among the Old: The AGES Project.

    PubMed

    Murata, Chiyoe; Saito, Tami; Tsuji, Taishi; Saito, Masashige; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-07-03

    In Asian nations, family ties are considered important. However, it is not clear what happens among older people with no such ties. To investigate the association, we used longitudinal data from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES) project. Functionally independent older people at baseline (N = 14,088) in 10 municipalities were followed from 2003 to 2013. Social ties were assessed by asking about their social support exchange with family, relatives, friends, or neighbors. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to investigate the association between social ties and the onset of functional disability adjusting for age, health status, and living arrangement. We found that social ties with co-residing family members, and those with friends or neighbors, independently protected functional health with hazard ratios of 0.81 and 0.85 among men. Among women, ties with friend or neighbors had a stronger effect on health compared to their male counterparts with a hazard ratio of 0.89. The fact that social ties with friends or neighbors are associated with a lower risk of functional decline, independent of family support, serves to underscore the importance of promoting social ties, especially among those lacking family ties.

  10. Correlates of self-reported sleep duration in middle-aged and elderly Koreans: from the Health Examinees Study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-Suk; Yang, Jae Jeong; Song, Minkyo; Lee, Hwi-Won; Han, Sohee; Lee, Sang-Ah; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Jong-koo; Kang, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    Though various factors related to fluctuations in sleep duration have been identified, information remains limited regarding the correlates of short and long sleep duration among the Korean population. Thus, we investigated characteristics that could be associated with short and/or long sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Koreans. A total of 84,094 subjects (27,717 men and 56,377 women) who participated in the Health Examinees Study were analyzed by using multinomial logistic regression models. To evaluate whether sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, psychological conditions, anthropometry results, and health conditions were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with sleep duration of 6-7 hours as the reference group, accounting for putative covariates. Regardless of sexual differences, we found that adverse behaviors and lifestyle factors including low educational attainment, unemployment, being unmarried, current smoking status, lack of exercise, having irregular meals, poor psychosocial well-being, frequent stress events, and poor self-rated health were significantly associated with abnormal sleep duration. Similarly, diabetes mellitus and depression showed positive associations with abnormal sleep duration in both men and women. Our findings suggest that low sociodemographic characteristics, adverse lifestyle factors, poor psychological conditions, and certain disease morbidities could be associated with abnormal sleep duration in middle-aged and elderly Koreans.

  11. Correlates of Self-Reported Sleep Duration in Middle-Aged and Elderly Koreans: from the Health Examinees Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyung-Suk; Yang, Jae Jeong; Song, Minkyo; Lee, Hwi-Won; Han, Sohee; Lee, Sang-Ah; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Jong-koo; Kang, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    Though various factors related to fluctuations in sleep duration have been identified, information remains limited regarding the correlates of short and long sleep duration among the Korean population. Thus, we investigated characteristics that could be associated with short and/or long sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Koreans. A total of 84,094 subjects (27,717 men and 56,377 women) who participated in the Health Examinees Study were analyzed by using multinomial logistic regression models. To evaluate whether sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, psychological conditions, anthropometry results, and health conditions were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with sleep duration of 6–7 hours as the reference group, accounting for putative covariates. Regardless of sexual differences, we found that adverse behaviors and lifestyle factors including low educational attainment, unemployment, being unmarried, current smoking status, lack of exercise, having irregular meals, poor psychosocial well-being, frequent stress events, and poor self-rated health were significantly associated with abnormal sleep duration. Similarly, diabetes mellitus and depression showed positive associations with abnormal sleep duration in both men and women. Our findings suggest that low sociodemographic characteristics, adverse lifestyle factors, poor psychological conditions, and certain disease morbidities could be associated with abnormal sleep duration in middle-aged and elderly Koreans. PMID:25933418

  12. Multimorbidity and the inequalities of global ageing: a cross-sectional study of 28 countries using the World Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Sara; Roderick, Paul J; Kowal, Paul; Dimitrov, Borislav D; Hill, Allan G

    2015-08-13

    Multimorbidity defined as the "the coexistence of two or more chronic diseases" in one individual, is increasing in prevalence globally. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of multimorbidity across low and middle-income countries (LMICs), and to investigate patterns by age and education, as a proxy for socio-economic status (SES). Chronic disease data from 28 countries of the World Health Survey (2003) were extracted and inter-country socio-economic differences were examined by gross domestic product (GDP). Regression analyses were applied to examine associations of education with multimorbidity by region adjusted for age and sex distributions. The mean world standardized multimorbidity prevalence for LMICs was 7.8 % (95 % CI, 7.79 % - 7.83 %). In all countries, multimorbidity increased significantly with age. A positive but non-linear relationship was found between country GDP and multimorbidity prevalence. Trend analyses of multimorbidity by education suggest that there are intergenerational differences, with a more inverse education gradient for younger adults compared to older adults. Higher education was significantly associated with a decreased risk of multimorbidity in the all-region analyses. Multimorbidity is a global phenomenon, not just affecting older adults in HICs. Policy makers worldwide need to address these health inequalities, and support the complex service needs of a growing multimorbid population.

  13. The Electrocardiographic PR Interval and Adverse Outcomes in Older Adults: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Jared W.; Wang, Na; Nelson, Kerrie P.; Connelly, Stephanie; Deo, Rajat; Rodondi, Nicolas; Schelbert, Erik B.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Phillips, Caroline L.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Harris, Tamara B.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J

    2013-01-01

    Background The electrocardiographic PR interval increases with aging, differs by race, and is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), pacemaker implantation and all-cause mortality. We sought to determine the associations between PR interval and heart failure, AF, and mortality in a biracial cohort of older adults. Methods and results The Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study is a prospective, biracial cohort. We employed multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to examine PR interval (hazard ratios expressed per standard deviation (SD) increase) and 10-year risks of heart failure, AF, and all-cause mortality. Multivariable models included demographic, anthropometric, and clinical variables in addition to established cardiovascular risk factors. We examined 2722 Health ABC participants (age 74±3 years, 51.9% women, and 41% black). We did not identify significant effect modification by race for the outcomes studied. Following multivariable adjustment, every SD increase (29 ms) in PR interval was associated with a 13% greater 10-year risk of heart failure (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.25) and a 13% increased risk of incident AF (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.23). PR interval >200 ms was associated with a 46% increased risk of incident heart failure (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.93). PR interval was not associated with increased all-cause mortality. Conclusions We identified significant relations of PR interval to heart failure and AF in older adults. Our findings extend prior investigations by examining PR interval and associations with adverse outcomes in a biracial cohort of older men and women. PMID:23243193

  14. Instrument development, study design implementation, and survey conduct for the national social life, health, and aging project.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen; Jaszczak, Angela; Graber, Jessica; Lundeen, Katie; Leitsch, Sara; Wargo, Erin; O'Muircheartaigh, Colm

    2009-11-01

    The National Opinion Research Center, led by a team of investigators at the University of Chicago, conducted more than 3,000 in-person interviews with a nationally representative sample of adults aged 57-85 years. Data collection included in-person questionnaire items, an extensive array of biomeasures, and a postinterview self-administered questionnaire. The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) interview included the collection of 13 biomeasures: weight, waist circumference, height, blood pressure, smell, saliva collection, taste, a self-administered vaginal swab for female respondents, "Get Up and Go," distance vision, touch, oral mucosal transudate (Orasure) human immunodeficiency virus test, and blood spots. This article discusses the development of NSHAP's instruments and implementation of the study design. Measures, such as response and cooperation rates, are also provided to evaluate the effectiveness of the design and implementation.

  15. How the effects of aging and stresses of life are integrated in mortality rates: insights for genetic studies of human health and longevity.

    PubMed

    Yashin, Anatoliy I; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Arbeeva, Liubov S; Wu, Deqing; Akushevich, Igor; Kovtun, Mikhail; Yashkin, Arseniy; Kulminski, Alexander; Culminskaya, Irina; Stallard, Eric; Li, Miaozhu; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V

    2016-02-01

    Increasing proportions of elderly individuals in developed countries combined with substantial increases in related medical expenditures make the improvement of the health of the elderly a high priority today. If the process of aging by individuals is a major cause of age related health declines then postponing aging could be an efficient strategy for improving the health of the elderly. Implementing this strategy requires a better understanding of genetic and non-genetic connections among aging, health, and longevity. We review progress and problems in research areas whose development may contribute to analyses of such connections. These include genetic studies of human aging and longevity, the heterogeneity of populations with respect to their susceptibility to disease and death, forces that shape age patterns of human mortality, secular trends in mortality decline, and integrative mortality modeling using longitudinal data. The dynamic involvement of genetic factors in (i) morbidity/mortality risks, (ii) responses to stresses of life, (iii) multi-morbidities of many elderly individuals, (iv) trade-offs for diseases, (v) genetic heterogeneity, and (vi) other relevant aging-related health declines, underscores the need for a comprehensive, integrated approach to analyze the genetic connections for all of the above aspects of aging-related changes. The dynamic relationships among aging, health, and longevity traits would be better understood if one linked several research fields within one conceptual framework that allowed for efficient analyses of available longitudinal data using the wealth of available knowledge about aging, health, and longevity already accumulated in the research field.

  16. Clinical Study of the Effects of Age on the Physical Health of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sally-Ann

    1998-01-01

    Physical disorders and pharmacotherapy for 134 people with mental retardation (ages 65 years and older) living in the United Kingdom were compared to 73 younger adults with mental retardation. Results showed the older group had higher rates of urinary incontinence, immobility, hearing impairments, arthritis, hypertension, and cerebrovascular…

  17. Clinical Study of the Effects of Age on the Physical Health of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sally-Ann

    1998-01-01

    Physical disorders and pharmacotherapy for 134 people with mental retardation (ages 65 years and older) living in the United Kingdom were compared to 73 younger adults with mental retardation. Results showed the older group had higher rates of urinary incontinence, immobility, hearing impairments, arthritis, hypertension, and cerebrovascular…

  18. Associations of Openness and Conscientiousness With Walking Speed Decline: Findings From the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Paul T.; Terracciano, Antonio; Ferrucci, Luigi; Faulkner, Kimberly; Coday, Mathilda (Mace) C.; Ayonayon, Hilsa N.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to explore the associations between openness to experience and conscientiousness, two dimensions of the five-factor model of personality, and usual gait speed and gait speed decline. Method. Baseline analyses were conducted on 907 men and women aged 71–82 years participating in the Cognitive Vitality substudy of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. The longitudinal analytic sample consisted of 740 participants who had walking speed assessed 3 years later. Results. At baseline, gait speed averaged 1.2 m/s, and an average decline of 5% over the 3-year follow-up period was observed. Higher conscientiousness was associated with faster initial walking speed and less decline in walking speed over the study period, independent of sociodemographic characteristics. Lifestyle factors and disease status appear to play a role in the baseline but not the longitudinal association between conscientiousness and gait speed. Openness was not associated with either initial or decline in gait speed. Discussion. These findings extend the body of evidence suggesting a protective association between conscientiousness and physical function to performance-based assessment of gait speed. Future studies are needed to confirm these associations and to explore mechanisms that underlie the conscientiousness mobility connection in aging adults. PMID:22451484

  19. Body mass index gain between ages 20 and 40 years and lifestyle characteristics of men at ages 40-60 years: the Adventist Health Study-2.

    PubMed

    Japas, Claudio; Knutsen, Synnøve; Dehom, Salem; Dos Santos, Hildemar; Tonstad, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Obesity increases risk of premature disease, and may be associated with unfavorable lifestyle changes that add to risk. This study analyzed the association of midlife BMI change with current lifestyle patterns among multiethnic men. Men aged 40-60 years (n=9864) retrospectively reported body weight between ages 20-40 years and current dietary, TV, physical activity and sleep practices in the Adventist Health Study II, a study of church-goers in the US and Canada. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, odds ratios for BMI gain were calculated for each lifestyle practice controlling for sociodemographic and other lifestyle factors and current BMI. Men with median or higher BMI gain (2.79 kg/m(2)) between ages 20-40 years were more likely to consume a non-vegetarian diet, and engage in excessive TV watching and little physical activity and had a shorter sleep duration compared to men with BMI gain below the median (all p<0.001). In multivariate logistic analysis current BMI was significantly associated with all lifestyle factors (all p≤0.005). BMI gain was associated with lower odds of vegetarian diet (odds ratio [OR] 0.939; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.921-0.957) and of physical activity ≥150 min/week (OR 0.979, 95% CI 0.960-0.999). These findings imply that diet and less physical activity are associated with both gained and attained BMI, while inactivity (TV watching) and short sleep duration correlated only with attained BMI. Unhealthy lifestyle may add risk to that associated with BMI. Longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to infer causal relationships. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Associated factors of behavioural problems in children at preschool age: the Hokkaido study on environment and children's health.

    PubMed

    Minatoya, M; Itoh, S; Araki, A; Tamura, N; Yamazaki, K; Nishihara, S; Miyashita, C; Kishi, R

    2017-05-01

    Finding associated factors with childhood behavioural problems as early as preschool age is important. Studies have revealed several factors including socioeconomic factors, which may vary among different cultural background and population. However, investigation in general Japanese population of preschool age has not been well demonstrated. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine associated factors of childhood behavioural problems using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a prospective birth cohort study. Total 3813 SDQ were distributed between October 2014 and December 2015 to the subpopulation of prospective birth cohort study, the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. The subpopulation consisted of participants who had reached age 5 and were born between April 2008 and December 2010. Baseline questionnaire filled at recruitment and birth record were used to obtain participant information. Children with total difficulties score ≧ 13 were defined as likelihood of behavioural problems. A total of 2553 children with valid answers were included into the analysis. The response rate was 67.1%. Number of children with likelihood of behavioural problems was 521 (20.4%). Boys showed more problematic scores than girls. Multivariate analysis found that maternal pre-pregnancy BMI ≧ 30 kg/m(2) , primipara, maternal education lower than high school, family income during pregnancy < 3 million yen/year and boy gender were the factors associated with increased odds ratio of likelihood of child behavioural problems. This study found that prenatal socioeconomic factors were associated with likelihood of child behavioural problems at preschool age in Japan. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The health, education, and social care costs of school-aged children with active epilepsy: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Rachael M; Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Das, Krishna B; Gillberg, Christopher; Chin, Richard F; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R; Morris, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    To provide data on the health, social care, and education costs of active childhood epilepsy and factors associated with these costs over an 18-month period in a population-based sample. The Children with Epilepsy in Sussex Schools (CHESS) study is a population-based study involving school-aged children (5-15 years) with active epilepsy (taking one or more antiepileptic drug and/or had a seizure in the last year) in a defined geographical area in England. Clinical data were collected on 85 children (74% of eligible population) who underwent comprehensive psychological assessment. Health, education, and social care resource use was collected retrospectively over an 18-month period. Regression analysis was used to identify variables associated these with costs. The mean (standard deviation) 18-month cost of health care for a child with active epilepsy was £3,635 (£5,339), with mean education and social care cost of £11,552 (£8,937) and £1,742 (£8,158), respectively, resulting in total mean costs per participant of £16,931 (£14,764). Health care costs were significantly associated with seizure frequency and etiology (all p-values < 0.05). Combined health care, social care, and education costs were significantly related to cognitive impairment (intelligence quotient [IQ] <85) and seizure frequency (p < 0.05). The mean cost of health care, social care, and education over 18 months for participants with cognitive impairment was £23,579 (95% confidence interval [CI] £16,489-£30,670) compared to £7,785 (95% CI £4,943-£10,627) for those without impairment. Active childhood epilepsy has significant health, social care, and education costs. This is the first study to comprehensively document the economic impact on these sectors as well as factors associated with these costs. When caring for children with epilepsy in England, costs incurred by education and social care sectors are approximately four times the costs incurred by the health care sector. Increased

  2. Body mass index gain between ages 20-40 years and lifestyle characteristics of men at ages 40-60 years: The Adventist Health Study-2

    PubMed Central

    Japas, Claudio; Knutsen, Synnøve; Dehom, Salem; Dos Santos, Hildemar; Tonstad, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity increases risk of premature disease, and may be associated with unfavorable lifestyle changes that add to risk. This study analyzed the association of midlife BMI change with current lifestyle patterns among multiethnic men. Methods Men aged 40-60 years (n=9864) retrospectively reported body weight between ages 20-40 years and current dietary, TV, physical activity and sleep practices in the Adventist Health Study II, a study of church-goers in the US and Canada. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, odds ratios for BMI gain were calculated for each lifestyle practice controlling for sociodemographic and other lifestyle factors and current BMI. Results Men with median or higher BMI gain (2.79 kg/m2) between ages 20-40 years were more likely to consume a non-vegetarian diet, and engage in excessive TV watching and little physical activity and had a shorter sleep duration compared to men with BMI gain below the median (all p<0.001). In multivariate logistic analysis current BMI was significantly associated with all lifestyle factors in multivariate analyses (all p≤0.005). BMI gain was associated with lower odds of vegetarian diet (odds ratio [OR] 0.939; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.921-0.957) and of physical activity ≥150 minutes/week (OR 0.979, 95% CI 0.960-0.999). Conclusions These findings imply that diet and less physical activity are associated with both gained and attained BMI, while inactivity (TV watching) and short sleep duration correlated only with attained BMI. Unhealthy lifestyle may add risk to that associated with BMI. Longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to infer causal relationships. PMID:25434910

  3. RISK FACTORS FOR SLOW GAIT SPEED: A NESTED CASE-CONTROL SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF THE MEXICAN HEALTH AND AGING STUDY.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Zepeda, M U; González-Chavero, J G; Salinas-Martinez, R; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L M

    2015-01-01

    Physical performance tests play a major role in the geriatric assessment. In particular, gait speed has shown to be useful for predicting adverse outcomes. However, risk factors for slow gait speed (slowness) are not clearly described. To determine risk factors associated with slowness in Mexican older adults. A two-step process was adopted for exploring the antecedent risk factors of slow gait speed. First, the cut-off values for gait speed were determined in a representative sample of Mexican older adults. Then, antecedent risk factors of slow gait speed (defined using the identified cut-points) were explored in a nested, cohort case-control study. One representative sample of a cross-sectional survey for the first step and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (a cohort characterized by a 10-year follow-up). A 4-meter usual gait speed test was conducted. Lowest gender and height-stratified groups were considered as defining slow gait speed. Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, psychological and health-care related variables were explored to find those associated with the subsequent development of slow gait speed. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were performed. In the final model, age, diabetes, hypertension, and history of fractures were associated with the development of slow gait speed. Early identification of subjects at risk of developing slow gait speed may halt the path to disability due to the robust association of this physical performance test with functional decline.

  4. RISK FACTORS FOR SLOW GAIT SPEED: A NESTED CASE-CONTROL SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF THE MEXICAN HEALTH AND AGING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, M.U.; González-Chavero, J.G.; Salinas-Martinez, R.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical performance tests play a major role in the geriatric assessment. In particular, gait speed has shown to be useful for predicting adverse outcomes. However, risk factors for slow gait speed (slowness) are not clearly described. Objectives To determine risk factors associated with slowness in Mexican older adults. Design A two-step process was adopted for exploring the antecedent risk factors of slow gait speed. First, the cut-off values for gait speed were determined in a representative sample of Mexican older adults. Then, antecedent risk factors of slow gait speed (defined using the identified cut-points) were explored in a nested, cohort case-control study. Setting, participants One representative sample of a cross-sectional survey for the first step and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (a cohort characterized by a 10-year follow-up). Measurements A 4-meter usual gait speed test was conducted. Lowest gender and height-stratified groups were considered as defining slow gait speed. Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, psychological and health-care related variables were explored to find those associated with the subsequent development of slow gait speed. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were performed. Results In the final model, age, diabetes, hypertension, and history of fractures were associated with the development of slow gait speed. Conclusions Early identification of subjects at risk of developing slow gait speed may halt the path to disability due to the robust association of this physical performance test with functional decline. PMID:26889463

  5. Relationship of race and poverty to lower extremity function and decline: findings from the Women's Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland James; Kasper, Judith D; Szanton, Sarah L; Frick, Kevin D; Fried, Linda P; Simonsick, Eleanor M

    2008-02-01

    Race- and poverty-related disparities in physical function are well documented, though little is known about effects of race and poverty on functional decline and the progression of disability. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between race, poverty and lower extremity function using data from moderately to severely disabled women in the U.S. Women's Health and Aging Study. Severity of lower extremity functional limitation was determined from scaled responses of reported difficulty walking (1/4) mile, walking across a room, climbing stairs, and stooping, crouching or kneeling. Usual walking speed assessed over 4m was our objective measure of function. Of the 996 women who described themselves as black or white, 284 (29%) were black and 367 (37%) were living at or below 100% of the federal poverty level. Independent of demographic and health-related factors, among white women, the poor exhibited consistently worse lower extremity function than the non-poor; this association, however, was not observed in black women. Among the non-poor, black women had slower walking speeds, and reported more limitation in lower extremity function than their non-poor white counterparts, even after adjusting for demographic variables and health-related characteristics. After 3 years, accounting for baseline function, demographic and health-related factors, race and poverty status were unrelated to functional decline. Thus, while race and poverty status were associated with functional deficits in old age, they do not appear to impact the rate of functional decline or progression of disability over 3 years.

  6. [An epidemiologic study of health care seeking behavior of children under 5 years of age by sex in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Tursz, A; Crost, M

    1999-10-01

    Since the end of the 1970's, excess mortality among girls, from the end of the neonatal period until the age of 4 years, has been observed in some South Asian countries. Explanatory hypotheses for this situation have in fact noted differences by sex in food allocation and in care during illness. In some North African and sub-Saharan countries in Africa, mortality data suggest the same type of phenomenon, but less reliable statistics and a lack of data analysis by sex on use of health services does not really allow clarification of the problem. The objective of this study was to analyse health seeking behaviour by sex and to identify explanatory factors for any differences found. A cross sectional study of 1560 consultations of under-5 children was carried out in 6 university and regional hospitals in 3 African countries: Algeria (the zones of Aïn Taya and Tigzirt); Togo (the zones of Lomé, Atakpamé and Kara) and the Congo (Brazzaville). Results confirm the existence of discrimination against girls. In ways which vary according to zones, and in comparison to boys, observations of girls show: under-representation among outpatients (29% in Tigzirt, 40% in Kara), especially when they have many siblings, of which some are sisters; longer duration of the development of symptoms before first resort (leading to increased severity of symptoms); less investment in health care; detrimental feeding practices. Higher SES of the father plays a favourable role, especially for girls, and children of both sexes benefit when the mother has a good educational level. The large regional differences demonstrate the complex interaction among explanatory factors: rurality, problems of access to the hospital, low economic level, low social status of women. This research opens the way so that, in Africa, research will no longer be carried out on health seeking behaviour and utilisation of health services without examining separately the situation of boys and girls, and analysing the

  7. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults. PMID:27417787

  8. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-07-30

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults.

  9. Personality and Reduced Incidence of Walking Limitation in Late Life: Findings From the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T.; Faulkner, Kimberly; Rosano, Caterina; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ayonayon, Hilsa N.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the association between openness to experience and conscientiousness and incident reported walking limitation. Method. The study population consisted of 786 men and women aged 71–81 years (M = 75 years, SD = 2.7) participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition—Cognitive Vitality Substudy. Results. Nearly 20% of participants (155/786) developed walking limitation during 6 years of follow-up. High openness was associated with a reduced risk of walking limitation (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69–0.98), independent of sociodemographic factors, health conditions, and conscientiousness. This association was not mediated by lifestyle factors and was not substantially modified by other risk factors for functional disability. Conscientiousness was not associated with risk of walking limitation (HR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.77–1.07). Discussion. Findings suggest that personality dimensions, specifically higher openness to experience, may contribute to functional resilience in late life. PMID:22437204

  10. The Sex, Age, and Me study: recruitment and sampling for a large mixed-methods study of sexual health and relationships in an older Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Fileborn, Bianca; Minichiello, Victor; Barrett, Catherine; Brown, Graham; Hinchliff, Sharron; Malta, Sue; Crameri, Pauline

    2017-02-21

    Older people are often excluded from large studies of sexual health, as it is assumed that they are not having sex or are reluctant to talk about sensitive topics and are therefore difficult to recruit. We outline the sampling and recruitment strategies from a recent study on sexual health and relationships among older people. Sex, Age and Me was a nationwide Australian study that examined sexual health, relationship patterns, safer-sex practices and STI knowledge of Australians aged 60 years and over. The study used a mixed-methods approach to establish baseline levels of knowledge and to develop deeper insights into older adult's understandings and practices relating to sexual health. Data collection took place in 2015, with 2137 participants completing a quantitative survey and 53 participating in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. As the feasibility of this type of study has been largely untested until now, we provide detailed information on the study's recruitment strategies and methods. We also compare key characteristics of our sample with national estimates to assess its degree of representativeness. This study provides evidence to challenge the assumptions that older people will not take part in sexual health-related research and details a novel and successful way to recruit participants in this area.

  11. Co-occurrence and clustering of health conditions at age 11: cross-sectional findings from the Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Kathryn R; Fagg, James; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Law, Catherine; Hope, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify patterns of co-occurrence and clustering of 6 common adverse health conditions in 11-year-old children and explore differences by sociodemographic factors. Design Nationally representative prospective cohort study. Setting Children born in the UK between 2000 and 2002. Participants 11 399 11-year-old singleton children for whom data on all 6 health conditions and sociodemographic information were available (complete cases). Main outcome measures Prevalence, co-occurrence and clustering of 6 common health conditions: wheeze; eczema; long-standing illness (excluding wheeze and eczema); injury; socioemotional difficulties (measured using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and unfavourable weight (thin/overweight/obese vs normal). Results 42.4% of children had 2 or more adverse health conditions (co-occurrence). Co-occurrence was more common in boys and children from lower income households. Latent class analysis identified 6 classes: ‘normative’ (57.4%): ‘atopic burdened’ (14.0%); ‘socioemotional burdened’ (11.0%); ‘unfavourable weight/injury’ (7.7%); ‘eczema/injury’ (6.0%) and ‘eczema/unfavourable weight’ (3.9%). As with co-occurrence, class membership differed by sociodemographic factors: boys, children of mothers with lower educational attainment and children from lower income households were more likely to be in the ‘socioemotional burdened’ class. Children of mothers with higher educational attainment were more likely to be in the ‘normative’ and ‘eczema/unfavourable weight’ classes. Conclusions Co-occurrence of adverse health conditions at age 11 is common and is associated with adverse socioeconomic circumstances. Holistic, child focused care, particularly in boys and those in lower income groups, may help to prevent and reduce co-occurrence in later childhood and adolescence. PMID:27881529

  12. A Clinico-Etiological Study of Dermatoses in Pediatric Age Group in Tertiary Health Care Center in South Gujarat Region

    PubMed Central

    Jawade, Sugat A; Chugh, Vishal S; Gohil, Sneha K; Mistry, Amit S; Umrigar, Dipak D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatologic conditions have different presentation and management in pediatric age group from that in adult; this to be studied separately for statistical and population based analysis. Objective: To study the pattern of various dermatoses in infants and children in tertiary health care center in South Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study; various dermatoses were studied in pediatric patients up to 14 years of age attending the Dermatology OPD of New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat over a period of 12 months from June 2009 to June 2010. All patients were divided into four different study groups: <1 month (neonates), 1 month to 1 year, >1 to 6 years and 7 to 14 years. Results: There were 596 boys and 425 girls in total 1021 study populations. Majority of the skin conditions in neonates were erythema toxicum neonatorum (12.97%), scabies (9.92%), mongolian spot (9.16%), and seborrheic dermatitis (7.63%). In > 1 month to 14 years age group of children among infectious disorder, children were found to be affected most by scabies (24.49%), impetigo (5.96%), pyoderma (5.62%), molluscum contagiosum (5.39%), tinea capitis (4.49%), leprosy (2.02%), and viral warts (1.35%) while among non-infectious disorders, they were affected by atopic dermatitis (4.27%), pityriasis alba (4.16%), seborrheic dermatitis (3.60%), pityriasis rosea (3.15%), others (3.01%), phrynoderma (2.70%), lichen planus (2.58%), contact dermatitis (1.57%) and ichthyosis (1.45%). Conclusion: There is a need to emphasize on training the management of common pediatric dermatoses to dermatologists, general practitioners and pediatricians for early treatment. PMID:26677296

  13. [Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of mental disorders in Peru: results of the World Mental Health Study, 2005].

    PubMed

    Fiestas, Fabián; Piazza, Marina

    2014-01-01

    To determine the lifetime prevalence of 18 mental disorders and to establish the pattern that those disorders have with the age of onset in five cities of Peru. As part of the World Mental Health Survey, the study in Peru followed a probabilistic multistage sample of people between 18 and 65 years old in Lima, Chiclayo, Arequipa, Huancayo and Iquitos. The desktop version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered. The lifetime prevalence of at least one mental disorder was 29% (SE 1.2), and the prevalence of at least two or three was 10.5% (SE 0.7) and 4% (SE 0.4), respectively. Anxiety disorders were more common with 14.9% (SE 0.9) prevalence, followed by mood disorders with 8.2% (SE 0.5), impulse control disorders with 8.1% (SE 0.8), and substance use disorders (5.8%; SE 0.3). The age of onset was earlier for anxiety disorders (15 years old) and for impulse control disorders (20 years old). Younger respondents were more likely to have a mental disorder. Almost a third of the adult population of five cities in Peru has had some psychiatric disorder at a given time in their lives, and comorbidity is common. Most disorders begin before age 30.

  14. Multiple Hormonal Deficiencies in Anabolic Hormones Are Found in Frail Older Women: The Women's Health and Aging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qian-Li; Fried, Linda P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Alterations in anabolic hormones are theorized to contribute to aging and frailty, with most studies focusing on the relationship between individual hormones and specific age-associated diseases. We hypothesized that associations with frailty would most likely manifest in the presence of deficits in multiple anabolic hormones. Methods The relationships of serum levels of total IGF-1, DHEAS, and free testosterone (T) with frailty status (nonfrail, prefrail, or frail) were analyzed in 494 women aged 70–79 years enrolled in the Women's Health and Aging Studies I or II. Using multivariate polytomous regression, we calculated the odds of frailty for deficiency in each hormone (defined as the bottom quartile of the hormone) individually, as well as for a count of the hormones. Results For each hormone, in adjusted analyses, those with the deficiency were more likely to be frail than those without the deficiency, although this did not achieve statistical significance (IGF-1: odds ratio [OR] 1.82, confidence interval [CI] 0.81–4.08; DHEAS: OR 1.68, CI 0.77–3.69; free T: OR 2.03, CI 0.89–4.64). Compared with those with no hormonal deficiencies, those with one deficiency were not more likely to be frail (OR 1.15, CI 0.49–2.68), whereas those with two or three deficiencies had a very high likelihood of being frail (OR 2.79, CI 1.06–7.32), in adjusted models. Conclusions The absolute burden of anabolic hormonal deficiencies is a stronger predictor of frailty status than the type of hormonal deficiency, and the relationship is nonlinear. These analyses suggest generalized endocrine dysfunction in the frailty syndrome. PMID:19182229

  15. Age impact on human papillomavirus vaccination in France in 2014: A study from the National Health Insurance Database.

    PubMed

    Héquet, Delphine; Pouget, Nicolas; Estevez, Juan-Pablo; Robain, Mathieu; Rouzier, Roman

    2015-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer. In France, since March 2007, HPV vaccination has been recommended for girls aged 14, in addition to a catch-up program for girls aged 15 to 23. In October 2012, the target population was changed to 11- to 14-year-old girls. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the recommendation change on HPV vaccination coverage and compliance. We conducted a descriptive study of the Échantillon Généraliste des Bénéficiaires (EGB), which is a random 1/97 permanent sample from the French National Health Insurance Database. We focused our analyses on girls aged 11 to 17 years who were covered by the main insurance scheme (which covers 77% of the French population). We included 16,195 girls in this analysis. At the last update of the database (06/15/2014), 42% of 17-year-old girls had been vaccinated, with more than 50% of them having been vaccinated at age 14. Between January 2012 and June 2014, patients were reimbursed for a total of 7698 doses of the HPV vaccine. During the first trimester of 2013, the number of vaccinated 11- to 13-year-old girls increased, growing by more than 20-fold between the last trimester of 2012 (n=8) and the last trimester of 2013 (n=178). Less than 60% of the vaccinated patients received 3 injections. Implementation of the new recommendations was rapid but had only a slight impact on vaccination coverage. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Body mass index and health service utilisation in the older population: results from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

    PubMed

    Mc Hugh, Sheena; O'Neill, Ciaran; Browne, John; Kearney, Patricia M

    2015-05-01

    obesity is associated with higher healthcare costs in older people; however, estimates are predominantly based on the use of primary and secondary services. Our objective was to estimate the effect of overweight and obesity on the use and cost of allied health services among middle-aged and older people. the study used data from The Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing (TILDA), a nationally representative study of adults aged ≥50 sampled using multistage stratified clustered sampling, which included objective measures of height and weight. Body mass index was categorised as normal (18.5-24.99 kg/m(2)), overweight (25.00-29.99 kg/m(2)), moderate obesity (30.00-34.99 kg/m(2)), severe obesity (35.00-39.99 kg/m(2)) or morbid obesity (≥40 kg/m(2)). Participants were asked about a range of allied health services including dietetic services, public health nurse visits, chiropody and home help. Adjusted seemingly unrelated biprobit models were used to account for unobserved heterogeneity associated with the use of services. among 5,841 participants, 77.6% (95% CI = 76-79%) were overweight or obese (n = 4,534). All classes of obesity were significantly associated with higher general practitioner service use (P < 0.05). Moderate and severe obesity were associated with increased use of out-patient services, while only moderate obesity was associated with increased hospital admissions (P < 0.05). Moderate and severe obesity were significantly associated with chiropody service use (P < 0.05) with an estimated annual cost of €919,662. Morbid obesity was associated with dietetic service use (P < 0.001) with an annual cost of €580,013. given these costs and improvements in life expectancy, an increasingly obese older population presents new challenges for healthcare delivery. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Examining risk factors for hypertension in Ghana: evidence from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health.

    PubMed

    Tenkorang, Eric Y; Kuuire, Vincent; Luginaah, Isaac; Banchani, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    Like most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, hypertension contributes substantially to morbidity and mortality in Ghana, yet nationally representative studies that examine the odds of becoming hypertensive among Ghanaians are conspicuously missing. We aimed to fill this void in the literature. The data used for analysis came from the first wave of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE), collected in Ghana from January 2007 to December 2008 by the World Health Organization (WHO). A total of 5573 respondents were sampled for the study. Random-effects C-log-log models were employed in examining socio-economic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors on the odds of becoming hypertensive in Ghana. Separate models were run for male and females. Results indicated there were strong significant associations between socio-economic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors on the likelihood of becoming hypertensive, among Ghanaian men and women. Compared with the poorest, Ghanaians from wealthy households were significantly more likely to be hypertensive. Educated women, as compared with the uneducated, were also more likely to be hypertensive. Ghanaians who engaged in vigorous or intensive activities continuously, for at least 10 minutes, were significantly less likely to be hypertensive, compared to those who did not. Happier men had lower odds of becoming hypertensive, and depressed women had increased odds of reporting they were hypertensive.

  18. Futurism, Aging, and Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdman, Geral Dene M.

    1979-01-01

    This study of futurism is important to gerontology in order to bridge the gap between theory, policy statement, and actual practice in the field of aging. There is a need to prepare competent individuals for direct service, and to provide increased exposure to gerontology throughout the curriculum. (Author/LPG)

  19. Futurism, Aging, and Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdman, Geral Dene M.

    1979-01-01

    This study of futurism is important to gerontology in order to bridge the gap between theory, policy statement, and actual practice in the field of aging. There is a need to prepare competent individuals for direct service, and to provide increased exposure to gerontology throughout the curriculum. (Author/LPG)

  20. Access 3 project protocol: young people and health system navigation in the digital age: a multifaceted, mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Melissa; Robards, Fiona; Sanci, Lena; Steinbeck, Katharine; Jan, Stephen; Hawke, Catherine; Kong, Marlene; Usherwood, Tim

    2017-08-07

    The integration of digital technology into everyday lives of young people has become widespread. It is not known whether and how technology influences barriers and facilitators to healthcare, and whether and how young people navigate between face-to-face and virtual healthcare. To provide new knowledge essential to policy and practice, we designed a study that would explore health system access and navigation in the digital age. The study objectives are to: (1) describe experiences of young people accessing and navigating the health system in New South Wales (NSW), Australia; (2) identify barriers and facilitators to healthcare for young people and how these vary between groups; (3) describe health system inefficiencies, particularly for young people who are marginalised; (4) provide policy-relevant knowledge translation of the research data. This mixed methods study has four parts, including: (1) a cross-sectional survey of young people (12-24 years) residing in NSW, Australia; (2) a longitudinal, qualitative study of a subsample of marginalised young people (defined as young people who: identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander; are experiencing homelessness; identify as sexuality and/or gender diverse; are of refugee or vulnerable migrant background; and/or live in rural or remote NSW); (3) interviews with professionals; (4) a knowledge translation forum. Ethics approvals were sought and granted. Data collection commenced in March 2016 and will continue until June 2017. This study will gather practice and policy-relevant intelligence about contemporary experiences of young people and health services, with a unique focus on five different groups of marginalised young people, documenting their experiences over time. Access 3 will explore navigation around all levels of the health system, determine whether digital technology is integrated into this, and if so how, and will translate findings into policy-relevant recommendations. © Article author(s) (or

  1. Association of Serum Erythropoietin With Cardiovascular Events, Kidney Function Decline, and Mortality: The Health Aging and Body Composition Study.

    PubMed

    Garimella, Pranav S; Katz, Ronit; Patel, Kushang V; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Parikh, Chirag R; Ix, Joachim H; Fried, Linda F; Newman, Anne B; Shlipak, Michael G; Harris, Tamara B; Sarnak, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest that in patients with heart failure (HF), high serum erythropoietin is associated with risk of recurrent HF and mortality. Trials of erythropoietin-stimulating agents in persons with kidney disease have also suggested an increased incidence of adverse clinical events. No large studies of which we are aware have evaluated the association of endogenous erythropoietin levels with clinical outcomes in the community-living older adults. Erythropoietin concentration was measured in 2488 participants aged 70-79 years in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Associations of erythropoietin with incident HF, coronary heart disease, stroke, mortality, and ≥ 30% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate were examined using Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression over 10.7 years of follow-up. Mean (SD) age was 75 (3) years and median (quartile 1, quartile 3) erythropoietin was 12.3 (9.0, 17.2) mIU/mL. There were 503 incident HF events, and each doubling of serum erythropoietin was associated with a 25% increased risk of incident HF 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.13, 1.48) after adjusting for demographics, prevalent cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease risk factors, kidney function, and serum hemoglobin. There was no interaction of serum erythropoietin with chronic kidney disease or anemia (P > 0.50). There were 330 incident coronary heart disease events, 161 strokes, 1112 deaths, and 698 outcomes of ≥ 30% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate. Serum erythropoietin was not significantly associated with these outcomes. Higher levels of endogenous erythropoietin are associated with incident HF in older adults. Studies need to elucidate the mechanisms through which endogenous erythropoietin levels associate with specific outcomes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Cardiovascular and Cognitive Health Study in Middle-Aged and Elderly Residents of Beijing(CCHS-Beijing): Design and Rationale.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xianghua; Wang, Zhengwu; Wang, Chunxiu; Wu, Jian; Yang, Ya; Li, Fang; Hua, Yang; Liu, Dachuan; Cai, Yanning; Wang, Rong; Guan, Shaochen

    2016-01-01

    The Cardiovascular and Cognitive Health Study (CCHS-Beijing) is a population-based study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment in adults aged 55 and older in Beijing. The main aims of the study are to investigate the prevalence rates of CVD, asymptomatic atherosclerosis, and cognitive impairment, as well as validate the risk factors related to the onset and development of CVD, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The study was designed to detect the traditional and new risk factors in this age group. Participants were recruited randomly from residential regions in the greater Beijing municipality area based on the average levels of development in Beijing, China in 2012 (based on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical characteristics). Thorough physical and laboratory examination were performed at baseline (also the cross-sectional survey) to identify the risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, as well as newly defined risk factors like elevated homocysteine, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and urine micro-albumin. Subclinical disease of the cerebral vasculature included atherosclerosis of carotid arteries, intracranial arteries, and retinal vessels. Subclinical cardiac diseases included left ventricular enlargement, arrhythmias, chamber hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Blood pressure was documented using the ankle-arm method. In addition, neuropsychological assessments were performed for all subjects aged 65 and above. Baseline evaluation began during the period August 2013 to December 2014. Follow-up examination will occur in 5 years. The initial and recurrent CVD, AD and MCI events will be verified and validated during the follow-up period. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The associations between lifestyles and mental health using the General Health Questionnaire 12-items are different dependently on age and sex: a population-based cross-sectional study in Kanazawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hori, Daisuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Hamagishi, Toshio; Kitaoka, Masami; Mitoma, Junko; Asakura, Hiroki; Suzuki, Fumihiko; Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu; Hibino, Yuri; Shibata, Aki; Hayashi, Koichi; Sagara, Takiko; Sasahara, Shinichiro; Matsuzaki, Ichiyo; Hatta, Kotaro; Konoshita, Tadashi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine potential differences of the associations between mental health and lifestyle factors across a wide range of age. In August/September 2011, data were collected from 4693 males (age 51.6 ± 19.5) and 5678 females (age 52.4 ± 19.4) living in Kanazawa, Japan. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted with self-administered questionnaire including the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12-item version, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors. Associations between the GHQ scores and other variables were examined using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparisons and logistic regression stratified by age and gender. Multiple comparisons indicated that people aged 20-39 or 40-64 had higher GHQ scores than older aged. The two-way ANOVA revealed significant interaction between body mass index and age group, and between exercise and age group. Overweight or underweight males aged 40-64 had poorer mental health than those at normal weight. In the elderly, being underweight was significantly associated with poor mental health. There were no significant effects of exercise on mental health for young adults. The logistic regression showed significant negative effects of short-time sleep in adults. The associations between mental health and lifestyles differ across age groups. Further study is needed to reveal effects of aging on lifestyle and mental health with a longitudinal design.

  4. “It’s Got to Be on This Page”: Age and Cognitive Style in a Study of Online Health Information Seeking

    PubMed Central

    King, Abby C; Castro, Cynthia M; Wiley, Adrienne; Borzekowski, Dina LG

    2015-01-01

    Background The extensive availability of online health information offers the public opportunities to become independently informed about their care, but what affects the successful retrieval and understanding of accurate and detailed information? We have limited knowledge about the ways individuals use the Internet and the personal characteristics that affect online health literacy. Objective This study examined the extent to which age and cognitive style predicted success in searching for online health information, controlling for differences in education, daily Internet use, and general health literacy. Methods The Online Health Study (OHS) was conducted at Johns Hopkins School of Public Health and Stanford University School of Medicine from April 2009 to June 2010. The OHS was designed to explore the factors associated with success in obtaining health information across different age groups. A total of 346 men and women aged 35 years and older of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds participated in the study. Participants were evaluated for success in searching online for answers to health-related tasks/questions on nutrition, cancer, alternative medicine, vaccinations, medical equipment, and genetic testing. Results Cognitive style, in terms of context sensitivity, was associated with less success in obtaining online health information, with tasks involving visual judgment most affected. In addition, better health literacy was positively associated with overall success in online health seeking, specifically for tasks requiring prior health knowledge. The oldest searchers were disadvantaged even after controlling for education, Internet use, general health literacy, and cognitive style, especially when spatial tasks such as mapping were involved. Conclusions The increasing availability of online health information provides opportunities to improve patient education and knowledge, but effective use of these resources depends on online health literacy. Greater

  5. Healthy Aging: Paying for Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Paying for health care More information on paying for health care Better ... Coping without insurance More information on paying for health care Explore other publications and websites Age Page: Choosing ...

  6. Hospitalization, Depression and Dementia in Community-Dwelling Older Americans: Findings from the National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Davydow, Dimitry S.; Zivin, Kara; Langa, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of both dementia and depression among community-dwelling older Americans, and to determine if hospitalization is independently associated with dementia or depression in this population. Method This cross-sectional study utilized data from a nationally representative, population-based sample of 7,197 community-dwelling adults ≥ 65 years old interviewed in 2011 as part of the National Health and Aging Trends Study. Information on hospitalizations was obtained from self or proxy-report. Possible and probable dementia was assessed according to a validated algorithm. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Results An estimated 3.1 million community-dwelling older Americans may have dementia, and approximately 5.3 million may have substantial depressive symptoms. After adjusting for demographic and social characteristics, medical diagnoses, smoking history, serious falls, and pain symptoms, being hospitalized in the previous year was independently associated with greater odds of probable dementia (odds ratio [OR]: 1.42, 95% confidence interval[95%CI]: 1.16, 1.73) and substantial depressive symptoms (OR: 1.60, 95%CI: 1.29, 1.99). Conclusions Dementia and depression are common in community-dwelling older Americans, and hospitalization is associated with these conditions. Additional research increasing understanding of the bi-directional relationship between hospitalizations, dementia, and depression, along with targeted interventions to reduce hospitalizations, are needed. PMID:24388630

  7. The association between depressive disorders and health care utilization: results from the São Paulo ageing and health study (SPAH).

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiang; Menezes, Paulo R; da Silva, Simone A; Tabb, Karen; Barkil-Oteo, Andres; Scazufca, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Although depressive disorders are associated with increased health care utilization in the elderly living in high-income countries, few studies have examined this relationship in Latin America. The present study is part of the São Paulo Ageing and Health Study, a population-based epidemiological study of mental disorders in 2072 low-income adults ≥ 65 years old living in São Paulo, Brazil. Depressive disorders defined as major depressive disorder (MDD) and clinically relevant depressive symptoms (CRDS) were assessed with the Geriatric Mental State and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. We examined the association between depressive disorders/symptoms and health care utilization (outpatient visits, hospital admissions and medication use in the past 3 months) using count models. The prevalence of MDD and CRDS was 4.9% and 21.4%, respectively. In the fully adjusted model, older adults with MDD were 36% more likely to have one more outpatient visit (RM: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.11-1.67), while older adults with CRDS were 14% more likely to have one more outpatient visit (RM: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02-1.28). Elderly individuals with MDD had a prevalence of hospital admissions in the previous 3 months that was twice that of those without depression (PR=2.02, 95% CI: 1.09-3.75). Significant differences were not found for medication use. Among low-income older adults living in Brazil, those with MDD are more likely to have a recent hospital admission and outpatient service use than those without depression. Future studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of depression treatments for this population in order to both decrease the burden of illness as well as to minimize health care utilization related to depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Financial difficulty in acquiring food among elderly disabled women: results from the Women's Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed Central

    Klesges, L M; Pahor, M; Shorr, R I; Wan, J Y; Williamson, J D; Guralnik, J M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study described the prevalence and characteristics of financial difficulty acquiring food and its relation to nutritional biomarkers in older disabled women. METHODS: Baseline data were analyzed from the Women's Health and Aging Study, a population-based survey of 1002 community-dwelling, disabled women 65 years and older from Baltimore, Md. RESULTS: Minority women (49.5%) were more likely than White women (13.4%) to report financial difficulty acquiring food (odds ratio [OR] = 6.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5, 8.6). Of the women reporting financial difficulty acquiring food, only 19.3% received food stamps and fewer than 7% participated in food assistance programs. Women reporting financial difficulty acquiring food had higher levels of psychologic depression than women not reporting such difficulty. Greater likelihood of financial difficulty acquiring food was associated with poorer quality of life and physical performance among White women and with more medical conditions among minority women. Finally, anemia (hemoglobin < 120 g/L) was associated with financial difficulty acquiring food (age-adjusted OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.9, 4.3). CONCLUSIONS: Financial difficulty acquiring food was common, and receipt of nutritional services was rare, in community-dwelling, older disabled women. Nutrition assistance programs for the elderly should reexamine their effectiveness in preventing nutritional deficits in older disabled women. PMID:11189828

  9. Cognitive Impairment and Medication Complexity in Community-Living Older Adults: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David SH; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Hanlon, Joseph T; Gill, Thomas M; Bauer, Douglas C; Meibohm, Bernd; Harris, Tamara B; Jeffery, Sean M

    2012-01-01

    Background Medication complexity is a large determinant of adherence. Few studies have explored the relationship between cognitive impairment and medication complexity. Objective To evaluate whether cognitive impairment is associated with medication complexity for prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Methods In this cross-sectional analysis, we studied the association between cognitive impairment and the complexity of prescription and OTC drug regimens. Baseline participants were from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study, consisting of 3075 well-functioning 70- to 79-year-old black and white men and women. Cognitive impairment was defined by having a Modified Mini-Mental State Examination score <80. The complexity of prescription and OTC (including supplements/herbals) medications was assessed using a modified version of the Medication Regimen Complexity Index (mMRCI). The mMRCI score increases with complexity of dosage forms, number of medications, pill burden, and nondaily dosing. Results The mean (SD) age was 74 (2.9) years (n = 3055; 52% female, 41% black). The median prescription mMRCI score was 6 (range 0–66). The median OTC mMRCI score was 4 (range 0–71). Adjusting for health status, demographics, and access to care, medication complexity was lower in participants with cognitive impairment for prescription (adjusted RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.99) and OTC medications (adjusted RR 0.76; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.93) compared to those without cognitive impairment. The number of prescription medications was not different, but the number of OTC drugs was lower for those with cognitive impairment. Conclusions In this cohort of well-functioning older adults, those with cognitive impairment had lower prescription complexity due to less-complex dosage forms, pill burden, or daily dosing. OTC complexity was also lower, primarily due to a lower number of OTC drugs. The results of this study show that further research on medication complexity and

  10. Family members and health professionals' perspectives on future life planning of ageing people with Down syndrome: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Covelli, Venusia; Raggi, Alberto; Paganelli, Chiara; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-08-08

    To address the way in which primary caregivers of people over 45 with Down syndrome describe daily life activities and context and foresee their future. Thirteen family members and 15 health professionals participated to four focus groups. Meaningful concepts were identified and linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health using established linking rules. A total of 258 relevant concepts were identified and linked to 75 categories of the classification: 38 were from activity and participation and 17 from environmental factors domains. The most commonly reported issues were mental functions (b117-intellectual functions and b152-emotional functions), community life activities (d910-community life and d920-recreation and leisure) and environmental factors (e310-support of immediate family, e355-support from health professionals and e555-associations and organizational services). Information on the daily life and health of ageing people with Down syndrome is important to plan social and health care interventions tailored to deal with problems that they may encounter in older age. Considering the interaction between health and environment and maintaining a continuity of daily routines were reported as the most relevant topics for managing daily lives of persons with Down syndrome in older ages. Implications for rehabilitation Pay more attention to the interaction between environmental factors and health condition in ageing people with Down syndrome. Information about the life contest are important in order to plan present and future social-health care interventions. Future planning for people with Down syndrome is a great concern for family members.

  11. Sexual Health and Well-being Among Older Men and Women in England: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Lee, David M; Nazroo, James; O'Connor, Daryl B; Blake, Margaret; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    We describe levels of sexual activity, problems with sexual functioning, and concerns about sexual health among older adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and associations with age, health, and partnership factors. Specifically, a total of 6,201 core ELSA participants (56 % women) aged 50 to >90 completed a comprehensive Sexual Relationships and Activities questionnaire (SRA-Q) included in ELSA Wave 6 (2012/13). The prevalence of reporting any sexual activity in the last year declined with age, with women less likely than men at all ages to report being sexually active. Poorer health was associated with lower levels of sexual activity and a higher prevalence of problems with sexual functioning, particularly among men. Difficulties most frequently reported by sexually active women related to becoming sexually aroused (32 %) and achieving orgasm (27 %), while for men it was erectile function (39 %). Sexual health concerns most commonly reported by women related to their level of sexual desire (11 %) and frequency of sexual activities (8 %). Among men it was level of sexual desire (15 %) and erectile difficulties (14 %). While the likelihood of reporting sexual health concerns tended to decrease with age in women, the opposite was seen in men. Poor sexual functioning and disagreements with a partner about initiating and/or feeling obligated to have sex were associated with greater concerns about and dissatisfaction with overall sex life. Levels of sexual activity decline with increasing age, although a sizable minority of men and women remain sexually active until the eighth and ninth decades of life. Problems with sexual functioning were relatively common, but overall levels of sexual health concerns were much lower. Sexually active men reported higher levels of concern with their sexual health and sexual dissatisfaction than women at all ages. Older peoples' sexual health should be managed, not just in the context of their age, gender

  12. Comparison of the Rowe–Kahn Model of Successful Aging With Self-rated Health and Life Satisfaction: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Elise; Popham, Frank; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: With increasing longevity in industrialized populations, there is growing interest in what defines “successful aging” (SA). Various SA measures have been proposed but no consensus has been reached and many have been criticized for not representing the views and priorities of older people. We consider whether the Rowe–Kahn SA model captures older individual’s perceptions of their own health and aging. Methods: Using two cohorts of 886 and 483 men and women from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study, aged around 57 and 76, respectively, we explored associations between Rowe–Kahn SA dimensions (absence of disease/disability; good physical/cognitive functioning; good interpersonal/productive social engagement) and four aspects of self-rated health and satisfaction (current general health; health for age; satisfaction with health; satisfaction with life). Results: Respondents’ self-rated health and satisfaction was generally good but few had all six Rowe–Kahn dimensions positive, the conventional definition of SA. All individual positive SA dimensions were associated with better self-rated health and satisfaction. This was consistent across age, gender, manual/nonmanual occupations, and personality. The prevalence of good self-rated health and satisfaction increased with increasing numbers of positive SA dimensions. Implications: The Rowe–Kahn model provides a functional definition of SA. Future work on ageing should include all Rowe–Kahn dimensions and consider SA as a continuum. PMID:26970606

  13. Comparison of two measures of gestational age among low income births. The potential impact on health studies, New York, 2005.

    PubMed

    Lazariu, Victoria; Davis, Christopher F; McNutt, Louise-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the National Association for Public Health Statistics and Information Systems considered changing the definition of gestational age from the current definition based on mother's last normal menstrual period (LMP) to the clinical/obstetric estimate determined by the physician (CE).They determined additional information was needed. This study provides additional insight into the comparability of the LMP and CE measures currently used on vital records among births at risk for poor outcomes. The data consisted of all New York State (NYS) (excluding New York City) singleton births in 2005 among mothers enrolled in the NYS Women Infants and Children (WIC) program during pregnancy. Prenatal WIC records were matched to NYS' Statewide Perinatal Data System. The analysis investigates differences between LMP and CE recorded gestations. Relative risks between risk factors and preterm birth were compared for LMP and CE. Exact agreement between gestation measures exists in 49.6% of births. Overall, 6.4% of records indicate discordance in full term/preterm classifications; CE is full term and LMP preterm in 4.9%, with the converse true for 1.5%. Associations between risk factor and preterm birth differed in magnitude based on gestational age measurement. Infants born to mothers with high risk indicators were more likely to have a CE of preterm and LMP full term. Changing the measure of gestational age to CE universally likely would result in overestimation of the importance of some risk factors for preterm birth. Potential overestimation of clinical outcomes associated with preterm birth may occur and should be studied.

  14. Long-term assessment of inflammation and healthy aging in late life: the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Nancy S; French, Benjamin; Arnold, Alice M; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Cushman, Mary; Chaves, Paulo H M; Ding, Jingzhong; Fried, Linda P; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Rifkin, Dena E; Sarnak, Mark J; Newman, Anne B

    2012-09-01

    Associations of inflammation with age-related pathologies are documented; however, it is not understood how changes in inflammation over time impact healthy aging. We examined associations of long-term change in C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) with concurrent onset of physical and cognitive impairment, subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality in 1,051 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars Study. Biomarkers were measured in 1996-1997 and 2005-2006. In 2005-2006, median age was 84.9 years, 63% were women and 17% non-white; 21% had at least a doubling in CRP over time and 23% had at least a doubling in IL-6. Adjusting for demographics, CVD risk factors, and 1996-1997 CRP level, each doubling in CRP change over 9 years was associated with higher risk of physical or cognitive impairment (odds ratio 1.29; 95% confidence interval 1.15, 1.45). Results were similar for IL-6 (1.45; 1.20, 1.76). A doubling in IL-6 change over time, but not CRP, was associated with incident CVD events; hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.34 (1.03, 1.75). Doubling in change in each biomarker was individually associated with mortality (CRP: 1.12 [1.03, 1.22]; IL-6 1.39 [1.16, 1.65]). In models containing both change and 2005-2006 level, only level was associated with CVD events and mortality. Although increases in inflammation markers over 9 years were associated with higher concurrent risk of functional impairment and subsequent CVD events and mortality, final levels of each biomarker appeared to be more important in determining risk of subsequent events than change over time.

  15. Long-term Assessment of Inflammation and Healthy Aging in Late Life: The Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars

    PubMed Central

    French, Benjamin; Arnold, Alice M.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Cushman, Mary; Chaves, Paulo H. M.; Ding, Jingzhong; Fried, Linda P.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Rifkin, Dena E.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Newman, Anne B.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Associations of inflammation with age-related pathologies are documented; however, it is not understood how changes in inflammation over time impact healthy aging. Methods. We examined associations of long-term change in C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) with concurrent onset of physical and cognitive impairment, subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality in 1,051 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars Study. Biomarkers were measured in 1996–1997 and 2005–2006. Results. In 2005–2006, median age was 84.9 years, 63% were women and 17% non-white; 21% had at least a doubling in CRP over time and 23% had at least a doubling in IL-6. Adjusting for demographics, CVD risk factors, and 1996–1997 CRP level, each doubling in CRP change over 9 years was associated with higher risk of physical or cognitive impairment (odds ratio 1.29; 95% confidence interval 1.15, 1.45). Results were similar for IL-6 (1.45; 1.20, 1.76). A doubling in IL-6 change over time, but not CRP, was associated with incident CVD events; hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.34 (1.03, 1.75). Doubling in change in each biomarker was individually associated with mortality (CRP: 1.12 [1.03, 1.22]; IL-6 1.39 [1.16, 1.65]). In models containing both change and 2005–2006 level, only level was associated with CVD events and mortality. Conclusions. Although increases in inflammation markers over 9 years were associated with higher concurrent risk of functional impairment and subsequent CVD events and mortality, final levels of each biomarker appeared to be more important in determining risk of subsequent events than change over time. PMID:22367431

  16. The relationship of reduced peripheral nerve function and diabetes with physical performance in older white and black adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study.

    PubMed

    Strotmeyer, Elsa S; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Schwartz, Ann V; Faulkner, Kimberly A; Resnick, Helaine E; Goodpaster, Bret H; Shorr, Ronald I; Vinik, Aaron I; Harris, Tamara B; Newman, Anne B

    2008-09-01

    Poor peripheral nerve function is prevalent in diabetes and older populations, and it has great potential to contribute to poor physical performance. Cross-sectional analyses were done for the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study participants (n = 2,364; 48% men; 38% black; aged 73-82 years). Sensory and motor peripheral nerve function in legs/feet was assessed by 10- and 1.4-g monofilament perception, vibration detection, and peroneal motor nerve conduction amplitude and velocity. The Health ABC lower-extremity performance battery was a supplemented version of the Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly battery (chair stands, standing balance, and 6-m walk), adding increased stand duration, single foot stand, and narrow walk. Diabetic participants had fewer chair stands (0.34 vs. 0.36 stands/s), shorter standing balance time (0.69 vs. 0.75 ratio), slower usual walking speed (1.11 vs. 1.14 m/s), slower narrow walking speed (0.80 vs. 0.90 m/s), and lower performance battery score (6.43 vs. 6.93) (all P < 0.05). Peripheral nerve function was associated with each physical performance measure independently. After addition of peripheral nerve function in fully adjusted models, diabetes remained significantly related to a lower performance battery score and slower narrow walking speed but not to chair stands, standing balance, or usual walking speed. Poor peripheral nerve function accounts for a portion of worse physical performance in diabetes and may be directly associated with physical performance in older diabetic and nondiabetic adults. The impact of peripheral nerve function on incident disability should be evaluated in older adults.

  17. Population impact of depression on functional disability in elderly: results from "São Paulo Ageing & Health Study" (SPAH).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Simone Almeida; Scazufca, Marcia; Menezes, Paulo R

    2013-03-01

    With the fast population aging, functional disability among the elderly is becoming a major public health issue. Depression is highly prevalent in this phase of life and may be associated with a significant proportion of the disability among elderly populations. We investigated the association of depressive symptoms and ICD-10 depression with functional disability in older adults and estimated the corresponding population attributable fractions (PAF). A cross-sectional one-phase population-based study was carried out with 2,072 individuals aged 65 years or over living in a low-income area of São Paulo, Brazil. Depressive symptoms and ICD-10 depression were assessed with the Geriatric Mental State and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. We assessed functional disability with the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Instrument. Prevalence Ratios and PAF were calculated using Poisson regression. The prevalence of depressive symptoms and ICD-10 depression was 21.4 and 4.8 %, respectively. Depression and depressive symptoms were strongly associated with high functional disability, even after adjustment for demographic factors, socioeconomic conditions, physical morbidities, and dementia. The PAFs for depressive symptoms and ICD-10 depression were 12.0 % for each of the psychiatric morbidity. Depressive symptoms contributed as much as ICD-10 depression to the population burden of functional disability in the elderly. Effective management of clinically significant depressive symptoms, delivered mainly at the primary care level, may reduce the total population disability.

  18. Studying aging in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-06-15

    Drosophila melanogaster represents one of the most important genetically accessible model organisms for aging research. Studies in flies have identified single gene mutations that influence lifespan and have characterized endocrine signaling interactions that control homeostasis systemically. Recent studies have focused on the effects of aging on specific tissues and physiological processes, providing a comprehensive picture of age-related tissue dysfunction and the loss of systemic homeostasis. Here we review methodological aspects of this work and highlight technical considerations when using Drosophila to study aging and age-related diseases.

  19. The association between physical function and lifestyle activity and exercise in the health, aging and body composition study.

    PubMed

    Brach, Jennifer S; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine; Newman, Anne B

    2004-04-01

    To determine whether older adults who exercise demonstrate higher levels of physical function than those who do not exercise but are physically active throughout the day. Cross-sectional examination of baseline data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. Health ABC field centers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee. Three thousand seventy-five well-functioning black and white men and women aged 70 to 79. Physical activity and exercise were assessed using a modified leisure-time physical activity questionnaire. Participants were classified as inactive (reporting <1,000 kcal/wk of exercise activity and < or =2,719 kcal/wk of total physical activity), lifestyle active (reporting <1,000 kcal/wk of exercise activity and >2,719 kcal/wk of total physical activity), or exerciser (reporting> or =1,000 kcal/wk of exercise activity). Physical function measures included the Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) battery, the Health ABC battery, a 400-m walk test, and isokinetic strength testing of the knee extensors. The lifestyle active and exerciser groups had similar total activity levels (men: 6,135 kcal/wk and 6,734 kcal/wk, respectively; P=.108; women: 5,695 kcal/wk and 5,854 kcal/wk, respectively; P=.335). When examining lower extremity performance in relation to physical activity, a progressive trend was evident, with the inactive individuals most likely to have impaired performance on the EPESE battery (men: 33.7%, 24.3%, and 19.1%, P<.001; women: 49.9%, 37.3%, and 28.4%, P<.001; inactive, lifestyle active, and exerciser, respectively). Progressive trends of similar magnitude were present for the Health ABC battery, time to walk 400 m, and knee extensor strength. In multivariate linear regression, those in the inactive and lifestyle active groups had poorer scores on the Health ABC performance battery than individuals in the exercise group after controlling for demographic factors and

  20. What does age-comparative self-rated health measure? A cross-sectional study from the Northern Sweden MONICA Project.

    PubMed

    Waller, Göran; Janlert, Urban; Hamberg, Katarina; Forssén, Annika

    2016-05-01

    Self-rated health comprehensively accounts for many health domains. Using self-ratings and a knowledge of associations with health domains might help personnel in the health care sector to understand reports of ill health. The aim of this paper was to investigate associations between age-comparative self-rated health and disease, risk factors, emotions and psychosocial factors in a general population. We based our study on population-based cross-sectional surveys performed in 1999, 2004 and 2009 in northern Sweden. Participants were 25-74 years of age and 5314 of the 7500 people invited completed the survey. Comparative self-rated health was measured on a three-grade ordinal scale by the question 'How would you assess your general health condition compared to persons of your own age?' with the alternatives 'better', 'worse' or 'similar'. The independent variables were sex, age, blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, self-reported myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, physical activity, smoking, risk of unemployment, satisfaction with economic situation, anxiety and depressive emotions, education and Karasek scale of working conditions. Odds ratios using ordinal regression were calculated. Age, sex, stroke, myocardial infarction, diabetes, body mass index, physical activity, economic satisfaction, anxiety and depressive emotions were associated with comparative self-rated health. The risk of unemployment, a tense work situation and educational level were also associated with comparative self-rated health, although they were considerably weaker when adjusted for the the other variables. Anxiety, depressive emotions, low economic satisfaction and a tense work situation were common in the population. Emotions and economic satisfaction were associated with comparative self-rated health as well as some medical variables. Utilization of the knowledge of these associations in health care should be further investigated. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public

  1. Infant-onset eczema in relation to mental health problems at age 10 years: results from a prospective birth cohort study (German Infant Nutrition Intervention plus).

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Apfelbacher, Christian; Chen, Chih-Mei; Romanos, Marcel; Sausenthaler, Stefanie; Koletzko, Sibylle; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Hoffmann, Ute; Krämer, Ursula; Berdel, Dietrich; von Berg, Andrea; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2010-02-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between eczema and mental health problems, but the temporal relationship is unclear. To assess the association between infant-onset eczema and mental health problems in a prospective study. Between 1995 and 1998, a birth cohort study was recruited and followed until age 10 years. Physician-diagnosed eczema, comorbidities, and a broad set of environmental exposures were assessed at age 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10 years. First, we investigated the association between infant-onset eczema (age 1-2 years) and mental health problems at age 10 years according to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Second, we analyzed the likelihood of mental health problems at age 10 years in relation to the course of eczema. A total of 2916 infants were eligible for analysis. Compared with participants never diagnosed as having eczema, children with infant-onset eczema had a significantly increased risk for possible/probable mental health problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire total score) at age 10 years (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.13-1.96) and for emotional symptoms (odds ratio, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.25-2.09). Eczema limited to infancy predicted a significantly higher risk for conduct problems at age 10 years. The strength of the association between eczema and emotional problems at age 10 years increased with increasing eczema persistence. Infants with eczema are at increased risk for mental health problems at age 10 years. Even if cleared afterward, eczema at age 1 to 2 years may cause persistent emotional and behavioral difficulties. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pain in Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Dementia: Results from the National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Lauren J.; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Yaffe, Kristine; Stephens, Caroline E.; Miao, Yinghui; Boscardin, W. John; Smith, Alex K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To report prevalence, correlates, and medication management of pain in community-dwelling older adults with dementia. DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING In-person interviews with self- or proxy respondents living in private residences or non-nursing home residential care settings. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older enrolled in the National Health and Aging Trends Study 2011 wave. MEASUREMENTS Dementia status was determined using a modified previously validated algorithm. Participants were asked whether they had had bothersome and activity-limiting pain over the past month. A multivariable Poisson regression model was used to determine the relationship between bothersome pain and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS Of the 7,609 participants with complete data on cognitive function, 802 had dementia (67.2% aged ≥80, 65.0% female, 67.9% white, 49.7% proxy response, 32.0% lived alone, 18.8% lived in residential care); 670 (63.5%) participants with dementia experienced bothersome pain, and 347 (43.3%) had pain that limited activities. These rates were significantly higher than in a propensity score–matched cohort without dementia (54.5% bothersome pain, P < .001, 27.2% pain that limited activity, P < .001). Proxies reported slightly higher rates of pain than self-respondents, but differences were statistically significant only for activity-limiting pain (46.6% proxy vs 40.1% self, P = .03). Correlates of bothersome pain included arthritis, heart and lung disease, less than high school education, activity of daily living disability, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and low energy. Of those reporting pain, 30.3% stated that they rarely or never took any medications for pain. CONCLUSION Community-living older adults with dementia are at high risk of having pain. Creative interventions and programs are needed to manage pain adequately in this vulnerable population. PMID

  3. Variation in the Presence of Simple Home Modifications of Older Americans: Findings from the National Health and Aging Trends Study.

    PubMed

    Meucci, Marissa R; Gozalo, Pedro; Dosa, David; Allen, Susan M

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the association between sociodemographic and economic factors and the presence of simple home modifications (HMs) among older adults in the United States. Cross-sectional. National Health and Aging Trends Study (2011, Round 1). Community-dwelling Medicare enrollees aged 65 and older (N = 6,628). The primary dependent variable was the reported presence or absence of simple HMs (grab bars in the shower or near the toilet, shower seats, raised toilet seats). Of the individuals sampled, 60.7% reported having at least one HM of interest. Black (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.68-0.91) and Hispanic (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45-0.78) respondents were less likely than white, non-Hispanic respondents to have HMs. Those with more education (high school graduate: OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.01-1.42; >high school: OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.14-1.62) and larger social networks (≥4 people; OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.12-1.89) were more likely to have at least one HM, whereas being divorced (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43-0.74) was associated with lower likelihood. Income (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.97-1.05), Medicaid enrollment (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.77-1.25), and living alone (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.85-1.23) were not significantly associated with the presence of HMs. Minorities, individuals with less education, and those with less social support are less likely to have HMs. Awareness of these disparities and the shortcomings of the HM delivery system is important to clinicians and policy-makers who seek to prevent falls and facilitate aging in place for all older Americans. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases in 6 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Findings From Wave 1 of the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Capistrant, Benjamin D; Gildner, Theresa E; Thiele, Elizabeth; Biritwum, Richard B; Yawson, Alfred E; Mensah, George; Maximova, Tamara; Wu, Fan; Guo, Yanfei; Zheng, Yang; Kalula, Sebastiana Zimba; Salinas Rodríguez, Aarón; Manrique Espinoza, Betty; Liebert, Melissa A; Eick, Geeta; Sterner, Kirstin N; Barrett, Tyler M; Duedu, Kwabena; Gonzales, Ernest; Ng, Nawi; Negin, Joel; Jiang, Yong; Byles, Julie; Madurai, Savathree Lorna; Minicuci, Nadia; Snodgrass, J Josh; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath

    2017-03-15

    In this paper, we examine patterns of self-reported diagnosis of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and prevalences of algorithm/measured test-based, undiagnosed, and untreated NCDs in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. Nationally representative samples of older adults aged ≥50 years were analyzed from wave 1 of the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007-2010; n = 34,149). Analyses focused on 6 conditions: angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, and hypertension. Outcomes for these NCDs were: 1) self-reported disease, 2) algorithm/measured test-based disease, 3) undiagnosed disease, and 4) untreated disease. Algorithm/measured test-based prevalence of NCDs was much higher than self-reported prevalence in all 6 countries, indicating underestimation of NCD prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. Undiagnosed prevalence of NCDs was highest for hypertension, ranging from 19.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 18.1, 21.3) in India to 49.6% (95% CI: 46.2, 53.0) in South Africa. The proportion untreated among all diseases was highest for depression, ranging from 69.5% (95% CI: 57.1, 81.9) in South Africa to 93.2% (95% CI: 90.1, 95.7) in India. Higher levels of education and wealth significantly reduced the odds of an undiagnosed condition and untreated morbidity. A high prevalence of undiagnosed NCDs and an even higher proportion of untreated NCDs highlights the inadequacies in diagnosis and management of NCDs in local health-care systems.

  5. How the Effects of Aging and Stresses of Life Are Integrated in Mortality Rates: Insights for Genetic Studies of Human Health and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Yashin, Anatoliy I.; Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Arbeeva, Liubov S.; Wu, Deqing; Akushevich, Igor; Kovtun, Mikhail; Yashkin, Arseniy; Kulminski, Alexander; Culminskaya, Irina; Stallard, Eric; Li, Miaozhu; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing proportions of elderly individuals in developed countries combined with substantial increases in related medical expenditures make the improvement of the health of the elderly a high priority today. If the process of aging by individuals is a major cause of age related health declines then postponing aging could be an efficient strategy for improving the health of the elderly. Implementing this strategy requires a better understanding of genetic and non-genetic connections among aging, health, and longevity. Data and methods We review progress and problems in research areas whose development may contribute to analyses of such connections. These include genetic studies of human aging and longevity, the heterogeneity of populations with respect to their susceptibility to disease and death, forces that shape age patterns of human mortality, secular trends in mortality decline, and integrative mortality modeling using longitudinal data. Results The dynamic involvement of genetic factors in (i) morbidity/mortality risks, (ii) responses to stresses of life, (iii) multi-morbidities of many elderly individuals, (iv) trade-offs for diseases, (v) genetic heterogeneity, and (vi) other relevant aging-related health declines, underscores the need for a comprehensive, integrated approach to analyze the genetic connections for all of the above aspects of aging-related changes. Conclusion The dynamic relationships among aging, health, and longevity traits would be better understood if one linked several research fields within one conceptual framework that allowed for efficient analyses of available longitudinal data using the wealth of available knowledge about aging, health, and longevity already accumulated in the research field. PMID:26280653

  6. Rationales for Anti-aging Activities in Middle Age: Aging, Health, or Appearance?

    PubMed

    Calasanti, Toni; King, Neal; Pietilä, Ilkka; Ojala, Hanna

    2016-08-09

    We explore the motivations of middle-aged consumers of anti-aging products and services in relation to aging, health, and appearance. Admission of use of anti-aging products and services could align a respondent with a stigmatized group, old people, and also connotes a feminine concern with aesthetics. For these reasons, people, particularly men, will be unlikely to report using them for this purpose. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted among 19 men and women aged 42-61 years. Topics included their perceptions of bodily changes and their responses to these. We analyzed data qualitatively. Respondents frame their uses of anti-aging products in terms of health and appearance, not anti-aging per se. Both men and women see anti-aging as related to beautiful appearance and thus as a feminized activity. Both are concerned about appearance, but in gendered ways. Overall, respondents conflate bodily appearance, health, and aging in their constructions of anti-aging. This conflation maintains inequality by stigmatizing old age as unhealthy and unseemly. Our results point to the limits of studying the consumption of anti-aging products and services if researchers ask only about anti-aging uses per se. They also point to the ways that discourses of health and appearance naturalize ageism, as they suggest that old age inheres in bodies that "naturally" decline and thus should be excluded. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Predictors of subjective age in people aged 40-79 years: a five-year follow-up study. The impact of mastery, mental and physical health.

    PubMed

    Bergland, Astrid; Nicolaisen, Magnhild; Thorsen, Kirsten

    2014-07-01

    Assessing subjective age perception (SAP) and changes in SAP as well as exploring which variables of socio-demographic, health and personal mastery independently predicted SAP. The panel data are from two waves of the Norwegian Study on the Life Course, Ageing and Generations (NorLAG). Our sample consists of 2471 people aged 40-79 years at baseline who were surveyed in 2002/2003 (T1) and 2007/2008 (T2). Univariate and multiple regressions were performed; multivariate analyses assessing the relative importance of the independent variables (at T1) for the SAP at T2. Older chronological age, good physical health, good mental health, a high level of personal mastery and having lower education significantly predicted a youthful SAP. For the whole sample, older age and a high level of personal mastery were the most important predictors. For those aged 40-49 being a man, having lower education, good physical health and high personal mastery predicted a younger SAP, whereas in the group aged 50-59 years being married/cohabiting and having a high level of education were predictors of an older SAP. For those aged 60-69, high personal mastery was the only independent predictor of a younger SAP. For those aged 70-79 years, only health - good mental and physical health - independently predicted a younger SAP. Most respondents feel younger than their chronological age, the more the older they are. Self-rated physical and mental health and personal mastery are associated with SAP and vary in different age groups.

  8. Diet Quality of Urban Older Adults Aged 60-99: The Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and Built Environment Study

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L.; Morland, Kimberly B.; Scanlin, Kathleen; Wong, Sally; Spark, Arlene

    2013-01-01

    There are few studies that evaluate dietary intakes and predictors of diet quality in older adults. The objectives of this study were to describe nutrient intakes and examine associations between demographic, economic, behavioral, social environment, and health status factors and diet quality. Cross-sectional data was from Black, White, and Hispanic adults ages 60-99 years, living independently in New York City and participating in the Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and the Built Environment Study, 2009-2011 (n=1306). Multivariable log-linear regression estimated associations between selected factors and good diet quality, defined as a Healthy Eating Index score based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (HEI-2005)>80. Dietary intakes were similar for men and women; intakes of energy, fiber, and the majority of micronutrients were below recommendations, while intakes of fats, added sugar, and sodium were within the upper range or exceeded recommendations. Hispanic ethnicity (Relative Risk, RR=1.37; 95% Confidence Interval, CI, 1.07-1.75), caloric intake <~1500 calories/day (RR=1.93; 95%CI, 1.37-2.71), adherence to a special diet (RR=1.23; 95%CI: 1.02-1.50), purchasing food at supermarkets at least once/week (RR=1.34; 95%CI, 1.04-1.74), and being married/living with a partner (RR=1.37; 95%CI, 1.10-1.71) were positively associated with HEI-2005>80. Consuming at least restaurant one meal/day was negatively associated with HEI-2005>80 (RR=0.69; 95%CI, 0.50-0.94). These findings identify specific groups of older adults, such as Blacks or those who live alone, who may benefit from dietary interventions, as well as specific modifiable behaviors among older adults, such as eating restaurant meals or shopping at supermarkets, which may be targeted through interventions. PMID:24262516

  9. Nativity differences in allostatic load by age, sex, and Hispanic background from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Christian R; Strizich, Garrett; Seeman, Teresa E; Isasi, Carmen R; Gallo, Linda C; Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Cai, Jianwen; Penedo, Frank J; Arguelles, Willian; Sanders, Anne E; Lipton, Richard B; Kaplan, Robert C

    2016-12-01

    Allostatic load (AL), an index of biological "wear and tear" on the body from cumulative exposure to stress, has been little studied in US Hispanics/Latinos. We investigated AL accumulation patterns by age, sex, and nativity in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We studied 15,830 Hispanic/Latinos of Mexican, Cuban, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Central and South American descent aged 18-74 years, 77% of whom were foreign-born. Consistent with the conceptualization of AL, we developed an index based upon 16 physiological markers that spanned the cardiometabolic, parasympathetic, and inflammatory systems. We computed mean adjusted AL scores using log-linear models across age-groups (18-44, 45-54, 55-74 years), by sex and nativity status. Among foreign-born individuals, differences in AL by duration of residence in the US (<10, ≥10 years) and age at migration (<24, ≥24 years) were also examined. In persons younger than 55 years old, after controlling for socioeconomic and behavioral factors, AL was highest among US-born individuals, intermediate in foreign-born Hispanics/Latinos with longer duration in the US (≥10 years), and lowest among those with shorter duration in the US (<10 years) (P <0.0001 for increasing trend). Similarly, AL increased among the foreign-born with earlier age at immigration. These trends were less pronounced among individuals ≥55 years of age. Similar patterns were observed across all Hispanic/Latino heritage groups (P for interaction=0.5). Our findings support both a "healthy immigrant" pattern and a loss of health advantage over time among US Hispanics/Latinos of diverse heritages.

  10. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in a Community-Based Elderly Cohort: the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Mi Hyun; Lim, Jae-young

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of dysphagia and evaluated the association of dysphagia and activities of daily living in a geriatric population residing in an independent-living facility in Korea. Korean men and women 65-yr and older living in a single, typical South Korean city (n=415) were enrolled in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging study. Dysphagia was assessed using the Standardized Swallowing Assessment. Data were collected on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), and medical history and laboratory. The overall prevalence of dysphagia in the random sample was 33.7% (95% CI, 29.1-38.4), including 39.5% in men and 28.4% in women. The identified risk factors for dysphagia were men (OR, 3.6, P=0.023), history of stroke (OR, 2.7, P=0.042) and presence of major depressive disorder (OR, 3.0, P=0.022). Dysphagia was associated with impairment in IADL domains of preparing meals and taking medicine (P=0.013 and P=0.007, respectively). This is the first published report of the prevalence of dysphagia in older community-dwelling Koreans. Dysphagia is a common problem among elderly people that limits some IADL domains. PMID:24133362

  11. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in a community-based elderly cohort: the korean longitudinal study on health and aging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Mi Hyun; Lim, Jae-young; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of dysphagia and evaluated the association of dysphagia and activities of daily living in a geriatric population residing in an independent-living facility in Korea. Korean men and women 65-yr and older living in a single, typical South Korean city (n=415) were enrolled in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging study. Dysphagia was assessed using the Standardized Swallowing Assessment. Data were collected on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), and medical history and laboratory. The overall prevalence of dysphagia in the random sample was 33.7% (95% CI, 29.1-38.4), including 39.5% in men and 28.4% in women. The identified risk factors for dysphagia were men (OR, 3.6, P=0.023), history of stroke (OR, 2.7, P=0.042) and presence of major depressive disorder (OR, 3.0, P=0.022). Dysphagia was associated with impairment in IADL domains of preparing meals and taking medicine (P=0.013 and P=0.007, respectively). This is the first published report of the prevalence of dysphagia in older community-dwelling Koreans. Dysphagia is a common problem among elderly people that limits some IADL domains.

  12. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  13. Ageing, Learning and Health: Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestheneos, Elizabeth; Withnall, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The health of ageing populations is a real concern across the world so that the concept of active ageing has been advocated as a framework for appropriate educational policies and programmes to support people as they grow older. The other elements discussed here are health and healthy life expectancy (HLE) acknowledging that as people age, they…

  14. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  15. Ageing, Learning and Health: Making Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestheneos, Elizabeth; Withnall, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The health of ageing populations is a real concern across the world so that the concept of active ageing has been advocated as a framework for appropriate educational policies and programmes to support people as they grow older. The other elements discussed here are health and healthy life expectancy (HLE) acknowledging that as people age, they…

  16. Sensorimotor Peripheral Nerve Function and the Longitudinal Relationship With Endurance Walking in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.

    PubMed

    Lange-Maia, Brittney S; Newman, Anne B; Cauley, Jane A; Boudreau, Robert M; Jakicic, John M; Caserotti, Paolo; Glynn, Nancy W; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Schwartz, Ann V; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Vinik, Aaron I; Zivkovic, Sasa; Strotmeyer, Elsa S

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether lower extremity sensorimotor peripheral nerve deficits are associated with reduced walking endurance in older adults. Prospective cohort study with 6 years of follow-up. Two university research clinics. Community-dwelling older adults enrolled in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study from the 2000-2001 annual clinical examination (N=2393; mean age ± SD, 76.5±2.9y; 48.2% men; 38.2% black) and a subset with longitudinal data (n=1178). Not applicable. Participants underwent peripheral nerve function examination in 2000-2001, including peroneal motor nerve conduction amplitude and velocity, vibration perception threshold, and monofilament testing. Symptoms of lower extremity peripheral neuropathy included numbness or tingling and sudden stabbing, burning, pain, or aches in the feet or legs. The Long Distance Corridor Walk (LDCW) (400 m) was administered in 2000-2001 and every 2 years afterward for 6 years to assess endurance walking performance over time. In separate, fully adjusted linear mixed models, poor vibration threshold (>130 μm), 10-g and 1.4-g monofilament insensitivity were each associated with a slower 400-m walk completion time (16.0 s, 14.4s, and 6.9 s slower, respectively; P<.05 for each). Poor motor amplitude (<1 mV), poor vibration perception threshold, and 10-g monofilament insensitivity were related to greater slowing per year (4.7, 4.2, and 3.8 additional seconds per year, respectively; P<.05), although poor motor amplitude was not associated with initial completion time. Poorer sensorimotor peripheral nerve function is related to slower endurance walking and greater slowing longitudinally. Interventions to reduce the burden of sensorimotor peripheral nerve function impairments should be considered to help older adults maintain walking endurance-a critical component for remaining independent in the community. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitochondrial genomic variation associated with higher mitochondrial copy number: the Cache County Study on Memory Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The mitochondria are essential organelles and are the location of cellular respiration, which is responsible for the majority of ATP production. Each cell contains multiple mitochondria, and each mitochondrion contains multiple copies of its own circular genome. The ratio of mitochondrial genomes to nuclear genomes is referred to as mitochondrial copy number. Decreases in mitochondrial copy number are known to occur in many tissues as people age, and in certain diseases. The regulation of mitochondrial copy number by nuclear genes has been studied extensively. While mitochondrial variation has been associated with longevity and some of the diseases known to have reduced mitochondrial copy number, the role that the mitochondrial genome itself has in regulating mitochondrial copy number remains poorly understood. Results We analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes from 1007 individuals randomly selected from the Cache County Study on Memory Health and Aging utilizing the inferred evolutionary history of the mitochondrial haplotypes present in our dataset to identify sequence variation and mitochondrial haplotypes associated with changes in mitochondrial copy number. Three variants belonging to mitochondrial haplogroups U5A1 and T2 were significantly associated with higher mitochondrial copy number in our dataset. Conclusions We identified three variants associated with higher mitochondrial copy number and suggest several hypotheses for how these variants influence mitochondrial copy number by interacting with known regulators of mitochondrial copy number. Our results are the first to report sequence variation in the mitochondrial genome that causes changes in mitochondrial copy number. The identification of these variants that increase mtDNA copy number has important implications in understanding the pathological processes that underlie these phenotypes. PMID:25077862

  18. Health and lifestyle factors associated with sexual difficulties in men - results from a study of Australian men aged 18 to 55 years.

    PubMed

    Schlichthorst, Marisa; Sanci, Lena A; Hocking, Jane S

    2016-10-31

    Sexual difficulties (SD) are common among men of all ages and can have considerable impact on quality of life and indications for future health. SD are associated with mental and physical wellbeing and with relationship satisfaction, yet they are rarely discussed with medical professionals who are often ill equipped to assess and manage them. This paper provides an updated overview on the status of SD in Australian men from 18 to 55 years of age and will form a baseline comparison for future analyses of SD based on Ten to Men data. We used data from Ten to Men, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health. SD was measured using eight items capturing specific sexual difficulties. We examined associations of a range of health and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, obesity and new sexual partners, self-rated health status, disability, pain medication, diagnosed physical and mental health conditions) with each SD using logistic regression. The sample included 12,636 adult males who had previously been sexually active. Analysis was stratified by age (18-34 years versus 35-55 years). This paper shows that experiencing SD is relatively common among Australian men - overall half the sample (54 %; 95 % CI: 0.53-0.55) experienced at least one SD for more than 3 months over the past 12 months. While more common in older men aged 45 to 55 years, almost half the 18 to 24 year old men (48 %) also reported at least one SD highlighting that SD affects men of all ages. We found that SDs were associated with both lifestyle and health factors, although the strongest associations were observed for health factors in both age groups, in particular poor self-rated health, having a disability and at least one mental health condition. Lifestyle factors associated with SDs in men of all ages included smoking, harmful alcohol consumption and drug use in the past 12 months. Obesity was only associated with an increased rate of SD in men aged 35 to

  19. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Methods The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Results Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Conclusions Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of

  20. The relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control across adult age-groups.

    PubMed

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2015-01-01

    This study integrates healthy ageing and health psychology theories to explore the mechanisms underlying the relationship between health control expectancies and age-attitudes on the process of ageing well. Specifically, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control. A population-based survey of 739 adults aged 20-97 years (mean = 57.3 years, SD = 13.66; 42% female) explored attitudes towards ageing and health attitudes. A path-analytical approach was used to investigate moderating effects of age and gender. Higher age-stereotype endorsement was associated with higher chance (β = 2.91, p < .001) and powerful other (β = 1.07, p = .012) health expectancies, after controlling for age, gender, education and self-rated health. Significant age and gender interactions were found to influence the relationship between age-stereotypes and internal health locus of control. Our findings suggest that the relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control dimensions must be considered within the context of age and gender. The findings point to the importance of targeting health promotion and interventions through addressing negative age-attitudes.

  1. Workplace air-conditioning and health services attendance among French middle-aged women: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Preziosi, P; Czernichow, S; Gehanno, P; Hercberg, S

    2004-10-01

    To assess the relationship between type of ventilation in the workplace, health services attendance, and sickness absence among middle-aged women. In a national sample of 920 professionally active women aged 49-65 yr from the SU.VI.MAX cohort, recruited from the general population in France, health services attendance and sickness absence were assessed prospectively during 1999. Being exposed to heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in the workplace proved to be a risk factor for attendance at global and several specialist medical services. The adjusted odds ratio for otorhinolaryngologist attendance was 2.33 (95% CI = 1.35-4.04) in the HVAC group compared with the natural ventilation group, and 1.70 (1.13-2.58) for sickness absence. Dermatologist and global medical services attendance rates may also be higher in this group (P = 0.06 in both cases). Exposure to HVAC systems was a strong and significant risk factor for otorhinolaryngologist attendance and sickness absence. HVAC systems are prevalent in recent office buildings and have been shown to be associated with several adverse health effects in terms of morbidity and mortality. From a public-health perspective, our results outline the need for a quantitative assessment of the health impact of ventilation systems, taking into account the possible loss of production that exists in addition to the direct costs of medical services use.

  2. A Large Genome-Wide Association Study of Age-Related Hearing Impairment Using Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Keats, Bronya J.; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Risch, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), one of the most common sensory disorders, can be mitigated, but not cured or eliminated. To identify genetic influences underlying ARHI, we conducted a genome-wide association study of ARHI in 6,527 cases and 45,882 controls among the non-Hispanic whites from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. We identified two novel genome-wide significant SNPs: rs4932196 (odds ratio = 1.185, p = 4.0x10-11), 52Kb 3’ of ISG20, which replicated in a meta-analysis of the other GERA race/ethnicity groups (1,025 cases, 12,388 controls, p = 0.00094) and in a UK Biobank case-control analysis (30,802 self-reported cases, 78,586 controls, p = 0.015); and rs58389158 (odds ratio = 1.132, p = 1.8x10-9), which replicated in the UK Biobank (p = 0.00021). The latter SNP lies just outside exon 8 and is highly correlated (r2 = 0.96) with the missense SNP rs5756795 in exon 7 of TRIOBP, a gene previously associated with prelingual nonsyndromic hearing loss. We further tested these SNPs in phenotypes from audiologist notes available on a subset of GERA (4,903 individuals), stratified by case/control status, to construct an independent replication test, and found a significant effect of rs58389158 on speech reception threshold (SRT; overall GERA meta-analysis p = 1.9x10-6). We also tested variants within exons of 132 other previously-identified hearing loss genes, and identified two common additional significant SNPs: rs2877561 (synonymous change in ILDR1, p = 6.2x10-5), which replicated in the UK Biobank (p = 0.00057), and had a significant GERA SRT (p = 0.00019) and speech discrimination score (SDS; p = 0.0019); and rs9493627 (missense change in EYA4, p = 0.00011) which replicated in the UK Biobank (p = 0.0095), other GERA groups (p = 0.0080), and had a consistent significant result for SRT (p = 0.041) and suggestive result for SDS (p = 0.081). Large cohorts with GWAS data and electronic health records may be a useful

  3. Pain and alcohol consumption among older adults: findings from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health, Wave 1.

    PubMed

    Ahangari, Alebtekin; Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Myléus, Anna

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cross-sectional associations between self-reported recent pain and alcohol use/abstinence, and previous-day pain and previous-week alcohol consumption in adults aged 50 + in six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 (2007-2010) in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa is the data source. Prevalence of alcohol use/abstinence is reported by previous-day and previous-month pain. Multinomial logistic regressions (crude and adjusted for sex and country) tested associations between recent pain and alcohol use in the pooled multicountry sample. Across the six SAGE countries, about one-third of respondents reported alcohol use, being highest in Russia (74%) and lowest in India (16%). Holding the effects of sex and country constant, compared with abstainers, people with previous-day pain were more likely to be previous-day or other users. With regard to the quantity and frequency of alcohol use, people with previous-day pain were more likely to be non-heavy drinkers. Overall, we found that, in this population of older adults in six LMICs, recent pain was associated with moderate use of alcohol, although there were differences between countries. The findings provide a platform for country-specific research to better understand bi-directional associations between pain and alcohol in older adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Moderate alcohol consumption and risk of functional decline: is there a causal relationship? The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Maraldi, C.; Harris, T.; Newman, A.B.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Pahor, M.; Koster, A.; Satterfield, S.; Ayonayon, H.N.; Fellin, R.; Volpato, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Moderate alcohol intake has been associated with better physical performance and reduced likelihood of functional limitations. Causal inference has been difficult as most studies are cross-sectional. Our study investigated the prospective relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of incident mobility limitation. Methods The analysis included 3,061 participants in the Health ABC study, community-dwelling adults aged 70–79 without mobility disability at baseline. Study outcomes were the incidence of mobility limitation, defined as self-report at two consecutive semi-annual interviews of any difficulty either walking a quarter of a mile or climbing stairs, and the incidence of mobility disability, defined as severe difficulty or inability to perform these tasks at two consecutive reports. Weekly alcohol intake was assessed at baseline and categorized as follows: former, never or occasional (<1 drink/week), light (1 to 7 drinks per week for men; 1 to 3 drinks per week for women), moderate (8 to 14 drinks per week for men; 4 to 7 drinks per week for women), and heavy (> 14 drinks per week for men; > 7 drinks per week for women). Crude incidence rates were calculated per 100 person-years; Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis was used to estimate Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results During a follow-up time of 6.5 years, participants consuming moderate levels of alcohol had the lowest incidence of mobility limitation (6.4 per 100 person-years (P-Y); men: 6.4 per 100 P-Y; women 7.3 per 100 P-Y) and mobility disability (2.7 per 100 P-Y; men: 2.5 per 100 P-Y; women: 2.9 per 100 P-Y). Adjusting for demographic characteristics, moderate alcohol intake was associated with reduced risk of mobility limitation (HR:0.70;CI:0.55–0.89) and mobility disability (HR:0.66; CI:0.45–0.95), compared to never or occasional consumption. Additional adjustment for life-style related variables substantially reduced the strength of the

  5. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    van Gijssel, Rafaëlle M A; Braun, Kim V E; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy

    2016-08-30

    Dietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042), and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI -0.037, -0.003), but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood.

  6. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    van Gijssel, Rafaëlle M. A.; Braun, Kim V. E.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Franco, Oscar H.; Voortman, Trudy

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042), and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI −0.037, −0.003), but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood. PMID:27589791

  7. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T; Jorgensen, Neal W; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Herrington, David M

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54-1.90) (P < 0.0001) overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39-1.94), Chinese, 1.39 (1.06-1.83), African, 1.67 (1.37-2.02), and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65). Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91-2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46-2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12-1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR = 1

  8. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  9. Health and ageing--challenges for health psychology research.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Christine; Flick, Uwe

    2010-07-01

    In the light of ageing populations, three general issues of health and ageing become relevant for research and intervention in health psychology: ageing in the general population, among those who are confronted with frailty and illness, and on the ageing experiences of specific populations. In all of these areas there is a need to understand the factors (such as social engagement) that promote well-being and compression of ageing in community or institutional dwelling elders, while being aware of the impact of ageism, inequalities and exclusion on different people's access to health related policy resources and health care.

  10. Health demography comes of age.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R K; Pol, L G

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. health care industry has been hampered in the development of a mature marketing function in part due to characteristics unique to the industry. These characteristics include a lack of market data, poorly developed market research techniques, and a poor understanding of consumer behavior within the industry. Some of the deficiencies are being addressed through the development of an emerging field that is being referred to as "health demography." Health demography and those who have begun to refer to themselves as health demographers are drawing from the fields of demography, epidemiology, biostatistics, and the social sciences to formulate a new discipline uniquely related to the needs of today's health care marketers and planners. Those involved with health demography are developing databases and models for application to concrete problems in health care delivery. The development of this field is contributing to the advancement of the state of marketing in health care and serving to reduce many of the barriers that have retarded the development of a mature marketing function within the health care industry.

  11. Diet quality of urban older adults age 60 to 99 years: the Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and Built Environment Study.

    PubMed

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Morland, Kimberly B; Scanlin, Kathleen; Wong, Sally; Spark, Arlene

    2014-02-01

    There are few studies that evaluate dietary intakes and predictors of diet quality in older adults. The objectives of this study were to describe nutrient intakes and examine associations between demographic, economic, behavioral, social environment, and health status factors and diet quality. Cross-sectional data were from black, white, and Hispanic adults, age 60 to 99 years, living independently in New York City and participating in the Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and the Built Environment Study, 2009-2011 (n=1,306). Multivariable log-linear regression estimated associations between selected factors and good diet quality, defined as a Healthy Eating Index score more than 80 (based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans [HEI-2005]). Dietary intakes were similar for men and women; intakes of energy, fiber, and the majority of micronutrients were less than recommendations, whereas intakes of fats, added sugar, and sodium were within the upper range or exceeded recommendations. Hispanic ethnicity (relative risk [RR]=1.37; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.75), energy intake <∼ 1,500 kcal/day (RR=1.93; 95% CI, 1.37 to 2.71), adherence to a special diet (RR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.50), purchasing food at supermarkets at least once/week (RR=1.34; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.74), and being married/living with a partner (RR=1.37; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.71) were positively associated with HEI-2005 score more than 80. Consuming at least one restaurant meal/day was negatively associated with HEI-2005 score more than 80 (RR=0.69; 95%CI, 0.50-0.94). These findings identify specific groups of older adults, such as blacks or those who live alone, who may benefit from dietary interventions, as well as specific modifiable behaviors among older adults, such as eating restaurant meals or shopping at supermarkets, which may be targeted through interventions. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gestational Age, Infant Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses' Health Study II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses’ Health Study II Navigate This ... as 10 pounds or more at term. Gestational diabetes In the NHSII 1989 baseline questionnaire and subsequent ...

  13. Neurocognitive function among middle-aged and older Hispanic/Latinos: results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    PubMed

    González, Hector M; Tarraf, Wassim; Gouskova, Natalia; Gallo, Linda C; Penedo, Frank J; Davis, Sonia M; Lipton, Richard B; Argüelles, William; Choca, James P; Catellier, Diane J; Mosley, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    We sought to examine and describe neurocognitive function among middle-aged and older Hispanic/Latino Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) participants. We analyzed baseline cross-sectional data from the middle-aged and older (ages 45-74 years old) participants (n = 9,063) to calculate neurocognitive function scores and their correlates. Older age and higher depressive symptoms scores were associated with lower average neurocognitive performance, whereas greater educational attainment and household income were associated with higher neurocognitive performance. Hispanic/Latino heritage groups significantly varied in neurocognitive performances. Some neurocognitive differences between Hispanics/Latinos were maintained after controlling for language preference, education, household income, and depressive symptoms. We found notable differences in neurocognitive scores between Hispanic/Latino heritage groups that were not fully explained by the cultural and socioeconomic correlates examined in this study. Further investigations into plausible biological and environmental factors contributing to the Hispanic/Latino heritage group differences in neurocognitive found in the HCHS/SOL are warranted.

  14. Neurocognitive Function Among Middle-aged and Older Hispanic/Latinos: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    González, Hector M.; Tarraf, Wassim; Gouskova, Natalia; Gallo, Linda C.; Penedo, Frank J.; Davis, Sonia M.; Lipton, Richard B.; Argüelles, William; Choca, James P.; Catellier, Diane J.; Mosley, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to examine and describe neurocognitive function among middle-aged and older Hispanic/Latino Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) participants. We analyzed baseline cross-sectional data from the middle-aged and older (ages 45–74 years old) participants (n = 9,063) to calculate neurocognitive function scores and their correlates. Older age and higher depressive symptoms scores were associated with lower average neurocognitive performance, whereas greater educational attainment and household income were associated with higher neurocognitive performance. Hispanic/Latino heritage groups significantly varied in neurocognitive performances. Some neurocognitive differences between Hispanics/Latinos were maintained after controlling for language preference, education, household income, and depressive symptoms. We found notable differences in neurocognitive scores between Hispanic/Latino heritage groups that were not fully explained by the cultural and socioeconomic correlates examined in this study. Further investigations into plausible biological and environmental factors contributing to the Hispanic/Latino heritage group differences in neurocognitive found in the HCHS/SOL are warranted. PMID:25451561

  15. A 10-Year Follow-Up of Urinary and Fecal Incontinence among the Oldest Old in the Community: The Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostbye,Truls; Seim, Arnfinn; Krause, Katrina M.; Feightner, John; Hachinski, Vladimir; Sykes, Elizabeth; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2004-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is common in the elderly. The epidemiology of fecal and double (urinary and fecal) incontinence is less known. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) is a national study of elderly living in the community at baseline (n = 8,949) and interviewed in 1991-1992, 1996, and 2001. Using data from the CSHA, we report the…

  16. Age at smoking initiation and self-rated health among second grade high school boys and girls in Scania, Sweden, a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kristina; Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2015-11-18

    Smoking is usually initiated early in life and most adult regular smokers have started smoking before 18 years of age. A younger age at smoking initiation is associated with risk taking behaviours and worse health outcomes regarding psychological and somatic conditions, suggested to be caused by exposure during critical developmental periods. The present study aims to investigate self-rated health among second grade high school boys and girls related to age at smoking initiation (<14 years of age and ≥ 14 years of age) among current and former smokers, compared to never smokers. Data was derived from the Scania public health survey among children and adolescents in 2012. The study was cross-sectional with retrospective information about first time cigarette smoking experiences among 3245 boys and 3434 girls in second grade of high school. Self-rated health was assessed with the question "How do you rate your general health". Associations of age at smoking initiation, current smoking status and poor self-rated health were investigated with logistic regression models. Crude odds ratios of poor self-rated health were increased for all smoking groups compared to never smokers. Former smoking boys and currently smoking girls with early smoking initiation had the highest odds ratios of poor self-rated health, with odds ratios (OR) 2.4 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.5-3.7) and OR 2.9 (95 % CI: 2.3-3.6), respectively. After adjustments for sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviours, psychosocial factors, weight and functional disabilities, the results were attenuated, but remained statistically significant regarding former and current smoking boys with early smoking initiation, OR 2.0 (95 % CI: 1.1-3.7) and OR 1.7 (95 % CI: 1.1-2.4) and for current smoking girls with early and later smoking initiation, OR 2.1 (95 % CI: 1.5-2.8) and OR 1.5 (95 % CI: 1.1-2.0). Boys and girls in second grade of high school with early smoking initiation reported

  17. The PRO-AGE study: an international randomised controlled study of health risk appraisal for older persons based in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Stuck, Andreas E; Kharicha, Kalpa; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Meier-Baumgartner, Hans Peter; Iliffe, Steve; Harari, Danielle; Bachmann, Martin D; Egger, Matthias; Gillmann, Gerhard; Beck, John C; Swift, Cameron G

    2007-01-01

    Background This paper describes the study protocol, the recruitment, and base-line data for evaluating the success of randomisation of the PRO-AGE (PRevention in Older people – Assessment in GEneralists' practices) project. Methods/Design A group of general practitioners (GPs) in London (U.K.), Hamburg (Germany) and Solothurn (Switzerland) were trained in risk identification, health promotion, and prevention in older people. Their non-disabled older patients were invited to participate in a randomised controlled study. Participants allocated to the intervention group were offered the Health Risk Appraisal for Older Persons (HRA-O) instrument with a site-specific method for reinforcement (London: physician reminders in electronic medical record; Hamburg: one group session or two preventive home visits; Solothurn: six-monthly preventive home visits over a two-year period). Participants allocated to the control group received usual care. At each site, an additional group of GPs did not receive the training, and their eligible patients were invited to participate in a concurrent comparison group. Primary outcomes are self-reported health behaviour and preventative care use at one-year follow-up. In Solothurn, an additional follow-up was conducted at two years. The number of older persons agreeing to participate (% of eligible persons) in the randomised controlled study was 2503 (66.0%) in London, 2580 (53.6%) in Hamburg, and 2284 (67.5%) in Solothurn. Base-line findings confirm that randomisation of participants was successful, with comparable characteristics between intervention and control groups. The number of persons (% of eligible) enrolled in the concurrent comparison group was 636 (48.8%) in London, 746 (35.7%) in Hamburg, and 1171 (63.0%) in Solothurn. Discussion PRO-AGE is the first large-scale randomised controlled trial of health risk appraisal for older people in Europe. Its results will inform about the effects of implementing HRA-O with different

  18. Educating the patient for health care communication in the age of the world wide web: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Connor, Melanie; Schulz, Peter J; Elliott, Kristine

    2014-02-01

    Communication skills teaching in medical education has yet to acknowledge the impact of the Internet on physician-patient communication. The authors present a conceptual model showing the variables influencing how and to what extent physicians and patients discuss Internet-sourced health information as part of the consultation with the purpose of educating the patient. A study exploring the role physicians play in patient education mediated through health information available on the Internet provided the foundation for the conceptual model. Twenty-one physicians participated in semistructured interviews between 2011 and 2013. Participants were from Australia and Switzerland, whose citizens demonstrate different degrees of Internet usage and who differ culturally and ethnically. The authors analyzed the interviews thematically and iteratively. The themes as well as their interrelationships informed the components of the conceptual model. The intrinsic elements of the conceptual model are the physician, the patient, and Internet based health information. The extrinsic variables of setting, time, and communication activities as well as the quality, availability, and usability of the Internet-based health information influenced the degree to which physicians engaged with, and were engaged by, their patients about Internet-based health information. The empirically informed model provides a means of understanding the environment, enablers, and constraints of discussing Internet-based health information, as well as the benefits for patients' understanding of their health. It also provides medical educators with a conceptual tool to engage and support physicians in their activities of communicating health information to patients.

  19. Does victim age differentiate between perpetrators of sexual child abuse? A study of mental health, psychosocial circumstances, and crimes.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, Anita; Nilsson, Thomas; Hofvander, Björn; Brimse, Agneta; Innala, Sune; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2009-12-01

    To test the theory that sexual offenders who abuse very young children (0-5 years) have more severe mental health and psychosocial problems than those who victimize older children, authors compared psychiatric diagnoses, social circumstances, and crime-related data in all sexual offenders against minors referred to forensic psychiatric investigation in Sweden during a 5-year period. Thirty-one men had committed index crimes involving victims between the ages of 0 and 5 years (Group 1), 90 had 6-to 11-year-old victims (Group 2), and 41 had 12- to 15-year-old victims (Group 3). All three offender groups were characterized by severe mental health problems, in many cases fulfilling American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for both Axis I and Axis II diagnoses, but these problems did not differ between groups. Neither did social situation or sexual orientation. Offenders with 0- to 5-year-old victims significantly more often abused both boys and girls. Frequencies of retrospectively diagnosed childhood-onset behavior disorders were high in all three offender groups. The authors' data did not support previous findings of increasingly severe mental health problems with decreasing victim age.

  20. Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Puberty is a transition period making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. Early pubertal development could be associated with higher risks of poor health. Our objective was to examine risk behaviours, physical and psychological determinants associated with early menarche (<11 years). Methods Early menarche was assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children French cross-sectional survey. Data were collected in 2006 by anonymous self-reported standardized questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of 1072 15 years old girls in school classrooms. Family environment, school experience, physical and psychological factors, risk behaviours (substance use and sexual initiation) were recorded. Logistic regression models were applied (analysing for crude and adjusted relationships between early menarche and risk behaviours controlled for family context). Results Median age at menarche was 13.0 years; 57 girls (5.3%) were early-matured. Controlled for familial environment, early menarche was associated with having had more than two life-drunkenness episodes (adjusted OR = 2.5 [1.3-4.6]), early sexual initiation (adjusted OR = 2.8 [1.3-6.0]) and overweight (adjusted OR = 7.3 [3.6-14.9]). Conclusion Early-maturing girls may affiliate with older adolescents, hence engage in risk behaviours linked to their appearance rather than their maturity level. Factors associated with early menarche highlight the need to focus attention on early-matured girls to prevent further health problems linked to risk behaviours. PMID:20353570

  1. Age at First Birth, Health, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirowsky, John

    2005-01-01

    The biodevelopmental view sees the readiness and soundness of the organism at the time of first birth as its prime link to health and survival years and decades later. It suggests an optimum age at first birth shortly after puberty. The biosocial view emphasizes social correlates and consequences of age at first birth that may influence health and…

  2. A Public Health Perspective on School Dropout and Adult Outcomes: A Prospective Study of Risk and Protective Factors From Age 5 to 27 Years.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to advance a public health perspective on links between education and health by examining risk and protective factors that might alter the relation between dropping out of high school and subsequent negative outcomes. A community sample (N = 585) was followed from age 5 to 27 years. Data included self and parent reports, peer sociometric nominations, and observed mother-teen interactions. High school dropouts were up to four times more likely to experience individual negative outcomes (being arrested, fired, or on government assistance, using illicit substances, having poor health) by age 27 years and 24 times more likely compared to graduates to experience as many as four or more negative outcomes. Links between dropout and negative outcomes were more pronounced for individuals who were in low socioeconomic status families at age 5 years, rejected by elementary school peers, and became parents at a younger age; the dropout effect was decreased for individuals who had been treated for a behavioral, emotional, or drug problem by age 24 years. Addressing school dropout as a public health problem has the potential to improve the lives of dropouts and reduce societal costs of dropping out. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Self reported health status, and health service contact, of illicit drug users aged 50 and over: a qualitative interview study in Merseyside, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Beynon, Caryl M; Roe, Brenda; Duffy, Paul; Pickering, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    Background The populations of industrialised countries are ageing; as this occurs, those who continue to use alcohol and illicit drugs age also. While alcohol use among older people is well documented, use of illicit drugs continues to be perceived as behaviour of young people and is a neglected area of research. This is the first published qualitative research on the experiences of older drug users in the United Kingdom. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Merseyside, in 2008, with drug users aged 50 and over recruited through drug treatment services. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and analysed thematically. Only health status and health service contact are reported here. Results Nine men and one woman were interviewed (age range: 54 to 61 years); all but one had been using drugs continuously or intermittently for at least 30 years. Interviewees exhibited high levels of physical and mental morbidity; hepatitis C was particularly prevalent. Injecting-related damage to arm veins resulted in interviewees switching to riskier injecting practices. Poor mental health was evident and interviewees described their lives as depressing. The death of drug-using friends was a common theme and social isolation was apparent. Interviewees also described a deterioration of memory. Generic healthcare was not always perceived as optimal, while issues relating to drug specific services were similar to those arising among younger cohorts of drug users, for example, complaints about inadequate doses of prescribed medication. Conclusion The concurrent effects of drug use and ageing are not well understood but are thought to exacerbate, or accelerate the onset of, medical conditions which are more prevalent in older age. Here, interviewees had poor physical and mental health but low expectations of health services. Older drug users who are not in contact with services are likely to have greater unmet needs. The number of drug users aged 50 and over is

  4. Thyroid function and prevalent and incident metabolic syndrome in older adults: the Health, Ageing and Body Composition Study.

    PubMed

    Waring, Avantika C; Rodondi, Nicolas; Harrison, Stephanie; Kanaya, Alka M; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Miljkovic, Iva; Satterfield, Suzanne; Newman, Anne B; Bauer, Douglas C

    2012-06-01

    Both subclinical hypothyroidism and the metabolic syndrome have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease events. It is unknown whether the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome is higher as TSH levels increase, or in individuals with subclinical hypothyroidism. We sought to determine the association between thyroid function and the prevalence and incidence of the metabolic syndrome in a cohort of older adults. Data were analysed from the Health, Ageing and Body Composition Study, a prospective cohort of 3075 community-dwelling US adults. Two thousand one hundred and nineteen participants with measured TSH and data on metabolic syndrome components were included in the analysis. TSH was measured by immunoassay. Metabolic syndrome was defined per revised ATP III criteria. At baseline, 684 participants met criteria for metabolic syndrome. At 6-year follow-up, incident metabolic syndrome developed in 239 individuals. In fully adjusted models, each unit increase in TSH was associated with a 3% increase in the odds of prevalent metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06; P = 0.02), and the association was stronger for TSH within the normal range (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30; P = 0.02). Subclinical hypothyroidism with a TSH > 10 mIU/l was significantly associated with increased odds of prevalent metabolic syndrome (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0-5.0; P = 0.04); the odds of incident MetS was similar (OR 2.2), but the confidence interval was wide (0.6-7.5). Higher TSH levels and subclinical hypothyroidism with a TSH > 10 mIU/l are associated with increased odds of prevalent but not incident metabolic syndrome. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Health promotion in school age children.

    PubMed

    Bremberg, S

    1998-06-01

    Disadvantage in school age affects health during the remaining part of life. Health promotion might alleviate this situation. It is reasonable to focus on mental health, since this is the leading cause of disability adjusted life years lost in this age group and to focus on the school, since this is the most important setting. Co-operation between the public health and the educational sector is rational, yet complicated by different perspectives on knowledge and technology used in these two sectors. It is, however, possible to carry through a dialogue. Then, the public health representatives have to clarify current scientific knowledge on health promotive characteristics of the school. Such characteristics are, enhanced health control at school, aged mixed ability grouping, class sizes of 15-20 students, a task oriented school culture and employment of skills training programmes, e.g. for tobacco deterrence.

  6. How are self-rated health and diagnosed disease related to early or deferred retirement? A cross-sectional study of employees aged 55-64.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Kerstin; Hydbom, Anna Rignell; Rylander, Lars

    2016-08-26

    More people will probably continue working into old age in the future due to the increased size of aging populations in many countries. We therefore need to know more about older workers' health in relation to their work situation and retirement. This study is a part of a theoretical development of older workers' situations. Older workers' situations are theoretically themed in nine areas by the authors of this study. The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship between: i) diagnosed disease and factors in older workers' situations, theoretically themed in nine areas; ii) self-rated health and factors in older workers' situations, theoretically themed in nine areas; iii) diagnosed disease and self-rated health; and iv) the relationships between these health measures and retirement. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, using logistic regression, with 1,756 health care personnel aged 55-64 years. The questionnaire used gave an overview of most different areas in the older workers' situations. There was a difference in the participants' frequency of objectively specified diagnosed disease and their subjectively experienced self-rated health. A bad self-rated health was related higher to early retirement than diagnosed diseases. In the multivariate model, having 'Diagnosed disease' was not significantly related to whether older workers thought they could not work beyond 65 years of age. A bad 'Self-rated health' was also more highly related to whether older workers thought they could not work beyond 65 years, than if the respondents stated that a 'Diagnosed disease is a hindrance in my daily work' in the multivariate model. This study showed an important difference between older workers' own experiences and the effect of their self-rated health and their diagnosed diseases. Subjective self-rated health seems to be more important to people's retirement planning than diagnosed disease. The most important factors affecting older workers' self

  7. Adulthood Predictors of Health Promoting Behavior in Later Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Suzuki, Rie

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adulthood predictors of health-promoting behavior in later aging. The participants were 162 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted (Terman et al., 1925), who responded in 1999 at an average age of 86 to a mailout questionnaire which included questions concerning their positive health behavior. Adulthood variables were…

  8. Age differences in the associations between sick leave and aspects of health, psychosocial workload and family life: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Judith T; van der Velden, Koos; van der Gulden, Joost W J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate differences in associations between sick leave and aspects of health, psychosocial workload, family life and work–family interference between four age groups (<36, 36–45, 46–55 and 55+ years). Design A cross-sectional study; a questionnaire was sent to the home addresses of all employees of a university. Setting A Dutch university. Participants 1843 employees returned the questionnaire (net response: 49.1%). The age distribution was as follows: <36: 32%; 36–45: 26%; 46–55: 27% and 55+: 12%. Primary outcomes Frequent sick leave (FSL, ≥3 times in the past 12 months) and prolonged sick leave (PSL, >2 weeks in total in the past 12 months). Differences between the age groups in independent variables and outcomes were investigated. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate associations between various variables and the sick leave outcomes. Interaction terms were included to detect differences between the age groups. Results Age differences were found for many work- and family-related characteristics but not in the mean scores for health-related aspects. Presence of chronic disease was reported more frequently with increasing age. The 55+ age group had almost two times less chance of FSL, but 1.6 times more chance of PSL than the <36 age group. Age moderates the associations between career opportunities, partner's contribution in domestic tasks and sex, and FSL. Job security and pay, support from supervisor, challenging work and being breadwinner have different associations with PSL. However, life events in private lives and perceived health complaints are important in all age groups. FSL and PSL have some determinants in common, but there are differences between the outcomes as well. Conclusions Age should be treated as a variable of interest instead of a control variable. Employers and occupational physicians need to be aware that each phase in life has specific difficulties that can lead to FSL and PSL. PMID

  9. The effect of cognitive appraisal in middle-aged women stroke survivors and the psychological health of their caregivers: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Hsiu; Lee, Sheuan; Su, Hui-Yi; Pai, Hsiang-Chu

    2015-11-01

    This study identified the factors that affect health-related quality of life at one and six months post-stroke in women who have undergone a mild stroke and that affect their informal caregivers' psychological health status. Middle-aged women perform the main care roles in a family. When they suffer a stroke, it upsets the equilibrium of their family life. This is a longitudinal design. This prospective follow-up study recruited 41 middle-aged women stroke survivors (mean age = 54.95, SD = 9.63) and their informal caregivers (mean age = 41.56, SD = 15.93). The Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess stroke survivor's health-related quality of life, and the Chinese Health Questionnaire was used to measure the level of depression of the stroke survivor's informal caregiver. Data were analysed through descriptive statistics, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and the generalised estimating equation approach for modelling repeatedly measures. All stroke survivors showed significant improvement in the physical component summary of the health-related quality of life at one and six months after stroke, but there was no significant difference in the mental component summary. In addition, there was no significant difference in the health of the informal caregivers of the women over time. Generalised estimating equation analysis showed that the most important determinant of mental component summary of health-related quality of life among women stroke survivors was cognitive appraisal. The informal caregivers' most important determinants of health status, as measured by level of depression, were their sense of coherence, burden and patients' mental component summary of the health-related quality of life. This study highlights the impact of cognitive appraisal in determining health-related quality of life of women stroke survivors and how it affects their caregivers' mental health. The findings of this study may contribute to home care nurses' understanding the importance

  10. Healthy ageing, but what is health?

    PubMed

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2013-12-01

    Ageing occurs in spite of complex pathways of maintenance and repair. There is no "enemy within", which has the specific evolution-selected function to cause ageing and death. This understanding of ageing should transform our approach towards interventions from therapeutic "anti-ageing" to maintaining health. But what is health? Ideally, health is a state of complete physical and mental independence in activities of daily living. But in pragmatic terms, health is a state of adequate physical and mental independence in activities of daily living. In order to identify a set of measurable, evidence-based and demonstratable parameters of health, robustness and resilience at various levels, the concept of homeodynamic space can be a useful one. Age-related health problems for which there are no clear-cut causative agents, except the complex process of ageing, may be better tackled by focusing on health mechanisms and their maintenance, rather than disease management and treatment. Continuing the disease-oriented research approaches are economically, socially and psychologically unsustainable as compared with health-oriented and preventive strategies, such as hormesis. Supporting health-oriented research is the urgency of our time.

  11. Morbidity Pattern and Health-seeking Behavior of Aged Population residing in Shimla Hills of North India: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Mazta, Salig Ram; Parashar, Anupam

    2013-04-01

    Population aging is a global phenomenon. In India, the size of the elderly population is growing fast. Many older adults have multiple medical conditions. Understanding elderly health problems and health-seeking behavior is prerequisite for proving comprehensive geriatric care to them. To assess the morbidity pattern and study the health-seeking behavior of the elderly people of Shimla district in Himachal Pradesh. A total of 400 elderly people aged 60 years and above were selected from urban and rural areas of Shimla hills in North India by simple random sampling. Statistical software Epi info software version 3.2 was used for analyzing data. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sociodemographic and morbidity variables. The most common morbidity identified among them were musculoskeletal problems (55.0%) followed by hypertension (40.5%). Two third were seeking treatment for their health problems. Among older persons not seeking treatment for their medical condition, most considered these morbidities as an age-related phenomenon. Many perceived that the health services were too far. The high morbidity load among elderly in the present study stresses for efforts to provide better health care to them and thus ensure that they remain active members of our society. Residence emerged out to be most significant determinant of healthcare-seeking behavior. Policy makers must focus on rural elderly and their beliefs which prevent them from seeking healthcare.

  12. Psychiatric Illness in Relation to Frailty in Community-Dwelling Elderly People without Dementia: A Report from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Melissa K.; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether frailty, defined as the accumulation of multiple, interacting illnesses, impairments and disabilities, is associated with psychiatric illness in older adults. Five-thousand-six-hundred-and-seventy-six community dwellers without dementia were identified within the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, and self-reported…

  13. Psychiatric Illness in Relation to Frailty in Community-Dwelling Elderly People without Dementia: A Report from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Melissa K.; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether frailty, defined as the accumulation of multiple, interacting illnesses, impairments and disabilities, is associated with psychiatric illness in older adults. Five-thousand-six-hundred-and-seventy-six community dwellers without dementia were identified within the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, and self-reported…

  14. Evaluation of new and established age-related macular degeneration susceptibility genes in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To assess whether established and newly reported genetic variants, independent of known lifestyle factors, are associated with the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Sight Exam (WHI-SE) Genetic Ancillary Study. This is a multice...

  15. Gestational Age, Infant Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses’ Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Hibert, Eileen L.; Mason, Susan M.; Vadnais, Mary A.; Hu, Frank B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM); however, little is known about the association between other common pregnancy complications (eg, preterm birth, macrosomia) and T2DM risk. We examined the associations between first-pregnancy preterm, postterm birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia with subsequent risk of T2DM. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII) participants; 51,728 women in the study had a single live birth and complete pregnancy history. NHSII confirmed incident diabetes mellitus through supplemental questionnaires. Participants were followed from year of first birth until 2005. We defined gestational age as very preterm (20 to ≤32 weeks), moderate preterm (33 to ≤37 weeks), term (38 to ≤42 weeks), and postterm (≥43 weeks). We defined low birth weight as an infant born at term weighing less than 5.5 pounds, and we defined macrosomia as an infant born at term weighing 10 pounds or more. We used Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Women with a very preterm birth (2%) had an increased T2DM risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.71). This increased risk emerged in the decade following pregnancy. Macrosomia (1.5%) was associated with a 1.61 increased T2DM risk, after adjusting for risk factors, including GDM (95% CI, 1.24–2.08). This association was apparent within the first 5 years after pregnancy. Moderate preterm and term low birth weight did not significantly increase the risk of T2DM over the 35-year follow-up time. Conclusion Women who experienced a very preterm birth or had an infant that weighed 10 pounds or more may benefit from lifestyle intervention to reduce T2DM risk. If replicated, these findings could lead to a reduced risk of T2DM through improved primary care for women experiencing a preterm birth or an infant of

  16. Obesity, change of body mass index and subsequent physical and mental health functioning: a 12-year follow-up study among ageing employees.

    PubMed

    Svärd, Anna; Lahti, Jouni; Roos, Eira; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea; Mänty, Minna

    2017-09-26

    Studies suggest an association between weight change and subsequent poor physical health functioning, whereas the association with mental health functioning is inconsistent. We aimed to examine whether obesity and change of body mass index among normal weight, overweight and obese women and men associate with changes in physical and mental health functioning. The Helsinki Health Study cohort includes Finnish municipal employees aged 40 to 60 in 2000-02 (phase 1, response rate 67%). Phase 2 mail survey (response rate 82%) took place in 2007 and phase 3 in 2012 (response rate 76%). This study included 5668 participants (82% women). Seven weight change categories were formed based on body mass index (BMI) (phase 1) and weight change (BMI change ≥5%) (phase 1-2). The Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) measured physical and mental health functioning. The change in health functioning (phase 1-3) score was examined with repeated measures analyses. Covariates were age, sociodemographic factors, health behaviours, and somatic ill-health. Weight gain was common among women (34%) and men (25%). Weight-gaining normal weight (-1.3 points), overweight (-1.3 points) and obese (-3.6 points) women showed a greater decline in physical component summary scores than weight-maintaining normal weight women. Among weight-maintainers, only obese (-1.8 points) women showed a greater decline than weight-maintaining normal weight women. The associations were similar, but statistically non-significant for obese men. No statistically significant differences in the change in mental health functioning occurred. Preventing weight gain likely helps maintaining good physical health functioning and work ability.

  17. Incident heart failure in relation to vascular disease: insights from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hassan; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P; Zannad, Faiez; Marti, Catherine N; Wilson, Peter W F; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V; Kanaya, Alka M; Newman, Anne B; Schelbert, Erik; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Yancy, Clyde; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Fonarow, Gregg C; Butler, Javed

    2014-05-01

    The contribution of heart failure (HF) unrelated to vascular disease to the overall HF burden in older adults is not well characterized. This was investigated in this study. We assessed HF incidence and outcomes in 2895 participants of the Health ABC Study (age 74 ± 3 years, 48.4% men, 41.4% black) in relation to vascular disease (coronary, peripheral, or cerebrovascular disease) either present at baseline or developed prior to HF. During 11.4 years follow-up, 493 participants developed HF; 134 (27.2%) in participants without any prior vascular disease and 177 (36.8%) without coronary disease. Both baseline [hazard ratio (HR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-2.8] and incident vascular disease (HR 4.3, 95% CI 3.6-5.2) were associated with HF. During a median follow-up of 2.1 years after HF onset, 67.5% participants died. Annual mortality after HF development was 21.3% in those with compared with 24.6% in those without vascular disease (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.87-1.43; P = 0.399). There were 658 all-cause (436.3/1000 person-years) and 523 HF-related (346.4/1000 person-years) hospitalizations after HF development. There was no significant difference in hospitalizations between those with and without vascular disease [rate ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% CI 0.86-1.24 for all-cause, and RR 0.84 95% CI 0.69-1.02 for HF hospitalization]. HF with preserved EF was more common in participants without vascular disease (67.0% vs. 55.0%, P = 0.040). A significant proportion of HF in older adults develops without prior vascular disease. Outcomes for these patients are poor compared with those with preceding vascular disease. These data suggest the need for more targeted HF prediction and prevention efforts. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  18. A Public Health Perspective on School Dropout and Adult Outcomes: A Prospective Study of Risk and Protective Factors from Age 5 to 27

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to advance a public health perspective on links between education and health by examining risk and protective factors that might alter the relation between dropping out of high school and subsequent negative outcomes. Methods A community sample (N = 585) was followed from age 5 to 27. Data included self and parent reports, peer sociometric nominations, and observed mother-teen interactions. Results High school dropouts were up to four times more likely to experience individual negative outcomes (being arrested, fired, or on government assistance, using illicit substances, having poor health) by age 27 and twenty-four times more likely compared to graduates to experience as many as four or more negative outcomes. Links between dropout and negative outcomes were more pronounced for individuals who were in low SES families at age 5, rejected by elementary school peers, and became parents at a younger age; the dropout effect was decreased for individuals who had been treated for a behavioral, emotional, or drug problem by age 24. Conclusions Addressing school dropout as a public health problem has the potential to improve the lives of dropouts and reduce societal costs of dropping out. PMID:27009741

  19. Oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence and dental anxiety: an epidemiological cross-sectional study of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Boman, Ulla Wide; Wennström, Anette; Stenman, Ulrika; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2012-06-18

    Few publications report on the relationship between salutogenesis, as measured by the concept of sense of coherence, and oral health-related quality of life. Even less information is to be found when the behavioural aspect of dental anxiety is added. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how oral health-related quality of life is related to sense of coherence and dental anxiety. The study had a cross-sectional design and included 500 randomly selected women in Gothenburg, Sweden, 38 and 50 years of age, from health examinations in 2004-05. The survey included questionnaires covering global questions concerning socio-economic status, oral health/function and dental care behaviour, and tests of oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, and dental anxiety. High dental anxiety and low sense of coherence predicted low oral health-related quality of life. In addition, socioeconomic status as measured by income, perceived oral functional status as captured by chewing ability and self-reported susceptibility to periodontal disease were also important predictors of oral health-related quality of life. Dental anxiety and sense of coherence had an inverse relationship with regard to oral health-related quality of life. These associations were stronger than other risk factors for low oral health-related quality of life.

  20. Subjective measures of binge drinking, suboptimal subjective health and alcohol-specific hospitalizations among working-aged adults: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Suominen, Sakari; Car, Josip; Mäkelä, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to determine how subjective measures of binge drinking predict suboptimal subjective health. In order to contribute to the understanding of potential causal mechanisms, we also aimed to determine the factors through which subjective health predicts alcohol-specific hospitalizations. A total of 16,111 alcohol-drinking men and women, aged 20-54 years, participated in the Health and Social Support baseline postal survey in 1998, and also responded to the repeated measurement 5 years later in 2003 (T2). Suboptimal subjective health was defined as self-reported overall health status being fair, rather poor or poor. Subjective measures of binge drinking were frequency of subjective intoxications/drunkenness, frequency of hangovers and frequency of alcohol-induced pass-outs. Frequency of intoxications, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs, all predicted suboptimal subjective health regardless of several potential confounders, including beverage-specific total intake. Those reporting suboptimal subjective health at baseline had a 5-fold odds ratio (5.08, 95% confidence interval: 3.43, 6.48) for alcohol-related hospitalizations, compared with those rating their health above fair, when gender and age were controlled. Binge drinking, together with concurrent symptoms of depression, explained over 50% of this relationship, and when additionally taking into account smoking, over two-thirds of this relation was explained. Mental health is an important mediating factor between binge drinking, suboptimal subjective health and alcohol-specific hospitalizations, and symptoms of depression should therefore be taken into account in prevention of alcohol-related adverse health outcomes.

  1. Dietary Sodium Content, Mortality, and Risk for Cardiovascular Events in Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P.; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V.; Murphy, Rachel A.; Newman, Anne B.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Yang, Zhou; Applegate, William B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Additional information is needed on the role of dietary sodium on health outcomes in older adults. Objective To examine the association between dietary sodium intake and mortality, incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), and incident heart failure (HF) in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed 10-year follow-up data from 2,642 older adults (age 71-80) participating in a community-based, prospective cohort study (inception 1997-98). Exposure Dietary sodium intake at baseline was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We examined sodium intake both as a continuous and as a categorical variable (<1500mg/d [N=291; 11.0%]; 1500–2300mg/d [N=779; 29.5%]; and >2300mg/d [N=1572; 59.5%]. Main Outcomes Adjudicated death, incident CVD, and incident HF over 10-years of follow-up. Analysis of incident CVD was restricted to those without prevalent CVD (N=1981) at baseline. Results Average age of participants was 73.6±2.9 years; 51.2% were women; 61.7% white; and 38.3% black. After 10 years, 881 participants had died, 572 developed CVD and 398 developed HF. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, sodium intake was not associated with mortality (HR per 1g, 1.03; 95%CI 0.98–1.09; P=0.27). Ten-year mortality was nonsignificantly lower in the 1500–2300-mg group (30.7%) compared to the <1500-mg (33.8%) and >2300-mg (35.2%) groups; P=0.074. Sodium intake >2300mg/d was associated with nonsignificantly higher mortality in adjusted models (HR vs. 1500–2300 mg/d, 1.15; 95%CI 0.99–1.35; P=0.072). Indexing sodium intake for caloric intake and body mass index did not materially affect the results. Adjusted HR for mortality was 1.20 (95%CI 0.93–1.54; P=0.16) per mg/kcal sodium and 1.11 (95%CI 0.96–1.28; P=0.17) per 100mg/kg/m2 sodium. In adjusted models accounting for the competing risk of death, sodium intake was not associated with risk for CVD (HR per 1g, 1.03; 95%CI 0.95–1.11; P=0.47) or HF (HR per 1g, 1.00; 95%CI 0.92–1

  2. Be(ing) prepared: Guide and Scout participation, childhood social position and mental health at age 50—a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dibben, Chris; Playford, Chris; Mitchell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background Mental health is a major concern in many countries. We explore whether youth participation in the Scouts and Guides could protect mental health in later life and in particular whether it might reduce inequalities in mental health associated with early life socioeconomic position. Methods Using the 1958 birth cohort National Child Development Study, we tested whether Scouts–Guide attendance was associated with mental health (SF-36, Mental Health Index (MHI-5)) controlling for childhood risk factors and interacted with social class. Results Of the 9603 cohort members, 28% had participated in the Scouts–Guides. The average MHI-5 score was 74.8 (SD 18.2) at age 50. After adjustment, for potential childhood confounders, participation in Scouts–Guides was associated with a better MHI-5 score of 2.22 (CI 1.32 to 3.08). Among those who had not been a Scout–Guide, there was a gradient in mental health at age 50 by childhood social position, adjusting for other childhood risk factors. This gradient was absent among those who had been a Scout–Guide. Scout–Guides had an 18% lower odds of an MHI-5 score indicative of mood or anxiety disorder. The findings appeared robust to various tests for residual confounding. Conclusions Participation in Guides or Scouts was associated with better mental health and narrower mental health inequalities, at age 50. This suggests that youth programmes that support resilience and social mobility through developing the potential for continued progressive self-education, ‘soft’ non-cognitive skills, self-reliance, collaboration and activities in natural environments may be protective of mental health in adulthood. PMID:27834224

  3. [Health and competence: detection and decoding using comprehensive assessments in the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS)].

    PubMed

    Anders, J; Pröfener, F; Dapp, U; Golgert, S; Daubmann, A; Wegscheider, K; von Renteln-Kruse, W; Minder, C E

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this work was to characterise and distinguish persons without (fit), with earliest signs (pre-frail) or accelerated functional decline (frail) during self-referral (geriatric centre) or preventive home visits. After screening independently living older people in an urban longitudinal cohort (n = 1,995) using a self-administered questionnaire, they were functionally classified as fit, pre-frail or frail. In 10% randomly selected samples of these cohort parts a comprehensive extended gerontological-geriatric assessment (EGGA) was administered. Fit, pre-frail and frail samples are significantly different regarding comorbidity, medication, mobility, fall risk, instrumental activities of daily living and use of social support but not nutrition. The best indicator to discriminate fit versus frail was exhaustion (mobility tiredness). Competence is essential regarding health in old age. Identification of resources and risks by comprehensive assessment is useful before planning interventions to prevent frailty or its progression.

  4. Ethnicity, Aging, and Health: An Interdisciplinary Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Gaye; Hill, Gaye

    1997-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team developed an undergraduate course to teach geriatrics students about ethnicity, health, and aging. Two important aspects of such a course were identified: the dynamics of team learning and multicultural education. (SK)

  5. [Health care expenditures and the aging population].

    PubMed

    Felder, S

    2012-05-01

    The impact of a longer life on future health care expenditures will be quite moderate because of the high costs of dying and the compression of mortality in old age. If not age per se but proximity to death determines the bulk of expenditures, a shift in the mortality risk to higher ages will not significantly affect lifetime health care expenditures, as death occurs only once in every life. A calculation of the demographic effect on health care expenditures in Germany up until 2050 that explicitly accounts for costs in the last years of life leads to a significantly lower demographic impact on per-capita expenditures than a calculation based on crude age-specific health expenditures.

  6. Concrete containment aging study

    SciTech Connect

    Pachner, J.; Tai, T.M.; Naus, D.

    1994-04-01

    In 1989, IAEA initiated a pilot study on the management of aging of nuclear power plant components. The Phase I and II studies of concrete containment are discussed. With the data base, plant owners will be able to review and enhance their existing programs. IAEA will analyze data provided by participating plants and the report is scheduled to be released by late 1994 (final report release mid-1995).

  7. Systolic Blood Pressure and Vascular Disease in Men Aged 65 Years and Over: The HIMS (Health in Men Study).

    PubMed

    Lacey, Ben; Golledge, Jonathan; Yeap, Bu B; Lewington, Sarah; McCaul, Kieran A; Norman, Paul E; Flicker, Leon; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Hankey, Graeme J

    2017-06-01

    There is uncertainty about the relation between blood pressure and vascular disease at older age. We assessed the association of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and major vascular events in a prospective cohort study of 7564 men aged 65 to 94 years, recruited in 1996-1999 from the general population in Perth, Western Australia. SBP was measured at baseline and again at resurvey in 2001-2004. Participants were monitored for fatal and nonfatal vascular events. To limit the effect of reverse causality, analyses were restricted to men without previous vascular disease at baseline. Hazard ratios were estimated by Cox regression, with adjustment for age and education (further adjustment did not materially change the associations). During a mean follow-up of 11 years, there were 1557 major vascular events. Continuous log-linear associations were found between usual SBP and risk of major vascular events throughout the SBP range examined (145-170 mm Hg). Overall, 10 mm Hg higher usual SBP was associated with ≈20% higher risk of major vascular events (hazard ratio, 19%; 95% confidence interval, 13%-26%; mean age at event 80 years). There was evidence of positive associations with both ischemic heart disease and stroke and effect modification by age, with shallower associations at older ages. Even at 85 to 94 years, however, there was evidence of a positive association: 10 mm Hg higher usual SBP was associated with 14% (95% confidence interval, 1%-30%) higher risk of major vascular events. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. The role of physical activity in early adulthood and middle-age on bone health after menopause in epidemiological population from Silesia Osteo Active Study.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Elżbieta; Zagórski, Piotr; Martela, Katarzyna; Glinkowski, Wojciech; Kuźniewicz, Roman; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech

    2016-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a growing problem in women after menopause. Among factors protecting from this disease is a physical activity (PA). The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of PA in early adulthood and at middle-age on bone health after menopause. The study group consisted of 362 randomly recruited postmenopausal women after menopause. Mean age was 65.2±6.9 years. Medical history was collected from all participants, and they completed questionnaires assessing PA in early adulthood and at middle-age. Physical capacity was estimated using the Duke scale. Bone status was measured with use of densitometry (DXA) for lumbar spine and hip and calcaneus quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements. Physical activity and healthy lifestyle activity in early adulthood did not correlate with bone health, but current PA did (for QUS parameters r=.11; P<.05). Physical capacity correlated with all QUS parameters (r=.2 to .22; P<.05) and femoral neck (FN) BMD and T-score (for both r=.16; P<.05). Current PA frequency at the level of several times a week has the highest positive impact on FN DXA results (P=.01). Bone mass in DXA and QUS variables is related to the type of exercises (P<.05). Physical activity, especially several times a week, at middle-age is a major factor influencing bone health in women after menopause. Further studies concerning the type of exercises are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Neighborhood Age Structure and its Implications for Health

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Age structure at the neighborhood level is rarely considered in contextual studies of health. However, age structure can play a critical role in shaping community life, the availability of resources, and the opportunities for social engagement—all factors that, research suggests, have direct and indirect effects on health. Age structure can be theorized as a compositional effect and as a contextual effect. In addition, the dynamic nature of age structure and the utility of a life course perspective as applied to neighborhood effects research merits attention. Four Chicago neighborhoods are summarized to illustrate how age structure varies across small space, suggesting that neighborhood age structure should be considered a key structural covariate in contextual research on health. Considering age structure implies incorporating not only meaningful cut points for important age groups (e.g., proportion 65 years and over) but attention to the shape of the distribution as well. PMID:16865558

  10. Depressive symptoms and SES among the mid-aged and elderly in China: evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study national baseline.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Sun, Xiaoting; Strauss, John; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-11-01

    We examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among the mid-aged and elderly in China and examine relationships between depression and current SES factors such as gender, age, education and income (per capita expenditures). In addition, we explore associations of depressive symptoms with measures of early childhood health, recent family deaths and current chronic health conditions. We use data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) national baseline, fielded in 2011/12, which contains the ten question version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) for 17,343 respondents aged 45 and older. We fill a major gap by using the CHARLS data to explore the general patterns of depression and risk factors among the Chinese elderly nationwide, which has never been possible before. We find that depressive symptoms are significantly associated with own education and per capita expenditure, and the associations are robust to the inclusion of highly disaggregated community fixed effects and to the addition of several other risk factors. Factors such as good general health during childhood are negatively associated with later depression. There exist strong gender differences, with females having higher depression scores. Being a recent widow or widower is associated with more depressive symptoms, as is having a series of chronic health problems, notably having moderate or severe pain, disability or problems with measures of physical functioning. Adding the chronic health problems to the specification greatly reduces the SES associations with depressive symptoms, suggesting that part of the pathways behind these associations are through these chronic health factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mental symptoms, psychotropic drug use and alcohol consumption in immigrated middle-aged women. The Women's Health in Lund Area (WHILA) Study.

    PubMed

    Rundberg, Jenny; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Nerbrand, Christina; Samsioe, Göran; Romelsjö, Anders; Ojehagen, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyse mental symptoms, psychotropic drug use and alcohol consumption, in immigrant women born in Finland, the other Nordic countries, Eastern Europe, Western Europe and countries outside Europe, compared with Swedish-born women, and furthermore, to study if age at immigration may have an influence. All women (n=10,766) aged 50-59 years and living in the Lund area of southern Sweden received a postal invitation to a health survey named the Women's Health in Lund Area; 64.2% (n=6917) participated. The participants answered a questionnaire including prevalence of mental symptoms during the past 3 months, regular use of psychotropic drugs, alcohol consumption during an average week, country of birth and age at immigration. Severe mental symptoms were more common among most immigrant groups compared with native Swedes, but the association to country of birth was not significant after adjustment for possible confounders. Regular use of hypnotics was more common among Nordic immigrants only (odds ration, OR = 4.4). East European and non-European immigrants less often were alcohol consumers (OR = 1.6 and OR = 3.8). Heavy drinking was more common among non-Nordic immigrants who immigrated at a younger age than at an older age. Furthermore, it was found that although East European and non-European immigrants had a higher educational level, they were less often gainfully employed compared with native Swedes. In middle-aged women, country of birth as well as age at immigration are important factors to consider in relation to alcohol consumption, but these factors may be of less importance considering mental health.

  12. Age Words: A Glossary on Health and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This document contains a glossary which defines 275 basic terms frequently used by gerontologists. The glossary is designed for use by a general population, including older persons and their families, students in the field of aging, librarians, medical reporters, health care providers, and others interested in older persons. It was developed to…

  13. [Accessible health information: a question of age?].

    PubMed

    Loos, E F

    2012-04-01

    Aging and digitalisation are important trends which have their impact on information accessibility. Accessible information about products and services is of crucial importance to ensure that all citizens can participate fully as active members of society. Senior citizens who have difficulties using new media run the risk of exclusion in today's information society. Not all senior citizens, however, encounter problems with new media. Not by a long shot. There is much to be said for 'aged heterogeneity', the concept that individual differences increase as people age. In two explorative qualitative case studies related to accessible health information--an important issue for senior citizens--that were conducted in the Netherlands, variables such as gender, education level and frequency of internet use were therefore included in the research design. In this paper, the most important results of these case studies will be discussed. Attention will be also paid to complementary theories (socialisation, life stages) which could explain differences in information search behaviour when using old or new media.

  14. Assessing the Validity of Self-Rated Health with the Short Physical Performance Battery: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Emmanuelle; Zunzunegui, Maria–Victoria; Phillips, Susan; Ylli, Alban; Guralnik, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the validity of self-rated health across different populations of older adults, when compared to the Short Physical Performance Battery. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study. Setting Five locations: Saint-Hyacinthe and Kingston (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia), and Natal (Brazil). Participants Older adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,995). Methods The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) was used to measure physical performance. Self-rated health was assessed with one single five-point question. Linear trends between SPPB scores and self-rated health were tested separately for men and women at each of the five international study sites. Poor physical performance (independent variable) (SPPB less than 8) was used in logistic regression models of self-rated health (dependent variable), adjusting for potential covariates. All analyses were stratified by gender and site of origin. Results A significant linear association was found between the mean scores of the Short Physical Performance Battery and ordinal categories of self-rated health across research sites and gender groups. After extensive control for objective physical and mental health indicators and socio-demographic variables, these graded associations became non-significant in some research sites. Conclusion These findings further confirm the validity of SRH as a measure of overall health status in older adults. PMID:27089219

  15. Sex education during the school-aged years influences sexual attitudes and sexual health in college: a comparative study from Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung Rim; Park, Hyojung; Cha, Chiyoung

    2011-09-01

    Sex education is provided routinely to school-aged children in many countries without enough evidence that it will benefit them when they become adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term influence of the sex education that was provided during the school-aged years on the attitudes, behaviors, and sexual health among male and female college students in Korea. For this descriptive, comparative study, the data were obtained from 3609 male and 2180 female college students by using the proportional quota sampling method. Overall, the female students had more opportunities for sex education. Receiving this education during the school-aged years lowered the sexual double standard score but was not related to sexual activity among the male and female students. Receiving sex education at different time points during the school-aged years had differential influences on the sexual attitudes and indicators of sexual health between the male and the female students. The results of this study suggest extending the role of school nurses to include redesigning the content of sex education programs, based on the sex and age of the students, and using midwives to provide sex education in community settings.

  16. Predictors of two forms of attrition in a longitudinal health study involving ageing participants: an analysis based on the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Mein, Gill; Johal, Suneeta; Grant, Robert L; Seale, Clive; Ashcroft, Richard; Tinker, Anthea

    2012-10-29

    Longitudinal studies are crucial providers of information about the needs of an ageing population, but their external validity is affected if partipants drop out. Previous research has identified older age, impaired cognitive function, lower educational level, living alone, fewer social activities, and lower socio-economic status as predictors of attrition. This project examined attrition in participants of the Whitehall II study aged between 51-71 years, using data from questionnaires participants have completed biennially since 1985 when the study began. We examine the possibility of two distinct forms of attrition--non-response and formally requesting to withdraw--and whether they have different predictors. Potential predictors were age, gender, marital status, occupational grade, retirement, home ownership, presence of longstanding illness, SF-36 quality of life scores, social participation and educational level comparing participants and those who had withdrawn from the study. The two forms of attrition share many predictors and are associated but remain distinct. Being older, male, having a lower job grade, not being a home owner, not having a long standing illness, having higher levels of education, and not having retired, were all associated with a greater probability of non-response; being married was associated with higher probability in women and lower in men. Being older, male, having a lower job grade, not being a home owner, having lower SF-36 scores, taking part in fewer social activities, and not having a long standing illness, were all associated with greater probability of withdrawal. The results suggest a strong gender effect on both routes not previously considered in analyses of attrition. Investigators of longitudinal studies should take measures to retain older participants and lower level socio-economic participants, who are more likely to cease participating. Recognition should be given to the tendency for people with health problems to be

  17. Age at first childbirth and newly diagnosed diabetes among postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Yarmolinsky, James; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Sander; Chor, Dora; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that earlier age at first childbirth may increase the risk of adult-onset diabetes among postmenopausal women, a novel finding with important public health implications. To date, however, no known studies have attempted to replicate this finding. We aimed to test the hypothesis that age at first childbirth is associated with the risk of adult-onset diabetes among postmenopausal women. Cross-sectional analysis using baseline data from 2919 middle-aged and elderly postmenopausal women in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Age at first childbirth was determined from self-reporting and newly diagnosed diabetes through a 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and/or glycated hemoglobin. Logistic regression was performed to examine associations between age at first childbirth and newly diagnosed diabetes among postmenopausal women. We did not find any association between age at first childbirth and diabetes, either when minimally adjusted for age, race and study center (odds ratio, OR [95% confidence interval, CI]: ≤ 19 years: 1.15 [0.82-1.59], 20-24 years: 0.90 [0.66-1.23] and ≥ 30 years: 0.86 [0.63-1.17] versus 25-29 years; P = 0.36) or when fully adjusted for childhood and adult factors (OR [95% CI]: ≤ 19 years: 0.95 [0.67-1.34], 20-24 years: 0.78 [0.56-1.07] and ≥ 30 years: 0.84 [0.61-1.16] versus 25-29 years; P = 0.40). Our current analysis does not support the existence of an association between age at first childbirth and adult-onset diabetes among postmenopausal women, which had been reported previously.

  18. Successful aging, dietary habits and health status of elderly individuals: a k-dimensional approach within the multi-national MEDIS study.

    PubMed

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Haro, Josep Maria; Mariolis, Anargiros; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Tsakountakis, Nikos; Zeimbekis, Akis; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2014-12-01

    The definition and determinants of successful aging is still controversial. Although dietary habits have long been associated with aging, eating habits and behaviors have rarely been included in various proposed indices of successful aging. The aim of this work was to evaluate determinants of successful aging together with assessment of dietary habits in relation to healthcare facility use among elders living in the Mediterranean basin. During 2005-2011, 2663 elderly (aged 65-100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands and rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) were voluntarily enrolled in the study. A successful aging index ranging from a score of 0 to a score of 10 was constructed using 10 attributes, i.e., education, financial status, physical activity, body mass index, depression, participation in social activities with friends and family, number of yearly excursions, number of cardiovascular disease risk factors and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The applied factor analysis on the components of the index extracted three main components for successful aging: psychosocial-economic, bioclinical and lifestyle; confirming the multiple dimensions of aging. After adjusting for confounders, a 1/10-unit increase in the successful aging index was associated with 0.8 less annual visits to healthcare centers (95% CI -1.3 to-0.2). Stratified analysis by gender revealed heterogeneity of factors predicting successful aging. These findings suggest that successful aging is a multidimensional and complex concept that exhibits gender heterogeneity. Annual use of health care services by the elders was found to be related to level of successful aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiovascular health metrics and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality among middle-aged men in Korea: the Seoul male cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Ko, Young-Jin; Rhee, Chul Woo; Park, Byung-Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Bae, Jong-Myon; Shin, Myung-Hee; Lee, Moo-Song; Li, Zhong Min; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

    2013-11-01

    This study estimated the association of cardiovascular health behaviors with the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in middle-aged men in Korea. In total, 12 538 men aged 40 to 59 years were enrolled in 1993 and followed up through 2011. Cardiovascular health metrics defined the following lifestyle behaviors proposed by the American Heart Association: smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diet habit score, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. The cardiovascular health metrics score was calculated as a single categorical variable, by assigning 1 point to each ideal healthy behavior. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of cardiovascular health behavior. Population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated from the significant cardiovascular health metrics. There were 1054 total and 171 CVD deaths over 230 690 person-years of follow-up. The prevalence of meeting all 7 cardiovascular health metrics was 0.67%. Current smoking, elevated blood pressure, and high fasting blood glucose were significantly associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. The adjusted PARs for the 3 significant metrics combined were 35.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.7 to 47.4) and 52.8% (95% CI, 22.0 to 74.0) for all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios of the groups with a 6-7 vs. 0-2 cardiovascular health metrics score were 0.42 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.59) for all-cause mortality and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.29) for CVD mortality. Among cardiovascular health behaviors, not smoking, normal blood pressure, and recommended fasting blood glucose levels were associated with reduced risks of all-cause and CVD mortality. Meeting a greater number of cardiovascular health metrics was associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality.

  20. The prevalence of food allergy and other allergic diseases in early childhood in a population-based study: HealthNuts age 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peters, Rachel L; Koplin, Jennifer J; Gurrin, Lyle C; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Wake, Melissa; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Tang, Mimi L K; Lowe, Adrian J; Matheson, Melanie; Dwyer, Terence; Allen, Katrina J

    2017-07-01

    The HealthNuts study previously reported interim prevalence data showing the highest prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy in infants internationally. However, population-derived prevalence data on challenge-confirmed food allergy and other allergic diseases in preschool-aged children remain sparse. This study aimed to report the updated prevalence of food allergy at age 1 year from the whole cohort, and to report the prevalence of food allergy, asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis at age 4 years. HealthNuts is a population-based cohort study with baseline recruitment of 5276 one-year-old children who underwent skin prick test (SPT) to 4 food allergens and those with detectable SPT results had formal food challenges. At age 4 years, parents completed a questionnaire (81.3% completed) and those who previously attended the HealthNuts clinic at age 1 year or reported symptoms of a new food allergy were invited for an assessment that included SPT and oral food challenges. Data on asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis were captured by validated International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaires. The prevalence of challenge-confirmed food allergy at age 1 and 4 years was 11.0% and 3.8%, respectively. At age 4 years, peanut allergy prevalence was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.6% to 2.3%), egg allergy was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.9% to 1.6%), and sesame allergy was 0.4% (95% CI, 0.3% to 0.6%). Late-onset peanut allergy at age 4 years was rare (0.2%). The prevalence of current asthma was 10.8% (95% CI, 9.7% to 12.1%), current eczema was 16.0% (95% CI, 14.7% to 17.4%), and current allergic rhinitis was 8.3% (95% CI, 7.2% to 9.4%). Forty percent to 50% of this population-based cohort experienced symptoms of an allergic disease in the first 4 years of their life. Although the prevalence of food allergy decreased between age 1 year and age 4 years in this population-based cohort, the prevalence of any allergic disease among 4-year-old children in Melbourne

  1. Inner strength and its relationship to health threats in ageing-A cross-sectional study among community-dwelling older women.

    PubMed

    Boman, Erika; Lundman, Berit; Nygren, Björn; Årestedt, Kristofer; Santamäki Fischer, Regina

    2017-05-17

    To explore the relationship between inner strength and health threats among community-dwelling older women. Inner strength is described as a resource that promotes experiences of health, despite adversities. Inner strength and its dimensions (i.e. connectedness, creativity, firmness and flexibility) can be assessed using the Inner Strength Scale (ISS). Exploring attributes of weaker inner strength may yield valuable information about areas to focus on in enhancing a person's inner strength and may ultimately lead to the perception of better health. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The study is based on responses from 1270 community-dwelling older women aged 65 years and older; these were collected in the year 2010 and describe the situation that still exists today for older women. The questionnaire included the ISS, background characteristics and explanatory variables known to be health threats in ageing. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Poorer mental health was related to weaker inner strength in total and in all the dimensions. Symptoms of depressive disorders and feeling lonely were related to three of the dimensions, except firmness and creativity respectively. Furthermore, poor physical health was associated with the dimensions firmness and flexibility. Other health threats were significantly related to only one of the dimensions, or not associated at all. Mental ill health has overall the strongest association with weaker inner strength. Longitudinal studies are recommended to confirm the results. However, the ISS does not only estimate inner strength but can also be a tool for discovering where (i.e. dimension) interventions may be most profitable. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dietary DHA and health: cognitive function ageing.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Carlos; Afonso, Cláudia; Bandarra, Narcisa M

    2016-12-01

    DHA is a key nutritional n-3 PUFA and needs to be supplied by the human diet. DHA is found in significant amounts in the retinal and neuronal cell membranes due to its high fluidity. Indeed, DHA is selectively concentrated in the synaptic and retinal membranes. DHA is deemed to display anti-inflammatory properties and to reduce the risk of CVD. Consumption of larger amounts of DHA appears to reduce the risk of depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and mood disorders. Conversely, it has been shown that loss of DHA from the nerve cell membrane leads to dysfunction of the central nervous system in the form of anxiety, irritability, susceptibility to stress, dyslexia, impaired memory and cognitive functions, and extended reaction times. DHA plays an important role in ensuring a healthy ageing, by thwarting macular degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, and other brain disorders at the same time as enhancing memory and strengthening neuroprotection in general. A reduced level of DHA is associated with cognitive decline during ageing. Different mechanisms for this fundamental DHA role have been put forward. Namely, neuroprotectin D1, a DHA derivative, may support brain cell survival and repair through neurotrophic, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory signalling. Many of the effects of DHA on the neurological system may be related to signalling connections, thus leading to the study of the related signalolipidomics. Therefore, the present review will focus on the influence of DHA deficiency upon ageing, with specific emphasis upon neurological disorders related to cognitive function and mental health.

  3. Lifestyle Activities and Memory: Variety May Be the Spice of Life. The Women’s Health and Aging Study II

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Michelle C.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Xia, Jin; Xue, Qian-Li; Rebok, George W.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Fried, Linda P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in a variety of lifestyle activities was comparable to frequent participation in cognitively challenging activities in mitigating impairments in cognitive abilities susceptible to aging in healthy, community-dwelling older women. Frequencies of participation in various lifestyle activities on the Lifestyle Activities Questionnaire (LAQ) were divided according to high (e.g., reading), moderate (e.g., discussing politics), and low (e.g., watching television) cognitive demand. We also considered the utility of participation in a variety of lifestyle activities regardless of cognitive challenge. Immediate and delayed verbal recall, psychomotor speed, and executive function were each measured at baseline and at five successive exams, spanning a 9.5-year interval. Greater variety of participation in activities, regardless of cognitive challenge, was associated with an 8 to 11% reduction in the risk of impairment in verbal memory and global cognitive outcomes. Participation in a variety of lifestyle activities was more predictive than frequency or level of cognitive challenge for significant reductions in risk of incident impairment on measures sensitive to cognitive aging and risk for dementia. Our findings offer new perspectives in promoting a diverse repertoire of activities to mitigate age-related cognitive declines. PMID:22172155

  4. Healthy Aging After Age 65: A Life-Span Health Production Function Approach.

    PubMed

    Ferdows, Nasim B; Jensen, Gail A; Tarraf, Wassim

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the determinants of healthy aging using Grossman's framework of a health production function. Healthy aging, sometimes described as successful aging, is produced using a variety of inputs, determined in early life, young adulthood, midlife, and later life. A healthy aging production function is estimated using nationally representative data from the 2010 and 2012 Health and Retirement Study on 7,355 noninstitutionalized seniors. Using a simultaneous equation mediation model, we quantify how childhood factors contribute to healthy aging, both directly and indirectly through their effects on mediating adult outcomes. We find that favorable childhood conditions significantly improve healthy aging scores, both directly and indirectly, mediated through education, income, and wealth. We also find that good health habits have positive effects on healthy aging that are larger in magnitude than the effects of childhood factors. Our findings suggest that exercising, maintaining proper weight, and not smoking are likely to translate into healthier aging.

  5. Cultural/ethnic differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms among middle-aged women in Israel: the Women's Health at Midlife Study.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Tzvia; Benyamini, Yael; Hourvitz, Ariel; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among Israeli midlife women from different cultural origins and to identify sociodemographic, lifestyle, psychosocial, health, and menopause status characteristics that could explain cultural differences in depressive symptoms. Data were collected for the Women's Health in Midlife National Study in Israel, in which women aged 45 to 64 years were randomly selected according to age and ethnic/origin group strata: long-term Jewish residents (n = 540), immigrants from the former Soviet Union (n = 151), and Arab women (n = 123). The survey instrument included a short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale dichotomized according to a <10/≥10 cutpoint. The crude prevalence of depressive symptoms was 17%, 39%, and 46% for long-term residents, immigrants, and Arabs, respectively. Among women aged 45 to 54 years, 46% were postmenopausal. After adjustment for sociodemographics, health and menopause status, and lifestyle and psychosocial characteristics, immigrants and Arab women were at a significantly higher risk of depressive symptoms as compared with native-born/long-term Jewish residents (odds ratio, 2.97 and 2.79, respectively). Perimenopause status, numbers of medical symptoms, being unmarried, and negative attitude to aging were positively associated with depressive symptoms, whereas social support and perceived control were associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms. These associations differed across cultural groups when analysis was stratified by study group. Our findings demonstrate that the high level of depressive symptoms among Israeli women is related to cultural/minority status. The high risk for depressive symptoms in these minority groups calls for intervention policy to improve their mental health.

  6. Dietary sodium content, mortality, and risk for cardiovascular events in older adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.

    PubMed

    Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V; Murphy, Rachel A; Newman, Anne B; Bauer, Douglas C; Harris, Tamara B; Yang, Zhou; Applegate, William B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2015-03-01

    Additional information is needed about the role of dietary sodium on health outcomes in older adults. To examine the association between dietary sodium intake and mortality, incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), and incident heart failure (HF) in older adults. We analyzed 10-year follow-up data from 2642 older adults (age range, 71-80 years) participating in a community-based, prospective cohort study (inception between April 1, 1997, and July 31, 1998). Dietary sodium intake at baseline was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. We examined sodium intake as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable at the following levels: less than 1500 mg/d (291 participants [11.0%]), 1500 to 2300 mg/d (779 participants [29.5%]), and greater than 2300 mg/d (1572 participants [59.5%]). Adjudicated death, incident CVD, and incident HF during 10 follow-up years. Analysis of incident CVD was restricted to 1981 participants without prevalent CVD at baseline. The mean (SD) age of participants was 73.6 (2.9) years, 51.2% were female, 61.7% were of white race, and 38.3% were black. After 10 years, 881 participants had died, 572 had developed CVD, and 398 had developed HF. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, sodium intake was not associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 g, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.98-1.09; P = .27). Ten-year mortality was nonsignificantly lower in the group receiving 1500 to 2300 mg/d (30.7%) than in the group receiving less than 1500 mg/d (33.8%) and the group receiving greater than 2300 mg/d (35.2%) (P = .07). Sodium intake of greater than 2300 mg/d was associated with nonsignificantly higher mortality in adjusted models (HR vs 1500-2300 mg/d, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.99-1.35; P = .07). Indexing sodium intake for caloric intake and body mass index did not materially affect the results. Adjusted HRs for mortality were 1.20 (95% CI, 0.93-1.54; P = .16) per milligram per kilocalorie and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.96-1.28; P = .17) per

  7. Relationship between activity limitation and health-related quality of life in school-aged children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young

    2017-04-28

    Information on health-related quality of life is becoming increasingly important in children with cerebral palsy. This study investigated the relationship between activity limitation and health-related quality of life in school-aged children with cerebral palsy. Data were collected from 71 children aged 6-15 years with cerebral palsy. Activity limitations were assessed using functional classification systems, including the Korean-Gross Motor Function Classification System (K-GMFCS) and the Korean-Manual Ability Classification System (K-MACS). Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Korean version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire. Physical therapists collected the data by interviewing the parents of the subjects. Both the K-GMFCS and the K-MACS were significantly positively correlated with the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire. The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire score differed significantly with respect to the functional classification systems. The differences in the ratings according to the K-GMFCS levels were significant, except those between levels I and II, levels II and III, levels III and IV, and levels IV and V. In the K-MACS, there were no significant differences between levels I and II, levels III and IV, and levels IV and V. The K-GMFCS and the K-MACS were significant predictors of health-related quality of life, demonstrating 75.5% of the variance (p < 0.05). Comprehensive information on children with cerebral palsy should be gathered to provide professionals with a better understanding of health-related quality of life.

  8. Effects of self-reported age at nonsurgical menopause on time to first fracture and bone mineral density in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Shannon D; Lehman, Amy; Thomas, Fridtjof; Johnson, Karen C; Jackson, Rebecca; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Ko, Marcia; Chen, Zhao; Curb, J David; Howard, Barbara V

    2015-10-01

    Menopause is a risk factor for fracture; thus, menopause age may affect bone mass and fracture rates. We compared bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture rates among healthy postmenopausal women with varying ages at self-reported nonsurgical menopause. We compared hazard ratios for fractures and differences in BMD among 21,711 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study cohort who had no prior hysterectomy, oophorectomy, or hormone therapy and had varying self-reported ages at menopause (<40, 40-49, or ≥50 y). Before multivariable adjustments, we found no differences in absolute fracture risk among menopause age groups. After multivariable adjustments for known risk factors for fracture, women who underwent menopause before age 40 years had a higher fracture risk at any site compared with women who underwent menopause at age 50 years or older (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.44; P = 0.03). In a subset with BMD measurements (n = 1,351), whole-body BMD was lower in women who reported menopause before age 40 years than in women who reported menopause at ages 40 to 49 years (estimated difference, -0.034 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.07 to -0.004; P = 0.03) and women who reported menopause at age 50 years or older (estimated difference, -0.05 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.02; P < 0.01). Left hip BMD was lower in women who underwent menopause before age 40 years than in women who underwent menopause at age 50 years or older (estimated difference, -0.05 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.01; P = 0.01), and total spine BMD was lower in women who underwent menopause before age 40 years than in women who underwent menopause at age 50 years or older (estimated difference, -0.11 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.06; P < 0.01) and women who underwent menopause at ages 40 to 49 years (estimated difference, -0.09 g/cm; 95% CI, -0.15 to -0.04; P < 0.01). In the absence of hormone therapy, younger age at menopause may be a risk factor

  9. Do different parenting patterns impact the health and physical growth of 'left-behind' preschool-aged children? A cross-sectional study in rural China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiuting; Xu, Lingzhong; Luo, Huiwen; Wang, Xinhai; Zhang, Furong; Gai Tobe, Ruoyan

    2016-02-01

    Many migrants from rural China seek work in urban areas and leave their children in their home villages to be raised by relatives. These children are often referred to as 'left-behind children'. Parental migration tends to have a profound impact on a child's growth. This study sought to assess the prevalence of illness and malnutrition among children in rural areas raised with different parenting patterns and to explore factors affecting their health and development. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the physical health of children raised with different parenting patterns and to explore associated risk factors. In total, this study examined 735 children ages 3-6 years in eight rural villages in two counties of Shandong Province. Their primary caregivers were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements of the children were taken and their nutritional status was determined according to WHO Child Growth Standards. This study found a relatively high prevalence of wasting, overweight and obesity among left-behind children. After potential confounders were controlled for, the parenting pattern, annual household income and health literacy of the primary caregiver significantly influenced the health and developmental indicators of children. This study highlighted the impact of the characteristics of the primary caregiver on a child's health and development and the importance of practical interventions for preschool-aged children who are left behind and raised with different parenting patterns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations Between Statin Use and Physical Function in Older Adults from The Netherlands and Australia: Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam and Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    van Boheemen, Laurette; Tett, Susan E; Sohl, Evelien; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G; van Schoor, Natasja M; Peeters, G M E E

    2016-06-01

    Statin therapy may cause myopathy, but long-term effects on physical function are unclear. We investigated whether statin use is associated with poorer physical function in two population-based cohorts of older adults. Data were from 691 men and women (aged 69-102 years in 2005/2006) in the LASA (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam) and 5912 women (aged 79-84 years in 2005) in the ALSWH (Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health). Statin use and dose were sourced from containers (LASA) and administrative databases (ALSWH). Physical function was assessed using performance tests, questionnaires on functional limitations and the SF-12 (LASA) and SF-36 (ALSWH) questionnaires. Cross-sectional (both studies) and 3-year prospective associations (ALSWH) were analysed for different statin dosage using linear and logistic regression. In total, 25 % of participants in LASA and 61 % in ALSWH used statins. In the cross-sectional models in LASA, statin users were less likely to have functional limitations (percentage of subjects with at least 1 limitation 63.9 vs. 64.2; odds ratio [OR] 0.6; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.9) and had better SF-12 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 47.3 vs. 44.5; beta [B] = 2.8; 95 % CI 1.1-4.5); in ALSWH, statin users had better SF-36 physical component scores (mean [adjusted] 37.4 vs. 36.5; B = 0.9; 95 % CI 0.3-1.5) and physical functioning subscale scores (mean [adjusted] 55.1 vs. 52.6; B = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.1-3.8) than non-users. Similar associations were found for low- and high-dose users and in the prospective models. In contrast, no significant associations were found with performance tests. Two databases from longitudinal population studies in older adults gave comparable results, even though different outcome measures were used. In these two large cohorts, statin use was associated with better self-perceived physical function.

  11. Health perspectives: international epidemiology of ageing.

    PubMed

    Ward, Stephanie Alison; Parikh, Seema; Workman, Barbara

    2011-09-01

    Populations globally are ageing, in part due to dramatic increases in life expectancies, forcing a reconsideration of what constitutes being "elderly" and "old." The proportion of older adults living with disability may be decreasing, yet older individuals are living with a significant burden of chronic disease, geriatric impairments in cognition, vision and hearing and reduced physiological reserve (frailty). Caring for a growing number of medically complex individuals has implications for medical workforce size and composition, health programmes and expenditure. Future responses to an ageing population will require further innovation in health-care delivery models, and increasing representation of older adults in clinical trials. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Internet resources on ageing and health].

    PubMed

    Estrada-Lorenzo, José-Manuel; Barderas-Manchado, Ana; Fuentelsaz-Gallego, Carmen; González-María, Esther; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The general ageing of the world population at the beginning of the XXI century is an established fact, and in the next few years it will be a topic for debate and of interest to the public and, in particular, among health professionals. The Internet, as an inexhaustible information source of a different kind, could be a useful resource for consulting and updating for these professionals. The main health sciences sources that are available on the Internet are presented and commented upon. These may be useful for those professionals who wish to identify the most relevant information on ageing.

  13. Serum Bicarbonate Concentrations and Kidney Disease Progression in Community-Living Elders: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Goldenstein, Leonard; Driver, Todd H.; Fried, Linda; Rifkin, Dena E.; Patel, Kushang V.; Yenchek, Robert H.; Harris, Tamara B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Newman, Anne B.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Ix, Joachim H.

    2014-01-01

    Background In populations with prevalent chronic kidney disease (CKD), lower serum bicarbonate is associated with more rapid CKD progression, but whether lower bicarbonate is also associated with risk of incident estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73m2 and progression among community-living persons with predominantly preserved kidney function is unknown. Study Design Longitudinal observational cohort study. Setting & Participants Well functioning community living elders aged 70–79 years at inception. Predictor Serum bicarbonate measured at the time of collection by arterialized venous blood sample using an arterial blood gas analyzer. Outcomes Change in eGFR, and new eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 and loss of ≥1 ml/min/1.73m2 per year at follow-up. Measurements Linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate associations of baseline serum bicarbonate with change in eGFR and incident eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2. Results At baseline, mean eGFR was 84±16 (SD) mL/min/1.73m2, and serum bicarbonate was 25.2±1.9 mmol/L. Compared to participants with higher bicarbonate concentrations (23.0–28.0 mmol/L), those with bicarbonate concentrations < 23 mmol/L (n=85 [8%]) lost eGFR 0.55 (95%CI, 0.13–0.97) mL/min/1.73m2 per year faster in models adjusted for demographics, CKD risk factors, baseline eGFR, and urine albumin-creatinine ratio. Among the 989 (92%) participants with baseline eGFR>60 mL/min/1.73m2, 252 (25%) developed incident eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 at follow-up. Adjusting for the same covariates, participants with bicarbonate concentrations < 23 mmol/L had nearly 2-fold greater odds of incident eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.97–3.07) compared to those with higher bicarbonate concentrations. Limitations Only two measurements of kidney function separated by seven years and loss to follow up due to intervening mortality in this elderly population. Conclusions Lower serum bicarbonate concentrations are independently associated with

  14. Allergy and Aging: An Old/New Emerging Health Issue

    PubMed Central

    De Martinis, Massimo; Sirufo, Maria Maddalena; Ginaldi, Lia

    2017-01-01

    Allergy reactions are the most common immunological diseases and represent one of the most widespread and fast growing chronic human health problems among people over 15 years of age in developed countries. As populations get older worldwide, allergy manifestations in aged persons will occur more often in the future. To date, there has been much more studies on allergies in children than in adults. As the population ages, clinicians must be prepared to meet all the elderly's health care needs, including these new and emerging health issue. Allergic diseases represent an old/new emerging health issue. Because many common illnesses masquerade as atopic disease, the differential diagnosis of suspected allergic diseases becomes more expanded in an aging population. Research in the field needs to focus on both human and animal model systems to investigate the impact of the aging process on the immunologic pathways underpinning allergy and its different facets. PMID:28400983

  15. Serum bicarbonate concentrations and kidney disease progression in community-living elders: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.

    PubMed

    Goldenstein, Leonard; Driver, Todd H; Fried, Linda F; Rifkin, Dena E; Patel, Kushang V; Yenchek, Robert H; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Newman, Anne B; Sarnak, Mark J; Shlipak, Michael G; Ix, Joachim H

    2014-10-01

    In populations with prevalent chronic kidney disease (CKD), lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with more rapid CKD progression, but whether lower bicarbonate levels also are associated with risk of incident estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and CKD progression among community-living persons with predominantly preserved kidney function is unknown. Longitudinal observational cohort study. Well-functioning community-living elders aged 70-79 years at inception. Serum bicarbonate level measured at the time of collection by arterialized venous blood sample using an arterial blood gas analyzer. Change in eGFR over 7 years, and new eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) with a rate of loss of at least 1 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year. Linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate associations of baseline serum bicarbonate level with change in eGFR and incident eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). At baseline, mean eGFR was 84 ± 16 (SD)mL/min/1.73 m(2), and serum bicarbonate level was 25.2 ± 1.9 mmol/L. Compared with participants with higher bicarbonate concentrations (23.0-28.0 mmol/L), those with bicarbonate concentrations < 23 mmol/L (n = 85 [8%]) lost eGFR0.55 (95% CI, 0.13-0.97) mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year faster in models adjusted for demographics, CKD risk factors, baseline eGFR, and urine albumin-creatinine ratio. Among the 989 (92%) participants with baseline eGFRs > 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), 252 (25%) developed incident eGFRs < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at follow-up. Adjusting for the same covariates, participants with bicarbonate concentrations < 23 mmol/L had nearly 2-fold greater odds of incident eGFRs < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.97-3.07) compared with those with higher bicarbonate concentrations. Only 2 measurements of kidney function separated by 7 years and loss to follow-up due to intervening mortality in this elderly population. Lower serum bicarbonate concentrations are associated independently with decline in eGFR and

  16. Mental health problems of aging and the aged*

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Martin

    1959-01-01

    The rapid increase in admission rates to mental hospitals in many countries in recent decades threatens to create serious problems. These may be to some extent remediable in that social factors are important in deciding the chances of admission to hospital, as well as the frequency of suicide, which reaches a peak among the aged in most countries. All communities possess valuable assets in the form of existing links between the aged and their families which may be lost by indiscriminate community planning. Although some psychological decline is inevitable during senescence, it is becoming clear that much that once passed for the ineluctable effects of mental and physical aging is due to disease that may be ameliorated or cured. The relationship between mental and physical health is particularly close in old age, and the effective treatment of the aged person with a psychiatric disorder demands the full resources of general medicine as well as psychiatry. For successful rehabilitation a full community service for the aged and proper integration of the work of the family doctor with that of preventive and hospital services are essential. The possibilities of prevention can be enhanced by fostering physical well-being and healthy adjustment during earlier stages of life, as well as by ascertaining, and remedying as far as possible, the mental and physical disorders of the aged in the early stages of their development. There is great scope for biological, medical and sociological research to define reasons for the wide variations in mental and physical well-being in old age. PMID:14439413

  17. Changes in Health Status Among Aging Survivors of Pediatric Upper and Lower Extremity Sarcoma: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS)

    PubMed Central

    Marina, Neyssa; Hudson, Melissa M.; Jones, Kendra E.; Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Avedian, Raffi; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Popat, Rita; West, Dee W.; Fisher, Paul; Leisenring, Wendy; Stovall, Marilyn; Robison, Leslie L.; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate health status and participation restrictions in childhood extremity sarcoma survivors. Design Members of the CCSS cohort with extremity sarcomas, who completed 1995, 2003 or 2007 questionnaires, were included. Setting Cohort Study of extremity sarcomas survivors. Participants Childhood cancer survivors diagnosed and treated between 1970–1986. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure Prevalence rates for poor health status in six domains and five sub-optimal social participation categories were compared by tumor location and treatment exposure with generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographic/personal factors and time/age. Results Among 1094 survivors, median age at diagnosis 13 years (range 0–20), current age 33 years (range 10–53), 49% were male, 87.5% Caucasian, and 75% had lower extremity tumors. In adjusted models, when compared to upper extremity survivors, lower extremity survivors had increased risk of activity limitations but lower risk of not completing college. Compared to those who did not have surgery, those with limb-sparing (LS) and upper extremity amputations (UEA) were 1.6 times more likely to report functional impairment; while those with an above the knee amputation (AKA) were 1.9 times more likely to report functional impairment. Survivors treated with LS were 1.5 times more likely to report activity limitations. Survivors undergoing LS were more likely to report inactivity, incomes < $20,000, unemployment and no college degree. Those with UEA more likely reported inactivity, unmarried status and no college degree. Lastly, those with AKA more likely reported no college degree. Treatment with abdominal irradiation was associated with increased risk of poor mental health, functional impairment and activity limitation. Conclusion Treatment for lower extremity sarcomas is associated with a 50% increased risk for activity limitations; upper extremity survivors are at 10% higher risk for not completing

  18. Frailty prevalence and associated factors in the Mexican health and aging study: A comparison of the frailty index and the phenotype

    PubMed Central

    García-Peña, Carmen; Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Dent, Elsa; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Background Frailty is a relatively new phenomenon described mainly in the older population. There are a number of different tools that aim at categorizing an older adult as frail. Two of the main tools for this purpose are the Fried's frailty phenotype (FFP) and the frailty index (FI). The aim of this report is to determine the prevalence of frailty and associated factors using both FFP and the FI. Methods Secondary analysis of 1108 individuals aged 60 or older is participating in the third (2012) wave from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). The FFP and the FI were constructed and a set of variables from different domains were used to explore associations. Domains included were: socio-demographic, health-related, and psychological factors. Regarding prevalence, concordance was tested with a kappa statistic. To test significant associations when classifying with each of the tools, multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Results Mean (SD) age was 69.8 (7.6) years, and 54.6% (n = 606) were women. The prevalence of frailty with FFP was 24.9% (n = 276) while with FI 27.5% (n = 305). Kappa statistics for concordance between tools was 0.34 (p < 0.001). Age, years in school, number of past days in bed due to health problems, number of times that consulted a physician last year for health problems, having smoked in the past, and life satisfaction were associated with frailty when using any of the tools. Conclusions There is a persistent heterogeneity on how frailty is measured that should be addressed in future research. PMID:27032304

  19. Association of alcohol consumption with incident hypertension among middle-aged and older Japanese population: the Ibarakai Prefectural Health Study (IPHS).

    PubMed

    Okubo, Yoshiro; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Irie, Fujiko; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Muto, Takashi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Ota, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of age on the relationship between alcohol consumption and incident hypertension in a general Japanese population. A cohort of Japanese men (n=37 310) and women (n=78 426) aged 40 to 79 years who underwent community-based health checkups from 1993 to 2004 and were free of hypertension were followed up with annual examinations, including the measurement of blood pressure, until the end of 2010. Incident hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg, or the initiation of treatment for hypertension. Hazard ratios for incident hypertension according to alcohol consumption were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for possible confounding variables. A total of 45 428 participants (39.3%) developed hypertension (16 155 men and 29 273 women) for a mean follow-up time of 3.9 (1-18) years. Significant associations between alcohol consumption and incident hypertension were found in both sexes and age groups (P for trend was <0.001 for men aged 40-59 years and aged 60-79 years; 0.004 for women aged 40-59 years and 0.026 for women aged 60-79 years). No significant interaction with age on the association of alcohol consumption with incident hypertension was found in either sex (P for interaction, >0.05). Our results suggest that alcohol consumption is a similar risk factor for incident hypertension in both the middle-aged and the older populations.

  20. Influence of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-3 on bone health: results from the European Male Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Pye, Stephen R; Almusalam, Bader; Boonen, Steven; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Borghs, Herman; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E; Ward, Kate A; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F; Finn, Joseph D; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Labrie, Fernand; Lean, Michael E J; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Wu, Frederick C W; O'Neill, Terence W

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-3, and IGF-I on calcaneal ultrasound parameters in middle-aged and elderly European men. Men aged 40-79 years were recruited from population registers for participation in the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). Subjects were invited by letter to complete a postal questionnaire and to attend for an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus, and a fasting blood sample from which serum levels of IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, IGF-I, estradiol (E(2)), and SHBG were assayed. The questionnaires included the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and questions about smoking and alcohol consumption. Estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) was derived as a function of the QUS parameters speed of sound and broadband ultrasound attenuation. Height and weight were measured in all subjects. 3057 men, mean age 59.7 years (standard deviation 11.0) were included in the analysis. After adjusting for age, center, and BMI, higher levels of IGFBP-1 were associated with lower eBMD. Higher levels of both IGFBP-3 and IGF-I were associated with higher eBMD. After further adjustment for PASE score, current smoking, alcohol consumption, free E(2), and SHBG, IGFBP-3 and IGF-I, though not IGFBP-1, remained significantly associated with eBMD. IGFBP-1 was associated with bone health, though the effect could be explained by other factors. IGFBP-3 and IGF-I were independent determinants of bone health in middle-aged and elderly European men.

  1. INFLUENCE OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR BINDING PROTEINS (IGFBP)-1 AND IGFBP-3 ON BONE HEALTH: RESULTS FROM THE EUROPEAN MALE AGEING STUDY (EMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Stephen R; Almusalam, Bader; Boonen, Steven; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Borghs, Herman; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E; Ward, Kate A; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F; Finn, Joseph D; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Labrie, Fernand; Lean, Michael EJ; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Wu, Frederick CW; O’Neill, Terence W

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-3, and IGF-1 on calcaneal ultrasound parameters in middle-aged and elderly European men. Men aged 40 to 79 years were recruited from population registers for participation in the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). Subjects were invited by letter to complete a postal questionnaire and to attend for an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus and a fasting blood sample from which serum levels of IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, IGF-1, oestradiol (E2) and SHBG were assayed. The questionnaires included the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and questions about smoking and alcohol consumption. Estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) was derived as a function of the QUS parameters, speed of sound and broadband ultrasound attenuation. Height and weight were measured in all subjects. 3057 men, mean age 59.7 years (standard deviation [SD]=11.0) were included in the analysis. After adjusting for age, centre and BMI, higher levels of IGFBP-1 were associated with lower eBMD. Higher levels of both IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 were associated with higher eBMD. After further adjustment for PASE score, current smoking, alcohol consumption, free E2 and SHBG, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1, though not IGFBP-1, remained significantly associated with eBMD. IGFBP-1 was associated with bone health though the effect could be explained by other factors. IGFBP-3 and IGF-1 were independent determinants of bone health in middle aged and elderly European men. PMID:21503646

  2. Overweight and obesity over the adult life course and incident mobility limitation in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study.

    PubMed

    Houston, Denise K; Ding, Jingzhong; Nicklas, Barbara J; Harris, Tamara B; Lee, Jung Sun; Nevitt, Michael C; Rubin, Susan M; Tylavsky, Frances A; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2009-04-15

    Obesity in middle and old age predicts mobility limitation; however, the cumulative effect of overweight and/or obesity over the adult life course is unknown. The association between overweight and/or obesity in young, middle, and late adulthood and its cumulative effect on incident mobility limitation was examined among community-dwelling US adults aged 70-79 years at baseline (1997-1998) in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study (n = 2,845). Body mass index was calculated by using recalled weight at ages 25 and 50 years and measured weight at ages 70-79 years. Mobility limitation (difficulty walking 1/4 mile (0.4 km) or climbing 10 steps) was assessed semiannually over 7 years of follow-up and was reported by 43.0% of men and 53.7% of women. Men and women who were overweight or obese at all 3 time points had an increased risk of mobility limitation (hazard ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.06 and hazard ratio = 2.85, 95% confidence interval: 2.15, 3.78, respectively) compared with those who were normal weight throughout. Furthermore, there was a significant graded response (P < 0.0001) on risk of mobility limitation for the cumulative effect of obesity in men and overweight and/or obesity in women. Onset of overweight and obesity in earlier life contributes to an increased risk of mobility limitation in old age.

  3. Satisfaction with aging and use of preventive health services.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric S; Moored, Kyle D; Giasson, Hannah L; Smith, Jacqui

    2014-12-01

    Preventive health service use is relatively low among older age groups. We hypothesized that aging satisfaction would be associated with increased use of preventive health services four years later. We conducted multiple logistic regression analyses on a sample of 6177 people from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative study of U.S. adults over the age of 50 (M age=70.6; women n=3648; men n=2529). Aging satisfaction was not associated with obtaining flu shots. However, in fully-adjusted models, each standard deviation increase in aging satisfaction was associated with higher odds of reporting service use for cholesterol tests (OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.00-1.20). Further, women with higher aging satisfaction were more likely to obtain a mammogram/x-ray (OR=1.17, 95% CI=1.06-1.29) or Pap smear (OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.00-1.21). Among men, the odds of obtaining a prostate exam increased with higher aging satisfaction (OR=1.20 95% CI=1.09-1.34). These results suggest that aging satisfaction potentially influences preventive health service use after age 50. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Suzen M.; Voland, Rick; Tinker, Lesley; Blodi, Barbara A.; Klein, Michael L.; Gehrs, Karen M.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Snodderly, D. Max; Wallace, Robert B.; Chappell, Richard J.; Parekh, Niyati; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Mares, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Design: Women aged 50-79 years in Iowa, Wisconsin, and Oregon with intakes of lutein and zeaxanthin (L+Z) above the 78th (high) and below the 28th (low) percentiles in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (1994-98) were recruited four to seven years later (2001-04) into the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS) to evaluate associations between nuclear cataract (determined from slit-lamp photographs) and L+Z in the diet and serum in 1994-98 and macula in 2001-04 (N=1,802). Results: Women in the high dietary L+Z group had a 23% lower prevalence of nuclear cataract (age-adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.96) compared to those in the low group. Multivariable adjustment slightly attenuated the association (OR (95% CI): 0.81 (0.65-1.01)). Women in the highest vs. lowest quintile categories of diet or serum L+Z were 32% less likely to have nuclear cataract (multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI): 0.68 (0.48-0.97), p trend=0.04 and 0.68 (0.47-0.98), p trend=0.01). Cross-sectional associations with macular pigment density were inverse but not statistically significant. Conclusion: Diets rich in lutein and zeaxanthin are moderately associated with decreased prevalence of nuclear cataract in older women. However, other protective aspects of such diets may, in part, explain these relationships. PMID:18332316

  5. Anemia and activities of daily living in the Korean urban elderly population: results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA).

    PubMed

    Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Lim, Soo; Kim, Jee Hyun; Park, Young Joo; Chin, Ho Jun; Kim, Ki Woong; Jang, Hak-Chul; Lee, Jong Seok

    2013-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of anemia and its impact on health-related quality of life and activities of daily living (ADL) in elderly Koreans. Of the 1,118 randomly sampled elderly Koreans aged 65 years or older living in Seongnam, Korea, on Aug. 1, 2005, we estimated the prevalence of anemia from 695 responders. We investigated the risk factors of anemia using a merged sample of this random sample and 270 volunteers enrolled from Seongnam residents aged 85 years or older. We diagnosed anemia according to the World Health Organization criteria. The estimated age- and gender-standardized prevalence of anemia was 8.33 % for the overall random sample (95 % confidence intervals (CI) 6.28-10.39), 10.58 % in men (95 % CI 7.09-14.07), and 6.85 % in women (95 % CI 4.37-9.34). The identified risk factors were age ≥80 years, male, iron deficiency, history of stroke, renal dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Anemia was associated with impairment in physical functioning (p = 0.031) and instrumental ADL (p < 0.001). This is the first report about anemia's prevalence in community-dwelling Korean elders, adjusted and standardized according to the city's and nation's population. Timely diagnosis of anemia and correction of its treatable cause may improve QOL and ADL in elderly individuals.

  6. [Mental health and solitude in old age].

    PubMed

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and solitude in old age. Elderly people experience solitude as isolation, even more so when the person is ill. However, in the same circumstances, some people see solitude as an experience of maturity. Is it simply a question of inner strength?

  7. Chronotype Differences in Health Behaviors and Health-Related Quality of Life: A Population-Based Study Among Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sooyeon; Yang, Hae-Chung; Kim, Nanhee; Yu, Ji Hee; Choi, Sungwon; Yun, Chang-Ho; Shin, Chol

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates health behaviors, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and sleep among chronotypes in a community-based sample (n = 2,976). Analysis of covariance indicated evening types (E-types) had a significantly higher percentage of current smokers and more sleep-interfering behaviors compared to intermediate and morning types (M-type), and also lower physical activity and more sleep disturbance compared to M-types. E-types also had worse mental HRQOL compared to both chronotypes, and worse physical HRQOL compared to M-types. Exploratory analyses indicated E-types consumed more caffeinated beverages at night, smoked or ate heavy meals before bedtime, kept irregular sleep-wake schedules, and took more naps. Mediational analyses indicated that sleep-interfering behavior partially mediated the relationship between chronotype and sleep disturbance, and physical activity partially mediated the relationship between chronotype and mental HRQOL. E-types had more unhealthy behaviors, which may subsequently place them at higher risk for health problems.

  8. [Children's relative age in class and medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A population-based study in a health department in Spain].

    PubMed

    Librero, Julián; Izquierdo-María, Roberto; García-Gil, María; Peiró, Salvador

    2015-12-07

    Previous studies in various countries have shown that the youngest school children in the same class-grade are more likely to be treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than their older classmates. The aim of this study is to determine in the Spanish setting whether younger relative age children in each grade have a higher prevalence of treatment for ADHD. Population, observational, cross-sectional study in a health department, using prevalence data (November 2013) of treatment for ADHD in children aged 6-12 years. Data was obtained from the information systems of the Valencia Ministry of Health and multivariate models were used to estimate the prevalence ratio of treatment according to the month of birth of children in each grade. Twenty thousand two hundred and thirty-seven children were included of whom 1.73% were treated for ADHD (boys: 2.70%; girls: 0.71%) in October 2013. The prevalence of treatment increased with age, in males, and in youngest children (born in the last months of each year). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of treatment in the youngest children (born in the months of August to December) was 2.5 to 3 times higher than in their older classmates (born in January). The younger children relative to their classmates are more likely to be treated pharmacologically with methylphenidate and/or atomoxetine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Reproductive aging, menopause, and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, JoAnn V; Stovall, Dale W

    2010-08-01

    Changes in ovarian hormone production may affect numerous health outcomes including vasomotor symptoms, cardiovascular disease (CVD), osteoporosis, cognition, depression, mood disorders, sexual function, and vaginal atrophy. We will compare age-related changes to those associated with reproductive aging and menopause and the effects of estrogen therapy on selected health outcomes. Hormone therapy (HT) reduces frequency and severity of hot flashes, prevents bone loss and osteoporotic fractures, and relieves vaginal atrophy. Nonhormone therapy trials with antidepressants or gabapentin for hot flash relief are promising. To date, clinical trial data are insufficient to recommend the use of HT for prevention or treatment of CVD, mood disorders, cognition, or sleep disorders. For some disease states, such as CVD and cognition, a "critical time window" has been proposed but not proven, such that estrogen use early in the menopause transition may be beneficial while estrogen use later in life would lead to increased health risks.

  10. The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Mental Health Status among Women of Reproductive Ages: A Population-Based Study in a Middle Anatolian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nur, Naim

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study…

  11. The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Mental Health Status among Women of Reproductive Ages: A Population-Based Study in a Middle Anatolian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nur, Naim

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study…

  12. Differences in Access to and Preferences for Using Patient Portals and Other eHealth Technologies Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Age: A Database and Survey Study of Seniors in a Large Health Plan

    PubMed Central

    Hornbrook, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients are being encouraged to go online to obtain health information and interact with their health care systems. However, a 2014 survey found that less than 60% of American adults aged 65 and older use the Internet, with much lower usage among black and Latino seniors compared with non-Hispanic white seniors, and among older versus younger seniors. Objective Our aims were to (1) identify race/ethnic and age cohort disparities among seniors in use of the health plan’s patient portal, (2) determine whether race/ethnic and age cohort disparities exist in access to digital devices and preferences for using email- and Web-based modalities to interact with the health care system, (3) assess whether observed disparities in preferences and patient portal use are due simply to barriers to access and inability to use the Internet, and (4) learn whether older adults not currently using the health plan’s patient portal or website have a potential interest in doing so in the future and what kind of support might be best suited to help them. Methods We conducted two studies of seniors aged 65-79 years. First, we used administrative data about patient portal account status and utilization in 2013 for a large cohort of English-speaking non-Hispanic white (n=183,565), black (n=16,898), Latino (n=12,409), Filipino (n=11,896), and Chinese (n=6314) members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan. Second, we used data from a mailed survey conducted in 2013-2014 with a stratified random sample of this population (final sample: 849 non-Hispanic white, 567 black, 653 Latino, 219 Filipino, and 314 Chinese). These data were used to examine race/ethnic and age disparities in patient portal use and readiness and preferences for using digital communication for health-related purposes. Results Adults aged 70-74 and 75-79 were significantly less likely than 65-69 year olds to be registered to use the patient portal, and among those registered, to have used the

  13. Differences in Access to and Preferences for Using Patient Portals and Other eHealth Technologies Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Age: A Database and Survey Study of Seniors in a Large Health Plan.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nancy P; Hornbrook, Mark C

    2016-03-04

    Patients are being encouraged to go online to obtain health information and interact with their health care systems. However, a 2014 survey found that less than 60% of American adults aged 65 and older use the Internet, with much lower usage among black and Latino seniors compared with non-Hispanic white seniors, and among older versus younger seniors. Our aims were to (1) identify race/ethnic and age cohort disparities among seniors in use of the health plan's patient portal, (2) determine whether race/ethnic and age cohort disparities exist in access to digital devices and preferences for using email- and Web-based modalities to interact with the health care system, (3) assess whether observed disparities in preferences and patient portal use are due simply to barriers to access and inability to use the Internet, and (4) learn whether older adults not currently using the health plan's patient portal or website have a potential interest in doing so in the future and what kind of support might be best suited to help them. We conducted two studies of seniors aged 65-79 years. First, we used administrative data about patient portal account status and utilization in 2013 for a large cohort of English-speaking non-Hispanic white (n=183,565), black (n=16,898), Latino (n=12,409), Filipino (n=11,896), and Chinese (n=6314) members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan. Second, we used data from a mailed survey conducted in 2013-2014 with a stratified random sample of this population (final sample: 849 non-Hispanic white, 567 black, 653 Latino, 219 Filipino, and 314 Chinese). These data were used to examine race/ethnic and age disparities in patient portal use and readiness and preferences for using digital communication for health-related purposes. Adults aged 70-74 and 75-79 were significantly less likely than 65-69 year olds to be registered to use the patient portal, and among those registered, to have used the portal to send messages, view lab test

  14. Genome-wide association study of periodontal health measured by probing depth in adults ages 18-49 years.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Polk, Deborah E; Wang, Xiaojing; Feingold, Eleanor; Weeks, Daniel E; Lee, Myoung-Keun; Cuenco, Karen T; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard J; McNeil, Daniel W; Marazita, Mary L

    2014-02-19

    The etiology of chronic periodontitis clearly includes a heritable component. Our purpose was to perform a small exploratory genome-wide association study in adults ages 18-49 years to nominate genes associated with periodontal disease-related phenotypes for future consideration. Full-mouth periodontal pocket depth probing was performed on participants (N = 673), with affected status defined as two or more sextants with probing depths of 5.5 mm or greater. Two variations of this phenotype that differed in how missing teeth were treated were used in analysis. More than 1.2 million genetic markers across the genome were genotyped or imputed and tested for genetic association. We identified ten suggestive loci (p-value ≤ 1E-5), including genes/loci that have been previously implicated in chronic periodontitis: LAMA2, HAS2, CDH2, ESR1, and the genomic region on chromosome 14q21-22 between SOS2 and NIN. Moreover, we nominated novel loci not previously implicated in chronic periodontitis or related pathways, including the regions 3p22 near OSBPL10 (a lipid receptor implicated in hyperlipidemia), 4p15 near HSP90AB2P (a heat shock pseudogene), 11p15 near GVINP1 (a GTPase pseudogene), 14q31 near SEL1L (an intracellular transporter), and 18q12 in FHOD3 (an actin cytoskeleton regulator). Replication of these results in additional samples is needed. This is one of the first research efforts to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis-related phenotypes by the genome-wide association study approach. Though small, efforts such this are needed in order to nominate novel genes and generate new hypotheses for exploration and testing in future studies.

  15. An Aging Game Simulation Activity for Allied Health Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Carolinda; Henry, Beverly W.; Kostiwa, Irene M.

    2008-01-01

    The Aging Game, a simulation activity, has been used successfully with medical students in the development of empathetic attitudes toward older adults. To date, the Aging Game has not been used extensively with allied health students. It has been viewed as too costly, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  16. How does age affect the care dependency risk one year after stroke? A study based on claims data from a German health insurance fund.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, Susanne; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Kohler, Martin; Peschke, Dirk; Kuhlmey, Adelheid; Schenk, Liane

    2015-10-23

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age on care dependency risk 1 year after stroke. Two research questions are addressed: (1) How strong is the association between age and care dependency risk 1 year after stroke and (2) can this association be explained by burden of disease? The study is based on claims data from a German statutory health insurance fund. The study population was drawn from all continuously insured members with principal diagnoses of ischaemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, or transient ischaemic attack in 2007 who survived for 1 year after stroke and who were not dependent on care before their first stroke (n = 2864). Data were collected over a 1-year period. People are considered to be dependent on care if they, due to a physical, mental or psychological illness or disability, require substantial assistance in carrying out activities of daily living for a period of at least 6 months. Burden of disease was assessed by stroke subtype, history of stroke, comorbidities as well as geriatric multimorbidity. Regression models were used for data analysis. 21.6 % of patients became care dependent during the observation period. Post-stroke care dependency risk was significantly associated with age. Relative to the reference group (0-65 years), the odds ratio of care dependency was 11.30 (95 % CI: 7.82-16.34) in patients aged 86+ years and 5.10 (95 % CI: 3.88-6.71) in patients aged 76-85 years. These associations were not explained by burden of disease. On the contrary, age effects became stronger when burden of disease was included in the regression model (by between 1.1 and 28 %). Our results show that age has an effect on care dependency risk that cannot be explained by burden of disease. Thus, there must be other underlying age-dependent factors that account for the remaining age effects (e.g., social conditions). Further studies are needed to explore the causes of the strong age effects observed.

  17. Health conditions associated with metabolic syndrome after cancer at a young age: A nationwide register-based study.

    PubMed

    Kero, A E; Madanat-Harjuoja, L M; Järvelä, L S; Malila, N; Matomäki, J; Lähteenmäki, P M

    2016-04-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS), which subsequently leads to cardiovascular morbidity and excess mortality. Our aim was to investigate the purchases of medications associated with MetS among 7551 early onset cancer patients compared to siblings. Our nationwide Finnish population-based registry study analyzed the drug purchase of medication among early onset cancer patients diagnosed with cancer below the age of 35 years between 1994 and 2004 compared to siblings by linkage to the drug purchase registry, allowing for a maximal follow-up of 18 years. The hazard ratios (HRs) for purchasing antihypertensives and diabetes drugs were higher after both childhood (HR 4.6, 95%CI 3.1-7.0; HR 3.0, 95%1.5-6.1) and young adulthood (YA) cancer (HR 1.5, 95%CI 1.3-1.8; HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.2) compared to siblings. The HRs for purchasing lipid-lowering drugs were elevated both after childhood (HR 4.3,95%CI 0.9-19.5) and YA cancer (HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.04-2.5), but only reached significance in YA cancer patients. Among specific cancer diagnosis groups, highest HR values for antihypertensives were found in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (HR 6.1, 95%CI 3.7-10.3) and bone tumor (HR 4.3, 95%CI 1.9-9.4), and YA ALL (HR 4.8, 95%CI 3.1-7.0) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (HR 3.4, 95%CI 2.5-5.1) patients. Moreover, childhood ALL (HR 6.3, 95%CI 2.7-14.8), AML (HR 7.6, 95%CI 1.9-24.5) and central nervous system (CNS)-tumor (HR 3.5, 95%CI 1.3-9.2) and YA ALL (HR 3.7, 95%CI 1.2-9.5) patients showed the strongest likelihood of purchasing diabetes drugs compared to siblings. The purchase of medications associated with MetS was increased after early onset cancer and highly dependent on the age at cancer diagnosis and the cancer diagnosis. Prevention strategies are imperative for reducing potentially life-threatening cardiovascular complications after early onset cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Advance directives and power of attorney for health care in the oldest-old - results of the AgeQualiDe study.

    PubMed

    Luck, Tobias; Rodriguez, Francisca S; Wiese, Birgitt; van der Leeden, Carolin; Heser, Kathrin; Bickel, Horst; In der Schmitten, Jürgen; Koenig, Hans-Helmut; Weyerer, Siegfried; Mamone, Silke; Mallon, Tina; Wagner, Michael; Weeg, Dagmar; Fuchs, Angela; Brettschneider, Christian; Werle, Jochen; Scherer, Martin; Maier, Wolfgang; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2017-04-13

    Completion of advance directives (ADs) and power of attorney (POA) documents may protect a person's autonomy in future health care situations when the individual lacks decisional capacity. As such situations become naturally much more common in old age, we specifically aimed at providing information on (i) the frequency of ADs/POA in oldest-old individuals and (ii) factors associated with having completed ADs/POA. We analyzed data of oldest-old primary care patients (85+ years; including community-dwelling and institutionalized individuals) within the German AgeQualiDe study. Patients were initially recruited via their general practitioners (GPs). We calculated frequencies of ADs and POA for health care with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and used multivariable logistic regression analysis to evaluate the association between having ADs and POA and participants' socio-demographic, cognitive, functional, and health-related characteristics. Among 868 GP patients participating in AgeQualiDe (response = 90.9%), n = 161 had dementia and n = 3 were too exhausted/ill to answer the questions. Out of the remaining 704 (81.1%) dementia-free patients (mean age = 88.7 years; SD = 3.0), 69.0% (95%-CI = 65.6-72.4) stated to having ADs and 64.6% (95%-CI = 61.1-68.2) to having a POA for health care. Individual characteristics did not explain much of the variability of the presence/absence of ADs and POA (regression models: Nagelkerke's R(2) = 0.034/0.051). The most frequently stated reasons for not having ADs were that the older adults trust their relatives or physicians to make the right decisions for them when necessary (stated by 59.4% and 44.8% of those without ADs). Among the older adults with ADs, the majority had received assistance in its preparation (79.0%), most frequently from their children/grandchildren (38.3%). Children/grandchildren were also the most frequently stated group of designated persons (76.7%) for those with a POA for health care. Our

  19. [Assessment of the effects of age at start of puberty on mental health in pre-adolescence: results of a longitudinal study (1989-1991)].

    PubMed

    Bolognini, M; Plancherel, B; Nuñez, R; Bettschart, W

    1993-01-01

    The transition from childhood to adolescence is widely believed to be a stressful period in which the child faces multiple changes: physical changes, school choices, development of new social roles, and changes in the relation with his or her parents and friends. We investigated the effects of the timing of puberty on mental health, studied in a population of 219 young adolescents who were followed during three years (mean age at the beginning of the study was 12.5 years). The changes in the perception of the individual's body associated with puberty depended on the child's gender. Significant events during puberty had a negative effect on mental health. Although puberty remains a critical period of temporary unstable and fragile transition, most of the young adolescents coped relatively well with the physiological, psychological and social changes they faced.

  20. Dietary exposure to dioxin-like compounds in three age groups: results from the Flemish environment and health study.

    PubMed

    Bilau, Maaike; Matthys, Christophe; Baeyens, Willy; Bruckers, Liesbeth; De Backer, Guy; Den Hond, Elly; Keune, Hans; Koppen, Gudrun; Nelen, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Willems, Jan L; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2008-01-01

    Lipophilic contaminants are present in the environment and bioaccumulate in the food chain. Therefore, their intake via animal fat of various sources was assessed for three age groups of the Flemish population, participating in a large biomonitoring program of the Flemish government. In total, 1636 adolescents (14-15 years), 1186 mothers (18-44 years), and 1586 adults (50-65 years) participated in the study and completed a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Individual consumption data were combined, via a so-called simple distribution approach, with recent data on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, measured via the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) bio-assay in food items available on the Flemish market. The median (95th percentile) estimated intakes of dioxin-like contaminants were 2.24 (4.61), 2.09 (4.26), and 1.74 (3.53) pg CALUX-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) for, respectively adolescents, mothers and adults. These data are in the same range as those found in other European studies. The CALUX-TEQ results of respectively 59.8%, 53.7% and 36.2% of the adolescent, mother and adult population exceed the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw w(-1), as derived by the Scientific Committee on Food [Scientific Committee on Food, 2001. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Risk Assessment of Dioxins and Dioxin-like PCBs in Food, CS/CNTM/DIOXIN/20 final Brussels, Belgium]. The main contributors of dioxin-like substances are fish and seafood (25-43% of the total intake), added fats (22-25% of the total intake) and dairy products (17-20% of the total intake).

  1. Mental health problems and resilience in international adoptees: Results from a population-based study of Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19 years.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors. PMID:27472357

  3. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min

    2016-07-27

    Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors.

  4. A health economic model for the development and evaluation of innovations in aged care: an application to consumer-directed care-study protocol.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Julie; Lancsar, Emily; Luszcz, Mary; Crotty, Maria; Gray, Len; Paterson, Jan; Cameron, Ian D

    2014-06-25

    Consumer-directed care is currently being embraced within Australia and internationally as a means of promoting autonomy and choice in the delivery of health and aged care services. Despite its wide proliferation little research has been conducted to date to assess the views and preferences of older people for consumer-directed care or to assess the costs and benefits of such an approach relative to existing models of service delivery. A comprehensive health economic model will be developed and applied to the evolution, implementation and evaluation of consumer-directed care in an Australian community aged care setting. A mixed methods approach comprising qualitative interviews and a discrete choice experiment will determine the attitudes and preferences of older people and their informal carers for consumer-directed care. The results of the qualitative interviews and the discrete choice experiment will inform the introduction of a new consumer-directed care innovation in service delivery. The cost-effectiveness of consumer-directed care will be evaluated by comparing incremental changes in resource use, costs and health and quality of life outcomes relative to traditional services. The discrete choice experiment will be repeated at the end of the implementation period to determine the extent to which attitudes and preferences change as a consequence of experience of consumer-directed care. The proposed framework will have wide applicability in the future development and economic evaluation of new innovations across the health and aged care sectors. The study is approved by Flinders University Social and Behavioural Research Ethics Committee (Project No. 6114/SBREC). Findings from the qualitative interviews, discrete choice experiments and the economic evaluation will be reported at a workshop of stakeholders to be held in 2015 and will be documented in reports and in peer reviewed journal articles. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  5. Paternal age and mental health of offspring

    PubMed Central

    Malaspina, Dolores; Gilman, Caitlin; Kranz, Thorsten Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The influence of paternal age on the risk for sporadic forms of Mendelian disorders is well known, but a burgeoning recent literature also demonstrates a paternal age effect for complex neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder and even for learning potential, expressed as intelligence. Mental illness is costly to the patients, the family and the public health system, accounting for the largest portion of disability costs in our economy. The delayed onset of neuropsychiatric conditions and lack of physical manifestations at birth are common frequencies in the population that have obscured the recognition that a portion of the risks for mental conditions is associated with paternal age. Identification of these risk pathways may be leveraged for knowledge about mental function and for future screening tests. However, only a small minority of at-risk offspring are likely to have such a psychiatric or learning disorder attributable to paternal age, including the children of older fathers. PMID:25956369

  6. Training of Residential Social Care Staff to Meet the Needs of Older People with Intellectual Disabilities who Develop Age-Related Health Problems: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Northway, Ruth; Jenkins, Robert; Holland-Hart, Daniella

    2017-09-01

    Despite awareness of the age related health needs of people with intellectual disabilities little is known regarding how residential social care staff are prepared to meet such needs. Data were gathered via semi-structured interviews from 14 managers of supported living settings. Transcripts were thematically analysed. Staff may work in supported living settings with no prior experience of care work, and previous knowledge/experience of supporting people in relation to their health is not required. Whilst health related training is provided there is a lack of specific training regarding healthy ageing, and training seems to be reactive to changing needs of tenants meaning that proactive monitoring for changes in health status may not occur. Whilst some training is provided for residential social care staff in relation to health and ageing a more proactive approach is required which should include a focus on healthy ageing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Does the impact of osteoarthritis vary by age, gender and social deprivation? A community study using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Beth; Dixon, Diane; Johnston, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The aim of the study was to explore if the impact of osteoarthritis varies with respect to age, gender and social deprivation. Impact was defined as impairment, activity limitations and participation restriction (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)). Investigating the functioning of the ICF model for subgroups is important both practically and theoretically. The sample comprised a community sample of 763 people diagnosed with osteoarthritis. Uncontaminated measures of the ICF constructs were developed using discriminant content validity from a pool of 134 items, including the WOMAC and SF-36. Multigroup Structural Equation Modelling was used to explore if the same pathways exist for subgroups of gender, age and social deprivation. Different significant paths were found for gender and social deprivation: impairment did not predict participation restriction for women and those most deprived, whereas these paths were significant for men and those less deprived. No difference in the paths was found for age. The impact of osteoarthritis appears to vary with respect to gender and social deprivation but not age. This suggests both that osteoarthritis per se does not adequately explain the health outcomes observed and that different clinical approaches may be appropriate for people of different gender and levels of deprivation. Implications of Rehabilitation The ICF model appears to vary with respect to gender and social deprivation for people with osteoarthritis. The ICF model did not appear to vary with respect to age for people with osteoarthritis. Different treatments and interventions for osteoarthritis may need to be targeted for specific gender and social deprivation groups.

  8. Association of age with health-related quality of life in a cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: the Georgians Organized Against Lupus study

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Laura; Lim, S Sam; Bowling, C Barrett; Drenkard, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether older age was associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and whether differential disease-related damage and activity explained these associations. Methods We used cross-sectional data on 684 patients with SLE aged ≥20 years from the Georgians Organized Against Lupus cohort to estimate the associations between age (categorised as 20–39, 40–59 and ≥60 years) and HRQOL (Short Form-12 norm-based domain and physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores), using multivariable linear regression. We then examined the effect of disease-related damage and activity on these associations. Results The mean age of the cohort was 48.2±13.1 years (range, 20–88 years), with 28.0%, 52.9% and 19.1% of participants being aged 20–39, 40–59 and ≥60 years, respectively; 79.0% were African-American and 93.7% were female. The mean PCS score was 39.3 (41.8, 38.7 and 37.4 among those aged 20–39, 40–59 and ≥60 years, respectively), while the mean MCS score was 44.3 (44.2, 43.8 and 46.1, respectively). In general, lower physical but not mental HRQOL scores were associated with older age. With adjustment, older ages (40–59 and ≥60, respectively, vs 20–39) remained associated (β (95% CI)) with lower PCS (−2.53 (−4.58 to −0.67) and −3.57 (−6.19 to −0.96)) but not MCS (0.47 (−1.46 to 2.41) and 1.20 (−1.52 to 3.92)) scores. Associations of age with HRQOL domain and summary scores were not substantially changed by further adjustment for disease-related damage and/or activity. Conclusions Nearly one in five participants in this large, predominantly African-American cohort of patients with SLE was at least 60 years old. The associations of older age with lower physical, but not mental, HRQOL were independent of accumulated SLE damage and current SLE activity. The results suggest that studies of important geriatric

  9. Think Fast, Feel Fine, Live Long: A 29-Year Study of Cognition, Health, and Survival in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Aichele, Stephen; Rabbitt, Patrick; Ghisletta, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In a 29-year study of 6,203 individuals ranging in age from 41 to 96 years at initial assessment, we evaluated the relative and combined influence of 65 mortality risk factors, which included sociodemographic variables, lifestyle attributes, medical indices, and multiple cognitive abilities. Reductions in mortality risk were most associated with higher self-rated health, female gender, fewer years as a smoker, and smaller decrements in processing speed with age. Thus, two psychological variables-subjective health status and processing speed-were among the top predictors of survival. We suggest that these psychological attributes, unlike risk factors that are more narrowly defined, reflect (and are influenced by) a broad range of health-related behaviors and characteristics. Information about these attributes can be obtained with relatively little effort or cost and-given the tractability of these measures in different cultural contexts-may prove expedient for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions related to increased mortality risk in diverse human populations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. An investigation of factors identified at birth in relation to anxiety and depression in old age: the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although life course influences have long been recognised in affective disorder, little is known about the influence of early life factors on late life anxiety and depression. The aim was to investigate the extent to which birth measures, maternal health and family circumstances were associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression in late life. Methods A retrospective cohort study was constructed from a cross-sectional survey sample of community residents aged 72–74 years, 406 of whom had traceable birth records. Cases and controls for late life anxiety and depression were defined applying standard cut-offs to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A range of measures and circumstances were extracted from birth records blind to survey data and compared in age- and gender-adjusted models. Results There were no differences in any anthropometric measure in either case control comparison. Case-level anxiety and depression were both associated with significantly lower maternal age. Late-life anxiety was additionally associated with smaller maternal pelvic size and the mother’s condition being rated as poor at birth/discharge. Late-life depression was associated with a lower status paternal occupation. Conclusions There was no evidence for a substantial influence of early life size on late life affective disorder. However, there was some evidence in secondary analyses for an enduring influence of the family’s socioeconomic environment and maternal health. PMID:23663224

  11. The impact of social engagement on health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms in old age - evidence from a multicenter prospective cohort study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hajek, André; Brettschneider, Christian; Mallon, Tina; Ernst, Annette; Mamone, Silke; Wiese, Birgitt; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Stein, Janine; Luck, Tobias; Bickel, Horst; Weeg, Dagmar; Wagner, Michael; Heser, Kathrin; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-07-14

    Thus far, only a few longitudinal studies investigated the impact of social engagement on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depressive symptoms in old age. Therefore, we aimed to examine the impact of social engagement on HRQoL and depressive symptoms in late life. Individuals aged 75 years and over at baseline were interviewed every 1.5 years in a multicenter prospective cohort study in Germany. While HRQoL was quantified by using the Visual Analogue Scale (EQ VAS) of the EQ-5D instrument, depressive symptoms was assessed by using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Individuals reported the frequency ("never" to "every day") of social engagement (e.g., engagement in the church, as a volunteer, in a party, or in a club) in the last four weeks. Fixed effects regressions were used to estimate the effect of social engagement on the outcome variables. After adjusting for age, marital status, functional status and chronic diseases, fixed effects regressions revealed that the onset of social engagement markedly increased HRQoL and considerably decreased depressive symptoms in the total sample and in women, but not men. Our findings corroborate the relevance of social engagement for HRQoL and depressive symptoms in old age. Encouraging the individuals to start, maintain and expand social engagement in late life might help to maintain and improve HRQoL and decrease depressive symptoms.

  12. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and risk of myocardial infarction in middle-aged Danes: the diet, cancer and health cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gunge, V B; Andersen, I; Kyrø, C; Hansen, C P; Dahm, C C; Christensen, J; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A

    2017-05-01

    For decades, the Mediterranean diet has been in focus regarding healthy eating as it has been associated with reduced risk of non-communicable diseases. Less interest has been given to health benefits of other regional diets. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was associated with lower risk of myocardial infarction (MI) among middle-aged Danes. Data were obtained from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study of 57 053 men and women aged 50-64 years recruited between 1993 and 1997. The healthy Nordic food index comprised healthy Nordic food items selected a priori (fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apple and pears and root vegetables). Information on incident MI was ascertained through linkage with national registries. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from sex-specific Cox proportional hazard models. In total, 1669 men and 653 women developed MI during follow-up (13.6 median years). In adjusted models, those with an index score of 5-6 points (highest scores) had significantly lower MI risk (men: HR=0.77, 95% CI=0.62, 0.97; women: HR=0.55, 95% CI=0.37, 0.82) relative to those scoring 0 points in the index (lowest score). A significantly lower MI risk was found per 1-point increment in the index in both men (HR=0.95, 95% CI=0.92, 0.99) and women (HR=0.93, 95% CI=0.88, 0.98). A healthy Nordic diet is associated with lower MI risk among middle-aged Danes, suggesting that Nordic diets should be considered in recommendations for dietary changes in the promotion of coronary health.

  13. Prevalence and associated factors for four sexually transmissible microorganisms in middle-aged men receiving general prostate health checkups: a polymerase chain reaction-based study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Young; Cho, In-Chang; Lee, Gyeong In; Min, Seung Ki

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) in first-voided urine samples and to determine the factors associated with positivity for sexually transmissible microorganisms in healthy, middle-aged Korean men. Five hundred fifty-one men who came to the hospital for a general prostate health checkup were tested between August 2011 and December 2011. PCR assays for CT, NG, MG, and UU were done with first-voided urine samples and the prevalence of microorganism positivity and association with several clinical parameters were evaluated. The mean age of the men studied was 50.8±4.7 years. Among the 551 men, 72 (13.1%) had a positive result for at least one microorganism; one (0.2%) had two different species. The overall prevalence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections was 11.1% (61/551). The prevalence rates of CT, NG, MG, and UU infection in the general population were 0.4% (2/551), 0.0% (0/551), 1.0% (6/551), and 11.8% (65/551), respectively. CT-positive patients had a lower mean age than did CT-negative patients. There were no significant differences in symptoms by positivity of each microorganism. We checked the prevalence rates of four microorganisms, the proportion of symptomatic people, and the association of microbes, age, and symptoms, as the baseline data for Korean middle-aged men. In this population, CT, NG, MG, and UU infections do not seem to be symptomatic. However, the potential role of CT in young men and of UU in middle-aged men with a high rate of detection should be studied continuously as a source of opportunistic infection.

  14. A Study of the Achievement Test Used in the Health Examination Survey of Persons Aged 6-17 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaie, K. Warner

    The suitability of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) as a valid measure of school achievement for use on a national health survey is discussed. It was found that the Arithmetic and Reading sections of the 1963 Revised Wide Range Achievement Test have reasonably good construct validity as judged by their relation to the Stanford and the…

  15. Assistive technology and self-rated health in comparison with age peers: a longitudinal study in 55-64-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Boons, Christel C L M; van de Kamp, Karline; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2014-08-26

    Abstract Purpose: To determine changes in self-rated health in comparison with age peers (SRH-AP) among 55-64-year-olds, as affected by (1) initiating, (2) ceasing, and (3) prolonging the use of assistive technology (AT). Methods: Data included two national cohorts of 55-64-year-olds from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (total N = 1968), with baseline cycles in 1992-93 and 2002-03 and 3-year follow-ups. The effect of AT use on SRH-AP was studied in analyses of variance for repeated measurements, adjusting for age and self-reported disability. Results: Respondents using AT reported poorer SRH-AP than respondents not using AT. Over time disability increased for respondents prolonging and initiating AT use and decreased for respondents ceasing AT use. No major changes were seen in SRH-AP over time, except for a small improvement for respondents prolonging AT use. Conclusions: AT use had a negative influence on SRH-AP, but this influence subsided over time for prolonged AT use. Despite longitudinal changes in disability, there was a marked stability of SRH-AP over time which may be attributed to AT use. Implications for Rehabilitation Both the proportion of 55-64-year-olds using AT and the proportion reporting disability was significantly higher in the recent cohort as compared to the early cohort. 55-64-Year-olds not using AT rated their health compared with age peers (SRH-AP) better than those using AT. 55-64-Year-olds who prolonged the use of AT reported the poorest ratings of SRH-AP, but also showed the clearest improvement in SRH-AP, suggesting that the initial negative influence of AT use on SRH-AP may subside over time.

  16. Modulating mTOR in aging and health.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Simon C; Sangesland, Maya; Kaeberlein, Matt; Rabinovitch, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    The physiological responses to nutrient availability play a central role in aging and disease. Genetic and pharmacological studies have identified highly conserved cellular signaling pathways that influence aging by regulating the interface between nutrient and hormone cues and cellular growth and maintenance. Among these pathways, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been most reproducibly shown to modulate aging in evolutionarily diverse organisms as reduction in mTOR activity extends life span from yeast to rodents. mTOR has been shown to play a role in a broad range of diseases, and is of particular interest to human health and aging due to the availability of clinically approved pharmacological agents targeting the mTOR complexes and other components of the mTOR signaling network. Characterizing the role of mTOR in aging and health promises to provide new avenues for intervention in human aging and disease through modulation of this signaling pathway.

  17. Solid Propellant Aging Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    groups. CURING AGENTS tDDI dimer acid diisocyanate IHDI hexamethylene dlisocyanate IPDI Isophorone 1-11-ocyanate TDI toluene diisocyanate PLASTICIZERS...N N N7 APPENDIX IV PROPELLANT INGREDIENTS BEING AGED POLYMERS HTPB hydroxy terminated polybutadiene CTPB carboxy terminated polybutadiene FBAN

  18. The Age-Friendly Health System Imperative.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, Terry; Mate, Kedar S; Berman, Amy

    2017-09-06

    The unprecedented changes happening in the American healthcare system have many on high alert as they try to anticipate legislative actions. Significant efforts to move from volume to value, along with changing incentives and alternative payment models, will affect practice and the health system budget. In tandem, growth in the population aged 65 and older is celebratory and daunting. The John A. Hartford Foundation is partnering with the Institute for Healthcare Improvement to envision an age-friendly health system of the future. Our current prototyping for new ways of addressing the complex and interrelated needs of older adults provides great promise for a more-effective, patient-directed, safer healthcare system. Proactive models that address potential health needs, prevent avoidable harms, and improve care of people with complex needs are essential. The robust engagement of family caregivers, along with an appreciation for the value of excellent communication across care settings, is at the heart of our work. Five early-adopter health systems are testing the prototypes with continuous improvement efforts that will streamline and enhance our approach to geriatric care. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. An action research on promotion of healthy ageing and risk reduction of chronic disease: a need assessment study among rural elderly Malays, care givers and health professionals.

    PubMed

    Nur Asyura Adznam, S; Shahar, S; Rahman, S A; Yusof, N A M; Arshad, F; Yassin, Z; Salleh, M; Samah, A A; Sakian, N I M

    2009-12-01

    Prior to the development of a healthy ageing and risk reduction of chronic diseases intervention package for older people in Malaysia, a need assessment study was conducted to identify nutritional knowledge status and information needs, as part of an action research process. A cross sectional study was conducted among 267 elderly people, 54 care givers and 66 health professionals in two rural areas of Peninsular of Malaysia (i.e Sabak Bernam, Selangor and Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan). Information on nutritional knowledge was obtained from an interview based questionnaire for older subjects and caregiver and through self administered questionnaire from the health professionals. Anthropometric and functional measurements were also conducted among elderly subjects. It was found that the elderly subjects had poor nutritional knowledge with 43.8% of them classified as having unsatisfactory nutritional knowledge, followed by moderately satisfactory (33.7%), very unsatisfactory (15.7%) and good (6.7%). Talks, counselling sessions with health professionals and electronic media such as television and radio were the most preferred nutrition education sources among elderly subjects and their care givers. The majority of health professionals studied (98.5%) had good nutritional knowledge. Although most of them (93.6%) were involved in management of the elderly, only 45.5% incorporated nutritional information component in this activity. Most of the health professionals used the guidelines for management of elderly patients (63.6%). However, nutritional knowledge was very minimal in these guidelines. Multiple regression analysis indicated that 'level education', involvement in 'social activities', presence of 'hearing problems', the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) score, having previous 'nutritional information' and 'participation in healthy eating programme' were the major predictors of nutritional knowledge score among elderly subjects. Based on the above

  20. A Frailty Index from Next-of-Kin Data: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Tella-Vega, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To construct a frailty index from next-of-kin information of the last year of life of community-dwelling 50 years old or older adults and test its association with health services utilization. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis from next-of-kin data available from the last wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Measurements. Along with descriptive statistics, the frailty index (FI) was tested in regression models to assess its association with adverse outcomes previous to death: number of hospitalized days in the previous year and number of visits to a physician in the previous year, in unadjusted and adjusted models. Results. From a total of 2,649 individuals the mean of age was 74.8 (±11.4) and 56.3% (n = 1,183) were women. The mean of the FI was of 0.279 (±SD 0.131, R = 0.0–0.738) and distribution was biased to the right. There was a significant association (p < 0.001) between the FI and number of hospitalized days (β = 45.7, 95% CI 36.1–55.4, p < 0.001) and for the number of visits to a physician (β = 25.93, 95% CI 19.27–32.6, p < 0.001) both models adjusted for age and sex. Conclusion. The FI constructed with next-of-kin data showed similar characteristics to similar indexes of older adults. It was independently associated with health care use. PMID:28503570

  1. Perceived health in the Portuguese population aged ≥ 35

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo, João Paulo; Cardoso, Salvador Massano

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the exploratory relationship between determinants of health, life satisfaction, locus of control, attitudes and behaviors and health related quality of life in an adult population. METHODS Observational study (analytical and cross-sectional) with a quantitative methodological basis. The sample was composed oy 1,214 inhabitants aged ≥ 35 in 31 civil parishes in the County of Coimbra, Portugal, 2011-2012. An anonymous and voluntary health survey was conducted, which collected the following information: demographic, clinical record, health and lifestyle behaviors; health related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form-36); health locus of control; survey of health attitudes and behavior, and quality of life index. Pearson’s Linear Correlation, t-Student, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney; One-way ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe’s F; Kruskal-Wallis; Multiple Comparisons: Tukey (HSD), Games-Howell and Conover were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS Health related quality of life was shown to be lower in females, in older age groups, in obese/overweight individuals, widows, unassisted, those living alone, living in rural/suburban areas, those who did not work and with a medium-low socioeconomic level. Respondents with poor/very poor self-perceived health (p < 0.0001), with chronic disease (p < 0.0001), who consumed < 3 meals per day (p ≤ 0.01), who were sedentary, who slept ≤ 6 h/day and had smoked for several years revealed the worst health results. Health related quality of life was positively related with a bigger internal locus, with better health attitudes and behaviors (physical exercise, health and nutritional care, length of dependence) and with different areas of life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS Better health related quality of life was associated with certain social, psychological, family and health characteristics, a satisfactory lifestyle, better socioeconomic conditions and a good internal locus of control over health attitudes and

  2. Physical Health Indicators Improve Prediction of Cardiovascular and All-cause Mortality among Middle-Aged and Older People: a National Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei-Ju; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of established methods for stratifying cardiovascular risk, for example, the Framingham risk score (FRS), may be improved by adding extra variables. This study evaluated the potential benefits of adding physical health indicators (handgrip strength, walking speed, and peak expiratory flow) to the FRS in predicting cardiovascular and all-cause mortality by using a nationwide population-based cohort study data. During median follow-up of 4.1 years, 67 of 911 study subjects had died. In Cox regression analysis, all additional physical health indicators, except walking speed, significantly predicted cardiovascular and all-cause mortality (P < 0.05). Compared with the conventional FRS, c statistics were significantly increased when dominant handgrip strength or relative handgrip strength (handgrip strength adjusted for body mass index), or combination with walking speed or peak expiratory flow were incorporated into the FRS prediction model, both in the whole cohort and also in participants who did not have prevalent cardiovascular diseases at baseline. In conclusion, dominant or relative handgrip strength are simple and inexpensive physical health indicators that substantially improve the accuracy of the FRS in predicting cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among middle-aged and older people. PMID:28079182

  3. [Images of Ageing in Health Care Magazines of the Public Health System].

    PubMed

    Hartmann-Tews, Ilse; Hoppe, Theresa

    2017-05-18

    Objectives Collective images of ageing influence attitudes towards ageing and health- related activities. The aim of this study was to explore images of ageing and old age in magazines published by public health institutions, namely health insurance companies and pharmacies. Design A standardized content analysis was conducted covering age-related articles (n=146) and accompanying photographs (n=218) of public health institutions. The stock of material comprises age-related articles of all magazines published 2012-2013 of 2 public health insurance companies (Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse: "Bleib gesund", Barmer Ersatzkasse: "Gesundheit konkret"), 2 private health insurance companies (Gothaer Versicherung: "Gothaer magazin", Deutsche Krankenversicherung: "DKV impulse") and 2 consumer magazines of pharmacies ("Apothekenumschau","Senioren Ratgeber"). Results Illness turns out to be the most often focused main theme and key issue of age-related articles. With reference to the central dimensions of somatic culture - health, body-centered performance and appearance - most of the articles focus on deficits of old age, in particular illness and decrease of performance, and thus communicate a negative image of ageing. The visual presentation of elderly people is much more positive. There are various differences in the communication of images of ageing between the 2 types of magazines, with the consumer magazines of the pharmacy covering a broader spectrum of topics, referring more often to a healthy lifestyle and prevention and communicating a more multifaceted image of old age and ageing in comparison to the membership magazines of health insurance companies. Conclusion Institutions of public health have many duties and responsibilities. One of these is to strengthen health competencies and locus of control of the population - in our case - elderly people. As images of ageing influence attitudes towards ageing and health-related activities, it seems to be sensible and of

  4. The Prevalence and Determinants of Using Traditional Chinese Medicine Among Middle-aged and Older Chinese Adults: Results From the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Li, Xiang; Zou, Zhi-Yong; Li, Changwei

    2015-11-01

    Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is known as an integrative part of China's health care system, little is known on the prevalence and determinants of using TCM among the middle-aged and older Chinese population, especially among those with chronic conditions. The nationwide survey data of 17,708 Chinese adults aged 45 and older from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were used to estimate the prevalence of TCM. SAS SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure was applied to identify factors associated with using TCM. Analysis took into account the complex survey design and nonresponse rate. The prevalence of using TCM was 19.3% (95% CI 18.4%-20.1%) among the overall participants and 24.5% (95% CI 23.4%-25.5%) among those with self-reported chronic conditions. Participants with stroke, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney diseases were the most frequent users of TCM to treat their conditions. Age, individual income, and family income were associated with TCM use; however, when further controlling for chronic diseases, these variables became nonsignificant. Besides TCM, 4.4% (3.8%-5.0%) and 4.6% (4.0%-5.2%) of the overall participants and those with chronic conditions, respectively, used other forms of complementary and alternative medicine. The prevalence of using TCM was high among the middle-aged and older Chinese population. The use of TCM was mainly driven by chronic conditions. The main conditions that patients used TCM to treat were stroke, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel measures of cardiovascular health and its association with prevalence and progression of age-related macular degeneration: the CHARM Study.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Catherine A; Dowrick, Adam; Cameron, James; McGrath, Barry; Robman, Luba D; Dimitrov, Peter; Tikellis, Gabriella; Nicolas, Caroline; McNeil, John; Guymer, Robyn

    2008-12-22

    To determine if novel measures of cardiovascular health are associated with prevalence or progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Measures of the cardiovascular system: included intima media thickness (IMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), systemic arterial compliance (SAC), carotid augmentation index (AI). For the prevalence study, hospital-based AMD cases and population-based age- and gender-matched controls with no signs of AMD in either eye were enrolled. For the progression component, participants with early AMD were recruited from two previous studies; cases were defined as progression in one or both eyes and controls were defined as no progression in either eye. 160 cases and 160 controls were included in the prevalence component. The upper two quartiles of SAC, implying good cardiovascular health, were significantly associated with increased risk of AMD (OR = 2.54, 95% CL = 1.29, 4.99). High PWV was associated with increased prevalent AMD. Progression was observed in 82 (32.3%) of the 254 subjects recruited for the progression component. Higher AI (worse cardiovascular function) was protective for AMD progression (OR = 0.30, 95%CL = 0.13, 0.69). Higher aortic PWV was associated with increased risk of AMD progression; the highest risk was seen with the second lowest velocity (OR = 6.22, 95% CL = 2.35, 16.46). The results were unexpected in that better cardiovascular health was associated with increased risk of prevalent AMD and progression. Inconsistent findings between the prevalence and progression components could be due to truly different disease etiologies or to spurious findings, as can occur with inherent biases in case control studies of prevalence. Further investigation of these non-invasive methods of characterizing the cardiovascular system should be undertaken as they may help to further elucidate the role of the cardiovascular system in the etiology of prevalent AMD and progression.

  6. Novel measures of cardiovascular health and its association with prevalence and progression of age-related macular degeneration: the CHARM study

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Catherine A; Dowrick, Adam; Cameron, James; McGrath, Barry; Robman, Luba D; Dimitrov, Peter; Tikellis, Gabriella; Nicolas, Caroline; McNeil, John; Guymer, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Background To determine if novel measures of cardiovascular health are associated with prevalence or progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Measures of the cardiovascular system: included intima media thickness (IMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), systemic arterial compliance (SAC), carotid augmentation index (AI). For the prevalence study, hospital-based AMD cases and population-based age- and gender-matched controls with no signs of AMD in either eye were enrolled. For the progression component, participants with early AMD were recruited from two previous studies; cases were defined as progression in one or both eyes and controls were defined as no progression in either eye. Results 160 cases and 160 controls were included in the prevalence component. The upper two quartiles of SAC, implying good cardiovascular health, were significantly associated with increased risk of AMD (OR = 2.54, 95% CL = 1.29, 4.99). High PWV was associated with increased prevalent AMD. Progression was observed in 82 (32.3%) of the 254 subjects recruited for the progression component. Higher AI (worse cardiovascular function) was protective for AMD progression (OR = 0.30, 95%CL = 0.13, 0.69). Higher aortic PWV was associated with increased risk of AMD progression; the highest risk was seen with the second lowest velocity (OR = 6.22, 95% CL = 2.35, 16.46). Conclusion The results were unexpected in that better cardiovascular health was associated with increased risk of prevalent AMD and progression. Inconsistent findings between the prevalence and progression components could be due to truly different disease etiologies or to spurious findings, as can occur with inherent biases in case control studies of prevalence. Further investigation of these non-invasive methods of characterizing the cardiovascular system should be undertaken as they may help to further elucidate the role of the cardiovascular system in the etiology of prevalent AMD and progression. PMID:19102747

  7. Does the School Performance Variable Used in the International Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study Reflect Students' School Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder-Puig, Rosemarie; Griebler, Robert; Samdal, Oddrun; King, Matthew A.; Freeman, John; Duer, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the pressure that educators and policy makers are under to achieve academic standards for students, understanding the relationship of academic success to various aspects of health is important. The international Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire, being used in 41 countries with different school and…

  8. Does the School Performance Variable Used in the International Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study Reflect Students' School Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder-Puig, Rosemarie; Griebler, Robert; Samdal, Oddrun; King, Matthew A.; Freeman, John; Duer, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the pressure that educators and policy makers are under to achieve academic standards for students, understanding the relationship of academic success to various aspects of health is important. The international Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire, being used in 41 countries with different school and…

  9. Are health inequalities between differently deprived areas evident at different ages? A longitudinal study of census records in England and Wales, 1991-2001.

    PubMed

    Norman, Paul; Boyle, Paul

    2014-03-01

    The notion that mortality inequalities between differently deprived areas vary by age is logical since not all causes of death increase in risk with age and not all causes of death are related to the gradient of deprivation. In addition to the cause-age and cause-deprivation relationships, population migration may redistribute the population such that the health-deprivation relationship varies by age. We calculate cross-sectional all cause mortality and self-reported limiting long-term illness (LLTI) rate ratios of most to least deprived areas to demonstrate inequalities at different ages. We use longitudinal data to investigate whether there are changes in the distribution of cohorts between differently deprived areas over time and whether gradients of LLTI with deprivation also change. We find similar deprivation inequalities by age for all cause mortality and self-reported health with less inequality for young adults and the elderly but the greatest inequalities during mid life. Over time there are systematic movements of cohorts between differently deprived areas and associated increases and decreases in the gradient of LLTI across deprivation. It seems likely that population migration does influence inequalities by age. Further work should investigate whether the situation exists for other morbidities and, to better inform public health policy, whether restricting summary measures of area health to ages between 30 and 60 when inequalities are greatest will highlight between area differences.

  10. Determinants of health-related quality of life in older primary care patients: results of the longitudinal observational AgeCoDe Study

    PubMed Central

    Eisele, Marion; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; König, Hans-Helmut; Lange, Carolin; Wiese, Birgitt; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Luppa, Melanie; Heser, Kathrin; Koppara, Alexander; Mösch, Edelgard; Weeg, Dagmar; Fuchs, Angela; Pentzek, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Hajek, André

    2015-01-01

    Background In older patients with chronic diseases, focusing on subjective, patient-relevant outcomes, such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL), is more pertinent than pursuing clinical or laboratory target values. Aim To investigate factors influencing the course of HRQoL in older (aged ≥78 years) primary care patients and to derive non-pharmacological recommendations for improving their quality of life. Design and setting A population-based prospective longitudinal observational study featuring data analysis from waves 2 to 5 of the AgeCoDe study, which was conducted in six cities in Germany. Method The HRQoL of 1968 patients over the course of 4.5 years was observed. Patients were, on average, aged 82.6 (±3.4) years and their HRQoL was measured using the EQ-5D visual analogue scale in a face-to-face assessment. Fixed-effects regression models were calculated to examine impact of change in potential influencing factors. This method allows unobserved heterogeneity to be controlled. Results The course of the participants’ HRQoL declined with increasing age, walking and incident hearing impairment. Increasing the number of physical activities improved the HRQoL. These findings were modified by sex, education level, and depression. Especially in females and patients with rather low education levels, increased physical activity improved the subjects’ HRQoL, while hearing impairment decreased it. Moving to an institution only improved the HRQoL in patients without depression or those with a low level of education (primary education). Conclusion Motivating patients to increase their weekly physical activity and to focus on preserving their ability to walk are promising approaches to improving HRQoL in older age. Less-educated patients and those without depression can also benefit from moving into an institution (for example, a care or retirement home). PMID:26500318

  11. [Determinants of malnutrition risk among the older adult community: a secondary analysis of the Health, Wellbeing, and Aging Study (SABE) in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Franco-Alvarez, Nubia; Avila-Funes, José Alberto; Ruiz-Arreguí, Liliana; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2007-12-01

    To determine the psychosocial and health determinants associated with malnutrition risk (MR) among older adults living in the community of Mexico City, Mexico. This was a cross-sectional study. Secondary analysis was performed on the data of adults who were 60 or more years of age, living in the metropolitan area of Mexico city, and had participated in the multi-city study on Health, Wellbeing, and Aging in 1999 and 2000. Information on 820 participants was analyzed (mean age 69.7 +/- 7.6 years; 62.9% female). In addition to the MR (dependent variable) that was established through a basic nutrition evaluation, the following variables were analyzed: sociodemographics, body mass index, comorbidity, symptoms of depression, oral health, mental function, functional capability, among others. Independent associations from among the variables and the MR were calculated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were determined. MR was present in 261 (31.8%) participants. The univariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for possible confounding variables showed that the following variables demonstrated significant and independent associations with MR among the study sample population: not having a pension (adjusted OR = 1.45; 95%CI: 1.01 - 2.38); feeling that one did not have enough money to live on (adjusted OR = 2.52; 95%CI: 1.69 - 3.74); having osteoarthritis (adjusted OR = 2.34; 95%CI: 1.42 - 3.85); having a low body mass index (adjusted OR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.85 - 0.93); having symptoms of depression (adjusted OR = 5.41; 95%CI: 1.90 - 15.34); eating only once daily (adjusted OR = 12.95; 95%CI: 5.19 - 32.28) or twice daily (adjusted OR = 3.27; 95%CI: 2.18 - 4.9); and having physical difficulty with getting to bed (adjusted OR = 3.25; CI 95%: 1.58 - 6.68), going out alone (adjusted OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.54 - 4.73), and using the telephone (adjusted OR = 1.95; CI 95%: 1.10 - 3.43). There are multiple

  12. Patterns of Frailty in Older Adults: Comparing Results from Higher and Lower Income Countries Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Harttgen, Kenneth; Kowal, Paul; Strulik, Holger; Chatterji, Somnath; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    We use the method of deficit accumulation to describe prevalent and incident levels of frailty in community-dwelling older persons and compare prevalence rates in higher income countries in Europe, to prevalence rates in six lower income countries. Two multi-country data collection efforts, SHARE and SAGE, provide nationally representative samples of adults aged 50 years and older. Forty items were used to construct the frailty index in each data set. Our study shows that the level of frailty was distributed along the socioeconomic gradient in both higher and lower income countries such that those individuals with less education and income were more likely to be frail. Frailty increased with age and women were more likely to be frail in most countries. Across samples we find that the level of frailty was higher in the higher income countries than in the lower income countries. PMID:24204581

  13. Sleep duration, sleep quality, and obesity risk among older adults from six middle-income countries: findings from the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Gildner, Theresa E; Liebert, Melissa A; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Josh Snodgrass, J

    2014-01-01

    Changes in sleep patterns often occur in older adults. Previous studies have documented associations between sleep duration, sleep quality, and obesity risk in older individuals, yet few studies have examined these trends in lower-income countries. The present cross-sectional study uses nationally representative datasets from six countries to examine these relationships. Two hypotheses related to obesity risk and sleep patterns were tested using data from the first wave of the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). This longitudinal study draws on samples of older adults (>50 years old) in six middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russian Federation, and South Africa). Self-report data were used to measure sleep duration, sleep quality, lifestyle and sociodemographic information, while anthropometric measurements were collected to assess body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between sleep patterns and obesity risk while controlling for lifestyle factors. Shorter sleep durations in both men and women were significantly associated with higher BMI and WC measures (P < 0.05). Low sleep quality did not significantly contribute to increased obesity risk. Surprisingly, high sleep quality was significantly associated with increased male BMI and WC in China and India (P < 0.01). This study documented an association between short sleep duration and increased obesity risk, which is important given the global increase of obesity-related diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Physical and physiological effectiveness of an overall health care program for middle-aged Japanese women with mild obesity: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Amano, Sho; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Hanafusa, Masakazu; Yamasaki, Takeshi; Nishizaka, Saiko; Yanagisawa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of an overall health care program (OHCP) for middle-aged Japanese women through assessing physical and physiological changes. The OHCP consisted of diet modification with natural alternative foods, walking and stretching exercises, and body massage and cupping treatments. Sixty-seven participants were assigned to one of three groups during a 3-year study period (2011-2013). The OHCP was performed for 3 months in each year. After the OHCP, most participants had significant decreases in the blood levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, and cholinesterase; body weight; body fat percentage; and body-mass index. The oxidative stress markers varied among the study years; however, a significant decrease in blood reactive oxygen-derived metabolites and a significant increase in the relative antioxidative potential were observed in 2013. In 2013, participants who were randomly selected for autonomic nervous activity measurements immediately before and after body massage and cupping treatments showed a significant predominance in parasympathetic nervous activity after the treatments. These results indicate that the OHCP in the present study is an effective and prompt method as a complementary treatment to improve the pre-obese or mild obese status without any noticeable physiological stress in most middle-aged women. However, because of the limitations of this study, the findings of this study need to be confirmed.

  15. Brief report: Changes in parent-adolescent joint activities between 2002 and 2014 in the Czech Republic, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study.

    PubMed

    Vokacova, Jana; Badura, Petr; Pavelka, Jan; Kalman, Michal; Hanus, Radek

    2016-08-01

    Joint family activities (JFA) are linked to healthy adolescent development. The aim of the present study is to report time trends in JFA between 2002 and 2014. The sample concerned 16 396 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years (48.4% boys) from the 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014 surveys of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in the Czech Republic. The overall changes in JFA were evaluated using logistic regression. Compared with 2002, there was a slight increase in four out of the six selected JFA in 2014. In particular, the likelihood of engaging in joint active activities (sports and walks) increased in the 2002-2014 period. Conversely, nowadays adolescents watch TV with their parents less frequently. Moreover, families today do not eat together as often as in 2002, which might have negative consequences for healthy adolescent development. Adolescents aged 11 get involved in JFA more than their older counterparts. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mobility Device Use Among Older Adults and Incidence of Falls and Worry About Falling: Findings From the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wallace, Robert B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mroz, Tracy M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine mobility device use prevalence among community-dwelling older adults in the U.S. and to investigate the incidence of falls and worry about falling by the type and number of mobility devices used. DESIGN Analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study SETTING In-person interviews in the homes of study participants PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries(N=7609). MEASUREMENTS Participants were asked about mobility device use (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs and scooters) in the last month, one-year fall history and worry about falling. RESULTS Twenty-four percent of adults age ≥65 reported mobility device use in 2011 and 9.3% reported using multiple devices within the last month. Mobility device use increased with advancing age and was associated with non-White race/ethnicity, female sex, lower education level, greater multi-morbidity, and obesity (all P-values < 0.001). Adjusting for demographic, health characteristics, and physical function, the incidence of falls and recurrent falls were not associated with the use of multiple devices or any one particular type of mobility device. Activity-limiting worry about falling was significantly higher in cane-only users, compared with non-users. CONCLUSION The percentage of older adults reporting mobility device use is higher compared to results from previous national surveys and multiple device use is common among those who use any device. Mobility device use is not associated with increased incidence of falls compared to non-device users. Cane-only users may compensate for worry about falling by limiting activity. PMID:25953070

  17. Associations of television viewing with eating behaviors in the 2009 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Leah M; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2012-05-01

    To examine associations of television viewing with eating behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. Cross-sectional survey. Public and private schools in the United States during the 2009-2010 school year. A total of 12,642 students in grades 5 to 10 (mean [SD] age, 13.4 [0.09] years; 86.5% participation). Television viewing (hours per day) and snacking while watching television (days per week). Eating (≥1 instance per day) fruit, vegetables, sweets, and sugary soft drinks; eating at a fast food restaurant (≥1 d/wk); and skipping breakfast (≥1 d/wk). Television viewing was inversely related to intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-0.96) and vegetables (0.95; 0.91-1.00) and positively related to intake of candy (1.18; 1.14-1.23) and fast food (1.14; 1.09-1.19) and skipping breakfast (1.06; 1.02-1.10) after adjustment for socioeconomic factors, computer use, and physical activity. Television snacking was related to increased intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.10), candy (1.20; 1.16-1.24), soda (1.15; 1.11-1.18), and fast food (1.09; 1.06-1.13), independent of television viewing. The relationships of television viewing with fruit and vegetable intake and with skipping breakfast were essentially unchanged after adjustment for television snacking; the relationships with intake of candy, soda, and fast food were moderately attenuated. Age and race/ethnicity modified relationships of television viewing with soda and fast food intake and with skipping breakfast. Television viewing was associated with a cluster of unhealthy eating behaviors in US adolescents after adjustment for socioeconomic and behavioral covariates.

  18. A sociological approach to ageing, technology and health.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Kelly; Loe, Meika

    2010-02-01

    Abstract This special monograph issue builds on sociology of health and illness scholarship and expands the analytical lens to examine how old people, healthcare professionals, and technology designers create, use, and modify science and technology to negotiate and define health and illness. Far from passive consumers, elders are technogenarians, creatively utilising and adapting technological artefacts such as walking aids and medications to fit their needs. This publication adds theoretical and empirical depth to our understanding of the multiple and overlapping socio-historical contexts surrounding ageing bodies and ageing enterprises, including the biomedicalisation of ageing that includes the rise of anti-ageing or longevity medicine; and the rise of gerontechnology industries and professions -- fields that largely accept the ageing body as a given. This collection sociologically investigates how and where these two trends overlap and diverge in relation to a global context of ageing and ageism, and calls for further scholarship in this area. Combining science and technology studies and sociology of health and illness frameworks together provides an empirical basis from which to analyse technogenarians in action, as well as the stakeholders and institutions involved in the ageing, health, and technology matrix.

  19. Visual impairment at baseline is associated with future poor physical functioning among middle-aged women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, Michigan Site.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Navasuja; Harlow, Sioban; Moroi, Sayoko; Musch, David; Peng, Qing; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie

    2017-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the prevalence rates of poor functioning and of disability are increasing among middle-aged individuals. Visual impairment is associated with poor functioning among older adults but little is known about the impact of vision on functioning during midlife. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of visual impairment on future physical functioning among middle-aged women. In this longitudinal study, the sample consisted of 483 women aged 42 to 56 years, from the Michigan site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. At baseline, distance and near vision were measured using a Titmus vision screener. Visual impairment was defined as visual acuity worse than 20/40. Physical functioning was measured up to 10 years later using performance-based measures, including a 40-foot timed walk, timed stair climb and forward reach. Women with impaired distance vision at baseline had 2.81 centimeters less forward reach distance (95% confidence interval (CI): -4.19, -1.42) and 4.26s longer stair climb time (95% CI: 2.73, 5.79) at follow-up than women without impaired distance vision. Women with impaired near vision also had less forward reach distance (2.26 centimeters, 95% CI: -3.30, -1.21) than those without impaired near vision. Among middle-aged women, visual impairment is a marker of poor physical functioning. Routine eye testing and vision correction may help improve physical functioning among midlife individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intelligence in youth and health at age 50

    PubMed Central

    Wraw, Christina; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Background The link between intelligence in youth and all-cause mortality in later-life is well established. To better understand this relationship, the current study examines the links between pre-morbid intelligence and a number of specific health outcomes at age 50 using the NLSY-1979 cohort. Methods Participants were the 5793 participants in the NLSY-79 who responded to questions about health outcomes at age 50. Sixteen health outcomes were examined: two were summary measures (physical health and functional limitation), 9 were diagnosed illness conditions, 4 were self-reported conditions, and one was a measure of general health status. Linear and logistic regressions were used, as appropriate, to examine the relationship between intelligence in youth and the health outcomes. Age, sex and both childhood and adult SES, and its sub-components – income, education, & occupational prestige – are all adjusted for separately. Results & conclusion Higher pre-morbid intelligence is linked with better physical health at age 50, and a lower risk for a number of chronic health conditions. For example, a 1 SD higher score in IQ was significantly associated with increased odds of having good, very good, or excellent health, with an odds ratio of 1.70 (C.I. 1.55–1.86). Thirteen of the illness outcomes were significantly and negatively associated with IQ in youth; the odds ratios ranged from 0.85 for diabetes/high blood sugar to 0.65 for stroke, per one standard deviation higher score in IQ. Adjustment for childhood SES led to little attenuation but adult SES partially mediated the relationship for a number of conditions. Mediation by adult SES was not consistently explained by any one of its components—income, education, and occupation status. The current findings contribute to our understanding of lower intelligence as a risk factor for poor health and how this may contribute to health inequalities. PMID:26766880

  1. Associations of Television Viewing With Eating Behaviors in the 2009 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Leah M.; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of television viewing with eating behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Public and private schools in the United States during the 2009–2010 school year. Participants A total of 12 642 students in grades 5 to 10 (mean [SD] age, 13.4[0.09] years; 86.5% participation). Main Exposures Television viewing (hours per day) and snacking while watching television (days per week). Main Outcome Measures Eating (≥1 instance per day) fruit, vegetables, sweets, and sugary soft drinks; eating at a fast food restaurant (≥1 d/wk); and skipping breakfast (≥1 d/wk). Results Television viewing was inversely related to intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88–0.96) and vegetables (0.95; 0.91–1.00) and positively related to intake of candy (1.18; 1.14–1.23) and fast food (1.14; 1.09–1.19) and skipping breakfast (1.06; 1.02–1.10) after adjustment for socioeconomic factors, computer use, and physical activity. Television snacking was related to increased intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02–1.10), candy (1.20; 1.16–1.24), soda (1.15; 1.11–1.18), and fast food (1.09; 1.06–1.13), independent of television viewing. The relationships of television viewing with fruit and vegetable intake and with skipping breakfast were essentially unchanged after adjustment for television snacking; the relationships with intake of candy, soda, and fast food were moderately attenuated. Age and race/ethnicity modified relationships of television viewing with soda and fast food intake and with skipping breakfast. Conclusion Television viewing was associated with a cluster of unhealthy eating behaviors in US adolescents after adjustment for socioeconomic and behavioral covariates. PMID:22566548

  2. Self-assessment of eligibility for early medical abortion using m-Health to calculate gestational age in Cape Town, South Africa: a feasibility pilot study.

    PubMed

    Momberg, Mariette; Harries, Jane; Constant, Deborah

    2016-04-16

    Although abortion is legally available in South Africa, barriers to access exist. Early medical abortion is available to women with a gestational age up to 63 days and timely access is essential. This study aimed to determine women's acceptability and ability to self-assess eligibility for early medical abortion using an online gestational age calculator. Women's acceptability, views and preferences of using mobile technology for gestational age (GA) determination were explored. No previous studies to ascertain the accuracy of online self-administered calculators in a non-clinical setting have been conducted. A convenience sample of abortion seekers were recruited from two health care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa in 2014. Seventy-eight women were enrolled and tasked with completing an online self-assessment by entering the first day of their last menstrual period (LMP) onto a website which calculated their GA. A short survey explored the feasibility and acceptability of employing m-Health technology in abortion services. Self-calculated GA was compared with ultrasound gestational age obtained from clinical records. Participant mean age was 28 (SD 6.8), 41% (32/78) had completed high school and 73% (57/78) reported owning a smart/feature phone. Internet searches for abortion information prior to clinic visit were undertaken by 19/78 (24%) women. Most participants found the online GA calculator easy to use (91%; 71/78); thought the calculation was accurate (86%; 67/78) and that it would be helpful when considering an abortion (94%; 73/78). Eighty-three percent (65/78) reported regular periods and recalled their LMP (71%; 55/78). On average women overestimated GA by 0.5 days (SD 14.5) and first sought an abortion 10 days (SD 14.3) after pregnancy confirmation. Timely access to information is an essential component of effective abortion services. Advances in the availability of mobile technology represent an opportunity to provide accurate and safe abortion

  3. Diabetes mellitus medication use and catastrophic healthcare expenditure among adults aged 50+ years in China and India: results from the WHO study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Gwatidzo, Shingai Douglas; Stewart Williams, Jennifer

    2017-01-11

    Expenditure on medications for highly prevalent chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in financial impoverishment. People in developing countries and in low socioeconomic status groups are particularly vulnerable. China and India currently hold the world's two largest DM populations. Both countries are ageing and undergoing rapid economic development, urbanisation and social change. This paper assesses the determinants of DM medication use and catastrophic expenditure on medications in older adults with DM in China and India. Using national standardised data collected from adults aged 50 years and above with DM (self-reported) in China (N = 773) and India (N = 463), multivariable logistic regression describes: 1) association between respondents' socio-demographic and health behavioural characteristics and the dependent variable, DM medication use, and 2) association between DM medication use (independent variable) and household catastrophic expenditure on medications (dependent variable) (China: N = 630; India: N = 439). The data source is the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 (2007-2010). Prevalence of DM medication use was 87% in China and 71% in India. Multivariable analysis indicates that people reporting lifestyle modification were more likely to use DM medications in China (OR = 6.22) and India (OR = 8.45). Women were more likely to use DM medications in China (OR = 1.56). Respondents in poorer wealth quintiles in China were more likely to use DM medications whereas the reverse was true in India. Almost 17% of people with DM in China experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure on medications compared with 7% in India. Diabetes medication use was not a statistically significant predictor of catastrophic healthcare expenditure on medications in either country, although the odds were 33% higher among DM medications users in China (OR = 1.33). The

  4. Relation between age of first drinking and mental health and alcohol and drug disorders in adulthood: evidence from a 35-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Newton-Howes, G; Boden, J M

    2016-04-01

    To estimate associations between age of first drinking (AFD) and alcohol use disorder, nicotine dependence, cannabis dependence, illicit drug dependence, major depression and anxiety disorder in adulthood, net of a series of covariate factors. Data were obtained from a longitudinal birth cohort. Christchurch, New Zealand. The Christchurch Health Development Study (CHDS), a longitudinal study of a cohort born in 1977 and studied to age 35 years. Analysis samples ranged in size from 1056 (ages 11-13 years) to 962 (age 35 years); 50.2% of the total sample was male. A measure of AFD (ages 5-13+ years) was generated using latent class analysis. Outcome measures included: major depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol use disorder, nicotine dependence, cannabis dependence and other illicit drug dependence during the period 15-35 years. Covariate factors measured during childhood included family socio-economic status, family functioning, parental alcohol-related attitudes/behaviours and individual factors. Earlier AFD was associated significantly (P < 0.05) with increased risk of later alcohol use disorders, nicotine dependence and illicit drug dependence, and was associated marginally (P < 0.10) with cannabis dependence, but not depression or anxiety disorder. After controlling for covariate factors, the associations between AFD and outcomes were no longer statistically significant [alcohol use disorder: B = -0.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.22, 0.08; nicotine dependence: B = -0.15, 95% CI = -0.34, 0.04; illicit drug dependence: B = -0.29, 95% CI = -0.73, 0.15; cannabis dependence: B = -0.05, 95% CI = -0.31, 0.22]. The associations between age of first drinking and later alcohol/drug disorders appear to be accounted for at least to some degree by factors related to characteristics of the individual and family during childhood. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Widowhood, Age Heterogamy, and Health: The Role of Selection, Marital Quality, and Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Although the impact of widowhood on the surviving spouse’s health has been widely documented, there is little empirical research examining whether certain spousal choice decisions and marital sorting patterns predispose individuals to be more vulnerable to the adverse consequences of widowhood for health. Design and Method. We use data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study and employ ordinary least squares models to (a) document variations in mental and physical health between married and widowed persons, (b) determine whether widowed persons in age heterogamous unions are especially vulnerable to the adverse consequences of widowhood, and (c) investigate to what extent differential selection, marital quality, and health practices account for health disparities by marital status and the spousal age gap. Results. Widowed persons, especially those in age heterogamous unions, have worse mental health than married persons, but they do not seem to be more disadvantaged in terms of physical health. Differential selection, marital quality, and health behaviors partly account for some of the health disparities by marital status and spousal age gap. Discussion. Our findings suggest that marrying a spouse who is very dissimilar in age may enhance one’s vulnerability to the adverse consequences of widowhood for health. PMID:24128991

  6. Widowhood, age heterogamy, and health: the role of selection, marital quality, and health behaviors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kate H; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha

    2014-01-01

    Although the impact of widowhood on the surviving spouse's health has been widely documented, there is little empirical research examining whether certain spousal choice decisions and marital sorting patterns predispose individuals to be more vulnerable to the adverse consequences of widowhood for health. We use data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study and employ ordinary least squares models to (a) document variations in mental and physical health between married and widowed persons, (b) determine whether widowed persons in age heterogamous unions are especially vulnerable to the adverse consequences of widowhood, and (c) investigate to what extent differential selection, marital quality, and health practices account for health disparities by marital status and the spousal age gap. Widowed persons, especially those in age heterogamous unions, have worse mental health than married persons, but they do not seem to be more disadvantaged in terms of physical health. Differential selection, marital quality, and health behaviors partly account for some of the health disparities by marital status and spousal age gap. Our findings suggest that marrying a spouse who is very dissimilar in age may enhance one's vulnerability to the adverse consequences of widowh